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Sample records for early postnatal pattern

  1. Fetal and early-postnatal developmental patterns of obese-genotype piglets exposed to prenatal programming by maternal over- and undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Ovilo, Cristina; Lopez-Bote, Clemente J; Astiz, Susana; Ayuso, Miriam; Perez-Solana, Maria L; Sanchez-Sanchez, Raul; Torres-Rovira, Laura

    2013-09-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of nutritional imbalances during pregnancy, either by excess or deficiency, on fertility and conceptus development in obese-genotype swine (Iberian pig). Twenty-five multiparous sows were fed, from mating to farrowing, with a standard diet fulfilling either 1.6 folds their daily maintenance requirements for pregnancy (overfed group, n = 12) or only the 50% of such requirements (underfed group, n = 13). Ten out of 12 overfed but only two out of 13 underfed sows became pregnant (Pdevelopmental patterns of fetuses. Thus, weight and size of the offspring from both nutritional treatments were finally similar at delivery; the same was found at weaning. There was thereafter a sex-related effect on the growth during the early-postnatal period, with male piglets of both nutritional origins being significantly heavier and more corpulent at weaning that their sisters (Porigin, with male piglets growing faster than females.

  2. Long-Term Impacts of Foetal Malnutrition Followed by Early Postnatal Obesity on Fat Distribution Pattern and Metabolic Adaptability in Adult Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Khanal, Prabhat; Johnsen, Lærke; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Hansen, Pernille Willert; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Lyckegaard, Nette Brinch; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether over- versus undernutrition in late foetal life combined with obesity development in early postnatal life have differential implications for fat distribution and metabolic adaptability in adulthood. Twin-pregnant ewes were fed NORM (100% of daily energy and protein requirements), LOW (50% of NORM) or HIGH (150%/110% of energy/protein requirements) diets during the last trimester. Postnatally, twin-lambs received obesogenic (HCHF) or moderate (CONV) diets until ...

  3. Parental experiences of early postnatal discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid; Danbjørg, Dorthe B.; Aagaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    and taking responsibility; A time of insecurity; Being together as a family; and Striving to be confident. The mothers׳ and fathers׳ experiences of responsibility, security and confidence in their parental role, were positively influenced by having the opportunity to be together as a family, receiving...... postnatal care that included both parents, having influence on time of discharge, and getting individualised and available support focused on developing and recognising their own experiences of taking care of the baby. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: the new parents׳ experiences of early...... discharge and becoming a parent were closely related. Feeling secure and confident in the parental role was positively or negatively influenced by the organisation of early discharge. This underscores the importance of the way health professionals support new mothers and fathers at early postnatal discharge....

  4. Long-Term Impacts of Foetal Malnutrition Followed by Early Postnatal Obesity on Fat Distribution Pattern and Metabolic Adaptability in Adult Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Prabhat; Johnsen, Lærke; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Hansen, Pernille Willert; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Lyckegaard, Nette Brinch; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether over- versus undernutrition in late foetal life combined with obesity development in early postnatal life have differential implications for fat distribution and metabolic adaptability in adulthood. Twin-pregnant ewes were fed NORM (100% of daily energy and protein requirements), LOW (50% of NORM) or HIGH (150%/110% of energy/protein requirements) diets during the last trimester. Postnatally, twin-lambs received obesogenic (HCHF) or moderate (CONV) diets until 6 months of age, and a moderate (obesity correcting) diet thereafter. At 2½ years of age (adulthood), plasma metabolite profiles during fasting, glucose, insulin and propionate (in fed and fasted states) tolerance tests were examined. Organ weights were determined at autopsy. Early obesity development was associated with lack of expansion of perirenal, but not other adipose tissues from adolescence to adulthood, resulting in 10% unit increased proportion of mesenteric of intra-abdominal fat. Prenatal undernutrition had a similar but much less pronounced effect. Across tolerance tests, LOW-HCHF sheep had highest plasma levels of cholesterol, urea-nitrogen, creatinine, and lactate. Sex specific differences were observed, particularly with respect to fat deposition, but direction of responses to early nutrition impacts were similar. However, prenatal undernutrition induced greater metabolic alterations in adult females than males. Foetal undernutrition, but not overnutrition, predisposed for adult hypercholesterolaemia, hyperureaemia, hypercreatinaemia and hyperlactataemia, which became manifested only in combination with early obesity development. Perirenal expandability may play a special role in this context. Differential nutrition recommendations may be advisable for individuals with low versus high birth weights.

  5. Long-Term Impacts of Foetal Malnutrition Followed by Early Postnatal Obesity on Fat Distribution Pattern and Metabolic Adaptability in Adult Sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Khanal

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether over- versus undernutrition in late foetal life combined with obesity development in early postnatal life have differential implications for fat distribution and metabolic adaptability in adulthood. Twin-pregnant ewes were fed NORM (100% of daily energy and protein requirements, LOW (50% of NORM or HIGH (150%/110% of energy/protein requirements diets during the last trimester. Postnatally, twin-lambs received obesogenic (HCHF or moderate (CONV diets until 6 months of age, and a moderate (obesity correcting diet thereafter. At 2½ years of age (adulthood, plasma metabolite profiles during fasting, glucose, insulin and propionate (in fed and fasted states tolerance tests were examined. Organ weights were determined at autopsy. Early obesity development was associated with lack of expansion of perirenal, but not other adipose tissues from adolescence to adulthood, resulting in 10% unit increased proportion of mesenteric of intra-abdominal fat. Prenatal undernutrition had a similar but much less pronounced effect. Across tolerance tests, LOW-HCHF sheep had highest plasma levels of cholesterol, urea-nitrogen, creatinine, and lactate. Sex specific differences were observed, particularly with respect to fat deposition, but direction of responses to early nutrition impacts were similar. However, prenatal undernutrition induced greater metabolic alterations in adult females than males. Foetal undernutrition, but not overnutrition, predisposed for adult hypercholesterolaemia, hyperureaemia, hypercreatinaemia and hyperlactataemia, which became manifested only in combination with early obesity development. Perirenal expandability may play a special role in this context. Differential nutrition recommendations may be advisable for individuals with low versus high birth weights.

  6. Early postnatal dexamethasone treatment and increased incidence of cerebral palsy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shinwell, E S; Karplus, M; Reich, D; Weintraub, Z; Blazer, S; Bader, D; Yurman, S; Dolfin, T; Kogan, A; Dollberg, S; Arbel, E; Goldberg, M; Gur, I; Naor, N; Sirota, L; Mogilner, S; Zaritsky, A; Barak, M; Gottfried, E

    2000-01-01

    To study the long term neurodevelopmental outcome of children who participated in a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study of early postnatal dexamethasone treatment for prevention of chronic lung disease...

  7. Consequences of early postnatal benzodiazepines exposure in rats. II. Social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eMikulecka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Social behavior represents an integral part of behavioral repertoire of rats particularly sensitive to pharmacological and environmental influences. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether early postnatal clonazepam (CZP exposure can induce age-dependent changes related to expression of social behavior. The drug was administered from postnatal day (P 7 until P11 at daily doses of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg i.p. We designed three experiments to assess whether exposure to CZP affects social behavior in respect to the age of rats and the test circumstances, specifically their familiarity with test conditions during adolescence (P32, social behavior in juveniles and adolescents (P18-P42 and social behavior in a resident-intruder paradigm. The frequency and duration of a various patterns of social behavior related to play and social investigation not related to play were evaluated. The results showed that CZP postnatal exposure decreased social play behavior regardless of age and familiarity or unfamiliarity of experimental environment but did not affect the social investigation per se. When rats were confronted with an intruder in their home cages intense wrestling and inhibition of genital investigation were found. In conclusion, these findings show that short-term CZP postnatal exposure inhibits social play behavior and alters specific patterns of social behavior in an age and environment related manner

  8. A comparative study of embryonic development of some bird species with different patterns of postnatal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Jonas; Lilja, Clas

    2005-01-01

    Some studies show that birds with high postnatal growth rates (e.g. altricial species) are characterized by a rapid early development of "supply" organs, such as digestive organs. Birds with low postnatal growth rates (e.g. precocial species) exhibit a slower early development of these organs and a more rapid early development of other "demand" organs, such as brain, muscles, skeleton and feathers. To test whether these differences can be traced back to early embryonic development and whether they can be associated with changes in developmental timing, i.e. heterochrony, we compared embryos of the precocial quail and the altricial fieldfare, two bird species with low and high postnatal growth rates, respectively. We used classical staging techniques that use developmental landmarks to categorize embryonic maturity as well as morphological measurements. These techniques were combined with immune detection of muscle specific proteins in the somites. Our data showed that the anlagen of the head, brain and eyes develop earlier in the quail than in the fieldfare in contrast to the gut which develops earlier in the fieldfare than in the quail. Our data also showed that the quail and the fieldfare displayed different rates of myotome formation in the somites which contribute to muscle formation in the limbs and thorax. We believe these observations are connected with important differences in neonatal characteristics, such as the size of the brain, eyes, organs for locomotion and digestion. This leads us to the conclusion that selection for late ontogenetic characteristics can alter early embryonic development and that growth rate is of fundamental importance for the patterning of avian embryonic development. It also appears that this comparative system offers excellent opportunities to test hypotheses about heterochrony.

  9. Gestational and early postnatal exposure to simulated high altitude does not modify postnatal body mass growth trajectory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzini, Carlos E; Champin, Graciela M; Bozzini, Clarisa; Alippi, Rosa M

    2014-09-01

    Postnatal hypoxia blunts body mass growth. It is also known that the quality of the fetal environment can influence the subsequent adult phenotype. The main purpose of the study was to determine whether gestational hypoxia and early postnatal hypoxia are able to blunt growth when the offspring is raised under normoxia. Hypobaric hypoxia was induced in simulated high altitude (SHA) chambers in which air was maintained at 380 mmHg (5450 m). Mature Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were divided in normoxic (NX) and hypoxic (HX) groups and, in the case of the HX group, maintained for 1 month at 5450 m. Mating was then allowed under NX or HX conditions. Offspring were NX-NX, NX-HX, HX-HX, or HX-NX: the first term indicates NX or HX during both gestation and the first 30 days of life; the second term indicates NX or HX during postnatal life between days 30 and 133. Body mass (g) was measured periodically and body mass growth rate (BMGR, g/d) was estimated between days 33 and 65 of postnatal life. Results can be summarized as follows: 1) BM was significantly higher in NX than in HX rats at weaning; 2) BMGR was not significantly different between NX-NX and HX-NX rats, and between HX-HX and NX-HX animals; and 3) BMGR was significantly higher in rats living under NX conditions than in those living under HX conditions during postnatal life. Data suggest that that hypobaric hypoxia during gestational and early postnatal development of rats does not alter the regulation of body mass growth in rats when compared to that seen under sea-level conditions.

  10. Impact of Early Postnatal Androgen Exposure on Voice Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisa, Leila; Leonel, Maria L.; Gonçalves, Maria I. R.; Pletsch, Francisco; Sade, Elis R.; Custódio, Gislaine; Zagonel, Ivete P. S.; Longui, Carlos A.; Figueiredo, Bonald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background The impact of early postnatal androgen exposure on female laryngeal tissue may depend on certain characteristics of this exposure. We assessed the impact of the dose, duration, and timing of early androgen exposure on the vocal development of female subjects who had been treated for adrenocortical tumor (ACT) in childhood. Methods The long-term effects of androgen exposure on the fundamental vocal frequency (F0), vocal pitch, and final height and the presence of virilizing signs were examined in 9 adult (age, 18.4 to 33.5 years) and 10 adolescent (13.6 to 17.8 years) female ACT patients. We also compared the current values with values obtained 0.9 years to 7.4 years after these subjects had undergone ACT surgery, a period during which they had shown normal androgen levels. Results Of the 19 subjects, 17 (89%) had been diagnosed with ACT before 4 years of age, 1 (5%) at 8.16 years, and 1 (5%) at 10.75 years. Androgen exposure (2 to 30 months) was sufficiently strong to cause pubic hair growth in all subjects and clitoromegaly in 74% (14/19) of the subjects, but did not reduce their height from the target value. Although androgen exposure induced a remarkable reduction in F0 (132 Hz) and moderate pitch virilization in 1 subject and partial F0 virilization, resulting in F0 of 165 and 169 Hz, in 2 subjects, the majority had normal F0 ranging from 189 to 245 Hz. Conclusions Female laryngeal tissue is less sensitive to androgen exposure between birth and adrenarche than during other periods. Differential larynx sensitivity to androgen exposure in childhood and F0 irreversibility in adulthood are age-, concentration-, duration-, and timing-dependent events that may also be affected by exposure to inhibitory or stimulatory hormones. Further studies are required to better characterize each of these factors. PMID:23284635

  11. Impact of early postnatal androgen exposure on voice development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Grisa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of early postnatal androgen exposure on female laryngeal tissue may depend on certain characteristics of this exposure. We assessed the impact of the dose, duration, and timing of early androgen exposure on the vocal development of female subjects who had been treated for adrenocortical tumor (ACT in childhood. METHODS: The long-term effects of androgen exposure on the fundamental vocal frequency (F0, vocal pitch, and final height and the presence of virilizing signs were examined in 9 adult (age, 18.4 to 33.5 years and 10 adolescent (13.6 to 17.8 years female ACT patients. We also compared the current values with values obtained 0.9 years to 7.4 years after these subjects had undergone ACT surgery, a period during which they had shown normal androgen levels. RESULTS: Of the 19 subjects, 17 (89% had been diagnosed with ACT before 4 years of age, 1 (5% at 8.16 years, and 1 (5% at 10.75 years. Androgen exposure (2 to 30 months was sufficiently strong to cause pubic hair growth in all subjects and clitoromegaly in 74% (14/19 of the subjects, but did not reduce their height from the target value. Although androgen exposure induced a remarkable reduction in F0 (132 Hz and moderate pitch virilization in 1 subject and partial F0 virilization, resulting in F0 of 165 and 169 Hz, in 2 subjects, the majority had normal F0 ranging from 189 to 245 Hz. CONCLUSIONS: Female laryngeal tissue is less sensitive to androgen exposure between birth and adrenarche than during other periods. Differential larynx sensitivity to androgen exposure in childhood and F0 irreversibility in adulthood are age-, concentration-, duration-, and timing-dependent events that may also be affected by exposure to inhibitory or stimulatory hormones. Further studies are required to better characterize each of these factors.

  12. Early Postnatal Blood Manganese Levels and Children’s Neurodevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Birgit Claus; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Schwartz, Joel; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Schnaas, Lourdes; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Bellinger, David C.; Hu, Howard; Wright, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that low-level environmental exposure to manganese adversely affects child growth and neurodevelopment. Previous studies have addressed the effects of prenatal exposure, but little is known about developmental effects of early postnatal exposure. Methods We studied 448 children born in Mexico City from 1997 through 2000, using a longitudinal study to investigate neurotoxic effects of early life manganese exposure. Archived blood samples, collected from children at 12 and 24 months of age, were analyzed for manganese levels using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Mental and psychomotor development were scored using Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 6-month intervals between 12 and 36 months of age. Results At 12 months of age, the mean (SD) blood manganese level was 24.3 (4.5) μg/l and the median was 23.7 μg/l; at 24 months, these values were 21.1 (6.2) μg/l and 20.3 μg/l, respectively. Twelve- and 24-month manganese concentrations were correlated (Spearman correlation = 0.55) and levels declined over time (β = −5.7 [95% CI = −6.2 to −5.1]). We observed an inverted U-shaped association between 12-month blood manganese and concurrent mental development scores (compared with the middle 3 manganese quintiles, for the lowest manganese quintile, β = −3.3 [−6.0 to −0.7] and for the highest manganese quintile, β = −2.8 [−5.5 to −0.2]). This 12-month manganese effect was apparent but diminished with mental development scores at later ages. The 24-month manganese levels were not associated with neurodevelopment. Conclusions These results suggest a possible biphasic dose-response relationship between early-life manganese exposure at lower exposure levels and infant neurodevelopment. The data are consistent with manganese as both an essential nutrient and a toxicant. PMID:20549838

  13. Risk of childhood overweight after exposure to tobacco smoking in prenatal and early postnatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Susanne Eifer; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Andersen, Camilla Schou

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with avai......, and with higher OR if exposed both during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. Clear dose-response relationships were observed, which emphasizes the need for prevention of any tobacco exposure of infants....

  14. Effect of fetal undernutrition and postnatal overfeeding on rat adipose tissue and organ growth at early stages of postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Valverde, D; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, P; Gutierrez-Arzapalo, P Y; López de Pablo, A L; Carmen González, M; López-Giménez, R; Somoza, B; Arribas, S M

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine and perinatal life are critical periods for programming of cardiometabolic diseases. However, their relative role remains controversial. We aimed to assess, at weaning, sex-dependent alterations induced by fetal or postnatal nutritional interventions on key organs for metabolic and cardiovascular control. Fetal undernutrition was induced by dam food restriction (50 % from mid-gestation to delivery) returning to ad libitum throughout lactation (Maternal Undernutrition, MUN, 12 pups/litter). Postnatal overfeeding (POF) was induced by litter size reduction from normally fed dams (4 pups/litter). Compared to control, female and male MUN offspring exhibited: 1) low birth weight and accelerated growth, reaching similar weight and tibial length by weaning, 2) increased glycemia, liver and white fat weights; 3) increased ventricular weight and tendency to reduced kidney weight (males only). Female and male POF offspring showed: 1) accelerated growth; 2) increased glycemia, liver and white fat weights; 3) unchanged heart and kidney weights. In conclusion, postnatal accelerated growth, with or without fetal undernutrition, induces early alterations relevant for metabolic disease programming, while fetal undernutrition is required for heart abnormalities. The progression of cardiac alterations and their role on hypertension development needs to be evaluated. The similarities between sexes in pre-pubertal rats suggest a role of sex-hormones in female protection against programming.

  15. Early postnatal testosterone predicts sex-related differences in early expressive vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Karson T F; Browne, Wendy V; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Noorderhaven, Rebecca M; Hines, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    During the first few years of life, girls typically have a larger expressive vocabulary than boys. This sex difference is important since a small vocabulary may predict subsequent language difficulties, which are more prevalent in boys than girls. The masculinizing effects of early androgen exposure on neurobehavioral development are well-documented in nonhuman mammals. The present study conducted the first test of whether early postnatal testosterone concentrations influence sex differences in expressive vocabulary in toddlers. It was found that testosterone measured in saliva samples collected at 1-3 months of age, i.e., during the period called mini-puberty, negatively predicted parent-report expressive vocabulary size at 18-30 months of age in boys and in girls. Testosterone concentrations during mini-puberty also accounted for additional variance in expressive vocabulary after other predictors such as sex, child's age at vocabulary assessment, and paternal education, were taken into account. Furthermore, testosterone concentrations during mini-puberty mediated the sex difference in expressive vocabulary. These results suggest that testosterone during the early postnatal period contributes to early language development and neurobehavioral sexual differentiation in humans.

  16. Early metabolic programming of puberty onset: impact of changes in postnatal feeding and rearing conditions on the timing of puberty and development of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, Juan M; Bentsen, Agnete H; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    the timing of puberty; however, the potential underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we report how changes in the pattern of postnatal feeding affect the onset of puberty and evaluate key hormonal and neuropeptide [Kiss1/kisspeptin (Kp)] alterations linked to these early nutritional manipulations...... of puberty, together with higher levels of leptin and hypothalamic Kiss1 mRNA. Conversely, postnatal underfeeding caused a persistent reduction in body weight, lower ovarian and uterus weights, and delayed vaginal opening, changes that were paralleled by a decrease in leptin and Kiss1 mRNA levels. Kisspeptin...... at puberty were similar in all groups, except for enhanced responsiveness to low doses of Kp-10 in postnatally underfed rats. In conclusion, our data document that the timing of puberty is sensitive to both overfeeding and subnutrition during early (postnatal) periods and suggest that alterations...

  17. Repeatability of Maternal Report on Prenatal, Perinatal and Early Postnatal Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Diana; Suling, Marc; Reisch, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    and length, Caesarean (C)-section, week of delivery) and early postnatal factors (exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding, introduction of solid food). Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to compare maternal reports on prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal factors between the first......To investigate the repeatability of maternal self-reported prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal factors within the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study. Design: Data are from the baseline survey of the longitudinal...... reports showed moderate correlation for the introduction of several types of food (cereals ICC=0.64, Pless than or equal to0.05; fruits ICC=0.70, Pless than or equal to0.05; meat ICC=0.83, Pless than or equal to0.05; vegetables ICC=0.75, Pless than or equal to0.05), and high correlation (ICC=0.88, Pless...

  18. [Effects of early postnatal exposure to dieldrin on synaptic development of striatum in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ye; Wang, Qu-nan; Wu, Shan

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the effects of early postnatal exposure to dieldrin on striatum synaptic development in lactation, adolescence and adulthood of mice. The pups were divided into 5 groups randomly. Three groups were exposed to dieldrin (0.01% DMSO solution) at doses of 0.2, 2.0 and 20.0 microg/kg and two control groups were exposed to DMSO or saline by intraperitoneal injection of every other day from postnatal days (PND) 3 to PND13. The striatum were isolated from brain in lactation (PND14), adolescence (PND36) and adulthood (PND98). Western blot assay was used to detect the expression levels of striatal synaptic proteins. The postnatal exposure to dieldrin could reduce the level of growth associated protein (GAP43) of striatum in lactation in a dose-dependent manner. In adolescence, the level of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in striatum increased and the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), GAP43 and post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) decreased with exposure doses. The level of Synapsin I decreased in adolescence male mice. The changes of expression levels of GFAP, TH and PSD95 proteins lasted to adulthood. Early postnatal exposure to dieldrin could affect the expression level of GAP43 protein in striatum. The expression levels of TH and PSD95 proteins in striatum decreased in adolescence and adulthood. These results indicated that the early postnatal exposure to dieldrin may persistently interfere in the striatal synaptic development.

  19. Expression pattern of thyroid hormone transporters in the postnatal mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eMüller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For a comprehensive description of the tissue-specific thyroidal state under normal as well as under pathophysiological conditions it is of utmost importance to include thyroid hormone (TH transporters in the analysis as well. The current knowledge of the cell-specific repertoire of TH transporters, however, is still rather limited, although several TH transporting proteins have been identified. Here, we describe the temporal and spatial distribution pattern of the most prominent TH transporters in the postnatal mouse brain. For that purpose, we performed radioactive in situ hybridization studies in order to analyze the cellular mRNA expression pattern of the monocarboxylate transporters Mct8 and Mct10, the L-type amino acid transporters Lat1 and Lat2 as well as the organic anion transporting peptide Oatp1c1 at different postnatal time points. Highest TH transporter expression levels in the CNS were observed at postnatal day 6 and 12, while hybridization signal intensities visibly declined after the second postnatal week. The only exception was Mct10 for which the strongest signals could be observed in white matter regions at postnatal day 21 indicating that this transporter is preferentially expressed in mature oligodendrocytes. Whereas Mct8 and Lat2 showed an overlapping neuronal mRNA expression pattern in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and in the hypothalamus, Oatp1c1 and Lat1 specific signals were most prominent in capillary endothelial cells throughout the CNS. In the choroid plexus, expression of three transporters (Mct8, Lat2 and Oatp1c1 could be detected, whereas in other brain areas (e.g. striatum, thalamus, brain stem nuclei only one of the transporter candidates appeared to be present. Overall, our study revealed a distinct mRNA distribution pattern for each of the TH transporter candidates. Further studies will reveal to which extent these transporters contribute to the cell-specific TH uptake and efflux in the mouse CNS.

  20. Progress of farrowing and early postnatal pig behavior in relation to genetic merit for pig survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouwers, J.L.; Almeida Junior, de C.A.; Knol, E.F.; Lende, van der T.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether pigs with different genetic merit for survival differed in birth weight, progress of farrowing, early postnatal behavior, or rectal temperature within 24 h after birth. On a nucleus farm in Rio Verde, Brazil, information was collected on 280 pig

  1. Daily activity of the rabbit jaw muscles during early postnatal development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wessel, T.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Brugman, P.; Korfage, J.A.M.; van Eijden, T.M.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Early postnatal development of the jaw muscles is characterized by the transition from suckling to chewing behavior. As chewing develops the jaw closing muscles become more powerful compared with the jaw openers. These changes are likely to affect the amount of daily muscle activity. Therefore, the

  2. Do families after early postnatal discharge need new ways to communicate with the hospital?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Wagner, Lis; Clemensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    the length of the postnatal hospital stay in Denmark as well as globally has been radically reduced over the past 10-20 years and this raises the challenge of finding new ways of providing observation and support to families discharged early, that they otherwise would be provided as inpatients. A...

  3. Evaluation of a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia - Early postnatal PCP treatment in attentional set-shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, B.V.; Dias, R.; Olsen, C.K.;

    2008-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) was administered to male and female Lister hooded rats on postnatal days (PND) 7, 9 and 11. All PCP animals tested in adulthood (PND 53-93) showed deficits in cognitive flexibility, specifically in their ability to shift attentional set, compared to controls. This novel findin...... is reminiscent of the impairment observed in schizophrenia patients, and supports the validity of the early postnatal PCP regimen as a disease-like model. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  4. Impaired GABAergic Inhibition in the Prefrontal Cortex of Early Postnatal Phencyclidine (PCP)-Treated Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerby, Celia; Broberg, Brian V; Kristiansen, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    in adulthood. The present study examines prefrontal GABAergic transmission in adult rats administered with the NMDA receptor channel blocker, phencyclidine (PCP), for 3 days during the second postnatal week. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from pyramidal cells in PCP-treated rats showed a 22% reduction...... in the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in layer II/III, but not in layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, early postnatal PCP treatment caused insensitivity toward effects of the GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) inhibitor, 1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-[2-[[(diphenyl...... postnatal PCP-treated rats and support the hypothesis that PCP administration during neurodevelopment affects the functionality of interneurons in later life....

  5. Early metabolic programming of puberty onset: impact of changes in postnatal feeding and rearing conditions on the timing of puberty and development of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Juan M; Bentsen, Agnete H; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco; Romero, Magdalena; Garcia-Galiano, David; Aguilar, Enrique; Pinilla, Leonor; Diéguez, Carlos; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2011-09-01

    Kiss1 neurons have recently emerged as a putative conduit for the metabolic gating of reproduction, with leptin being a regulator of hypothalamic Kiss1 expression. Early perturbations of the nutritional status are known to predispose to different metabolic disorders later in life and to alter the timing of puberty; however, the potential underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we report how changes in the pattern of postnatal feeding affect the onset of puberty and evaluate key hormonal and neuropeptide [Kiss1/kisspeptin (Kp)] alterations linked to these early nutritional manipulations. Female rats were raised in litters of different sizes: small (four pups per dam: overfeeding), normal (12 pups per dam), and large litters (20 pups per litter: underfeeding). Postnatal overfeeding resulted in persistently increased body weight and earlier age of vaginal opening, as an external sign of puberty, together with higher levels of leptin and hypothalamic Kiss1 mRNA. Conversely, postnatal underfeeding caused a persistent reduction in body weight, lower ovarian and uterus weights, and delayed vaginal opening, changes that were paralleled by a decrease in leptin and Kiss1 mRNA levels. Kisspeptin-52 immunoreactivity (Kp-IR) in the hypothalamus displayed similar patterns, with lower numbers of Kp-IR neurons in the arcuate nucleus of postnatally underfed animals, and a trend for increased Kp-positive fibers in the periventricular area of early overfed rats. Yet, gonadotropin responses to Kp at puberty were similar in all groups, except for enhanced responsiveness to low doses of Kp-10 in postnatally underfed rats. In conclusion, our data document that the timing of puberty is sensitive to both overfeeding and subnutrition during early (postnatal) periods and suggest that alterations in hypothalamic expression of Kiss1/kisspeptin may underlie at least part of such programming phenomenon.

  6. GABAergic interneurons form transient layer-specific circuits in early postnatal neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiades, Paul G; Marques-Smith, Andre; Lyngholm, Daniel; Lickiss, Tom; Raffiq, Sayda; Kätzel, Dennis; Miesenböck, Gero; Butt, Simon J B

    2016-02-04

    GABAergic interneurons play key roles in cortical circuits, yet little is known about their early connectivity. Here we use glutamate uncaging and a novel optogenetic strategy to track changes in the afferent and efferent synaptic connections of developing neocortical interneuron subtypes. We find that Nkx2-1-derived interneurons possess functional synaptic connections before emerging pyramidal cell networks. Subsequent interneuron circuit maturation is both subtype and layer dependent. Glutamatergic input onto fast spiking (FS), but not somatostatin-positive, non-FS interneurons increases over development. Interneurons of both subtype located in layers (L) 4 and 5b engage in transient circuits that disappear after the somatosensory critical period. These include a pathway mediated by L5b somatostatin-positive interneurons that specifically targets L4 during the first postnatal week. The innervation patterns of immature cortical interneuron circuits are thus neither static nor progressively strengthened but follow a layer-specific choreography of transient connections that differ from those of the adult brain.

  7. Effect of prenatal cocaine on early postnatal thermoregulation and ultrasonic vocalization production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Stephen McMurray

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal cocaine exposure can alter the postnatal care received by rat pups. Such effects could be caused in part by alterations in pup-produced stimuli that elicit early postnatal maternal care. Pup ultrasonic vocalizations are thought to be a particularly salient stimulus, and when paired with other cues, may elicit maternal attention. Cocaine is known to acutely alter thermoregulatory and cardiac function, thus prenatal cocaine may affect vocalizations through altering these functions. The data presented here determine the impact of full term prenatal cocaine exposure , saline exposure, or no exposure on thermogenic capacity, cardiac function, and the resulting ultrasonic vocalizations across the early postnatal period (days 1-5. Results indicated that while sharing many similar characteristics with saline-exposed and untreated animals, prenatal cocaine exposure was associated with specific alterations in vocalization characteristics on postnatal day 1 (PND 1, including call amplitude. Furthermore, numerous spectral parameters of their vocalizations were found altered on PND 3, including rate, call duration, and frequency, while no alterations were found on PND 5. Additionally, cocaine-exposed pups also showed a reduced thermoregulatory capacity compared to saline animals and reduced cardiac mass compared to untreated animals on PND 5. Together, these findings indicate that prenatal cocaine may be altering the elicitation of maternal care through its impact on vocalizations and thermoregulation, and suggests a potential mechanism for these effects through cocaine’s impact on developing stress systems.

  8. Adult neuropsychological performance following prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure.

  9. Behavioral and cognitive changes after early postnatal lesions of the rat mediodorsal thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Mitchell, Anna S; Elidrissi, Abdeslem; Bennis, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Early insults to the thalamus result in functional and/or structural abnormalities in the cerebral cortex. However, differences in behavioral and cognitive changes after early insult are not well characterized. The present study assessed whether early postnatal damage to mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD), reciprocally interconnected with the prefrontal cortex, causes behavioral and cognitive alterations in young adult rats. Rat pups at postnatal day 4 received bilateral electrolytic lesion of MD, or a MD Sham lesion or were anesthetized controls; on recovery they were returned to their mothers until weaning. Seven weeks later, all rats were tested with the following behavioral and cognitive paradigms: T-maze test, open field test, actimetry, elevated plus maze test, social interactions test and passive avoidance test. Rats with bilateral MD damage presented with disrupted recognition memory, deficits in shifting response rules, significant hypoactivity, increased anxiety-like behavior, deficits in learning associations as well as decreased locomotor activity, and reduced social interactions compared to MD Sham lesion and anesthetized Control rats. The lesion also caused significant decreases in pyramidal cell density in three frontal cortex regions: medial infralimbic cortex, dorsolateral anterior cortex, and cingulate Cg1 cortex. The present findings suggest a functional role for MD in the postnatal maturation of affective behavior. Further some of the behavioral and cognitive alterations observed in these young adult rats after early MD lesion are reminiscent of those present in major psycho-affective disorders, such as schizophrenia in humans.

  10. The Yugoslavia Prospective Lead Study: contributions of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure to early intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, G A; Liu, X; Popovac, D; Factor-Litvak, P; Kline, J; Waternaux, C; LoIacono, N; Graziano, J H

    2000-01-01

    To investigate associations between the timing of lead (Pb) exposure on early intelligence, we examined the results of psychometric evaluations at ages 3, 4, 5, and 7 years, from 442 children whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy from a smelter town and a non-lead-exposed town in Yugoslavia. We compared the relative contribution of prenatal blood lead (BPb) with that of relative increases in BPb in either the early (0-2 years) or the later (from 2 years on) postnatal period to child intelligence measured longitudinally at ages 3 and 4 (McCarthy GCI), 5 (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, WPPSI-R IQ), and 7 (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-version III, WISC-III IQ), controlling for: Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) quality; maternal age, intelligence, education, and ethnicity; and birthweight and gender. Elevations in both prenatal and postnatal BPb were associated with small decrements in young children's intelligence.

  11. Early meiotic-specific protein expression in post-natal rat ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P; Lv, L X; Xing, W J

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies in mice challenged the basic doctrine that most mammalian females lose neo-oogenesis in post-natal ovaries. In order to provide more information in other species, we examined post-natal rat ovaries by histological sections and detected the germline cell marker protein RVLG (rat vasa-like gene), BrdU (5-bromodeoxyuridine) incorporation in RVLG-expressing cells, for identification of germline cells undergoing mitosis and meiosis in the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). We also detected the expression of early meiotic-specific proteins disruption of meiotic control 1 (DMC1), stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (STRA8) and synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SCP3) by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting, and the transcript of SCP1, SCP3 and Sporulation-specific protein 11 (SPO11) by RT-PCR in the post-natal ovarian cortex. However we failed in detecting large ovoid cells in the OSE, which may represent the putative germline stem cells (GSCs) that are supposed to sustain neo-oogenesis, and the transcription of the meiotic-specific genes SCP1, SCP3 and SPO11 by RT-PCR as well as the translation of DMC1, STRA8 and SCP3 by Western blotting. Our data support the postulation that there is no neo-oogenesis occurring in the OSE of rat post-natal ovary through meiosis of GSCs.

  12. Epigenomic profiling indicates a role for DNA methylation in early postnatal liver development

    OpenAIRE

    Waterland, Robert A.; Kellermayer, Richard; Rached, Marie-Therese; Tatevian, Nina; Gomes, Marcus V.; Zhang, Jiexin; Li ZHANG; Chakravarty, Abrita; Zhu, Wei; Laritsky, Eleonora; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiaodan; Shen, Lanlan

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether DNA methylation contributes to the stabilization of gene expression patterns in differentiated mammalian tissues remains controversial. Using genome-wide methylation profiling, we screened 3757 gene promoters for changes in methylation during postnatal liver development to test the hypothesis that developmental changes in methylation and expression are temporally correlated. We identified 31 genes that gained methylation and 111 that lost methylation from embryonic day...

  13. Myostatin shows a specific expression pattern in pig skeletal and extraocular muscles during pre- and post-natal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patruno, Marco; Caliaro, Francesca; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Sacchetto, Roberta; Martinello, Tiziana; Toniolo, Luana; Reggiani, Carlo; Mascarello, Francesco

    2008-02-01

    Myogenesis is driven by an extraordinary array of cellular signals that follow a common expression pattern among different animal phyla. Myostatin (mstn) is a secreted growth factor that plays a pivotal role in skeletal muscle mass regulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate mstn expression in a large mammal (the pig) in order to ascertain whether distinct expression changes of this factor might be linked to the fiber-type composition of the muscle examined and/or to specific developmental stages. To assess the expression pattern of mstn in relation to myogenic proliferative (Pax7 and MyoD) and differentiative (myogenin) markers, we evaluated muscles with different myosin heavy-chain compositions sampled during pre- and post-natal development and on myogenic cells isolated from the same muscles. Skeletal muscles showed higher levels of mRNA for mstn and all other genes examined during fetal development than after birth. The wide distribution of mstn was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry experiments supporting evidence for cytoplasmic staining in early fetal periods as well as the localization in type 1 fibers at the end of the gestation period. Extraocular muscles, in contrast, did not exhibit decreasing mRNA levels for mstn or other genes even in adult samples and expressed higher levels of both mstn mRNA and protein compared with skeletal muscles. Experiments carried out on myogenic cells showed that mstn mRNA levels decreased when myoblasts entered the differentiation program and that cells isolated at early post-natal stages maintained a high level of Pax7 expression. Our results showed that mstn had a specific expression pattern whose variations depended on the muscle type examined, thus supporting the hypothesis that at birth, porcine myogenic cells continue to be influenced by hyperplastic/proliferative mechanisms.

  14. Early postnatal hyperalimentation impairs renal function via SOCS-3 mediated renal postreceptor leptin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcazar, Miguel Angel Alejandre; Boehler, Eva; Rother, Eva; Amann, Kerstin; Vohlen, Christina; von Hörsten, Stephan; Plank, Christian; Dötsch, Jörg

    2012-03-01

    Early postnatal hyperalimentation has long-term implications for obesity and developing renal disease. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 3 inhibits phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 and ERK1/2 and thereby plays a pivotal role in mediating leptin resistance. In addition, SOCS-3 is induced by both leptin and inflammatory cytokines. However, little is known about the intrinsic-renal leptin synthesis and function. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate the implications of early postnatal hyperalimentation on renal function and on the intrinsic-renal leptin signaling. Early postnatal hyperalimentation in Wistar rats during lactation was induced by litter size reduction at birth (LSR) either to LSR10 or LSR6, compared with home cage control male rats. Assessment of renal function at postnatal day 70 revealed decreased glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria after LSR6. In line with this impairment of renal function, renal inflammation and expression as well as deposition of extracellular matrix molecules, such as collagen I, were increased. Furthermore, renal expression of leptin and IL-6 was up-regulated subsequent to LSR6. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of Stat3 and ERK1/2 in the kidney, however, was decreased after LSR6, indicating postreceptor leptin resistance. In accordance, neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression was down-regulated; moreover, SOCS-3 protein expression, a mediator of postreceptor leptin resistance, was strongly elevated and colocalized with NPY. Thus, our findings not only demonstrate impaired renal function and profibrotic processes but also provide compelling evidence of a SOCS-3-mediated intrinsic renal leptin resistance and concomitant up-regulated NPY expression as an underlying mechanism.

  15. Antenatal and Postnatal Psychopathology Among Women with Current and Past Eating Disorders: Longitudinal Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Abigail; Solmi, Francessca; Bye, Amanda; Taborelli, Emma; Corfield, Freya; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate longitudinal patterns of psychopathology during the antenatal and postnatal periods among women with current (C-ED) and past (P-ED) eating disorders. Women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study: C-ED (n = 31), P-ED (n = 29) and healthy control (HC; n = 57). Anxiety, depression and ED symptoms were measured at four time points: first/second trimester, third trimester, 8 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Linear mixed effects models were used to test for group differences. Women with C-ED and P-ED, in all diagnostic categories, had significantly higher levels of psychopathology at all time points. ED symptoms decreased in the C-ED group, compared with an overall increase in the other two groups but subsequently increased after pregnancy. Overall, depression and state and trait anxiety scores decreased in the C-ED group compared with the HC group throughout the antenatal and postnatal periods. High levels of psychopathology are common throughout the antenatal and postnatal periods among women with current and past ED, and despite some overall reductions, symptoms remain clinically significant. © 2014 The Authors. European Eating Disorders Review published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25345371

  16. Antenatal and postnatal psychopathology among women with current and past eating disorders: longitudinal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Abigail; Solmi, Francessca; Bye, Amanda; Taborelli, Emma; Corfield, Freya; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate longitudinal patterns of psychopathology during the antenatal and postnatal periods among women with current (C-ED) and past (P-ED) eating disorders. Women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study: C-ED (n = 31), P-ED (n = 29) and healthy control (HC; n = 57). Anxiety, depression and ED symptoms were measured at four time points: first/second trimester, third trimester, 8 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Linear mixed effects models were used to test for group differences. Women with C-ED and P-ED, in all diagnostic categories, had significantly higher levels of psychopathology at all time points. ED symptoms decreased in the C-ED group, compared with an overall increase in the other two groups but subsequently increased after pregnancy. Overall, depression and state and trait anxiety scores decreased in the C-ED group compared with the HC group throughout the antenatal and postnatal periods. High levels of psychopathology are common throughout the antenatal and postnatal periods among women with current and past ED, and despite some overall reductions, symptoms remain clinically significant. © 2014 The Authors. European Eating Disorders Review published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Impaired GABAergic inhibition in the prefrontal cortex of early postnatal phencyclidine (PCP)-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaerby, Celia; Broberg, Brian V; Kristiansen, Uffe; Dalby, Nils Ole

    2014-09-01

    A compromised γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system is hypothesized to be part of the underlying pathophysiology of schizophrenia. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction during neurodevelopment is proposed to disrupt maturation of interneurons causing an impaired GABAergic transmission in adulthood. The present study examines prefrontal GABAergic transmission in adult rats administered with the NMDA receptor channel blocker, phencyclidine (PCP), for 3 days during the second postnatal week. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from pyramidal cells in PCP-treated rats showed a 22% reduction in the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in layer II/III, but not in layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, early postnatal PCP treatment caused insensitivity toward effects of the GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) inhibitor, 1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-[2-[[(diphenyl-methylene)amino]oxy]ethyl]-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, and also diminished currents passed by δ-subunit-containing GABAA receptors in layer II/III pyramidal neurons. The observed impairments in GABAergic function are compatible with the alteration of GABAergic markers as well as cognitive dysfunction observed in early postnatal PCP-treated rats and support the hypothesis that PCP administration during neurodevelopment affects the functionality of interneurons in later life. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. IGF-1 Induces GHRH Neuronal Axon Elongation during Early Postnatal Life in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemessy, Maud; Heurtier, Victor; Ledent, Tatiana; Robinson, Iain C.; Mollard, Patrice; Epelbaum, Jacques; Meaney, Michael J.; Garel, Sonia; Le Bouc, Yves; Kappeler, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition during the perinatal period programs body growth. Growth hormone (GH) secretion from the pituitary regulates body growth and is controlled by Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) neurons located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. We observed that dietary restriction during the early postnatal period (i.e. lactation) in mice influences postnatal growth by permanently altering the development of the somatotropic axis in the pituitary gland. This alteration may be due to a lack of GHRH signaling during this critical developmental period. Indeed, underfed pups showed decreased insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) plasma levels, which are associated with lower innervation of the median eminence by GHRH axons at 10 days of age relative to normally fed pups. IGF-I preferentially stimulated axon elongation of GHRH neurons in in vitro arcuate explant cultures from 7 day-old normally fed pups. This IGF-I stimulating effect was selective since other arcuate neurons visualized concomitantly by neurofilament labeling, or AgRP immunochemistry, did not significantly respond to IGF-I stimulation. Moreover, GHRH neurons in explants from age-matched underfed pups lost the capacity to respond to IGF-I stimulation. Molecular analyses indicated that nutritional restriction was associated with impaired activation of AKT. These results highlight a role for IGF-I in axon elongation that appears to be cell selective and participates in the complex cellular mechanisms that link underfeeding during the early postnatal period with programming of the growth trajectory. PMID:28076448

  19. Risk of childhood overweight after exposure to tobacco smoking in prenatal and early postnatal life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Eifer Møller

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with available information on maternal smoking status in child's pre- and postnatal life and child's birth weight, and weight and height at age 7 years. Outcome was overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force gender and age specific body mass index. Smoking exposure was categorized into four groups: no exposure (n = 25,076; exposure only during pregnancy (n = 3,343; exposure only postnatally (n = 140; and exposure during pregnancy and postnatally (n = 4,188. Risk of overweight according to smoking status as well as dose-response relationships were estimated by crude and adjusted odds ratios using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, or both during pregnancy and postnatally were both significantly associated with overweight at 7 years of age (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.15-1.48, and OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.58-1.97, respectively. Analyses excluding children with low birth weight (<2,500 gram revealed similar results. A significant prenatal dose-response relationship was found. Per one additional cigarette smoked per day an increase in risk of overweight was observed (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03. When adjusting for quantity of smoking during pregnancy, prolonged exposure after birth further increased the risk of later overweight in the children (OR 1.28, 95% CI:1.09-1.50 compared with exposure only in the prenatal period. CONCLUSIONS: Mother's perinatal smoking increased child's OR of overweight at age 7 years irrespective of birth weight, and with higher OR if exposed both during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. Clear dose-response relationships were observed, which emphasizes the need for

  20. Intrauterine and early postnatal exposure to outdoor air pollution and lung function at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eva; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; de la Cruz, Oscar Asensio; Basterrechea, Mikel; Lertxundi, Aitana; de Dicastillo, Maria D Martinez López; Zabaleta, Carlos; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution on lung function at preschool age remain unexplored. We examined the association of exposure to air pollution during specific trimesters of pregnancy and postnatal life with lung function in preschoolers. Lung function was assessed with spirometry in preschoolers aged 4.5 years (n=620) participating in the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) cohort. Temporally adjusted land use regression (LUR) models were applied to estimate individual residential exposures to benzene and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) during specific trimesters of pregnancy and early postnatal life (the first year of life). Recent and current (1 year and 1 week before lung function testing, respectively) exposures to NO₂ and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were also assessed. Exposure to higher levels of benzene and NO₂ during pregnancy was associated with reduced lung function. FEV1 estimates for an IQR increase in exposures during the second trimester of pregnancy were -18.4 mL, 95% CI -34.8 to -2.1 for benzene and -28.0 mL, 95% CI -52.9 to -3.2 for NO₂. Relative risk (RR) of low lung function (<80% of predicted FEV1) for an IQR increase in benzene and NO₂ during the second trimester of pregnancy were 1.22, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.46 and 1.30, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.76, respectively. Associations for early postnatal, recent and current exposures were not statistically significant. Stronger associations appeared among allergic children and those of lower social class. Prenatal exposure to residential traffic-related air pollution may result in long-term lung function deficits at preschool age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Gestational Medication Use, Birth Conditions, and Early Postnatal Exposures for Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Ching Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to explore (1 whether gestational medication use, mode of delivery, and early postnatal exposure correlate with childhood asthma, (2 the dose responsiveness of such exposure, and (3 their links to early- and late-onset asthma. We conducted a matched case-control study based on the Taiwan Children Health Study, which was a nationwide survey that recruited 12-to-14-year-old school children in 14 communities. 579 mothers of the participants were interviewed by telephone. Exclusive breastfeeding protected children from asthma. Notably, childhood asthma was significantly associated with maternal medication use during pregnancy, vacuum use during vaginal delivery, recurrent respiratory tract infections, hospitalization, main caregiver cared for other children, and early daycare attendance. Exposure to these factors led to dose responsiveness in relationships to asthma. Most of the exposures revealed a greater impact on early-onset asthma, except for vacuum use and daycare attendance.

  2. Early experience modifies the postnatal assembly of autonomic emotional motor circuits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, J Patrick; Levitt, Pat; Gluhovsky, Maxim; Rinaman, Linda

    2005-10-01

    Rat pups that are repeatedly handled and separated from their dam exhibit altered adult behavioral, endocrine, and autonomic responses to stress, but the extent to which early handling and/or maternal separation (H/S) alters the development of circuits that underlie these responses is unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that early H/S alters the postnatal assembly of synapses within preautonomic emotional motor circuits. Circuit development was traced by synapse-dependent retrograde transneuronal transport of pseudorabies virus (PRV) from the stomach wall. Control and H/S rats were analyzed between postnatal day 6 (P6) and P10, a period of rapid synaptic assembly among preautonomic circuit components. Pups in H/S groups were removed from their dam daily for either 15 min or 3 h beginning on P1, and were injected with virus on P8 and perfused on P10. Quantitative analyses of primary and transsynaptic PRV immunolabeling confirmed an age-dependent assembly of hypothalamic, limbic, and cortical inputs to autonomic nuclei. Circuit assembly was significantly altered in H/S pups, in which fewer neurons in the central amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and visceral cortices were infected compared with age-matched controls. In contrast, H/S did not alter the assembly of paraventricular hypothalamic inputs to gastric autonomic neurons. H/S-related reductions in limbic and cortical transneuronal infection were similar in pups exposed daily to 15 min or 3 h maternal separation. These findings support the view that environmental events during early postnatal life can influence the formation of neural circuits that provide limbic and cortical control over autonomic emotional motor output.

  3. Sensory Deprivation during Early Postnatal Period Alters the Density of Interneurons in the Mouse Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ueno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Early loss of one sensory system can cause improved function of other sensory systems. However, both the time course and neuronal mechanism of cross-modal plasticity remain elusive. Recent study using functional MRI in humans suggests a role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC in cross-modal plasticity. Since this phenomenon is assumed to be associated with altered GABAergic inhibition in the PFC, we have tested the hypothesis that early postnatal sensory deprivation causes the changes of inhibitory neuronal circuit in different regions of the PFC of the mice. We determined the effects of sensory deprivation from birth to postnatal day 28 (P28 or P58 on the density of parvalbumin (PV, calbindin (CB, and calretinin (CR neurons in the prelimbic, infralimbic, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. The density of PV and CB neurons was significantly increased in layer 5/6 (L5/6. Moreover, the density of CR neurons was higher in L2/3 in sensory deprived mice compared to intact mice. These changes were more prominent at P56 than at P28. These results suggest that long-term sensory deprivation causes the changes of intracortical inhibitory networks in the PFC and the changes of inhibitory networks in the PFC may contribute to cross-modal plasticity.

  4. Urinary Metabolite Profiles in Premature Infants Show Early Postnatal Metabolic Adaptation and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissel J. Moltu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early nutrition influences metabolic programming and long-term health. We explored the urinary metabolite profiles of 48 premature infants (birth weight < 1500 g randomized to an enhanced or a standard diet during neonatal hospitalization. Methods: Metabolomics using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR was conducted on urine samples obtained during the first week of life and thereafter fortnightly. Results: The intervention group received significantly higher amounts of energy, protein, lipids, vitamin A, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid as compared to the control group. Enhanced nutrition did not appear to affect the urine profiles to an extent exceeding individual variation. However, in all infants the glucogenic amino acids glycine, threonine, hydroxyproline and tyrosine increased substantially during the early postnatal period, along with metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (succinate, oxoglutarate, fumarate and citrate. The metabolite changes correlated with postmenstrual age. Moreover, we observed elevated threonine and glycine levels in first-week urine samples of the small for gestational age (SGA; birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age as compared to the appropriate for gestational age infants. Conclusion: This first nutri-metabolomics study in premature infants demonstrates that the physiological adaptation during the fetal-postnatal transition as well as maturation influences metabolism during the breastfeeding period. Elevated glycine and threonine levels were found in the first week urine samples of the SGA infants and emerged as potential biomarkers of an altered metabolic phenotype.

  5. Sensory Deprivation during Early Postnatal Period Alters the Density of Interneurons in the Mouse Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroshi; Suemitsu, Shunsuke; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Okamoto, Motoi

    2015-01-01

    Early loss of one sensory system can cause improved function of other sensory systems. However, both the time course and neuronal mechanism of cross-modal plasticity remain elusive. Recent study using functional MRI in humans suggests a role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cross-modal plasticity. Since this phenomenon is assumed to be associated with altered GABAergic inhibition in the PFC, we have tested the hypothesis that early postnatal sensory deprivation causes the changes of inhibitory neuronal circuit in different regions of the PFC of the mice. We determined the effects of sensory deprivation from birth to postnatal day 28 (P28) or P58 on the density of parvalbumin (PV), calbindin (CB), and calretinin (CR) neurons in the prelimbic, infralimbic, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. The density of PV and CB neurons was significantly increased in layer 5/6 (L5/6). Moreover, the density of CR neurons was higher in L2/3 in sensory deprived mice compared to intact mice. These changes were more prominent at P56 than at P28. These results suggest that long-term sensory deprivation causes the changes of intracortical inhibitory networks in the PFC and the changes of inhibitory networks in the PFC may contribute to cross-modal plasticity.

  6. High uptake of exclusive breastfeeding and reduced early post-natal HIV transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Kuhn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Empirical data showing the clear benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF for HIV prevention are needed to encourage implementation of lactation support programs for HIV-infected women in low resource settings among whom replacement feeding is unsafe. We conducted a prospective, observational study in Lusaka, Zambia, to test the hypothesis that EBF is associated with a lower risk of postnatal HIV transmission than non-EBF. METHODS AND RESULTS: As part of a randomized trial of early weaning, 958 HIV-infected women and their infants were recruited and all were encouraged to breastfeed exclusively to 4 months. Single-dose nevirapine was provided to prevent transmission. Regular samples were collected from infants to 24 months of age and tested by PCR. Detailed measurements of actual feeding behaviors were collected to examine, in an observational analysis, associations between feeding practices and postnatal HIV transmission. Uptake of EBF was high with 84% of women reporting only EBF cumulatively to 4 months. Post-natal HIV transmission before 4 months was significantly lower (p = 0.004 among EBF (0.040 95% CI: 0.024-0.055 than non-EBF infants (0.102 95% CI: 0.047-0.157; time-dependent Relative Hazard (RH of transmission due to non-EBF = 3.48 (95% CI: 1.71-7.08. There were no significant differences in the severity of disease between EBF and non-EBF mothers and the association remained significant (RH = 2.68 95% CI: 1.28-5.62 after adjusting for maternal CD4 count, plasma viral load, syphilis screening results and low birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Non-EBF more than doubles the risk of early postnatal HIV transmission. Programs to support EBF should be expanded universally in low resource settings. EBF is an affordable, feasible, acceptable, safe and sustainable practice that also reduces HIV transmission providing HIV-infected women with a means to protect their children's lives. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00310726.

  7. Molecular and functional heterogeneity of early postnatal porcine satellite cell populations is associated with bioenergetic profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miersch, Claudia; Stange, Katja; Hering, Silvio; Kolisek, Martin; Viergutz, Torsten; Röntgen, Monika

    2017-01-01

    During postnatal development, hyperplastic and hypertrophic processes of skeletal muscle growth depend on the activation, proliferation, differentiation, and fusion of satellite cells (SC). Therefore, molecular and functional SC heterogeneity is an important component of muscle plasticity and will greatly affect long-term growth performance and muscle health. However, its regulation by cell intrinsic and extrinsic factors is far from clear. In particular, there is only minor information on the early postnatal period which is critical for muscle maturation and the establishment of adult SC pools. Here, we separated two SC subpopulations (P40/50, P50/70) from muscle of 4-day-old piglets. Our results characterize P40/50 as homogeneous population of committed (high expression of Myf5), fast-proliferating muscle progenitors. P50/70 constituted a slow-proliferating phenotype and contains high numbers of differentiated SC progeny. During culture, P50/70 is transformed to a population with lower differentiation potential that contains 40% Pax7-positive cells. A reversible state of low mitochondrial activity that results from active down-regulation of ATP-synthase is associated with the transition of some of the P50/70 cells to this more primitive fate typical for a reserve cell population. We assume that P40/50 and P50/70 subpopulations contribute unequally in the processes of myofiber growth and maintenance of the SC pool. PMID:28344332

  8. Temporal pattern in the effect of postnatal blood lead level on intellectual development of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaas, L; Rothenberg, S J; Perroni, E; Martínez, S; Hernández, C; Hernández, R M

    2000-01-01

    To determine the temporal pattern of the effect of postnatal blood lead level on the General Cognitive Index (GCI) of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, we used data from 112 children of the Mexico City Prospective Lead Study with complete evaluations from 36 to 60 months of age at 6-month intervals. We measured blood lead level every 6 months from 6 to 54 months. We controlled for 5-min Apgar, birth weight, birth order, sex, socioeconomic level, maternal IQ, and maximum maternal educational level in a repeated measures ANCOVA using child blood lead level grouped by 6-18 month (geometric mean 10.1 microg/dl, range 3.5-37.0 microg/dl), 24-36 month (geometric mean 9.7 microg/dl, range 3.0-42.7 microg/dl), and 42-54 month (geometric mean 8.4 microg/dl, range 2.5-44.8 microg/dl) averages. There were significant interactions between the 6-18 month blood lead level and age with GCI as the endpoint and between 24-36 month blood lead level and age. The regression coefficient of blood lead at 6-18 months became more negative with age until 48 months, when the rate of decline moderated (linear polynomial contrast p=0. 047). The regression coefficient of blood lead at 24-36 months with CGI became more negative as well from 36 to 48 months but then started decreasing toward zero from 48 to 60 months (quadratic polynomial contrast p=0.019). Significant between-subjects lead effects on GCI were found for 24-36 month blood lead level at 48 months (p=0.021) and at 54 months (p=0.073). The greatest effect (at 48 months) was a 5.8-point GCI decrease with each natural log unit increase in blood lead. Significant between-subjects lead effects on GCI were found for 42-54 month blood lead level at 54 months (p=0. 040) and at 60 months (p=0.060). The effect of postnatal blood lead level on GCI reaches its maximum approximately 1-3 years later, and then becomes less evident. Four to five years of age appears to be a critical period for the manifestation of the earlier postnatal

  9. Chronic maternal morphine alters calbindin D-28k expression pattern in postnatal mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithbaokar, Pratibha; Fiorito, Filomena; Della Morte, Rossella; Maharajan, Veeramani; Costagliola, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The distribution pattern of calbindin (CB)-D28k-expressing neurons results to be altered in several brain regions of chronic morphine exposed adult mice. In this study, the influence of chronic maternal exposure to morphine on the distribution pattern of CB-D28k-expressing neurons in the brain of mouse offspring was investigated. Females of CD-1 mice were daily administered with saline or morphine for 7 days before mating, during the whole gestation period, and until 21 day post-partum. Their offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day 18, and the brains were examined by histology using cresyl violet and by immunohistochemistry using a rabbit polyclonal anti-CB-D28k antibody. Histology revealed no significant differences in the distribution pattern and the number of neurons between the offspring forebrain of the control group of mice and the two groups of mice treated with different doses of morphine. However, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the number of CB-D28k-immunoreactive neurons remarkably decreased in the cingulate cortex, in the layers II-IV of the parietal cortex and in all regions of the hippocampus, while it increased in the layers V-VI of the parietal cortex and in the subicular region of the offspring brain of morphine treated mice. Overall, our findings demonstrate that maternal exposure to morphine alters the pattern of CB-D28k-expressing neuron pattern in specific regions of murine developing brain, in a layer- and dose-dependent way, thus suggesting that these alterations might represent a mechanism by which morphine modifies the functional aspects of developing brain.

  10. Growth abnormalities in the population exposed in utero and early postnatally to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueliang L. Guo; Chen-Chin Hsu [National Cheng Kung Univ. Medical College, Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China); Lambert, G.H. [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This article reviews the findings in children exposed to various levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds in utero and early postnatally. Yu-Cheng ({open_quotes}oil-disease{close_quotes}) mothers were Taiwanese women exposed to PCBs and their heat-degradation products form the ingestion of contaminated rice oil in 1979. Children of these mothers were born growth retarded, with dysmorphic physical findings, and delayed cognitive development compared with unexposed children. In this article, findings in Yu-Cheng children born between 1978 and 1985 are summarized and compared with two other well-documented cohorts of children prenatally exposed to different levels of PCBs. Results of the investigation in Yu-Cheng children will provide important information about the toxicities, health effects, and mechanisms of PCB/PCDF exposure and demonstrate that the developing human is more sensitive than the adult to the toxic effects of these chemicals. 53 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. An association of adult personality with prenatal and early postnatal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Revsbech, Rasmus; Sørensen, Holger Jelling

    2014-01-01

    individuals participated in a follow-up at 20–34 years and was administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) which includes a lie-scale (indicating social acquiescence or self-insight). Associations between lie-scale scores and weight, length and head circumference respectively were analysed...... by multiple linear regression adjusting for single-mother status, parity, mother’s age, father’s age, parental social status, age at EPQ measurement, intelligence, and adult size. Results: Male infants with lower weight, length, and head-circumference at birth and the following three years grew up to have...... influence of prenatal and early postnatal development on personality growth and development. Keywords: Eysenck personality questionnaire, Lie-scale, Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism, Birth weight, Birth length, Birth head-circumference...

  12. FGF-2 signal promotes proliferation of cerebellar progenitor cells and their oligodendrocytic differentiation at early postnatal stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, Masae; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki, E-mail: yasukiishizaki@gunma-u.ac.jp

    2015-08-07

    The origins and developmental regulation of cerebellar oligodendrocytes are largely unknown, although some hypotheses of embryonic origins have been suggested. Neural stem cells exist in the white matter of postnatal cerebellum, but it is unclear whether these neural stem cells generate oligodendrocytes at postnatal stages. We previously showed that cerebellar progenitor cells, including neural stem cells, widely express CD44 at around postnatal day 3. In the present study, we showed that CD44-positive cells prepared from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum gave rise to neurospheres, while CD44-negative cells prepared from the same cerebellum did not. These neurospheres differentiated mainly into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, suggesting that CD44-positive neural stem/progenitor cells might generate oligodendrocytes in postnatal cerebellum. We cultured CD44-positive cells from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum in the presence of signaling molecules known as mitogens or inductive differentiation factors for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Of these, only FGF-2 promoted survival and proliferation of CD44-positive cells, and these cells differentiated into O4+ oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on cerebellar oligodendrocyte development ex vivo. FGF-2 enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and increased the number of O4+ and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in slice cultures. These results suggest that CD44-positive cells might be a source of cerebellar oligodendrocytes and that FGF-2 plays important roles in their development at an early postnatal stage. - Highlights: • CD44 is expressed in cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells at postnatal day 3 (P3). • FGF-2 promoted proliferation of CD44-positive progenitor cells from P3 cerebellum. • FGF-2 promoted oligodendrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive progenitor cells. • FGF-2 increased the number of oligodendrocytes in P3 cerebellar slice culture.

  13. Early postnatal nociceptive stimulation results in deficits of spatial memory in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Cristiane; Antonio, Bruno; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes; Hamani, Clement; Guinsburg, Ruth; Covolan, Luciene

    2015-11-01

    Prematurely-born infants are exposed to multiple invasive procedures while in the intensive care unit. Newborn rats and humans have similar behavioral responses to noxious stimulation. Previous studies have shown that early noxious stimuli may alter dentate gyrus neurogenesis and the behavioral repertoire of adult rats. We evaluated the late effects of noxious stimulation administered during different phases of development on two spatial memory tests; object recognition (OR) and Morris water maze (WM) tests. Noxious stimulation was induced by an intra-plantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) on postnatal (P) day 1 (group P1) or 8 (P8). Control animals were not stimulated. Behavioral tests were conducted on P60 in both male and female animals. In the WM, three domains were evaluated: acquisition, probe trial performance and reversal re-acquisition. The number of Nissl stained cells in the dentate granule cell layer was assessed by stereological counting. The OR test revealed that P1 male rats had poor long-term memory compared to the control and P8 groups. In the WM, no short- or long-term memory differences were detected between early postnatal-stimulated male and female rats and their respective controls. However, the ability to find the hidden platform in a new position was reduced in P1 male rats. The number of dentate granule cells in P8 males was higher than in all other groups. This study demonstrates that noxious stimulation on P1 results in spatial learning deficits in male animals, but does not disrupt the development of the hippocampus-dependent strategies of learning and memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antenatal Health Care and Postnatal Dental Check-Ups Prevent Early Childhood Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yukie; Mori, Yukako; Tamaoka, Izumi

    2016-01-01

    The first stage of early childhood caries (ECC) is infection by mutans streptococci, of which the primary infection source is the child's mother. Early intervention programs including antenatal and postnatal phases are effective for reducing ECC. This study was conducted to assess the respective effects of antenatal health care and postnatal care such as regular dental check-ups on reducing ECC among 3-year-old Japanese children. This nested case-control study of 155 three-year-old children (49.0% boys) was conducted at a dental clinic that provides collaborative health services with the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic, Okayama. Child characteristics and the mothers' antenatal data were collected retrospectively from the dental charts. They were divided into two groups: caries-free children (n = 77) and children without ECC (n = 78). Most of the children (81.9%) received regular check-ups with topical fluoride application. Most of the mothers reported morning sickness during pregnancy (81.3%), normal delivery (72.9%), and used antenatal health care (80.6%). Over half (55.5%) were primigravida. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidential interval (95% CI) were computed to assess the strength of association using logistic regression analysis. Receiving antenatal health care (AOR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.30-8.24) and child's having regular check-ups (AOR, 3.42; 95% CI, 1.35-8.69) were significantly associated with caries-free status among three-year old children. For ECC prevention, antenatal health care is as effective as regular check-ups up to three years of age. The results of this retrospective study demonstrate that maternal health education during pregnancy is effective for ECC prevention.

  15. Chronic early postnatal scream sound stress induces learning deficits and NMDA receptor changes in the hippocampus of adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lili; Han, Bo; Zhao, Xiaoge; Mi, Lihua; Song, Qiang; Wang, Jue; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2016-04-13

    Chronic scream sounds during adulthood affect spatial learning and memory, both of which are sexually dimorphic. The long-term effects of chronic early postnatal scream sound stress (SSS) during postnatal days 1-21 (P1-P21) on spatial learning and memory in adult mice as well as whether or not these effects are sexually dimorphic are unknown. Therefore, the present study examines the performance of adult male and female mice in the Morris water maze following exposure to chronic early postnatal SSS. Hippocampal NR2A and NR2B levels as well as NR2A/NR2B subunit ratios were tested using immunohistochemistry. In the Morris water maze, stress males showed greater impairment in spatial learning and memory than background males; by contrast, stress and background females performed equally well. NR2B levels in CA1 and CA3 were upregulated, whereas NR2A/NR2B ratios were downregulated in stressed males, but not in females. These data suggest that chronic early postnatal SSS influences spatial learning and memory ability, levels of hippocampal NR2B, and NR2A/NR2B ratios in adult males. Moreover, chronic early stress-induced alterations exert long-lasting effects and appear to affect performance in a sex-specific manner.

  16. Early cerebral hemodynamic, metabolic and histological changes in hypoxic-ischemic fetal lambs during postnatal life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eRey-Santano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The hemodynamic, metabolic and biochemical changes produce during transition from fetal to neonatal life could be aggravated if asphyctic event occur during fetal life. The aim of the study was to examine the regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF, histological changes, and cerebral brain metabolism in preterm lambs, and to analyze the role of oxidative stress for the first hours of postnatal life following severe fetal asphyxia. 18 chronically instrumented fetal lambs were assigned to: hypoxic-ischemic group, following fetal asphyxia animals were delivered and maintained on intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation for 3 hours, and non-injured animals that were managed similarly to the previous group and used as control group. During hypoxic-ischemic insult, injured group developed acidosis, hypoxia, hypercapnia, latacidaemia and tachycardia in comparison to control group, without hypotension. Intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation transiently improved gas exchange and cardiovascular parameters. After HI injury and during ventilation-support, the increased RCBF in inner zones was maintained for hypoxic-ischemic group, but cortical flow did not exhibit differences compared to the control group. Also, the increase of TUNEL positive cells (apoptosis and antioxidant enzymes, and decrease of ATP reserves was significantly higher in the brain regions where the RCBF were not increased.In conclusion, early metabolic, histological and hemodynamic changes involved in brain damage have been intensively investigated and reported in premature asphyctic lambs for the first 3 hours of postnatal life. Those changes have been described in human neonates, so our model could be useful to test the security and the effectiveness of different neuroprotective or ventilatory strategies when are applied in the first hours after fetal hypoxic-ischemic injury.

  17. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Setting With No Systematic Screening in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Tijana; Bobic, Branko; Klun, Ivana; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Srbljanovic, Jelena; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2016-03-01

    To determine the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) and provide early (pre- or postnatal) identification of cases of CT in the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy.I n the presented cross-sectional study, serological criteria were used to date Toxoplasma gondii infection versus conception in 80 pregnant women with fetal abnormalities or referred to as suspected of acute infection, and in 16 women after delivery of symptomatic neonates. A combination of serological, molecular (qPCR), and biological (bioassay) methods was used for prenatal and/or postnatal diagnosis of CT. Most (77.5%) pregnant women were examined in advanced pregnancy. Of all the examined seropositive women (n = 90), infection could not be ruled out to have occurred during pregnancy in 93.3%, of which the majority (69%) was dated to the periconceptual period. CT was diagnosed in 25 cases, of which 17 prenatally and 8 postnatally. Molecular diagnosis proved superior, but the diagnosis of CT based on bioassay in 7 instances and by Western blot in 2 neonates shows that other methods remain indispensable. In the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy, maternal infection is often diagnosed late, or even only when fetal/neonatal infection is suspected. In such situations, use of a complex algorithm involving a combination of serological, biological, and molecular methods allows for prenatal and/or early postnatal diagnosis of CT, but lacks the preventive capacity provided by early maternal treatment.

  18. Early postnatal handling alters glucocorticoid receptor concentrations in selected brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Michael J; Aitken, David H; Bodnoff, Shari R; Iny, Linda J; Tatarewicz, Joseph E; Sapolsky, Robert M

    2013-10-01

    Norway rat pups were either handled (H) or undisturbed (nonhandled, NH) in the period between birth and weaning on Day 21. Following weaning, half of the animals in each group were housed socially (Soc), and half were housed in isolation (Isol). At 120-150 days of age, all animals were sacrificed, and the following regions were dissected and frozen at -70 °C until the time of assay: frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala, septum, and pituitary. [3H]Dexamethasone (3H Dex) binding in each region was examined by an in vitro, cytosol, receptor assay. 3H Dex binding was significantly higher in the hippocampus of both H-Soc and H-Isol than in NH groups. In the frontal cortex, 3H Dex binding was higher in the H-Soc animals than in the H-Isol and NH-Isol animals. There were no significant handling or housing effects found in the amygdala, hypothalamus, septum, or pituitary. Thus, early postnatal handling appears to influence the development of the glucocorticoid receptor system in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. These results are discussed as providing a possible mechanism for some of the previously reported effects of early handling on the development of the pituitary-adrenal response to stress. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Early postnatal EEG features of perinatal arterial ischaemic stroke with seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evonne Low

    Full Text Available Stroke is the second most common cause of seizures in term neonates and is associated with abnormal long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in some cases.To aid diagnosis earlier in the postnatal period, our aim was to describe the characteristic EEG patterns in term neonates with perinatal arterial ischaemic stroke (PAIS seizures.Retrospective observational study.Neonates >37 weeks born between 2003 and 2011 in two hospitals.Continuous multichannel video-EEG was used to analyze the background patterns and characteristics of seizures. Each EEG was assessed for continuity, symmetry, characteristic features and sleep cycling; morphology of electrographic seizures was also examined. Each seizure was categorized as electrographic-only or electroclinical; the percentage of seizure events for each seizure type was also summarized.Nine neonates with PAIS seizures and EEG monitoring were identified. While EEG continuity was present in all cases, the background pattern showed suppression over the infarcted side; this was quite marked (>50% amplitude reduction when the lesion was large. Characteristic unilateral bursts of theta activity with sharp or spike waves intermixed were seen in all cases. Sleep cycling was generally present but was more disturbed over the infarcted side. Seizures demonstrated a characteristic pattern; focal sharp waves/spike-polyspikes were seen at frequency of 1-2 Hz and phase reversal over the central region was common. Electrographic-only seizure events were more frequent compared to electroclinical seizure events (78 vs 22%.Focal electrographic and electroclinical seizures with ipsilateral suppression of the background activity and focal sharp waves are strong indicators of PAIS. Approximately 80% of seizure events were the result of clinically unsuspected seizures in neonates with PAIS. Prolonged and continuous multichannel video-EEG monitoring is advocated for adequate seizure surveillance.

  20. Consequences of early postnatal benzodiazepines exposure in rats. I. Cognitive-like behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eMikulecka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental studies suggest possible risks associated with the repeated administration of BZDS during the prenatal or early postnatal period on further development and behavior. In the present study, we assess short- and long-term effects of early exposure to clonazepam (CZP on cognitive tasks. CZP (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg/day was administered from postnatal day (P7 until P11, and animals were exposed to the following behavioral tests at different developmental stages: (1 a homing response test, which exploits the motivation of a rat pup to reach its home nest, was administered on P12, P15, P18 and P23 rats; (2 passive avoidance was tested in three trials (at 0 h, 2 h and 24 h intervals on P12, P15, P18, P25 and P32 rats; (3 within- and between-session habituation was tested in an open field (OF at P70; and (4 a long-term memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM was tested at P80. A 1.0 mg/kg dose of CZP extended latency in the homing response and decreased the number of correct responses when tested at P12 and P23. In the first trial of the passive avoidance test, latency to enter a dark compartment was shorter in the CZP-exposed rats. Both treated and control animals older than P15 learned the passive-avoidance response at the same rate. Irrespective of the treatments, all adult animals showed within-session habituation. Between-session habituation, however, was found only in the controls. With respect to the MWM test, all animals learned to reach the platform, but animals exposed to higher doses of CZP spent more time swimming in the first acquisition test. No difference between groups was found in a repeated acquisition test (10 and 40 days after the first acquisition test. The results of the present study show that even short-term exposure to CZP alters behavioral responsiveness in pre-weaning, juvenile and adult animals. Not only were changes observed on conventional cognitive tests in our study, but the changes also seem to be

  1. Early Postnatal Blood Pressure in Preterm Infants : Effects of Chorioamnionitis and Timing of Antenatal Steroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, Jasper V.; Kornelisse, Rene F.; Rours, Ingrid G. I. J. G.; Passos, Valeria Lima; De Krijger, Ronald R.; Zimmermann, Luc J. I.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest postnatal blood pressure in preterm infants to be decreased by chorioamnionitis and increased by antenatal steroids (AS). We examined the adjusted effects of both antenatal modulators on postnatal blood pressure (BP), with separate effects reported for histologic chorioamnio

  2. Cyclooxygenase-2 contributes to elevated renin in the early postnatal period in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubbe, Jane; Jensen, Boye L; Bachmann, Sebastian;

    2003-01-01

    We asked whether cyclooxygenase (COX) activity controls the renin-angiotensin system in the postnatal period. During kidney development, renin peaked at postnatal days 0-1 at the mRNA, tissue protein [renal renin concentration (RRC)], and plasma renin concentration (PRC) levels and was widely...

  3. Developmental effects of imatinib mesylate on follicle assembly and early activation of primordial follicle pool in postnatal rat ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Azarbaijani, Babak; Santos, Regiane R; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Braber, Saskia; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Toppari, Jorma; Saugstad, Ola D; Nurmio, Mirja; Oskam, Irma C

    2017-03-01

    Imatinib mesylate is an anti-cancer agent that competitively inhibits several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). RTKs play important roles in the regulation of primordial follicle formation, the recruitment of primordial follicles into the pool of growing follicles and maturation of the follicles. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib on primordial follicle assembly and early folliculogenesis in postnatal rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either imatinib (150mg/kg) or placebo (water) on postnatal days 2-4. Bilateral ovariectomy was performed on postnatal day 2 and 5. Histology, immunohistochemistry, and mRNA analysis were performed. Imatinib treatment was associated with increased density of the multi-oocyte follicles (Pprimordial follicles, increased expression of c-Kit and AMH, and decreased protein expression of Kit-ligand and GDF9 when compared to age-matched controls. In conclusion, imatinib affects folliculogenesis in postnatal rat ovaries by delaying the cluster breakdown, follicular assembly and early activation of the primordial follicle pool. Copyright © 2016 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Distribution features of the rats’ major salivary glands cells glycoproteins during early postnatal period after antenatal antigen action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrtsov V.K.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nowadays, in the diseases’ structure, according to literature data, one of the leading place take pathological condition connecting with the salivary glands’ inflammatory and dystrophic disorders. The problem of etiology and pathogenic not enough studied and demanded intent attention of researchers. Objective. The purpose was to determine the features of glycoproteins’ distribution in the structures of rats’ major salivary glands in early postnatal period after intrauterine antigen action. Methods. The object of the research was 224 salivary glands of white laboratory rats. Due to impossible quality materials’ taking in the early periods of postnatal life parotid and sublingual salivary glands, the investigation done at the gl. submaxillaris. The histochemical exposure and differentiation of carbohydrate compounds conducted by means of PAS-staining technic. For fermentative control used diastase. The results of histochemical exposure of glycoproteins stain were done by semi-quantitative. Results. In newborn animals receiving antigen in the antenatal period, in the cells’ cytoplasm indicate the accumulation’ increase of PAS-positive compounds retained until the 14th and offset at the 45th day of postnatal life. The detected changes in the major salivary glands cells’ are the basis for the development of inflammatory and dystrophic processes and can lead to the functional violations formation’ hereinafter. Conclusion. Our findings indicate that at the background of intrauterine antigen action, the glycoproteins’ accumulation intensity in parenchymal and stromal cells’ cytoplasm of the major salivary glands is decrease, but glycogen content is increase compared with intact animals group. Furthermore, we detected cells’ secretory activity reduction from 1st to 14th day of postnatal life with increase glycogen’ accumulation in the cells’ cytoplasm. That revealed changes offset at the 45th day after birth in all

  5. Patent ductus arteriosus: peculiarities of early neonatal, postnatal diagnostics, clinical manifestations, treatment and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Kalashnikova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the published data on the prevalence, the main clinical manifestations, and modern methods of early neonatal and postnatal diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of patent ductus arteriosus — the congenital malformation of cardiovascular system. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases version10 defines it Q25.0 Patent ductus arteriosus. Patent ductus Botalli. Botallo’s duct patency. The pre-valence of the patent ductus arteriosus is from 0.006 to 0.02 % in mature newborns, in premature newborns — from 15 to 80 %. Clinical manifestation of the malformation depends on its size, pulmonary pressure, and proportion of pulmonary and syste-mic circulation. One of the basic clinical signs of patent ductus arteriosus  is permanent eddy murmur  in II–III space along left sternal border. In newborns and infants and if severe pulmonary hypertension diastolic murmur can be absent while systolic and forced second sound on pulmonary artery, collapsing magnus pulse, increased pulse pressure are determined. Open ductus arteriosus is not determined auscultatory in low-weight premature children. The electrocardiograph reveals downloaded left ventricular. Echo-cardiograph images ductus arteriosis, increased left ventriclular, volume overload of left ventricular. Chest roentgenograms may reveal prominent pulmonary arterial markings, increased heart breadth due to hypertrophic left ventricular. Drug obliteration with indometacin is effective in newborns aged 2 weeks. The surgical indication is verified heart disease aged 6–12 months old. The appropriate age for surgical intervention is 2–5 years old.

  6. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in ependymal cells during early postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soygüder, Zafer; Karadağ, Hüseyin; Nazli, Mümtaz

    2004-03-01

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity was observed in ependymal cell layer of the central canal of spinal cord of neonatal rats (2-20 days old). Neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity was present in postnatal day 2 and this immunoreactivity gradually disappeared by postnatal day 16. The progressive decrease in nNOS staining with the increasing postnatal age may suggest that nNOS staining paralleled the maturation of the central canal and may also suggest that nNOS activity plays a role in the development of the ependymal cells.

  7. Phospholipase D family member 4, a transmembrane glycoprotein with no phospholipase D activity, expression in spleen and early postnatal microglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Yoshikawa

    -PLD, HKD motif-carrying, transmembrane glycoprotein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. The spatiotemporally restricted expression patterns suggested that PLD4 might play a role in common function(s among microglia during early postnatal brain development and splenic marginal zone cells.

  8. [Morphofunctional and biochemical properties of erythrocytes in early postnatal ontogenesis in rats in norm and after prenatal stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, E K; Nazarov, S B; Tomilova, I K

    2011-07-01

    Morphofunctional and biochemical properties of erythrocyte membrane were investigated in early postnatal ontogenesis in rats in norm and after prenatal immobilization stress. The transient decrease of erythrocyte membranes stability was revealed in the control rats. The ability to erythrocyte transformation and the concentration of lipid peroxidation products are increased. It has been shown by an increase of percentage discocytes and lower lipid peroxidation level that the erythrocyte membrane of the rats after prenatal stress is more stable.

  9. Developmental patterns of doublecortin expression and white matter neuron density in the postnatal primate prefrontal cortex and schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Fung

    Full Text Available Postnatal neurogenesis occurs in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus, and evidence suggests that new neurons may be present in additional regions of the mature primate brain, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Addition of new neurons to the PFC implies local generation of neurons or migration from areas such as the subventricular zone. We examined the putative contribution of new, migrating neurons to postnatal cortical development by determining the density of neurons in white matter subjacent to the cortex and measuring expression of doublecortin (DCX, a microtubule-associated protein involved in neuronal migration, in humans and rhesus macaques. We found a striking decline in DCX expression (human and macaque and density of white matter neurons (humans during infancy, consistent with the arrival of new neurons in the early postnatal cortex. Considering the expansion of the brain during this time, the decline in white matter neuron density does not necessarily indicate reduced total numbers of white matter neurons in early postnatal life. Furthermore, numerous cells in the white matter and deep grey matter were positive for the migration-associated glycoprotein polysialiated-neuronal cell adhesion molecule and GAD65/67, suggesting that immature migrating neurons in the adult may be GABAergic. We also examined DCX mRNA in the PFC of adult schizophrenia patients (n = 37 and matched controls (n = 37 and did not find any difference in DCX mRNA expression. However, we report a negative correlation between DCX mRNA expression and white matter neuron density in adult schizophrenia patients, in contrast to a positive correlation in human development where DCX mRNA and white matter neuron density are higher earlier in life. Accumulation of neurons in the white matter in schizophrenia would be congruent with a negative correlation between DCX mRNA and white matter neuron density and support the hypothesis of a migration deficit in

  10. Lack of long-term behavioral alterations after early postnatal treatment with tropisetron: implications for developmental psychobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inta, Dragos; Vogt, Miriam A; Lima-Ojeda, Juan M; Pfeiffer, Natascha; Schneider, Miriam; Gass, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The early postnatal period represents a critical time window for brain development. Transient Cajal-Retzius cells in layer I of the cortex play an important role in cortical lamination by modulating neuronal migration and maturation. Recent data have demonstrated that the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist and alpha7 nicotinic receptor partial agonist tropisetron, acting via 5-HT(3) receptors expressed on Cajal-Retzius cells, can disturb the formation of cortical columns at perinatal stages. This process is thought to be involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we investigated the possible long-term behavioral effects of exposure to tropisetron at early postnatal stages in mice. We found that the administration of 1mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) tropisetron from postnatal days 2-12 (P2-P12) did not induce significant cognitive, schizophrenia-like or emotional alterations in tropisetron-treated animals as compared to controls, when tested in multiple behavioral assays. These results may be of relevance regarding the possible protracted deleterious neuropsychiatric effects of tropisetron during early life.

  11. Role of tonic GABAergic currents during pre- and early postnatal rodent development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner eKilb

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades it became evident that the GABAergic system plays an essential role for the development of the central nervous system, by influencing the proliferation of neuronal precursors, neuronal migration and differentiation, as well as by controlling early activity patterns and thus formation of neuronal networks. GABA controls neuronal development via depolarizing membrane responses upon activation of ionotropic GABA receptors. However, many of these effects occur before the onset of synaptic GABAergic activity and thus require the presence of extrasynaptic tonic currents in neuronal precursors and immature neurons. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the role of tonic GABAergic currents during early brain development. In this review we compare the temporal sequence of the expression and functional relevance of different GABA receptor subunits, GABA synthesizing enzymes and GABA transporters. We also refer to other possible endogenous agonists of GABAA receptors. In addition, we describe functional consequences mediated by the GABAergic system during early developmental periods and discuss current models about the origin of extrasynaptic GABA and/or other endogenous GABAergic agonists during early developmental states. Finally, we present evidence that tonic GABAergic activity is also critically involved in the generation of physiological as well as pathophysiological activity patterns before and after the establishment of functional GABAergic synaptic connections.

  12. Role of tonic GABAergic currents during pre- and early postnatal rodent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilb, Werner; Kirischuk, Sergei; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2013-01-01

    In the last three decades it became evident that the GABAergic system plays an essential role for the development of the central nervous system, by influencing the proliferation of neuronal precursors, neuronal migration and differentiation, as well as by controlling early activity patterns and thus formation of neuronal networks. GABA controls neuronal development via depolarizing membrane responses upon activation of ionotropic GABA receptors. However, many of these effects occur before the onset of synaptic GABAergic activity and thus require the presence of extrasynaptic tonic currents in neuronal precursors and immature neurons. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the role of tonic GABAergic currents during early brain development. In this review we compare the temporal sequence of the expression and functional relevance of different GABA receptor subunits, GABA synthesizing enzymes and GABA transporters. We also refer to other possible endogenous agonists of GABAA receptors. In addition, we describe functional consequences mediated by the GABAergic system during early developmental periods and discuss current models about the origin of extrasynaptic GABA and/or other endogenous GABAergic agonists during early developmental states. Finally, we present evidence that tonic GABAergic activity is also critically involved in the generation of physiological as well as pathophysiological activity patterns before and after the establishment of functional GABAergic synaptic connections.

  13. Altering the trajectory of early postnatal cortical development can lead to structural and behavioural features of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chomiak Taylor

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a behaviourally defined neurodevelopmental disorder with unknown etiology. Recent studies in autistic children consistently point to neuropathological and functional abnormalities in the temporal association cortex (TeA and its associated structures. It has been proposed that the trajectory of postnatal development in these regions may undergo accelerated maturational alterations that predominantly affect sensory recognition and social interaction. Indeed, the temporal association regions that are important for sensory recognition and social interaction are one of the last regions to mature suggesting a potential vulnerability to early maturation. However, direct evaluation of the emerging hypothesis that an altered time course of early postnatal development can lead to an ASD phenotype remains lacking. Results We used electrophysiological, histological, and behavioural techniques to investigate if the known neuronal maturational promoter valproate, similar to that in culture systems, can influence the normal developmental trajectory of TeA in vivo. Brain sections obtained from postnatal rat pups treated with VPA in vivo revealed that almost 40% of cortical cells in TeA prematurely exhibited adult-like intrinsic electrophysiological properties and that this was often associated with gross cortical hypertrophy and a reduced predisposition for social play behaviour. Conclusions The co-manifestation of these functional, structural and behavioural features suggests that alteration of the developmental time course in certain high-order cortical networks may play an important role in the neurophysiological basis of autism.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide exposure during the early postnatal period adversely affects the structure and function of the developing rat carotid body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Zankhana R; Porzionato, Andrea; Kesavan, Kalpashri; Mason, Ariel; Chavez-Valdez, Raul; Shirahata, Machiko; Gauda, Estelle B

    2016-09-01

    The carotid body (CB) substantially influences breathing in premature infants by affecting the frequency of apnea and periodic breathing. In adult animals, inflammation alters the structure and chemosensitivity of the CB, yet it is not known if this pertains to neonates. We hypothesized that early postnatal inflammation leads to morphological and functional changes in the developing rat CB, which persists for 1 wk after the initial provoking insult. To test our hypothesis, we exposed rat pups at postnatal day 2 (P2) to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg) or saline (SAL) intraperitoneally. At P9-10 (1 wk after treatment), LPS-exposed animals had significantly more spontaneous intermittent hypoxic (IH) events, attenuated ventilatory responses to changes in oxygen tension (measured by whole body plethysmography), and attenuated hypoxic chemosensitivity of the carotid sinus nerve (measured in vitro), compared with SAL-exposed controls. These functional changes were associated with the following: 1) increased inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels; 2) decreased volume of supportive type II cells; and 3) elevated dopamine levels (a major inhibitory neuromodulator) within the CB. These findings suggest that early postnatal inflammation in newborn rats adversely affects the structure and function of the CB and is associated with increased frequency of intermittent desaturations, similar to the phenomenon observed in premature infants. Furthermore, this is the first newborn model of spontaneous intermittent desaturations that may be used to understand the mechanisms contributing to IH events in newborns.

  15. The early postnatal nonhuman primate neocortex contains self-renewing multipotent neural progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihane Homman-Ludiye

    Full Text Available The postnatal neocortex has traditionally been considered a non-neurogenic region, under non-pathological conditions. A few studies suggest, however, that a small subpopulation of neural cells born during postnatal life can differentiate into neurons that take up residence within the neocortex, implying that postnatal neurogenesis could occur in this region, albeit at a low level. Evidence to support this hypothesis remains controversial while the source of putative neural progenitors responsible for generating new neurons in the postnatal neocortex is unknown. Here we report the identification of self-renewing multipotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs derived from the postnatal day 14 (PD14 marmoset monkey primary visual cortex (V1, striate cortex. While neuronal maturation within V1 is well advanced by PD14, we observed cells throughout this region that co-expressed Sox2 and Ki67, defining a population of resident proliferating progenitor cells. When cultured at low density in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF and/or fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2, dissociated V1 tissue gave rise to multipotent neurospheres that exhibited the ability to differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. While the capacity to generate neurones and oligodendrocytes was not observed beyond the third passage, astrocyte-restricted neurospheres could be maintained for up to 6 passages. This study provides the first direct evidence for the existence of multipotent NPCs within the postnatal neocortex of the nonhuman primate. The potential contribution of neocortical NPCs to neural repair following injury raises exciting new possibilities for the field of regenerative medicine.

  16. The early postnatal nonhuman primate neocortex contains self-renewing multipotent neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homman-Ludiye, Jihane; Merson, Tobias D; Bourne, James A

    2012-01-01

    The postnatal neocortex has traditionally been considered a non-neurogenic region, under non-pathological conditions. A few studies suggest, however, that a small subpopulation of neural cells born during postnatal life can differentiate into neurons that take up residence within the neocortex, implying that postnatal neurogenesis could occur in this region, albeit at a low level. Evidence to support this hypothesis remains controversial while the source of putative neural progenitors responsible for generating new neurons in the postnatal neocortex is unknown. Here we report the identification of self-renewing multipotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from the postnatal day 14 (PD14) marmoset monkey primary visual cortex (V1, striate cortex). While neuronal maturation within V1 is well advanced by PD14, we observed cells throughout this region that co-expressed Sox2 and Ki67, defining a population of resident proliferating progenitor cells. When cultured at low density in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and/or fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), dissociated V1 tissue gave rise to multipotent neurospheres that exhibited the ability to differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. While the capacity to generate neurones and oligodendrocytes was not observed beyond the third passage, astrocyte-restricted neurospheres could be maintained for up to 6 passages. This study provides the first direct evidence for the existence of multipotent NPCs within the postnatal neocortex of the nonhuman primate. The potential contribution of neocortical NPCs to neural repair following injury raises exciting new possibilities for the field of regenerative medicine.

  17. Early postnatal allopurinol does not improve short term outcome after severe birth asphyxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, MJNL; Bos, AF; Radernaker, CMA; Rijken, M; Torrance, HL; Groenendaal, F; van Bel, F

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether postnatal allopurinol would reduce free radical induced reperfusion/reoxygenation injury of the brain in severely asphyxiated neonates. Method: In an interim analysis of a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study, 32 severely asphyxiated infants were given

  18. Nitrergic neurons during early postnatal development of the prefrontal cortex in the rat: histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvizdosova, Natalia; Tomasova, Lenka; Bolekova, Adriana; Kolesar, Dalibor; Kluchova, Darina

    2014-06-01

    The presence of nitrergic cells in the prefrontal cortex has been confirmed, however little is known about the postnatal development of these cells. Nitrergic neurons were studied histochemically by using NADPH-diaphorase staining in the prefrontal cortex of male Wistar rats from postnatal day 7-21 (P7-21). Neuronal NADPH-diaphorase is a nitric oxide synthase that provides a specific histochemical marker for neurons producing nitric oxide (NO). NO acts as a neurotransmitter and intracellular signaling molecule in the nervous system. We observed in 7 day old rats NADPH-d containing neurons that were intensely stained. These neurons were bipolar with a short dendrite with average length of 23 μm. During the second postnatal week, the neurons were mainly bipolar and were rarely multipolar. By P14 the cells were located primarily in cortical layers III-VI. Nitrergic neurons of the 21 day old rats were histochemically identified as multipolar cells with long radial extending dendrites. Dendrites of neurons in 14 and 21 day old rats were a similar length with an average of 57 μm. These results suggest that nitrergic neurons differentiate during a relatively short period of time and reach their structural maturity by the end of the second week of postnatal development.

  19. Colonic urticaria pattern due to early ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, H.M.; Goldberg, H.I.; Axel, L.

    1981-05-15

    The unusual radiographic pattern of bleb-like mounds on the surface of the colon mucosa, previously described as colonic urticaria, was seen in 3 patients in whom no allergic state was present. This urticaria-like pattern was due to colonic distention in all 3, and represented only submucosal edema on the gross and microscopic specimens. We hypothesize that this pattern is due to early changes of ischemia caused by colon distention.

  20. Early postnatal hyperglycaemia is a risk factor for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Louise Bering; Rasmussen, Steen Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether neonatal hyperglycaemia in the first postnatal week is associated with treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: This is a Danish national, retrospective, case-control study of premature infants (birth period 2003-2006). Three national regis......: An independent association was found between the occurrence of hyperglycaemic events during the first postnatal week and later development of treatment-demanding ROP, when adjusted for known risk factors.......BACKGROUND: To investigate whether neonatal hyperglycaemia in the first postnatal week is associated with treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: This is a Danish national, retrospective, case-control study of premature infants (birth period 2003-2006). Three national...... was borderline significant (t-test; p=0.047). Hyperglycaemic events (indexed value) were statistically significantly different between the two study groups (Mann-Whitney U test; pindependent risk factor (OR: 1.022; 95% CI 1.002 to 1.042; p=0.031). CONCLUSION...

  1. The effect of colostrum ingestion during the first 24 hours of life on early postnatal development of piglet immune systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shohei; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Imaoka, Taishi; Nakanishi, Nobuo; Ushida, Kazunari; Inoue, Ryo

    2016-12-01

    It has been suggested that colostrum is important not only for direct protection from pathogens but also for proper development of immune systems in piglets. In this study, we focused on the effect of colostrum ingestion during the first 24 h of life on early postnatal development of piglet immune systems. Thirty-six piglets from five litters were divided into colostrum-fed (CoF) and colostrum-deprived (CoD) groups. The former group was allowed to suckle normally while formula milk was fed to the latter group during the first 24 h of life. At the weaning period, the concentrations of fecal immunoglobulin (Ig) A and plasma IgG as well as the number of blood leukocyte subsets were analyzed. Fecal IgA and plasma IgG concentrations in the CoF group were more than twice as high as those in the CoD group (P colostrum ingestion during the first 24 h plays a significant role in early postnatal development of both mucosal and systemic immunity of piglets.

  2. Designing, developing, and testing an app for parents being discharged early postnatally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Wagner, Lis; Clemensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    , and testing of an app as a viable information technology solution. The app was tested with 10 new families. The test results suggest that the new families and the nurses found the app to be viable and the app met the new families' needs for follow-up support. However, the app required refinements and wider...... testing. •We designed, developed, and testet an app for the iPad.•The app was viable, but the app requires refinements and wider testing.•The app met the new families' needs for follow-up support.•There is a potential for ensuring postnatal security with the use of technology....

  3. Designing, developing, and testing an app for parents being discharged early postnatally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Wagner, Lis; Clemensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    , and testing of an app as a viable information technology solution. The app was tested with 10 new families. The test results suggest that the new families and the nurses found the app to be viable and the app met the new families' needs for follow-up support. However, the app required refinements and wider...... testing. •We designed, developed, and testet an app for the iPad.•The app was viable, but the app requires refinements and wider testing.•The app met the new families' needs for follow-up support.•There is a potential for ensuring postnatal security with the use of technology....

  4. Early postnatal treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with recombinant human FSH and LH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina M; Schmidt, Ida M; Toppari, Jorma

    2002-01-01

    postnatally, to mimic the physiological development, would improve testicular growth and fertility potential later in life. DESIGN: Our patient presented with micropenis. Serum hormone concentrations were measured monthly after delivery: LH and testosterone were undetectable, and FSH and inhibin B were below...... to values within normal limits (0.7-1.88 IU/l, 0.17-3.24 IU/l, 121-268 pg/ml and 40-55 pmol/l respectively), whereas serum testosterone remained undetectable. Penile length increased from 1.6 to 2.4 cm and testicular volume, assessed by ultrasound, increased by 170%. No significant adverse events were...

  5. Protective effects of resveratrol on the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis induced by ethanol during early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Yang, Yang; Gao, Lixiong; Zhao, Jinghui; Cai, Yulong; Huang, Jing; Jing, Sheng; Bao, Xiaohang; Wang, Ying; Gao, Junwei; Xu, Haiwei; Fan, Xiaotang

    2015-07-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure during early postnatal life triggers obvious neurotoxic effects on the developing hippocampus and results in long-term effects on hippocampal neurogenesis. Resveratrol (RSV) has been demonstrated to exert potential neuroprotective effects by promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the effects of RSV on the EtOH-mediated impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis remain undetermined. Thus, mice were pretreated with RSV and were later exposed to EtOH to evaluate its protective effects on EtOH-mediated toxicity during hippocampal development. The results indicated that a brief exposure of EtOH on postnatal day 7 resulted in a significant impairment in hippocampal neurogenesis and a depletion of hippocampal neural precursor cells (NPCs). This effect was attenuated by pretreatment with RSV. Furthermore, EtOH exposure resulted in a reduction in spine density on the granular neurons of the dentate gyrus (DG), and the spines exhibited a less mature morphological phenotype characterized by a higher proportion of stubby spines and a lower proportion of mushroom spines. However, RSV treatment effectively reversed these responses. We further confirmed that RSV treatment reversed the EtOH-induced down-regulation of hippocampal pERK and Hes1 protein levels, which may be related to the proliferation and maintenance of NPCs. Furthermore, EtOH exposure in the C17.2 NPCs also diminished cell proliferation and activated apoptosis, which could be reversed by pretreatment of RSV. Overall, our results suggest that RSV pretreatment protects against EtOH-induced defects in neurogenesis in postnatal mice and may thus play a critical role in preventing EtOH-mediated toxicity in the developing hippocampus.

  6. Reduced densities of parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons in experimental cortical dysplasia and heterotopia in early postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akakin, Dilek; Martinez-Diaz, Hildabelis; Chen, Huan-Xin; Roper, Steven N

    2013-05-01

    Cortical dysplasia (CD) is strongly associated with intractable epilepsy, probably due to hyperexcitability of neuronal networks. However, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. GABAergic interneurons provide major inhibitory function in the CNS and have different subtypes, but it is not clear how each subtype is affected in CD during early post-natal development. We have examined the developmental alterations of the densities of two major subtypes of interneurons, parvalbumin (PV)- and somatostatin (SS)-expressing interneurons in an animal model of CD, in utero irradiation, using immunocytochemistry. We found that the density of PV- and SS-positive interneurons increases significantly in CD and controls during the first three weeks of postnatal life. However, compared to controls, the densities of both subtypes are significantly decreased in CD and heterotopia at all age groups although the time of onset for both PV and SS expression remained unchanged. Our results indicate that the densities of both PV- and SS-positive interneurons are significantly decreased in CD and heterotopia, which may be one important mechanism leading to hyperexcitability of CD.

  7. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Smith

    Full Text Available Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains.Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not.Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth.

  8. Oxygen-sensitive regulation and neuroprotective effects of growth hormone-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Susan; Boie, Gudrun; Doerr, Helmuth-Guenther; Trollmann, Regina

    2017-04-01

    Perinatal hypoxia severely disrupts metabolic and somatotrophic development, as well as cerebral maturational programs. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) represent the most important endogenous adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia, activating a broad spectrum of growth factors that contribute to cell survival and energy homeostasis. To analyze effects of systemic hypoxia and growth hormone (GH) therapy (rhGH) on HIF-dependent growth factors during early postnatal development, we compared protein (using ELISA) and mRNA (using quantitative RT PCR) levels of growth factors in plasma and brain between normoxic and hypoxic mice (8% O2, 6 h; postnatal day 7, P7) at P14. Exposure to hypoxia led to reduced body weight (P treatment increased cerebral IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and erythropoietin mRNA levels, resulting in significantly reduced apoptotic cell death in the hypoxic, developing mouse brain. These data indicate that rhGH may functionally restore hypoxia-induced systemic dysregulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis and induce upregulation of neuroprotective, HIF-dependent growth factors in the hypoxic developing brain.

  9. A schizophrenia rat model induced by early postnatal phencyclidine treatment and characterized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian V; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Plath, Niels

    2013-01-01

    administration of phencyclidine (PCP) induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy volunteers and exacerbates symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. In this study, pharmacological Magnetic Resonance Imaging (phMRI) was used to evaluate if rats treated with 20mg/kg PCP on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11 (neoPCP......), compared to saline (neoVeh), were hypersensitive to acute PCP administration in adulthood (acutePCP). Intravenous administration of 0.5mg/kg acutePCP produced robust and sustained relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) increase in discrete frontal, neocortical, hippocampal, thalamic, and limbic brain...... structures in both neoPCP:acutePCP and neoVeh:acutePCP rats compared to acute saline treatment (Vehicle control group). AcutePCP injection significantly increased the rCBV response in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens compared to the Vehicle control group, without distinguishing neoPCP...

  10. Early postnatal development of the mandible in children with isolated cleft palate and children with nonsyndromic Robin sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, J.; Hermann, N.V.; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Analysis of early postnatal mandibular size and growth velocity in children with untreated isolated cleft palate (ICP), nonsyndromic Robin sequence (RS), and a control group of children with unilateral incomplete cleft lip (UICL). Material: 114 children (66 isolated cleft palate, 7 Robin...... sequence, 41 unilateral incomplete cleft lip) drawn from a group representing all Danish cleft children born from 1976 through 1981. All children were examined at both 2 and 22 months of age. Methods: Cephalometric x-rays and maxillary plaster casts. Mandibular length and height were measured...... at 2 months of age. Conclusion: The children with isolated cleft palate and Robin sequence had small mandibles shortly after birth, but with a relatively normal growth potential. No true mandibular catch-up growth was found up to 22 months of age in either group. No significant correlation was found...

  11. A STEREOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF EARLY POSTNATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE ON NEURONAL NUMBERS IN RAT DENTATE GYRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Miki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal ethanol ingestion during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS in their offspring. Among the symptoms of FAS, damage to the central nervous system has emerged as one of the most serious problems. We have previously shown that a relatively high dose of ethanol exposure during early postnatal life can cause alterations in spatial learning ability. This ability is controlled, at least in part, by the hippocampal formation. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether exposure of rat pups to ethanol during early postnatal life had effects on the total number of the dentate gyrus neurons. Wistar rats were exposed to a relatively high daily dose of ethanol between postnatal days 10 to 15. Ethanol exposure was achieved by placing rat pups in a chamber containing ethanol vapour for 3 hours a day. The blood ethanol concentration was found to be about 430 mg/dL at the end of the exposure period. Groups of ethanol treated (ET, separation controls (SC and mother reared controls (MRC were anaesthetised and killed at 16-days-of-age by perfusion with phosphate-buffered 2.5% glutaraldehyde. The Cavalieri principle was used to determine the volume of subdivisions of the dentate gyrus, and the physical disector method was used to estimate the numerical densities of neurons within each subdivision. The total number of neurons was calculated by multiplying estimates of the numerical density with the volume. There was, on average, about 421,000 granule cells in all three treatment groups. In the hilus region, ET rats had about 27,000 neuronal cells. This value was significantly smaller than the average of 38,000 such neurons estimated to be present in both MRC and SC animals. It is concluded that neurons in the hilus region of the dentate gyrus may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of a high dose of ethanol exposure during PND 10-15. It is likely that this deficit was due to neuronal death induced by some mechanisms related to

  12. CD44 is a marker for the outer pillar cells in the early postnatal mouse inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzano, Ronna; Puligilla, Chandrakala; Chan, Siaw-Lin; Timothy, Caroline; Depireux, Didier A; Ahmed, Zubair; Wolf, Jeffrey; Eisenman, David J; Friedman, Thomas B; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Kelley, Matthew W; Strome, Scott E

    2010-09-01

    Cluster of differentiation antigens (CD proteins) are classically used as immune cell markers. However, their expression within the inner ear is still largely undefined. In this study, we explored the possibility that specific CD proteins might be useful for defining inner ear cell populations. mRNA expression profiling of microdissected auditory and vestibular sensory epithelia revealed 107 CD genes as expressed in the early postnatal mouse inner ear. The expression of 68 CD genes was validated with real-time RT-PCR using RNA extracted from microdissected sensory epithelia of cochleae, utricles, saccules, and cristae of newborn mice. Specifically, CD44 was identified as preferentially expressed in the auditory sensory epithelium. Immunohistochemistry revealed that within the early postnatal organ of Corti, the expression of CD44 is restricted to outer pillar cells. In order to confirm and expand this finding, we characterized the expression of CD44 in two different strains of mice with loss- and gain-of-function mutations in Fgfr3 which encodes a receptor for FGF8 that is essential for pillar cell development. We found that the expression of CD44 is abolished from the immature pillar cells in homozygous Fgfr3 knockout mice. In contrast, both the outer pillar cells and the aberrant Deiters' cells in the Fgfr3 ( P244R/ ) (+) mice express CD44. The deafness phenotype segregating in DFNB51 families maps to a linkage interval that includes CD44. To study the potential role of CD44 in hearing, we characterized the auditory system of CD44 knockout mice and sequenced the entire open reading frame of CD44 of affected members of DFNB51 families. Our results suggest that CD44 does not underlie the deafness phenotype of the DFNB51 families. Finally, our study reveals multiple potential new cell type-specific markers in the mouse inner ear and identifies a new marker for outer pillar cells.

  13. Effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children in rural western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children. We followed the offspring of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with different combinations of micronutrients and who remained resident in the study field. We measured their intellectual functioning using the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV). Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Four of the 5 composite scores derived from the WISC-IV, except for working memory index (WMI), were significantly lower in low birth weight children after adjusting for confounds. All 5 composite scores, including full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), verbal comprehension index (VCI), WMI, perceptual reasoning index (PRI), and processing speed index (PSI) were significant lower in stunted and underweight children. The differences in the means of WISC-IV test scores were greatest between stunted and nonstunted children. The means for FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI were as follows: 5.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.84-8.92), 5.08 (95% CI: 1.12-8.41), 4.71 (95% CI: 1.78-7.66), 6.13 (95% CI: 2.83-9.44), and 5.81 (95% CI: 2.61-9.00). These means were lower in stunted children after adjusting for confounds. Our results suggest the important influences of low birth weight and postnatal malnutrition (stunting, low body weight) on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children.

  14. Impact of birth weight and gender on early postnatal hypothalamic energy balance regulatory gene expression in the young lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, C L; Bake, T; Findlay, P A; Milne, J S; Aitken, R P; Wallace, J M

    2013-11-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is involved in developmental metabolic programming and here we test the hypothesis that IUGR affects the developing hypothalamic energy balance regulatory pathways in a sex-specific manner. This experiment investigated early postnatal hypothalamic gene expression for six primary leptin- and insulin-sensitive neuropeptides and receptors in male and female IUGR (n = 8 and 9, respectively) and normal (N) birth weight lambs (n = 8 per gender) gestated and suckled by overnourished mothers. IUGR lambs were smaller at birth, had increased fractional growth rates (FGR), lower final body weight (11 weeks) and similar body fat content compared with N lambs, while males had higher final body weight and insulinemia but lower body fat and leptinemia than females. In situ hybridization revealed greater gene expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus at 11 weeks for anorexigenic genes in females and orexigenic genes in males, with no effect of IUGR. Leptinemia correlated with gene expression for neuropeptide Y (NPY, negatively) in both sexes and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC, positively) in females but with leptin receptor (negatively) only in males. Current FGR for girth correlated negatively with gene expression for NPY in males and POMC in females. Neither IUGR nor gender affected suckling activity (proxy for appetite) assessed at 3 weeks, but final NPY gene expression correlated with suckling weight gain in males. This study has revealed no effect of IUGR on early postnatal hypothalamic energy balance gene expression but a major effect of gender associated with major sex differences in adiposity and leptinemia. Copyright © 2013 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic NMDA receptor blockade in early postnatal period, but not in adulthood, impairs methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuie, Hiroki; Yamada, Kazuo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2016-03-15

    Early postnatal glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade in animals is known to produce various behavioral deficits in adulthood. In the present study rats postnatally (day 7-20) treated chronically with MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, were tested later in adulthood in methamphetamine (MAP)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) using a unbiased procedure in a three-compartment apparatus. Rats with the same chronic treatment in adulthood were also tested. CPP test consisted of a baseline test before conditioning, place conditioning, and a preference test after conditioning. Rats postnatally treated with MK-801 did not show any evidence of preference for MAP-paired compartment compared with that for unpaired one in the preference test that was shown in rats postnatally treated with saline. On the other hand, rats treated with MK-801 in adulthood were not affected by the treatment and showed significant CPP as was shown in saline-treated control animals. Results suggest the possibility that chronic early postnatal, but not adulthood, NMDA receptor blockade induces persistent deficit of subsequent appetitive classical conditioning.

  16. Reduced linoleic acid intake in early postnatal life improves metabolic outcomes in adult rodents following a Western-style diet challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, Annemarie; Kegler, Diane; van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; van der Beek, Eline M.

    The global increase in dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUPA) intake has been suggested to contribute to the rise in obesity incidence. We hypothesized that reduced n-6 PUPA intake during early postnatal life improves adult body composition and metabolic phenotype upon a Western diet

  17. Maternal Dexamethasone Exposure Alters Synaptic Inputs to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons in the Early Postnatal Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ling Lim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Maternal dexamethasone (DEX; a glucocorticoid receptor agonist exposure delays pubertal onset and alters reproductive behaviour in the adult offspring. However, little is known whether maternal DEX exposure affects the offspring’s reproductive function by disrupting the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neuronal function in the brain. Therefore, this study determined the exposure of maternal DEX on the GnRH neuronal spine development and synaptic cluster inputs to GnRH neurons using transgenic rats expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP under the control of GnRH promoter. Pregnant females were administered with DEX (0.1mg/kg or vehicle (VEH, water daily during gestation day 13-20. Confocal imaging was used to examine the spine density of EGFP-GnRH neurons by three-dimensional rendering and synaptic cluster inputs to EGFP-GnRH neurons by synapsin I immunohistochemistry on postnatal day 0 (P0 males. The spine morphology and number on GnRH neurons did not change between the P0 males following maternal DEX and VEH treatment. The number of synaptic clusters within the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT was decreased by maternal DEX exposure in P0 males. Furthermore, the number and levels of synaptic cluster inputs in close apposition with GnRH neurons was decreased following maternal DEX exposure in the OVLT region of P0 males. In addition, the post synaptic marker molecule, post-synaptic density 95 was observed in GnRH neurons following both DEX and VEH treatment. These results suggest that maternal DEX exposure alters neural afferent inputs to GnRH neurons during early postnatal stage, which could lead to reproductive dysfunction during adulthood.

  18. Effect of dietary lipid structure in early postnatal life on mouse adipose tissue development and function in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosting, Annemarie; van Vlies, Naomi; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; Ringler, Silvia; Verkade, Henkjan J; van der Beek, Eline M

    2014-01-28

    Obese individuals have more (hyperplastic) and larger (hypertrophic) adipocytes in their white adipose tissue (WAT) than normal-weight individuals. The difference in cell number emerges early in childhood, suggesting that this is a critical period for being susceptible to obesity. Breast-feeding has been shown to be protective against obesity, and we have previously shown in mice that the physical structure of lipids in human milk may contribute to this protective effect. In the present study, we investigated how differences in the physical structure of lipids in the early diet may modulate adipose tissue development. Male mice were fed a diet containing control infant milk formula (Control IMF; Danone Research) or Nuturis® (Concept IMF with large phospholipid-coated lipid droplets; Danone Research) from postnatal day (PN)16 to 42. Subsequently, mice were challenged with a moderate Western-style diet (WSD) until PN98, and body composition was monitored by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Epididymal WAT was analysed for adipocyte size, number and gene expression of metabolic transcription factors. Early Concept IMF exposure reduced fat accumulation during the WSD challenge by 30 % compared with the Control IMF. It reduced adipocyte size without affecting adipocyte number in adult mice. The Concept IMF decreased the expression of PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and retinoid X receptor α in WAT in adulthood, key regulators of metabolic activity. In conclusion, Concept IMF exposure in early life reduced susceptibility to obesity in adult life, by preventing adipocyte hypertrophia upon adult dietary challenge without affecting adipogenesis. These data emphasise the importance of the physical properties of dietary lipids in early life in obesity risk later in life.

  19. Women's Longitudinal Patterns of Smoking during the Pre-Conception, Pregnancy and Postnatal Period: Evidence from the UK Infant Feeding Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available An understanding of women's longitudinal patterns of smoking during the pre-conception, pregnancy and postnatal period and the factors associated with these patterns could help better inform smoking cessation services and interventions.Latent class analysis (LCA was used to empirically identify women's smoking patterns in a sample of 10,768 mothers from the 2010 UK Infant Feeding Survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify characteristics associated with these patterns.LCA identified five distinct smoking patterns during the pre-conception, pregnancy and postnatal period: "non-smokers" (74.1% of women; "pregnancy-inspired quitters" (10.2%; "persistent smokers" (10.1%; "temporary quitters" (4.4%; and postnatal quitters (1.1%. Smoking patterns varied markedly according to socio-demographic variables and parity. After adjusting for these variables, mothers who lived during pregnancy with a partner who smoked were more likely to be temporary quitters (aOR 2.64, 95% CI 1.74-3.99 or persistent smokers (aOR 3.32, 95% CI 2.34-4.72 than pregnancy-inspired quitters. Mothers who lived during pregnancy with someone else other than a partner who smoked were more likely to be persistent smokers (aOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.38-3.97 or postnatal quitters (aOR 2.97, 95% CI 1.07-8.24 than pregnancy-inspired quitters. Mothers given information on how their partner could stop smoking if they lived during pregnancy with a smoking partner were less likely to be persistent smokers (aOR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.65 than pregnancy-inspired quitters.Health professionals should ask about smoking at every opportunity, and refer women who self-report as current smokers to an evidence based smoking cessation service.

  20. Transient overexposure of neuregulin 3 during early postnatal development impacts selective behaviors in adulthood.

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    Clare Paterson

    Full Text Available Neuregulin 3 (NRG3, a specific ligand for ErbB4 and a neuronal-enriched neurotrophin is implicated in the genetic predisposition to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental, neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, autism and schizophrenia. Genetic studies in schizophrenia demonstrate that risk variants in NRG3 are associated with cognitive and psychotic symptom severity, accompanied by increased expression of prefrontal cortical NRG3. Despite our expanding knowledge of genetic involvement of NRG3 in neurological disorders, little is known about the neurodevelopmental mechanisms of risk. Here we exploited the fact that a paralog of NRG3, NRG1, readily penetrates the murine blood brain barrier (BBB. In this study we synthesized the bioactive epidermal growth factor (EGF domain of NRG3, and using previously validated in-vivo peripheral injection methodologies in neonatal mice, demonstrate that NRG3 successfully crosses the BBB, where it activates its receptor ErbB4 and downstream Akt signaling at levels of bioactivity comparable to NRG1. To determine the impact of NRG3 overexpression during one critical developmental window, C57BL/6 male mice were subcutaneously injected daily with NRG1-EGF, NRG3-EGF or vehicle from postnatal days 2-10. Mice were tested in adulthood using a comprehensive battery of behavioral tasks relevant to neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders. In agreement with previous studies, developmental overexposure to NRG1 induced multiple non-CNS mediated peripheral effects as well as severely disrupting performance of prepulse inhibition of the startle response. In contrast, NRG3 had no effect on any peripheral measures investigated or sensorimotor gating. Specifically, developmental NRG3 overexposure produced an anxiogenic-like phenotype and deficits in social behavior in adulthood. These results provide primary data to support a role for NRG3 in brain development and function, which appears to

  1. Early postnatal respiratory viral infection alters hippocampal neurogenesis, cell fate, and neuron morphology in the neonatal piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Matthew S; Harasim, Samantha; Rhodes, Justin S; Van Alstine, William G; Johnson, Rodney W

    2015-02-01

    Respiratory viral infections are common during the neonatal period in humans, but little is known about how early-life infection impacts brain development. The current study used a neonatal piglet model as piglets have a gyrencephalic brain with growth and development similar to human infants. Piglets were inoculated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to evaluate how chronic neuroinflammation affects hippocampal neurogenesis and neuron morphology. Piglets in the neurogenesis study received one bromodeoxyuridine injection on postnatal day (PD) 7 and then were inoculated with PRRSV. Piglets were sacrificed at PD 28 and the number of BrdU+ cells and cell fate were quantified in the dentate gyrus. PRRSV piglets showed a 24% reduction in the number of newly divided cells forming neurons. Approximately 15% of newly divided cells formed microglia, but this was not affected by sex or PRRSV. Additionally, there was a sexual dimorphism of new cell survival in the dentate gyrus where males had more cells than females, and PRRSV infection caused a decreased survival in males only. Golgi impregnation was used to characterize dentate granule cell morphology. Sholl analysis revealed that PRRSV caused a change in inner granule cell morphology where the first branch point was extended further from the cell body. Males had more complex dendritic arbors than females in the outer granule cell layer, but this was not affected by PRRSV. There were no changes to dendritic spine density or morphology distribution. These findings suggest that early-life viral infection can impact brain development.

  2. Distribution patterns of stromal eosinophil cells in chick thymus during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-Bo; Liu, Yin-Xue; Hou, Yong; Wen, Le; Ge, Xiao-Hong; Peng, Ke-Mei; Liu, Hua-Zhen

    2013-05-15

    Eosinophils are a type of thymic stromal cell that are present in the thymus of both humans and mice. They participate in regulating T-cell development under non-pathological conditions. However, studies are scarce regarding the role of eosinophils in the development of the thymus in chickens. Therefore, this study investigated the distribution of eosinophils in normal chicken thymi at different stages of development. Seven thymi were obtained from chickens at days 1, 21 and 35 of development. The distribution of eosinophils in the thymi was analyzed by histological and immunohistochemical techniques using Lendrum's chromotrope 2R method and an antibody against eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), respectively. Eosinophils were constitutively located in the chick thymus. They were mainly distributed in the thymic corticomedullary junction and medulla, especially around vessels and Hassall's corpuscles, and only a few were in the trabeculae among thymic lobules and around vessels. There were none in the cortex. The number of thymic eosinophils decreased with increasing age (Pdevelopment, especially during the early stages of development.

  3. Early postnatal methoxychlor exposure inhibits folliculogenesis and stimulates anti-Mullerian hormone production in the rat ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzumcu, Mehmet; Kuhn, Peter E; Marano, Jason E; Armenti, AnnMarie E; Passantino, Lisa

    2006-12-01

    Methoxychlor [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenyl) ethane; MXC] is a chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide commonly used in the United States as a replacement for DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane]. While MXC is a weak estrogenic compound, its more active, major metabolite [2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane; HPTE] shows estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, or anti-androgenic properties depending on the receptor subtype with which it interacts. Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is a paracrine factor that suppresses initial follicle recruitment in the ovary. Studies have shown the effects of exposure to MXC on adult ovarian morphology and function. However, the effect of exposure to MXC at an early postnatal stage on pre-pubertal follicular development and ovarian AMH production has not been studied. Around postnatal day (P) 4, most of the primordial follicular assembly in rats is complete, and a large number of primordial follicles transition into the primary follicle stage, a process that is inhibited by estrogen. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of early postnatal (P3-P10) MXC exposure on ovarian morphology and size, follicle number, and AMH production in the pre-pubertal (P20) rat ovary and to investigate the effect of HPTE on AMH production in immature rat granulosa cells in vitro. Female rats were injected (s.c.) daily with vehicle (control) or 1, 10, 50, 100, or 500 mg MXC/kg per day (referred to here as 1MXC, 10MXC, and so forth.) between P3 and P10. On P20, uterine and ovarian weights were determined, ovarian histology was examined, and follicles were counted and classified into primordial, primary, secondary, pre-antral, or antral stages using the two largest serial sections at the center of the ovary. Ovarian AMH production was examined using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The effect of HPTE (0.5-25 microM) on AMH production in cultured immature rat granulosa cells was determined by western blot

  4. Patterns and mechanisms of early Pliocene warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A V; Brierley, C M; Lawrence, K T; Liu, Z; Dekens, P S; Ravelo, A C

    2013-04-04

    About five to four million years ago, in the early Pliocene epoch, Earth had a warm, temperate climate. The gradual cooling that followed led to the establishment of modern temperature patterns, possibly in response to a decrease in atmospheric CO2 concentration, of the order of 100 parts per million, towards preindustrial values. Here we synthesize the available geochemical proxy records of sea surface temperature and show that, compared with that of today, the early Pliocene climate had substantially lower meridional and zonal temperature gradients but similar maximum ocean temperatures. Using an Earth system model, we show that none of the mechanisms currently proposed to explain Pliocene warmth can simultaneously reproduce all three crucial features. We suggest that a combination of several dynamical feedbacks underestimated in the models at present, such as those related to ocean mixing and cloud albedo, may have been responsible for these climate conditions.

  5. L-Carnitine supplementation during suckling intensifies the early postnatal skeletal myofiber formation in piglets of low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lösel, D; Kalbe, C; Rehfeldt, C

    2009-07-01

    Piglets of low birth weight exhibit a reduced total number of skeletal myofibers at birth and throughout life compared with piglets of middle and heavy birth weight, which is associated with impaired (lean) growth and quality of carcass and meat at market weight. We investigated the effect of L-carnitine supplementation to suckling piglets of different birth weights on early postnatal myofiber formation, muscle growth, and body composition. A total of 48 piglets of low (LW) and middle (MDW) birth weight from 9 German Landrace gilts received 400 mg of L-carnitine (carnitine, n = 25) or a placebo (control, n = 23) once daily from d 7 to 27 of age and were slaughtered on d 28 of age (weaning). Carnitine-supplemented piglets deposited less fat as indicated by a reduced proportion of perirenal (P = 0.1) and intramuscular fat (P = 0.05). Circulating glucose concentrations tended to be greater in supplemented LW piglets (P = 0.13). The concentration of carnitine in semitendinosus (STN) muscle was approximately doubled (P supplementation, with emphasis on the proportion of esterified carnitine. The ratio of lactate dehydrogenase to isocitrate dehydrogenase tended (P = 0.12) to be smaller in STN muscle of supplemented piglets, indicating a more oxidative muscle metabolism. The total number of STN myofibers was increased by 13% (P = 0.02) in supplemented LW piglets, thereby reaching the unchanged level of MDW littermates. In addition, supplemented LW piglets displayed a 2.4-fold mRNA expression of the gene encoding the embryonic isoform of the myosin heavy chain in STN muscle than control piglets (P = 0.05), but there were no differences in the proportion of fibers positively staining for the embryonic myosin isoform. L-carnitine-supplemented piglets exhibited a greater DNA:protein ratio (P = 0.02) in STN muscle, which resulted from a greater DNA concentration (P = 0.04). However, the STN muscle of L-carnitine-supplemented piglets was not less mature as indicated by

  6. A single early postnatal estradiol injection affects morphology and gene expression of the ovary and parametrial adipose tissue in adult female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexanderson, Camilla; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Kullberg, Joel

    2010-01-01

    of estrogen receptor a was decreased, and expression of leptin, lipoprotein lipase, and hormone-sensitive lipase was unaffected. These findings suggest that early postnatal estradiol exposure of female rats result in long-lasting effects on the ovary and parametrial adipose tissue at adult age.......Events during early life can affect reproductive and metabolic functions in adulthood. We evaluated the programming effects of a single early postnatal estradiol injection (within 3h after birth) in female rats. We assessed ovarian and parametrial adipose tissue morphology, evaluated gene...... expression related to follicular development and adipose tissue metabolism, and developed a non-invasive volumetric estimation of parametrial adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging. Estradiol reduced ovarian weight, increased antral follicle size and number of atretic antral follicles, and decreased...

  7. SOHLH2 is essential for synaptonemal complex formation during spermatogenesis in early postnatal mouse testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Miree; Lee, Youngeun; Jang, Hoon; Lee, Ok-Hee; Park, Sung-Won; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Hong, Kwonho; Song, Hyuk; Park, Se-Pill; Park, Yun-Yong; Ko, Jung Jae; Choi, Youngsok

    2016-02-12

    Spermatogenesis- and oogenesis-specific helix-loop-helix transcription factor 2 (SOHLH2) is exclusively expressed in germ cells of the gonads. Previous studies show that SOHLH2 is critical for spermatogenesis in mouse. However, the regulatory mechanism of SOHLH2 during early spermatogenesis is poorly understood. In the present study, we analyzed the gene expression profile of the Sohlh2-deficient testis and examined the role of SOHLH2 during spermatogenesis. We found 513 genes increased in abundance, while 492 genes decreased in abundance in 14-day-old Sohlh2-deficient mouse testes compared to wildtype mice. Gene ontology analysis revealed that Sohlh2 disruption effects the relative abundance of various meiotic genes during early spermatogenesis, including Spo11, Dmc1, Msh4, Prdm9, Sycp1, Sycp2, Sycp3, Hormad1, and Hormad2. Western blot analysis and immunostaining showed that SYCP3, a component of synaptonemal complex, was significantly less abundant in Sohlh2-deficient spermatocytes. We observed a lack of synaptonemal complex formation during meiosis in Sohlh2-deficient spermatocytes. Furthermore, we found that SOHLH2 interacted with two E-boxes on the mouse Sycp1 promoter and Sycp1 promoter activity increased with ectopically expressed SOHLH2. Taken together, our data suggest that SOHLH2 is critical for the formation of synaptonemal complexes via its regulation of Sycp1 expression during mouse spermatogonial differentiation.

  8. Early postnatal diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis by combining light microscopy, acidified glycerol lysis test and eosin-5'-maleimide binding assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Oliver; Eber, Stefan; Speer, Christian P

    2015-12-01

    Exact diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is widely considered unreliable around birth. However, early postnatal diagnosis at the beginning of congenital hemolysis may be essential for managing neonatal anemia and hemolytic icterus, identifying those at high risk for severe hyperbilirubinemia, irreversible kernicterus, or sudden need for red cell transfusion. We analyzed 37 blood samples from neonates or infants up to six weeks of life that had been collected in-house or shipped to our laboratory due to suspected red cell membrane disorder. By combining assessment of red cell morphology, acidified glycerol lysis test (AGLT), and eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding assay, we were able to clearly exclude HS in 22 and confirm HS in 10 patients, of which one had undergone red cell transfusion prior to blood sampling. Assessment of red cell morphology and normal test results allowed diagnosis of infantile pyknocytosis or Heinz body anemia in three neonates. Re-evaluation of five patients with inconsistent results of AGLT and EMA binding led to confirmation of HS in two cases. Automated analysis of hematologic parameters revealed elevated proportion of hyperdense cells to be a highly significant indicator for HS in neonatal infants. We showed that assessment of red cell morphology in combination with AGLT and EMA binding assay is a reliable basis for confirming or rejecting suspected diagnosis of HS even in neonates. Our data underline the necessity for blood sampling and laboratory exploration in suspected red cell membrane or enzyme defects at the earliest occasion.

  9. Effects of the kainate receptor agonist ATPA on glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity during early postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallert, Marko; Malkki, Hemi; Segerstråle, Mikael; Taira, Tomi; Lauri, Sari E

    2007-05-01

    Kainate type of glutamate receptors (KARs) modulate synaptic transmission in a developmentally regulated manner at several synapses in the brain. Previous studies have shown that KARs depress glutamatergic transmission at CA3-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus and these receptors are tonically active during early postnatal development. Here we use the GluR5 subunit specific agonist ATPA to further characterize the role of KARs in the modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity in area CA1 during the first two weeks of life. We find that the depressant effect of ATPA on evoked fEPSPs/EPSCs is smaller in the neonate (P3-P6) than in the juvenile (P14-P18) rat CA1, due to endogenous activity of KAR in the neonate. Further, in the neonate but not juvenile CA1, ATPA downregulates action-potential independent transmission (mEPSCs) and its effects are dependent on protein kinase C activity. ATPA-induced depression of fEPSPs in the neonate occludes the presynaptic component of long-term depression (LTD). In contrast, at P14-P18, ATPA prevents LTD indirectly via GABAergic mechanisms. These data show that GluR5 signaling mechanisms are developmentally regulated and suggest distinct functional role for KARs in the modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity at different stages of development.

  10. Conserved and muscle-group-specific gene expression patterns shape postnatal development of the novel extraocular muscle phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Georgiana; Merriam, Anita P; Gong, Bendi; Leahy, Patrick; Khanna, Sangeeta; Porter, John D

    2004-07-08

    Current models in skeletal muscle biology do not fully account for the breadth, causes, and consequences of phenotypic variation among skeletal muscle groups. The muscle allotype concept arose to explain frank differences between limb, masticatory, and extraocular (EOM) muscles, but there is little understanding of the developmental regulation of the skeletal muscle phenotypic range. Here, we used morphological and DNA microarray analyses to generate a comprehensive temporal profile for rat EOM development. Based upon coordinate regulation of morphologic/gene expression traits with key events in visual, vestibular, and oculomotor system development, we propose a model that the EOM phenotype is a consequence of extrinsic factors that are unique to its local environment and sensory-motor control system, acting upon a novel myoblast lineage. We identified a broad spectrum of differences between the postnatal transcriptional patterns of EOM and limb muscle allotypes, including numerous transcripts not traditionally associated with muscle fiber/group differences. Several transcription factors were differentially regulated and may be responsible for signaling muscle allotype specificity. Significant differences in cellular energetic mechanisms defined the EOM and limb allotypes. The allotypes were divergent in many other functional transcript classes that remain to be further explored. Taken together, we suggest that the EOM allotype is the consequence of tissue-specific mechanisms that direct expression of a limited number of EOM-specific transcripts and broader, incremental differences in transcripts that are conserved by the two allotypes. This represents an important first step in dissecting allotype-specific regulatory mechanisms that may, in turn, explain differential muscle group sensitivity to a variety of metabolic and neuromuscular diseases.

  11. Early postnatal development of the mandibular permanent first molar in infants with isolated cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Nuno V.; Zargham, Mostafa; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2012-01-01

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2012; 22: 280–285 Background. Based on measurements on dental casts, smaller permanent teeth in children with cleft palate have previously been reported in the literature; however, the early maturation of teeth and the size of the follicles and crowns...... have not been investigated. Hypothesis. The maturation of the mandibular permanent first molar (M1inf) is delayed, and the mesiodistal diameters of the follicle and crown of M1inf, respectively, are reduced in children with isolated cleft palate (ICP). Design. Retrospective, longitudinal. Cephalometric...... X‐rays were available for 2 and 22 months old children with clefts (64 children with ICP, and a control group of 38 children with unilateral incomplete cleft lip). The width of the follicle and the crown of M1inf, and the maturation of M1inf were assessed. Intra‐observer error was acceptable...

  12. Infant adiposity at birth and early postnatal weight gain predict increased aortic intima-media thickness at 6 weeks of age: a population-derived cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; Pinfant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk.

  13. Effects of dust, formaldehyde and delayed feeding on early postnatal development of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouw, Pieter; van de Ven, Lotte J F; Lourens, Sander; Kemp, Bas; van den Brand, Henry

    2017-06-01

    We investigated effects of perinatal exposure to dust or formaldehyde and the moment of first feed intake after hatching on broiler chicken development during the first week of life. Four environmental treatments were used from 468 until 512h of incubation: control (CONT), heat treated dust (HTD), untreated dust (UTD) or formaldehyde disinfection (FORM). After hatching, all chickens were assigned to 1 of 2 feeding treatments: early feeding (EF; feed and water available in the hatcher) or delayed feeding (DF). After 512h of incubation (day 0), chickens were reared until day 7 of age. In DF chickens, body weight (BW), yolk free body mass (YFBM) and relative liver weight did not differ among environmental treatments at day 0. However, in EF chickens BW at day 0 was greater in HTD chickens than in UTD and FORM chickens. YFBM in EF chickens at day 0 was greater when chickens were exposed to HTD compared to the other environmental treatments. In EF chickens, relative liver weight was greater in HTD chickens than in FORM. In DF chickens, BW at day 0 was positively related with hatching time (HT). In EF chickens, YFBM was positively related to HT. Residual yolk weight at day 0 was positively related with HT, whereas relative liver weight and microbicidal capacity were negatively related with HT. This study demonstrated that formaldehyde and dust during the hatching phase affect broiler chicken development at pulling from the incubator, but not at day 7. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Type I TARPs promote dendritic growth of early postnatal neocortical pyramidal cells in organotypic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Mohammad I K; Jack, Alexander; Klatt, Oliver; Lorkowski, Markus; Strasdeit, Tobias; Kott, Sabine; Sager, Charlotte; Hollmann, Michael; Wahle, Petra

    2014-04-01

    The ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate glutamate receptors (AMPARs) have been implicated in the establishment of dendritic architecture. The transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) regulate AMPAR function and trafficking into synaptic membranes. In the current study, we employ type I and type II TARPs to modulate expression levels and function of endogenous AMPARs and investigate in organotypic cultures (OTCs) of rat occipital cortex whether this influences neuronal differentiation. Our results show that in early development [5-10 days in vitro (DIV)] only the type I TARP γ-8 promotes pyramidal cell dendritic growth by increasing spontaneous calcium amplitude and GluA2/3 expression in soma and dendrites. Later in development (10-15 DIV), the type I TARPs γ-2, γ-3 and γ-8 promote dendritic growth, whereas γ-4 reduced dendritic growth. The type II TARPs failed to alter dendritic morphology. The TARP-induced dendritic growth was restricted to the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells and it did not affect interneurons. Moreover, we studied the effects of short hairpin RNA-induced knockdown of endogenous γ-8 and showed a reduction of dendritic complexity and amplitudes of spontaneous calcium transients. In addition, the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of γ-8 was required for dendritic growth. Single-cell calcium imaging showed that the γ-8 CT domain increases amplitude but not frequency of calcium transients, suggesting a regulatory mechanism involving the γ-8 CT domain in the postsynaptic compartment. Indeed, the effect of γ-8 overexpression was reversed by APV, indicating a contribution of NMDA receptors. Our results suggest that selected type I TARPs influence activity-dependent dendritogenesis of immature pyramidal neurons.

  15. Early postnatal treatment with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor or 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 prevents prenatal dexamethasone and postnatal high saturated fat diet induced programmed hypertension in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pei-Chen; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Lin, Yu-Ju; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Tsai, Ching-Chou; Huang, Li-Tung; Tain, You-Lin

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure, postnatal high-fat (HF) intake, and arachidonic acid pathway are closely related to hypertension. We tested whether a soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) or 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 (15dPGJ2) therapy can rescue programmed hypertension in the DEX+HF two-hit model. Four groups of Sprague Dawley rats were studied: control, DEX+HF, AUDA, and 15dPGJ2. Dexamethasone (0.1mg/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally administered to pregnant rats from gestational day 16-22. Male offspring received high-fat diet (D12331, Research Diets) from weaning to 4 months of age. In AUDA group, mother rats received 25mg/L in drinking water during lactation. In the 15dPGJ2 group, male offspring received 15dPGJ2 1.5mg/kg BW by subcutaneous injection once daily for 1 week after birth. We found postnatal HF diet aggravated prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension, which was similarly prevented by early treatment with AUDA or 15dPGJ2. The beneficial effects of AUDA and 15d-PGJ2 therapy include inhibition of SEH, increases of renal angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) protein levels, and restoration of nitric oxide bioavailability. Better understanding of the impact of arachidonic acid pathway in the two-hit model will help prevent programmed hypertension in children exposed to corticosteroids and postnatal HF intake.

  16. Distinct expression patterns predict differential roles of the miRNA-binding proteins, Lin28 and Lin28b, in the mouse testis: studies during postnatal development and in a model of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaytan, Francisco; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Manfredi-Lozano, María; García-Galiano, David; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; León, Silvia; Morales, Concepción; Cordido, Fernando; Pinilla, Leonor; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2013-03-01

    Lin28 (also termed Lin28a) and Lin28b are related RNA-binding proteins, involved in the control of microRNA synthesis, especially of the let-7 family, with putative functions in early (embryo) development. However, their roles during postnatal maturation remain ill defined. Despite the general assumption that Lin28 and Lin28b share similar targets and functions, conclusive demonstration of such redundancy is still missing. In addition, recent observations suggest a role of Lin28 proteins in mammalian reproduction, which is yet to be defined. We document herein the patterns of RNA expression and protein distribution of Lin28 and Lin28b in mouse testis during postnatal development and in a model of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism as a result of inactivation of the kisspeptin receptor, Gpr54. Lin28 and Lin28b mRNAs were expressed in mouse testis across postnatal maturation, but their levels disparately varied between neonatal and pubertal periods, with peak Lin28 levels in infantile testes and sustained elevation of Lin28b mRNA in young adult male gonads, where relative levels of let-7a and let-7b miRNAs were significantly suppressed. In addition, Lin28 peptides displayed totally different patterns of cellular distribution in mouse testis: Lin28 was located in undifferentiated and type-A1 spermatogonia, whereas Lin28b was confined to spermatids and interstitial Leydig cells. These profiles were perturbed in Gpr54 null mouse testis, which showed preserved but irregular Lin28 signal and absence of Lin28b peptide, which was rescued by administration of gonadotropins, mainly hCG (as super-agonist of LH). In addition, increased relative levels of Lin28, but not Lin28b, mRNA and of let-7a/let-7b miRNAs were observed in Gpr54 KO mouse testes. Altogether, our data are the first to document the divergent patterns of cellular distribution and mRNA expression of Lin28 and Lin28b in the mouse testis along postnatal maturation and their alteration in a model of congenital

  17. Association of Maternal Antiangiogenic Profile at Birth With Early Postnatal Loss of Microvascular Density in Offspring of Hypertensive Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Grace Z.; Aye, Christina Y.L.; Lewandowski, Adam J.; Davis, Esther F.; Khoo, Cheen P.; Newton, Laura; Yang, Cheng T.; Al Haj Zen, Ayman; Simpson, Lisa J.; O’Brien, Kathryn; Cook, David A.; Granne, Ingrid; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Channon, Keith M.; Watt, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Offspring of hypertensive pregnancies are more likely to have microvascular rarefaction and increased blood pressure in later life. We tested the hypothesis that maternal angiogenic profile during a hypertensive pregnancy is associated with fetal vasculogenic capacity and abnormal postnatal microvascular remodeling. Infants (n=255) born after either hypertensive or normotensive pregnancies were recruited for quantification of postnatal dermal microvascular structure at birth and 3 months of age. Vasculogenic cell potential was assessed in umbilical vein endothelial cells from 55 offspring based on in vitro microvessel tube formation and proliferation assays. Maternal angiogenic profile (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, soluble endoglin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and placental growth factor) was measured from postpartum plasma samples to characterize severity of pregnancy disorder. At birth, offspring born after hypertensive pregnancy had similar microvessel density to those born after a normotensive pregnancy, but during the first 3 postnatal months, they had an almost 2-fold greater reduction in total vessel density (−17.7±16.4% versus −9.9±18.7%; P=0.002). This postnatal loss varied according to the vasculogenic capacity of the endothelial cells of the infant at birth (r=0.49; P=0.02). The degree of reduction in both in vitro and postnatal in vivo vascular development was proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that offspring born to hypertensive pregnancies have reduced vasculogenic capacity at birth that predicts microvessel density loss over the first 3 postnatal months. Degree of postnatal microvessel reduction is proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation at birth. PMID:27456522

  18. Gestational and early postnatal hypothyroidism alters VGluT1 and VGAT bouton distribution in the neocortex and hippocampus, and behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eNavarro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are fundamental for the expression of genes involved in the development of the CNS and their deficiency is associated with a wide spectrum of neurological diseases including mental retardation, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorders. We examined in rat whether developmental and early postnatal hypothyroidism affects the distribution of vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (VGluT1; glutamatergic and vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VGAT; GABAergic immunoreactive (ir boutons in the hippocampus and somatosensory cortex, and the behavior of the pups. Hypothyroidism was induced by adding 0.02% methimazole (MMI and 1% KClO4 to the drinking water starting at embryonic day 10 (E10; developmental hypothyroidism and E21 (early postnatal hypothyroidism until day of sacrifice at postnatal day 50. Behavior was studied using the acoustic prepulse inhibition (somatosensory attention and the elevated plus-maze (anxiety-like assessment tests. The distribution, density and size of VGlut1-ir and VGAT-ir boutons in the hippocampus and somatosensory cortex was abnormal in MMI pups and these changes correlate with behavioral changes, as prepulse inhibition of the startle response amplitude was reduced, and the percentage of time spent in open arms increased. In conclusion, both developmental and early postnatal hypothyroidism significantly decreases the ratio of GABAergic to glutamatergic boutons in dentate gyrus leading to an abnormal flow of information to the hippocampus and infragranular layers of the somatosensory cortex, and alter behavior in rats. Our data show cytoarchitectonic alterations in the basic excitatory hippocampal loop, and in local inhibitory circuits of the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus that might contribute to the delayed neurocognitive outcome observed in thyroid hormone deficient children born in iodine deficient areas, or suffering from congenital hypothyroidism.

  19. Early postnatal nicotine exposure causes hippocampus-dependent memory impairments in adolescent mice: Association with altered nicotinic cholinergic modulation of LTP, but not impaired LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakauchi, Sakura; Malvaez, Melissa; Su, Hailing; Kleeman, Elise; Dang, Richard; Wood, Marcelo A; Sumikawa, Katumi

    2015-02-01

    Fetal nicotine exposure from smoking during pregnancy causes long-lasting cognitive impairments in offspring, yet little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. Here we demonstrate that early postnatal exposure of mouse pups to nicotine via maternal milk impairs long-term, but not short-term, hippocampus-dependent memory during adolescence. At the Schaffer collateral (SC) pathway, the most widely studied synapses for a cellular correlate of hippocampus-dependent memory, the induction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent transient long-term potentiation (LTP) and protein synthesis-dependent long-lasting LTP are not diminished by nicotine exposure, but rather unexpectedly the threshold for LTP induction becomes lower after nicotine treatment. Using voltage sensitive dye to visualize hippocampal activity, we found that early postnatal nicotine exposure also results in enhanced CA1 depolarization and hyperpolarization after SC stimulation. Furthermore, we show that postnatal nicotine exposure induces pervasive changes to the nicotinic modulation of CA1 activity: activation of nicotinic receptors no longer increases CA1 network depolarization, acute nicotine inhibits rather than facilitates the induction of LTP at the SC pathway by recruiting an additional nicotinic receptor subtype, and acute nicotine no longer blocks LTP induction at the temporoammonic pathway. These findings reflect the pervasive impact of nicotine exposure during hippocampal development, and demonstrate an association of hippocampal memory impairments with altered nicotinic cholinergic modulation of LTP, but not impaired LTP. The implication of our results is that nicotinic cholinergic-dependent plasticity is required for long-term memory formation and that postnatal nicotine exposure disrupts this form of plasticity.

  20. The early postnatal pattern of vesicle formation in different regions of the porcien small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring; Weström, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    present. They disappeared after 2 days (gut closure) and on day 6 adult-looking epithelial cells were present. In the distal region of day 0 pigs digestion vesicles/flocculent vesicles were observed in the cytoplasma. The vesicles appeared empty but with eosinophilic, PAS+ and electron dense...

  1. Evaluation of a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia--early postnatal PCP treatment in attentional set-shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Dias, Rebecca; Glenthøj, Birte Yding;

    2008-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) was administered to male and female Lister hooded rats on postnatal days (PND) 7, 9 and 11. All PCP animals tested in adulthood (PND 53-93) showed deficits in cognitive flexibility, specifically in their ability to shift attentional set, compared to controls. This novel finding...

  2. Evaluation of a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia--early postnatal PCP treatment in attentional set-shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Dias, Rebecca; Glenthøj, Birte Yding

    2008-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) was administered to male and female Lister hooded rats on postnatal days (PND) 7, 9 and 11. All PCP animals tested in adulthood (PND 53-93) showed deficits in cognitive flexibility, specifically in their ability to shift attentional set, compared to controls. This novel findin...

  3. Supplementation with fish oil and coconut fat prevents prenatal stress-induced changes in early postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsonelo, Elizabethe C; Suchecki, Deborah; Calil, Helena Maria; Galduróz, José Carlos F

    2011-08-01

    Adequate development of the central nervous system depends on prenatal and postnatal factors. On one hand, prenatal stress (PNS) has been implicated in impaired development of the offspring. On other hand, nutritional factors during pregnancy and lactation can influence fetal and postnatal growth. This study assessed the postnatal development of rat offspring exposed to PNS, which consisted of restraint and bright lights, 3 times/day, from days 14 to 20 of pregnancy, whose mothers were fed different diets during pregnancy and lactation: regular diet, diet supplemented with coconut fat or fish oil. When pregnancy was confirmed, they were distributed into control (CTL) or PNS groups. At birth, PNS males and females weighed less than those in the group CTL. At 21 days of age, this alteration was no longer observed with fish oil and coconut fat groups. PNS and coconut fat diet induced increased locomotor activity in 13 day old male and female pups, and this effect was prevented by fish oil supplementation only in females. In conclusion, postnatal development from birth to weaning was influenced by PNS and diet and some of those alterations were prevented by coconut fat and fish oil.

  4. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Janton, Susan; Henderson, Wendy A; Matson, Adam; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, pgut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types. In conclusion, infant postnatal age, gender and feeding type significantly contribute to the dynamic development of the gut microbiome in preterm infants.

  5. Increased Excitatory Synaptic Transmission of Dentate Granule Neurons in Mice Lacking PSD-95-Interacting Adhesion Molecule Neph2/Kirrel3 during the Early Postnatal Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Junyeop D.; Choi, Su-Yeon; Cho, Yi Sul; Choi, Tae-Yong; Park, Jong-Sil; Cutforth, Tyler; Chung, Woosuk; Park, Hanwool; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Myeong-Heui; Lee, Yeunkum; Mo, Seojung; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Kim, Hyun; Ko, Jaewon; Choi, Se-Young; Bae, Yong Chul; Shen, Kang; Kim, Eunjoon; Han, Kihoon

    2017-01-01

    Copy number variants and point mutations of NEPH2 (also called KIRREL3) gene encoding an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily adhesion molecule have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability and neurocognitive delay associated with Jacobsen syndrome, but the physiological roles of Neph2 in the mammalian brain remain largely unknown. Neph2 is highly expressed in the dentate granule (DG) neurons of the hippocampus and is localized in both dendrites and axons. It was recently shown that Neph2 is required for the formation of mossy fiber filopodia, the axon terminal structure of DG neurons forming synapses with GABAergic neurons of CA3. In contrast, however, it is unknown whether Neph2 also has any roles in the postsynaptic compartments of DG neurons. We here report that, through its C-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif, Neph2 directly interacts with postsynaptic density (PSD)-95, an abundant excitatory postsynaptic scaffolding protein. Moreover, Neph2 protein is detected in the brain PSD fraction and interacts with PSD-95 in synaptosomal lysates. Functionally, loss of Neph2 in mice leads to age-specific defects in the synaptic connectivity of DG neurons. Specifically, Neph2−/− mice show significantly increased spontaneous excitatory synaptic events in DG neurons at postnatal week 2 when the endogenous Neph2 protein expression peaks, but show normal excitatory synaptic transmission at postnatal week 3. The evoked excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity of medial perforant pathway (MPP)-DG synapses are also normal in Neph2−/− mice at postnatal week 3, further confirming the age-specific synaptic defects. Together, our results provide some evidence for the postsynaptic function of Neph2 in DG neurons during the early postnatal period, which might be implicated in neurodevelopmental and cognitive disorders caused by NEPH2 mutations. PMID:28381988

  6. Increased Excitatory Synaptic Transmission of Dentate Granule Neurons in Mice Lacking PSD-95-Interacting Adhesion Molecule Neph2/Kirrel3 during the Early Postnatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Junyeop D; Choi, Su-Yeon; Cho, Yi Sul; Choi, Tae-Yong; Park, Jong-Sil; Cutforth, Tyler; Chung, Woosuk; Park, Hanwool; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Myeong-Heui; Lee, Yeunkum; Mo, Seojung; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Kim, Hyun; Ko, Jaewon; Choi, Se-Young; Bae, Yong Chul; Shen, Kang; Kim, Eunjoon; Han, Kihoon

    2017-01-01

    Copy number variants and point mutations of NEPH2 (also called KIRREL3) gene encoding an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily adhesion molecule have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability and neurocognitive delay associated with Jacobsen syndrome, but the physiological roles of Neph2 in the mammalian brain remain largely unknown. Neph2 is highly expressed in the dentate granule (DG) neurons of the hippocampus and is localized in both dendrites and axons. It was recently shown that Neph2 is required for the formation of mossy fiber filopodia, the axon terminal structure of DG neurons forming synapses with GABAergic neurons of CA3. In contrast, however, it is unknown whether Neph2 also has any roles in the postsynaptic compartments of DG neurons. We here report that, through its C-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif, Neph2 directly interacts with postsynaptic density (PSD)-95, an abundant excitatory postsynaptic scaffolding protein. Moreover, Neph2 protein is detected in the brain PSD fraction and interacts with PSD-95 in synaptosomal lysates. Functionally, loss of Neph2 in mice leads to age-specific defects in the synaptic connectivity of DG neurons. Specifically, Neph2(-/-) mice show significantly increased spontaneous excitatory synaptic events in DG neurons at postnatal week 2 when the endogenous Neph2 protein expression peaks, but show normal excitatory synaptic transmission at postnatal week 3. The evoked excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity of medial perforant pathway (MPP)-DG synapses are also normal in Neph2(-/-) mice at postnatal week 3, further confirming the age-specific synaptic defects. Together, our results provide some evidence for the postsynaptic function of Neph2 in DG neurons during the early postnatal period, which might be implicated in neurodevelopmental and cognitive disorders caused by NEPH2 mutations.

  7. Developmental programming of somatic growth, behavior and endocannabinoid metabolism by variation of early postnatal nutrition in a cross-fostering mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Felix; Ackermann, Merle; Michalik, Michael; Hucklenbruch-Rother, Eva; Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras; Racz, Ildiko; Bindila, Laura; Lutz, Beat; Dötsch, Jörg; Zimmer, Andreas; Woelfle, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient deprivation during early development has been associated with the predisposition to metabolic disorders in adulthood. Considering its interaction with metabolism, appetite and behavior, the endocannabinoid (eCB) system represents a promising target of developmental programming. By cross-fostering and variation of litter size, early postnatal nutrition of CB6F1-hybrid mice was controlled during the lactation period (3, 6, or 10 pups/mother). After weaning and redistribution at P21, all pups received standard chow ad libitum. Gene expression analyses (liver, visceral fat, hypothalamus) were performed at P50, eCB concentrations were determined in liver and visceral fat. Locomotor activity and social behavior were analyzed by means of computer-assisted videotracking. Body growth was permanently altered, with differences for length, weight, body mass index and fat mass persisting beyond P100 (all 3>6>10,peCB system were observed in fat (eCB-synthesis: 3>6>10 (DAGLα peCB-degradation: 3>6>10 (FAAH peCB-receptor transcripts (CB1R peCB system, with long-lasting impact of early postnatal nutrition. Developmental programming of the eCB system in metabolically active tissues, as shown here for liver and fat, may play a role in the formation of the adult cardiometabolic risk profile following perinatal malnutrition in humans.

  8. Rescue of the spinal muscular atrophy phenotype in a mouse model by early postnatal delivery of SMN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Kevin D; Wang, Xueyong; McGovern, Vicki L; Braun, Lyndsey; Bevan, Adam K; Haidet, Amanda M; Le, Thanh T; Morales, Pablo R; Rich, Mark M; Burghes, Arthur H M; Kaspar, Brian K

    2010-03-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the most common autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease affecting children, results in impaired motor neuron function. Despite knowledge of the pathogenic role of decreased survival motor neuron (SMN) protein levels, efforts to increase SMN have not resulted in a treatment for patients. We recently demonstrated that self-complementary adeno-associated virus 9 (scAAV9) can infect approximately 60% of motor neurons when injected intravenously into neonatal mice. Here we use scAAV9-mediated postnatal day 1 vascular gene delivery to replace SMN in SMA pups and rescue motor function, neuromuscular physiology and life span. Treatment on postnatal day 5 results in partial correction, whereas postnatal day 10 treatment has little effect, suggesting a developmental period in which scAAV9 therapy has maximal benefit. Notably, we also show extensive scAAV9-mediated motor neuron transduction after injection into a newborn cynomolgus macaque. This demonstration that scAAV9 traverses the blood-brain barrier in a nonhuman primate emphasizes the clinical potential of scAAV9 gene therapy for SMA.

  9. The activation of cannabinoid receptors during early postnatal development reduces the expression of cell adhesion molecule L1 in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, María; Hernández, Mariluz; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier

    2007-05-11

    Cannabinoid CB(1) receptors and their ligands emerge early in brain development and are abundantly expressed in certain brain regions that play key roles in processes related to cell proliferation and migration, neuritic elongation and guidance, and synaptogenesis. This would support the notion that the cannabinoid system might play a modulatory role in the regulation of these processes. We have recently presented preliminary in vivo evidence showing that this modulatory action might be exerted, among others, through regulating the levels of several key elements in these processes, such as the L1 protein. This was observed in various white matter areas of the rat forebrain. Because these preliminary in vivo experiments focused only in fetal ages, we concentrated now in the period of early postnatal development. To this end, we analyzed the effects of the cannabinoid agonist Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) daily administered since the 5th day of gestation on mRNA levels for L1 in different brain structures of rat neonates at different postnatal ages (PND1, PND5 and PND12). Our results revealed that Delta(9)-THC exposure affected the levels of L1 transcripts in specific brain structures only in PND1, these effects disappearing during further days. Thus, we found reduced L1-mRNA levels in grey matter regions, such as the cerebral cortex, septum nuclei, striatum, dentate gyrus and CA3 subfield of the Ammon horn. White matter areas and subventricular zones were, however, more resistant to Delta(9)-THC exposure at this postnatal age in contrast with the previous data obtained in the fetal brain. Importantly, the effects were influenced by gender of animals, since the reductions were always more marked in females than males, also in contrast with the data reported for the fetal brain. In summary, the cannabinoid system seems to modulate the levels of L1 in several brain structures during specific periods of development [late gestation (previous data) and very

  10. Early postnatal maternal separation causes alterations in the expression of β3-adrenergic receptor in rat adipose tissue suggesting long-term influence on obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Takanori, E-mail: mikit@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Liu, Jun-Qian; Ohta, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Shingo [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Kusaka, Takashi [Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Warita, Katsuhiko [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Yokoyama, Toshifumi [Department of Bioresource and Agrobiosciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University (Japan); Jamal, Mostofa [Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Ueki, Masaaki [Department of Anesthesia, Nishiwaki Municipal Hospital (Japan); Yakura, Tomiko; Tamai, Motoki [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Sumitani, Kazunori [Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Hosomi, Naohisa [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutics, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (Japan); Takeuchi, Yoshiki [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •High-fat diet intake following maternal separation did not cause body weight gain. •However, levels of metabolism-related molecules in adipose tissue were altered. •Increased levels of prohibitin mRNA in white fat were observed. •Attenuated levels of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA were observed in brown fat. •Such alterations in adipose tissue may contribute to obesity later in life. -- Abstract: The effects of early postnatal maternal deprivation on the biological characteristics of the adipose tissue later in life were investigated in the present study. Sprague–Dawley rats were classified as either maternal deprivation (MD) or mother-reared control (MRC) groups. MD was achieved by separating the rat pups from their mothers for 3 h each day during the 10–15 postnatal days. mRNA levels of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR), and prohibitin (PHB) in the brown and white adipose tissue were determined using real-time RT-PCR analysis. UCP-1, which is mediated through β3-AR, is closely involved in the energy metabolism and expenditure. PHB is highly expressed in the proliferating tissues/cells. At 10 weeks of age, the body weight of the MRC and MD rats was similar. However, the levels of the key molecules in the adipose tissue were substantially altered. There was a significant increase in the expression of PHB mRNA in the white adipose tissue, while the β3-AR mRNA expression decreased significantly, and the UCP-1 mRNA expression remained unchanged in the brown adipose tissue. Given that these molecules influence the mitochondrial metabolism, our study indicates that early postnatal maternal deprivation can influence the fate of adipose tissue proliferation, presumably leading to obesity later in life.

  11. The Impact of the in utero and Early Postnatal Environments on Grey and White Matter Volume: A Study with Adolescent Monozygotic Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Melissa L; Fahim, Cherine; Ismaylova, Elmira; Verner, Marie-Pier; Casey, Kevin F; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E; Booij, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal and early postnatal adversities have been shown to be associated with brain development. However, we do not know how much of this association is confounded by genetics, nor whether the postnatal environment can moderate the impact of in utero adversity. This study used a monozygotic (MZ) twin design to assess (1) the association between birth weight (BW) and brain volume in adolescence, (2) the association between within-twin-pair BW discordance and brain volume discordance in adolescence, and (3) whether the association between BW and brain volume in adolescence is mediated or moderated by early negative maternal parenting behaviours. These associations were assessed in a sample of 108 MZ twins followed longitudinally since birth and scanned at age 15. The total grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes were obtained using the Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) toolbox in the Statistical Parametric Mapping version 8 (SPM8). We found that the BW was significantly associated with the total GM and WM volumes, particularly in the superior frontal gyrus and thalamus. Within-twin-pair discordance in BW was also significantly associated with within-pair discordance in both the GM and the WM volumes, supporting the hypothesis that the specific in utero environment is associated with brain development independently of genetics. Early maternal hostile parenting behaviours and depressive symptoms were associated with total GM volume but not WM volume. Finally, greater early maternal hostility may moderate the association between the BW and GM volume in adolescence, since the positive association between the BW and total GM volume appeared stronger at higher levels of maternal hostility (trend). Together, these findings support the importance of the in utero and early environments for brain development. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Prenatal Exposure to apoE Deficiency and Postnatal Hypercholesterolemia Are Associated with Altered Cell-Specific Lysine Methyltransferase and Histone Methylation Patterns in the Vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkemade, Fanneke E.; van Vliet, Patrick; Henneman, Peter; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Hierck, Beerend P.; van Munsteren, J. Conny; Scheerman, Joyce A.; Goeman, Jelle J.; Havekes, Louis M.; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.; van den Elsen, Peter J.; DeRuiter, Marco C.

    2010-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that neointima formation of adult heterozygous apolipoprotein E (apoE+/−) offspring from hypercholesterolemic apoE−/− mothers was significantly increased as compared with genetically identical apoE+/− offspring from normocholesterolemic wild-type mothers. Since atherosclerosis is the consequence of a complex microenvironment and local cellular interactions, the effects of in utero programming and type of postnatal diet on epigenetic histone modifications in the vasculature were studied in both groups of offspring. An immunohistochemical approach was used to detect cell-specific histone methylation modifications and expression of accompanying lysine methyltransferases in the carotid arteries. Differences in histone triple-methylation modifications in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells revealed that the offspring from apoE−/− mothers had significantly different responses to a high cholesterol diet when compared with offspring from wild-type mothers. Our results suggest that both in utero programming and postnatal hypercholesterolemia affect epigenetic patterning in the vasculature, thereby providing novel insights regarding initiation and progression of vascular disease in adults. PMID:20035052

  13. Early postnatal amylin treatment enhances hypothalamic leptin signaling and neural development in the selectively bred diet-induced obese rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Miranda D; Bouret, Sebastien G; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose A; Boyle, Christina N; Lutz, Thomas A; Levin, Barry E

    2016-12-01

    Selectively bred diet-induced obese (DIO) rats become obese on a high-fat diet and are leptin resistant before becoming obese. Compared with diet-resistant (DR) neonates, DIO neonates have impaired leptin-dependent arcuate (ARC) neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH; from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons) axon outgrowth to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Using phosphorylation of STAT3 (pSTAT3) as a surrogate, we show that reduced DIO ARC leptin signaling develops by postnatal day 7 (P7) and is reduced within POMC but not NPY/AgRP neurons. Since amylin increases leptin signaling in adult rats, we treated DIO neonates with amylin during postnatal hypothalamic development and assessed leptin signaling, leptin-dependent ARC-PVN pathway development, and metabolic changes. DIO neonates treated with amylin from P0-6 and from P0-16 increased ARC leptin signaling and both AgRP and α-MSH ARC-PVN pathway development, but increased only POMC neuron number. Despite ARC-PVN pathway correction, P0-16 amylin-induced reductions in body weight did not persist beyond treatment cessation. Since amylin enhances adult DIO ARC signaling via an IL-6-dependent mechanism, we assessed ARC-PVN pathway competency in IL-6 knockout mice and found that the AgRP, but not the α-MSH, ARC-PVN pathway was reduced. These results suggest that both leptin and amylin are important neurotrophic factors for the postnatal development of the ARC-PVN pathway. Amylin might act as a direct neurotrophic factor in DIO rats to enhance both the number of POMC neurons and their α-MSH ARC-PVN pathway development. This suggests important and selective roles for amylin during ARC hypothalamic development.

  14. Lifespan extension by dietary intervention in a mouse model of Cockayne syndrome uncouples early postnatal development from segmental progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, Lear E; Vose, Sarah C; Vargas, Dorathy F; Zhao, Shuangyun; Wang, Xiu-Ping; Mitchell, James R

    2013-12-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive segmental progeria characterized by growth failure, lipodystrophy, neurological abnormalities, and photosensitivity, but without skin cancer predisposition. Cockayne syndrome life expectancy ranges from 5 to 16 years for the two most severe forms (types II and I, respectively). Mouse models of CS have thus far been of limited value due to either very mild phenotypes, or premature death during postnatal development prior to weaning. The cause of death in severe CS models is unknown, but has been attributed to extremely rapid aging. Here, we found that providing mutant pups with soft food from as late as postnatal day 14 allowed survival past weaning with high penetrance independent of dietary macronutrient balance in a novel CS model (Csa(-/-) | Xpa(-/-)). Survival past weaning revealed a number of CS-like symptoms including small size, progressive loss of adiposity, and neurological symptoms, with a maximum lifespan of 19 weeks. Our results caution against interpretation of death before weaning as premature aging, and at the same time provide a valuable new tool for understanding mechanisms of progressive CS-related progeroid symptoms including lipodystrophy and neurodysfunction.

  15. Effects on transcriptional regulation and lipid droplet characteristics in the liver of female juvenile pigs after early postnatal feed restriction and refeeding are dependent on birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Nebendahl

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that caloric restriction in early postnatal life may improve liver lipid metabolism in low birth weight individuals. The present study investigated transcriptional and metabolic responses to low (U and normal (N birth weight (d 75, T1 and postnatal feed restriction (R, 60% of controls, d 98, T2 followed by subsequent refeeding until d 131 of age (T3. Liver tissue studies were performed with a total of 42 female pigs which were born by multiparous German landrace sows. Overall, 194 genes were differentially expressed in the liver of U vs. N (T1 animals with roles in lipid metabolism. The total mean area and number of lipid droplets (LD was about 4.6- and 3.7 times higher in U compared to N. In U, the mean LD size (µm(2 was 24.9% higher. 3-week feed restriction reduced total mean area of LDs by 58.3 and 72.7% in U and N, respectively. A functional role of the affected genes in amino acid metabolism was additionally indicated. This was reflected by a 17.0% higher arginine concentration in the liver of UR animals (vs. NR. To evaluate persistency of effects, analyses were also done after refeeding period at T3. Overall, 4 and 22 genes show persistent regulation in U and N animals after 5 weeks of refeeding, respectively. These genes are involved in e.g. processes of lipid and protein metabolism and glucose homeostasis. Moreover, the recovery of total mean LD area in U and N animals back to the previous T1 level was observed. However, when compared to controls, the mean LD size was still reduced by 23.3% in UR, whereas it was increased in NR (+24.7%. The present results suggest that short-term postnatal feed restriction period programmed juvenile U animals for an increased rate of hepatic lipolysis in later life.

  16. Effects on transcriptional regulation and lipid droplet characteristics in the liver of female juvenile pigs after early postnatal feed restriction and refeeding are dependent on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebendahl, Constance; Krüger, Ricarda; Görs, Solvig; Albrecht, Elke; Martens, Karen; Hennig, Steffen; Storm, Niels; Höppner, Wolfgang; Pfuhl, Ralf; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Hammon, Harald M; Metges, Cornelia C

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that caloric restriction in early postnatal life may improve liver lipid metabolism in low birth weight individuals. The present study investigated transcriptional and metabolic responses to low (U) and normal (N) birth weight (d 75, T1) and postnatal feed restriction (R, 60% of controls, d 98, T2) followed by subsequent refeeding until d 131 of age (T3). Liver tissue studies were performed with a total of 42 female pigs which were born by multiparous German landrace sows. Overall, 194 genes were differentially expressed in the liver of U vs. N (T1) animals with roles in lipid metabolism. The total mean area and number of lipid droplets (LD) was about 4.6- and 3.7 times higher in U compared to N. In U, the mean LD size (µm(2)) was 24.9% higher. 3-week feed restriction reduced total mean area of LDs by 58.3 and 72.7% in U and N, respectively. A functional role of the affected genes in amino acid metabolism was additionally indicated. This was reflected by a 17.0% higher arginine concentration in the liver of UR animals (vs. NR). To evaluate persistency of effects, analyses were also done after refeeding period at T3. Overall, 4 and 22 genes show persistent regulation in U and N animals after 5 weeks of refeeding, respectively. These genes are involved in e.g. processes of lipid and protein metabolism and glucose homeostasis. Moreover, the recovery of total mean LD area in U and N animals back to the previous T1 level was observed. However, when compared to controls, the mean LD size was still reduced by 23.3% in UR, whereas it was increased in NR (+24.7%). The present results suggest that short-term postnatal feed restriction period programmed juvenile U animals for an increased rate of hepatic lipolysis in later life.

  17. Syllabic Patterns in the Early Vocalizations of Quichua Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina E.; Davis, Barbara L.; Macneilage, Peter F.

    2013-01-01

    To understand the interactions between production patterns common to children regardless of language environment and the early appearance of production effects based on perceptual learning from the ambient language requires the study of languages with diverse phonological properties. Few studies have evaluated early phonological acquisition…

  18. Syllabic Patterns in the Early Vocalizations of Quichua Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina E.; Davis, Barbara L.; Macneilage, Peter F.

    2013-01-01

    To understand the interactions between production patterns common to children regardless of language environment and the early appearance of production effects based on perceptual learning from the ambient language requires the study of languages with diverse phonological properties. Few studies have evaluated early phonological acquisition…

  19. The role of auxin signaling in early embryo pattern formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Margot E.; Weijers, Dolf

    2015-01-01

    Pattern formation of the early Arabidopsis embryo generates precursors to all major cell types, and is profoundly controlled by the signaling molecule auxin. Here we discuss recent milestones in our understanding of auxin-dependent embryo patterning. Auxin biosynthesis, transport and response mec

  20. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA): a fast excitatory transmitter which may regulate the development of hippocampal neurones in early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Y; Tseeb, V; Raggozzino, D; Khazipov, R; Gaiarsa, J L

    1994-01-01

    The properties of neonatal GABAergic synapses were investigated in neurones of the hippocampal CA3 region. GABA, acting on GABAA receptors, provides most of the excitatory drive on immature CA3 pyramidal neurones at an early stage of development, whereas glutamatergic synapses (in particular, those mediated by AMPA receptors) are mostly quiescent. Thus, during the first postnatal week of life, bicuculline fully blocked spontaneous and evoked depolarising potentials, and GABAA receptor agonists depolarised CA3 pyramidal neurones. GABAA mediated currents also had a reduced sensitivity to benzodiazepines. In the presence of bicuculline, between P0 and P4, increasing the stimulus strength reveals an excitatory postsynaptic potential which is mostly mediated by NMDA receptors. During the same developmental period, pre- (but not post) synaptic GABAB inhibition is present. Intracellular injections of biocytin showed that the axonal network of the GABAergic interneurones is well developed at birth, whereas the pyramidal recurrent collaterals are only beginning to develop. Finally, chronic bicuculline treatment of hippocampal neurones in culture reduced the extent of neuritic arborisation, suggesting that GABA acts as a trophic factor in that period. In conclusion, it is suggested that during the first postnatal week of life, when excitatory inputs are still poorly developed, GABAA receptors provide the excitatory drive necessary for pyramidal cell outgrowth. Starting from the end of the first postnatal week of life, when excitatory inputs are well developed, GABA (acting on both GABAA and GABAB receptors) will hyperpolarise the CA3 pyramidal neurones and, as in the adult, will prevent excessive neuronal discharges. Our electrophysiological and morphological studies have shown that hippocampal GABAergic interneurones are in a unique position to modulate the development of CA3 pyramidal neurones. Developing neurones require a certain degree of membrane depolarisation, and a

  1. Selective underexpression of Kv3.2 and Kv3.4 channels in the cortex of rats exposed to ethanol during early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavian, Daniela; De Giorgio, Andrea; Granato, Alberto

    2011-08-01

    The expression of voltage-gated potassium channels belonging to the Kv3 family has been studied in the sensori-motor cortex of rats exposed to alcohol inhalation during the first postnatal week (P2-P6). The study was carried out using comparative RT-PCR. At P9, a significant reduction of the expression of Kv3.2 and Kv3.4 subunits occurred in alcohol-treated animals, as compared with controls. The expression of the Kv3.4a splicing variant, which is thought to be critically involved in the high-frequency firing of some cortical interneurons, was also correspondingly reduced. The downregulation of Kv3.2 and Kv3.4a subunits represented a long-lasting effect of alcohol exposure, since it was also observed in P24 animals. The expression of both Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 channels appeared to be not significantly affected by alcohol exposure. An increased susceptibility to apoptotic neuronal death after early postnatal exposure to ethanol was confirmed by the lower bcl-2/bax ratio observed in alcohol-treated animals. Although Kv3.4 subunits are thought to trigger apoptosis, the lack of upregulation in our model argues against their involvement in the mechanism leading to alcohol-induced apoptosis. The possible consequences of the selective downregulation of Kv3 subunits on the cortical function, as well as their relevance for the genesis of fetal alcohol effects, are discussed.

  2. TOTAL NUMBER: A BRIEF REVIEW OF ITS IMPORTANCE AND ITS USE IN ASSESSING CEREBELLAR DAMAGE IN THE RAT FOLLOWING EARLY POSTNATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth MA Napper

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the total number of structural components that make up the various neural networks within the central nervous system is fundamental to our understanding of its normal function and of dysfunction that may accompany injury and disease. This paper briefly reviews the methodology currently used to estimate number and discusses the importance of unbiased estimates of total number in determining changes in brain structure that may underlie dysfunction. An example from the olfactory bulb is used to demonstrate the potential invalidity of using estimates of total number of objects per single section. Exposure to alcohol during the early postnatal period results in motor dysfunction in adult rats. This paper presents data on the extent and magnitude of cell loss within the cerebellar network of the rat following alcohol exposure during postnatal days 4 to 9. High transient blood alcohol concentrations result in a Purkinje cell of 27% across the entire cerebellum but with regional variabiltiy, vermal lobule X has a 43% Purkinje cell deficit. This alcohol regimen also results in a neuronal loss of 28% and 25% within the deep cerebellar nucleus and inferior olivary nucleus respectively. Consistency of overall neuronal loss across diverse neuronal populations within the cerebellar network is discussed in the context of the maintenance of cerebellar connectivity.

  3. Early Morphology and Recurring Sound Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans; Lambertsen, Claus

    To enlighten the question how infants and toddlers come to grips with morphological patterns in a language whose sound structure presents great perceptual difficulties, we shall discuss aspects of our work on Danish children's acquisition of noun plurals, including results from The Danish CDI...... such measures. The analysis of the Danish morphological system used is purely sound-based (as against letter-based) and thereby deviates radically from standard accounts. The Danish (native) system of nominal pluralisation consists of the suffixes a-schwa and e-schwa, with or without accompanying stem changes...... (Basbøll 2005, Ravid et al. -schwa, with or without accompanying stem changes (Basbøll 2005, Ravid et al. 2008), as well as zero plurals (only very rarely with stem change). The two overt suffixes are the two neutral vowels in Danish, a category of paramount importance in Danish phonology: it is decisive...

  4. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

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    Xiaomei Cong

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, p< 0.05-0.01. Male infants were found to begin with a low α-diversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother's own breastmilk (MBM had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types

  5. Is gender difference in postnatal thyroid growth associated with specific expression patterns of androgen and estrogen receptors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jone A; Aruldhas, Michael M; Yuvaraju, Purushothaman B; Banu, Sakhila K; Anbalagan, Jaganathan; Neelamohan, Ramalingam; Annapoorna, Kannan; Jayaraman, Gopal

    2010-12-12

    Variations in sex steroids bioavailability were linked to the gender difference in the growth of thyroid glands of neonatal rats. In the present study we tested androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER) concentrations by ligand binding assay, and expression of their genes by RT-PCR and Western blot in the thyroid glands of neonatal rats. AR concentration remained elevated from postnatal day (PND) 10 onwards in males, whereas it decreased by PND 20 in females. AR mRNA and protein expressions were higher in males than females, which increased by PND 10, decreased after PND 15 and reached the nadir by PND 20. ER concentration increased by PND 10 and decreased thereafter in both sex. ERα mRNA expression diminished by PND 15 in both sex; while ERβ mRNA decreased by PND 15 to reach the nadir by PND 20 in males, it was augmented by PND 10 in females to reach the peak by PND 15 and diminished by PND 20. ERα protein expression increased by PND 10 and remained elevated till PND 20 in both sex. ERβ protein expression in males increased by PND 10 and decreased by PND 20, while it remained static up to PND 15 and decreased in females. Testosterone stimulated [(3)H]-thymidine uptake and the expression of IGF-1 and NIS genes in thyrocytes of both sex in vitro, while estradiol stimulated them in females but not in males. We conclude that androgens influence the growth and differentiation of thyrocytes through augmented expression of AR, IGF-1 and NIS in either sex, whereas estrogen imparts the gender difference, which may be at a level beyond the expression of ERs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Phyllotactic pattern formation in early stages of cactus ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta M. Gola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Representatives of the family Cactaceae are characterized by a wide range of phyllotaxis. To assess the origin of this diversity, early stages of phyllotactic pattern formation were examined in seedlings. The analysis of the sequence of areole initiation revealed intertribal differences. In seedlings from the Trichocereeae (Gymnocalycium, Rebutia and Notocacteae (Parodia tribes, two opposite cotyledonal areoles developed as the first elements of a pattern. Usually, next pair of areoles was initiated perpendicularly to cotyledonal areoles, starting the decussate pattern. This pattern was subsequently transformed into bijugate or into simple spiral phyllotaxis. In seedlings from the Cacteae tribe (Mammillaria and Thelocactus, cotyledonal areoles were never observed and the first areoles always appeared in the space between cotyledons. It was either areole pair (mainly in Mammillaria, starting a decussate pattern, or a single areole (mainly in Thelocactus quickly followed by areoles spirally arranged, usually in accordance with the main Fibonacci phyllotaxis. Differences in the initial stages of pattern formation do not fully explain the phyllotaxis diversity in mature cacti. Only two, the most common phyllotactic patterns occurred in the early development of studied seedlings, i.e. the main Fibonacci and the decussate pattern. Discrepancy in the range of phyllotactic spectra in seedlings and in mature plants suggests that phyllotaxis diversity emerges during further plant growth. Initial phyllotactic transformations, occurring already in the very early stages, indicate great plasticity of cactus growth and seem to support the hypothesis of the ontogenetic increase of phyllotaxis diversity due to transformations.

  7. Lactoferrin up-regulates intestinal gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factors BDNF, UCHL1 and alkaline phosphatase activity to alleviate early weaning diarrhea in postnatal piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changwei; Zhu, Xi; Liu, Ni; Chen, Yue; Gan, Hexia; Troy, Frederic A; Wang, Bing

    2014-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying how dietary lactoferrin (Lf) impacts gut development and maturation and protects against early weaning diarrhea are not well understood. In this study, we supplemented postnatal piglets with an Lf at a dose level of 155 and 285 mg/kg/day from 3 to 38 days following birth. Our findings show that the high dose of Lf up-regulated messenger RNA expression levels of genes encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (ubiquitin thiolesterase (UCHL1) and, to a lesser extent, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, in the duodenum (Pintestinal alkaline phosphatase activity (Pbrain-microbe axis that has not been previously reported.

  8. Subcutaneous blood flow in early male pattern baldness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemp, P.; Peters, K.; Hansted, B.

    1989-05-01

    The subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) was measured by the /sup 133/Xe washout method in the scalp of 14 patients with early male pattern baldness. Control experiments were performed in 14 normal haired men matched for age. The SBF in the scalp of the normal individuals was about 10 times higher than previously reported SBF values in other anatomical regions. In patients with early male pattern baldness, SBF was 2.6 times lower than the values found in the normal individuals (13.7 +/- 9.6 vs 35.7 +/- 10.5 ml/100 g/min-1). This difference was statistically significant (p much less than 0.001). A reduced nutritive blood flow to the hair follicles might be a significant event in the pathogenesis of early male pattern baldness.

  9. The effect of maternal undernutrition in early gestation on gestation length and fetal and postnatal growth in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleal, Jane K; Poore, Kirsten R; Newman, James P; Noakes, David E; Hanson, Mark A; Green, Lucy R

    2007-10-01

    In utero undernutrition in humans may result in cardiovascular (CV), metabolic, and growth adaptations. In sheep, maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy, without effects on fetal or birth weight, results in altered CV control in the offspring. Adjustment of gestation length after undernutrition could be a strategy to enhance postnatal health/survival. The aim of this study was to determine in sheep the effect of a 50% reduction in maternal nutrient intake [undernutrition group (U) versus 100%, control group (C)] during 1-31 d of gestation (dGA) on gestation length and offspring size. By 28 dGA, U ewes had gained less weight than C, and twin-bearing ewes had gained less weight than singleton-bearing ewes regardless of group (p<0.05). In different-sex twin pairs, maternal undernutrition resulted in longer gestation compared with C (146.5+/-0.6 versus 144.6+/-0.6 d, p<0.05). Increased weight gain by weaning (20.8+/-0.8 versus 17.9+/-0.8 kg, p<0.05) was observed in U male twins. These findings suggest that the strategy (i.e. growth rate or length of time in utero) adopted by the fetus to enhance immediate survival depends on offspring number and sex. This is likely to reflect the degree of constraint imposed on the fetus.

  10. Prenatal, but not early postnatal, exposure to a Western diet improves spatial memory of pigs later in life and is paired with changes in maternal prepartum blood lipid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clouard, Caroline; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Gerrits, Walter J.J.; Bartels, Andrea C.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity and perinatal high-fat diets are known to affect cognitive development. We examined the effects of late prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to a Western-type diet, high in both fat and refined sugar, on the cognition of pigs (Sus scrofa) in the absence of obesity. Thirty-six

  11. Patterns of early gut colonization shape future immune responses of the host.

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    Camilla Hartmann Friis Hansen

    Full Text Available The most important trigger for immune system development is the exposure to microbial components immediately after birth. Moreover, targeted manipulation of the microbiota can be used to change host susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases. Our aim was to analyze how differences in early gut colonization patterns change the composition of the resident microbiota and future immune system reactivity. Germ-free (GF mice were either inoculated by single oral gavage of caecal content or let colonized by co-housing with specific pathogen-free (SPF mice at different time points in the postnatal period. The microbiota composition was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for 16S rRNA gene followed by principal component analysis. Furthermore, immune functions and cytokine concentrations were analyzed using flow cytometry, ELISA or multiplex bead assay. We found that a single oral inoculation of GF mice at three weeks of age permanently changed the gut microbiota composition, which was not possible to achieve at one week of age. Interestingly, the ex-GF mice inoculated at three weeks of age were also the only mice with an increased pro-inflammatory immune response. In contrast, the composition of the gut microbiota of ex-GF mice that were co-housed with SPF mice at different time points was similar to the gut microbiota in the barrier maintained SPF mice. The existence of a short GF postnatal period permanently changed levels of systemic regulatory T cells, NK and NKT cells, and cytokine production. In conclusion, a time window exists that enables the artificial colonization of GF mice by a single oral dose of caecal content, which may modify the future immune phenotype of the host. Moreover, delayed microbial colonization of the gut causes permanent changes in the immune system.

  12. Significant long-term, but not short-term, hippocampal-dependent memory impairment in adult rats exposed to alcohol in early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H

    2014-09-01

    In rodents, ethanol exposure in early postnatal life is known to induce structural and functional impairments throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. Herein, rat pups were administered one of three ethanol doses over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy. As adults, control and ethanol rats were trained and tested in a variant of hippocampal-dependent one-trial context fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, subjects were placed into a novel context and presented with an immediate footshock (i.e., within ∼8 sec). When re-exposed to the same context 24 hr later low levels of conditioned freezing were observed. Context pre-exposure 24 hr prior to the immediate shock reversed the deficit in sham-intubated and unintubated control rats, enhancing freezing behavior during the context retention test. Even with context pre-exposure, however, significant dose-dependent reductions in contextual freezing were seen in ethanol rats. In Experiment 2, the interval between context pre-exposure and the immediate shock was shortened to 2 hr, in addition to the standard 24 hr. Ethanol rats trained with the 2 hr, but not 24 hr, interval displayed retention test freezing levels roughly equal to controls. Results suggest the ethanol rats can encode a short-term context memory and associate it with the aversive footshock 2 hr later. In the 24 hr ethanol rats the short-term context memory is poorly transferred or consolidated into long-term memory, we propose, impeding the memory's subsequent retrieval and association with shock.

  13. Up-regulation of the transient A-type K+ current (IA) in the differentiation of neural stem cells of the early postnatal rat hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hong-bo; HUANG Lian-yan; ZOU Yu-xi; ZOU Fei

    2010-01-01

    Background Neural stem cells (NSCs) not only are essential to cell replacement therapy and transplantation in clinical settings, but also provide a unique model for the research into neurogenesis and epigenesis. However, little attention has been paid to the electrophysiological characterization of NSC development. This work aimed to identify whether the morphological neuronal differentiation process in NSCs included changes in the electrophysiological properties of transient A-type K+ currents (IA).Methods NSCs were isolated from early postnatal rat hippocampus and were multiplied in basic serum-free medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor. Potassium currents were investigated and compared using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), respectively.Results Compared with NSC-derived neurons, cloned NSCs (cNSCs) had a more positive resting membrane potential, a higher input resistance, and a lower membrane capacitance. Part of cNSCs and NSC-derived neurons possessed both delayed-rectifier K+ currents (IDR) and IA, steady-state activation of IA in cNSCs (half-maximal activation at (21.34±4.37) mV) occurred at a more positive voltage than in NSC-derived neurons at 1-6 days in vitro (half-maximal activation at (12.85±4.19) mV).Conclusions Our research revealed a developmental up-regulation of the IA component during differentiation of postnatal NSCs. Together with the marked developmental up-regulation of IDR in vitro neuronal differentiation we have previously found, the voltage-gated potassium channels may participate in neuronal maturation process.

  14. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an adult cohort following prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; Killiany, Ronald J; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Aschengrau, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology. Brain imaging was performed on 26 exposed and 16 unexposed subjects. Scans were acquired on a Philips 3T whole body scanner using the ADNI T1-weighted MP-RAGE scan. The scans were processed by FreeSurfer version 4.3.1 software to obtain measurements of specific brain regions. There were no statistically significant differences between exposed and unexposed subjects on the measures of white matter hypointensities (β: 127.5mm(3), 95% CI: -259.1, 1514.0), white matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral white matter: β: 21230.0mm(3), 95% CI: -4512.6, 46971.7) or gray matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral gray matter: β: 11976.0mm(3), 95% CI: -13657.2, 37609.3). The results of this study suggest that exposure to PCE during gestation and early childhood, at the levels observed in this population, is not associated with alterations in the brain structures studied.

  15. Early postnatal hypotension is not associated with indicators of white matter damage or cerebral palsy in extremely low gestational age newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J W; O'Shea, T M; Allred, E N; Laughon, M M; Bose, C L; Dammann, O; Batton, D G; Kuban, K C; Paneth, N; Leviton, A

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate, in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs), relationships between indicators of early postnatal hypotension and cranial ultrasound indicators of cerebral white matter damage imaged in the nursery and cerebral palsy diagnoses at 24 months follow-up. The 1041 infants in this prospective study were born at treatment with a vasopressor; and (3) blood pressure lability, defined as the upper quartile of the difference between each infant's lowest and highest MAP. Outcomes included indicators of cerebral white matter damage, that is, moderate/severe ventriculomegaly or an echolucent lesion on cranial ultrasound and cerebral palsy diagnoses at 24 months gestation. Logistic regression was used to evaluate relationships among hypotension indicators and outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders. Twenty-one percent of surviving infants had a lowest blood pressure in the lowest quartile for gestational age, 24% were treated with vasopressors and 24% had labile blood pressure. Among infants with these hypotension indicators, 10% percent developed ventriculomegaly and 7% developed an echolucent lesion. At 24 months follow-up, 6% had developed quadriparesis, 4% diparesis and 2% hemiparesis. After adjusting for confounders, we found no association between indicators of hypotension, and indicators of cerebral white matter damage or a cerebral palsy diagnosis. The absence of an association between indicators of hypotension and cerebral white matter damage and or cerebral palsy suggests that early hypotension may not be important in the pathogenesis of brain injury in ELGANs.

  16. Neonatal immune activation during early and late postnatal brain development differently influences depression-related behaviors in adolescent and adult C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Majidi-Zolbanin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Immune challenge during early and late neonatal periods can induce robust alterations in physiological and behavioral functions, resulting in greater risk for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression, later in life. In addition, previous studies concluded that increasing age correlates with increased depression behaviors in humans and rodents. This study aimed to investigate for the first time whether immune challenge with a viral mimic, synthetic double-stranded ribonucleic acid (Poly I: C during different neonatal periods can differently affect depression-related behaviors in adolescent and adult mice. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with either saline or Poly I:C (1 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg on postnatal days (PND 3-5 (early neonatal phase or PND 14-16 (late neonatal phase, and then subjected to behavioral tests, including tail suspension test and forced swimming test, during adolescence (PND 35 or 40 and adulthood (PND 85 or 90. Results: The results demonstrated that early neonatal immune activation increases depression-related behaviors in both adolescent and adult mice, but late neonatal immune activation only increases depression in adult mice. In other words, these findings indicated that the nature of the offspring's neuropathology can depend on the severity of the insult, the pup's age at the time of the insult, and offspring age at the time of behavioral testing. Conclusion: These findings suggest that dose and timing of neonatal insult and offspring age may be important factors for evaluating neuropsychiatric disorders in adults who experienced early life infection.

  17. Expression patterns of insulin-like growth factor system members and their correlations with growth and carcass traits in Landrace and Lantang pigs during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zicong; Wu, Zhenfang; Ren, Guangcai; Zhao, Yunxiang; Liu, Dewu

    2013-05-01

    The IGF system plays important roles in growth. Nevertheless, few data have been reported so far on the expression of IGF system members and their relationship with growth in domestic animals, especially pigs. In this study, hepatic transcript level of IGF1, IGF2, IGF binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), IGFBP3 and IGF 1 receptor (IGF1R), plasma protein level of IGF1 and IGFBP3, and eight growth or carcass traits, including chest circumference, body length, body height (BH), body weight, carcass weight, loin muscle area (LMA), back fat thickness and average daily gain, were measured in fast-growing Landrace and slow-growing Lantang pigs at the age of 1, 27, 90, 150 and 180 days. The results showed that liver mRNA level of IGF1, IGF2 and IGF1R, and blood protein level of IGF1 have a similar developmental profile in both Landrace and Lantang pigs. Their levels were higher at the early age than that at other older ages. Hepatic transcript abundances of the two growth inhibitors, IGFBP2 and IGFBP3, were mostly higher in Lantang pigs than that in Landrace pigs, at 5 examined postnatal stages. The IGF system members' liver mRNA level and/or serum protein level have significant correlation with each other in different age of Landrace or Lantang pigs. Hepatic mRNA level or serum protein level of IGF system members also has significant correlation with investigated traits, especially with BH and LMA, in different age of Lantang or Landrace pigs. Our results revealed the change profiles of porcine IGF system members' liver transcript level and plasma protein level between different pig breeds and different postnatal developmental ages. Moreover, the correlation analysis results suggest that the IGF system members act coordinately to regulate the growth performance and carcass composition in pigs. The information obtained from the present study is important for elucidation of the regulatory mechanism of IGF system underlying growth, and for genetic improvement in pigs.

  18. Effect of dietary lipid structure in early postnatal life on mouse adipose tissue development and function in adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, Annemarie; van Vlies, Naomi; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; Ringler, Silvia; Verkade, Henkjan J.; van der Beek, Eline M.

    2014-01-01

    Obese individuals have more (hyperplastic) and larger (hypertrophic) adipocytes in their white adipose tissue (WAT) than normal-weight individuals. The difference in cell number emerges early in childhood, suggesting that this is a critical period for being susceptible to obesity. Breast-feeding has

  19. Effect of dietary lipid structure in early postnatal life on mouse adipose tissue development and function in adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, Annemarie; van Vlies, Naomi; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; Ringler, Silvia; Verkade, Henkjan J.; van der Beek, Eline M.

    2014-01-01

    Obese individuals have more (hyperplastic) and larger (hypertrophic) adipocytes in their white adipose tissue (WAT) than normal-weight individuals. The difference in cell number emerges early in childhood, suggesting that this is a critical period for being susceptible to obesity. Breast-feeding has

  20. Patterns of early gut colonization shape future immune responses of the host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Kverka, Miloslav

    2012-01-01

    colonization patterns change the composition of the resident microbiota and future immune system reactivity. Germ-free (GF) mice were either inoculated by single oral gavage of caecal content or let colonized by co-housing with specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice at different time points in the postnatal period...... of the gut microbiota of ex-GF mice that were co-housed with SPF mice at different time points was similar to the gut microbiota in the barrier maintained SPF mice. The existence of a short GF postnatal period permanently changed levels of systemic regulatory T cells, NK and NKT cells, and cytokine...

  1. Automated pipeline for atlas-based annotation of gene expresssion patterns: application to postnatal day 7 mouse brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, James P.; Ju, Tao; Bello, Musodiq; Thaller, Christina; Warren, Joe; Kakadiaris, Ioannis; Chiu, Wah; Eichele, Gregor

    2010-02-01

    Abstract As bio-medical images and volumes are being collected at an increasing speed, there is a growing demand for efficient means to organize spatial information for comparative analysis. In many scenarios, such as determining gene expression patterns by in situ hybridization, the images are collected from multiple subjects over a common anatomical region, such as the brain. A fundamental challenge in comparing spatial data from different images is how to account for the shape variations among subjects, which makes direct image-to-image comparison meaningless. In this paper, we describe subdivision meshes as a geometric means to efficiently organize 2D images and 3D volumes collected from different subjects for comparison. The key advantages of a subdivision mesh for this purpose are its light-weight geometric structure and its explicit modeling of anatomical boundaries, which enable efficient and accurate registration. The multi-resolution structure of a subdivision mesh also allows development of fast comparison algorithms among registered images and volumes.

  2. Determining the effects of early gestation in utero heat stress on postnatal fasting heat production and circulating biomarkers associated with metabolism in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study objective was to determine the effects of in utero heat stress (IUHS) on postnatal fasting heat production (FHP) in growing pigs. Based on our previous observation of increased postnatal core body temperature ‘set-point’ in IUHS pigs, we hypothesized that FHP would be greater during postna...

  3. An Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment: identifying young Australian Indigenous children's patterning skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papic, Marina

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment (EMPA) tool that provides early childhood educators with a valuable opportunity to identify young children's mathematical thinking and patterning skills through a series of hands-on and drawing tasks. EMPA was administered through one-to-one assessment interviews to children aged 4 to 5 years in the year prior to formal school. Two hundred and seventeen assessments indicated that the young low socioeconomic and predominantly Australian Indigenous children in the study group had varied patterning and counting skills. Three percent of the study group was able to consistently copy and draw an ABABAB pattern made with coloured blocks. Fifty percent could count to six by ones and count out six items with 4 % of the total group able to identify six items presented in regular formations without counting. The integration of patterning into early mathematics learning is critical to the abstraction of mathematical ideas and relationships and to the development of mathematical reasoning in young children. By using the insights into the children's thinking that the EMPA tool provides, early childhood educators can better inform mathematics teaching and learning and so help close the persistent gap in numeracy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children.

  4. The role of auxin signaling in early embryo pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Margot E; Weijers, Dolf

    2015-12-01

    Pattern formation of the early Arabidopsis embryo generates precursors to all major cell types, and is profoundly controlled by the signaling molecule auxin. Here we discuss recent milestones in our understanding of auxin-dependent embryo patterning. Auxin biosynthesis, transport and response mechanisms interact to generate local auxin accumulation in the early embryo. New auxin-dependent reporters help identifying these sites, while atomic structures of transcriptional response mediators help explain the diverse outputs of auxin signaling. Key auxin outputs are control of cell identity and cell division orientation, and progress has been made towards understanding the cellular basis of each. Importantly, a number of studies have combined computational modeling and experiments to analyze the developmental role, genetic circuitry and molecular mechanisms of auxin-dependent cell division control.

  5. Fetal and Early Post-Natal Mineralization of the Tympanic Bulla in Fin Whales May Reveal a Hitherto Undiscovered Evolutionary Trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Bruno; Podestà, Michela; Mazzariol, Sandro; Zotti, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the cetacean skeleton followed a path that differentiated this group from other terrestrial mammals about 50 million years ago [1], and debate is still going on about the relationships between Cetacea and Artiodactyla [2], [3], [4]. Some skeletal traits of the basilosaurids (the more advanced forms of Archaeocetes), such as the expansion of the peribullary air sinuses, dental modification and vertebral size uniformity [5] are maintained and further emphasized also in contemporary odontocetes and mysticetes. Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry here we report that the deposition of bone mineral in fetal and newborn specimens of the fin whale Balaenoptera physalus is remarkably higher in the bulla tympanica than in the adjacent basal skull or in the rest of the skeleton. Ossification of the tympanic bulla in fetal Artiodactyla (bovine, hippopotamus) is minimal, becomes sensible after birth and then progresses during growth, contrarily to the precocious mineralization that we observed in fin whales. Given the importance of the ear bones for the precise identification of phylogenetic relationship in therian evolution [6], this feature may indicate a specific evolutionary trait of fin whales and possibly other cetacean species or families. Early mineralization of the tympanic bulla allows immediate sound conduction in the aquatic medium and consequently holds potential importance for mother-calf relationship and postnatal survival. PMID:22615912

  6. Fetal and early post-natal mineralization of the tympanic bulla in fin whales may reveal a Hitherto undiscovered evolutionary trait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cozzi

    Full Text Available The evolution of the cetacean skeleton followed a path that differentiated this group from other terrestrial mammals about 50 million years ago [1], and debate is still going on about the relationships between Cetacea and Artiodactyla [2], [3], [4]. Some skeletal traits of the basilosaurids (the more advanced forms of Archaeocetes, such as the expansion of the peribullary air sinuses, dental modification and vertebral size uniformity [5] are maintained and further emphasized also in contemporary odontocetes and mysticetes. Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry here we report that the deposition of bone mineral in fetal and newborn specimens of the fin whale Balaenoptera physalus is remarkably higher in the bulla tympanica than in the adjacent basal skull or in the rest of the skeleton. Ossification of the tympanic bulla in fetal Artiodactyla (bovine, hippopotamus is minimal, becomes sensible after birth and then progresses during growth, contrarily to the precocious mineralization that we observed in fin whales. Given the importance of the ear bones for the precise identification of phylogenetic relationship in therian evolution [6], this feature may indicate a specific evolutionary trait of fin whales and possibly other cetacean species or families. Early mineralization of the tympanic bulla allows immediate sound conduction in the aquatic medium and consequently holds potential importance for mother-calf relationship and postnatal survival.

  7. Fetal and early post-natal mineralization of the tympanic bulla in fin whales may reveal a Hitherto undiscovered evolutionary trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Bruno; Podestà, Michela; Mazzariol, Sandro; Zotti, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the cetacean skeleton followed a path that differentiated this group from other terrestrial mammals about 50 million years ago [1], and debate is still going on about the relationships between Cetacea and Artiodactyla [2], [3], [4]. Some skeletal traits of the basilosaurids (the more advanced forms of Archaeocetes), such as the expansion of the peribullary air sinuses, dental modification and vertebral size uniformity [5] are maintained and further emphasized also in contemporary odontocetes and mysticetes. Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry here we report that the deposition of bone mineral in fetal and newborn specimens of the fin whale Balaenoptera physalus is remarkably higher in the bulla tympanica than in the adjacent basal skull or in the rest of the skeleton. Ossification of the tympanic bulla in fetal Artiodactyla (bovine, hippopotamus) is minimal, becomes sensible after birth and then progresses during growth, contrarily to the precocious mineralization that we observed in fin whales. Given the importance of the ear bones for the precise identification of phylogenetic relationship in therian evolution [6], this feature may indicate a specific evolutionary trait of fin whales and possibly other cetacean species or families. Early mineralization of the tympanic bulla allows immediate sound conduction in the aquatic medium and consequently holds potential importance for mother-calf relationship and postnatal survival.

  8. Histology Atlas of the Developing Mouse Hepatobiliary Hemolymphatic Vascular System with Emphasis on Embryonic Days 11.5-18.5 and Early Postnatal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartley, Olivia M; Foley, Julie F; Livingston, David P; Cullen, John M; Elmore, Susan A

    2016-07-01

    A critical event in embryo development is the proper formation of the vascular system, of which the hepatobiliary system plays a pivotal role. This has led researchers to use transgenic mice to identify the critical steps involved in developmental disorders associated with the hepatobiliary vascular system. Vascular development is dependent upon normal vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and the transformation of vessels into their adult counterparts. Any alteration in vascular development has the potential to cause deformities or embryonic death. Numerous publications describe specific stages of vascular development relating to various organs, but a single resource detailing the stage-by-stage development of the vasculature pertaining to the hepatobiliary system has not been available. This comprehensive histology atlas provides hematoxylin & eosin and immunohistochemical-stained sections of the developing mouse blood and lymphatic vasculature with emphasis on the hepatobiliary system between embryonic days (E) 11.5-18.5 and the early postnatal period. Additionally, this atlas includes a 3-dimensional video representation of the E18.5 mouse venous vasculature. One of the most noteworthy findings of this atlas is the identification of the portal sinus within the mouse, which has been erroneously misinterpreted as the ductus venosus in previous publications. Although the primary purpose of this atlas is to identify normal hepatobiliary vascular development, potential embryonic abnormalities are also described. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Plasma-Sprayed Titanium Patterns for Enhancing Early Cell Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunqi; Xie, Youtao; Pan, Houhua; Zheng, Xuebin; Huang, Liping; Ji, Fang; Li, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Titanium coating has been widely used as a biocompatible metal in biomedical applications. However, the early cell responses and long-term fixation of titanium implants are not satisfied. To obviate these defects, in this paper, micro-post arrays with various widths (150-1000 μm) and intervals (100-300 μm) were fabricated on the titanium substrate by template-assisted plasma spraying technology. In vitro cell culture experiments showed that MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited significantly higher osteogenic differentiation as well as slightly improved adhesion and proliferation on the micro-patterned coatings compared with the traditional one. The cell number on the pattern with 1000 µm width reached 130% after 6 days of incubation, and the expressions of osteopontin (OPN) as well as osteocalcin (OC) were doubled. No obvious difference was found in cell adhesion on various size patterns. The present micro-patterned coatings proposed a new modification method for the traditional plasma spraying technology to enhance the early cell responses and convenience for the bone in-growth.

  10. Immunosuppression in early postnatal days induces persistent and allergen-specific immune tolerance to asthma in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory condition with high morbidity, and effective treatments for asthma are limited. Allergen-specific immunotherapy can only induce peripheral immune tolerance and is not sustainable. Exploring new therapeutic strategies is of great clinical importance. Recombinant adenovirus (rAdV was used as a vector to make cells expressing cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4-immunoglobulin (CTLA4Ig a soluble CTLA4 immunoglobulin fusion protein. Dendritic cells (DCs were modified using the rAdVs together with allergens. Then these modified DCs were transplanted to mice before allergen sensitization. The persistence and specificity of immune tolerance were evaluated in mice challenged with asthma allergens at 3 and 7 months. DCs modified by CTLA4Ig showed increased IL-10 secretion, decreased IL-12 secretion, and T cell stimulation in vitro. Mice treated with these DCs in the early neonatal period developed tolerance against the allergens that were used to induce asthma in the adult stage. Asthma symptoms, lung damage, airway reactivity, and inflammatory response all improved. Humoral immunity indices showed that this therapeutic strategy strongly suppressed mice immune responses and was maintained for as long as 7 months. Furthermore, allergen cross-sensitization and challenge experiments demonstrated that this immune tolerance was allergen-specific. Treatment with CTLA4Ig modified DCs in the early neonatal period, inducing persistent and allergen-specific immune tolerance to asthma in adult mice. Our results suggest that it may be possible to develop a vaccine for asthma.

  11. Aliskiren administration during early postnatal life sex-specifically alleviates hypertension programmed by maternal high fructose consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal high fructose (HF intake induced renal programming and hypertension in male adult offspring. We examined whether maternal HF intake causes programmed hypertension and whether aliskiren administration confers protection against the process in a sex-specific manner, with a focus on the transcriptome changes in the kidney using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS technology and renin-angiotensin system (RAS. Methods: Pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented with 60% fructose throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were assigned to six groups: male control, male HF (MHF, MHF+Aliskiren, female control, female HF (FHF, and FHF+Aliskiren. Oral aliskiren 10 mg/kg/day was administered via gastric gavage between 2–4 weeks of age. Rats were sacrificed at 12 weeks of age. Results: Maternal HF intake induced programmed hypertension in 12-week-old offspring of both sexes. HF regulated renal transcriptome and RAS components in the offspring kidney in a sex-specific manner. Aliskiren administration prevented HF-induced programmed hypertension in both sexes of adult offspring. Aliskiren administration increased ACE2 and MAS protein levels in female kidneys exposed to maternal HF intake. Conclusion: Maternal HF induced programmed hypertension in both sexes of adult offspring, which was sex-specifically mitigated by early aliskiren administration. Better understanding of the sex-dependent mechanisms that underlie maternal HF-induced renal programming will help develop a novel sex-specific strategy to prevent programmed hypertension.

  12. Role of Insulinlike Growth Factor 1 in Fetal Development and in the Early Postnatal Life of Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Ann; Ley, David; Hansen-Pupp, Ingrid; Hallberg, Boubou; Ramenghi, Luca A; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Smith, Lois E H; Hård, Anna-Lena

    2016-09-01

    The neonatal period of very preterm infants is often characterized by a difficult adjustment to extrauterine life, with an inadequate nutrient supply and insufficient levels of growth factors, resulting in poor growth and a high morbidity rate. Long-term multisystem complications include cognitive, behavioral, and motor dysfunction as a result of brain damage as well as visual and hearing deficits and metabolic disorders that persist into adulthood. Insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a major regulator of fetal growth and development of most organs especially the central nervous system including the retina. Glucose metabolism in the developing brain is controlled by IGF-1 which also stimulates differentiation and prevents apoptosis. Serum concentrations of IGF-1 decrease to very low levels after very preterm birth and remain low for most of the perinatal development. Strong correlations have been found between low neonatal serum concentrations of IGF-1 and poor brain and retinal growth as well as poor general growth with multiorgan morbidities, such as intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that early supplementation with IGF-1 can improve growth in catabolic states and reduce brain injury after hypoxic/ischemic events. A multicenter phase II study is currently underway to determine whether intravenous replacement of human recombinant IGF-1 up to normal intrauterine serum concentrations can improve growth and development and reduce prematurity-associated morbidities.

  13. Pre- and early-postnatal nutrition modify gene and protein expressions of muscle energy metabolism markers and phospholipid fatty acid composition in a muscle type specific manner in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Lei; Kongsted, Alice; Ghoreishi, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    , these changes persisted into adulthood. No persistent expression changes were observed in BF and VSC. The HCHF diet increased phospholipid ratios of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in all muscles, even in adults fed identical diets for 1 1/2 years. In conclusion, early postnatal, but not late gestation......We previously reported that undernutrition in late fetal life reduced whole-body insulin sensitivity in adult sheep, irrespective of dietary exposure in early postnatal life. Skeletal muscle may play an important role in control of insulin action. We therefore studied a range of putative key muscle...... determinants of insulin signalling in two types of skeletal muscles (longissimus dorsi (LD) and biceps femoris (BF)) and in the cardiac muscle (ventriculus sinister cordis (VSC)) of sheep from the same experiment. Twin-bearing ewes were fed either 100% (NORM) or 50% (LOW) of their energy and protein...

  14. Using quality improvement methods to test and scale up a new national policy on early post-natal care in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twum-Danso, Nana Ay; Dasoberi, Ireneous N; Amenga-Etego, Isaac A; Adondiwo, Ane; Kanyoke, Ernest; Boadu, Richard O; Atinbire, Solomon; Balagumyetime, Phoebe; Bagni, Francisca; Kubio, Chrysanthus; Sagoe-Moses, Isabella; Barker, Pierre M

    2014-08-01

    The first week of life presents the greatest risk of dying for a young infant. Yet, due to the sociocultural, financial, geographical and health system barriers found in many resource-poor settings, infants do not access health care until much later. To reduce neonatal mortality, the Ghana Health Service proposed a new policy that promotes skilled care during the first week of life. We report the results of an initiative that uses quality improvement (QI) methods to test the feasibility and effectiveness of the new early post-natal care (PNC) policy and its subsequent scale-up throughout northern Ghana. Over a 10-month period, 30 networked QI teams from 27 rural health facilities developed and tested both facility-based and community-based changes to their processes of maternal and neonatal care. Coverage and outcome data were analysed using an interrupted time-series design. Over 24 months, early PNC increased from a mean of 15% to 71% for visits within the first 48 h, and from 0% to 53% for visits on Day 6 or 7. We observed a slower increase in skilled delivery (mean of 56% to 82%) over a longer period of time (35 months). Facility-based neonatal mortality remained unchanged: mean of 5.1 deaths per 1000 deliveries. Using the most effective change ideas developed in the 27 test facilities, the early PNC policy was scaled up over the subsequent 2 years to 576 health facilities in all 38 districts of northern Ghana. This initiative demonstrates the utility of a QI approach in testing, implementing and subsequent scaling up a national policy for early PNC in a resource-constrained setting. This approach provides a model for improving the implementation of other national health policies to accelerate the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Ghana and other resource-poor countries. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  15. Low birth weight activates the renin-angiotensin system, but limits cardiac angiogenesis in early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kimberley C W; Brooks, Doug A; Summers-Pearce, Brooke; Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Tosh, Darran N; Duffield, Jaime A; Botting, Kimberley J; Zhang, Song; Caroline McMillen, I; Morrison, Janna L

    2015-02-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of adult cardiovascular disease and this association may be partly a consequence of early programming of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We investigated the effects of LBW on expression of molecules in the RAS and cardiac tissue remodeling. Left ventricular samples were collected from the hearts of 21 days old lambs that were born average birth weight (ABW) and LBW. Cardiac mRNA expression was quantified using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression was quantified using Western blotting. DNA methylation and histone acetylation were assessed by combined bisulfite restriction analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation, respectively. There were increased plasma renin activity, angiotensin I (ANGI), and ANGII concentrations in LBW compared to ABW lambs at day 20. In LBW lambs, there was increased expression of cardiac ACE2 mRNA, decreased ANGII receptor type 1 (AT1R) protein, and acetylation of histone H3K9 of the AT1R promoter but no changes in AT1R mRNA expression and AT1R promoter DNA methylation. There was no difference in the abundance of proteins involved in autophagy or fibrosis. BIRC5 and VEGF mRNA expression was increased; however, the total length of the capillaries was decreased in the hearts of LBW lambs. Activation of the circulating and local cardiac RAS in neonatal LBW lambs may be expected to increase cardiac fibrosis, autophagy, and capillary length. However, we observed only a decrease in total capillary length, suggesting a dysregulation of the RAS in the heart of LBW lambs and this may have significant implications for heart health in later life. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  16. Low birth weight activates the renin–angiotensin system, but limits cardiac angiogenesis in early postnatal life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kimberley C W; Brooks, Doug A; Summers-Pearce, Brooke; Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Tosh, Darran N; Duffield, Jaime A; Botting, Kimberley J; Zhang, Song; Caroline McMillen, I; Morrison, Janna L

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of adult cardiovascular disease and this association may be partly a consequence of early programming of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS). We investigated the effects of LBW on expression of molecules in the RAS and cardiac tissue remodeling. Left ventricular samples were collected from the hearts of 21 days old lambs that were born average birth weight (ABW) and LBW. Cardiac mRNA expression was quantified using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression was quantified using Western blotting. DNA methylation and histone acetylation were assessed by combined bisulfite restriction analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation, respectively. There were increased plasma renin activity, angiotensin I (ANGI), and ANGII concentrations in LBW compared to ABW lambs at day 20. In LBW lambs, there was increased expression of cardiac ACE2 mRNA, decreased ANGII receptor type 1 (AT1R) protein, and acetylation of histone H3K9 of the AT1R promoter but no changes in AT1R mRNA expression and AT1R promoter DNA methylation. There was no difference in the abundance of proteins involved in autophagy or fibrosis. BIRC5 and VEGF mRNA expression was increased; however, the total length of the capillaries was decreased in the hearts of LBW lambs. Activation of the circulating and local cardiac RAS in neonatal LBW lambs may be expected to increase cardiac fibrosis, autophagy, and capillary length. However, we observed only a decrease in total capillary length, suggesting a dysregulation of the RAS in the heart of LBW lambs and this may have significant implications for heart health in later life. PMID:25649246

  17. Species differences in early patterning of the avian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Luke; Kuo, Eric; Martin, Arnaud; Monuki, Edwin S; Striedter, Georg

    2011-03-01

    The telencephalon is proportionately larger in parrots than in galliformes (chicken-like birds), whereas the midbrain tectum is proportionately smaller. We here test the hypothesis that the adult species difference in midbrain proportion is due to an evolutionary change in early brain patterning. In particular, we compare the size of the early embryonic midbrain between parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus) and bobwhite quail (Colinus virgianus) by examining the expression domains of transcription factors Pax6 and Gbx2, which are expressed in the forebrain and hindbrain, respectively. Because these expression domains form rostral and caudal borders with the presumptive midbrain when this region is specified (Hamburger-Hamilton stages 9-11), they allow us to measure and compare the sizes of a molecularly defined presumptive midbrain in the two species. Based on published data from older embryos, we predicted that the molecularly defined midbrain territory is significantly larger in quail than parakeets. Indeed, our data show that normalized midbrain length is 33% greater in quail and that the midbrain to forebrain ratio is 28% greater. This is strong evidence of a significant species difference in early brain patterning.

  18. Chemical Abundance Patterns and the Early Environment of Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Corlies, Lauren; Tumlinson, Jason; Bryan, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that abundance pattern differences exist between low metallicity stars in the Milky Way stellar halo and those in the dwarf satellite galaxies. This paper takes a first look at what role the early environment for pre-galactic star formation might have played in shaping these stellar populations. In particular, we consider whether differences in cross-pollution between the progenitors of the stellar halo and the satellites could help to explain the differences in abundance patterns. Using an N-body simulation, we find that the progenitor halos of the main halo are primarily clustered together at z=10 while the progenitors of the satellite galaxies remain on the outskirts of this cluster. Next, analytically modeled supernova-driven winds show that main halo progenitors cross-pollute each other more effectively while satellite galaxy progenitors remain more isolated. Thus, inhomogeneous cross-pollution as a result of different high-z spatial locations of each system's progenitors can ...

  19. Negative modulation of GABAA α5 receptors by RO4938581 attenuates discrete sub-chronic and early postnatal phencyclidine (PCP)-induced cognitive deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redrobe, John P; Elster, Lisbeth; Frederiksen, Kristen; Bundgaard, Christoffer; de Jong, Inge E M; Smith, Garrick P; Bruun, Anne Techau; Larsen, Peter H; Didriksen, Michael

    2012-06-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that negative modulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) GABA(A) α5 receptors may be a promising strategy for the treatment of certain facets of cognitive impairment; however, selective modulators of GABA(A) α5 receptors have not yet been tested in "schizophrenia-relevant" cognitive assay/model systems in animals. The objectives of this study were to investigate the potential of RO4938581, a negative modulator of GABA(A) α5 receptors, and to attenuate cognitive impairments induced following sub-chronic (sub-PCP) and early postnatal PCP (neo-PCP) administration in the novel object recognition (NOR) and intra-extradimensional shift (ID/ED) paradigms in rats. Complementary in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies were performed to confirm negative modulatory activity of RO4938581 and to investigate animal model validity, concept validity and potential side effect issues, respectively. In vitro studies confirmed the reported negative modulatory activity of RO4938581, whilst immunohistochemical analyses revealed significantly reduced parvalbumin-positive cells in the prefrontal cortex of sub-PCP- and neo-PCP-treated rats. RO4938581 (1 mg/kg) ameliorated both sub-PCP- and neo-PCP-induced cognitive deficits in NOR and ID/ED performance, respectively. In contrast, QH-II-066 (1 and 3 mg/kg), a GABA(A) α5 receptor positive modulator, impaired cognitive performance in the NOR task when administered to vehicle-treated animals. Additional studies revealed that both RO4938581 (1 mg/kg) and QH-II-066 (1 and 3 mg/kg) attenuated amphetamine-induced hyperactivity in rats. Taken together, these novel findings suggest that negative modulation of GABA(A) α5 receptors may represent an attractive treatment option for the cognitive impairments, and potentially positive symptoms, associated with schizophrenia.

  20. Understanding the information needs of women with rheumatoid arthritis concerning pregnancy, post-natal care and early parenting: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Ilana N; Jordan, Joanne E; Van Doornum, Sharon; Ricardo, Margaret; Briggs, Andrew M

    2015-08-19

    Although women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) face a number of challenges in negotiating the journey to parenthood, no studies have explored the information needs of women with RA in relation to their childbearing years. This study aimed to determine the need for (and preferred mode/s of delivery of) information regarding pregnancy, post-natal care and early parenting among women with RA. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 27 women with RA who were pregnant in the last 5 years, currently pregnant or planning pregnancy. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using both inductive and deductive approaches. Two validated instruments were used to quantify information needs and preferences: the Educational Needs Assessment Tool (ENAT, range 0-156, higher scores indicate higher educational needs) and the Autonomy Preference Index (API, range 0-100, higher scores indicate stronger preferences). Lack of information about medication safety, access to physical/emotional support services and practical strategies for coping with daily challenges related to parenting were the most prominent of the six key themes identified. Rheumatologists were the primary source for information regarding treatment decisions while arthritis consumer organisations were perceived as critical 'resource hubs'. There was strong preference for information delivered electronically, especially among rural participants. Quantitative outcomes supported the qualitative findings; on average, participants reported high educational needs (mean ENAT score 97.2, SD 30.8) and API scores indicated that desire for information (mean 89.8, SD 5.6) was greater than the need for involvement in treatment decision-making (mean 68.4, SD 8.2). Many women with RA struggle to find adequate information on pregnancy planning, pregnancy and early parenting in relation to their chronic condition, and there is a clear need to develop accessible information that is consumer-focused and evidence-based. Although most

  1. Unbiased cell quantification reveals a continued increase in the number of neocortical neurones during early post-natal development in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise; Krøigård, Thomas; Finsen, Bente

    2007-01-01

    was delayed until P16. The number of glia reached its maximum at P16, whereas the number of oligodendroglia, identified using a transgenic marker, increased until P55, the latest time of observation. Neurones continued to accumulate in the developing neocortex during the first 2 weeks of post......-natal development, underscoring fundamental differences in brain development in the mouse compared with human and non-human primates. Further, delayed acquisition of NeuN by neurones in the deepest neocortical layers and continued addition of oligodendroglia to the neocortex suggested that neocortical maturation...... the number of neurones and glia in the neocortex during post-natal development in two separate strains of mice. Cell counting by the optical fractionator revealed that the number of neurones increased 80-100% from the time of birth to post-natal day (P)16, followed by a reduction by approximately 25...

  2. Perchance to dream? Primordial motor activity patterns in vertebrates from fish to mammals: their prenatal origin, postnatal persistence during sleep, and pathological reemergence during REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Michael A; Schenck, Carlos H

    2015-12-01

    An overview is presented of the literature dealing with sleep-like motility and concomitant neuronal activity patterns throughout the life cycle in vertebrates, ectothermic as well as endothermic. Spontaneous, periodically modulated, neurogenic bursts of non-purposive movements are a universal feature of larval and prenatal behavior, which in endothermic animals (i.e. birds and mammals) continue to occur periodically throughout life. Since the entire body musculature is involved in ever-shifting combinations, it is proposed that these spontaneously active periods be designated as 'rapid-BODY-movement' (RBM) sleep. The term 'rapid-EYE-movement (REM) sleep', characterized by attenuated muscle contractions and reduced tonus, can then be reserved for sleep at later stages of development. Mature stages of development in which sustained muscle atonia is combined with 'paradoxical arousal' of cortical neuronal firing patterns indisputably represent the evolutionarily most recent aspect of REM sleep, but more research with ectothermic vertebrates, such as fish, amphibians and reptiles, is needed before it can be concluded (as many prematurely have) that RBM is absent in these species. Evidence suggests a link between RBM sleep in early development and the clinical condition known as 'REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD)', which is characterized by the resurgence of periodic bouts of quasi-fetal motility that closely resemble RBM sleep. Early developmental neuromotor risk factors for RBD in humans also point to a relationship between RBM sleep and RBD.

  3. Prevalence of Brugada-type ECG pattern and early ventricular repolarization pattern in Tunisian athletes

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    Ouali S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sana Ouali1, Helmi Ben Salem1, Sami Hammas1, Elyes Neffeti1, Fahmi Remedi1, Abdallah Mahdhaoui2, Essia Boughzela1, Rafik Mankai31Department of Cardiology, Sahloul Hospital, Sousse, Tunisia; 2Department of Cardiology, Farhat Hached, Sousse, Tunisia; 3Central Sports Medicine Centre of El Menzah, TunisiaIntroduction: No data regarding the prevalence of the Brugada-type electrocardiogram (ECG pattern and the early ventricular repolarization pattern (ERP in the North African population were available. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of Brugada-type ECG pattern and ERP in Tunisia and to evaluate ECG descriptors of ventricular repolarization in a population of athletes.Methods: Over a 2-year period, resting 12-lead ECG recordings were analyzed from athletes (n = 540; 348 males; age 18.3 ± 2.4 years. Brugada-type ECG pattern was defined as Type 1, 2, or 3, and ERP was characterized by an elevation of the J point in the inferior and/or lateral leads. The population was divided into three groups of athletes: ERP group; Brugada-type ECG pattern group; and control group, with neither ERP nor Brugada ECG pattern. Clinical and electrocardiographic parameters were compared among the study groups.Results: Nine subjects (1.66% had a Brugada-type ECG pattern. None of them had the coved-type, 3 (0.6% had the Type 2, and 6 (1.1% had the Type 3. All subjects were asymptomatic. A Brugada-type ECG pattern was observed in seven males. No female had the Type 2 Brugada ECG pattern. ECG parameters were similar among Brugada-type ECG pattern and control athletes. ERP (119 subjects, 22% was obtained in 98 males. Heart rate was lower, the QRS duration shorter and QT and Tpeak–Tend intervals were longer in ERP than control groups.Conclusion: The results indicate that the frequency of the Brugada-type ECG pattern and ERP were respectively 1.66% and 22.00% in athletes, being more prevalent in males. The ERP group experienced shorter QRS duration and

  4. Universal HIV screening at postnatal points of care: which public health approach for early infant diagnosis in Cote d'Ivoire?

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    Camille Ndondoki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Universal HIV pediatric screening offered at postnatal points of care (PPOC is an entry point for early infant diagnosis (EID. We assessed the parents' acceptability of this approach in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, trained counselors offered systematic HIV screening to all children aged 6-26 weeks attending PPOC in three community health centers with existing access to HAART during 2008, as well as their parents/caregivers. HIV-testing acceptability was measured for parents and children; rapid HIV tests were used for parents. Both parents' consent was required according to the Ivorian Ethical Committee to perform a HIV test on HIV-exposed children. Free HIV care was offered to those who were diagnosed HIV-infected. FINDINGS: We provided 3,013 HIV tests for infants and their 2,986 mothers. While 1,731 mothers (58% accepted the principle of EID, only 447 infants had formal parental consent 15%; 95% confidence interval (CI: [14%-16%]. Overall, 1,817 mothers (61% accepted to test for HIV, of whom 81 were HIV-infected (4.5%; 95% CI: [3.5%-5.4%]. Among the 81 HIV-exposed children, 42 (52% had provided parental consent and were tested: five were HIV-infected (11.9%; 95% CI: [2.1%-21.7%]. Only 46 fathers (2% came to diagnose their child. Parental acceptance of EID was strongly correlated with prenatal self-reported HIV status: HIV-infected mothers were six times more likely to provide EID parental acceptance than mothers reporting unknown or negative prenatal HIV status (aOR: 5.9; 95% CI: [3.3-10.6], p = 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Although the principle of EID was moderately accepted by mothers, fathers' acceptance rate remained very low. Routine HIV screening of all infants was inefficient for EID at a community level in Abidjan in 2008. Our results suggest the need of focusing on increasing the PMTCT coverage, involving fathers and tracing children issued from PMTCT programs in low HIV prevalence countries.

  5. Ultrastructure of stomatal development in early-divergent angiosperms reveals contrasting patterning and pre-patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudall, Paula J; Knowles, Emma V W

    2013-10-01

    Angiosperm stomata consistently possess a pair of guard cells, but differ between taxa in the patterning and developmental origin of neighbour cells. Developmental studies of phylogenetically pivotal taxa are essential as comparative yardsticks for understanding the evolution of stomatal development. We present a novel ultrastructural study of developing stomata in leaves of Amborella (Amborellales), Nymphaea and Cabomba (Nymphaeales), and Austrobaileya and Schisandra (Austrobaileyales), representing the three earliest-divergent lineages of extant angiosperms (the ANITA-grade). Alternative developmental pathways occur in early-divergent angiosperms, resulting partly from differences in pre-patterning and partly from the presence or absence of highly polarized (asymmetric) mitoses in the stomatal cell lineage. Amplifying divisions are absent from ANITA-grade taxa, indicating that ostensible similarities with the stomatal patterning of Arabidopsis are superficial. In Amborella, 'squared' pre-patterning occurs in intercostal regions, with groups of four protodermal cells typically arranged in a rectangle; most guard-mother cells are formed by asymmetric division of a precursor cell (the mesoperigenous condition) and are typically triangular or trapezoidal. In contrast, water-lily stomata are always perigenous (lacking asymmetric divisions). Austrobaileya has occasional 'giant' stomata. Similar mature stomatal phenotypes can result from contrasting morphogenetic factors, although the results suggest that paracytic stomata are invariably the product of at least one asymmetric division. Loss of asymmetric divisions in stomatal development could be a significant factor in land plant evolution, with implications for the diversity of key structural and physiological pathways.

  6. Pre- and early-postnatal nutrition modify gene and protein expressions of muscle energy metabolism markers and phospholipid Fatty Acid composition in a muscle type specific manner in sheep.

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    Lei Hou

    Full Text Available We previously reported that undernutrition in late fetal life reduced whole-body insulin sensitivity in adult sheep, irrespective of dietary exposure in early postnatal life. Skeletal muscle may play an important role in control of insulin action. We therefore studied a range of putative key muscle determinants of insulin signalling in two types of skeletal muscles (longissimus dorsi (LD and biceps femoris (BF and in the cardiac muscle (ventriculus sinister cordis (VSC of sheep from the same experiment. Twin-bearing ewes were fed either 100% (NORM or 50% (LOW of their energy and protein requirements during the last trimester of gestation. From day-3 postpartum to 6-months of age (around puberty, twin offspring received a high-carbohydrate-high-fat (HCHF or a moderate-conventional (CONV diet, whereafter all males were slaughtered. Females were subsequently raised on a moderate diet and slaughtered at 2-years of age (young adults. The only long-term consequences of fetal undernutrition observed in adult offspring were lower expressions of the insulin responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1α (PGC1α mRNA in BF, but increased PGC1α expression in VSC. Interestingly, the HCHF diet in early postnatal life was associated with somewhat paradoxically increased expressions in LD of a range of genes (but not proteins related to glucose uptake, insulin signalling and fatty acid oxidation. Except for fatty acid oxidation genes, these changes persisted into adulthood. No persistent expression changes were observed in BF and VSC. The HCHF diet increased phospholipid ratios of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in all muscles, even in adults fed identical diets for 1½ years. In conclusion, early postnatal, but not late gestation, nutrition had long-term consequences for a number of determinants of insulin action and metabolism in LD. Tissues other than muscle may account for reduced

  7. Maternal consumption of a DHA-containing functional food benefits infant sleep patterning: an early neurodevelopmental measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Michelle P; Cong, Xiaomei; Harel, Ofer; Courville, Amber B; Lammi-Keefe, Carol J

    2012-07-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) is highly important during pregnancy for optimal development and functioning of fetal neural tissue. Infant ability to organize sleep and wake states following parturition is highly associated with later developmental outcomes. The impact of maternal DHA intake on sleep organization has not been previously investigated. To examine the effect of a DHA-containing functional food consumed during pregnancy on early neurobehavioral development as assessed by infant sleep patterning in the first 48 postnatal hours. A longitudinal, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design was used. Women (18-35 y) with no pregnancy complications consumed a cereal-based functional food (92 kcal) containing 300 mg DHA an average of 5 d/week or placebo bars (n=27 DHA, n=21 Placebo). The intervention began at 24 weeks gestation and continued until delivery (38-40 weeks). Infant sleep/wake states were measured on postnatal days 1 (D1) and 2 (D2) using a pressure sensitive mattress recording respiration and body movements. Using ANCOVA and controlling for ethnic variation, there were significant group differences in arousals in quiet sleep on D1 (P=0.006) and D2 (P=0.011) with fewer arousals in the DHA intervention group compared to the placebo group. Similarly, arousals in active sleep on D1 were significantly lower in the DHA-intervention group (P=0.012) compared to the placebo group. We conclude that increased prenatal supply of dietary DHA has a beneficial impact on infant sleep organization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 早期咖啡因暴露对成年小鼠苦味适应的影响%The Influence of Bitter Adaptation in Adulthood Induced by Early Postnatal Exposure to Caffeine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斯斯; 李伟丽; 李国梁; 陈梦玲; 张根华

    2013-01-01

    咖啡因是一种典型的苦味刺激物,常作为一种心理刺激药物被广泛应用.通常而言,人们对咖啡因的感知是厌恶的,但这种感知可以被后天的经历所影响.我们的实验结果表明,在小鼠出生后早期阶段对其进行慢性咖啡因暴露,可以影响其成年阶段对咖啡因的感知模式,并提高其对咖啡因的厌恶阈值,即早期咖啡因暴露使成年小鼠对咖啡因的苦味适应性增强.%Caffeine is a prototypic bitter stimulus and is consumed as psychoactive stimulant widely. Customarily, people present aversion to caffeine. But the taste preferences can be affected by postnatal experience. Our research indicates that chronic administration of caffeine for mice at early developmental stage may influence the adult caffeine sensory. According to the behavioral test, we observed that the avoid thresholds for caffeine had been increased. Early postnatal exposure to caffeine increases the bitter adaptation in adulthood of ICR mice.

  9. Early postnatal handling and environmental enrichment improve the behavioral responses of 17-month-old 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic mice in the Forced Swim Test in a gender-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Lista, Virginia; Giménez-Llort, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    Forced Swimming Test (FST) models behavioural despair in animals by loss of motivation to respond or the refusal to escape. The present study was aimed at characterizing genetic (genotype and gender) and environmental factors (age/stage of disease and rearing conditions: C, standard; H, early postnatal handling; EE, environmental enrichment consisting in physical exercise as well as social and object enrichment) that may modulate the poor behavioural and cognitive flexibility response we have recently described in 12-month-old male 3xTg-AD mice in the FST. The comprehensive analysis of the ethogram shown in the FST considered the intervals of the test (0-2 and 2-6min), all the elicited behavioural responses (immobility, swimming and climbing) and their features (total duration and frequency of episodes). The long persistence of behaviours found in 17-month-old (late-stages of disease) 3xTg-AD mice was comparable to that recently described in males at 12 months of age (beginning of advanced stages) but also suggested increased age-dependent frailty in both genotypes. The poor behavioral flexibility of 3xTg-AD mice to elicit the behavioural despair shown by the NTg mice, was also found in the female gender. Finally, the present work demonstrates that early-life interventions were able to improve the time and frequency of episodes of immobility, being more evident in the female gender of both old NTg and 3xTg-AD mice. Ontogenic modulation by early-postnatal handling resulted in a more effective long-term improvement of the elicited behaviours in the FST than that achieved by environmental enrichment. The results talk in favor of the beneficence of early-life interventions on ageing in both healthy and disease conditions.

  10. Deletion of Munc18-1 in 5-HT Neurons Results in Rapid Degeneration of the 5-HT System and Early Postnatal Lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudok, Jacobus J.; Groffen, Alexander J. A.; Toonen, Ruud F. T.; Verhage, Matthijs

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) system densely innervates many brain areas and is important for proper brain development. To specifically ablate the 5-HT system we generated mutant mice carrying a floxed Munc18-1 gene and Cre recombinase driven by the 5-HT-specific serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) promoter. The majority of mutant mice died within a few days after birth. Immunohistochemical analysis of brains of these mice showed that initially 5-HT neurons are formed and the cortex is innervated with 5-HT projections. From embryonic day 16 onwards, however, 5-HT neurons started to degenerate and at postnatal day 2 hardly any 5-HT projections were present in the cortex. The 5-HT system of mice heterozygous for the floxed Munc18-1 allele was indistinguishable from control mice. These data show that deletion of Munc18-1 in 5-HT neurons results in rapid degeneration of the 5-HT system and suggests that the 5-HT system is important for postnatal survival. PMID:22140524

  11. Deletion of Munc18-1 in 5-HT neurons results in rapid degeneration of the 5-HT system and early postnatal lethality.

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    Jacobus J Dudok

    Full Text Available The serotonin (5-HT system densely innervates many brain areas and is important for proper brain development. To specifically ablate the 5-HT system we generated mutant mice carrying a floxed Munc18-1 gene and Cre recombinase driven by the 5-HT-specific serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT promoter. The majority of mutant mice died within a few days after birth. Immunohistochemical analysis of brains of these mice showed that initially 5-HT neurons are formed and the cortex is innervated with 5-HT projections. From embryonic day 16 onwards, however, 5-HT neurons started to degenerate and at postnatal day 2 hardly any 5-HT projections were present in the cortex. The 5-HT system of mice heterozygous for the floxed Munc18-1 allele was indistinguishable from control mice. These data show that deletion of Munc18-1 in 5-HT neurons results in rapid degeneration of the 5-HT system and suggests that the 5-HT system is important for postnatal survival.

  12. Dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium during the early postnatal period accelerates skeletal muscle fibre growth and maturity in intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Su, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Hua, Lun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Caimei; Zhang, Ruinan; Zhou, Pan; Shen, Yong; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De

    2016-04-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7-28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (Pgrowth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (Pmuscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets.

  13. Early life migration patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohtla, M; Vetemaa, M; Urtson, K; Soesoo, A

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the movement patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius in Matsalu Bay, Estonia, using otolith microchemistry. Migration patterns of E. lucius were remarkably diverse, but distinct groups were evident. Of the E. lucius analysed (n = 28), 82% hatched in fresh water and 74% of them left this biotope during the first growth season.

  14. Postnatal Cardiovascular Adaptation

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    Ferda Ozlu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetus depends on placental circulation in utero. A successful transition from intrauterin to extrauterine life depends on succesful physiological changes during labor. During delivery, fetus transfers from a liquid environment where oxygen comes via umbilical vein to air environement where oxygenation is supported via air breathing. Endocrinological changes are important for fetus to adapt to extrauterine life. In addition to these, cord clemping plays a crucial role in postnatal adaptation. Establishment of neonatal postnatal life and succesful overcome, the fetal cardiovascular transition period are important to stay on. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(2.000: 181-190

  15. Time-lapse imaging reveals symmetric neurogenic cell division of GFAP-expressing progenitors for expansion of postnatal dentate granule neurons.

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    Takashi Namba

    Full Text Available Granule cells in the hippocampus, a region critical for memory and learning, are generated mainly during the early postnatal period but neurogenesis continues in adulthood. Postnatal neuronal production is carried out by primary progenitors that express glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and they are assumed to function as stem cells. A central question regarding postnatal dentate neurogenesis is how astrocyte-like progenitors produce neurons. To reveal cell division patterns and the process of neuronal differentiation of astrocyte-like neural progenitors, we performed time-lapse imaging in cultured hippocampal slices from early postnatal transgenic mice with mouse GFAP promoter-controlled enhanced green fluorescent protein (mGFAP-eGFP Tg mice in combination with a retrovirus carrying a red fluorescent protein gene. Our results showed that the majority of GFAP-eGFP+ progenitor cells that express GFAP, Sox2 and nestin divided symmetrically to produce pairs of GFAP+ cells (45% or pairs of neuron-committed cells (45%, whereas a minority divided asymmetrically to generate GFAP+ cells and neuron-committed cells (10%. The present results suggest that a substantial number of GFAP-expressing progenitors functions as transient amplifying progenitors, at least in an early postnatal dentate gyrus, although a small population appears to be stem cell-like progenitors. From the present data, we discuss possible cell division patterns of adult GFAP+ progenitors.

  16. Time-lapse imaging reveals symmetric neurogenic cell division of GFAP-expressing progenitors for expansion of postnatal dentate granule neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Takashi; Mochizuki, Hideki; Suzuki, Ryusuke; Onodera, Masafumi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Namiki, Hideo; Shioda, Seiji; Seki, Tatsunori

    2011-01-01

    Granule cells in the hippocampus, a region critical for memory and learning, are generated mainly during the early postnatal period but neurogenesis continues in adulthood. Postnatal neuronal production is carried out by primary progenitors that express glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and they are assumed to function as stem cells. A central question regarding postnatal dentate neurogenesis is how astrocyte-like progenitors produce neurons. To reveal cell division patterns and the process of neuronal differentiation of astrocyte-like neural progenitors, we performed time-lapse imaging in cultured hippocampal slices from early postnatal transgenic mice with mouse GFAP promoter-controlled enhanced green fluorescent protein (mGFAP-eGFP Tg mice) in combination with a retrovirus carrying a red fluorescent protein gene. Our results showed that the majority of GFAP-eGFP+ progenitor cells that express GFAP, Sox2 and nestin divided symmetrically to produce pairs of GFAP+ cells (45%) or pairs of neuron-committed cells (45%), whereas a minority divided asymmetrically to generate GFAP+ cells and neuron-committed cells (10%). The present results suggest that a substantial number of GFAP-expressing progenitors functions as transient amplifying progenitors, at least in an early postnatal dentate gyrus, although a small population appears to be stem cell-like progenitors. From the present data, we discuss possible cell division patterns of adult GFAP+ progenitors.

  17. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolite profiles of neonatal rat hippocampus and brainstem regions following early postnatal exposure to intermittent hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnall, Robert A.; Chen, Xi; Nemani, Krishnamurthy V.; Sirieix, Chrystelle M.; Gimi, Barjor

    2017-03-01

    Most premature infants born at less than 30 weeks gestation are exposed to periods of mild intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with apnea of prematurity and periodic breathing. In adults, IH associated with sleep apnea causes neurochemical and structural alterations in the brain. However, it is unknown whether IH in the premature infant leads to neurodevelopmental impairment. Quantification of biochemical markers that can precisely identify infants at risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome is essential. In vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) facilitates the quantification of metabolites from distinct regions of the developing brain. We report the changes in metabolite profiles in the brainstem and hippocampal regions of developing rat brains, resulting from exposure to IH. Rat pups were chosen for study because there is rapid postnatal hippocampal development that occurs during the first 4 weeks in the developing rat brain, which corresponds to the first 2-3 postnatal years of development in humans. The brainstem was examined because of our interest in respiratory control disorders in the newborn and because of brainstem gliosis described in infants who succumb to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Metabolite profiles were compared between hypoxia treated rat pups (n = 9) and normoxic controls (n = 6). Metabolite profiles were acquired using the Point-RESolved spectroscopy (PRESS) MRS sequence and were quantified using the TARQUIN software. There was a significant difference in the concentrations of creatine (p = 0.031), total creatine (creatine + phosphocreatine) (p = 0.028), and total choline (p = 0.001) in the brainstem, and glycine (p = 0.031) in the hippocampal region. The changes are consistent with altered cellular bioenergetics and metabolism associated with hypoxic insult.

  18. Postnatal Testosterone Concentrations and Male Social Development

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    Gerianne M Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Converging evidence from over 40 years of behavioral research indicates that higher testicular androgens in prenatal life and at puberty contribute to the masculinization of human behavior. However, the behavioral significance of the transient activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis in early postnatal life remains largely unknown. Although early research on nonhuman primates indicated suppression of the postnatal surge in testicular androgens had no measurable effects on the later expression of the male behavioral phenotype, recent research from our laboratory suggests that postnatal testosterone concentrations influence male infant preferences for larger social groups and temperament characteristics associated with the later development of aggression. In later assessment of gender-linked behavior in the second year of life, concentrations of testosterone at 3-4 months of age were unrelated to toy choices and activity levels during toy play. However, higher concentrations of testosterone predicted less vocalization in toddlers and higher parental ratings on an established screening measure for autism spectrum disorder. These findings suggest a role of the transient activation of the HPG axis in the development of typical and atypical male social relations and suggest that it may be useful in future research on the exaggerated rise in testosterone secretion in preterm infants or exposure to hormone disruptors in early postnatal life to include assessment of gender-relevant behavioral outcomes, including childhood disorders with sex-biased prevalence rates.

  19. Between postnationality and postcoloniality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chenchen

    2014-01-01

    This paper brings together the project of human rights and that of the European Union under examination vis-à-vis the rights of non-citizens, and in particular the rights of undocumented migrants. In so doing, it attempts to grasp the tension between the postnational articulations of membership, ...

  20. Patterns of postnatal ontogeny of the skull and lower jaw of snakes as revealed by micro-CT scan data and three-dimensional geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palci, Alessandro; Lee, Michael S Y; Hutchinson, Mark N

    2016-12-01

    We compared the head skeleton (skull and lower jaw) of juvenile and adult specimens of five snake species [Anilios (=Ramphotyphlops) bicolor, Cylindrophis ruffus, Aspidites melanocephalus, Acrochordus arafurae, and Notechis scutatus] and two lizard outgroups (Ctenophorus decresii, Varanus gilleni). All major ontogenetic changes observed were documented both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative comparisons were based on high-resolution micro-CT scanning of the specimens, and detailed quantitative analyses were performed using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Two sets of landmarks were used, one for accurate representation of the intraspecific transformations of each skull and jaw configuration, and the other for comparison between taxa. Our results document the ontogenetic elaboration of crests and processes for muscle attachment (especially for cervical and adductor muscles); negative allometry in the braincase of all taxa; approximately isometric growth of the snout of all taxa except Varanus and Anilios (positively allometric); and positive allometry in the quadrates of the macrostomatan snakes Aspidites, Acrochordus and Notechis, but also, surprisingly, in the iguanian lizard Ctenophorus. Ontogenetic trajectories from principal component analysis provide evidence for paedomorphosis in Anilios and peramorphosis in Acrochordus. Some primitive (lizard-like) features are described for the first time in the juvenile Cylindrophis. Two distinct developmental trajectories for the achievement of the macrostomatan (large-gaped) condition in adult snakes are documented, driven either by positive allometry of supratemporal and quadrate (in pythons), or of quadrate alone (in sampled caenophidians); this is consistent with hypothesised homoplasy in this adaptive complex. Certain traits (e.g. shape of coronoid process, marginal tooth counts) are more stable throughout postnatal ontogeny than others (e.g. basisphenoid keel), with implications for their

  1. Pre- and early-postnatal nutrition modify gene and protein expressions of muscle energy metabolism markers and phospholipid fatty acid composition in a muscle type specific manner in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Lei; Kongsted, Alice; Ghoreishi, S. M.;

    2013-01-01

    requirements during the last trimester of gestation. From day-3 postpartum to 6-months of age (around puberty), twin offspring received a high-carbohydrate-high-fat (HCHF) or a moderate-conventional (CONV) diet, whereafter all males were slaughtered. Females were subsequently raised on a moderate diet...... determinants of insulin signalling in two types of skeletal muscles (longissimus dorsi (LD) and biceps femoris (BF)) and in the cardiac muscle (ventriculus sinister cordis (VSC)) of sheep from the same experiment. Twin-bearing ewes were fed either 100% (NORM) or 50% (LOW) of their energy and protein......, but increased PGC1a expression in VSC. Interestingly, the HCHF diet in early postnatal life was associated with somewhat paradoxically increased expressions in LD of a range of genes (but not proteins) related to glucose uptake, insulin signalling and fatty acid oxidation. Except for fatty acid oxidation genes...

  2. 出生后早期营养过度导致成年期胰岛素抵抗%Early postnatal overnutrition results in insulin resistance in adulthood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贝斐; 蔡威

    2014-01-01

    出生后早期是生长发育的关键期,如营养过度会导致成年期持续性和永久性的体重过重/肥胖和胰岛素抵抗等代谢综合征表现,胰岛素作用的重要靶器官如肝脏、脂肪组织、骨骼肌和中枢神经系统均可出现胰岛素抵抗.涉及的主要机制包括胰岛素信号通路异常、游离脂肪酸和部分脂肪因子分泌增加、氧化应激、摄食/厌食神经调节失衡、下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺轴/糖皮质激素调节失常以及表观遗传的作用等.建议出生后早期避免营养过度,以减少成年期胰岛素抵抗发生的危险.%Overnutrition during the early postnatal life,a critical time window for growth and development,may induce metabolic syndrome later in life,including overweight/obesity and insulin resistance.The important target organs of insulin,such as liver,adipose tissue,skeletal muscle,and central nervous systems show insulin resistance.The involved mechanisms include abnormality of insulin signal pathway,increment of free fatty acid and some adipocytokines,oxidative stress,maladjustment of orexigenic and anorexigenic neuron,modifications of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal glucocorticoid axis as well as epigenetic,etc.Hence,overnutrition should be avoided during the early postnatal life,so as to decrease the risk of developing long-term insulin resistance.

  3. The expression pattern and inhibitory influence of Tenascin-C on the growth of spiral ganglion neurons suggest a regulatory role as boundary formation molecule in the postnatal mouse inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowska, M; Reinhard, J; Roll, L; Kraft, N; Dazert, S; Faissner, A; Volkenstein, S

    2016-04-05

    Sensorineural hearing loss, as a consequence of acoustic trauma, aging, genetic defects or ototoxic drugs, is highly associated with irreversible damage of cochlear hair cells (HCs) and secondary degeneration of spiral ganglion (SG) cells. Cochlear implants (CIs), which bypass the lost HC function by direct electrical stimulation of the remaining auditory neurons, offer an effective therapy option. Several studies imply that components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have a great impact on the adhesion and growth of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) during development. Based on these findings, ECM proteins might act as bioactive CI substrates to optimize the electrode-nerve interface and to improve efficacy of these implants. In the present study, we focused on the ECM glycoproteins Tenascin-C (TN-C), Laminin (LN), and Fibronectin (FN), which show a prominent expression along the growth route of SGNs and the niche around HCs during murine postnatal development in vivo. We compared their influence on adhesion, neurite length, and neurite number of SGNs in vitro. Moreover, we studied the expression of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) dermatan sulfate-dependent proteoglycan-1 (DSD-1-PG), an interaction partner of TN-C. In sum, our in vitro data suggest that TN-C acts as an anti-adhesive and inhibitory factor for the growth of SGNs. The DSD-1 carbohydrate epitope is specifically localized to HC stereocilia and SG fibers. Interestingly, TN-C and the DSD-1-PG exhibit a mutually exclusive expression pattern, with the exception of a very restricted region beneath the habenula perforata, where SG neurites grow through the basilar membrane (BM) toward the HCs. The complementary expression of TN-C, LN, FN, and the DSD-1 epitope suggests that TN-C may act as an important boundary formation molecule in the developing postnatal mouse inner ear, which makes it a promising candidate to regulate neurite outgrowth in the light of CIs.

  4. Contraceptive Patterns of College Students Who Experienced Early Coitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Murray L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A study investigated the coital behavior, contraceptive use, and attitudes of 20-year-old male and female college students who experienced sexual intercourse early in adolescence (at 16 or younger) as contrasted to those who experienced coitus in late adolescence. Results indicate that older adolescents were more likely to use contraceptives and,…

  5. Overweight patterns throughout childhood and cardiometabolic markers in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N. E.; van Rossem, L.; Gehring, U.; Koppelman, G. H.; Postma, D. S.; de Jongste, J. C.; Smit, H. A.; Wijga, A. H.

    BACKGROUND: Risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease is higher in adults who were relatively thin at birth and had subsequent accelerated weight gain. This specific pattern of weight gain may relate to unfavorable cardiometabolic markers already in childhood. We prospectively assessed whether

  6. The independent role of prenatal and postnatal exposure to active and passive smoking on the development of early wheeze in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, C I; Hohmann, C; Patelarou, E; Martinez, D; Henderson, A J; Granell, R; Sunyer, J; Torrent, M; Fantini, M P; Gori, D; Annesi-Maesano, I; Slama, R; Duijts, L; de Jongste, J C; Aurrekoetxea, J J; Basterrechea, M; Morales, E; Ballester, F; Murcia, M; Thijs, C; Mommers, M; Kuehni, C E; Gaillard, E A; Tischer, C; Heinrich, J; Pizzi, C; Zugna, D; Gehring, U; Wijga, A; Chatzi, L; Vassilaki, M; Bergström, A; Eller, E; Lau, S; Keil, T; Nieuwenhuijsen, M; Kogevinas, M

    2016-07-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases childhood asthma risk, but health effects in children of nonsmoking mothers passively exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy are unclear. We examined the association of maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and wheeze in children aged ≤2 years.Individual data of 27 993 mother-child pairs from 15 European birth cohorts were combined in pooled analyses taking into consideration potential confounders.Children with maternal exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy and no other smoking exposure were more likely to develop wheeze up to the age of 2 years (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20) compared with unexposed children. Risk of wheeze was further increased by children's postnatal passive smoke exposure in addition to their mothers' passive exposure during pregnancy (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.19-1.40) and highest in children with both sources of passive exposure and mothers who smoked actively during pregnancy (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.59-1.88). Risk of wheeze associated with tobacco smoke exposure was higher in children with an allergic versus nonallergic family history.Maternal passive smoking exposure during pregnancy is an independent risk factor for wheeze in children up to the age of 2 years. Pregnant females should avoid active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke for the benefit of their children's health.

  7. Wnt signaling activates Shh signaling in early postnatal intervertebral discs, and re-activates Shh signaling in old discs in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Tamara; Mahoney, Eric J; Sinner, Debora; Wylie, Christopher C; Dahia, Chitra Lekha

    2014-01-01

    Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are strong fibrocartilaginous joints that connect adjacent vertebrae of the spine. As discs age they become prone to failure, with neurological consequences that are often severe. Surgical repair of discs treats the result of the disease, which affects as many as one in seven people, rather than its cause. An ideal solution would be to repair degenerating discs using the mechanisms of their normal differentiation. However, these mechanisms are poorly understood. Using the mouse as a model, we previously showed that Shh signaling produced by nucleus pulposus cells activates the expression of differentiation markers, and cell proliferation, in the postnatal IVD. In the present study, we show that canonical Wnt signaling is required for the expression of Shh signaling targets in the IVD. We also show that Shh and canonical Wnt signaling pathways are down-regulated in adult IVDs. Furthermore, this down-regulation is reversible, since re-activation of the Wnt or Shh pathways in older discs can re-activate molecular markers of the IVD that are lost with age. These data suggest that biological treatments targeting Wnt and Shh signaling pathways may be feasible as a therapeutic for degenerative disc disease.

  8. Metabolic trajectories based on 1H NMR spectra of urines from sheep exposed to nutritional challenges during prenatal and early postnatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Nils; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.

    2010-01-01

    1H NMR metabolic profiles of urine from sheep exposed to prenatal nutritional restriction (n = 19) and a control group with normal prenatal nutritional requirements (n = 19), followed by either conventional (n = 10 + 10) or high carbohydrate high fat postnatal diet (n = 9 + 9), were studied. Urine...... was sampled from 2, 6, 19 and 24-month-old animals receiving differential dietary treatments during the first 6 months and the same normal diet later. Principal component analysis of 1H NMR spectra (n = 164) showed a V-shaped metabolic trajectory as a function of age and diet, starting with urines with a high...... amount of glucose, indicative of monogastric-like metabolism, and exhibiting concomitant increase of metabolites related to rumen microflora (mainly glycine conjugates of benzoic and phenylacetic acid) as the ruminal metabolism developed. Urines from young (2-month-old) animals exposed to prenatal...

  9. Developmental Profile, Morphology, and Synaptic Connectivity of Cajal-Retzius Cells in the Postnatal Mouse Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstötz, Max; Huang, Hao; Marchionni, Ivan; Haumann, Iris; Maccaferri, Gianmaria; Lübke, Joachim H R

    2016-02-01

    Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells are early generated neurons, involved in the assembly of developing neocortical and hippocampal circuits. However, their roles in networks of the postnatal brain remain poorly understood. In order to get insights into these latter functions, we have studied their morphological and synaptic properties in the postnatal hippocampus of the CXCR4-EGFP mouse, where CR cells are easily identifiable. Our data indicate that CR cells are nonuniformly distributed along different subfields of the hippocampal formation, and that their postnatal decline is regulated in a region-specific manner. In fact, CR cells persist in distinct areas of fully mature animals. Subclasses of CR cells project and target either local (molecular layers) or distant regions [subicular complex and entorhinal cortex (EC)] of the hippocampal formation, but have similar firing patterns. Lastly, CR cells are biased toward targeting dendritic shafts compared with spines, and produce large-amplitude glutamatergic unitary postsynaptic potentials on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) containing interneurons. Taken together, our results suggest that CR cells are involved in a novel excitatory loop of the postnatal hippocampal formation, which potentially contributes to shaping the flow of information between the hippocampus, parahippocampal regions and entorhinal cortex, and to the low seizure threshold of these brain areas.

  10. Differentiation of expression proifles of two calcineurin subunit genes in chicken skeletal muscles during early postnatal growth depending on anatomical location of muscles and breed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Yan-ju; XU Wen-juan; SHU Jing-ting; ZHANG Ming; SONG Wei-tao; TAO Zhi-yun; ZHU Chun-hong; LI Hui-fang

    2016-01-01

    Calcineurin (Cn or CaN) is implicated in the control of skeletal muscle ifber phenotype and hypertrophy. However, little information is available concerning the expression of Cn in chickens. In the present study, the expression of two Cn subunit genes (CnAα andCnB1) was quantiifed by qPCR in the lateral gastrocnemius (LG, mainly composing of red fast-twitch myoifbers), the soleus (mainly composing of red slow-twitch myoifbers) and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL, mainly composing of white fast-twitch myoifbers) from Qingyuan partridge chickens (QY, slow-growing chicken breed) and Recessive White chickens (RW, fast-growing chicken breed) on different days (1, 8, 22, 36, 50 and 64 days post-hatching). Although CnAα andCnB1 gene expressions were variable with different trends in different skeletal muscles in the two chicken breeds during postnatal growth, it is highly muscle phenotype and breed speciifc. In general, the levels ofCnAαandCnB1gene expressions of the soleus were lower than those of EDL and LG in both chicken breeds at the same stages. Compared be-tween the two chicken breeds, the levels ofCnAα gene expression of the three skeletal muscles in QY chickens were higher than those in RW chickens on days 1 and 22. However, on day 64, the levels of bothCnAα andCnB1 gene expressions of the three skeletal muscles were lower in QY chickens than those in RW chickens. Correlation analysis of the levels of CnAα andCnB1 gene expressions of the same skeletal muscle showed that there were positive correlations for al three skeletal muscle tissues in two chicken breeds. These results provide some valuable clues to understand the role of Cn in the development of chicken skeletal muscles, with a function that may be related to meat quality.

  11. Over half the hair cells in the mouse utricle first appear after birth, with significant numbers originating from early postnatal mitotic production in peripheral and striolar growth zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph C; On, Doan; Baker, Wendy; Collado, M Sol; Corwin, Jeffrey T

    2012-10-01

    Many non-mammalian vertebrates produce hair cells throughout life and recover from hearing and balance deficits through regeneration. In contrast, embryonic production of hair cells declines sharply in mammals where deficits from hair cell losses are typically permanent. Hair cell density estimates recently suggested that the vestibular organs of mice continue to add hair cells after birth, so we undertook comprehensive counting in murine utricles at different ages. The counts show that 51% of the hair cells in adults arise during the 2 weeks after birth. Immature hair cells are most common near the neonatal macula's peripheral edge and striola, where anti-Ki-67 labels cycling nuclei in zones that appear to contain niches for supporting-cell-like stem cells. In vivo lineage tracing in a novel reporter mouse where tamoxifen-inducible supporting cell-specific Cre expression switched tdTomato fluorescence to eGFP fluorescence showed that proteolipid-protein-1-expressing supporting cells are an important source of the new hair cells. To assess the contributions of postnatal cell divisions, we gave mice an injection of BrdU or EdU on the day of birth. The labels were restricted to supporting cells 1 day later, but by 12 days, 31% of the labeled nuclei were in myosin-VIIA-positive hair cells. Thus, hair cell populations in neonatal mouse utricles grow appreciably through two processes: the progressive differentiation of cells generated before birth and the differentiation of new cells arising from divisions of progenitors that progress through S phase soon after birth. Subsequent declines in these processes coincide with maturational changes that appear unique to mammalian supporting cells.

  12. Early stage hot spot analysis through standard cell base random pattern generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Joong-Won; Song, Jaewan; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Park, Seongyul; Yang, Seung-Hune; Lee, Sooryong; Kang, Hokyu; Madkour, Kareem; ElManhawy, Wael; Lee, SeungJo; Kwan, Joe

    2017-04-01

    Due to limited availability of DRC clean patterns during the process and RET recipe development, OPC recipes are not tested with high pattern coverage. Various kinds of pattern can help OPC engineer to detect sensitive patterns to lithographic effects. Random pattern generation is needed to secure robust OPC recipe. However, simple random patterns without considering real product layout style can't cover patterning hotspot in production levels. It is not effective to use them for OPC optimization thus it is important to generate random patterns similar to real product patterns. This paper presents a strategy for generating random patterns based on design architecture information and preventing hotspot in early process development stage through a tool called Layout Schema Generator (LSG). Using LSG, we generate standard cell based on random patterns reflecting real design cell structure - fin pitch, gate pitch and cell height. The output standard cells from LSG are applied to an analysis methodology to assess their hotspot severity by assigning a score according to their optical image parameters - NILS, MEEF, %PV band and thus potential hotspots can be defined by determining their ranking. This flow is demonstrated on Samsung 7nm technology optimizing OPC recipe and early enough in the process avoiding using problematic patterns.

  13. Intracardiac flow patterns in early embryonic life. A reexamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, H; Manasek, F; Arcilla, R A

    1983-09-01

    Microangiography, using methylene blue injected at eight vitelline vein sites, was performed on 156 developing chick embryos at Hamburger-Hamilton stages 14-22. Two stream patterns were observed. Type A coursed sequentially through the dorsal portion of the sinus venosus, the cranial segments of the primitive atrium and atrioventricular canal, the ventral parts of the primitive ventricle and conus cordis, and, finally, the left branchial arches. Type B coursed through the ventral portion of the sinus venosus, the caudal segments of the primitive atrium and atrioventricular canal, the dorsal parts of the primitive ventricle and conus cordis, and, finally, the right branchial arches. Both streams flowed in parallel fashion in the conus cordis. At Hamburger-Hamilton stages 17-18, the dye stream from the right lateral vitelline vein was chiefly type A, whereas that from the left lateral vitelline vein was type B. At Hamburger-Hamilton stages 19-22, those patterns reversed, i.e., the right lateral vitelline vein stream ran as type B, whereas the left lateral vitelline vein stream assumed type A pattern. The cranial-caudal relationship of the two streams at the primitive atrium and atrioventricular canal is not consistent with the hypothesis that these streams separately expand the future right atrium and left atrium. Their parallel direction at the conus cordis does not support the theory that spiral septation is initiated by two spiral streams. The longitudinal separation of the two streams at and beyond the branchial arches also argues against aortico-pulmonary septation as a consequence of flow streaming. Our observations do not support the traditional flow-molding theory.

  14. Gait pattern in the early recovery period after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Quervain, I A; Simon, S R; Leurgans, S; Pease, W S; McAllister, D

    1996-10-01

    The gait patterns of eighteen patients who had had a single infarct due to obstruction of the middle cerebral artery were evaluated within one week after the patients had resumed independent walking and before a gait rehabilitation program had been initiated. Gait was analyzed with use of motion analysis, force-plate recordings, and dynamic surface electromyographic studies of the muscles of the lower extremities. The patterns of motion of the lower extremity on the hemiplegic side had a stronger association with the clinical severity of muscle weakness than with the degree of spasticity, balance control, or phasic muscle activity. There was a delay in the initiation of flexion of the hip during the pre-swing phase, and flexion of the hip and knee as well as dorsiflexion of the ankle progressed only slightly during the swing phase. During the stance phase, there was decreased extension of the hip that was related to decreased muscle effort and a coupling between flexion of the knee and dorsiflexion of the ankle. The abnormal patterns of motion altered the velocity, the length of the stride, the cadence, and all phases of the gait cycle. The duration of the pre-swing phase was prolonged for the patients who had the slowest gait velocities. There also were abnormal movements of the upper extremity, the trunk, the pelvis, and the lower extremity on the unaffected side in an effort to compensate for the decreased velocity on the hemiplegic side. As velocity improved, these abnormal movements decreased. Therefore, the goal of therapy should be to improve muscle strength and coordination on the hemiplegic side, especially during the pre-swing phase.

  15. Mining disease risk patterns from nationwide clinical databases for the assessment of early rheumatoid arthritis risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chu Yu; Weng, Meng Yu; Lin, Tzu Chieh; Cheng, Shyr Yuan; Yang, Yea Huei Kao; Tseng, Vincent S

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune rheumatic disease that can cause painful swelling in the joint lining, morning stiffness, and joint deformation/destruction. These symptoms decrease both quality of life and life expectancy. However, if RA can be diagnosed in the early stages, it can be controlled with pharmacotherapy. Although many studies have examined the possibility of early assessment and diagnosis, few have considered the relationship between significant risk factors and the early assessment of RA. In this paper, we present a novel framework for early RA assessment that utilizes data preprocessing, risk pattern mining, validation, and analysis. Under our proposed framework, two risk patterns can be discovered. Type I refers to well-known risk patterns that have been identified by existing studies, whereas Type II denotes unknown relationship risk patterns that have rarely or never been reported in the literature. These Type II patterns are very valuable in supporting novel hypotheses in clinical trials of RA, and constitute the main contribution of this work. To ensure the robustness of our experimental evaluation, we use a nationwide clinical database containing information on 1,314 RA-diagnosed patients over a 12-year follow-up period (1997-2008) and 965,279 non-RA patients. Our proposed framework is employed on this large-scale population-based dataset, and is shown to effectively discover rich RA risk patterns. These patterns may assist physicians in patient assessment, and enhance opportunities for early detection of RA. The proposed framework is broadly applicable to the mining of risk patterns for major disease assessments. This enables the identification of early risk patterns that are significantly associated with a target disease.

  16. Dorsoventral patterning in hemichordates: insights into early chordate evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Lowe

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We have compared the dorsoventral development of hemichordates and chordates to deduce the organization of their common ancestor, and hence to identify the evolutionary modifications of the chordate body axis after the lineages split. In the hemichordate embryo, genes encoding bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp 2/4 and 5/8, as well as several genes for modulators of Bmp activity, are expressed in a thin stripe of ectoderm on one midline, historically called "dorsal." On the opposite midline, the genes encoding Chordin and Anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein (Admp are expressed. Thus, we find a Bmp-Chordin developmental axis preceding and underlying the anatomical dorsoventral axis of hemichordates, adding to the evidence from Drosophila and chordates that this axis may be at least as ancient as the first bilateral animals. Numerous genes encoding transcription factors and signaling ligands are expressed in the three germ layers of hemichordate embryos in distinct dorsoventral domains, such as pox neuro, pituitary homeobox, distalless, and tbx2/3 on the Bmp side and netrin, mnx, mox, and single-minded on the Chordin-Admp side. When we expose the embryo to excess Bmp protein, or when we deplete endogenous Bmp by small interfering RNA injections, these expression domains expand or contract, reflecting their activation or repression by Bmp, and the embryos develop as dorsalized or ventralized limit forms. Dorsoventral patterning is independent of anterior/posterior patterning, as in Drosophila but not chordates. Unlike both chordates and Drosophila, neural gene expression in hemichordates is not repressed by high Bmp levels, consistent with their development of a diffuse rather than centralized nervous system. We suggest that the common ancestor of hemichordates and chordates did not use its Bmp-Chordin axis to segregate epidermal and neural ectoderm but to pattern many other dorsoventral aspects of the germ layers, including neural cell fates

  17. Detection of gene expression pattern in the early stage after spinal cord injury by gene chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成龙; 靳安民; 童斌辉

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of the gene expression pattern of spinal cord tissues in the early stage after injury by DNA microarray (gene chip). Methods: The contusion model of rat spinal cord was established according to Allen's falling strike method and the gene expression patterns of normal and injured spinal cord tissues were studied by gene chip. Results: The expression of 45 genes was significantly changed in the early stage after spinal cord injury, in which 22 genes up-regulated and 23 genes down-regulated. Conclusions: The expression of some genes changes significantly in the early stage after spinal cord injury, which indicates the complexity of secondary spinal cord injury.

  18. Acquisition of English word stress patterns in early and late bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guion, Susan G.

    2004-05-01

    Given early acquisition of prosodic knowledge as demonstrated by infants' sensitivity to native language accentual patterns, the question of whether learners can acquire new prosodic patterns across the life span arises. Acquisition of English stress by early and late Spanish-English and Korean-English bilinguals was investigated. In a production task, two-syllable nonwords were produced in noun and verb sentence frames. In a perception task, preference for first or last syllable stress on the nonwords was indicated. Also, real words that were phonologically similar to the nonwords were collected. Logistic regression analyses and ANOVAs were conducted to determine the effect of three factors (syllable structure, lexical class, and stress patterns of phonologically similar words) on the production and perception responses. In all three groups, stress patterns of phonologically similar real words predicted stress on nonwords. For the two other factors, early bilinguals patterned similarly to the native-English participants. Late Spanish-English bilinguals demonstrated less learning of stress patterns based on syllabic structure, and late Korean-English bilinguals demonstrated less learning of stress patterns based on lexical class than native-English speakers. Thus, compared to native speakers, late bilinguals' ability to abstract stress patterns is reduced and affected by the first language. [Work supported by NIH.

  19. Early work patterns for gynaecological cancer survivors in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachreiner, N M; Ghebre, R G; Virnig, B A; Shanley, R

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the balance between work demands and treatment plans for >4.3 million working-age cancer survivors in the USA. To describe changes in work status for gynaecological cancer survivors during the first 6 months following diagnosis and their experience with their employers' programmes and policies. One hundred and ten gynaecological cancer survivors who were working at the time of their cancer diagnosis completed a survey. Case record reviews documented their clinical characteristics and treatment details. Ninety-five women (86%) had surgery; 81 (74%) received chemotherapy, radiotherapy or both in addition to surgery. Nine per cent of women said that they changed their treatment plan because of their jobs; in contrast, 62% of women said that they changed their work situation to accommodate their treatment plan. Overall, the most common month for women to stop working was Month 1 (41%), to decrease hours was Month 2 (32%) and to increase hours was Month 6 (8%). Twenty-eight per cent of women were aware of employer policies that assisted the return to work process; 70% of women were familiar with the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and 56% with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Only 26% completed a formal request for work accommodations. After 6 months, 56 of 83 women (67%) remained working or had returned to work. Work patterns varied for these gynaecological cancer survivors over the first 6 months following diagnosis. Opportunities exist to improve communication about work and treatment expectations between cancer survivors, occupational health professionals, employers and treating clinicians.

  20. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the stro...

  1. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom Jeannette; Leigh Bronwyn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite...

  2. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom Jeannette; Leigh Bronwyn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite...

  3. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the stro...

  4. Postnatal development of the dog pineal gland. Light microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, J.L.; Boya, J; García-Mauriño, A.; López Carbonell, A.

    1990-01-01

    The light microscopical morphology of the dog pineal gland from the first postnatal day to maturity is described. In the first postnatal week, the pineal parenchyma shows immature cells and many mitotic figures. In this week, pigmented cells are obsemed for the first time, both in the pineal gland and in extrapineal nodules. Throughout the second week, the pineal parenchyma shows a cordonal pattern that disappears progressively in the following stages. From the...

  5. Infant cynomolgus monkeys exposed to denosumab in utero exhibit an osteoclast-poor osteopetrotic-like skeletal phenotype at birth and in the early postnatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Rogely W; Varela, Aurore; Chouinard, Luc; Bussiere, Jeanine L; Chellman, Gary J; Ominsky, Michael S; Pyrah, Ian T

    2014-07-01

    RANKL is a key regulator of bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis. Denosumab is a fully human IgG2 monoclonal antibody that inhibits bone resorption by binding and inhibiting the activity of RANKL. To determine the effects of denosumab on pre- and postnatal skeletal growth and development, subcutaneous injections of 0 (control) or 50 mg/kg/month denosumab were given to pregnant cynomolgus monkeys from approximately gestation day (GD) 20 until parturition (up to 6 doses). For up to 6 months postpartum (birth day [BD] 180/181), evaluation of the infants included skeletal radiographs, bone biomarkers, and oral examinations for assessment of tooth eruption. Infant bones were collected at necropsy for densitometry, biomechanical testing, and histopathologic evaluation from control and denosumab-exposed infants on BD1 (or within 2 weeks of birth) and BD181, and from infants that died or were euthanized moribund from BD5 to BD69. In all denosumab-exposed infants, biomarkers of bone resorption and formation were markedly decreased at BD1 and BD14 and slightly greater at BD91 vs. control, then similar to control values by BD181. Spontaneous long bone fractures were detected clinically or radiographically in 4 denosumab-exposed infants at BD28 and BD60, with evidence of radiographic healing at ≥BD60. In BD1 infants exposed to denosumab in utero, radiographic evaluations of the skeleton revealed decreased long bone length; a generalized increased radio-opacity of the axial and appendicular skeleton and bones at the base of the skull with decreased or absent marrow cavities, widened growth plates, flared/club-shaped metaphysis, altered jaw/skull shape, and reduced jaw length; and delayed development of secondary ossification centers. Densitometric evaluations in these infants demonstrated a marked increase in bone mineral density at trabecular sites, but cortical bone mineral density was decreased. Histologically, long bone cortices were attenuated and there was an absence

  6. 利用肉色相关候选基因对肉色性状进行预测%Utilization of meat color candidate genes in early postnatal prediction of pig meat color trait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟辉; 赵茹茜

    2009-01-01

    investigate relationships between parameters. Results showed that MB mRNA positively correlated with subjective color scoring (r = 0.426~(**) (~(**); P<0. 01)) , a~* (r = 0. 379~(**)), and MB concentration (r = 0.364**). NFATcl mRNA positively correlated with subjective color scoring (r = 0. 407~(**)), a~* (r = 0. 406~(**)), MB concentration (r = 0.345~* (~*: P<0.05)), and MB mRNA (r = 0.571~(**)). 2) Large White boars, Erhualian boars and Erhualian gilts were employed to investigate the developmental patterns of expression level of four meat color candidate genes in LD muscle at day 3, 20, 45, 90, 120 and 180 respectively. Results indicated that the developmental pattern of Myoglobin, MEF2, and Calcineurin mRNA levels were similar, higher in Erhualian and lower in Large White except day 3. However, NFATcl was on the opposite, higher in Large White. MB, NFATcl and Calcineurin mRNA levels all increased dramatically at day 20 and after no significant changes were abserved. As for gender difference, expressions of MB and MEF2 mRNA were similar, and significant changes happened only at day 180. The expression of Calcineurin and NFATcl mRNA showed no significant changes. So we suggest day 20 be the eligible time of early postnatal selection.

  7. Early heart failure in the SMNDelta7 model of spinal muscular atrophy and correction by postnatal scAAV9-SMN delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Adam K; Hutchinson, Kirk R; Foust, Kevin D; Braun, Lyndsey; McGovern, Vicki L; Schmelzer, Leah; Ward, Jennifer G; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Lucchesi, Pamela A; Burghes, Arthur H M; Kaspar, Brian K

    2010-10-15

    Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a debilitating neurological disease marked by isolated lower motor neuron death and subsequent atrophy of skeletal muscle. Historically, SMA pathology was thought to be limited to lower motor neurons and the skeletal muscles they control, yet there are several reports describing the coincidence of cardiovascular abnormalities in SMA patients. As new therapies for SMA emerge, it is necessary to determine whether these non-neuromuscular systems need to be targeted. Therefore, we have characterized left ventricular (LV) function of SMA mice (SMN2+/+; SMNΔ7+/+; Smn-/-) and compared it with that of their unaffected littermates at 7 and 14 days of age. Anatomical and physiological measurements made by electrocardiogram and echocardiography show that affected mouse pups have a dramatic decrease in cardiac function. At 14 days of age, SMA mice have bradycardia and develop a marked dilated cardiomyopathy with a concomitant decrease in contractility. Signs of decreased cardiac function are also apparent as early as 7 days of age in SMA animals. Delivery of a survival motor neuron-1 transgene using a self-complementary adeno-associated virus serotype 9 abolished the symptom of bradycardia and significantly decreased the severity of the heart defect. We conclude that severe SMA animals have compromised cardiac function resulting at least partially from early bradycardia, which is likely attributable to aberrant autonomic signaling. Further cardiographic studies of human SMA patients are needed to clarify the clinical relevance of these findings from this SMA mouse.

  8. Diagnostic Proteomics: Serum Proteomic Patterns for the Detection of Early Stage Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Rong Yu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to interrogate thousands of proteins found in complex biological samples using proteomic technologies has brought the hope of discovering novel disease-specific biomarkers. While most proteomic technologies used to discover diagnostic biomarkers are quite sophisticated, "proteomic pattern analysis" has emerged as a simple, yet potentially revolutionary, method for the early diagnosis of diseases. Utilizing this technology, hundreds of clinical samples can be analyzed per day and several preliminary studies suggest proteomic pattern analysis has the potential to be a novel, highly sensitive diagnostic tool for the early detection of cancer.

  9. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaomei Cong; Wanli Xu; Susan Janton; Henderson, Wendy A.; Adam Matson; McGrath, Jacqueline M.; Kendra Maas; Joerg Graf

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of li...

  10. Autism as a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting communication and learning in early childhood: prenatal origins, post-natal course and effective educational support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevarthen, C

    2000-01-01

    Colwyn Trevarthen, working on autism, discussed the importance of time, rhythm and temporal processing in brain function. The brains of new born infants show highly coherent and coordinated patterns of activity over time, and their rhythms are remarkably similar to those of adults. Since the cortex has not yet developed, this coordination must be subcortical in origin. The likely source is the emotional motor system. He noted that the cerebellum might regulate the intricate timing of the development and expression of emotional communication. He also pointed out that emotional and motivational factors have often been seriously neglected in psychology (largely owing to a misplaced focus on 'cognition' as some isolated entity) and emphasized the potential importance of empathetic support and music therapy in helping autistic children. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  11. Early growth patterns and cardiometabolic function at the age of 5 in a multiethnic birth cohort: the ABCD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrijkotte Tanja GM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relation between fetal growth retardation and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life has been demonstrated in many studies. However, debate exists around the potential independent role of postnatal growth acceleration. Furthermore, it is unknown whether a potential effect of growth acceleration on cardiovascular and metabolic function is confined to certain timeframes. The present study assesses the (predictive role of prenatal and postnatal growth on 5 components of cardiovascular and metabolic function in children aged 5. The potential association of timing of postnatal growth acceleration with these outcomes will be explored. Methods and design Prospective multiethnic community-based cohort study of 8266 pregnancies (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development, ABCD study. Up till now, anthropometry of 5104 children from the original cohort was followed during the first 5 years of life, with additional information about birth weight, pregnancy duration, and various potential confounding variables. At age 5, various components of cardiovascular and metabolic function are being measured. Outcome variables are body size, body composition and fat distribution, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function. Discussion This study will be one of the first population-based prospective cohort studies to address the association between measures of both prenatal and postnatal growth and various components of cardiovascular and metabolic function. Specific attention is paid to the timing of acceleration in growth and its potential association with the outcome variables. Importantly, the longitudinal design of this study gives us the opportunity to gain more insight into growth trajectories associated with adverse outcomes in later life. If identified as an independent risk factor, this provides further basis for the hypothesis that accelerated growth during

  12. Vowel reduction patterns of early Spanish- English bilinguals receiving continuous L1 and L2 input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byers Emily

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the production of three morphophonetic variations of schwa in American English: the plural allomorph {-s} as in watches, the possessive allomorph {-s} as in Sasha’s, and word-finally as in Russia. The production of these three allomorphs were examined in Miami’s English monolingual and early Spanish-English bilingual populations. Our purpose was to determine how native-like early Spanish-English bilinguals′ spectral qualities and reduced vowel durations were compared to Miami English monolinguals during a reading task. Results indicate that early bilinguals′ reduced vowels followed the same overall pattern as monolinguals, but had different acoustic properties.

  13. Parvalbumin expression in visual cortical interneurons depends on neuronal activity and TrkB ligands during an Early period of postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Silke; Grabert, Jochen; Gorba, Thorsten; Wirth, Marcus J; Wahle, Petra

    2004-03-01

    The differentiation of cortical interneurons is controlled by environmental factors. Here, we describe the role of activity and neurotrophins in regulating parvalbumin (PARV) expression using organotypic cultures (OTC) of rat visual cortex as model system. In OTC, PARV expression was dramatically delayed. The organotypic proportion of approximately 6% PARV neurons was not established before 50-70 DIV, whereas in vivo all neurons are present until P20. Thalamic afferents increased cortical PARV mRNA in OTC, but not to the age-matched in vivo level. During the first 10 DIV, BDNF and NT-4 accelerated PARV mRNA expression in a Trk receptor and MEK2 dependent manner. The BDNF action required PI3 kinase signalling. PARV expression required activity. The proportion of neurons which managed to up-regulate PARV was inversely related to the duration of early transient periods of activity deprivation. Long-term activity-deprived OTC completely failed to up-regulate PARV mRNA. Both TrkB ligands failed to promote PARV expression in activity-deprived OTC. However, a few basket and chandelier neurons were observed, suggesting that the development of class-specific morphological features is activity-independent. Once established, PARV expression became resistant to late-onset activity deprivation. In conclusion, PARV expression depended on activity and TrkB ligands which appear to prime the PARV expression already before its developmental onset.

  14. Postnatal Innate Immune Development: From Birth to Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Georgountzou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that adaptive immune responses are deficient in early life, contributing to increased mortality and morbidity. The developmental trajectories of different components of innate immunity are only recently being explored. Individual molecules, cells, or pathways of innate recognition and signaling, within different compartments/anatomical sites, demonstrate variable maturation patterns. Despite some discrepancies among published data, valuable information is emerging, showing that the developmental pattern of cytokine responses during early life is age and toll-like receptor specific, and may be modified by genetic and environmental factors. Interestingly, specific environmental exposures have been linked both to innate function modifications and the occurrence of chronic inflammatory disorders, such as respiratory allergies. As these conditions are on the rise, our knowledge on innate immune development and its modulating factors needs to be expanded. Improved understanding of the sequence of events associated with disease onset and persistence will lead toward meaningful interventions. This review describes the state-of-the-art on normal postnatal innate immune ontogeny and highlights research areas that are currently explored or should be further addressed.

  15. Patterns of recurrence and survival after surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy for early stage NSCLC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Liseth L.; Klinkenberg, Theo J.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Widder, Joachim

    Introduction: Surgery is the standard treatment for early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). For medically inoperable patients, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has emerged as widely used standard treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze survival and patterns of tumor

  16. Whole Language versus Code-Based Skills and Interactional Patterns in Singapore's Early Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Viniti

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes whole language and code-based skills approaches in early literacy and the specific patterns of interaction present in both approaches. Nineteen hours of video data were coded to analyze the nature of whole language versus code-based skills instruction and document the allocation of time spent on each approach in a reading…

  17. Patterns of recurrence and survival after surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy for early stage NSCLC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Liseth L.; Klinkenberg, Theo J.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Widder, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Surgery is the standard treatment for early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). For medically inoperable patients, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has emerged as widely used standard treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze survival and patterns of tumor recurren

  18. Central Cell-Derived Peptides Regulate Early Embryo Patterning in Flowering Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, L.M.; Marshall, E.; Tesfaye, M.; Silverstein, K.A.T.; Mori, M.; Umetsu, Y.; Otterbach, S.L.; Papareddy, R.; Dickinson, H.G.; Boutilier, K.A.; VandenBosch, K.A.; Ohki, S.; Gutierrez-Marcos, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Plant embryogenesis initiates with the establishment of an apical-basal axis; however, the molecular mechanisms accompanying this early event remain unclear. Here, we show that a small cysteine-rich peptide family is required for formation of the zygotic basal cell lineage and proembryo patterning i

  19. The Alliance in Couple Therapy: Partner Influence, Early Change, and Alliance Patterns in a Naturalistic Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Morten G.; Owen, Jesse; Duncan, Barry L.; Sparks, Jacqueline A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the alliance and outcome in couple therapy and examine whether the alliance predicted outcomes over and above early change. The authors also investigated partner influence and gender and sought to identify couple alliance patterns that predicted couple outcomes. Method:…

  20. Cell polarity and patterning by PIN trafficking through early endosomal compartments in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Tanaka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PIN-FORMED (PIN proteins localize asymmetrically at the plasma membrane and mediate intercellular polar transport of the plant hormone auxin that is crucial for a multitude of developmental processes in plants. PIN localization is under extensive control by environmental or developmental cues, but mechanisms regulating PIN localization are not fully understood. Here we show that early endosomal components ARF GEF BEN1 and newly identified Sec1/Munc18 family protein BEN2 are involved in distinct steps of early endosomal trafficking. BEN1 and BEN2 are collectively required for polar PIN localization, for their dynamic repolarization, and consequently for auxin activity gradient formation and auxin-related developmental processes including embryonic patterning, organogenesis, and vasculature venation patterning. These results show that early endosomal trafficking is crucial for cell polarity and auxin-dependent regulation of plant architecture.

  1. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milgrom Jeannette

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161 also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1. Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2. Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3. Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator

  2. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-04-16

    Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26-32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10-12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors. Risk factor profiles for

  3. Genome-wide analysis of spatiotemporal gene expression patterns during early embryogenesis in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Yutaka; Sato, Yutaka; Hibara, Ken-Ichiro; Shimizu-Sato, Sae; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Takehisa, Hinako; Sanguinet, Karen A; Namiki, Nobukazu; Nagamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-04-01

    Embryogenesis in rice is different from that of most dicotolydonous plants in that it shows a non-stereotypic cell division pattern, formation of dorsal-ventral polarity, and endogenous initiation of the radicle. To reveal the transcriptional features associated with developmental events during rice early embryogenesis, we used microarray analysis coupled with laser microdissection to obtain both spatial and temporal transcription profiles. Our results allowed us to determine spatial expression foci for each expressed gene in the globular embryo, which revealed the importance of phytohormone-related genes and a suite of transcription factors to early embryogenesis. Our analysis showed the polarized expression of a small number of genes along the apical-basal and dorsal-ventral axes in the globular embryo, which tended to fluctuate in later developmental stages. We also analyzed gene expression patterns in the early globular embryo and how this relates to expression in embryonic organs at later stages. We confirmed the accuracy of the expression patterns found by microarray analysis of embryo subdomains using in situ hybridization. Our study identified homologous genes from Arabidopsis thaliana with known functions in embryogenesis in addition to unique and uncharacterized genes that show polarized expression patterns during embryogenesis. The results of this study are presented in a database to provide a framework for spatiotemporal gene expression during rice embryogenesis, to serve as a resource for future functional analysis of genes, and as a basis for comparative studies of plant embryogenesis.

  4. 分娩预演对初产妇自我效能和产后抑郁情绪的影响%Effect of early maternal childbirth rehearsal on self-efficacy and post-natal depression for primipara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕连玉; 孙莉娟

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究分娩预演健康教育对初产妇自我效能和产后抑郁情绪的影响,以期降低临床剖宫产率,提高初产妇的生活质量。方法选取2013年1—12月入院定期产检,且无剖宫产指征的初产妇120名。根据随机数字表法随机分为观察组60名和对照组60名。对照组初产妇接受常规产前健康教育培训,观察组在其基础上应用分娩预演健康教育培训。比较两组初产妇培训前后的自我效能感(GSES)评分、分娩方式及产后抑郁情况。结果两组初产妇培训前GSES评分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),培训后观察组为(30.13±4.10)分,高于对照组的(26.18±5.69)分,差异有统计学意义( t=2.978,P<0.05)。观察组自然分娩50名占83.33%,剖宫产10名占16.67%;与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(χ2值分别为2.316,2.334;P<0.05)。产前1个月两组产后抑郁评分差异无统计学意义( P>0.05),观察组产后1个月为(12.1±2.4)分,产后6个月为(9.7±1.6)分,分别低于对照组,差异有统计学意义( t值分别为2.297,5.497;P<0.05)。结论分娩预演健康教育可提高初产妇的自我效能感,提高自然分娩率、降低社会因素剖宫产率,并可有效改善产后抑郁,可为临床指导初产妇生产提供一定参考。%Objective To study the impact of early maternal childbirth rehearsal on self-efficacy and post-natal depression , in order to reduce the rate of cesarean section and improve the quality of life in primipara . Methods From January to December in 2013, totals of 120 cases without the evidence of maternal cesarean section were selected as the research subjects .They were randomly divided into experimental group (60 cases) and control group (60 cases) according to the random table method .The control group received routine prenatal maternal health education

  5. Evaluation of the walking pattern in clubfoot patients who received early intensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, T; Pedersen, E N; Simonsen, E B

    2000-01-01

    joint in the clubfeet could possibly be owing to weaker plantar flexors. In conclusion, gait analysis can be an important tool when evaluating treatment for clubfoot. However, further investigation is needed to determine whether the higher hip and knee joint moments observed in subjects with clubfoot......The walking pattern in a group of nine adult male subjects who had received early intensive treatment for congenital clubfoot was evaluated and compared to the walking pattern in a control group of 15 adult healthy male subjects. All subjects were filmed with a five-camera video system...

  6. Patterns of variability in early-life traits of fishes depend on spatial scale of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Guidetti, Paolo

    2011-06-23

    Estimates of early-life traits of fishes (e.g. pelagic larval duration (PLD) and spawning date) are essential for investigating and assessing patterns of population connectivity. Such estimates are available for a large number of both tropical and temperate fish species, but few studies have assessed their variability in space, especially across multiple scales. The present study, where a Mediterranean fish (i.e. the white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus) was used as a model, shows that spawning date and PLD are spatially more variable at a scale of kilometres than at a scale of tens to hundreds of kilometres. This study indicates the importance of considering spatial variability of early-life traits of fishes in order to properly delineate connectivity patterns at larval stages (e.g. by means of Lagrangian simulations), thus providing strategically useful information on connectivity and relevant management goals (e.g. the creation of networks of marine reserves).

  7. Early-stage tumor detection using photoacoustic microscopy: a pattern recognition approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chenghung; Wang, Liang; Liang, Jinyang; Zhou, Yong; Hu, Song; Sohn, Rebecca E.; Arbeit, Jeffrey M.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2017-03-01

    We report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of arteriovenous (AV) shunts in early stage tumors in vivo, and develop a pattern recognition framework for computerized tumor detection. Here, using a high-resolution photoacoustic microscope, we implement a new blood oxygenation (sO2)-based disease marker induced by the AV shunt effect in tumor angiogenesis. We discovered a striking biological phenomenon: There can be two dramatically different sO2 values in bloodstreams flowing side-by-side in a single vessel. By tracing abnormal sO2 values in the blood vessels, we can identify a tumor region at an early stage. To further automate tumor detection based on our findings, we adopt widely used pattern recognition methods and develop an efficient computerized classification framework. The test result shows over 80% averaged detection accuracy with false positive contributing 18.52% of error test samples on a 50 PAM image dataset.

  8. Early Obstacle Detection and Avoidance for All to All Traffic Pattern in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huc, Florian; Jarry, Aubin; Leone, Pierre; Moraru, Luminita; Nikoletseas, Sotiris; Rolim, Jose

    This paper deals with early obstacles recognition in wireless sensor networks under various traffic patterns. In the presence of obstacles, the efficiency of routing algorithms is increased by voluntarily avoiding some regions in the vicinity of obstacles, areas which we call dead-ends. In this paper, we first propose a fast convergent routing algorithm with proactive dead-end detection together with a formal definition and description of dead-ends. Secondly, we present a generalization of this algorithm which improves performances in all to many and all to all traffic patterns. In a third part we prove that this algorithm produces paths that are optimal up to a constant factor of 2π + 1. In a fourth part we consider the reactive version of the algorithm which is an extension of a previously known early obstacle detection algorithm. Finally we give experimental results to illustrate the efficiency of our algorithms in different scenarios.

  9. One of early maladaptive schemas’ causal relationship through metacognitive beliefs with borderline and antisocial personality patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Zirakbash, Amin; Naderi, Farah; Enayati, Mir Salahedin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed at determining the causal relationship of metacognitive beliefs as a mediator between one of early maladaptive schemas including (emotional deprivation, abandonment, mistrust/abuse, social isolation/alienation and defectiveness/shame) and borderline and antisocial personality patterns. Materials and Methods: The study type has been relational and seeking causal modeling of path analysis has been used. The population used in this study included outpatients in cou...

  10. Transference patterns and working alliance during the early phase of psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzić, Ljiljana; Nikolić, Gordana

    2014-02-01

    Working alliance, as a collaborative part of the therapeutic relationship has been proven to be one of the most powerful therapeutic factors in psychotherapy in general, regardless many technical differences between numerous psychotherapeutic modalities. On the other hand, transference is the basic concept of psychodynamic psychotherapy, and, according to the psychoanalytic theory and practice, it forms a major part of the therapeutic relationship. The aim of our paper was to determine the differences between the groups of patients with low, middle, and high working alliance scores and the dropout group in transference patterns, sociodemographic and clinical parameters, during the early phase of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Our sample consisted of 61 non-psychotic patients, randomly selected by the method of consecutive admissions and treated with psychoanalytic psychotherapy in the outpatient clinical setting. The patients were prospectively followed during 5 initial sessions of the therapeutic process. The working alliance inventory and Core conflictual relationship theme method were used for the estimation of working alliance and transference patterns, respectively. According to the Working Alliance Inventory scores, four groups of patients were formed and than compared. Our results show a significant difference between the groups of patients with low, middle, and high working alliance inventory scores and the dropout group on the variable--transference patterns in the therapeutic relationship. Disharmonious transference patterns are more frequent in patients who form poor quality working alliance in the early phase of psychotherapy, or early dropout psychotherapy. It is of great importance to recognize transference patterns of a patient at the beginning of the psychotherapeutic process, because of their potentially harmful influence on the quality of working alliance.

  11. Patterns of Early Rejection in Renal Retransplantation: A Single-Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that kidney retransplant patients had high rates of early acute rejection due to previous sensitization. In addition to the acute antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR that has received widespread attention, the early acute T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR may be another important issue in renal retransplantation. In the current single-center retrospective study, we included 33 retransplant patients and 90 first transplant patients with similar protocols of induction and maintenance therapy. Analysis focused particularly on the incidence and patterns of early acute rejection episodes, as well as one-year graft and patient survival. Excellent short-term clinical outcomes were obtained in both groups, with one-year graft and patient survival rates of 93.9%/100% in the retransplant group and 92.2%/95.6% in the first transplant group. Impressively, with our strict immunological selection and desensitization criteria, the retransplant patients had a very low incidence of early acute ABMR (6.1%, which was similar to that in the first transplant patients (4.4%. However, a much higher rate of early acute TCMR was observed in the retransplant group than in the first transplant group (30.3% versus 5.6%, P<0.001. Acute TCMR that develops early after retransplantation should be monitored in order to obtain better transplant outcomes.

  12. One of early maladaptive schemas' causal relationship through metacognitive beliefs with borderline and antisocial personality patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirakbash, Amin; Naderi, Farah; Enayati, Mir Salahedin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the causal relationship of metacognitive beliefs as a mediator between one of early maladaptive schemas including (emotional deprivation, abandonment, mistrust/abuse, social isolation/alienation and defectiveness/shame) and borderline and antisocial personality patterns. The study type has been relational and seeking causal modeling of path analysis has been used. The population used in this study included outpatients in counseling, psychological and psychiatric centers in 2012-2013. We randomly distributed 350 questionnaires in five centers out of three parts in Isfahan, and finally 230 valid questionnaires were evaluated and analyzed. Data collection tool has been Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III's (MCMI-III's) personality questionnaire, Yang's schema questionnaire (75 items), Metacognition Questionnaire-30 (30 items). Reliability of the Yang's Schema Questionnaire in this study was calculated by Cronbach's alpha (α =96%), and that of metacognition was calculated the same way (α =87%). Data analysis has been done using MCMI-III's software for Millon's personality questionnaire, and SPSS-16 and AMOS-18 software. We used path analysis method for testing each model in statistical data analysis. The results of this study suggest a possible causal relationship between the number of one of the early maladaptive schemas and the patterns of anti-social and borderline personalities through some metacognitive beliefs. This study showed that cognitive beliefs can be activators of the early schema and continuation's coping behaviors in personality patterns.

  13. Late gestation undernutrtion can predispose for visceral adiposity by altering fat distribution patterns and increasing the preference for a high-fat diet in early postnatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette O; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Thygesen, M P

    2013-01-01

    and three females) were slaughtered for further examination and the other half (females only) were transferred to a moderate sheep diet until slaughtered at 24 months of age (adulthood). Maternal undernutrition during late gestation reduced the birth weight of LOW offspring (P ... (LOW). From day 3 postpartum to 6 months (around puberty) of age, one twin lamb was fed a conventional (CONV) diet and the other a high-carbohydrate–high-fat (HCHF) diet, resulting in four groups of offspring: NORM-CONV; NORM-HCHF; LOW-CONV; LOW-HCHF. At 6 months of age, half of the lambs (all males......-term effects were increased adrenal size in male lambs and adult females (P LOW-HCHF female lambs had markedly higher...

  14. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Third Trimester in Association with Birthweight Characteristics and Early Infant Growth

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    Anna K. Poon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our analysis examined the impact of maternal dietary patterns and lifestyle factors on markers of fetal growth, specifically birthweight and size for gestational age (small- (SGA or large-for-gestational age (LGA. The Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a prospective cohort study, surveyed pregnant women during their 3rd trimester, of which a subgroup (n=893 completed a food frequency questionnaire. Maternal dietary patterns were evaluated by diet scores (Alternative Healthy Eating Index for Pregnancy and alternate Mediterranean diet and by carbohydrate quality (glycemic index and glycemic load. Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used to examine the relative risk of SGA and separately LGA, with dietary patterns and other lifestyle factors. Linear regression was used to determine the association of birthweight and early infant growth with better dietary patterns. Relative risk of SGA and LGA was not associated with dietary patterns. Birthweight and infant growth were not associated with maternal diet. Smoking, however, increased the risk of delivering an SGA infant (RR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.58–5.39, while higher prepregnancy BMI increased the risk of delivering an LGA infant (RR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.03–1.09. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether deficiencies in more specific maternal dietary nutrients play a role in fetal growth.

  15. The effect of obesity on recurrence pattern in early breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Ozan; Aksoy, Sercan; Sendur, Mehmet An; Babacan, Taner; Ozdemir, Nuriye; Ozisik, Yavuz; Zengin, Nurullah; Altundag, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a well known risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and poor prognosis. We studied the effect of body mass index (BMI) on recurrence pattern in early breast cancer patients. This retrospective cross-sectional study analyzed the data of 2731 early stage breast cancer patients. Patients who had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis and with unknown BMI values were excluded from study (N=276). Patients were classified into three BMI categories: normal body weight, overweight, and obese. The recurrent/metastatic sites of patients were grouped in 8 categories: local, contralateral, lymph node, bone, lung, liver, brain and others. The association between first relapse site of early breast cancer patients and BMI categories were evaluated. The median patient age was 48 years (range 18-92). The median follow up time was 40 months (range 1-284). During follow-up, 469 (17.1%) patients developed recurrence and/or metastasis. Of 2455 total patients, 853 (34.6%) were classified as having normal weight, 898 (36.2%) were overweighted and 704 (29.2%) were obese. In the whole patient group no relation between metastatic sites and BMI groups was noticed. The first primary metastatic sites were also not associated with BMI groups in pre and postmenopausal subpopulations. In obese patients, disease free survival (DFS) was shorter compared to normal weighted patients, but the difference was not significant. There was no significant difference between site-specific DFS in relation to BMI categorization. Obese and overweighted patients had significantly shorter overall survival (OS) compared to the normal-weight group (p=0.003). Although obesity had no effect on recurrence pattern of early breast cancer patients, obese early breast cancer patients had shorter OS compared to their normal-weight counterparts.

  16. Early growth patterns are associated with intelligence quotient scores in children born small-for-gestational age.

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    Varella, Marcia H; Moss, William J

    2015-08-01

    To assess whether patterns of growth trajectory during infancy are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 4 years of age in children born small-for-gestational age (SGA). Children in the Collaborative Perinatal Project born SGA were eligible for analysis. The primary outcome was the Stanford-Binet IQ score at 4 years of age. Growth patterns were defined based on changes in weight-for-age z-scores from birth to 4 months and 4 to 12 months of age and consisted of steady, early catch-up, late catch-up, constant catch-up, early catch-down, late catch-down, constant catch-down, early catch-up & late catch-down, and early catch-down & late catch-up. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess associations between patterns of growth and IQ. We evaluated patterns of growth and IQ in 5640 children. Compared with children with steady growth, IQ scores were 2.9 [standard deviation (SD)=0.54], 1.5 (SD=0.63), and 2.2 (SD=0.9) higher in children with early catch-up, early catch-up and later catch-down, and constant catch-up growth patterns, respectively, and 4.4 (SD=1.4) and 3.9 (SD=1.5) lower in children with early catch-down & late catch-up, and early catch-down growth patterns, respectively. Patterns in weight gain before 4 months of age were associated with differences in IQ scores at 4 years of age, with children with early catch-up having slightly higher IQ scores than children with steady growth and children with early catch-down having slightly lower IQ scores. These findings have implications for early infant nutrition in children born SGA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Romantic Relationship Patterns from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Family and Peer Experiences in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Stéphanie; Poulin, François

    2016-05-01

    The present study identifies and describes romantic relationship patterns from adolescence to adulthood and examines their associations with family and peer experiences in early adolescence. In a 13-year longitudinal study, 281 youth (58 % girls) identified all their romantic partners each year from the ages of 16-24. Dimensions of family relationships (family cohesion, parent-child conflict) and peer relationships (peer likeability, social withdrawal, close friendships, other-sex friendships) were assessed at age 12. Latent class analyses brought out five distinct romantic relationship patterns and significant associations were found with family and peer relationships in early adolescence. These five romantic relationship patterns appeared to follow a continuum of romantic involvement, with romantic relationship patterns situated a both ends of this continuum (later involvement pattern and intense involvement pattern) being associated with more interpersonal experiences in early adolescence.

  18. Pattern of Breast Cancer Distribution in Ghana: A Survey to Enhance Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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    Frank Naku Ghartey Jnr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nearly 70% of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Ghana are in advanced stages of the disease due especially to low awareness, resulting in limited treatment success and high death rate. With limited epidemiological studies on breast cancer in Ghana, the aim of this study is to assess and understand the pattern of breast cancer distribution for enhancing early detection and treatment. Methods. We randomly selected and screened 3000 women for clinical palpable breast lumps and used univariate and bivariate analysis for description and exploration of variables, respectively, in relation to incidence of breast cancer. Results. We diagnosed 23 (0.76% breast cancer cases out of 194 (6.46% participants with clinically palpable breast lumps. Seventeen out of these 23 (0.56% were premenopausal (<46.6 years with 7 (0.23% being below 35 years. With an overall breast cancer incidence of 0.76% in this study, our observation that about 30% of these cancer cases were below 35 years may indicate a relative possible shift of cancer burden to women in their early thirties in Ghana, compared to Western countries. Conclusion. These results suggest an age adjustment for breast cancer screening to early twenties for Ghanaian women and the need for a nationwide breast cancer screening to understand completely the pattern of breast cancer distribution in Ghana.

  19. Experimental evaluation of early patterns of colonisation of space on rocky shores and seawalls.

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    Bulleri, Fabio

    2005-09-01

    The introduction of artificial structures in coastal areas can cause fragmentation and loss of natural habitats. Previous studies found that variation in colonisation of space at mid-shore levels could account for differences in mature assemblages between seawalls and vertical surfaces on adjacent rocky shores in Sydney Harbour (Australia). This study tests the model that the nature of the substratum is responsible for different patterns of early colonisation between vertical ledges of rocky shores and seawalls. According to this model, patterns in early colonisation would differ between cleared areas created on vertical surfaces on rocky shores and seawalls, but not between standard surfaces (panels) installed on each structure. Early colonisation of space differed between seawalls and rocky shores, regardless of the type of substratum (clearings versus panels). Differences in relative abundances between structures were evident on both types of substrata for some taxa, while they varied between substrata for others. No taxa, however, showed consistent differences between structures in only the clearings. In addition, the abundance of some taxa differed between panels on the different structures, suggesting that the effects of the substratum were modulated by factors operating differentially between rocky shores and seawalls.

  20. Postnatal ontogenesis of molecular clock in mouse striatum.

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    Cai, Yanning; Liu, Shu; Li, Ning; Xu, Shengli; Zhang, Yanli; Chan, Piu

    2009-04-01

    Striatum is an important brain area whose function is related to motor, emotion and motivation. Interestingly, biological and physiological circadian rhythms have been found in the striatum extensively, suggesting molecular clock machinery works efficiently therein. However, the striatal expression profiles of clock genes have not been characterized systematically. In addition, little is known about when the expression rhythms start during postnatal ontogenesis. In the present study, 24 h mRNA oscillations of 6 principle clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Npas2, Cry1, Per1 and Rev-erb alpha) were examined in mouse striatum, at early postnatal stage (postnatal day 3), pre-weaning stage (postnatal day 14) and in adult (postnatal day 60). At P3, no daily oscillation was found for all clock genes. At P14, a significant time effect was identified only for Rev-erb alpha and Npas2. At P60, the daily oscillations of these clock genes were at least borderline significant, with peak time at Circadian time (CT) 01 for Bmal1, Clock, Npas2 and Cry1; at CT 13 for Per1; and at CT 07 for Rev-erb alpha. In addition, the overall mean mRNA levels of these clock genes also underwent a dynamic change postnatally. For Bmal1, Clock, Npas2, Per1 and Rev-erb alpha, the expression level increased throughout the postnatal ontogenesis from P3, P14 to P60. For Cry1, however, the abundance at P3 and P60 were similar while that at P14 was much lower. In conclusion, the striatal molecular clock machinery, although works efficiently in adult, develops gradually after birth in mice.

  1. B1 SOX coordinate cell specification with patterning and morphogenesis in the early zebrafish embryo.

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    Yuichi Okuda

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The B1 SOX transcription factors SOX1/2/3/19 have been implicated in various processes of early embryogenesis. However, their regulatory functions in stages from the blastula to early neurula remain largely unknown, primarily because loss-of-function studies have not been informative to date. In our present study, we systematically knocked down the B1 sox genes in zebrafish. Only the quadruple knockdown of the four B1 sox genes sox2/3/19a/19b resulted in very severe developmental abnormalities, confirming that the B1 sox genes are functionally redundant. We characterized the sox2/3/19a/19b quadruple knockdown embryos in detail by examining the changes in gene expression through in situ hybridization, RT-PCR, and microarray analyses. Importantly, these phenotypic analyses revealed that the B1 SOX proteins regulate the following distinct processes: (1 early dorsoventral patterning by controlling bmp2b/7; (2 gastrulation movements via the regulation of pcdh18a/18b and wnt11, a non-canonical Wnt ligand gene; (3 neural differentiation by regulating the Hes-class bHLH gene her3 and the proneural-class bHLH genes neurog1 (positively and ascl1a (negatively, and regional transcription factor genes, e.g., hesx1, zic1, and rx3; and (4 neural patterning by regulating signaling pathway genes, cyp26a1 in RA signaling, oep in Nodal signaling, shh, and mdkb. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the her3, hesx1, neurog1, pcdh18a, and cyp26a1 genes further suggests a direct regulation of these genes by B1 SOX. We also found an interesting overlap between the early phenotypes of the B1 sox quadruple knockdown embryos and the maternal-zygotic spg embryos that are devoid of pou5f1 activity. These findings indicate that the B1 SOX proteins control a wide range of developmental regulators in the early embryo through partnering in part with Pou5f1 and possibly with other factors, and suggest that the B1 sox functions are central to coordinating cell fate

  2. Dacryocystocele on prenatal ultrasonography: diagnosis and postnatal outcomes

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    Kim, Young Hwa; Lee, Yu Jin; Song, Mi Jin; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Lee, Kyung Sang [Dept. of Radiology, Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    To report the incidence of dacryocystoceles detected by prenatal ultrasonography (US) and their postnatal outcomes and to determine the factors associated with the postnatal persistence of dacryocystoceles at birth. We retrospectively reviewed the prenatal US database at our institution for the period between January 2012 and December 2013. The medical records of women who had fetuses diagnosed with dacryocystocel larger than 5 mm were reviewed for maternal age, gestational age (GA) at detection, size and side of the dacryocystoceles, delivery, and postnatal information, such as GA at delivery, delivery mode, and gender of the neonate. A total of 49 singletons were diagnosed with a dacryocystocele on prenatal US, yielding an overall incidence of 0.43%. The incidence of dacryocystoceles was the highest at the GA of 27 weeks and decreased toward term. Of the 49 fetuses including three of undeter mined gender, 25 (54%) were female. The mean GA at first detection was 31.2 weeks. The dacryocystocele was unilateral in 29 cases, with a mean maximum diameter of 7 mm. Spontaneous resolution at birth was documented in 35 out of 46 neonates (76%), including six with prenatal resolution. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that GA at delivery was a significant predictor of the postnatal persistence of dacryocystoceles (P=0.045). The overall incidence of prenatal dacryocystoceles was 0.43%; the incidence was higher in the early third trimester and decreased thereafter. Prenatal dacryocystoceles resolved in 76% of the patients at birth, and the GA at delivery was a significant predictor of postnatal persistence.

  3. Spatial patterns of substantial climate impact from anthropogenic aerosols in the early instrumental period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undorf, Sabine; Bollasina, Massimo; Hegerl, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    While many aspects of climate variation in the early instrumental period (1860-1950) are still unexplained, for instance the early twentieth-century warming from the 1910s to the 1940s, the role of anthropogenic aerosols in this period has been overlooked. Yet, the period is also an interesting case study to isolate aerosol impacts since it is characterised by the increase of North American and especially European aerosol emissions concurrently with negligible Asian emissions and relatively low carbon dioxide concentrations. We thus analyse the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol impact for this period in available observations (NOAA 20th-century reanalysis, etc.) and historical single-forcing and all-forcing experiments with state-of-the-art CMIP5 models. We make use of coupled empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) applied to surface temperature -the most reliable variable in observations- and different aerosol indicating variables such as aerosol optical depth and short-wave downward radiation, some of which include aerosol indirect effects. The principal components of the most important EOFs are then regressed onto sea level pressure, winds, and other variables to identify associated circulation patterns. A decomposition into multi-decadal and longer time scales is performed by filtering the data prior to the analysis. Our analysis reveals both statistically significant local and non-local aerosol impact and identifies circulation states associated with the temperature response. The results are consistent across different aerosol variables, and show a strong non-local response as well as specific differences between time scales. We find a distinctive circulation pattern which strongly resembles observations and might explain the observed early twentieth century warming in the Arctic.

  4. Postnatal mental distress in relation to the sociocultural practices of childbirth: an exploratory qualitative study from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Charlotte; Whitley, Rob; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Alem, Atalay; Prince, Martin

    2009-10-01

    Sociocultural patterning of the postnatal period in non-Western settings has been hypothesised to protect against postnatal depression. In 2004, in a predominantly rural area of Ethiopia, we conducted 25 in-depth interviews and five focus group discussions with purposively selected participants including perinatal women, fathers, grandmothers, traditional and religious leaders, birth attendants and community leaders. Our main objectives were (1) to examine societal recognition of problematic distress states in the postnatal period and relate this to Western conceptualisations of postnatal depression and (2) to relate the occurrence of distress states to sociocultural patterning of the postnatal period. Inductive analysis was employed to identify salient themes. Participants spontaneously described culturally problematic distress states occurring in the postnatal period, although did not consider them to be illness. Vulnerability and danger of the postnatal period was emphasised, with risk of supernatural attack and physical harm leading to distress states. Participants also spoke of how gender disadvantage and economic strain intersect with cultural patterning of the postnatal period, threatening mental health due to the resulting disappointed expectations and exclusion, as well as exacerbation of pre-existing problems. Cultural dissonance, where a person's beliefs or actions are out of kilter with strong prevailing cultural norms, may be an important risk factor for postnatal distress in rural Ethiopia, where the postnatal period is extensively culturally elaborated.

  5. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Suggests Possible Interaction Patterns at Early Steps of β2-Microglobulin Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogolari, Federico; Corazza, Alessandra; Viglino, Paolo; Zuccato, Pierfrancesco; Pieri, Lidia; Faccioli, Pietro; Bellotti, Vittorio; Esposito, Gennaro

    2007-01-01

    Early events in aggregation of proteins are not easily accessible by experiments. In this work, we perform a 5-ns molecular dynamics simulation of an ensemble of 27 copies of β2-microglobulin in explicit solvent. During the simulation, the formation of intermolecular contacts is observed. The simulation highlights the importance of apical residues and, in particular, of those at the N-terminus end of the molecule. The most frequently found pattern of interaction involves a head-to-head contact arrangement of molecules. Hydrophobic contacts appear to be important for the establishment of long-lived (on the simulation timescale) contacts. Although early events on the pathway to aggregation and fibril formation are not directly related to the end-state of the process, which is reached on a much longer timescale, simulation results are consistent with experimental data and in general with a parallel arrangement of intermolecular β-strand pairs. PMID:17158575

  6. Application of a Computational Method for the Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer Using Proteomic Pattern Recognition

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    Elzenir Montes,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method based on the recognition of proteomic patterns for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer, using computational techniques, applied in the database of SELDI-TOF proteomic patterns. The method is based on classifying the individual as to the portability stage of prostate cancer. To do so, the Independent Component Analysis (ICA technique is used to extract the characteristics, after which are utilized the algorithm of Maximum Relevance and Minimum Redundancy to reduce the computational cost, and finally the Support Vector Machine to obtain the classification. The best result of the method was obtained with a vector of 27 characteristics, achieving accuracy, specificity and sensitivity, respectively of 89.21%, 83.68% and 95.08%.

  7. Postnatal structure of the sella turcica in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, B G; Kjaer, I

    1999-11-19

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the shape of the sella turcica in a group of patients with Down syndrome and compare the findings with those made earlier in human fetuses with Down syndrome. Profile radiographs from 78 patients (age 4 months to 50 3/12 years) were analyzed. A tracing was made of each sella turcica, and the shape was compared with that of a normal sella, including the normal growth pattern from childhood to adulthood. Sella turcica structure could be classified into three morphological types, defined as: type I, almost normal appearance; type II, deviations in the anterior wall; and type III, deviations in the floor of the sella turcica. Compared with previously registered prenatal structural deviations in the sella turcica, it can be concluded that the postnatal radiographic material reflects the prenatal findings, because type I, both prenatally and postnatally, is by far the most common, whereas the remaining types are uncommon, both prenatally and postnatally. The study confirms the relevance of prenatal investigations for postnatal diagnostics as previously documented in sella turcica analyses of prenatal and postnatal myelomeningocele cases.

  8. Postnatal Growth and Psychomotor Development in Small for Gestational Age Brazilian Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Patricia Ann; Pasquali, Luiz

    1984-01-01

    The early psychomotor development (DQ) of 29 term small-for-gestational-age Brazilian infants was shown to be more dependent on postnatal growth than the DQ of 51 term appropriate-for-gestational-age infants. (Author/RH)

  9. Major epigenetic development distinguishing neuronal and non-neuronal cells occurs postnatally in the murine hypothalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal and early postnatal environment can persistently alter one's risk of obesity. Environmental effects on hypothalamic developmental epigenetics constitute a likely mechanism underlying such 'developmental programming' of energy balance regulation. To advance our understanding of these process...

  10. Novel developmental analyses identify longitudinal patterns of early gut microbiota that affect infant growth.

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    Richard A White

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that some obesity trajectories are set early in life, and that rapid weight gain in infancy is a risk factor for later development of obesity. Identifying modifiable factors associated with early rapid weight gain is a prerequisite for curtailing the growing worldwide obesity epidemic. Recently, much attention has been given to findings indicating that gut microbiota may play a role in obesity development. We aim at identifying how the development of early gut microbiota is associated with expected infant growth. We developed a novel procedure that allows for the identification of longitudinal gut microbiota patterns (corresponding to the gut ecosystem developing, which are associated with an outcome of interest, while appropriately controlling for the false discovery rate. Our method identified developmental pathways of Staphylococcus species and Escherichia coli that were associated with expected growth, and traditional methods indicated that the detection of Bacteroides species at day 30 was associated with growth. Our method should have wide future applicability for studying gut microbiota, and is particularly important for translational considerations, as it is critical to understand the timing of microbiome transitions prior to attempting to manipulate gut microbiota in early life.

  11. Atrophy patterns in early clinical stages across distinct phenotypes of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossenkoppele, Rik; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; La Joie, Renaud; Vogel, Jacob W; Möller, Christiane; Lehmann, Manja; van Berckel, Bart N M; Seeley, William W; Pijnenburg, Yolande A; Gorno-Tempini, Maria L; Kramer, Joel H; Barkhof, Frederik; Rosen, Howard J; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Jagust, William J; Miller, Bruce L; Scheltens, Philip; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2015-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can present with distinct clinical variants. Identifying the earliest neurodegenerative changes associated with each variant has implications for early diagnosis, and for understanding the mechanisms that underlie regional vulnerability and disease progression in AD. We performed voxel-based morphometry to detect atrophy patterns in early clinical stages of four AD phenotypes: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, "visual variant," n=93), logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA, "language variant," n=74), and memory-predominant AD categorized as early age-of-onset (EOAD, 65 years, n=114). Patients with each syndrome were stratified based on: (1) degree of functional impairment, as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale, and (2) overall extent of brain atrophy, as measured by a neuroimaging approach that sums the number of brain voxels showing significantly lower gray matter volume than cognitively normal controls (n=80). Even at the earliest clinical stage (CDR=0.5 or bottom quartile of overall atrophy), patients with each syndrome showed both common and variant-specific atrophy. Common atrophy across variants was found in temporoparietal regions that comprise the posterior default mode network (DMN). Early syndrome-specific atrophy mirrored functional brain networks underlying functions that are uniquely affected in each variant: Language network in lvPPA, posterior cingulate cortex-hippocampal circuit in amnestic EOAD and LOAD, and visual networks in PCA. At more advanced stages, atrophy patterns largely converged across AD variants. These findings support a model in which neurodegeneration selectively targets both the DMN and syndrome-specific vulnerable networks at the earliest clinical stages of AD.

  12. Stable, precise, and reproducible patterning of bicoid and hunchback molecules in the early Drosophila embryo.

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    Yurie Okabe-Oho

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Precise patterning of morphogen molecules and their accurate reading out are of key importance in embryonic development. Recent experiments have visualized distributions of proteins in developing embryos and shown that the gradient of concentration of Bicoid morphogen in Drosophila embryos is established rapidly after fertilization and remains stable through syncytial mitoses. This stable Bicoid gradient is read out in a precise way to distribute Hunchback with small fluctuations in each embryo and in a reproducible way, with small embryo-to-embryo fluctuation. The mechanisms of such stable, precise, and reproducible patterning through noisy cellular processes, however, still remain mysterious. To address these issues, here we develop the one- and three-dimensional stochastic models of the early Drosophila embryo. The simulated results show that the fluctuation in expression of the hunchback gene is dominated by the random arrival of Bicoid at the hunchback enhancer. Slow diffusion of Hunchback protein, however, averages out this intense fluctuation, leading to the precise patterning of distribution of Hunchback without loss of sharpness of the boundary of its distribution. The coordinated rates of diffusion and transport of input Bicoid and output Hunchback play decisive roles in suppressing fluctuations arising from the dynamical structure change in embryos and those arising from the random diffusion of molecules, and give rise to the stable, precise, and reproducible patterning of Bicoid and Hunchback distributions.

  13. Early Developmental and Evolutionary Origins of Gene Body DNA Methylation Patterns in Mammalian Placentas.

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    Diane I Schroeder

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20-80 million years the mammalian placenta has taken on a variety of morphologies through both divergent and convergent evolution. Recently we have shown that the human placenta genome has a unique epigenetic pattern of large partially methylated domains (PMDs and highly methylated domains (HMDs with gene body DNA methylation positively correlating with level of gene expression. In order to determine the evolutionary conservation of DNA methylation patterns and transcriptional regulatory programs in the placenta, we performed a genome-wide methylome (MethylC-seq analysis of human, rhesus macaque, squirrel monkey, mouse, dog, horse, and cow placentas as well as opossum extraembryonic membrane. We found that, similar to human placenta, mammalian placentas and opossum extraembryonic membrane have globally lower levels of methylation compared to somatic tissues. Higher relative gene body methylation was the conserved feature across all mammalian placentas, despite differences in PMD/HMDs and absolute methylation levels. Specifically, higher methylation over the bodies of genes involved in mitosis, vesicle-mediated transport, protein phosphorylation, and chromatin modification was observed compared with the rest of the genome. As in human placenta, higher methylation is associated with higher gene expression and is predictive of genic location across species. Analysis of DNA methylation in oocytes and preimplantation embryos shows a conserved pattern of gene body methylation similar to the placenta. Intriguingly, mouse and cow oocytes and mouse early embryos have PMD/HMDs but their placentas do not, suggesting that PMD/HMDs are a feature of early preimplantation methylation patterns that become lost during placental development in some species and following implantation of the embryo.

  14. Mass spectrometry-based serum proteome pattern analysis in molecular diagnostics of early stage breast cancer

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    Stobiecki Maciej

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometric analysis of the blood proteome is an emerging method of clinical proteomics. The approach exploiting multi-protein/peptide sets (fingerprints detected by mass spectrometry that reflect overall features of a specimen's proteome, termed proteome pattern analysis, have been already shown in several studies to have applicability in cancer diagnostics. We aimed to identify serum proteome patterns specific for early stage breast cancer patients using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. Methods Blood samples were collected before the start of therapy in a group of 92 patients diagnosed at stages I and II of the disease, and in a group of age-matched healthy controls (104 women. Serum specimens were purified and the low-molecular-weight proteome fraction was examined using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry after removal of albumin and other high-molecular-weight serum proteins. Protein ions registered in a mass range between 2,000 and 10,000 Da were analyzed using a new bioinformatic tool created in our group, which included modeling spectra as a sum of Gaussian bell-shaped curves. Results We have identified features of serum proteome patterns that were significantly different between blood samples of healthy individuals and early stage breast cancer patients. The classifier built of three spectral components that differentiated controls and cancer patients had 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Spectral components (i.e., protein ions that were the most frequent in such classifiers had approximate m/z values of 2303, 2866 and 3579 Da (a biomarker built from these three components showed 88% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Of note, we did not find a significant correlation between features of serum proteome patterns and established prognostic or predictive factors like tumor size, nodal involvement, histopathological grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. In addition, we observed a significantly (p = 0

  15. Glutamatergic synaptic currents of nigral dopaminergic neurons follow a postnatal developmental sequence

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    Edouard ePearlstein

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous activity pattern of adult dopaminergic (DA neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc results from interactions between intrinsic membrane conductances and afferent inputs. In adult SNc DA neurons, low-frequency tonic background activity is generated by intrinsic pacemaker mechanisms, whereas burst generation depends on intact synaptic inputs in particular the glutamatergic ones. Tonic DA release in the striatum during pacemaking is required to maintain motor activity, and burst firing evokes phasic DA release, necessary for cue-dependent learning tasks. However, it is still unknown how the firing properties of SNc DA neurons mature during postnatal development before reaching the adult state. We studied the postnatal developmental profile of spontaneous and evoked AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs in SNc DA neurons in brain slices from immature (postnatal days P4-10 and young adult (P30-50 tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-GFP mice. We found that somato-dendritic fields of SNc DA neurons are already mature at P4-10. In contrast, spontaneous glutamatergic EPSCs show a developmental sequence. Spontaneous NMDA EPSCs in particular are larger and more frequent in immature SNc DA neurons than in young adult ones and have a bursty pattern. They are mediated by GluN2B and GluN2D subunit-containing NMDA receptors. The latter generate long-lasting, DQP1105-sensitive, spontaneous EPSCs, which are transiently recorded during this early period. Due to high NMDA activity, immature SNc DA neurons generate large and long lasting NMDA receptor-dependent (APV-sensitive bursts in response to the stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. We conclude that the transient high NMDA activity allows calcium influx into the dendrites of developing SNc DA neurons.

  16. Postnatal effects of prenatal insult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.M.; Newman, L.M.; Schmidt, R.R.

    1988-03-01

    Exogenous agents may perturb development during the embryonic period and adversely affect the formation of organs. However, adverse effects on development are not limited to the embryonic period nor are the manifestations restricted solely to outright gross structural malformation, but may instead be expressed as a decrement or abberration of postnatal function. Susceptibility to altered development may extend well into the postnatal period. Studies of functional parameters in several organ systems have demonstrated the broad-based susceptibility, subtlety of expression and potential of long-lasting effects of altered development assessed by physiologic assays. Adverse effects on functional development, whether in the CNS, reproductive, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, respiratory, or immune systems, etc., merit continuing investigation. From the viewpoint of risk estimation and hazard detection, evaluations of postnatal functional parameters may be relevant for several reasons. First, such parameters may serve as low-dose triggers. Second, they may be useful as a focal point for epidemiological studies. Finally, a more thorough understanding of the degree and magnitude of such postnatal functional deficits is needed since an adverse maternal effect may be transient, considered acceptable, or unperceived, but the effect on the conceptus may be permanent and severe. The immune and respiratory systems are discussed as two examples of how subtle and protean adverse effects on functional development may be.

  17. Intestinal absorption and renal reabsorption of calcium throughout postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Megan R; Alexander, R Todd

    2017-04-01

    Calcium is vital for many physiological functions including bone mineralization. Postnatal deposition of calcium into bone is greatest in infancy and continues through childhood and adolescence until peek mineral density is reached in early adulthood. Thereafter, bone mineral density remains static until it eventually declines in later life. A positive calcium balance, i.e. more calcium absorbed than excreted, is crucial to bone deposition during growth and thus to peek bone mineral density. Dietary calcium is absorbed from the intestine into the blood. It is then filtered by the renal glomerulus and either reabsorbed by the tubule or excreted in the urine. Calcium can be (re)absorbed across intestinal and renal epithelia via both transcellular and paracellular pathways. Current evidence suggests that significant intestinal and renal calcium transport changes occur throughout development. However, the molecular details of these alterations are incompletely delineated. Here we first briefly review the current model of calcium transport in the intestine and renal tubule in the adult. Then, we describe what is known with regard to calcium handling through postnatal development, and how alterations may aid in mediating a positive calcium balance. The role of transcellular and paracellular calcium transport pathways and the contribution of specific intestinal and tubular segments vary with age. However, the current literature highlights knowledge gaps in how specifically intestinal and renal calcium (re)absorption occurs early in postnatal development. Future research should clarify the specific changes in calcium transport throughout early postnatal development including mediators of these alterations enabling appropriate bone mineralization. Impact statement This mini review outlines the current state of knowledge pertaining to the molecules and mechanisms maintaining a positive calcium balance throughout postnatal development. This process is essential to achieving

  18. Postnatal brain development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry L; Baaré, William F C; Stiles, Joan

    2011-01-01

    After birth, there is striking biological and functional development of the brain's fiber tracts as well as remodeling of cortical and subcortical structures. Behavioral development in children involves a complex and dynamic set of genetically guided processes by which neural structures interact...... constantly with the environment. This is a protracted process, beginning in the third week of gestation and continuing into early adulthood. Reviewed here are studies using structural imaging techniques, with a special focus on diffusion weighted imaging, describing age-related brain maturational changes...... in children and adolescents, as well as studies that link these changes to behavioral differences. Finally, we discuss evidence for effects on the brain of several factors that may play a role in mediating these brain-behavior associations in children, including genetic variation, behavioral interventions...

  19. Postnatal brain development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry L; Baaré, William F C; Stiles, Joan;

    2011-01-01

    constantly with the environment. This is a protracted process, beginning in the third week of gestation and continuing into early adulthood. Reviewed here are studies using structural imaging techniques, with a special focus on diffusion weighted imaging, describing age-related brain maturational changes......After birth, there is striking biological and functional development of the brain's fiber tracts as well as remodeling of cortical and subcortical structures. Behavioral development in children involves a complex and dynamic set of genetically guided processes by which neural structures interact...... in children and adolescents, as well as studies that link these changes to behavioral differences. Finally, we discuss evidence for effects on the brain of several factors that may play a role in mediating these brain-behavior associations in children, including genetic variation, behavioral interventions...

  20. PREVALENCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF E. COLI IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT NEONATES OF EARLY ONSET SEPSIS

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    R. Singh et al.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis is one of the commonest cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world which can be classified into early onset sepsis (EOS which occurs in the first 7 days of life and late onset sepsis (LOS which occurs ≥7 days of life. E. coli has been reported to be one of the significant and most common nosocomial pathogen which may cause septicemia, pneumonia and meningitis in the newborn. Most of the antibiotics which have been used extensively as life saving are rendered useless because of the emergence of resistant strains of bacterias. Therefore for determining the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of E. coli which is responsible for EOS and LOS and to establish the relationship with birth weight, a total of 229 blood samples were obtained from the neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU who showed the clinical signs and symptoms of neonatal sepsis and sent for culture and sensitivity. Out of these 229, 102 showed the positive culture, among which early onset sepsis was found in 80 neonates while late onset sepsis was diagnosed in 22 neonates. The most frequent pathogen isolated from positive blood culture was E. coli (66.66% and it was also the most common pathogen in low birth weight and preterm neonates of both early (59 cases- 57.84% and late-onset (9 cases- 8.82% sepsis and the incidence was found higher in early onset sepsis. The isolate was completely resistant to vancomycin and the resistance was higher for monotherapy of semi-synthetic penicillin group of antibiotics than their combination therapy with sulbactum. Imepenam and gatifloxacin showed the highest sensitivity (100%, followed by Piperacillin - tazobactum and ciprofloxacin, however the frequency of resistance was more common in low birth weight neonates of early onset sepsis.

  1. Birth weight, growth and feeding pattern in early infancy predict overweight/obesity status at two years of age: a birth cohort study of Chinese infants.

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    Jianduan Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the early determinants of overweight and obesity status at age two years. METHODS: A total of 1098 healthy neonates (563 boys and 535 girls were involved in this community-based prospective study in China. Data on body weight and length were collected at birth, the 3(rd and 24(th month. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on social demography and feeding patterns of children, etc. Three multivariable logistic regression models were employed to make various comparisons of weight status, i.e., model 1 (obesity vs. non-obesity, model 2 (combined overweight and obesity vs. normal weight, and model 3 (obesity, overweight and normal weight. RESULTS: Prevalences of overweight/obesity (95(th >BMI ≥85(th p and BMI ≥95(th p, referring to WHO BMI standards at 2 years of age are 15.8%/11.2% for boys and 12.9%/9.0% for girls, respectively. Being born with macrosomia (OR: 1.80-1.88, relatively greater BMI increment in the first 3 months (OR: 1.15-1.16 and bottle emptying by encouragement at age two (OR: 1.30-1.57 were found in all three models to be significant risk factors for higher BMI status at 2 years. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI (OR: 1.09-1.12, paternal BMI (OR: 1.06, and mixed breastfeeding (OR: 1.54-1.57 or formula feeding (OR: 1.90-1.93 in the first month were identified as significant in models 2 and 3. Child-initiated bottle emptying at age two was observed to increase the risk of obesity by 1.31 times but only in model 1. CONCLUSION: Fetal and early postnatal growth and feeding pattern appear to have significant impacts on early childhood overweight and obesity status independent of parental BMI. Policy-based and multidisciplinary approaches to promote breastfeeding and enhancement of feeding skills of care takers may be promising intervention strategies.

  2. The influence of environmental factors on early life history patterns of flounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, John Selden; Ueno, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yousuke; Walsh, Harvey; Maeda, Tsuneo; Kinoshita, Izumi; Seikai, Tadahisa; Hoss, Donald E.; Tanaka, Masaru

    1998-09-01

    The near-shore migration and settlement phases of Japanese and American flounders of the genus Paralichthys are compared and discussed relative to differences in coastal environments. Field sampling was conducted in Wakasa Bay, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan, where the shelf is narrow, estuarine habitat limited and tidal range slight, and in Onslow Bay, North Carolina, USA, where the shelf is broad, estuarine habitat extensive and tide relatively strong. Distribution of larvae and juveniles suggests Japanese flounder spawn in close proximity to nursery grounds relative to flounder in Onslow Bay. Sampling of planktonic and benthic flounder just seaward of nursery grounds resulted in capture of a wide range of developmental stages in Wakasa Bay (early planktonic to juvenile), but was limited to metamorphosing larvae in Onslow Bay. Vertical distribution of larvae during the night also differed between the Bays. At night most larvae in Wakasa Bay remained near the bottom regardless of tidal stage. In contrast, larvae in Onslow Bay exhibited selective tidal stream transport. Laboratory experiments conducted to examine the behaviour of recently captured wild and laboratory-reared larvae indicated that wild flounder from Onslow Bay had an endogenous rhythm of activity that corresponded to the tide at the time of capture. In contrast, wild flounder from Wakasa Bay and laboratory-reared larvae showed no distinct activity pattern. These results suggest that physical characteristics of the environment influence the early life history patterns of flounders by modifying behaviour of migrating larvae.

  3. Patterns of Early-Life Gut Microbial Colonization during Human Immune Development: An Ecological Perspective

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    Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbial colonization during early life have been reported in infants that later developed asthma, allergies, type 1 diabetes, as well as in inflammatory bowel disease patients, previous to disease flares. Mechanistic studies in animal models have established that microbial alterations influence disease pathogenesis via changes in immune system maturation. Strong evidence points to the presence of a window of opportunity in early life, during which changes in gut microbial colonization can result in immune dysregulation that predisposes susceptible hosts to disease. Although the ecological patterns of microbial succession in the first year of life have been partly defined in specific human cohorts, the taxonomic and functional features, and diversity thresholds that characterize these microbial alterations are, for the most part, unknown. In this review, we summarize the most important links between the temporal mosaics of gut microbial colonization and the age-dependent immune functions that rely on them. We also highlight the importance of applying ecology theory to design studies that explore the interactions between this complex ecosystem and the host immune system. Focusing research efforts on understanding the importance of temporally structured patterns of diversity, keystone groups, and inter-kingdom microbial interactions for ecosystem functions has great potential to enable the development of biologically sound interventions aimed at maintaining and/or improving immune system development and preventing disease.

  4. Daily Physical Activity Patterns During the Early Stage of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Vijay R; Watts, Amber

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that results in severe disability. Very few studies have explored changes in daily physical activity patterns during early stages of AD when components of physical function and mobility may be preserved. Our study explored differences in daily physical activity profiles, independent of the effects of non-cognitive factors including physical function and age, among individuals with mild AD compared to controls. Patients with mild AD and controls (n = 92) recruited from the University of Kansas Alzheimer's Disease Center Registry, wore the Actigraph GT3X+ for seven days, and provided objective physical function (VO2 max) and mobility data. Using multivariate linear regression, we explored whether individuals with mild AD had different daily average and diurnal physical activity patterns compared to controls independent of non-cognitive factors that may affect physical activity, including physical function and mobility. We found that mild AD was associated with less moderate-intensity physical activity (p testing time-of-day specific physical activity interventions targeting individuals in the early stages of AD, prior to significant declines in mobility and physical function.

  5. Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis

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    Simpson Kelly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6. There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences of injuries experienced by young children who present to the emergency department for assessment and treatment. This provides objective evidence about prevention priorities to be considered in anticipatory counseling and public health planning. Methods Four complete years of data (1999–2002; n = 5876 cases were reviewed from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, an ongoing injury surveillance initiative. Epidemiological analyses were used to characterize injury patterns within and across age groups (0–6 years that corresponded to normative developmental stages. Results The average annual rate of emergency department-attended childhood injury was 107 per 1000 (95% CI 91–123, with boys experiencing higher annual rates of injury than girls (122 vs. 91 per 1000; p Conclusion This population-based injury surveillance analysis provides a strong evidence-base to inform and enhance anticipatory counseling and other public health efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood injury during the early years.

  6. Serum microRNA expression patterns that predict early treatment failure in prostate cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant K.; Preus, Leah; Hu, Qiang; Yan, Li; Long, Mark D.; Morrison, Carl D.; Nesline, Mary; Johnson, Candace S.; Koochekpour, Shahriar; Kohli, Manish; Liu, Song; Trump, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to identify microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns in the serum of prostate cancer (CaP) patients that predict the risk of early treatment failure following radical prostatectomy (RP). Microarray and Q-RT-PCR analyses identified 43 miRNAs as differentiating disease stages within 14 prostate cell lines and reflectedpublically available patient data. 34 of these miRNA were detectable in the serum of CaP patients. Association with time to biochemical progression was examined in a cohort of CaP patients following RP. A greater than two-fold increase in hazard of biochemical progression associated with altered expression of miR-103, miR-125b and miR-222 (p <.0008) in the serum of CaP patients. Prediction models based on penalized regression analyses showed that the levels of the miRNAs and PSA together were better at detecting false positives than models without miRNAs, for similar level of sensitivity. Analyses of publically available data revealed significant and reciprocal relationships between changes in CpG methylation and miRNA expression patterns suggesting a role for CpG methylation to regulate miRNA. Exploratory validation supported roles for miR-222 and miR-125b to predict progression risk in CaP. The current study established that expression patterns of serum-detectable miRNAs taken at the time of RP are prognostic for men who are at risk of experiencing subsequent early biochemical progression. These non-invasive approaches could be used to augment treatment decisions. PMID:24583788

  7. Essential function of the transcription factor Rax in the early patterning of the mammalian hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orquera, Daniela P; Nasif, Sofia; Low, Malcolm J; Rubinstein, Marcelo; de Souza, Flávio S J

    2016-08-01

    The hypothalamus is a region of the anterior forebrain that controls basic aspects of vertebrate physiology, but the genes involved in its development are still poorly understood. Here, we investigate the function of the homeobox gene Rax/Rx in early hypothalamic development using a conditional targeted inactivation strategy in the mouse. We found that lack of Rax expression prior to embryonic day 8.5 (E8.5) caused a general underdevelopment of the hypothalamic neuroepithelium, while inactivation at later timepoints had little effect. The early absence of Rax impaired neurogenesis and prevented the expression of molecular markers of the dorsomedial hypothalamus, including neuropeptides Proopiomelanocortin and Somatostatin. Interestingly, the expression domains of genes expressed in the ventromedial hypothalamus and infundibulum invaded dorsal hypothalamic territory, showing that Rax is needed for the proper dorsoventral patterning of the developing medial hypothalamus. The phenotypes caused by the early loss of Rax are similar to those of eliminating the expression of the morphogen Sonic hedgehog (Shh) specifically from the hypothalamus. Consistent with this similarity in phenotypes, we observed that Shh and Rax are coexpressed in the rostral forebrain at late head fold stages and that loss of Rax caused a downregulation of Shh expression in the dorsomedial portion of the hypothalamus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in Laminin Expression Pattern during Early Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

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    Martin Pook

    Full Text Available Laminin isoforms laminin-511 and -521 are expressed by human embryonic stem cells (hESC and can be used as a growth matrix to culture these cells under pluripotent conditions. However, the expression of these laminins during the induction of hESC differentiation has not been studied in detail. Furthermore, the data regarding the expression pattern of laminin chains in differentiating hESC is scarce. In the current study we aimed to fill this gap and investigated the potential changes in laminin expression during early hESC differentiation induced by retinoic acid (RA. We found that laminin-511 but not -521 accumulates in the committed cells during early steps of hESC differentiation. We also performed a comprehensive analysis of the laminin chain repertoire and found that pluripotent hESC express a more diverse range of laminin chains than shown previously. In particular, we provide the evidence that in addition to α1, α5, β1, β2 and γ1 chains, hESC express α2, α3, β3, γ2 and γ3 chain proteins and mRNA. Additionally, we found that a variant of laminin α3 chain-145 kDa-accumulated in RA-treated hESC showing that these cells produce prevalently specifically modified version of α3 chain in early phase of differentiation.

  9. Changes in Laminin Expression Pattern during Early Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pook, Martin; Teino, Indrek; Kallas, Ade; Maimets, Toivo; Ingerpuu, Sulev; Jaks, Viljar

    2015-01-01

    Laminin isoforms laminin-511 and -521 are expressed by human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and can be used as a growth matrix to culture these cells under pluripotent conditions. However, the expression of these laminins during the induction of hESC differentiation has not been studied in detail. Furthermore, the data regarding the expression pattern of laminin chains in differentiating hESC is scarce. In the current study we aimed to fill this gap and investigated the potential changes in laminin expression during early hESC differentiation induced by retinoic acid (RA). We found that laminin-511 but not -521 accumulates in the committed cells during early steps of hESC differentiation. We also performed a comprehensive analysis of the laminin chain repertoire and found that pluripotent hESC express a more diverse range of laminin chains than shown previously. In particular, we provide the evidence that in addition to α1, α5, β1, β2 and γ1 chains, hESC express α2, α3, β3, γ2 and γ3 chain proteins and mRNA. Additionally, we found that a variant of laminin α3 chain-145 kDa-accumulated in RA-treated hESC showing that these cells produce prevalently specifically modified version of α3 chain in early phase of differentiation.

  10. Postnatal depression and its associated factors among Northeastern Nigerian women

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    Dauda Sulyman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postnatal depression is a serious psychiatric condition that occurs in puerperium. It is associated with increased morbidity and can overwhelm new mothers and interfere with the care of their babies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of postnatal depression and assess factors that are associated with its development among northeastern Nigerian women. Materials and Methods: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS questionnaire was administered to four hundred and eighty-three women who delivered at the maternity unit of a tertiary health institution in northeastern Nigeria. Their sociodemographic and clinical variables were also obtained using pro forma questionnaire designed by the researchers. Results: One hundred and eight respondents scored 13 or more points on EPNDS, making the prevalence rate of postnatal depression 22.4%. Factors that are associated with the development of postnatal depression are unemployment [odds ratio (OR = 0.49, 95% (CI = 0.27-0.86, P value = 0.018, lack of support from the husband (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.19-0.60, P value = 0.000, and primiparity (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.35-0.88, P value = 0.013; others are unplanned pregnancy (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.35-0.88, P value = 0.013 and physical illness in the mother (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.77-2.79, P value = 0.007. Conclusion: The study showed that a significant proportion of new mothers have postnatal depression. This may negatively affect their parenting skills and may have adverse effects on them and their children. Early detection and effective management, together with an efficient collaboration among psychiatrists, obstetricians, and other health workers who are involved in the care of new mothers, will go a long way in reducing the negative consequences that may result from this condition.

  11. Expression of transcripts for fibroblast growth factor 18 and its possible receptors during postnatal dentin formation in rat molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Otto; Ota, Masato S; Terashima, Tatsuo; Tabata, Makoto J; Takano, Yoshiro

    2015-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) regulate the proliferation and differentiation of various cells via their respective receptors (FGFRs). During the early stages of tooth development in fetal mice, FGFs and FGFRs have been shown to be expressed in dental epithelia and mesenchymal cells at the initial stages of odontogenesis and to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. However, little is known about the expression patterns of FGFs in the advanced stages of tooth development. In the present study, we focused on FGF18 expression in the rat mandibular first molar (M1) during the postnatal crown and root formation stages. FGF18 signals by RT-PCR using cDNAs from M1 were very weak at postnatal day 5 and were significantly up-regulated at days 7, 9 and 15. Transcripts were undetectable by in situ hybridization (ISH) but could be detected by in situ RT-PCR in the differentiated odontoblasts and cells of the sub-odontoblastic layer in both crown and root portions of M1 at day 15. The transcripts of FGFR2c and FGFR3, possible candidate receptors of FGF18, were detected by RT-PCR and ISH in differentiated odontoblasts throughout postnatal development. These results suggest the continual involvement of FGF18 signaling in the regulation of odontoblasts during root formation where it may contribute to dentin matrix formation and/or mineralization.

  12. In vivo tracking of segmental bone defect healing reveals that callus patterning is related to early mechanical stimuli

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    M Mehta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the hypothesis that callus formation, patterning, and mineralisation are impaired during the early phase of critical sized bone defect healing, and may relate to inter-fragmentary tissue strains within the bone defect area. Twenty four 12 week old Sprague Dawley rats were used for this study. They were divided into two groups defined by the femur bone defect size: (i 1 mm resulting in normal healing (NH, and (ii a large sized 5 mm defect resulting in critical healing (CH. Callus formation, patterning, and mineralisation kinetics in both groups were examined in the periosteal and osteotomy gap regions using a novel longitudinal study setup. Finite element analyses on µCT generated tomograms were used to determine inter-fragmentary tissue strain patterns and compared to callus formation and patterning over the course of time. Using a novel longitudinal study technique with µCT, in vivo tracking and computer simulation approaches, this study demonstrates that: (i periosteal bone formation and patterning are significantly influenced by bone defect size as early as 2 weeks; (ii osteotomy gap callus formation and patterning are influenced by bone defect size, and adapt towards a non-union in critical cases by deviating into a medullary formation route as early as 2 weeks after osteotomy; (iii the new bone formation in the osteotomy gap enclosing the medullary cavity in the CH group is highly mineralised; (iv inter-fragmentary strain patterns predicted during the very early soft callus tissue phase (less than 2 weeks are concurrent with callus formation and patterning at later stages. In conclusion, bone defect size influences early onset of critical healing patterns.

  13. Physical activity patterns in patients with early and late age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    best-corrected visual acuity in the best-seeing and the worse-seeing eye was associated with less engagement in physical activities that would work up sweat and a lower number of steps taken daily. Patients with bilateral vision loss from late AMD engaged in physical activities that were more......INTRODUCTION: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to visual impairment that affects visual functioning and thereby the ability to be physically active. We investigated physical activity patterns in patients with AMD. METHODS: Patients with early and late AMD and elderly controls were...... recruited for this hospital-based cross-sectional study. All participants had their best-corrected visual acuity measured and were interviewed about their physical activity based on questions that covered regular physical activity, physical activity that would work up sweat, climbing the stairs and time...

  14. Early age shrinkage pattern of concrete on replacement of fine aggregate with industrial by-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Mishra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This is an experimental work carried out to investigate early age shrinkage pattern of concrete, prepared, on 50% replacement of industrial by-product (like pond ash and granulated blast furnace slag as fine aggregate using OPC, PPC and PSC as a binder. This is to observe the effect of pond ash and slag as they are having some cementitious properties and effect of cement type is also discussed. All the mixes were prepared keeping in view of pumpable concrete without any super plasticizers. Higher shrinkage value indicates the presence of more bleed water or internal moisture. It is concluded that slag is the best option for fine aggregate replacement for concrete making and durable structure.

  15. Physical activity patterns in patients with early and late age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    best-corrected visual acuity in the best-seeing and the worse-seeing eye was associated with less engagement in physical activities that would work up sweat and a lower number of steps taken daily. Patients with bilateral vision loss from late AMD engaged in physical activities that were more......INTRODUCTION: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to visual impairment that affects visual functioning and thereby the ability to be physically active. We investigated physical activity patterns in patients with AMD. METHODS: Patients with early and late AMD and elderly controls were...... recruited for this hospital-based cross-sectional study. All participants had their best-corrected visual acuity measured and were interviewed about their physical activity based on questions that covered regular physical activity, physical activity that would work up sweat, climbing the stairs and time...

  16. Myelin-associated glycoprotein modulates apoptosis of motoneurons during early postnatal development via NgR/p75(NTR) receptor-mediated activation of RhoA signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palandri, A; Salvador, V R; Wojnacki, J; Vivinetto, A L; Schnaar, R L; Lopez, P H H

    2015-09-03

    Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a minor constituent of nervous system myelin, selectively expressed on the periaxonal myelin wrap. By engaging multiple axonal receptors, including Nogo-receptors (NgRs), MAG exerts a nurturing and protective effect the axons it ensheaths. Pharmacological activation of NgRs has a modulatory role on p75(NTR)-dependent postnatal apoptosis of motoneurons (MNs). However, it is not clear whether this reflects a physiological role of NgRs in MN development. NgRs are part of a multimeric receptor complex, which includes p75(NTR), Lingo-1 and gangliosides. Upon ligand binding, this multimeric complex activates RhoA/ROCK signaling in a p75(NTR)-dependent manner. The aim of this study was to analyze a possible modulatory role of MAG on MN apoptosis during postnatal development. A time course study showed that Mag-null mice suffer a loss of MNs during the first postnatal week. Also, these mice exhibited increased susceptibility in an animal model of p75(NTR)-dependent MN apoptosis induced by nerve-crush injury, which was prevented by treatment with a soluble form of MAG (MAG-Fc). The protective role of MAG was confirmed in in vitro models of p75(NTR)-dependent MN apoptosis using the MN1 cell line and primary cultures. Lentiviral expression of shRNA sequences targeting NgRs on these cells abolished protection by MAG-Fc. Analysis of RhoA activity using a FRET-based RhoA biosensor showed that MAG-Fc activates RhoA. Pharmacological inhibition of p75(NTR)/RhoA/ROCK pathway, or overexpression of a p75(NTR) mutant unable to activate RhoA, completely blocked MAG-Fc protection against apoptosis. The role of RhoA/ROCK signaling was further confirmed in the nerve-crush model, where pretreatment with ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 blocked the pro-survival effect of MAG-Fc. These findings identify a new protective role of MAG as a modulator of apoptosis of MNs during postnatal development by a mechanism involving the p75(NTR)/RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway

  17. Early embryonic chromosome instability results in stable mosaic pattern in human tissues.

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    Hasmik Mkrtchyan

    Full Text Available The discovery of copy number variations (CNV in the human genome opened new perspectives on the study of the genetic causes of inherited disorders and the aetiology of common diseases. Here, a single-cell-level investigation of CNV in different human tissues led us to uncover the phenomenon of mitotically derived genomic mosaicism, which is stable in different cell types of one individual. The CNV mosaic ratios were different between the 10 individuals studied. However, they were stable in the T lymphocytes, immortalized B lymphoblastoid cells, and skin fibroblasts analyzed in each individual. Because these cell types have a common origin in the connective tissues, we suggest that mitotic changes in CNV regions may happen early during embryonic development and occur only once, after which the stable mosaic ratio is maintained throughout the differentiated tissues. This concept is further supported by a unique study of immortalized B lymphoblastoid cell lines obtained with 20 year difference from two subjects. We provide the first evidence of somatic mosaicism for CNV, with stable variation ratios in different cell types of one individual leading to the hypothesis of early embryonic chromosome instability resulting in stable mosaic pattern in human tissues. This concept has the potential to open new perspectives in personalized genetic diagnostics and can explain genetic phenomena like diminished penetrance in autosomal dominant diseases. We propose that further genomic studies should focus on the single-cell level, to better understand the aetiology of aging and diseases mediated by somatic mutations.

  18. 孕早期暴露家装空气污染物及高温对新生鼠神经行为的影响%Effects of early pregnancy exposure to hazardous indoor air pollutants due to interior decoration and hyperthermia on neurobehavioral development of postnatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 赵聪敏

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨孕早期暴露家装空气污染物以及联合高温对新生大鼠神经行为的影响.方法 22只孕鼠随机分为4组,每天置于污染物柜、高温柜、高温联合污染物柜以及空染毒柜中2 h时,共10 d,然后对其分娩的新生鼠在不同时间点观察体质量变化和神经行为学改变.同时观察大鼠海马CAI区凋亡和死亡神经元的数量并检测海马组织中NMDA受体NRI亚基的基因表达变化.结果 化学污染物、高温可导致新生鼠海马神经元的死亡和凋亡以及促进海马NMDA受体NRI基因的表达,并对其神经行为、学习记忆能力有显著的影响,二者联合可加重其损伤作用.结论 孕早期暴露家装宅气污染物和高温环境会对新生鼠神经系统的发育产生明显影响.%Objective To investigate the effects of early pregnancy exposure to hazardous indoor air pollu-tants due to interior decoration and hyperthermia on neurobehavioral development of postnatal rats. Methods Twenty-two pregnant rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Each group was placed in pollutants cabinet,hyperthermia cabinet, hyperthermia + pollutants cabinet and empty cabinet respectively for 2 h per day for 10 d since their pregnancy. The weight and neurobehavioral development of postnatal rats were observed at different time points. The number of apoptotic and dead neurons in the CA1 region of hippocampus was observed in post-natal rats. The expression of the NR1 subunit of NMDA receptor of hippocampal neurons was also detected.Results Indoor pollutants and hyperthermia could accelerate apoptosis and necrosis of hippocampal neurons in CA1 region of postnatal rats and increase the expression of NRI subunit of NMDA receptor. Furthermore, haz-ardous indoor pollutants and hyperthermia could induce remarkable influences on postnatal rats' neurobehavior-al development, learning and memory capability. Indoor pollutants combined with hyporthermia aggravated these effects

  19. Pattern recognition applied to infrared images for early alerts in fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Vincent; Marchetti, Mario; Dumoulin, Jean; Cord, Aurélien

    2014-09-01

    Fog conditions are the cause of severe car accidents in western countries because of the poor induced visibility. Its forecast and intensity are still very difficult to predict by weather services. Infrared cameras allow to detect and to identify objects in fog while visibility is too low for eye detection. Over the past years, the implementation of cost effective infrared cameras on some vehicles has enabled such detection. On the other hand pattern recognition algorithms based on Canny filters and Hough transformation are a common tool applied to images. Based on these facts, a joint research program between IFSTTAR and Cerema has been developed to study the benefit of infrared images obtained in a fog tunnel during its natural dissipation. Pattern recognition algorithms have been applied, specifically on road signs which shape is usually associated to a specific meaning (circular for a speed limit, triangle for an alert, …). It has been shown that road signs were detected early enough in images, with respect to images in the visible spectrum, to trigger useful alerts for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.

  20. Early, nonciliary role for microtubule proteins in left-right patterning is conserved across kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobikin, Maria; Wang, Gang; Xu, Jingsong; Hsieh, Yi-Wen; Chuang, Chiou-Fen; Lemire, Joan M; Levin, Michael

    2012-07-31

    Many types of embryos' bodyplans exhibit consistently oriented laterality of the heart, viscera, and brain. Errors of left-right patterning present an important class of human birth defects, and considerable controversy exists about the nature and evolutionary conservation of the molecular mechanisms that allow embryos to reliably orient the left-right axis. Here we show that the same mutations in the cytoskeletal protein tubulin that alter asymmetry in plants also affect very early steps of left-right patterning in nematode and frog embryos, as well as chirality of human cells in culture. In the frog embryo, tubulin α and tubulin γ-associated proteins are required for the differential distribution of maternal proteins to the left or right blastomere at the first cell division. Our data reveal a remarkable molecular conservation of mechanisms initiating left-right asymmetry. The origin of laterality is cytoplasmic, ancient, and highly conserved across kingdoms, a fundamental feature of the cytoskeleton that underlies chirality in cells and multicellular organisms.

  1. Serotonin has early, cilia-independent roles in Xenopus left-right patterning

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    Laura N. Vandenberg

    2013-01-01

    Consistent left-right (LR patterning of the heart and viscera is a crucial part of normal embryogenesis. Because errors of laterality form a common class of birth defects, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms and stage at which LR asymmetry is initiated. Frog embryos are a system uniquely suited to analysis of the mechanisms involved in orientation of the LR axis because of the many genetic and pharmacological tools available for use and the fate-map and accessibility of early blastomeres. Two major models exist for the origin of LR asymmetry and both implicate pre-nervous serotonergic signaling. In the first, the charged serotonin molecule is instructive for LR patterning; it is redistributed asymmetrically along the LR axis and signals intracellularly on the right side at cleavage stages. A second model suggests that serotonin is a permissive factor required to specify the dorsal region of the embryo containing chiral cilia that generate asymmetric fluid flow during neurulation, a much later process. We performed theory-neutral experiments designed to distinguish between these models. The results uniformly support a role for serotonin in the cleavage-stage embryo, long before the appearance of cilia, in ventral right blastomeres that do not contribute to the ciliated organ.

  2. The importance of combinatorial gene expression in early mammalian thalamic patterning and thalamocortical axonal guidance

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    David J Price

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The thalamus is essential for sensory perception. In mammals, work on the mouse has taught us most of what we know about how it develops and connects to the cortex. The mature thalamus of all mammalian species comprises numerous anatomically distinct collections of neurons called nuclei that differ in function, connectivity and molecular constitution. At the time of its initial appearance as a distinct structure following neural tube closure, the thalamus is already patterned by the regional expression of numerous regulatory genes. This patterning, which lays down the blueprint for later development of thalamic nuclei, predates the development of thalamocortical projections. In this review we apply novel analytical methods to gene expression data available in the Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas to highlight the complex organized molecular heterogeneity already present among cells in the thalamus from the earliest stages at which it contains differentiating neurons. This early patterning is likely to invest in axons growing from different parts of the thalamus the ability to navigate in an ordered way to their appropriate area in the cerebral cortex. We review the mechanisms and cues that thalamic axons use, encounter and interpret to attain the cortex. Mechanisms include guidance by previously-generated guidepost cells, such as those in the subpallium that maintain thalamic axonal order and direction, and axons such as those of reciprocal projections from intermediate structures or from the cortex itself back towards the thalamus. We show how thalamocortical pathfinding involves numerous guidance cues operating at a series of steps along their route. We stress the importance of the combinatorial actions of multiple genes for the development of the numerous specific identities and functions of cells in this exquisitely complex system and their orderly innervation of the cortex.

  3. Ubiquitous expression of selenoprotein N transcripts in chicken tissues and early developmental expression pattern in skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiuli; Li, Jinlong; Zhang, Ziwei; Sun, Bo; Wang, Rihua; Jiang, Zhihui; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

    2012-05-01

    Previous results revealed a ubiquitous expression pattern of selenoprotein N (SelN, SEPN1) in humans, zebrafish, and mouse, suggesting that it plays a potential role during the embryogenesis of these species. However, no information is known about the tissue distribution of SelN and mRNA expression analysis in the muscle tissues during development in birds. We analyzed the mRNA expression of SelN in 26 different tissues of 90-day-old chickens and the expression of SelN in the muscle tissues of 12-day-old chicken embryos and 15-month-old adult chickens by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that SelN transcripts were expressed widely in the chicken tissues. Moreover, the expression of SelN mRNA in skeletal muscles was present at a high level in whole embryos and at a lower level in postnatal stages. However, the expression of SelN mRNA in cardiac muscle showed a different expression pattern compared with skeletal muscles. Our data indicate that the expression of the SelN gene in chicken is ubiquitous, suggesting a role of SelN in the development of chick embryo skeletal muscles.

  4. Role of sensory-motor cortex activity in postnatal development of corticospinal axon terminals in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Kathleen M; Martin, John H

    2005-04-25

    The initial pattern of corticospinal (CS) terminations, as axons grow into the spinal gray matter, bears little resemblance to the pattern later in development and in maturity. This is because of extensive axon pruning and local axon terminal growth during early postnatal development. Pruning is driven by activity-dependent competition between the CS systems on each side during postnatal weeks (PW) 3-7. It is not known whether CS axon terminal growth and final topography are activity dependent. We examined the activity dependence of CS axon terminal growth and topography at different postnatal times. We inactivated sensory-motor cortex by infusion of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) agonist muscimol and traced CS axons from the inactivated side. Inactivation between PW5 and PW7 produced permanent changes in projection topography, reduced local axon branching, and prevented development of dense clusters of presynaptic sites, which are normally characteristic of CS terminals. Inactivation at younger (PW3-5) and older (PW8-12) ages did not affect projection topography but impeded development of local axon branching and presynaptic site clusters. These effects were not due to increased cortical cell death during inactivation. Neural activity plays an important role in determining the morphology of CS terminals during the entire period of development, but, for the projection topography, the role of activity is exercised during a very brief period. This points to a complex, and possibly independent, regulation of termination topography and terminal morphology. Surprisingly, when a CS neuron's activity is blocked during early development, it does not recover lost connections later in development once activity resumes.

  5. Evaluation of postnatal weight growth in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, Enrico; Milani, Silvano; Boni, Luisa; Coscia, Alessandra; Rossetti, Gessica; Testa, Tiziana; Giuliani, Francesca; Appino, Irene; Spada, Elena; Fabris, Claudio

    2007-12-01

    There is general agreement about the need for longitudinal studies of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) to evaluate their postnatal growth and to generate distance and velocity charts that allow neonatologists and pediatricians to detect earlier whether a child is not growing adequately. There are no satisfactory growth charts for VLBWI. We analyzed the weight growth of 262 VLBWIs from birth to 2 years of corrected age. Individual growth profiles were fitted with a 7-constant exponential-logistic function suitable for modelling weight growth pattern. After a postnatal weight loss, all VLBWIs showed a late neonatal peak of velocity between the seventh and 21st weeks; the large majority of them also experienced an early neonatal peak between the second and the sixth weeks. Small-for-gestational-age VLBWIs with major morbidities grew less than reference appropriate-for-gestational-age VLBWIs without major morbidities: at 2 years, the difference in weight was about 860 g. The more severe growth impairment in VLBWIs with major morbidities was almost entirely due to the reduced height of the late neonatal peak of velocity. The mathematical function used in this study is expected to be a useful tool to trace model-based longitudinal distance and velocity charts specific for VLBWIs. Moreover, this function also could be used to evaluate to what extent different pathological conditions or nutritional and medical care protocols affect growth kinetics.

  6. The Effects of Maternal Postnatal Depression and Child Sex on Academic Performance at Age 16 Years: A Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne; Arteche, Adriane; Fearon, Pasco; Halligan, Sarah; Croudace, Tim; Cooper, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postnatal depression (PND) is associated with poor cognitive functioning in infancy and the early school years; long-term effects on academic outcome are not known. Method: Children of postnatally depressed (N = 50) and non-depressed mothers (N = 39), studied from infancy, were followed up at 16 years. We examined the effects on…

  7. Expression of the retinoic acid-metabolizing enzymes RALDH2 and CYP26b1 during mouse postnatal testis development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Wen Wu; Ru-Yao Wang; Qiang-Su Guo; Chen Xu

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the expression pattern of the retinoic acid metabolizing enzymes RALDH2 and CYP26bl during mouse postnatal testis development at both mRNA and protein levels. Methods: Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were performed to determine the relative quantity of RALDH2 and CYP26bl at both mRNA and protein levels at postnatal day 1, 5, 10, 20, and in adult mice (70 days testes). Testicular localization of RALDH2 and CYP26bl during mouse postnatal development was examined using immunohistochemistry assay. Results: Aldhla 2 transcripts and its protein RALDH2 began to increase at postnatal day 10, and remained at a high level through postnatal day 20 to adulthood. Cyp26bl transcripts and CYP26bl protein did not change significantly during mouse postnatal testis development. RALDH2 was undetectable in the postnatal 1, 5 and 10 day testes using immunohis- tochemistry assay. At postnatal day 20 it was detected in pachytene spermatocytes. Robust expression of RALDH2 was restricted in round spermatids in the adult mouse testis. In the developing and adult testis, CYP26bl protein was confined to the peritubular myoepithelial cells. Conclusion: Our results indicate that following birth, the level of retinoic acid in the seminiferous tubules might begin to increase at postnatal day 10, and maintain a high level through postnatal day 20 to adulthood. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 569-576)

  8. Cognitive performance patterns in healthy individuals with substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and early Parkinson’s disease

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    Rezzak Yilmaz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN+ is a risk marker for Parkinson’s disease (PD which can be detected before the diagnosis. In healthy individuals, SN+ has been associated with slight deficits in specific cognitive functions, suggesting cognitive impairment as a possible pre-diagnostic marker for PD. However, the pattern of cognitive deficits associated with SN+ has not yet been compared with those present in PD.Methods: Data of 262 healthy individuals with normal echogenicity (SN- and 48 healthy individuals with SN+ were compared with 82 early stage PD patients using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease test battery. First, the test clusters (factors were identified using a principal component analysis (PCA. Mean group performance of cognitive tests belonging to distinct factors, according to the PCA, and single subtest performances were compared using analyses of variance. Second, the number of individuals with abnormal cognitive performances (z-score <-1.0 were compared between groups. Results: Verbal memory, semantic and executive function, and praxis were identified as components of cognitive performances. The SN+ group performed significantly worse than the SN- group in tests assessing semantic and executive function, with a non-significant decrease in verbal memory. On the subtest level, individuals of the SN+ group scored significantly lower than the SN- group on the Boston Naming Test (BNT (p=0.008. In all subtests, the percentages of PD patients with values below the cut-off for abnormal performance were higher than in the SN- group. Moreover, more individuals from the SN+ group scored below the cut-off in the BNT (SN-=8.4%, SN+=20.8%, p=0.01 and TMT-B (SN-=6.9%, SN+=16.7%, p=0.02, compared to the SN- group. Conclusion: This study confirms poorer performance of healthy individuals with SN+ compared to SN- in specific cognitive domains. However, against the SN- group, the cognitive

  9. Embryonic and postnatal development of GABA, calbindin, calretinin, and parvalbumin in the mouse claustral complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, José Carlos; Real, M Angeles; Olmos, Luis; Legaz, Isabel; Medina, Loreta; Guirado, Salvador

    2005-01-03

    We analyzed the development of immunoreactive expression patterns for the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the calcium-binding proteins calbindin, calretinin, and parvalbumin in the embryonic and postnatal mouse claustral complex. Each calcium-binding protein shows a different temporal and spatial pattern of development. Calbindin-positive cells start to be seen very early during embryogenesis and increase dramatically until birth, thus becoming the most abundant cell type during embryonic development, especially in the ventral pallial part of the claustrum. The distribution of calbindin neurons throughout the claustrum during embryonic development partly parallels that of GABA neurons, suggesting that at least part of the calbindin neurons of the claustral complex are GABAergic and originate in the subpallium. Parvalbumin cells, on the other hand, start to be seen only postnatally, and their number then increases while the density of calbindin neurons decreases. Based on calretinin expression in axons, the core/shell compartments of the dorsal claustrum start to be clearly seen at embryonic day 18.5 and may be related to the development of the thalamoclaustral input. Comparison with the expression of Cadherin 8, a marker of the developing dorsolateral claustrum, indicates that the core includes a central part of the dorsolateral claustrum, whereas the shell includes a peripheral area of the dorsolateral claustrum, plus the adjacent ventromedial claustrum. The present data on the spatiotemporal developmental patterns of several subtypes of GABAergic neurons in the claustral complex may help for future studies on temporal lobe epilepsies, which have been related to an alteration of the GABAergic activity.

  10. A prospective cohort study among new Chinese coal miners: the early pattern of lung function change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.L.; Wu, Z.E.; Du, Q.G.; Petsonk, E.L.; Peng, K.L.; Li, Y.D.; Li, S.K.; Han, G.H.; Atffield, M.D. [NIOSH, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2005-11-01

    The early pattern of lung function changes in 317 newly hired Chinese underground coal miners was compared to 132 referents. This three year prospective cohort study involved a pre-employment and 15 follow up health surveys, including a questionnaire and spirometry tests. Twice a month, total and respirable dust area sampling was done. The authors used a two stage analysis and a linear mixed effects model approach to analyse the longitudinal spirometry data, and to investigate the changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over time, controlling for age, height, pack years of smoking, mean respirable dust concentration, the room temperature during testing, and the group x time interaction terms. Results: FEV1 change over time in new miners is non-linear. New miners experience initial rapid FEV1 declines, primarily during the first year of mining, little change during the second year, and partial recovery during the third year. Both linear and quadratic time trends in FEV1 change are highly significant. Smoking miners lost more FEV1 than non-smokers. Referents, all age less than 20 years, showed continued lung growth, whereas the miners who were under age 20 exhibited a decline in FEV1. Conclusion: Dust and smoking affect lung function in young, newly hired Chinese coal miners. FEV1 change over the first three years of employment is non-linear. The findings have implications for both methods and interpretation of medical screening in coal mining and other dusty work: during the first several years of employment more frequent testing may be desirable, and caution is required in interpreting early FEV1 declines.

  11. Feeding pattern a dual risk? otitis media (OM and early childhood caries (ECC

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    P. Sangeetha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the prevalence of Otitis media (OM and Early childhood caries (ECC and their coexistence in children with a history of faulty feeding patterns. Method: Children aged 5 years and below were recruited at random from dental and medical hospitals. Parents of these children were posed with questions about the feeding methods, feeding patterns such as duration, frequency, position, burping, specific childhood illness etc. Children (120 were examined for ECC by a Paedodontist and OM by an Otolaryngologist and were segregated into three groups i.e. Control group, ECC group and OM group respectively. The ECC group was sub grouped into ECC only and ECC&OM group. The OM group was also similarly sub grouped into OM group and OM&ECC group. Collected data were tabulated and subjected for statistical analysis using Pearson Chi – square test. Results: Prevalence of ECC, OM, and their coexistence increased with age P < 0.001, whereas gender difference was not statistically significant. Overall Prevalence of their coexistence in children was 51.25%. Significant percentages (25% of children in the OM group were fed in supine position. Children fed on demand (47.5% experienced ECC. overall 85% (p=.017 of children had coexistence of ECC&OM fed on demand and during bed time. Significant numbers of children who were burped occasionally after feeding (35% or were not burped at all (12.5% were affected with both ECC and OM. Conclusion: Prevalence of their coexistence was higher in children with OM. Significant association existed between on demand feeding and ECC; supine feeding position and OM. Risk factors in common for both the disease were combined feeding position, on demand, bed time feeding and occasionally burping.

  12. Postnatal Migration of Cerebellar Interneurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galas, Ludovic; Bénard, Magalie; Lebon, Alexis; Komuro, Yutaro; Schapman, Damien; Vaudry, Hubert; Vaudry, David; Komuro, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Due to its continuing development after birth, the cerebellum represents a unique model for studying the postnatal orchestration of interneuron migration. The combination of fluorescent labeling and ex/in vivo imaging revealed a cellular highway network within cerebellar cortical layers (the external granular layer, the molecular layer, the Purkinje cell layer, and the internal granular layer). During the first two postnatal weeks, saltatory movements, transient stop phases, cell-cell interaction/contact, and degradation of the extracellular matrix mark out the route of cerebellar interneurons, notably granule cells and basket/stellate cells, to their final location. In addition, cortical-layer specific regulatory factors such as neuropeptides (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), somatostatin) or proteins (tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1)) have been shown to inhibit or stimulate the migratory process of interneurons. These factors show further complexity because somatostatin, PACAP, or tPA have opposite or no effect on interneuron migration depending on which layer or cell type they act upon. External factors originating from environmental conditions (light stimuli, pollutants), nutrients or drug of abuse (alcohol) also alter normal cell migration, leading to cerebellar disorders. PMID:28587295

  13. Deep sequencing and expression of microRNAs from early honeybee (Apis mellifera embryos reveals a role in regulating early embryonic patterning

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    Zondag Lisa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence supports the proposal that the observed diversity of animal body plans has been produced through alterations to the complexity of the regulatory genome rather than increases in the protein-coding content of a genome. One significant form of gene regulation is the contribution made by the non-coding content of the genome. Non-coding RNAs play roles in embryonic development of animals and these functions might be expected to evolve rapidly. Using next-generation sequencing and in situ hybridization, we have examined the miRNA content of early honeybee embryos. Results Through small RNA sequencing we found that 28% of known miRNAs are expressed in the early embryo. We also identified developmentally expressed microRNAs that are unique to the Apoidea clade. Examination of expression patterns implied these miRNAs have roles in patterning the anterior-posterior and dorso-ventral axes as well as the extraembryonic membranes. Knockdown of Dicer, a key component of miRNA processing, confirmed that miRNAs are likely to have a role in patterning these tissues. Conclusions Examination of the expression patterns of novel miRNAs, some unique to the Apis group, indicated that they are likely to play a role in early honeybee development. Known miRNAs that are deeply conserved in animal phyla display differences in expression pattern between honeybee and Drosophila, particularly at early stages of development. This may indicate miRNAs play a rapidly evolving role in regulating developmental pathways, most likely through changes to the way their expression is regulated.

  14. Testicular expression of the Lin28/let-7 system: Hormonal regulation and changes during postnatal maturation and after manipulations of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiao-Alvarellos, S; Manfredi-Lozano, M; Ruiz-Pino, F; León, S; Morales, C; Cordido, F; Gaytán, F; Pinilla, L; Tena-Sempere, M

    2015-10-23

    The Lin28/let-7 system, which includes the RNA-binding proteins, Lin28a/Lin28b, and let-7 miRNAs, has emerged as putative regulator of puberty and male gametogenesis; yet, its expression pattern and regulation in postnatal testis remain ill defined. We report herein expression profiles of Lin28 and let-7 members, and related mir-145 and mir-132, in rat testis during postnatal maturation and in models of altered puberty and hormonal deregulation. Neonatal expression of Lin28a and Lin28b was low and rose markedly during the infantile period; yet, expression patterns diverged thereafter, with persistently elevated levels only for Lin28b, which peaked at puberty. Let-7a, let-7b, mir-132 and mir-145 showed profiles opposite to Lin28b. In fact, let-7b and mir-145 were abundant in pachytene spermatocytes, but absent in elongating spermatids, where high expression of Lin28b was previously reported. Perturbation of puberty by neonatal estrogenization reverted the Lin28/let-7 expression ratio; expression changes were also detected in other models of delayed puberty, due to early photoperiod or nutritional manipulations. In addition, hypophysectomy or growth hormone (GH) deficiency revealed regulation of this system by gonadotropins and GH. Our data document the expression profiles of the Lin28/let-7 system in rat testis along postnatal/pubertal maturation, and their perturbation in models of pubertal and hormonal manipulation.

  15. Offspring psychopathology following preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal bereavement stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Abel, Kathryn M.; Khashan, Ali S.; Rickert, Martin E.; Dalman, Christina; Larsson, Henrik; Hultman, Christina M.; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal stress are associated with increased offspring psychopathology, but findings are inconsistent and need replication. We estimated associations between maternal bereavement stress and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Methods Using Swedish registers, we conducted the largest population-based study to date examining associations between stress exposure in 738,144 offspring born 1992–2000 for childhood outcomes and 2,155,221 offspring born 1973–1997 for adult outcomes with follow-up through 2009. Maternal stress was defined as death of a first degree relative during 6 months before conception, across pregnancy, or the first two postnatal years. Cox proportional survival analyses were used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results Marginal increased risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia following preconception bereavement stress was not significant. Third trimester prenatal stress increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.15–2.17) and ADHD (adjusted HR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.04–1.66). First postnatal year stress increased risk for offspring suicide attempt (adjusted HR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.02–1.25) and completed suicide (adjusted HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.08–2.11). Bereavement stress during the second postnatal year increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.09–1.55). Conclusions Further research is needed on associations between preconception stress and psychopathological outcomes. Prenatal bereavement stress increases risk of offspring ASD and ADHD. Postnatal bereavement stress moderately increases risk of offspring suicide attempt, completed suicide, and ASD. Smaller previous studies may have overestimated associations between early stress and psychopathological outcomes. PMID:23591021

  16. Evaluation of postnatal growth in very low birth weight infants: a neonatologist's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, E; Boni, L; Rossi, C; Coscia, A; Giuliani, F; Spada, E; Milani, S; Fabris, C

    2008-09-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants' survival has greatly increased in the last few decades thanks to the improvement in obstetrical and neonatal care. The correct evaluation of postnatal growth of these babies is nowadays of primary concern, although the definitions of their optimal nutrition and postnatal growth pattern are still controversial. It is known that VLBW infants have a specific postnatal growth pattern markedly different from that of higher birthweight full-term infants. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to trace VLBW infants growth charts for weight, length and head circumference. These charts will be a useful tool to monitor postnatal growth of VLBW infants both during hospitalisation and after discharge, up to 2 or 3 years of age. A useful tool in VLBW infants growth evaluation could also be absolute velocity charts that, allowing a better and earlier identification of growth anomalies, could permit the observation of phenomena not yet visible on distance charts. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants' survival has greatly increased in the last few decades thanks to the improvement in obstetrical and neonatal care. These neonates represent about 1-1.5% of all live born infants in developed countries (1) and they constitute the large majority of the population in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). For this reason, the correct evaluation of their postnatal growth is of primary concern nowadays although the definitions of optimal nutrition and postnatal growth pattern are still controversial.

  17. Postnatal development of the human sternum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, M L; Dwornik, J J; Ganey, T M; Ogden, J A

    1998-01-01

    Postnatal development and maturation of the human sternum are highly variable. Endochondral ossification centers (sternebrae) form within each cartilaginous segment of the sternum, with each center enveloped by a spherical growth plate. Within a cartilaginous center there may be either one or two ossification centers, those with two centers retaining and reflecting features of their bilateral embryonic origin. Malaligned bifid centers are clearly associated with rib articulation asymmetry as well. Expansion of individual ossification centers progresses within the peripheral cartilaginous domains of the sternum. With respect to the rostrocaudal axis, sternebrae form between the costosternal articulations. Consistent with the biology of endochondral transition, cartilage canals are evident throughout unossified regions of the hyaline matrix. Expanding ossification of adjacent sternebrae results in depletion of the common area of cartilage between the two sternebrae, and eventually in physiologic epiphysiodesis. Fusion of the mesosternebrae reciprocates the initial pattern of sternebral ossification site appearance, proceeding in a caudal-to-cranial direction. Union of adjacent sternebrae, initiated through a central osseous bridge, progresses through anterior, lateral, cephalocaudal, and posterior domains to achieve synostosis. Accessory and bifid centers of ossification within the same intercostal space coalesce prior to adjoining adjacent sternebrae. Manubriosternal fusion is rare due to the presence of a fibrocartilaginous joint restricting ossification. The xiphoid process remains connected to the most caudal mesosternum via a common zone of hyaline cartilage that ossifies by middle to late adulthood. A single pattern of development does not appear fundamental to successful growth of the sternum, as morphological variants were common.

  18. Impact of oxidative stress during pregnancy on fetal epigenetic patterns and early origin of vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Jose Guillermo Ortega; Echeverri, Isabella; de Plata, Cecilia Aguilar; Castillo, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have led scientists to postulate the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis for noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and obesity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of these diseases are not well understood. In various animal models, it has been observed that oxidative stress during pregnancy is associated with the early development of endothelial dysfunction in offspring. This phenomenon suggests that endothelial dysfunction may initiate in the uterus and could lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Currently, it is known that many of the fetal adaptive responses to environmental factors are mediated by epigenetic changes in the genome, especially by the degree of methylation in cytosines in the promoter regions of genes. These findings suggest that the establishment of a particular epigenetic pattern in the genome may be generated by oxidative stress. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Constrained pattern of viral evolution in acute and early HCV infection limits viral plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Pfafferott

    Full Text Available Cellular immune responses during acute Hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV infection are a known correlate of infection outcome. Viral adaptation to these responses via mutation(s within CD8+ T-cell epitopes allows these viruses to subvert host immune control. This study examined HCV evolution in 21 HCV genotype 1-infected subjects to characterise the level of viral adaptation during acute and early HCV infection. Of the total mutations observed 25% were within described CD8+ T-cell epitopes or at viral adaptation sites. Most mutations were maintained into the chronic phase of HCV infection (75%. The lack of reversion of adaptations and high proportion of silent substitutions suggests that HCV has structural and functional limitations that constrain evolution. These results were compared to the pattern of viral evolution observed in 98 subjects during a similar phase in HIV infection from a previous study. In contrast to HCV, evolution during acute HIV infection is marked by high levels of amino acid change relative to silent substitutions, including a higher proportion of adaptations, likely reflecting strong and continued CD8+ T-cell pressure combined with greater plasticity of the virus. Understanding viral escape dynamics for these two viruses is important for effective T cell vaccine design.

  20. Sex and strategy use matters for pattern separation, adult neurogenesis, and immediate early gene expression in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Shunya; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) plays a crucial role for pattern separation, and there are sex differences in the regulation of neurogenesis. Although sex differences, favoring males, in spatial navigation have been reported, it is not known whether there are sex differences in pattern separation. The current study was designed to determine whether there are sex differences in the ability for separating similar or distinct patterns, learning strategy choice, adult neurogenesis, and immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the DG in response to pattern separation training. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats received a single injection of the DNA synthesis marker, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), and were tested for the ability of separating spatial patterns in a spatial pattern separation version of delayed nonmatching to place task using the eight-arm radial arm maze. Twenty-seven days following BrdU injection, rats received a probe trial to determine whether they were idiothetic or spatial strategy users. We found that male spatial strategy users outperformed female spatial strategy users only when separating similar, but not distinct, patterns. Furthermore, male spatial strategy users had greater neurogenesis in response to pattern separation training than all other groups. Interestingly, neurogenesis was positively correlated with performance on similar pattern trials during pattern separation in female spatial strategy users but negatively correlated with performance in male idiothetic strategy users. These results suggest that the survival of new neurons may play an important positive role for pattern separation of similar patterns in females. Furthermore, we found sex and strategy differences in IEG expression in the CA1 and CA3 regions in response to pattern separation. These findings emphasize the importance of studying biological sex on hippocampal function and neural plasticity.

  1. Seasonality of reproductive events and early mortality in a colony of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) over a 30-year period: Capital breeding and life history patterns in a food-provisioned population seasonally thermally stressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Pablo; Colmenares, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    In environments where energy demands and resource availability vary seasonally, individuals are expected to time the optimal allocation of resources to support survival and reproduction. Although female baboons are regarded as all year round, capital breeders, we wondered how they would respond in an ecological scenario where food were not limiting, foraging effort were negligible, and they were thermally stressed during the cold winter. This study analyzes a 30-year database of conceptions, births, resumptions of postlactational ovarian activity, menarches, and prenatal and early postnatal reproductive failures recorded in a food-provisioned colony of hamadryas baboons located in a temperate zone (40°25'N) to search for seasonal patterns in their life-history patterns and explore its fitness consequences. The results show that the study females exhibited moderate seasonality and behaved like capital breeders; ovarian activity peaked during the period of benign weather conditions (spring and early summer) and births and lactation peaked during the period when they were thermally stressed and faced a negative energy balance (winter). Mistimed conceptions were more likely to fail than timed conceptions were, although this association could be artefactual due to the difficulty to accurately detect prenatal losses. Insolation and, to a lesser extent, temperature were positively associated with conceptions, resumptions of postlactational ovarian activity and onsets of menarche, and negatively associated with births. These findings highlight the extent of plasticity (width of peaks) and resiliency (retention of a capital breeding tactic even under highly seasonally thermally stressful cold conditions) in how primates can adjust their life history patterns and solve tradeoffs in a scenario of strong seasonal variation. Am. J. Primatol. 78:1149-1164, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Identification of proliferative progenitors associated with prominent postnatal growth of the pons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Robert A.; Guinto, Cristina D.; Rodas-Rodriguez, Jose L.; Fuentealba, Luis C.; Tate, Matthew C.; Rowitch, David H.; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The pons controls crucial sensorimotor and autonomic functions. In humans, it grows sixfold postnatally and is a site of paediatric gliomas; however, the mechanisms of pontine growth remain poorly understood. We show that the murine pons quadruples in volume postnatally; growth is fastest during postnatal days 0–4 (P0–P4), preceding most myelination. We identify three postnatal proliferative compartments: ventricular, midline and parenchymal. We find no evidence of postnatal neurogenesis in the pons, but each progenitor compartment produces new astroglia and oligodendroglia; the latter expand 10- to 18-fold postnatally, and are derived mostly from the parenchyma. Nearly all parenchymal progenitors at P4 are Sox2+Olig2+, but by P8 a Sox2− subpopulation emerges, suggesting a lineage progression from Sox2+ ‘early' to Sox2− ‘late' oligodendrocyte progenitor. Fate mapping reveals that >90% of adult oligodendrocytes derive from P2–P3 Sox2+ progenitors. These results demonstrate the importance of postnatal Sox2+Olig2+ progenitors in pontine growth and oligodendrogenesis. PMID:27188978

  3. Recurrent signature patterns in HIV-1 B clade envelope glycoproteins associated with either early or chronic infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gnanakaran

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we have identified HIV-1 B clade Envelope (Env amino acid signatures from early in infection that may be favored at transmission, as well as patterns of recurrent mutation in chronic infection that may reflect common pathways of immune evasion. To accomplish this, we compared thousands of sequences derived by single genome amplification from several hundred individuals that were sampled either early in infection or were chronically infected. Samples were divided at the outset into hypothesis-forming and validation sets, and we used phylogenetically corrected statistical strategies to identify signatures, systematically scanning all of Env. Signatures included single amino acids, glycosylation motifs, and multi-site patterns based on functional or structural groupings of amino acids. We identified signatures near the CCR5 co-receptor-binding region, near the CD4 binding site, and in the signal peptide and cytoplasmic domain, which may influence Env expression and processing. Two signatures patterns associated with transmission were particularly interesting. The first was the most statistically robust signature, located in position 12 in the signal peptide. The second was the loss of an N-linked glycosylation site at positions 413-415; the presence of this site has been recently found to be associated with escape from potent and broad neutralizing antibodies, consistent with enabling a common pathway for immune escape during chronic infection. Its recurrent loss in early infection suggests it may impact fitness at the time of transmission or during early viral expansion. The signature patterns we identified implicate Env expression levels in selection at viral transmission or in early expansion, and suggest that immune evasion patterns that recur in many individuals during chronic infection when antibodies are present can be selected against when the infection is being established prior to the adaptive immune response.

  4. The influence of postnatal handling on adult neuroendocrine and behavioural stress reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; Horvath, KM; Nagy, GM; Bohus, B; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    Environmental stimuli during early stages of life can influence the development of an organism and may result in permanent changes in adult behaviour and physiology. In the present study we investigated the influence of early postnatal handling on adult neuroendocrine and behavioural stress reactivi

  5. Lung fluid during postnatal transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sture Andersson; Olli Pitk(a)nen; Cecilia Janér; Otto Helve

    2010-01-01

    @@ Successful postnatal pulmonary adaptation is dependent on cessation of fetal fluid secretion into the luminal space of the lung and a switch to fluid absorption during the perinatal period. Most infants undergo this transformation rapidly, but some encounter difficulties.Failure in adaptation may result, in preterm infants, in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and, in near-term and term infants, in transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). In both entities, among other causes, lung liquid clearance, i.e. the inability to clear the lung of perinatal fluid, may be ineffective.1-4 In addition, there are data connecting bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) to decreased ion transport.5-7 However, only limited data are available on the association of lung fluid transport and neonatal respiratory distress in human infants.

  6. Allergic sensitisation in early childhood: Patterns and related factors in PARIS birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabet, Stephan; Just, Jocelyne; Couderc, Rémy; Seta, Nathalie; Momas, Isabelle

    2016-11-01

    Allergic sensitisation is poorly documented in infants. This study aims to provide new insights into allergic sensitisation patterns and related factors in infancy. This study concerns 1860 infants involved in the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) population-based birth cohort who had a standardised health examination when 18 months old, from 2004 to 2008. Sensitisation was assessed by measurements of serum specific IgE to 12 food and 4 inhalant allergens and defined by IgE≥0.35kUA/L. Information regarding lifestyle and environment were obtained from questionnaires prospectively administered. Prevalence of allergic sensitisation to any allergen, to food allergens, and to aeroallergens was 13.8%, 12.3%, and 2.3%, respectively. Multiple sensitisation (to at least two allergens) concerned 6.2% of toddlers. Intrinsic factors such as male gender, family history of allergy, and high birth weight increased the risk of food allergen sensitisation and multiple sensitisation. Caesarean section was also positively associated with multiple sensitisation. Day-care attendance was negatively related to food allergen, aeroallergen, and multiple sensitisation. A cat entering the baby's room in early life was strongly associated with aeroallergen sensitisation (ORa 3.21, 95%CI: 1.29-8.01). An introduction of meat in infant's diet after 6 months of age was negatively related to food allergen sensitisation (ORa 0.46, 95%CI: 0.24-0.91). Our results suggest that intrinsic factors and indicators of exposure to microorganisms such as caesarean section and day-care attendance may be associated with inhalant as well as food allergen sensitisation in infancy. For example, male gender, family history of allergy, high birth weight, and caesarean section could be positively related whereas day-care attendance could be negatively related to both aeroallergen and food allergen sensitisation. Conversely, early life exposure to inhalant allergens or food allergens may be

  7. Family dynamics and postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammentie, T; Tarkka, M-T; Astedt-Kurki, P; Paavilainen, E; Laippala, P

    2004-04-01

    Research has shown that postnatal depression (PND) affects 10-15% of mothers in Western societies. PND is not easily identified and therefore it often remains undetected. Untreated depression has a detrimental effect on the mother and child and the entire family. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the state of family dynamics after delivery and whether the mother's PND was associated with family dynamics. The study used a survey covering the catchment area of one Finnish university hospital. Both primi- and multiparas took part and data were collected using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) for mothers and the Family Dynamics Measure II (FDM II) for both mothers and fathers. The data were analysed using SPSS statistical programme and frequency and percentage distributions, means and standard deviations were examined. Correlations were analysed using Spearman's correlation coefficients. The significance of any differences between mothers' and fathers' scores was determined with a paired t-test. Of the families participating in the study (373 mothers and 314 partners), 13% of the mothers suffered from PND symptoms (EPDS score of 13 or more). As a whole, family dynamics in the families participating in the study were reported to be rather good. However, mothers having depressive symptoms reported more negative family dynamics compared with other families. With the exception of individuation, mothers having depressive symptoms reported more negative family dynamics than their partners. With the exception of role reciprocity, non-depressed mothers reported more positive family dynamics than their partners. Knowledge of the association of mothers' PND with family dynamics could help to develop nursing care at maternity and child welfare clinics and maternity hospitals. Depressed mothers and their families need support to be able to make family dynamics as good as possible.

  8. Limbic system activation is affected by prenatal predator exposure and postnatal environmental enrichment and further moderated by dam and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korgan, Austin C; Green, Amanda D; Perrot, Tara S; Esser, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Epilepsy is a relatively common and chronic neurological condition, affecting 1-2% of the population. However, understanding of the underlying pathophysiology remains incomplete. To identify potential factors in the early environment that may increase the risk for experiencing seizures, maternal stress and environmental enrichment (EE) were utilized. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed to an ethologically relevant predator stress (PS) and maternal glucocorticoid (GC) response was assessed across the exposure period. At birth, litters were divided into standard care (SC) and EE groups until postnatal day 14 (PD14) when a model of febrile convulsions was used to determine seizure susceptibility of the various groups. Pup brains were then processed for immunohistochemical detection of FosB from several structures in the limbic system as a measure of neuronal activation. Maternal PS-induced GC levels were elevated early in the exposure period, and pup birth weights, in both sexes, were lower in litters from dams exposed to PS. Seizure scores at PD14 were highly individualized and litter dependent, suggesting a dam-dependent and variable effect of controlled pre- and postnatal environmental factors. Further, analysis of FosB-immunoreactive (-ir) patterns revealed an activity dependent distribution, reflecting individual seizure susceptibility. EE had a varying effect on FosB-ir that was dependent on region. In the hippocampus FosB-ir levels were greater in the EE groups while extra-hippocampal regions showed lower levels of FosB-ir. Our results support the concept that pre- and postnatal environmental influences affect fetal programming and neurodevelopment of processes that could underlie seizure susceptibility, but that the magnitude of these effects appears to be dam- or litter-dependent.

  9. Tracking of eating patterns and overweight - a follow-up study of Norwegian schoolchildren from middle childhood to early adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svendsen Martin V

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe eating patterns in early adolescence and to determine associations between eating patterns and overweight from middle childhood (4th grade, 9 to 10 years old to early adolescence (7th grade, 12 to 13 years old. Methods Children were recruited from primary schools in Telemark County, Norway. Dietary data were obtained by parental report using a food frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were objectively measured, and overweight was defined using international standard cut-off points. Complete data were obtained for 924 4th grade and 691 7th children, and 427 children provided complete data at both time points. Principal component analysis was applied to identify eating patterns. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for being overweight. Results The same four distinct eating patterns were identified at both time points. Correlation coefficients for the factor scores of corresponding eating patterns at baseline and follow up ranged from 0.44 to 0.60. In the follow-up sample, 345 children (80% were still of normal weight, while 41 (10% remained overweight. Children with high "dieting" pattern scores and low "varied Norwegian" pattern scores in the 7th grade had an increased risk of being overweight. Children with stable or increased "varied Norwegian" pattern scores had a lower risk of remaining overweight over time than children with decreased scores for this pattern; adjusted OR: 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2, 0.8. This pattern included foods and meals close to current dietary guidelines, including vegetables, fruit and unrefined cereal products. We did not observe an increased risk of overweight in children with high "unhealthy" eating pattern scores, termed "snacking" or "junk/convenient" in either cross-sectional or longitudinal analyses. Conclusions Slight to moderate stability of eating patterns was observed. Children

  10. Prenatal programming of obesity in a swine model of leptin resistance: modulatory effects of controlled postnatal nutrition and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, A; Astiz, S; Ovilo, C; Lopez-Bote, C J; Perez-Solana, M L; Ayuso, M; Garcia-Real, I; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2014-06-01

    The main role of early nutritional programming in the current rise of obesity and associated diseases is well known. However, translational studies are mostly based in postnatal food excess and, thus, there is a paucity of information on the phenotype of individuals with prenatal deficiencies but adequate postnatal conditions. Thus, we assessed the effects of prenatal programming (comparing descendants from females fed with a diet fulfilling 100 or only 50% of their nutritional requirements for pregnancy) on gene expression, patterns of growth and fattening, metabolic status and puberty attainment of a swine model of obesity/leptin resistance with controlled postnatal nutrition and opportunity of exercise. Maternal restriction was related to changes in the relationships among gene expression of positive (insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2) and negative (myostatin) regulators of muscle growth, with negative correlations in gilts from restricted pregnancies and positive relationships in the control group. In spite of these differences, the patterns of growth and fattening and the metabolic features during juvenile growth were similar in control gilts and gilts from restricted pregnancies. Concomitantly, there was a lack of differences in the timing of puberty attainment. However, after reaching puberty and adulthood, females from restricted pregnancies were heavier and more corpulent than control gilts, though such increases in weight and size were not accompanied by increases in adiposity. In conclusion, in spite of changes in gene expression induced by developmental programming, the propensity for higher weight and adiposity of individuals exposed to prenatal malnutrition may be modulated by controlled food intake and opportunity of physical exercise during infant and juvenile development.

  11. Pre- and postnatal nutrition in sheep affects β-cell secretion and hypothalamic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anna H.; Husted, Sanne V.; Thygesen, Malin P.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome later in life, particularly upon postnatal exposure to a high-energy diet. However, dysfunctions of, for example, the glucose–insulin axis are not readily detectable by conventional tests early in life, making...... it difficult to identify individuals at risk. Thus, other methods are required. We hypothesised that prenatally undernourished individuals (but not postnatally overnourished ones) are adapted to a life with limited food availability, which would be evident under conditions reflecting starvation, stress...... abundance) and adrenalin challenges. At 6 months of age, postnatal HCHF diet exposure caused metabolic alterations, reflecting hypertriglyceridaemia and altered pancreatic β-cell secretion. Irrespective of postnatal diet, prenatal undernutrition was found to be associated with unexpected endocrine responses...

  12. Early causes of child obesity and implications for prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, T J

    2007-01-01

    Child obesity is becoming a serious public health concern, and major research effort is being devoted both to understand its aetiology and to improve the effectiveness of prevention strategies. Early growth patterns, both prenatally and postnatally, are emerging as important markers of later obesity risk, with rapid neonatal weight gain a clear risk factor for later obesity and metabolic syndrome. Thus, in two distinct senses child obesity is a growing problem. The paper summarises current ev...

  13. Zif268 mRNA Expression Patterns Reveal a Distinct Impact of Early Pattern Vision Deprivation on the Development of Primary Visual Cortical Areas in the Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowska-Macios, Karolina; Zapasnik, Monika; Hu, Tjing-Tjing; Kossut, Malgorzata; Arckens, Lutgarde; Burnat, Kalina

    2015-10-01

    Pattern vision deprivation (BD) can induce permanent deficits in global motion perception. The impact of timing and duration of BD on the maturation of the central and peripheral visual field representations in cat primary visual areas 17 and 18 remains unknown. We compared early BD, from eye opening for 2, 4, or 6 months, with late onset BD, after 2 months of normal vision, using the expression pattern of the visually driven activity reporter gene zif268 as readout. Decreasing zif268 mRNA levels between months 2 and 4 characterized the normal maturation of the (supra)granular layers of the central and peripheral visual field representations in areas 17 and 18. In general, all BD conditions had higher than normal zif268 levels. In area 17, early BD induced a delayed decrease, beginning later in peripheral than in central area 17. In contrast, the decrease occurred between months 2 and 4 throughout area 18. Lack of pattern vision stimulation during the first 4 months of life therefore has a different impact on the development of areas 17 and 18. A high zif268 expression level at a time when normal vision is restored seems to predict the capacity of a visual area to compensate for BD.

  14. Enduring Effects of Early Life Stress on Firing Patterns of Hippocampal and Thalamocortical Neurons in Rats: Implications for Limbic Epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrish Ali

    Full Text Available Early life stress results in an enduring vulnerability to kindling-induced epileptogenesis in rats, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Recent studies indicate the involvement of thalamocortical neuronal circuits in the progression of kindling epileptogenesis. Therefore, we sought to determine in vivo the effects of early life stress and amygdala kindling on the firing pattern of hippocampus as well as thalamic and cortical neurons. Eight week old male Wistar rats, previously exposed to maternal separation (MS early life stress or early handling (EH, underwent amygdala kindling (or sham kindling. Once fully kindled, in vivo juxtacellular recordings in hippocampal, thalamic and cortical regions were performed under neuroleptic analgesia. In the thalamic reticular nucleus cells both kindling and MS independently lowered firing frequency and enhanced burst firing. Further, burst firing in the thalamic reticular nucleus was significantly increased in kindled MS rats compared to kindled EH rats (p<0.05. In addition, MS enhanced burst firing of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Following a stimulation-induced seizure, somatosensory cortical neurons exhibited a more pronounced increase in burst firing in MS rats than in EH rats. These data demonstrate changes in firing patterns in thalamocortical and hippocampal regions resulting from both MS and amygdala kindling, which may reflect cellular changes underlying the enhanced vulnerability to kindling in rats that have been exposed to early life stress.

  15. Mucin-Microbiota Interaction During Postnatal Maturation of the Intestinal Ecosystem: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhsefat, Sana; Lin, Aifeng; Comelli, Elena M

    2016-06-01

    The mucus layer and gut microbiota interplay contributes to host homeostasis. The mucus layer serves as a scaffold and a carbon source for gut microorganisms; conversely, gut microorganisms, including mucin degraders, influence mucin gene expression, glycosylation, and secretion. Conjointly they shield the epithelium from luminal pathogens, antigens, and toxins. Importantly, the mucus layer and gut microbiota are established in parallel during early postnatal life. During this period, the development of gut microbiota and mucus layer is coupled with that of the immune system. Developmental changes of different mucin types can impact the age-dependent patterns of intestinal infection in terms of incidence and severity. Altered mucus layer, dysbiotic microbiota, and abnormal mucus-gut microbiota interaction have the potential for inducing systemic effects, and accompany several intestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, and radiation-induced mucositis. Early life provides a pivotal window of opportunity to favorably modulate the mucus-microbiota interaction. The support of a health-compatible mucin-microbiota maturation in early life is paramount for long-term health and serves as an important opportunity for clinical intervention.

  16. Similar patterns of cortical expansion during human development and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason; Inder, Terrie; Neil, Jeffrey; Dierker, Donna; Harwell, John; Van Essen, David

    2010-07-20

    The cerebral cortex of the human infant at term is complexly folded in a similar fashion to adult cortex but has only one third the total surface area. By comparing 12 healthy infants born at term with 12 healthy young adults, we demonstrate that postnatal cortical expansion is strikingly nonuniform: regions of lateral temporal, parietal, and frontal cortex expand nearly twice as much as other regions in the insular and medial occipital cortex. This differential postnatal expansion may reflect regional differences in the maturity of dendritic and synaptic architecture at birth and/or in the complexity of dendritic and synaptic architecture in adults. This expression may also be associated with differential sensitivity of cortical circuits to childhood experience and insults. By comparing human and macaque monkey cerebral cortex, we infer that the pattern of human evolutionary expansion is remarkably similar to the pattern of human postnatal expansion. To account for this correspondence, we hypothesize that it is beneficial for regions of recent evolutionary expansion to remain less mature at birth, perhaps to increase the influence of postnatal experience on the development of these regions or to focus prenatal resources on regions most important for early survival.

  17. Different pattern of aquaporin-4 expression in extensor digitorum longus and soleus during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicchia, Grazia P; Mola, Maria G; Pisoni, Michela; Frigeri, Antonio; Svelto, Maria

    2007-05-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the neuromuscular water channel expressed at the sarcolemma of mammalian fast-twitch fibers that mediates a high water transport rate, which is important during muscle activity. Clinical interest in the neuromuscular expression of AQP4 has increased as it is associated with the protein complex formed by dystrophin, the product of the gene affected in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The expression of AQP4 during development has not been characterized. In this study, we analyzed the expression of AQP4 in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus, a fast- and slow-twitch muscle, respectively, during the first weeks after birth. The results show that AQP4 expression in both types of skeletal muscle occurs postnatally. The time course of expression of AQP4 in the two types of muscles was also different. Whereas the expression of AQP4 protein levels in the EDL showed a progressive increase during the first month after birth, reaching levels found in adults by day 24, the levels of the protein in the soleus showed a transient peak between day 12 and day 24 and declined thereafter, an effect that may be related to the transient high number of fast motor units innervating the soleus muscle during this time. The results suggest that AQP4 expression in skeletal muscle is under neuronal influence and contribute to the understanding of the molecular events of fiber differentiation during development.

  18. Long-Term Outcome of Definitive Radiotherapy for Early Glottic Cancer: Prognostic Factors and Patterns of Local Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Yu Jin; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Hah, J. Hun; Sung, Myung-Whun; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Park, Charn Il

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates the long-term results of definitive radiotherapy (RT) for early glottic cancer. Clinical and treatment factors related to local control and patterns of failure are analyzed. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 222 patients with T1-2N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx treated with definitive RT from 1981 to 2010. None of the patients received elective nodal RT or combined chemotherapy. The median total RT dose was 66 Gy. The daily fractio...

  19. Revealing tact within postnatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Elizabeth; Payne, Deborah; Wilson, Sally; Paddy, Ann; Heard, Kate

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we explore the nature of good postnatal care through a hermeneutic unpacking of the notion of tact, drawing on the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, and van Manen. The tactful encounters considered were from a hermeneutic research study within a small, rural birthing center in New Zealand. Insights drawn from the analysis were as follows: the openness of listening, watching and being attuned that builds a positive mode of engagement, recognizing that the distance the woman needs from her nurse/midwife is a call of tact, that tact is underpinned by a spirit of care, within tact there are moods and tact might require firmness, and that all of these factors come together to build trust. We conclude that the attunement of tact requires that the staff member has time to spend with a woman, enough energy to engage, and a spirit of care. Women know that tactful practice builds their confidence and affects their mothering experience. Tact cannot be assumed; it needs to be nurtured and sheltered.

  20. Quality of life, postnatal depression and baby gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tychey, Claude; Briançon, Serge; Lighezzolo, Joëlle; Spitz, Elisabeth; Kabuth, Bernard; de Luigi, Valerie; Messembourg, Catherine; Girvan, Françoise; Rosati, Aurore; Thockler, Audrey; Vincent, Stephanie

    2008-02-01

    To study the impact of postnatal depression on the quality of life of young French mothers and to evaluate if the gender of their child influences this. Postnatal depression (PND) constitutes a major public health problem considering its high prevalence and consequences upon quality of life and parental skills. This research is a cross-sectional study during the postnatal period. This study was carried out during a two-month period. Data were collected by interview and questionnaires. The authors compared the prevalence rate of PND and life quality in a cohort of 181 women and measured the short-term impact of the child's birth. Postnatal depression strongly negatively influences all dimensions of life quality explored through the SF36, e.g. physical functioning (PF), physical Role (RP), bodily pain (BP), mental health (MH), emotional role (RE), social functioning (SF), vitality (VT), general health (GH), standardized physical component (PCS) and standardized mental component (MCS). The baby's gender (having a boy) also significantly reduces quality of life, irrespective of depressive state. There is a relationship between baby gender and PND. This research is the first to show that the birth of a boy reduces several dimensions of the mothers' quality of life. The importance of the impairment of quality of life in case of PND, as well as its effects on mother-child interaction, could justify prevention programs and early psychotherapeutic care. Further research needs to explore the effectiveness of programmes targeting the construction of parenting skills as a preventative measure against PND, especially for parents of boys.

  1. Skeletal Morphogenesis of Microbrachis and Hyloplesion (Tetrapoda: Lepospondyli, and Implications for the Developmental Patterns of Extinct, Early Tetrapods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Olori

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of extant amphibians often is used as a model for that of extinct early tetrapods, despite evidence for a spectrum of developmental modes in temnospondyls and a paucity of ontogenetic data for lepospondyls. I describe the skeletal morphogenesis of the extinct lepospondyls Microbrachis pelikani and Hyloplesion longicostatum using the largest samples examined for either taxon. Nearly all known specimens were re-examined, allowing for substantial anatomical revisions that affect the scoring of characters commonly used in phylogenetic analyses of early tetrapods. The palate of H. longicostatum is re-interpreted and suggested to be more similar to that of M. pelikani, especially in the nature of the contact between the pterygoids. Both taxa possess lateral lines, and M. pelikani additionally exhibits branchial plates. However, early and rapid ossification of the postcranial skeleton, including a well-developed pubis and ossified epipodials, suggests that neither taxon metamorphosed nor were they neotenic in the sense of branchiosaurids and salamanders. Morphogenetic patterns in the foot suggest that digit 5 was developmentally delayed and the final digit to ossify in M. pelikani and H. longicostatum. Overall patterns of postcranial ossification may indicate postaxial dominance in limb and digit formation, but also more developmental variation in early tetrapods than has been appreciated. The phylogenetic position and developmental patterns of M. pelikani and H. longicostatum are congruent with the hypothesis that early tetrapods lacked metamorphosis ancestrally and that stem-amniotes exhibited derived features of development, such as rapid and complete ossification of the skeleton, potentially prior to the evolution of the amniotic egg.

  2. Early Childhood Malaria Prevention and Children's Patterns of School Leaving in the Gambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie S.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malaria is often fatal, but its impact on the development and education of survivors has not received much attention. Malaria impacts cognitive development in a number of ways that may impact later educational participation. Aims: In this study, we examine the long-term educational effects of preventing early childhood…

  3. Early Childhood Malaria Prevention and Children's Patterns of School Leaving in the Gambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie S.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malaria is often fatal, but its impact on the development and education of survivors has not received much attention. Malaria impacts cognitive development in a number of ways that may impact later educational participation. Aims: In this study, we examine the long-term educational effects of preventing early childhood…

  4. Early Childhood Malaria Prevention and Children's Patterns of School Leaving in the Gambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie S.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malaria is often fatal, but its impact on the development and education of survivors has not received much attention. Malaria impacts cognitive development in a number of ways that may impact later educational participation. Aims: In this study, we examine the long-term educational effects of preventing early childhood…

  5. Patterns of Social Support in the Middle Childhood to Early Adolescent Transition: Implications for Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Mary J.; Levitt, Jerome; Bustos, Gaston L.; Crooks, Noel A.; Santos, Jennifer D.; Telan, Paige; Hodgetts, Jennifer; Milevsky, Avidan

    2005-01-01

    Children's social networks often include close family members, extended family members, and friends, but little is known about interindividual differences in the patterning of support from these sources. In this study, we used person-oriented analyses to differentiate patterns of support for children undergoing the transition to adolescence.…

  6. Obituary Analysis of Early 20th Century Marriage and Family Patterns in Northwest Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matcha, Duane A.

    1995-01-01

    A content analysis of obituary notices spanning a one-year period. Examined marital and family patterns such as age at marriage, length of marriage, marital status at time of death, and other factors. Single women had the highest average age at death. Patterns were less consistent among men. (RJM)

  7. [BREASTFEEDING AND FORMATION OF POSTNATAL ANXIETY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymenko, V A; Lupaltsova, O S

    2015-01-01

    This article has been performed the investigation of psychological characteristics in mothers with the breastfeeding, the mixed feeding, the artificial feeding. There has been identified factors of the unfavourable prognosis for the postnatal anxiety.

  8. The effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid pregnancy on the child's intelligence, attention, and executive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bertrand, J.; Denny, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Kesmodel U, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Skarpness B, Denny C, Mortensen E, the Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study Group. The effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid pregnancy on the child's intelligence, attention, and executive function. BJOG 2012......;119:1180-1190. Objective To conduct a combined analysis of the estimated effects of maternal average weekly alcohol consumption, and any binge drinking, in early to mid pregnancy on general intelligence, attention, and executive function in 5-year-old children. Design Follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing...... in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. At age 5 years, the children were tested for general intelligence, attention...

  9. Behaviour of postnatally growth-impaired mice during malnutrition and after partial weight recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Reinhard C.; Kolb, Andreas F.; Lillico, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Early malnutrition is a highly prevalent condition in developing countries. Different rodent models of postnatal early malnutrition have been used to approach the subject experimentally, inducing early malnutrition by maternal malnutrition, temporal maternal separation, manipulation...... of litter size or the surgical nipple ligation to impair lactation. Studies on the behaviour of (previously) malnourished animals using animal models have produced sometimes contradictory results regarding the effects of early postnatal malnutrition and have been criticized for introducing potential...... confounding factors. The present paper is a first report on the behavioural effects of early malnutrition induced by an alternative approach: mice nursed by a-casein-deficient knockout dams showed a severe growth delay during early development and substantial catch-up growth after weaning when compared...

  10. Rich do not rise early: spatio-temporal patterns in the mobility networks of different socio-economic classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotero, Laura; Hurtado, Rafael G.; Floría, Luis Mario; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    We analyse the urban mobility in the cities of Medellín and Manizales (Colombia). Each city is represented by six mobility networks, each one encoding the origin-destination trips performed by a subset of the population corresponding to a particular socio-economic status. The nodes of each network are the different urban locations whereas links account for the existence of a trip between two different areas of the city. We study the main structural properties of these mobility networks by focusing on their spatio-temporal patterns. Our goal is to relate these patterns with the partition into six socio-economic compartments of these two societies. Our results show that spatial and temporal patterns vary across these socio-economic groups. In particular, the two datasets show that as wealth increases the early-morning activity is delayed, the midday peak becomes smoother and the spatial distribution of trips becomes more localized.

  11. Small particles disrupt postnatal airway development

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of epidemiologic studies associate air pollution exposure in children with decreased lung function development. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to combustion-generated fine [230 and 212 nm number mean aerodynamic particle diameter (NMAD)] to ultrafine (73 nm NMAD) particles differing in elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon content on postnatal airway development in rats. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from postnatal day 7 thro...

  12. Early in vitro differentiation of mouse definitive endoderm is not correlated with progressive maturation of nuclear DNA methylation patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tajbakhsh

    Full Text Available The genome organization in pluripotent cells undergoing the first steps of differentiation is highly relevant to the reprogramming process in differentiation. Considering this fact, chromatin texture patterns that identify cells at the very early stage of lineage commitment could serve as valuable tools in the selection of optimal cell phenotypes for regenerative medicine applications. Here we report on the first-time use of high-resolution three-dimensional fluorescence imaging and comprehensive topological cell-by-cell analyses with a novel image-cytometrical approach towards the identification of in situ global nuclear DNA methylation patterns in early endodermal differentiation of mouse ES cells (up to day 6, and the correlations of these patterns with a set of putative markers for pluripotency and endodermal commitment, and the epithelial and mesenchymal character of cells. Utilizing this in vitro cell system as a model for assessing the relationship between differentiation and nuclear DNA methylation patterns, we found that differentiating cell populations display an increasing number of cells with a gain in DNA methylation load: first within their euchromatin, then extending into heterochromatic areas of the nucleus, which also results in significant changes of methylcytosine/global DNA codistribution patterns. We were also able to co-visualize and quantify the concomitant stochastic marker expression on a per-cell basis, for which we did not measure any correlation to methylcytosine loads or distribution patterns. We observe that the progression of global DNA methylation is not correlated with the standard transcription factors associated with endodermal development. Further studies are needed to determine whether the progression of global methylation could represent a useful signature of cellular differentiation. This concept of tracking epigenetic progression may prove useful in the selection of cell phenotypes for future regenerative

  13. Postnatal changes in heart mitochondrial calcium and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, W J; Rex, K A; Geshi, E; Sordahl, L A

    1991-07-01

    The newborn mammalian heart has less functional capacity compared with the adult, yet newborn myocardial mitochondrial respiratory activity is the same or exceeds that of adult. This study was aimed at determining the temporal changes in newborn rabbit heart mitochondrial energy-linked Ca2+ transport during early postnatal development. At birth, substrate-supported Ca2+ uptake is twice that of adult and declines toward adult rates during the first 14 days. Both NADH- and succinate-linked respiration are equivalent to adult values at birth, increase transiently during the first 7 days, and then decline toward adult. Newborn heart mitochondrial preparations exhibit the same membrane potential (delta psi) values during Ca2+ uptake and have comparable rates of Na(+)-induced Ca2+ efflux as adult. Creatine kinase (CK) activity is very low in 1- to 7-day-old newborn mitochondria and increases rapidly toward adult values after 10 days of age. The decreasing rates of Ca2+ uptake do not appear to be related to respiratory activity, membrane potential, or increased cycling of Ca2+ but rather to a direct effect on the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter. Preliminary studies indicate changes in mitochondrial membrane phospholipids during early development that may be related to the increasing CK activity and decreasing Ca2+ uptake and respiration. We postulate that mitochondrial membrane lipid changes in early postnatal development may be the causative factor underlying these changes in functional activity.

  14. Perceived stress and symptom patterns in early adolescents: the role of mediating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarcheski, A; Mahon, N E

    1986-12-01

    The relationship between perceived stress and symptom patterns was investigated in 136 seventh and eighth grade boys and girls. Affective-oriented coping and social support, two variables hypothesized as mediators of this relationship, were examined also. Participants completed the Modified Adolescent Life Change Events Questionnaire, the Jalowiec Coping Scale, the PRQ-A Social Support System, and the Symptom Pattern Scale. As predicted, the positive relationship between perceived stress and symptom patterns decreased when controlling for affective-oriented coping, while it increased when controlling for social support. Implications for nursing practice and further theory development are discussed.

  15. Patterns of Reef Ecosystem Recovery Indicate That Adverse Early Triassic Ocean Conditions Extended into Middle Triassic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, B. M.; Yu, M.; Lehrmann, D. J.; Jost, A. B.; Lau, K. V.; Li, X.; Schaal, E. K.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    The pattern of reef ecosystem recovery from the end-Permian extinction is poorly constrained due to the limited stratigraphic, spatial, and geographic range of reef buildups in Early Triassic and Anisian (early Middle Triassic) strata. In this study, we combined field studies and petrographic analysis to examine the pattern of reef evolution in latest Permian to Late Triassic carbonate platforms in the Nanpanjiang Basin of South China, an area of extensive shallow-water carbonate deposition in the tropical eastern Tethys. We find that early Mesozoic reef recovery in the eastern Tethys was a five-step process: (1) in the immediate aftermath of extinction, calcimicrobial biostromes (P/T boundary microbialites) developed in shallow-water platform settings; (2) in late Induan time, biohermal stromatolites developed in platform interior settings; (3) in latest Spathian time, large-scale Tubiphytes, microbial, and cement reefs lacking skeletal metazoans initiated on the margins and steep upper slopes of carbonate platforms, signaling the return of reefs to platform-margin settings; (4) in the Aegean or Bithynian (early Anisian), diminutive (mm-scale) calcareous sponges and calcareous algae appeared in the Tubiphytes reef, marking the reappearance of skeletal metazoans and calcareous algae to reefs in the eastern Tethys; and (5) in the late Anisian, the appearance of scleractinian corals coincided with increased abundance, size, and diversity of metazoan and algal reef builders. Early Mesozoic reefs of the eastern Tethys were dominated by microbes, Tubiphytes, and early-marine cements until the late Anisian, several million years into the Middle Triassic. The appearance of small metazoan buildups in Early Triassic strata in other parts of the world indicates that potential reef-building organisms were present much earlier. The limited stratigraphic range of those buildups, however, reinforces the interpretation that episodic environmental disturbances such as euxinia

  16. Vowel reduction patterns of early Spanish- English bilinguals receiving continuous L1 and L2 input

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emily Byers

    2017-01-01

    .... Our purpose was to determine how native-like early Spanish-English bilinguals′ spectral qualities and reduced vowel durations were compared to Miami English monolinguals during a reading task...

  17. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in the mouse neocortex and posterior piriform cortices during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Lingling; Wang, Jiutao; An, Lei; Hu, Xinde; Xie, Jiongfang; Yan, Runchuan; Chen, Shulin; Zhao, Shanting

    2014-11-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) functions as a pleiotropic protein, participating in a vast array of cellular and biological processes. Abnormal expression of MIF has been implicated in many neurological diseases, including Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, Alzheimer's Disease, stroke, and neuropathic pain. However, the expression patterns of mif transcript and MIF protein from the early postnatal period through adulthood in the mouse brain are still poorly understood. We therefore investigated the temporal and spatial expression of MIF in the mouse neocortex during postnatal development in detail and partially in posterior piriform cortices (pPC). As determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), mif transcript gradually increased during development, with the highest level noted at postnatal day 30 (P30) followed by a sharp decline at P75. In contrast, Western blotting results showed that MIF increased constantly from P7 to P75. The highest level of MIF was at P75, while the lowest level of MIF was at P7. Immunofluorescence histochemistry revealed that MIF-immunoreactive (ir) cells were within the entire depth of the developed neocortex, and MIF was heterogeneously distributed among cortical cells, especially at P7, P14, P30, and P75; MIF was abundant in the pyramidal layer within pPC. Double immunostaining showed that all the mature neurons were MIF-ir and all the intensely stained MIF-ir cells were parvalbumin positive (Pv +) at adult. Moreover, it was demonstrated that MIF protein localized in the perikaryon, processes, presynaptic structures, and the nucleus in neurons. Taken together, the developmentally regulated expression and the subcellular localization of MIF should form a platform for an analysis of MIF neurodevelopmental biology and MIF-related nerve diseases.

  18. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  19. Early respiratory microbiota composition determines bacterial succession patterns and respiratory health in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, G.; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Sanders, E.A.M.; Montijn, R.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Bogaert, D.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Many bacterial pathogens causing respiratory infections in children are common residents of the respiratory tract. Insight into bacterial colonization patterns and microbiota stability at a young age might elucidate healthy or susceptible conditions for development of respiratory disease.

  20. Early respiratory microbiota composition determines bacterial succession patterns and respiratory health in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, G.; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Sanders, E.A.M.; Montijn, R.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Bogaert, D.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Many bacterial pathogens causing respiratory infections in children are common residents of the respiratory tract. Insight into bacterial colonization patterns and microbiota stability at a young age might elucidate healthy or susceptible conditions for development of respiratory disease.

  1. The nuclear hormone receptor gene Nr2c1 (Tr2) is a critical regulator of early retina cell patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Ana Maria; Han, Yinan; Soto, David; Flattery, Kyle; Marini, Joseph; Molemma, Nissa; Haider, Ali; Escher, Pascal; DeAngelis, Margaret M; Haider, Neena B

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors play a major role in the development of many tissues. This study uncovers a novel role for testicular receptor 2 (Tr2, Nr2c1) in defining the early phase of retinal development and regulating normal retinal cell patterning and topography. The mammalian retina undergoes an overlapping yet biphasic period of development to generate all seven retinal cell types. We discovered that Nr2c1 expression coincides with development of the early retinal cells. Loss of Nr2c1 causes a severe vision deficit and impacts early, but not late retina cell types. Retinal cone cell topography is disrupted with an increase in displaced amacrine cells. Additionally, genetic background significantly impacts phenotypic outcome of cone photoreceptor cells but not amacrine cells. Chromatin-IP experiments reveal NR2C1 regulates early cell transcription factors that regulate retinal progenitor cells during development, including amacrine (Satb2) and cone photoreceptor regulators thyroid and retinoic acid receptors. This study supports a role for Nr2c1 in defining the biphasic period of retinal development and specifically influencing the early phase of retinal cell fate. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reconciling reconstructed and simulated features of the winter Pacific–North-American pattern in the early 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zanchettin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructions of past climate behavior often describe prominent anomalous periods that are not necessarily captured in climate simulations. Here, we illustrate the contrast between an interdecadal strong positive phase of the winter Pacific/North American pattern (PNA in the early 19th century that is described by a PNA reconstruction based on tree-rings from northwestern North America, and a slight tendency towards negative winter PNA anomalies during the same period in an ensemble of state-of-the-art coupled climate simulations. Additionally, a pseudo-proxy investigation with the same simulation ensemble allows assessing the robustness of PNA reconstructions using solely geophysical predictors from northwestern North America for the last millennium. The reconstructed early-19th-century positive PNA anomaly emerges as a potentially reliable feature, although it is subject to a number of sources of uncertainty and potential deficiencies. The pseudo-reconstructions demonstrate that the early-19th-century discrepancy between reconstructed and simulated PNA does not stem from the reconstruction process. Instead, reconstructed and simulated features of the early-19th-century PNA can be reconciled by interpreting the reconstructed evolution during this time as an expression of internal climate variability, hence unlikely to be reproduced in its exact temporal occurrence by a small ensemble of climate simulations. However, firm attribution of the reconstructed PNA anomaly is hampered by known limitations and deficiencies of coupled climate models and uncertainties in the early-19th-century external forcing and background climate conditions.

  3. RhoE deficiency produces postnatal lethality, profound motor deficits and neurodevelopmental delay in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Mocholí

    Full Text Available Rnd proteins are a subfamily of Rho GTPases involved in the control of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and other cell functions such as motility, proliferation and survival. Unlike other members of the Rho family, Rnd proteins lack GTPase activity and therefore remain constitutively active. We have recently described that RhoE/Rnd3 is expressed in the Central Nervous System and that it has a role in promoting neurite formation. Despite their possible relevance during development, the role of Rnd proteins in vivo is not known. To get insight into the in vivo function of RhoE we have generated mice lacking RhoE expression by an exon trapping cassette. RhoE null mice (RhoE gt/gt are smaller at birth, display growth retardation and early postnatal death since only half of RhoE gt/gt mice survive beyond postnatal day (PD 15 and 100% are dead by PD 29. RhoE gt/gt mice show an abnormal body position with profound motor impairment and impaired performance in most neurobehavioral tests. Null mutant mice are hypoactive, show an immature locomotor pattern and display a significant delay in the appearance of the hindlimb mature responses. Moreover, they perform worse than the control littermates in the wire suspension, vertical climbing and clinging, righting reflex and negative geotaxis tests. Also, RhoE ablation results in a delay of neuromuscular maturation and in a reduction in the number of spinal motor neurons. Finally, RhoE gt/gt mice lack the common peroneal nerve and, consequently, show a complete atrophy of the target muscles. This is the first model to study the in vivo functions of a member of the Rnd subfamily of proteins, revealing the important role of Rnd3/RhoE in the normal development and suggesting the possible involvement of this protein in neurological disorders.

  4. Dietary patterns in early childhood and child cognitive and psychomotor development: the Rhea mother-child cohort study in Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Sarri, Katerina; Koutra, Katerina; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2016-04-01

    Early-life nutrition is critical for optimal brain development; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of diet as a whole in early childhood on neurological development with inconsistent results. The present analysis is a cross-sectional study nested within an ongoing prospective birth cohort, the Rhea study, and aims to examine the association of dietary patterns with cognitive and psychomotor development in 804 preschool (mean age 4·2 years) children. Parents completed a validated FFQ, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Child cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed by the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with the MSCA scales. After adjustment for a large number of confounding factors, the 'Snacky' pattern (potatoes and other starchy roots, salty snacks, sugar products and eggs) was negatively associated with the scales of verbal ability (β=-1·31; 95 % CI -2·47, -0·16), general cognitive ability (β=-1·13; 95 % CI -2·25, -0·02) and cognitive functions of the posterior cortex (β=-1·20; 95 % CI -2·34, -0·07). Further adjustment for maternal intelligence, folic acid supplementation and alcohol use during pregnancy attenuated the observed associations, but effect estimates remained at the same direction. The 'Western' and the 'Mediterranean' patterns were not associated with child neurodevelopmental scales. The present findings suggest that poorer food choices at preschool age characterised by foods high in fat, salt and sugar are associated with reduced scores in verbal and cognitive ability.

  5. Serum/plasma DNA methylation pattern and early detection of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arootin Gharibiyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. With its fatality rate reduced significantly if diagnosed early, developing cost-effective, noninvasive methods of early detection is highly investigated. Currently, mammography with magnetic resonance imaging is considered the optimal method of early detection in women who are at a significantly raised risk of developing breast cancer. Due to environmental effects and life-style changes in recent years, elevation of the risk of cancer incidents in lower risk populations is observed and therefore, the development of a relatively easy-performed and low-cost method for early detection of cancer in general and breast cancer in particular is needed. Serum-based analysis techniques have been quite popular subject of research recently as they can be performed with low technical knowledge, become automated and are cheap. In the present article, we have reviewed the literature related to the use of DNA methylation-detection based techniques for diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer using serum or plasma circulating tumor DNA and their power as a future biomarker. A reference to all genes that is reported to be differentially methylated in breast cancer accompanies the article.

  6. Developmental changes in postnatal murine intestinal interstitial cell of Cajal network structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jerry; Sathar, Shameer; O'Grady, Gregory; Han, Juan; Cheng, Leo K

    2014-08-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract undergoes rapid development during early postnatal life in order to transition from a milk to solid diet. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are the pacemaker cells that coordinate smooth muscle contractility within the GI tract, and hence we hypothesized that ICC networks undergo significant developmental changes during this early postnatal period. Numerical metrics for quantifying ICC network structural properties were applied on confocal ICC network imaging data obtained from the murine small intestine at various postnatal ages spanning birth to weaning. These imaging data were also coupled to a biophysically-based computational model to simulate pacemaker activity in the networks, to quantify how changes in structure may alter function. The results showed a pruning-like mechanism which occurs during postnatal development, and the temporal course of this phenomenon was defined. There was an initial ICC process overgrowth to optimize network efficiency and increase functional output volume. This was followed by a selective retaining and strengthening of processes, while others were discarded to further elevate functional output volume. Subsequently, new ICC processes were formed and the network was adjusted to its adult morphology. These postnatal ICC network developmental events may be critical in facilitating mature digestive function.

  7. Individual and family eating patterns during childhood and early adolescence: an analysis of associated eating disorder factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Krug, Isabel; Granero, Roser; Ramón, Jose M; Badia, Anna; Giménez, Laura; Solano, Raquel; Collier, David; Karwautz, Andreas; Treasure, Janet

    2007-09-01

    To examine whether there is an association between individual and family eating patterns during childhood and the likelihood of developing an eating disorder (ED) later in life. The sample comprised 261 eating disorder patients [33.5% [N=88] anorexia nervosa (AN), 47.2% [N=123] with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 19.3% [N=50] with Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS)] and 160 healthy controls from the Province of Catalonia, Spain, who were matched for age and education. All patients were consecutively admitted to our Psychiatry Department and were diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Participants completed the Early Eating Environmental Subscale of the Cross-Cultural (Environmental) Questionnaire (CCQ), a retrospective measure of childhood eating attitudes and behaviours. In the control group, also the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) was used. During childhood and early adolescence, the following main factors were identified to be linked to eating disorders: eating excessive sweets and snacks and consuming food specially prepared for the respondent. Conversely, regular breakfast consumption was negatively associated with an eating disorder. Compared to healthy controls, eating disorder patients report unfavourable eating patterns early in life, which in conjunction with an excessive importance given to food by the individual and the family may increase the likelihood for developing a subsequent eating disorder.

  8. The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Møller, Morten; Fu, Cong; Clokie, Samuel J; Zykovich, Artem; Coon, Steven L; Klein, David C; Rath, Martin F

    2015-01-01

    Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the adult, a temporal pattern that is generally similar to that reported for Lhx9 expression in other brain regions. Studies with C57BL/6J Lhx9(-/-) mutant mice revealed marked alterations in brain and pineal development. Specifically, the superficial pineal gland is hypoplastic, being reduced to a small cluster of pinealocytes surrounded by meningeal and vascular tissue. The deep pineal gland and the pineal stalk are also reduced in size. Although the brains of neonatal Lhx9(-/-) mutant mice appear normal, severe hydrocephalus develops in about 70% of the Lhx9(-/-) mice at 5-8 weeks of age; these observations are the first to document that deletion of Lhx9 results in hydrocephalus and as such indicate that Lhx9 contributes to the maintenance of normal brain structure. Whereas hydrocephalus is absent in neonatal Lhx9(-/-)mutant mice, the neonatal pineal gland in these animals is hypoplastic. Accordingly, it appears that Lhx9 is essential for early development of the mammalian pineal gland and that this effect is not secondary to hydrocephalus.

  9. Early Women Sociologist and the American Sociological Society: the Patterns of Exclusion and Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jo Deegan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available American sociology owes a significant debt to early women professionals. Although discriminatedagainst as full colleagues, they nonetheless contributed to sociological thoughtand participated in professional activities. Evidence of both the barriers and opportunitiesaffecting these early female leaders is found in the records of the American SociologicalSociety during its founding years; i.e., from 1906-1931. Analysis of this information, aswell as personal documents of sociologists working during this period, reveals that womendid participate within a restricted range of “expertise”, often associated with traditionalsex roles. Jane Addams was a significant figure in these early years and was a leader withinthe separate, more institutionally limited female sociologist’s network.

  10. Sub-unit Specific Regulation of Type-A GABAergic Receptors during Post-Natal Development of the Auditory Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa A. Tremere

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The GABA-A receptor has been strongly implicated in the organization and function of cortical sensory circuits in the adult mammal. In the present work, changes in the expression patterns of select GABA-A subunits were examined as a function of development. The RNA expression profiles for three subunit types were studied, α1, β2/3 and δ at four developmental time points, (p0, p15, p30 and p90. The o1, β2/3 subunits were present at birth and following a modest increase early in life; mRNA expression for these subunits were found at stable levels throughout life. The expression pattern for the δ subunit showed the most dramatic changes in the number of positive cells as a function of age. In early life, p0 through p15 expression of mRNA for the δ subunit was quite low but increased in later life, p30 and p90. Together these data suggest that much of the potential for inhibitory connectivity is laid down in the pre and early post-natal periods.

  11. Microtrauma stimulates rat Achilles tendon healing via an early gene expression pattern similar to mechanical loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerman, Malin; Aspenberg, Per; Eliasson, Pernilla

    2014-01-01

    . Sixteen of the 19 genes were regulated after 3 h, in the same way as after loading. In conclusion, needling increased strength, and there was a striking similarity between the gene expression response to needling and mechanical loading. This suggests that the response to loading in early tendon healing...

  12. Children's Cortisol Patterns and the Quality of the Early Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina; Rantanen, Pekka; Lindholm, Harri; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hirvonen, Ari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool-aged children. Cortisol was measured…

  13. Early warning signals of regime shifts from cross-scale connectivity of land-cover patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanni Zurlini; Kenneth Bruce Jones; Kurt Hans Riitters; Bai-Lian Li; Irene Petrosillo

    2014-01-01

    Increasing external pressures from human activities and climate change can lead to desertification, affecting the livelihood of more than 25% of the world’s population. Thus, determining proximity to transition to desertification is particularly central for arid regions before they may convert into deserts, and recent research has focused on devising early warning...

  14. Stability and Patterns of Classroom Quality in German Early Childhood Education and Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuger, Susanne; Kluczniok, Katharina; Kaplan, David; Rossbach, Hans-Guenther

    2016-01-01

    Many education systems worldwide have dedicated a significant amount of resources to improve quality levels in early childhood education and care. Research can contribute to this goal by providing information about conditions of high-quality education and care and reasons for changes in the quality provided to children. This study therefore…

  15. Children's Cortisol Patterns and the Quality of the Early Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina; Rantanen, Pekka; Lindholm, Harri; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hirvonen, Ari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool-aged children. Cortisol was measured…

  16. Prenatal and postnatal residential usage of insecticides in a multicenter birth cohort in Spain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Llop, S.; Casas, L.; Santa-Marina, L.; Estarlich, M.; Fernández-Somoano, A.; Esplugues, A.; Jimenez, A.; Zock, J.P.; Tardón, A.; Marco, A.; Ballester, F.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the residential use of insecticides in a birth cohort in Spain. Study subjects were 2 456 women enrolled into the INMA (Environment and Childhood) birth cohort followed prospectively during pregnancy and in the early postnatal period. The women were recruited at the begi

  17. Early clinical manifestations and eating patterns in patients with urea cycle disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeitchik, T.; Humphrey, M.; Nation, J.; Boneh, A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize dietary habits and eating patterns in patients with a urea cycle disorder (UCD), and to identify dietary habits that may serve as clues to lead to earlier diagnosis of these disorders. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study of clinical and dietary data from hospital

  18. Early clinical manifestations and eating patterns in patients with urea cycle disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeitchik, T.; Humphrey, M.; Nation, J.; Boneh, A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize dietary habits and eating patterns in patients with a urea cycle disorder (UCD), and to identify dietary habits that may serve as clues to lead to earlier diagnosis of these disorders. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study of clinical and dietary data from hospital

  19. Brief Report: Early VEPs to Pattern-Reversal in Adolescents and Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarski, K.; Thillay, A.; Houy-Durand, E.; Roux, S.; Bidet-Caulet, A.; Bonnet-Brilhault, F.; Batty, M.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by atypical visual perception both in the social and nonsocial domain. In order to measure a reliable visual response, visual evoked potentials were recorded during a passive pattern-reversal stimulation in adolescents and adults with and without ASD. While the present results show the same…

  20. Detecting Associations between Early-Life DDT Exposures and Childhood Growth Patterns: A Novel Statistical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggeseth, Brianna; Harley, Kim; Warner, Marcella; Jewell, Nicholas; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that environmental exposures at key development periods such as in utero play a role in childhood growth and obesity. To investigate whether in utero exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE), is associated with childhood physical growth, we took a novel statistical approach to analyze data from the CHAMACOS cohort study. To model heterogeneity in the growth patterns, we used a finite mixture model in combination with a data transformation to characterize body mass index (BMI) with four groups and estimated the association between exposure and group membership. In boys, higher maternal concentrations of DDT and DDE during pregnancy are associated with a BMI growth pattern that is stable until about age five followed by increased growth through age nine. In contrast, higher maternal DDT exposure during pregnancy is associated with a flat, relatively stable growth pattern in girls. This study suggests that in utero exposure to DDT and DDE may be associated with childhood BMI growth patterns, not just BMI level, and both the magnitude of exposure and sex may impact the relationship.

  1. Dynamics of gene expression patterns during early development of the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitetzidou, E; Xiang, J; Antonopoulou, E; Tsigenopoulos, C S; Sarropoulou, E

    2015-05-01

    Larval and embryonic stages are the most critical period in the life cycle of marine fish. Key developmental events occur early in development and are influenced by external parameters like stress, temperature, salinity, and photoperiodism. Any failure may cause malformations, developmental delays, poor growth, and massive mortalities. Advanced understanding of molecular processes underlying marine larval development may lead to superior larval rearing conditions. Today, the new sequencing and bioinformatic methods allow transcriptome screens comprising messenger (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) with the scope of detecting differential expression for any species of interest. In the present study, we applied Illumina technology to investigate the transcriptome of early developmental stages of the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). The European seabass, in its natural environment, is a euryhaline species and has shown high adaptation processes in early life phases. During its embryonic and larval phases the European seabass lives in a marine environment and as a juvenile it migrates to coastal zones, estuaries, and lagoons. Investigating the dynamics of gene expression in its early development may shed light on factors promoting phenotypic plasticity and may also contribute to the improvement and advancement of rearing methods of the European seabass, a species of high economic importance in European and Mediterranean aquaculture. We present the identification, characterization, and expression of mRNA and miRNA, comprising paralogous genes and differentially spliced transcripts from early developmental stages of the European seabass. We further investigated the detection of possible interactions of miRNA with mRNA.

  2. An Immunohistochemical Study of Retinal Collagen IV Expression during Pre- and Postnatal Postnatal Periods in Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jalali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Basement membranes are specialized extracellular matrices which playimportant roles such as cell regulation, proliferation and migration. Collagen fibers,especially type IV, are the most important basement membrane constituents. As retinais one of the target organs in diabetes mellitus, and nephropathy is a major cause ofend stage renal and retinal diseases resulting in increased morbidity and mortality,early diagnosis leads to better treatment. Hence, in this investigation, the appearanceand distribution of collagen IV during gestational days and early postnatal periodswere observed.Materials and Methods: 24 intact female Balb/c mice were kept under normal conditions.After mating, appearance of a vaginal plug was assumed as day zero of the pregnancy.From days 13-18 of gestation, the pregnant mice were euthanised and theirembryos as well as pups from days 1 to 5 were collected. For histochemichal studies,heads of the specimens were fixed, serially sectioned and immunohistochemicallstudies were performed by using monoclonal antibodies for tracing of collagentype IV.Results: Our findings revealed that the amount of collagen IV in the internal limiting membrane(ILM and extra cellular matrix (ECM of the retina, as well as vessels of the vitreusbody appear on embryonic day 16. Also, a patchy distribution was observed in the pigmentedepithelium which continued to further develop until the end stage of embryoniclife. Strong labeling was observed until postnatal day 3 but did not increase significantlythereafter.Conclusion: These findings establish the importance of collagen IV during the critical periodof retinal development. In addition, this study indicates that high levels of collagen IVare present in the basal membrane (BM of the inner limiting membranes and pigmentedepithelium (3rd post natal on the 3rd postnatal day.

  3. Early History of Oral Contraceptive Pill in Finland: The Diffusion of the New Contraceptive and Fertility Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Pasila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1960s is often characterized as a decade of outstanding social and demographic changes in Western societies. The introduction of the contraceptive pill is assumed to have contributed to these changes. Yet the social as well as the demographic significance of the pill is ambiguous. This article has two aims: 1 to describe the early history of the pill in Finland in the 1960s and in the early 1970s and 2 to explore relationships between fertility and the pill. Surveys, pharmaceutical market data, and estimations are used to depict the diffusion of the pill. Based on calculated user percentages, the pill was adopted neither instantly nor extremely widely in Finland during the period under study. The results show that the diffusion coincided with fertility decline and other changes in fertility patterns. However, a causal connection of any kind cannot be established due to a lack of sufficient data.

  4. Temporal and spatial expression patterns of biomineralization proteins during early development in the stony coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, Tali; Putnam, Hollie M; Drake, Jeana L; Zelzion, Ehud; Gates, Ruth D; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Falkowski, Paul G

    2016-04-27

    Reef-building corals begin as non-calcifying larvae that, upon settling, rapidly begin to accrete skeleton and a protein-rich skeletal organic matrix that attach them to the reef. Here, we characterized the temporal and spatial expression pattern of a suite of biomineralization genes during three stages of larval development in the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis: stage I, newly released; stage II, oral-aborally compressed and stage III, settled and calcifying spat. Transcriptome analysis revealed 3882 differentially expressed genes that clustered into four distinctly different patterns of expression change across the three developmental stages. Immunolocalization analysis further reveals the spatial arrangement of coral acid-rich proteins (CARPs) in the overall architecture of the emerging skeleton. These results provide the first analysis of the timing of the biomineralization 'toolkit' in the early life history of a stony coral. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Gene coexpression patterns during early development of the native Arabidopsis reproductive meristem: novel candidate developmental regulators and patterns of functional redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantegazza, Otho; Gregis, Veronica; Chiara, Matteo; Selva, Caterina; Leo, Giulia; Horner, David S; Kater, Martin M

    2014-09-01

    During very early stages of flower development in Arabidopsis thaliana, a series of key decisions are taken. Indeed, the position and the basic patterning of new flowers are determined in less than 4 days. Given that the scientific literature provides hard evidence for the function of only 10% of A. thaliana genes, we hypothesized that although many essential genes have already been identified, many poorly characterized genes are likely to be involved in floral patterning. In the current study, we use high-throughput sequencing to describe the transcriptome of the native inflorescence meristem, the floral meristem and the new flower immediately after the start of organ differentiation. We provide evidence that our experimental system is reliable and less affected by experimental artefacts than a widely used floral induction system. Furthermore, we show how these data can be used to identify candidate genes for functional studies, and to generate hypotheses of functional redundancies and regulatory interactions. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Lifestyle patterns in early pregnancy linked to gestational diabetes mellitus diagnoses when using IADPSG criteria. The St Carlos gestational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gracia, Teresa; Duran, Alejandra; Fuentes, Manuel; Rubio, Miguel A; Runkle, Isabelle; Carrera, Evelyn F; Torrejón, María J; Bordiú, Elena; Valle, Laura Del; García de la Torre, Nuria; Bedia, Ana R; Montañez, Carmen; Familiar, Cristina; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso L

    2016-06-01

    Early-pregnancy lifestyle (EPL) could influence the development of gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM), depending on the diagnostic criteria used. We studied EPL in 1750 pregnant women using Carpenter-Coustan criteria(CCc), and in 1526 with the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria(IADPSGc). GDM risk factors were assessed in women between 24 and 28 weeks of gestational age during two consecutive years. A semiquantitative frequent-food-consumption questionnaire was used to evaluate lifestyle during pregnancy. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess GDM risk with different lifestyle patterns. Using IADPSGc, the GDM ORs (95%CI) for intake/week were: nuts >3 times: 0.59 (0.39-0.91; p < 0.015), refined cereals ≤1 serving: 0.72(0.58-0.89; p < 0.003), juices <4 servings: 0.77 (0.62-0.95; p < 0.017), cookies and pastries <4 servings: 0.71(0.57-0.89; p < 0.003) as compared to opposite habits. No significant nutritional patterns were found to be significant using CCc. The OR (95%CI) for GDM with none of the four risk patterns as compared to having three-four risk factors was 0.21(0.07-0.62; p < 0.005), remaining significant after stratification by BMI, age, obstetric events, parity and family history. The multiple logistic regression model including nutritional categories and pregestational BMI, age, obstetric history, parity, personal/family history, had an area under the curve(AUC) of the receiver operating curve(ROC) for the probability to predict GDM of 0.66 (CI 95%: 0.63-0.69; p < 0.001). Our study is the first to identify four early-pregnancy nutritional patterns associated with the GDM when using IADPSGc. Adherence to a low-risk nutritional pattern from early pregnancy on could be an effective strategy for GDM prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. A European chart review study on early rheumatoid arthritis treatment patterns, clinical outcomes, and healthcare utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Paul; Solem, Caitlyn; Majer, Istvan; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Tarallo, Miriam

    2015-11-01

    This retrospective medical chart review aimed to provide a current, real-world overview of biologic usage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Germany, Spain, and the UK, and estimate clinical and healthcare utilization outcomes associated with early versus late treatment. Adults (≥18 years) with a confirmed RA diagnosis between January 2008 and December 2010, who received biologic treatment for ≥3 months and had ≥12 months of follow-up were included. Early treatment was receipt of biologic agent ≤1 year after RA diagnosis. Outcomes included 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) reduction of ≥1.2 from biologic start and remission (DAS28 treatment, with a significant difference in Kaplan-Meier curves when indexing on time since diagnosis (p treatment.

  8. Spatial Patterns of Excitation at Tissue and Whole Organ Level Due to Early Afterdepolarizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele Vandersickel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Early after depolarizations (EAD occur in many pathological conditions, such as congenital or acquired channelopathies, drug induced arrhythmias, and several other situations that are associated with increased arrhythmogenicity. In this paper we present an overview of the relevant computational studies on spatial EAD dynamics in 1D, 2D, and in 3D anatomical models and discuss the relation of EADs to cardiac arrhythmias. We also discuss unsolved problems and highlight new lines of research in this area.

  9. Early-warning signs for pattern-formation in stochastic partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Karna; Kuehn, Christian

    2015-05-01

    There have been significant recent advances in our understanding of the potential use and limitations of early-warning signs for predicting drastic changes, so called critical transitions or tipping points, in dynamical systems. A focus of mathematical modeling and analysis has been on stochastic ordinary differential equations, where generic statistical early-warning signs can be identified near bifurcation-induced tipping points. In this paper, we outline some basic steps to extend this theory to stochastic partial differential equations with a focus on analytically characterizing basic scaling laws for linear SPDEs and comparing the results to numerical simulations of fully nonlinear problems. In particular, we study stochastic versions of the Swift-Hohenberg and Ginzburg-Landau equations. We derive a scaling law of the covariance operator in a regime where linearization is expected to be a good approximation for the local fluctuations around deterministic steady states. We compare these results to direct numerical simulation, and study the influence of noise level, noise color, distance to bifurcation and domain size on early-warning signs.

  10. Early treatment of patient with Class III skeletal and dental patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alan Vieira Bittencourt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Class III skeletal pattern is characterized by disharmony between maxillary and mandibular basal bones anteroposteriorly, and might or might not be associated with dental changes. In general, facial esthetics is hindered significantly, which most of times is the reason why patients or patient's guardians seek treatment. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Diplomate recertification and revalidation.

  11. Postnatal development of lateralized motor preference in the African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, P J; Bonner, J A

    2001-01-01

    The parrot appears to provide a potentially unique animal model of handedness in humans, but few (if any) observational studies of early postnatal development of postural/motor asymmetries have been published. We studied three African Grey hatchlings, raised without human physical contact, for the first 5 months of life. All three animals failed to show consistent postural and/or motor asymmetries until the end of the 4 postnatal week. These results appear to be comparable to data from prior studies with human infants. Delayed development of lateral motor and/or postural preferences may represent an evolutionarily adaptive strategy for altricial animals.

  12. Germ cell development in the postnatal testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutson, John M; Li, Ruili; Southwell, Bridget R;

    2012-01-01

    , which leads to secondary germ cell loss and later infertility and risk of cancer. Recent studies suggest that neonatal gonocytes transform into the putative spermatogenic stem cells between 3 and 9 months, and this initial postnatal step is deranged in cryptorchid testes. In addition, it is thought...... the abnormality high temperature may also impair apoptosis of remaining gonocytes, allowing some to persist to become the possible source of carcinoma in situ and malignancy after puberty. The biology of postnatal germ cell development is of intense interest, as it is likely to be the key to the optimal timing...

  13. AP2γ regulates neural and epidermal development downstream of the BMP pathway at early stages of ectodermal patterning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunbo Qiao; Yue Zhu; Nengyin Sheng; Jun Chen; Ran Tao; Qingqing Zhu; Ting Zhang; Cheng Qian; Naihe Jing

    2012-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibits neural specification and induces epidermal differentiation during ectodermal patterning.However,the mechanism of this process is not well understood.Here we show that AP2γ,a transcription factor activator protein (AP)-2 family member,is upregulated by BMP4 during neural differentiation of pluripotent stem cells.Knockdown of AP2γ facilitates mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) neural fate determination and impairs epidermal differentiation,whereas AP2γ overexpression inhibits neural conversion and promotes epidermal commitment.In the early chick embryo,AP2γ is expressed in the entire epiblast before HH stage 3 and gradually shifts to the putative epidermal ectoderm during HH stage 4.In the future neural plate AP2γ inhibits excessive neural expansion and it also promotes epidermal development in the surface ectoderm.Moreover,AP2γ knockdown in ESCs and chick embryos partially rescued the neural inhibition and epidermal induction effects of BMP4.Mechanistic studies showed that BMP4 directly regulates AP2γ expression through Smad1 binding to the AP2γ promoter.Taken together,we propose that during the early stages of ectodermal patterning in the chick embryo,AP2γ acts downstream of the BMP pathway to restrict precocious neural expansion in the prospective neural plate and initiates epidermal differentiation in the future epidermal ectoderm.

  14. Role of postnatal dietary sodium in prenatally programmed hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tyrus; Ascani, Jeannine; Craver, Randall D; Vehaskari, V Matti

    2009-09-01

    In this study we examined the short- and long-term impact of early life dietary sodium (Na) on prenatally programmed hypertension. Hypertension was induced in rat offspring by a maternal low protein (LP) diet. Control and LP offspring were randomized to a high (HS), standard (SS), or low (LS) Na diet after weaning. On the SS diet, the LP pups developed hypertension by 6 weeks of age. The development of hypertension was prevented by the LS diet and exacerbated by the HS diet. Kidney nitrotyrosine content, a measure of oxidative stress, was reduced by the LS diet compared with the HS diet. The modified diets had no effect on control pups. A group of animals on the SS diet was followed up to 51 weeks of age after an early life 3-week exposure to the HS or LS diet. This brief early exposure of LP animals to the LS diet prevented the later development of hypertension and ameliorated the nephrosclerosis observed after early exposure to the HS diet. The LP offspring with early exposure to LS diet had lost their salt-sensitivity when challenged with the HS diet at the age of 43-49 weeks. No effect of early life dietary Na was observed in control animals. These results show that hypertension in this model is salt sensitive and may, in part, be mediated by salt-induced renal oxidative stress and that there may exist a developmental window which allows postnatal "reprogramming" of the hypertension.

  15. Greek-Romanian Symbiotic Patterns in the Early Modern Period: History,Mentalities, Institutions - I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Panou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The patriarchal decree validating the establishment of the Wallachian archdiocese in 1359; a series of documents pertaining to the early history of the Koutloumousiou monastery on Mount Athos; the surviving redactions of Patriarch Niphon II's lost vita; the proceedings of the interrogation of a Greek priest arrested by the Polish authorities on charges of conspiracy and espionage; and an emphatically digressive section in Matthew of Myra's verse chronicle known as History of Wallachia. This article, of which the first part is presently published, offers a discussion of these textual materials - which span four crucial centuries of Balkan history and represent an intriguing variety of discursive practices and traditions. It aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of the intricate mechanisms that generated a climate of toleration, mobility and inter-ethnic contact in the Ottoman Balkans, enabling a symbiotic relationship between Greeks and Romanians, which found its vital space in the semi-autonomous and strategically located Danubian principalities, and endured throughout the early modern period despite having been severely undermined by opposing tendencies and conflicting interests. The two sections at hand focus on the Bishop of Myra's pivotal text, as well as on written records related to the early, and yet formative, contacts between the nascent Romanian states and the late Byzantine Empire; in the two remaining sections, which will appear in the next volume of The Historical Review, this endeavour will be brought to a conclusion by means of a (necessarily selective presentation of evidence dating from the period after the fall of Constantinople and up to the beginning of the seventeenth century.

  16. Spatial patterns of goose grubbing suggest elevated grubbing in dry habitats linked to early snowmelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åshild Ø. Pedersen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The western Palaearctic tundra is a breeding habitat for large populations of European geese. After their arrival in spring, pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus forage extensively on below-ground plant parts, using a feeding technique called grubbing that has substantial impact on the tundra vegetation. Previous studies have shown a high frequency of grubbing in lowland fen vegetation. In the present study, we examined the occurrence of grubbing in other habitat types on Spitsbergen, in the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. Goose grubbing was surveyed along 19 altitudinal transects, going from the valley bottom to altitudes dominated by scree. Grubbing was more frequent in the wet habitat type at low altitudes compared to the drier habitat type at higher altitudes. For the dry habitat type, a higher frequency of grubbing was found in study plots with a south-east facing exposure where snowmelt is expected to be early. This suggests that pink-footed geese primarily use dry vegetation types for grubbing when they are snow-free in early spring and the availability of snow-free patches of the preferred wet vegetation types in the lowlands is limited. Dry vegetation types have poorer recovery rates from disturbance than wet ones. Sites with early snowmelt and dry vegetation types may therefore be at greater risk of long-term habitat degradation. We conclude that the high growth rate of the Svalbard-breeding pink-footed goose population suggests that increasing impacts of grubbing can be expected and argue that a responsible monitoring of the effects on the tundra ecosystem is crucial.

  17. Greek-Romanian Symbiotic Patterns in the Early Modern Period: History,Mentalities, Institutions - I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Panou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The patriarchal decree validating the establishment of the Wallachian archdiocese in 1359; a series of documents pertaining to the early history of the Koutloumousiou monastery on Mount Athos; the surviving redactions of Patriarch Niphon II's lost vita; the proceedings of the interrogation of a Greek priest arrested by the Polish authorities on charges of conspiracy and espionage; and an emphatically digressive section in Matthew of Myra's verse chronicle known as History of Wallachia. This article, of which the first part is presently published, offers a discussion of these textual materials - which span four crucial centuries of Balkan history and represent an intriguing variety of discursive practices and traditions. It aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of the intricate mechanisms that generated a climate of toleration, mobility and inter-ethnic contact in the Ottoman Balkans, enabling a symbiotic relationship between Greeks and Romanians, which found its vital space in the semi-autonomous and strategically located Danubian principalities, and endured throughout the early modern period despite having been severely undermined by opposing tendencies and conflicting interests. The two sections at hand focus on the Bishop of Myra's pivotal text, as well as on written records related to the early, and yet formative, contacts between the nascent Romanian states and the late Byzantine Empire; in the two remaining sections, which will appear in the next volume of The Historical Review, this endeavour will be brought to a conclusion by means of a (necessarily selective presentation of evidence dating from the period after the fall of Constantinople and up to the beginning of the seventeenth century.

  18. DNA Hypermethylation Patterns Detected in Serum as a Tool for Early Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    renal [37], ovarian [38], colorectal [39], cervical 165 [40], lung [41–43], liver [44], and breast [32–34, 37, 38, 166 45]. Studies in lung cancer have...patterns of RASSF1A, p16 , and p15 172 (using DNA from 200 ll of serum) as much as 9 years 173 prior to diagnosis. 174 DNA methylation and breast cancer ...193) RARb2 CDH1 ESR1 BRCA1 CCND2 p16 TWIST 26% 80% 84% 41% 11% 14% 59% Not calculated (at least 84%) Cancer Causes Control 123 Journal : Large 10552

  19. Enhancement of hidden structures of early skin fibrosis using polarization degree patterns and Pearson correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviridov, Alexander P; Chernomordik, Victor; Hassan, Moinuddin; Boccara, Albert C; Russo, Angelo; Smith, Paul; Gandjbakhche, Amir

    2005-01-01

    The skin of athymic nude mice is irradiated with a single dose of x-ray irradiation that initiated fibrosis. Digital photographs of the irradiated mice are taken by illuminating the mouse skin with linearly polarized probe light of 650 nm. The specific pattern of the surface distribution of the degree of polarization enables the detection of initial skin fibrosis structures that were not visually apparent. Data processing of the raw spatial distributions of the degree of polarization based on Fourier filtering of the high-frequency noise improves subjective perception of the revealed structure in the images. In addition, Pearson correlation analysis provides information about skin structural size and directionality.

  20. Maternal forced swimming reduces cell proliferation in the postnatal dentate gyrus of mouse offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Wasinski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring’s neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mother at postnatal day (P8 accompanied with decreased survival of newly generated cells 4 weeks later. The reduction in cell numbers was predominantly seen in the hilus and molecular layer. At P35, the reduced amount of cells was also reflected by a decrease in the population of newly generated immature and mature neurons of the granule cell layer. Our data suggest that forced maternal swimming at high-intensity has a negative effect on the neurogenic niche development in postnatal offspring.

  1. Maternal Forced Swimming Reduces Cell Proliferation in the Postnatal Dentate Gyrus of Mouse Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasinski, Frederick; Estrela, Gabriel R; Arakaki, Aline M; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike; Araújo, Ronaldo C

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring's neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mother at postnatal day (P) 8 accompanied with decreased survival of newly generated cells 4 weeks later. The reduction in cell numbers was predominantly seen in the hilus and molecular layer. At P35, the reduced amount of cells was also reflected by a decrease in the population of newly generated immature and mature neurons of the granule cell layer. Our data suggest that forced maternal swimming at high-intensity has a negative effect on the neurogenic niche development in postnatal offspring.

  2. Reelin, an extracellular matrix protein linked to early onset psychiatric diseases, drives postnatal development of the prefrontal cortex via GluN2B-NMDARs and the mTOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iafrati, J; Orejarena, M J; Lassalle, O; Bouamrane, L; Gonzalez-Campo, C; Chavis, P

    2014-04-01

    Defective brain extracellular matrix (ECM) is a factor of vulnerability in various psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, depression and autism. The glycoprotein reelin is an essential building block of the brain ECM that modulates neuronal development and participates to the functions of adult central synapses. The reelin gene (RELN) is a strong candidate in psychiatric diseases of early onset, but its synaptic and behavioral functions in juvenile brain circuits remain unresolved. Here, we found that in juvenile reelin-haploinsufficient heterozygous reeler mice (HRM), abnormal fear memory erasure is concomitant to reduced dendritic spine density and anomalous long-term potentiation in the prefrontal cortex. In juvenile HRM, a single in vivo injection with ketamine or Ro25-6981 to inhibit GluN2B-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) restored normal spine density, synaptic plasticity and converted fear memory to an erasure-resilient state typical of adult rodents. The functional and behavioral rescue by ketamine was prevented by rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Finally, we show that fear memory erasure persists until adolescence in HRM and that a single exposure to ketamine during the juvenile period reinstates normal fear memory in adolescent mice. Our results show that reelin is essential for successful structural, functional and behavioral development of juvenile prefrontal circuits and that this developmental period provides a critical window for therapeutic rehabilitation with GluN2B-NMDAR antagonists.

  3. Drebrin regulates neuroblast migration in the postnatal mammalian brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Sonego

    Full Text Available After birth, stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ generate neuroblasts that migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS to become interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB. This migration is crucial for the proper integration of newborn neurons in a pre-existing synaptic network and is believed to play a key role in infant human brain development. Many regulators of neuroblast migration have been identified; however, still very little is known about the intracellular molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Here, we have investigated the function of drebrin, an actin-binding protein highly expressed in the RMS of the postnatal mammalian brain. Neuroblast migration was monitored both in culture and in brain slices obtained from electroporated mice by time-lapse spinning disk confocal microscopy. Depletion of drebrin using distinct RNAi approaches in early postnatal mice affects neuroblast morphology and impairs neuroblast migration and orientation in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of drebrin also impairs migration along the RMS and affects the distribution of neuroblasts at their final destination, the OB. Drebrin phosphorylation on Ser142 by Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 has been recently shown to regulate F-actin-microtubule coupling in neuronal growth cones. We also investigated the functional significance of this phosphorylation in RMS neuroblasts using in vivo postnatal electroporation of phosphomimetic (S142D or non-phosphorylatable (S142A drebrin in the SVZ of mouse pups. Preventing or mimicking phosphorylation of S142 in vivo caused similar effects on neuroblast dynamics, leading to aberrant neuroblast branching. We conclude that drebrin is necessary for efficient migration of SVZ-derived neuroblasts and propose that regulated phosphorylation of drebrin on S142 maintains leading process stability for polarized migration along the RMS, thus ensuring proper neurogenesis.

  4. Postnatal ontogeny of intestinal GCPII and the RFC in pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafizadeh, Tracy B; Halsted, Charles H

    2009-03-01

    In humans and pigs, hydrolysis of dietary polyglutamyl folates is carried out by intestinal brush border folate hydrolase [glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII)], whereas the transport of the monoglutamyl folate derivatives occurs via the intestinal brush border reduced folate carrier (RFC). The study objective was to measure the expression of intestinal GCPII and RFC during postnatal development of pigs and their effects on plasma and liver folate concentrations. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum, liver, and plasma samples were collected from female Yorkshire pigs at birth, 24 h, 1 wk, 3 wk, and 6 mo (n=6 at each time point). GCPII mRNA transcripts and protein (normalized using beta-actin), and enzyme activity (normalized per mg mucosal protein) were highest in all segments of small intestine at birth and were undetectable in ileum after 1 wk, whereas jejunal protein and activity predominated at 6 mo. RFC mRNA transcripts were present in all segments of small intestine at birth and declined significantly throughout development to 6 mo. Conversely, RFC protein increased twofold during the first 24 h and remained constant throughout development in all segments of small intestine. Liver RFC mRNA transcripts were detected at birth but were reduced by 6 mo. Liver folate concentration increased throughout postnatal development, whereas plasma folate levels increased during the first 24 h but decreased over time, reflecting the pattern of RFC expression in small intestine. These findings show that intestinal GCPII and intestinal and hepatic RFC all exhibit ontogenic changes in the pig that are reflected in postnatal folate status.

  5. The patterns of peripheral plasma renin concentration in the early post-renal-transplant period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornerup, H J

    1979-01-01

    Serial determinations of peripheral plasma renin concentration (PRC) were performed in 11 kidney transplant recipients during the early post-transplant period. In 5 recipients with late onset of graft function, PRC values were increased during the anuric phase and, subsequently, PRC values declined in every during restoration of graft function. In 4 recipients with an acute renal allograft reaction, PRC values were increased at the onset of the allograft reaction in 3 with hypertension whereas PRC values were normal in one normotensive recipient. Subsequently, PRC normalized in the hypertensives coincident with increasing body weights. In 2 recipients with an uncomplicated course and with a normal graft function immediately after transplantation and throughout the study period, PRC values were constantly normal. The results indicate that acute anuria in the early phase after kidney transplantation is associated with an increased release of renin. The results also suggest that an increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system may be counterbalanced by sodium and fluid retention in hypertension following an acute renal allograft reaction.

  6. Early development, pattern, and reorganization of the planula nervous system in Aurelia (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Yuan, David; Jacobs, David K; Hartenstein, Volker

    2008-10-01

    We examined the development of the nervous system in Aurelia (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) from the early planula to the polyp stage using confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Fluorescently labeled anti-FMRFamide, antitaurine, and antityrosinated tubulin antibodies were used to visualize the nervous system. The first detectable FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity occurs in a narrow circumferential belt toward the anterior/aboral end of the ectoderm in the early planula. As the planula matures, the FMRFamide-immunoreactive cells send horizontal processes (i.e., neurites) basally along the longitudinal axis. Neurites extend both anteriorly/aborally and posteriorly/orally, but the preference is for anterior neurite extension, and neurites converge to form a plexus at the aboral/anterior end at the base of the ectoderm. In the mature planula, a subset of cells in the apical organ at the anterior/aboral pole begins to show FMRFamide-like and taurine-like immunoreactivity, suggesting a sensory function of the apical organ. During metamorphosis, FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity diminishes in the ectoderm but begins to occur in the degenerating primary endoderm, indicating that degenerating FMRFamide-immunoreactive neurons are taken up by the primary endoderm. FMRFamide-like expression reappears in the ectoderm of the oral disc and the tentacle anlagen of the growing polyp, indicating metamorphosis-associated restructuring of the nervous system. These observations are discussed in the context of metazoan nervous system evolution.

  7. Patterns in early diffusion-weighted MRI in children with haemolytic uraemic syndrome and CNS involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnerstag, Frank; Ding, Xiaoqi; Bueltmann, Eva; Zajaczek, Jan; Lanfermann, Heinrich [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); Pape, Lars; Das, Anibh Martin; Ehrich, Jochen; Hartmann, Hans [Hannover Medical School, Clinic for Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover (Germany); Luecke, Thomas [Hannover Medical School, Clinic for Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover (Germany); University of Bochum, Department of Neuropediatrics, Pediatric Hospital, Bochum (Germany); Hoy, Ludwig [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Biometrics, Hannover (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in children with diarrhoea associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome (D+HUS) and cerebral involvement was evaluated retrospectively. DWI within 24 h of onset of neurological symptoms. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured in grey/white matter and correlated with clinical and laboratory findings. DWI was abnormal in all. Abnormal ADC was detected in the supratentorial white matter (6/12) and cortex (1/12), the basal ganglia (5/12), the thalami (4/12), and the cerebellum (1/12). ADC was reduced in 5/12, increased in 4/12, and both in 3/12. Mean serum sodium was lower in patients with DWI abnormalities affecting the white matter (6/12), than in those with basal ganglia/thalamic involvement (6/12). Neurological outcome was normal in 4/11 and abnormal in 7/11, and 1 patient died, outcome did not correlate to either localisation or type of DWI abnormality. In D+HUS with neurological symptoms, early DWI may reveal abnormal ADC not only in the basal ganglia/thalami, but also in the white matter/cortex. Besides thrombotic microangiopathy, toxic effects of shiga toxin, azotaemia and hyponatraemia / hypoosmolality may be involved in cerebral involvement in children with D+HUS. Findings on early MRI seem not to predict clinical course or outcome. (orig.)

  8. The Developing, Aging Neocortex: How genetics and epigenetics influence early developmental patterning and age-related change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. Huffman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of mammalian development is the generation of functional subdivisions within the nervous system. In humans, this regionalization creates a complex system that regulates behavior, cognition, memory and emotion. During development, specification of neocortical tissue that leads to functional sensory and motor regions results from an interplay between cortically intrinsic, molecular processes, such as gene expression, and extrinsic processes regulated by sensory input. Cortical specification in mice occurs pre- and perinatally, when gene expression is robust and various anatomical distinctions are observed alongside an emergence of physiological function. After patterning, gene expression continues to shift and axonal connections mature into an adult form. The function of adult cortical gene expression may be to maintain neocortical subdivisions that were established during early patterning. As some changes in neocortical gene expression have been observed past early development into late adulthood, gene expression may also play a role in the altered neocortical function observed in age-related cognitive decline and brain dysfunction. This review provides a discussion of how neocortical gene expression and specific patterns of neocortical sensori-motor axonal connections develop and change throughout the lifespan of the animal. We posit that a role of neocortical gene expression in neocortex is to regulate plasticity mechanisms that impact critical periods for sensory and motor plasticity in aging. We describe results from several studies in aging brain that detail changes in gene expression that may relate to microstructural changes observed in brain anatomy. We discuss the role of altered glucocorticoid signaling in age-related cognitive and functional decline, as well as how aging in the brain may result from immune system activation. We describe how caloric restriction or reduction of oxidative stress may ameliorate effects of aging

  9. Early patterning and blastodermal fate map of the head in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkan, Michael; Schaeper, Nina D; Chipman, Ariel D

    2011-01-01

    The process of head development in insects utilizes a set of widely conserved genes, but this process and its evolution are not well understood. Recent data from Tribolium castaneum have provided a baseline for an understanding of insect head development. However, work on a wider range of insect species, including members of the hemimetabolous orders, is needed in order to draw general conclusions about the evolution of head differentiation and regionalization. We have cloned and studied the expression and function of a number of candidate genes for head development in the hemipteran Oncopeltus fasciatus. These include orthodenticle, empty spiracles, collier, cap 'n' collar, and crocodile. The expression patterns of these genes show a broad conservation relative to Tribolium, as well as differences from Drosophila indicating that Tribolium + Oncopeltus represent a more ancestral pattern. In addition, our data provide a blastodermal fate map for different head regions in later developmental stages and supply us with a "roadmap" for future studies on head development in this species. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Differences in the Association between Segment and Language: Early Bilinguals Pattern with Monolinguals and Are Less Accurate than Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Cynthia P.; Bannard, Colin; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2016-01-01

    Early bilinguals often show as much sensitivity to L2-specific contrasts as monolingual speakers of the L2, but most work on cross-language speech perception has focused on isolated segments, and typically only on neighboring vowels or stop contrasts. In tasks that include sounds in context, listeners’ success is more variable, so segment discrimination in isolation may not adequately represent the phonetic detail in stored representations. The current study explores the relationship between language experience and sensitivity to segmental cues in context by comparing the categorization patterns of monolingual English listeners and early and late Spanish–English bilinguals. Participants categorized nonce words containing different classes of English- and Spanish-specific sounds as being more English-like or more Spanish-like; target segments included phonemic cues, cues for which there is no analogous sound in the other language, or phonetic cues, cues for which English and Spanish share the category but for which each language varies in its phonetic implementation. Listeners’ language categorization accuracy and reaction times were analyzed. Our results reveal a largely uniform categorization pattern across listener groups: Spanish cues were categorized more accurately than English cues, and phonemic cues were easier for listeners to categorize than phonetic cues. There were no differences in the sensitivity of monolinguals and early bilinguals to language-specific cues, suggesting that the early bilinguals’ exposure to Spanish did not fundamentally change their representations of English phonology. However, neither did the early bilinguals show more sensitivity than the monolinguals to Spanish sounds. The late bilinguals however, were significantly more accurate than either of the other groups. These findings indicate that listeners with varying exposure to English and Spanish are able to use language-specific cues in a nonce-word language categorization

  11. The influence of family pattern abnormalities in the early stages of life on the course of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Marcin; Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Aleksandra; Stec-Michalska, Krystyna; Fichna, Jakub; Wiśniewska-Jarosińska, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) belong to the group of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), chronic immune mediated diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with significant negative impact on patients' quality of life. CD and UC are related with the development of chronic inflammatory lesions in the GI tract, causing digestive and absorption disorders. Typical symptoms of IBD are: abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and weight loss. In addition, IBD are often associated with the extraintestinal manifestations, including arthritis and dermatoses. While the cause of IBD is still not fully understood, the psychological aspects are regarded as possible trigger factors. Moreover, most recent studies suggest that family pattern abnormalities associated with stress at the early stages of life may strongly affect health balance. In this paper, the most relevant studies focusing on the association between early life stress and IBD, found in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and EMBASE are discussed. Possible effects of the early life stress on IBD progression and response to undertaken therapies are analyzed. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  12. Beyond ectomycorrhizal bipartite networks: projected networks demonstrate contrasted patterns between early- and late-successional plants in Corsica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eTaudiere

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ectomycorrhizal (ECM symbiosis connects mutualistic plants and fungal species into bipartite networks. While links between one focal ECM plant and its fungal symbionts have been widely documented, systemic views of ECM networks are lacking, in particular, concerning the ability of fungal species to mediate indirect ecological interactions between ECM plant species (projected-ECM networks. We assembled a large dataset of plant-fungi associations at the species level and at the scale of Corsica using molecular data and unambiguously host-assigned records to: (i examine the correlation between the number of fungal symbionts of a plant species and the average specialization of these fungal species, (ii explore the structure of the plant-plant projected network and (iii compare plant association patterns in regard to their position along the ecological succession. Our analysis reveals no trade-off between specialization of plants and specialization of their partners and a saturation of the plant projected network. Moreover, there is a significantly lower-than-expected sharing of partners between early- and late-successional plant species, with fewer fungal partners for early-successional ones and similar average specialization of symbionts of early- and late-successional plants. Our work paves the way for ecological readings of Mediterranean landscapes that include the astonishing diversity of below-ground interactions.

  13. Local Left Ventricular Epicardial J Waves and Late Potentials in Brugada Syndrome Patients with Inferolateral Early Repolarization Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Satoshi; Tanaka, Masamichi; Morita, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Koji; Wada, Tadashi; Murakami, Masato; Nishii, Nobuhiro; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Ito, Hiroshi; Ohe, Tohru; Kusano, Kengo F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is characterized by J-point or ST-segment elevation on electrocardiograms (ECGs) and increased risk of ventricular fibrillation (VF). In BrS, epicardial depolarization abnormality with delayed potential on the right ventricular outflow tract is reportedly the predominant mechanism underlying VF. Yet VF occurrence is also associated with early repolarization (ER) pattern in the inferolateral ECG leads, which may represent the inferior and/or left lateral ventricular myocardium. The aim of this study was to examine epicardial electrograms recorded directly at the left ventricle (LV) in BrS patients after VF episodes. Methods: In 12 BrS patients who had experienced VF episodes and 17 control subjects, a multipolar catheter was introduced into the left lateral coronary vein for unipolar and bipolar electrogram recordings at the LV epicardium. Both inferior and lateral ER patterns on ECG were observed in three BrS patients and six control subjects. Results: In the epicardium, prominent J waves were detected using unipolar recording, and potentials after the QRS complex were detected using bipolar recording in three of the 12 BrS patients. These three patients also showed both inferior and lateral ER patterns on ECG. Neither prominent J waves nor potentials after the QRS complex were recorded at the endocardium of the LV in any of these three patients; nor were they seen at the epicardium in any of the control subjects. These features were accentuated on pilsicainide administration (n = 2) but diminished on constant atrial pacing (n = 3) and isoproterenol administration (n = 1). The J waves observed through unipolar recording coincided with the potentials after QRS complex observed through bipolar recording and with the inferolateral ER patterns on ECG. Conclusions: We recorded prominent J waves in unipolar electrogram and potentials after QRS complex in bipolar electrogram at the LV epicardium in BrS patients with global ER pattern

  14. Local Left Ventricular Epicardial J Waves and Late Potentials in Brugada Syndrome Patients with Inferolateral Early Repolarization Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Satoshi; Tanaka, Masamichi; Morita, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Koji; Wada, Tadashi; Murakami, Masato; Nishii, Nobuhiro; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Ito, Hiroshi; Ohe, Tohru; Kusano, Kengo F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is characterized by J-point or ST-segment elevation on electrocardiograms (ECGs) and increased risk of ventricular fibrillation (VF). In BrS, epicardial depolarization abnormality with delayed potential on the right ventricular outflow tract is reportedly the predominant mechanism underlying VF. Yet VF occurrence is also associated with early repolarization (ER) pattern in the inferolateral ECG leads, which may represent the inferior and/or left lateral ventricular myocardium. The aim of this study was to examine epicardial electrograms recorded directly at the left ventricle (LV) in BrS patients after VF episodes. Methods: In 12 BrS patients who had experienced VF episodes and 17 control subjects, a multipolar catheter was introduced into the left lateral coronary vein for unipolar and bipolar electrogram recordings at the LV epicardium. Both inferior and lateral ER patterns on ECG were observed in three BrS patients and six control subjects. Results: In the epicardium, prominent J waves were detected using unipolar recording, and potentials after the QRS complex were detected using bipolar recording in three of the 12 BrS patients. These three patients also showed both inferior and lateral ER patterns on ECG. Neither prominent J waves nor potentials after the QRS complex were recorded at the endocardium of the LV in any of these three patients; nor were they seen at the epicardium in any of the control subjects. These features were accentuated on pilsicainide administration (n = 2) but diminished on constant atrial pacing (n = 3) and isoproterenol administration (n = 1). The J waves observed through unipolar recording coincided with the potentials after QRS complex observed through bipolar recording and with the inferolateral ER patterns on ECG. Conclusions: We recorded prominent J waves in unipolar electrogram and potentials after QRS complex in bipolar electrogram at the LV epicardium in BrS patients with global ER pattern

  15. Effects of postnatal growth retardation on early neurodevelopment in premature infants with intrauterine growth retardation%宫内发育迟缓早产儿生后生长迟缓对早期神经发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡岳鞠; 宋燕燕; 黄志坚; 李坚; 齐俊冶; 肖旭文; 王兰秀

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨宫内发育迟缓(IUGR)早产儿生后生长迟缓对早期神经发育的影响。方法回顾性分析2008年5月至2012年5月出生并定期随访至校正胎龄6个月的171例早产儿的临床资料,其中IUGR早产儿40例,早产适于胎龄儿(AGA)131例。比较两组校正胎龄40周、3个月、6个月的生长迟缓率及校正胎龄3个月、6个月时的神经发育情况。神经发育采用Gesell发育量表评估。结果 IUGR组校正胎龄40周、3个月、6个月的生长迟缓率均明显高于AGA组;校正胎龄3个月时Gesell各项发育商(大运动、精细动作、语言、适应性及个人社交)均低于AGA组;校正胎龄6个月时,IUGR组精细动作及语言发育商低于AGA组,但两组大运动、适应性及个人社交发育商比较差异已无统计学意义。IUGR组6月龄时体重追赶落后的患儿各项发育商均明显低于追赶理想的IUGR和AGA患儿。结论 IUGR早产儿生后早期的生长迟缓可对早期神经发育产生不良影响。%Objective To study the effects of postnatal growth retardation on early neurodevelopment in premature infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 171 premature infants who were born between May 2008 and May 2012 and were followed up until a corrected gestational age of 6 months. These infants were classified into two groups: IUGR group (n=40) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group (n=131). The growth retardation rates at the corrected gestational ages of 40 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months, as well as the neurodevelopmental outcome (evaluated by Gesell Developmental Scale) at corrected gestational ages of 3 and 6 months, were compared between the two groups. Results The growth retardation rate in the IUGR group was signiifcantly higher than in the AGA group at the corrected gestational ages of 40 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. All ifve

  16. Patterns and predictors of paternal involvement in early adolescents' type 1 diabetes management over 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Marisa E; Rohan, Jennifer M; Rausch, Joseph R; Delamater, Alan; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Drotar, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    To document trajectories of paternal involvement in diabetes management and examine bidirectional associations with diabetes outcomes across early adolescence. 3-year prospective assessment of paternal involvement, diabetes self-management, and glycemic control among 136 youth (age 9-12 at baseline) and their mothers and fathers. Unconditional growth curves demonstrated decreasing amount (maternal report: F(1,128) = 14.79; paternal report: F(1,111) = 12.95, ps Controlling for covariates, lower youth self-management predicted an increasing slope in fathers' self-reported amount of involvement (b = -0.15 to -0.22, p management (b = -0.01, p management. Communication about ways to enhance fathers' involvement before this transition may help prevent or reduce declining diabetes management and control common in adolescence.

  17. Postnatal depression, oxytocin and maternal sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mah, Beth Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Intra nasal oxytocin administered to a population of mothers with a diagnosis of postnatal depression: -lowers their current mood -causes mothers to report that their infants are more difficult but their relationship with them is more positive -increases their protective response towards them in the

  18. Recipient twin limb ischemia with postnatal onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Roland Spencer

    2007-02-01

    After the occurrence of 3 local cases of limb ischemia in newborn twins, we reviewed the literature to investigate this combination systematically. This review reveals a distinct condition: postnatal onset limb ischemia affecting recipient twins in twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

  19. Paternal postnatal depression – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuszyńska-Bogucka, Wioletta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Among the factors responsible for the occurrence of paternal postnatal depression, the following are the most frequent: biological factors (mainly hormonal changes, mental pathogens (mainly a specific personal profile, including neuroticism, perfectionism and obsessiveness, mental disorders and problems such as fear, anxiety or mental disorders, marital coincidence of depression, a high level of stress experienced and lower quality of sexual life in the postpartum period, and finally – socioeconomic status (mainly poverty, young age of the spouse, his low level of education and structural problems in the family. However, it should be noticed that the subject of paternal postnatal depression is relatively rarely taken up in research or discussed in specialist magazines. Conclusions. However, due to the fact that postnatal depression, both in mothers and in fathers, greatly impacts the life of the child and the functioning of the family, it seems that this area of research is of crucial importance. The identification of risk factors of depression in new fathers may not only lead to a more profound understanding and description of the ethiology and symptomatology of paternal postnatal depression, but also to distinguishing a risk group in order to provide it with professional prophylactic and therapeutic care

  20. Postnatal Development of Hippocampal and Neocortical Cholinergic and Serotonergic Innervation in Rat : Effects of Nitrite-Induced Prenatal Hypoxia and Nimodipine Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyakas, C.; Buwalda, B.; Kramers, R.J.K.; Traber, J.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Postnatal development of ingrowing cholinergic and serotonergic fiber patterns were studied in the rat hippocampus and parietal cortex employing a histochemical procedure for acetylcholinesterase as a cholinergic fiber marker, and immunocytochemistry of serotonin for serotonergic fiber staining. The

  1. Craniofacial morphology in Austrian Early Bronze Age populations reflects sex-specific migration patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Alessandro; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Bookstein, Fred; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    The Early Bronze Age (2.300-1.500 BC) in lower Austria consists of three synchronous regional manifestations (Únetice, Unterwölbling, and Wieselburg cultures). The bearers of these cultures inhabited a relatively small geographic area and shared similar ecological conditions, but previous studies revealed population differences in skeletal morphology. We analyzed the cranial morphology of 171 individuals of these populations with a geometric morphometric approach in order to compare different migration scenarios. We find significant mean form differences between populations and between sexes. In a principal component analysis, the Wieselburg population, located southwest of the Danube, largely separates from the Únetice population north of the Danube, whereas the southwestern Unterwölbling group, which played a central role in trading bronze objects, overlaps with both. The Böheimkirchen group, inhabiting the southwestern Danubian area in the later phase of the Early Bronze Age, differs from the chronologically older Unterwölbling group. Geographic distance between six sites and position relative to the river Danube accounted for 64% of form distance variation; the effect of the river Danube was considerably larger than hat of geographic distance per se. As predicted for a patrilocal system in which females have a larger marriage domain than males, we found that female mean forms are more similar to each other than male mean forms. Geographic conditions explained more than twice as much variation in females as in males, suggesting that female migration was more affected by geographical constraints than male migration was.

  2. Shifting patterns of everyday activity in early dementia: experiences of men and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, Alison; Dahlke, Sherry; Purves, Barbara

    2013-08-01

    In this article we draw from a larger study to examine experiences of two men and their families as they negotiate changing patterns of everyday activity in the months after receiving a diagnosis of dementia. We conducted in-depth interpretive phenomenological analysis of interview and observational data that were gathered from the men and various members of their families (n = 7) over a period several months. Findings are presented as three themes: The best kind of man (highlighting participants' historical positioning); It's a little different now (recognizing challenges posed by the dementia); and You have to do something (showing how the men and their families responded to and accommodated these challenges). We discuss these findings in terms of how everyday activity is not only important for supporting personhood in dementia, but it also contributes to sustaining family identity, and does so in a way that is deeply influenced by gender and masculinity.

  3. Early embryonic expression patterns of the mouse Flamingo and Prickle orthologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Lucy A; Du Roure, Camille; Rodriguez, Tristan A

    2007-11-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster proteins Flamingo and Prickle act in the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, which is required for acquisition of epithelial polarity in the wing, eye, and epidermis. In mammals, PCP signaling has been shown to regulate cell movements and polarity in a variety of tissues. Here, we show that the murine Flamingo orthologues Celsr1-3 and the Prickle orthologues Prickle1, Prickle2, and Testin have dynamic patterns of expression during pregastrulation and gastrulation stages. Celsr1 is expressed in the anterior visceral endoderm and nascent mesoderm, Celsr2 and Celsr3 mark the prospective neuroectoderm, Prickle1 is expressed in the primitive streak and mesoderm, Prickle2 in the node, and Testin in the anterior visceral endoderm, the extraembryonic ectoderm, primitive streak, and mesoderm. Analysis of a gene-trap mutation in Testin indicates that this gene is not required for embryogenesis; therefore, other Prickle homologues may compensate for its function during development.

  4. The pattern of fibrosis in the acinar zone 3 areas in early alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Horn, T; Vyberg, M;

    1991-01-01

    The degree of fibrosis and the pattern of collagen distribution in the acinar zone 3, as well as the thickness of the terminal hepatic vein walls (THV) were analyzed in 48 consecutive liver needle biopsies from 48 alcoholics with preserved liver architecture. The fibrosis occurred to more or less....... No relationship was found between TTHV and PSF. The results were compared to similar data obtained in liver biopsies from 117 non-alcoholics with normal morphology or slight non-specific changes. No significant difference concerning TTHV and THV diameter was found between alcoholic and non-alcoholic patients....... The results suggest that the initial liver fibrosis in alcoholics is slightly asymmetrical distributed in each acinar zone 3 area. With progression, the fibrosis tends to be more uniformly distributed and septa appear, eventually linking THV with portal tracts. Apparently, thickening of the THV walls does...

  5. Feeding patterns and stunting during early childhood in rural communities of Sidama, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessema, Masresha; Belachew, Tefera; Ersino, Getahun

    2013-01-01

    The period from birth to two years of age is a "critical window" of opportunity for the promotion of optimal growth, health and behavioral development of children. Poor child feeding patterns combined with household food insecurity can lead to malnutrition which is a major public health problem in developing countries like Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study that involved 575 participants from rural Sidama was conducted from February to March 2011. A two-stage stratified sampling procedure was employed to select the required households. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to compare stunting by feeding patterns and other characteristics. Only 14.4% of mothers fed their children optimally. Prevalence of stunting was higher for infants aged 6 to 8 months (43%) than for those in 0-5 months (26.6%) or 9-23 months (39%) category. Women who did not receive antenatal care (ANC) during pregnancy were 1.5 times more likely to practice pre-lacteal feeding and 2.8 and 1.9 times more likely to feed their children below minimum dietary diversity and minimum meal frequency, respectively (P=0.01). Mothers older than 18 years during the birth of index child were 86% less likely to feed their child below minimum meal frequency than their younger counterparts (P=0.01). Children who started complementary food either before or after the recommended 6 months time, were more likely to be stunted (P=0.01). The feeding practices of most mothers did not meet WHO recommendations. Behavior change communication about the importance of optimal complementary feeding and ANC attendance should be strengthened through extensive use of the Health Extension Workers to reduce the level of child stunting in the study area.

  6. Effects of Patterned Sound Deprivation on Short- and Long-Term Plasticity in the Rat Thalamocortical Auditory System In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe N. Soutar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal sensory experience plays a significant role in the maturation and synaptic stabilization of sensory cortices, such as the primary auditory cortex (A1. Here, we examined the effects of patterned sound deprivation (by rearing in continuous white noise, WN during early postnatal life on short- and long-term plasticity of adult male rats using an in vivo preparation (urethane anesthesia. Relative to age-matched control animals reared under unaltered sound conditions, rats raised in WN (from postnatal day 5 to 50–60 showed greater levels of long-term potentiation (LTP of field potentials in A1 induced by theta-burst stimulation (TBS of the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN. In contrast, analyses of short-term plasticity using paired-pulse stimulation (interstimulus intervals of 25–1000 ms did not reveal any significant effects of WN rearing. However, LTP induction resulted in a significant enhancement of paired-pulse depression (PPD for both rearing conditions. We conclude that patterned sound deprivation during early postnatal life results in the maintenance of heightened, juvenile-like long-term plasticity (LTP into adulthood. Further, the enhanced PPD following LTP induction provides novel evidence that presynaptic mechanisms contribute to thalamocortical LTP in A1 under in vivo conditions.

  7. Postnatal changes in fatty acids composition of brown adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, T.; Ogawa, K.; Kuroshima, A.

    1992-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is higher during the early postnatal period, decreasing towards a low adult level. The present study examined postnatal changes in the lipid composition of BAT. BAT from pre-weaning rats at 4 and 14 days old showed the following differences in lipid composition compared to that from adults of 12 weeks old. (i) Relative weight of interscapular BAT to body weight was markedly greater. (ii) BAT-triglyceride (TG) level was lower, while BAT-phospholipid (PL)level was higher. (iii) In TG fatty acids (FA) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PU; mol %), arachidonate index (AI), unsaturation index (UI) and PU/saturated FA (SA) were higher; rare FA such as eicosadienoate, bishomo- γ-linolenic acid and lignoceric acid in mol % were also higher. (iv) In PL-FA monounsaturated FA (MU) in mol % was lower; PU mol %, AI and UI were higher. These features in BAT of pre-weaning rats resembled those in the cold-acclimated adults, suggesting a close relationship of the PL-FA profile to high activity of BAT.

  8. Mouse models for the study of postnatal cardiac hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Del Olmo-Turrubiarte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to create a postnatal model for cardiac hypertrophy (CH, in order to explain the mechanisms that are present in childhood cardiac hypertrophy. Five days after implantation, intraperitoneal (IP isoproterenol (ISO was injected for 7 days to pregnant female mice. The fetuses were obtained at 15, 17 and 19 dpc from both groups, also newborns (NB, neonates (7–15 days and young adults (6 weeks of age. Histopathological exams were done on the hearts. Immunohistochemistry and western blot demonstrated GATA4 and PCNA protein expression, qPCR real time the mRNA of adrenergic receptors (α-AR and β-AR, alpha and beta myosins (α-MHC, β-MHC and GATA4. After the administration of ISO, there was no change in the number of offsprings. We observed significant structural changes in the size of the offspring hearts. Morphometric analysis revealed an increase in the size of the left ventricular wall and interventricular septum (IVS. Histopathological analysis demonstrated loss of cellular compaction and presence of left ventricular small fibrous foci after birth. Adrenergic receptors might be responsible for changing a physiological into a pathological hypertrophy. However GATA4 seemed to be the determining factor in the pathology. A new animal model was established for the study of pathologic CH in early postnatal stages.

  9. Developing electrical properties of postnatal mouse lumbar motoneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques eDurand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the rapid changes in electrical properties of lumbar motoneurons between postnatal days 3 and 9 just before mice weight-bear and walk. The input conductance and rheobase significantly increased up to P8. A negative correlation exists between the input resistance and rheobase. Both parameters are significantly correlated with the total dendritic surface area of motoneurons, the largest motoneurons having the lowest input resistance and the highest rheobase. We classified the motoneurons into three groups according to their discharge firing patterns during current pulse injection (transient, delayed onset, sustained. The delayed onset firing type has the highest rheobase and the fastest action potential whereas the transient firing group has the lowest rheobase and the less mature action potential. We found 32% and 10 % of motoneurons with a transient firing at P3-P5 and P8, respectively. About 20% of motoneurons with delayed onset firing were detected at P8. At P9, all motoneurons exhibit a sustained firing. We defined five groups of motoneurons according to their discharge firing patterns in response to ascending and descending current ramps. In addition to the four classical types, we defined a fifth type called transient for the quasi-absence of discharge during the descending phase of the ramp. This transient type represents about 40% between P3-P5 and tends to disappear with age. Types 1 and 2 (linear and clockwise hysteresis are the most preponderant at P6-P7. Types 3 and 4 (prolonged sustained and counter clockwise hysteresis emerge at P8-P9. The emergence of type 3 and 4 probably depends on the maturation of L type calcium channels in the dendrites of motoneurons. No correlation was found between groups defined by step or triangular ramp of currents with the exception of transient firing patterns. Our data support the idea that a switch in the electrical properties of lumbar motoneurons might exist in the second postnatal week

  10. Experimental infection with Toxocara cati in pigs: migratory pattern and pathological response in early phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfelt, Irma Estela; Duchene, Adriana; Daprato, Betina; Lopez, Clara María; Cardillo, Natalia; Franco, Aníbal Juan

    2014-01-01

    Experimental inoculations of approximately 100,000 infective Toxocara cati larval eggs were done in twelve pigs. The T. cati eggs used for inoculation were collected from cat's feces. Another group of three pigs served as an uninfected control. Groups of infected pigs were euthanized at seven, 14, 21, and 28 days post-inoculation (dpi). Tissue samples were taken for digestion and histopathology changes in early phase. The number of larvae recovered from the lungs peaked at seven and 14 dpi and were also present at 21, and 28 dpi. Larvae of T. cati were present in the lymph nodes of the small and large intestine at seven, 14, and 28 dpi and at seven, 14, 21, and 28 dpi respectively. In other studied tissues, no larvae or less than one larva per gram was detected. The pathological response observed in the liver and lungs at seven and 14 dpi, showed white spots on the liver surface and areas of consolidation were observed in the lungs. The lungs showed an inflammatory reaction with larvae in center at 28 dpi. In the liver we observed periportal and perilobular hepatitis. The lymph nodes of the intestines displayed eosinophil lymphadenitis with reactive centers containing parasitic forms in some of them. The granulomatous reaction was not observed in any tissues. The role of the other examined tissues had less significance. The relevance of this parasite as an etiological agent that leads to disease in paratenic hosts is evident.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH Toxocara cati IN PIGS: MIGRATORY PATTERN AND PATHOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN EARLY PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Estela Sommerfelt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental inoculations of approximately 100,000 infective Toxocara cati larval eggs were done in twelve pigs. The T. cati eggs used for inoculation were collected from cat's feces. Another group of three pigs served as an uninfected control. Groups of infected pigs were euthanized at seven, 14, 21, and 28 days post-inoculation (dpi. Tissue samples were taken for digestion and histopathology changes in early phase. The number of larvae recovered from the lungs peaked at seven and 14 dpi and were also present at 21, and 28 dpi. Larvae of T. cati were present in the lymph nodes of the small and large intestine at seven, 14, and 28 dpi and at seven, 14, 21, and 28 dpi respectively. In other studied tissues, no larvae or less than one larva per gram was detected. The pathological response observed in the liver and lungs at seven and 14 dpi, showed white spots on the liver surface and areas of consolidation were observed in the lungs. The lungs showed an inflammatory reaction with larvae in center at 28 dpi. In the liver we observed periportal and perilobular hepatitis. The lymph nodes of the intestines displayed eosinophil lymphadenitis with reactive centers containing parasitic forms in some of them. The granulomatous reaction was not observed in any tissues. The role of the other examined tissues had less significance. The relevance of this parasite as an etiological agent that leads to disease in paratenic hosts is evident.

  12. Comparative Assessment of Cytokine Pattern in Early and Late Onset of Neonatal Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaertynov, Kh S; Boichuk, S V; Khaiboullina, S F; Anokhin, V A; Andreeva, A A; Lombardi, V C; Satrutdinov, M A; Agafonova, E A; Rizvanov, A A

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a significant health issue associated with high mortality. Immune responses associated with neonatal sepsis, such as proinflammatory cytokine production, are believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of this disease. In the present study, serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL1-β, and IL-6 and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were evaluated for 25 subjects with neonatal sepsis. We observed that subjects with late onset of sepsis (LOS), as well as those with early onset of sepsis (EOS), had a substantial increase in serum TNF-α. In contrast to EOS, subjects with LOS demonstrated a significant increase in serum levels IL-6 and IL-10. Additionally, we observed a significant difference in cytokine profiles between acute and postacute cases of neonatal sepsis. For instance, the level of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, was elevated in the acute phase, whereas the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, became substantially upregulated during the postacute phase. Additionally, no correlation was observed between cytokine levels and CRP levels or lymphocyte counts. Thus, in contrast to CRP levels and lymphocyte counts, examination of the cytokine profile can provide valuable information when determining the most effective therapy for treating neonatal sepsis. This information may be useful to physicians when determining if anti-inflammatory or immune stimulatory therapy is warranted.

  13. Comparative Assessment of Cytokine Pattern in Early and Late Onset of Neonatal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. S. Khaertynov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis is a significant health issue associated with high mortality. Immune responses associated with neonatal sepsis, such as proinflammatory cytokine production, are believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of this disease. In the present study, serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL1-β, and IL-6 and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were evaluated for 25 subjects with neonatal sepsis. We observed that subjects with late onset of sepsis (LOS, as well as those with early onset of sepsis (EOS, had a substantial increase in serum TNF-α. In contrast to EOS, subjects with LOS demonstrated a significant increase in serum levels IL-6 and IL-10. Additionally, we observed a significant difference in cytokine profiles between acute and postacute cases of neonatal sepsis. For instance, the level of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, was elevated in the acute phase, whereas the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, became substantially upregulated during the postacute phase. Additionally, no correlation was observed between cytokine levels and CRP levels or lymphocyte counts. Thus, in contrast to CRP levels and lymphocyte counts, examination of the cytokine profile can provide valuable information when determining the most effective therapy for treating neonatal sepsis. This information may be useful to physicians when determining if anti-inflammatory or immune stimulatory therapy is warranted.

  14. Spiral-like star-forming patterns in CALIFA early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, J M; Vílchez, J M; Kehrig, C; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Breda, I; Lehnert, M D; Sánchez, S F; Ziegler, B; Reis, S N dos; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Galbany, L; Bomans, D J; Rosales-Ortega, F F; Walcher, C J; García-Benito, R; Márquez, I; del Olmo, A; Mollá, M; Marino, R A; Catalán-Torrecilla, C; Delgado, R M González; López-Sánchez, Á R

    2015-01-01

    Based on a combined analysis of SDSS imaging and CALIFA integral field spectroscopy data, we report on the detection of faint (24 < {\\mu}$_r$ mag/arcsec$^2$ < 26) star-forming spiral-arm-like features in the periphery of three nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs). These features are of considerable interest because they document the still ongoing inside-out growth of some local ETGs and may add valuable observational insight into the origin and evolution of spiral structure in triaxial stellar systems. A characteristic property of the nebular component in the studied ETGs, classified i+, is a two-radial-zone structure, with the inner zone that displays faint (EW(H\\alpha)$\\simeq$1{\\AA}) low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) properties, and the outer one (3{\\AA}

  15. Phylogenetic origins of biological cognition: convergent patterns in the early evolution of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijn, Marc

    2017-06-06

    Various forms of elementary learning have recently been discovered in organisms lacking a nervous system, such as protists, fungi and plants. This finding has fundamental implications for how we view the role of convergent evolution in biological cognition. In this article, I first review the evidence for basic forms of learning in aneural organisms, focusing particularly on habituation and classical conditioning and considering the plausibility for convergent evolution of these capacities. Next, I examine the possible role of convergent evolution regarding these basic learning abilities during the early evolution of nervous systems. The evolution of nervous systems set the stage for at least two major events relevant to convergent evolution that are central to biological cognition: (i) nervous systems evolved, perhaps more than once, because of strong selection pressures for sustaining sensorimotor strategies in increasingly larger multicellular organisms and (ii) associative learning was a subsequent adaptation that evolved multiple times within the neuralia. Although convergent evolution of basic forms of learning among distantly related organisms such as protists, plants and neuralia is highly plausible, more research is needed to verify whether these forms of learning within the neuralia arose through convergent or parallel evolution.

  16. Multiplex lexical networks reveal patterns in early word acquisition in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Massimo; Beckage, Nicole M.; Brede, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Network models of language have provided a way of linking cognitive processes to language structure. However, current approaches focus only on one linguistic relationship at a time, missing the complex multi-relational nature of language. In this work, we overcome this limitation by modelling the mental lexicon of English-speaking toddlers as a multiplex lexical network, i.e. a multi-layered network where N = 529 words/nodes are connected according to four relationship: (i) free association, (ii) feature sharing, (iii) co-occurrence, and (iv) phonological similarity. We investigate the topology of the resulting multiplex and then proceed to evaluate single layers and the full multiplex structure on their ability to predict empirically observed age of acquisition data of English speaking toddlers. We find that the multiplex topology is an important proxy of the cognitive processes of acquisition, capable of capturing emergent lexicon structure. In fact, we show that the multiplex structure is fundamentally more powerful than individual layers in predicting the ordering with which words are acquired. Furthermore, multiplex analysis allows for a quantification of distinct phases of lexical acquisition in early learners: while initially all the multiplex layers contribute to word learning, after about month 23 free associations take the lead in driving word acquisition.

  17. Caffeine impact on working memory-related network activation patterns in early stages of cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Sven; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Moser, Dominik; Toma, Simona; Hofmeister, Jeremy; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2017-04-01

    Recent evidence indicates that caffeine may have a beneficial effect on cognitive decline and dementia. The current investigation assessed the effect of acute caffeine administration on working memory during the earliest stage of cognitive decline in elderly participants. The study includes consecutive 45 elderly controls and 18 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, 71.6 ± 4.7 years, 7 females). During neuropsychological follow-up at 18 months, 24 controls remained stable (sCON, 70.0 ± 4.3 years, 11 women), while the remaining 21 showed subtle cognitive deterioration (dCON, 73.4 ± 5.9 years, 14 women). All participants underwent an established 2-back working task in a crossover design of 200 mg caffeine versus placebo. Data analysis included task-related general linear model and functional connectivity tensorial independent component analysis. Working memory behavioral performances did not differ between sCON and dCON, while MCI was slower and less accurate than both control groups (p patterns possibly reflect the instable status of these cases with intact behavioral performances despite already existing functional alterations in neocortical circuits.

  18. Interleukin-1 mediates long-term hippocampal dentate granule cell loss following postnatal viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Anna G; Sharma, Anup; Binder, Nikolaus B; Miller, Andrew H; Pearce, Bradley D

    2010-05-01

    Viral infections of the developing CNS can cause long-term neuropathological sequela through undefined mechanisms. Proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta have gained attention in mediating neurodegeneration in corticohippocampal structures due to a variety of insults in adults, though there is less information on the developing brain. Little is known concerning the spatial-temporal pattern of IL-1beta induction in the developing hippocampus following live virus infection, and there are few studies addressing the long-term consequences of this cytokine induction. We report that infection of rats with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus on postnatal day 4 induces IL-1beta protein in select regions of the hippocampus on 6, 15, 21, and 45 days after infection. This infection resulted in a 71% reduction of dentate granule cell neurons by the time the rats reached mid-adulthood. We further investigated the causative role of IL-1 in this dentate granule cell loss by blocking IL-1 activity using an IL-1ra-expressing adenoviral vector administered at the time of infection. Blockade of IL-1 abrogated the infection-associated neuron loss in this vivo model. Considering that IL-1 can be triggered by multiple perinatal insults, our findings suggest that early therapy with anti-inflammatory agents that block IL-1 may be effective for reducing adulthood neuropathology.

  19. Apoptotic neurons induce proliferative responses of progenitor cells in the postnatal neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Volodymyr; Mihhailova, Jevgenia; Salmon, Patrick; Kiss, Jozsef Z

    2015-11-01

    Apoptotic cell death is the leading cause of neuronal loss after neonatal brain injury. Little is known about the intrinsic capacity of the immature cerebral cortex for replacing dead cells. Here we test the hypothesis that neuronal apoptosis is able to trigger compensatory proliferation in surrounding cells. In order to establish a "pure" apoptotic cell death model and to avoid the confounding effects of broken blood-brain barrier and inflammatory reactions, we used a diphtheria toxin (DT) and diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) system to induce ablation of layer IV neurons in the rodent somatosensory cortex during the early postnatal period. We found that DT-triggered apoptosis is a slowly progressing event lasting about for 7 days. While dying cells expressed the morphological features of apoptosis, we could not detect immunoreactivity for activated caspase-3 in these cells. Microglia activation and proliferation represented the earliest cellular responses to apoptotic cell death. In addition, we found that induced apoptosis triggered a massive proliferation of undifferentiated progenitor cell pool including Sox2 as well as NG2 cells. The default differentiation pattern of proliferating progenitors appears to be the glial phenotype; we could not find evidence for newly generated neurons in response to apoptotic neuronal death. These results suggest that mitotically active progenitor populations are intrinsically capable to contribute to the repair process of injured cortical tissue and may represent a potential target for neuronal replacement strategies.

  20. Postnatal lineage mapping of follicular melanocytes with the Tyr::CreER(T) (2) transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Melissa L; Pavan, William J

    2013-03-01

    One of the main advantages of using inducible and conditional transgenes to study pigment cell biology is that they allow for genetic manipulation within melanocytes after roles in general neural crest or melanoblast development have been fulfilled. Specifically, we focus here on the ability of the Tyr::CreER(T) (2) transgenic line to alter genes within follicular melanocytes postnatally. Using the Gt(ROSA)26Sor(tm1sor) reporter allele, we present in detail the expression and activity of Tyr::CreER(T) (2) when induced during hair morphogenesis and adult hair cycling. We find that despite similarities in expression pattern to endogenous TYR, Tyr::CreER(T) (2) is effective at targeting both undifferentiated and differentiated melanocytes within the hair follicle. We also find that Tyr::CreER(T) (2) provides the highest levels of recombination when induced during the early phases of hair growth. In conclusion, the descriptions provided here will guide future analyses of gene function within the melanocyte system of the hair follicle when using this Tyr::CreER(T) (2) transgene.

  1. Study on the behavior of rat model of schizophrenia induced by MK-801 in early postnatal period%MK-801诱导出生早期大鼠精神分裂症模型的行为学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡菡; 李泽爱; 刘寰忠; 任振华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the learning and memory eharaoteristie of rat models of schizophrenia induced by chronic MK-801 treatment in the early postnatal period. Methods 22 SD rats 6 d after birth were divided into MK-801 group and normal saline group of 11 each, and the rats in the two groups accepted intraperitoneal administration of MK-801 ( 0.3 mg/kg ) or saline ( 0. 3 ml/kg ) twice a day for 2 weeks, respectively. Body weights of rats in two groups were measured before and every three days after injection, and continued up to the end of the experiment. After 1 week of injection endpoint, open field and water maze were detected in the rats of two groups. Results Compared with the normal group, body weights of rats in MK-801 group were gradually decreased during the injection process ( P <0. 01 ) and at least continued for 4 weeks after the end of injection. The results of behavior showed that, compared with the normal saline group, the spontaneous activity in rats of MK-801 group significantly reduced ( P < 0. 01 ), and the ability of learn and memory significantly were declined in rats of MK-801 group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The decrease in the spontaneous activity of rat model of schizophrenia induced by MK-801 in the early postnatal period could partially imitate the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and the dysfunction in learning and memory is similar to the cognitive impairment of schizophrenia.%目的 建立地卓西平马来酸盐(MK-801)慢性处理的出生早期大鼠精神分裂症(SZ)模型,探讨其神经行为学变化.方法 11只出生后6 d的SD仔鼠,腹腔注射0.3 mg/kg的MK-801(MK-801组),一天2次,连续注射2周;11只同龄的SD仔鼠腹腔注射等体积的生理盐水(NS组).给药前称重1次,给药完毕后每隔2 d称重1次,直至实验结束.给药后1周,检测旷场和水迷宫等行为学的变化.结果 与NS组比较,MK-801组大鼠体重显著降低(P<0.01),并至少持续至注射结束后4周.行为学检测结果

  2. Patterns and correlates of expressed emotion, perceived criticism, and rearing style in first admitted early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Polier, Georg G; Meng, Heiner; Lambert, Martin; Strauss, Monika; Zarotti, Gianni; Karle, Michael; Dubois, Reinmar; Stark, Fritz-Michael; Neidhart, Sibylle; Zollinger, Ruedi; Bürgin, Dieter; Felder, Wilhelm; Resch, Franz; Koch, Eginhard; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Schimmelmann, Benno G

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess patterns and correlates of family variables in 31 adolescents treated for their first episode of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (early-onset schizophrenia [EOS]). Expressed emotion, perceived criticism, and rearing style were assessed. Potential correlates were patient psychopathology, premorbid adjustment, illness duration, quality of life (QoL), sociodemographic variables, patient and caregiver "illness concept," and caregiver personality traits and support. Families were rated as critical more frequently by patients than raters (55% vs. 13%). Perceived criticism was associated with worse QoL in relationship with parents and peers. An adverse rearing style was associated with a negative illness concept in patients, particularly with less trust in their physician. Future research should examine perceived criticism as a predictor of relapse and indicator of adolescents with EOS who need extended support and treatment. Rearing style should be carefully observed because of its link with patients' illness concept and, potentially, to service engagement and medication adherence.

  3. Postnatal toxic and acquired disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Amour, Dave; Dallaire, Renee; Dulac, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    To develop and function optimally, the brain requires a balanced environment of electrolytes, amino acids, neurotransmitters, and metabolic substrates. As a consequence, organ dysfunction has the potential to induce brain disorders and toxic-metabolic encephalopathies, particularly when occurring during early stages of cerebral maturation. Induced toxicity of three different organ systems that are commonly associated with brain complications are discussed. First, thyroid hormone deficiency caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors (e.g., environmental toxins) may induce severe adverse effects on child neurological development from reversible impairments to permanent mental retardation. Second, inadequate removal of wastes due to chronic renal failure leads to the accumulation of endogenous toxins that are harmful to brain function. In uremic pediatric patients, the brain becomes more vulnerable to exogenous substances such as aluminum, which can induce aluminum encephalopathy. Following surgical procedures, neurological troubles including focal defects and severe epileptic seizures may result from hypertensive encephalopathy combined with toxicity of immunomodulating substances, or from the delayed consequences of cardiovascular defect. Taken together, this illustrates that organ disorders clearly have an impact on child brain function in various ways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Early adolescent, multi-ethnic, urban youth's exposure to patterns of alcohol-related neighborhood characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M

    2009-10-01

    This study identified heterogeneous classes of alcohol-related neighborhood characteristics to which multi-ethnic, early adolescents in urban communities are exposed. The sample comprised 4,215 youth from 42 community areas in Chicago, Illinois who completed surveys at the beginning of 6th grade (2002). Neighborhood measures included: (1) mean number of alcohol outlets per 1,000 population per community area; (2) alcohol purchase attempt rate by pseudo-underage youth; (3) average number of alcohol advertisements within 1,500 feet of each school per community; and (4) a Census 2000-based deprivation index. Parents and community leaders provided data on perceived neighborhood problems and parental prevention actions, and neighborhood strength and preventive action by communities, law enforcement, and community organizations, respectively. Multilevel latent class analysis identified the number and characteristics of heterogeneous latent neighborhood classes in which these youth are exposed. Five classes best described the heterogeneity among the sample: (1) Low social capital/low exposure/high access to alcohol (19.8%), (2) Low social capital/low exposure/low access to alcohol (24.5%), (3) Moderate social capital/low exposure/high access to alcohol (30.0%), (4) Moderate social capital/moderate exposure/low access to alcohol (20.1%), and (5) High social capital/moderate exposure/high access to alcohol (5.6%). The racial/ethnic distribution among the classes varied considerably. Results suggest there is substantive heterogeneity among this seemingly homogeneous urban population. Further, they highlight the socioeconomic disadvantage of these inner-city communities and the resource disparity across the racial/ethnic groups. Understanding the nuances among communities may lend to development of more efficacious preventive interventions and policy initiatives, inform theory, and help prioritize limited resources.

  5. C-Myc regulates substrate oxidation patterns during early pressure-overload hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledee, Dolena R. [Seattle Children' s Research Inst., Seattle, WA (United States); Smith, Lincoln [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Seattle, WA (United States); Kajimoto, Masaki [Seattle Children' s Research Inst., Seattle, WA (United States); Bruce, Margaret [Seattle Children' s Research Inst., Seattle, WA (United States); Isern, Nancy G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Xu, Chun [Seattle Children' s Research Inst., Seattle, WA (United States); Portman, Michael A. [Seattle Children' s Research Inst., Seattle, WA (United States); Olson, Aaron [Seattle Children' s Research Inst., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2013-11-26

    Pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy alters substrate metabolism. Prior work showed that myocardial inactivation of c-Myc (Myc) attenuated hypertrophy and decreased expression of glycolytic genes after aortic constriction. Accordingly, we hypothesize that Myc regulates substrate preferences for the citric acid cycle during pressure overload hypertrophy from transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and that these metabolic changes impact cardiac function and growth. To test this hypothesis, we subjected FVB mice with cardiac specific, inducible Myc inactivation (MycKO-TAC) and non-transgenic littermates (Cont-TAC) to transverse aortic constriction (n=7/group). A separate group underwent sham surgery (Sham, n=5). After two weeks, function was measured in isolated working hearts along with substrate fractional contributions to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate with 13C labeled mixed fatty acids, lactate, ketones and unlabeled glucose and insulin. Western blots were used to evaluate metabolic enzymes. Cardiac function was similar between groups after TAC although +dP/dT and -dP/dT trended towards improvement in MycKO-TAC versus Cont-TAC. Compared to Sham, Cont-TAC had increased free fatty acid fractional contribution with a concurrent decrease in unlabeled (presumably glucose) contribution. Myc inactivation (MycKO-TAC) inhibited these metabolic changes. Hypertrophy in general increased protein levels of PKM2; however this change was not linked to Myc status. Protein post-translation modification by O-GlcNAc was significantly greater in Cont-TAC versus both Sham and MycKO-TAC. In conclusion, Myc regulates substrate utilization during early pressure overload hypertrophy. Our results show that the metabolic switch during hypertrophy is not necessary to maintain cardiac function, but it may be important mechanism to promote cardiomyocyte growth. Myc also regulates protein O-GlcNAcylation during hypertrophy.

  6. Caffeine impact on working memory-related network activation patterns in early stages of cognitive decline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, Sven [Affidea Centre de Diagnostic Radiologique de Carouge CDRC, Geneva (Switzerland); Uppsala University, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Montandon, Marie-Louise; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Moser, Dominik; Toma, Simona; Hofmeister, Jeremy; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon [University Hospitals of Geneva, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Direction, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    Recent evidence indicates that caffeine may have a beneficial effect on cognitive decline and dementia. The current investigation assessed the effect of acute caffeine administration on working memory during the earliest stage of cognitive decline in elderly participants. The study includes consecutive 45 elderly controls and 18 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, 71.6 ± 4.7 years, 7 females). During neuropsychological follow-up at 18 months, 24 controls remained stable (sCON, 70.0 ± 4.3 years, 11 women), while the remaining 21 showed subtle cognitive deterioration (dCON, 73.4 ± 5.9 years, 14 women). All participants underwent an established 2-back working task in a crossover design of 200 mg caffeine versus placebo. Data analysis included task-related general linear model and functional connectivity tensorial independent component analysis. Working memory behavioral performances did not differ between sCON and dCON, while MCI was slower and less accurate than both control groups (p < 0.05). The dCON group had a less pronounced effect of acute caffeine administration essentially restricted to the right hemisphere (p < 0.05 corrected) and reduced default mode network (DMN) deactivation compared to sCON (p < 0.01 corrected). dCON cases are characterized by decreased sensitivity to caffeine effects on brain activation and DMN deactivation. These complex fMRI patterns possibly reflect the instable status of these cases with intact behavioral performances despite already existing functional alterations in neocortical circuits. (orig.)

  7. Contrasting patterns of early twenty-first-century glacier mass change in the Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kääb, Andreas; Berthier, Etienne; Nuth, Christopher; Gardelle, Julie; Arnaud, Yves

    2012-08-23

    Glaciers are among the best indicators of terrestrial climate variability, contribute importantly to water resources in many mountainous regions and are a major contributor to global sea level rise. In the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya region (HKKH), a paucity of appropriate glacier data has prevented a comprehensive assessment of current regional mass balance. There is, however, indirect evidence of a complex pattern of glacial responses in reaction to heterogeneous climate change signals. Here we use satellite laser altimetry and a global elevation model to show widespread glacier wastage in the eastern, central and south-western parts of the HKKH during 2003-08. Maximal regional thinning rates were 0.66 ± 0.09 metres per year in the Jammu-Kashmir region. Conversely, in the Karakoram, glaciers thinned only slightly by a few centimetres per year. Contrary to expectations, regionally averaged thinning rates under debris-mantled ice were similar to those of clean ice despite insulation by debris covers. The 2003-08 specific mass balance for our entire HKKH study region was -0.21 ± 0.05 m yr(-1) water equivalent, significantly less negative than the estimated global average for glaciers and ice caps. This difference is mainly an effect of the balanced glacier mass budget in the Karakoram. The HKKH sea level contribution amounts to one per cent of the present-day sea level rise. Our 2003-08 mass budget of -12.8 ± 3.5 gigatonnes (Gt) per year is more negative than recent satellite-gravimetry-based estimates of -5 ± 3 Gt yr(-1) over 2003-10 (ref. 12). For the mountain catchments of the Indus and Ganges basins, the glacier imbalance contributed about 3.5% and about 2.0%, respectively, to the annual average river discharge, and up to 10% for the Upper Indus basin.

  8. The enhancer landscape during early neocortical development reveals patterns of dense regulation and co-option.

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    Aaron M Wenger

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic studies have identified a core set of transcription factors and target genes that control the development of the neocortex, the region of the human brain responsible for higher cognition. The specific regulatory interactions between these factors, many key upstream and downstream genes, and the enhancers that mediate all these interactions remain mostly uncharacterized. We perform p300 ChIP-seq to identify over 6,600 candidate enhancers active in the dorsal cerebral wall of embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5 mice. Over 95% of the peaks we measure are conserved to human. Eight of ten (80% candidates tested using mouse transgenesis drive activity in restricted laminar patterns within the neocortex. GREAT based computational analysis reveals highly significant correlation with genes expressed at E14.5 in key areas for neocortex development, and allows the grouping of enhancers by known biological functions and pathways for further studies. We find that multiple genes are flanked by dozens of candidate enhancers each, including well-known key neocortical genes as well as suspected and novel genes. Nearly a quarter of our candidate enhancers are conserved well beyond mammals. Human and zebrafish regions orthologous to our candidate enhancers are shown to most often function in other aspects of central nervous system development. Finally, we find strong evidence that specific interspersed repeat families have contributed potentially key developmental enhancers via co-option. Our analysis expands the methodologies available for extracting the richness of information found in genome-wide functional maps.

  9. NKCC1 controls GABAergic signaling and neuroblast migration in the postnatal forebrain

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    Murray Kerren

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From an early postnatal period and throughout life there is a continuous production of olfactory bulb (OB interneurons originating from neuronal precursors in the subventricular zone. To reach the OB circuits, immature neuroblasts migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS. In the present study, we employed cultured postnatal mouse forebrain slices and used lentiviral vectors to label neuronal precursors with GFP and to manipulate the expression levels of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC1. We investigated the role of this Cl- transporter in different stages of postnatal neurogenesis, including neuroblast migration and integration in the OB networks once they have reached the granule cell layer (GCL. We report that NKCC1 activity is necessary for maintaining normal migratory speed. Both pharmacological and genetic manipulations revealed that NKCC1 maintains high [Cl-]i and regulates the resting membrane potential of migratory neuroblasts whilst its functional expression is strongly reduced at the time cells reach the GCL. As in other developing systems, NKCC1 shapes GABAA-dependent signaling in the RMS neuroblasts. Also, we show that NKCC1 controls the migration of neuroblasts in the RMS. The present study indeed indicates that the latter effect results from a novel action of NKCC1 on the resting membrane potential, which is independent of GABAA-dependent signaling. All in all, our findings show that early stages of the postnatal recruitment of OB interneurons rely on precise, orchestrated mechanisms that depend on multiple actions of NKCC1.

  10. Clonidine treatment delays postnatal motor development and blocks short-term memory in young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvino-Núñez, Cristina; Domínguez-del-Toro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    During the development of the nervous system, the perinatal period is particularly sensitive as neuronal connections are still forming in the brain of the neonate. Alpha2-adrenergic receptors are overexpressed temporarily in proliferative zones in the developing brain, reaching a peak during the first postnatal week of life. Both stimulation and blocking of these receptors during this period alter the development of neural circuits, affecting synaptic connectivity and neuronal responses. They even affect motor and cognitive skills later on in the adult. It's especially important to look for the early neurological consequences resulting from such modifications, because they may go unnoticed. The main objective of the present study has been to reaffirm the importance of the maturation of alpha-adrenergic system in mice, by carrying out a comprehensive examination of motor, behavioral and cognitive effects in neonates, during early postnatal development, following chronic administration of the drug Clonidine, an alpha2 adrenergic system agonist. Our study shows that mice treated postnatally with clonidine present a temporal delay in the appearance of developmental markers, a slow execution of vestibular reflexes during first postnatal week of life and a blockade of the short term memory in the novel object recognition task. Shortly after the treatment the startle response is hyperreactive.

  11. Neonatal pain in relation to postnatal growth in infants born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P; Chau, Vann; Brummelte, Susanne; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2012-07-01

    Procedural pain is associated with poorer neurodevelopment in infants born very preterm (≤ 32 weeks gestational age), however, the etiology is unclear. Animal studies have demonstrated that early environmental stress leads to slower postnatal growth; however, it is unknown whether neonatal pain-related stress affects postnatal growth in infants born very preterm. The aim of this study was to examine whether greater neonatal pain (number of skin-breaking procedures adjusted for medical confounders) is related to decreased postnatal growth (weight and head circumference [HC] percentiles) early in life and at term-equivalent age in infants born very preterm. Participants were n=78 preterm infants born ≤ 32 weeks gestational age, followed prospectively since birth. Infants were weighed and HC measured at birth, early in life (median: 32 weeks [interquartile range 30.7-33.6]) and at term-equivalent age (40 weeks [interquartile range 38.6-42.6]). Weight and HC percentiles were computed from sex-specific British Columbia population-based data. Greater neonatal pain predicted lower body weight (Wald χ(2)=7.36, P=0.01) and HC (Wald χ(2)=4.36, P=0.04) percentiles at 32 weeks postconceptional age, after adjusting for birth weight percentile and postnatal risk factors of illness severity, duration of mechanical ventilation, infection, and morphine and corticosteroid exposure. However, later neonatal infection predicted lower weight percentile at term (Wald χ(2)=5.09, P=0.02). Infants born very preterm undergo repetitive procedural pain during a period of physiological immaturity that appears to impact postnatal growth, and may activate a downstream cascade of stress signaling that affects later growth in the neonatal intensive care unit.

  12. Association between early airway damage-associated molecular patterns and subsequent bacterial infection in patients with inhalational and burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, Robert; Jones, Samuel; Pan, Yinghao; Zhou, Haibo; Jaspers, Ilona; Peden, David B; Cairns, Bruce A; Noah, Terry L

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial infection is a major cause of morbidity affecting outcome following burn and inhalation injury. While experimental burn and inhalation injury animal models have suggested that mediators of cell damage and inflammation increase the risk of infection, few studies have been done on humans. This is a prospective, observational study of patients admitted to the North Carolina Jaycee Burn Center at the University of North Carolina who were intubated and on mechanical ventilation for treatment of burn and inhalational injury. Subjects were enrolled over a 2-yr period and followed till discharge or death. Serial bronchial washings from clinically indicated bronchoscopies were collected and analyzed for markers of tissue injury and inflammation. These include damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as hyaluronic acid (HA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), heat-shock protein 70 (HSP-70), and high-mobility group protein B-1 (HMGB-1). The study population was comprised of 72 patients who had bacterial cultures obtained for clinical indications. Elevated HA, dsDNA, and IL-10 levels in bronchial washings obtained early (the first 72 h after injury) were significantly associated with positive bacterial respiratory cultures obtained during the first 14 days postinjury. Independent of initial inhalation injury severity and extent of surface burn, elevated levels of HA dsDNA and IL-10 in the central airways obtained early after injury are associated with subsequent positive bacterial respiratory cultures in patients intubated after acute burn/inhalation injury.

  13. Spiral cleavage and early embryology of a loxosomatid entoproct and the usefulness of spiralian apical cross patterns for phylogenetic inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkel Julia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the four major bilaterian clades, Deuterostomia, Acoelomorpha, Ecdysozoa, and Lophotrochozoa, the latter shows an astonishing diversity of bodyplans. While the largest lophotrochozoan assemblage, the Spiralia, which at least comprises Annelida, Mollusca, Entoprocta, Platyhelminthes, and Nemertea, show a spiral cleavage pattern, Ectoprocta, Brachiopoda and Phoronida (the Lophophorata cleave radially. Despite a vast amount of recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, the interrelationships of lophotrochozoan phyla remain largely unresolved. Thereby, Entoprocta play a key role, because they have frequently been assigned to the Ectoprocta, despite their differently cleaving embryos. However, developmental data on entoprocts employing modern methods are virtually non-existent and the data available rely exclusively on sketch drawings, thus calling for thorough re-investigation. Results By applying fluorescence staining in combination with confocal microscopy and 3D-imaging techniques, we analyzed early embryonic development of a basal loxosomatid entoproct. We found that cleavage is asynchronous, equal, and spiral. An apical rosette, typical for most spiralian embryos, is formed. We also identified two cross-like cellular arrangements that bear similarities to both, a "molluscan-like" as well as an "annelid-like" cross, respectively. Conclusions A broad comparison of cleavage types and apical cross patterns across Lophotrochozoa shows high plasticity of these character sets and we therefore argue that these developmental traits should be treated and interpreted carefully when used for phylogenetic inferences.

  14. Spiral cleavage and early embryology of a loxosomatid entoproct and the usefulness of spiralian apical cross patterns for phylogenetic inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Julia; Wollesen, Tim; Lieb, Bernhard; Wanninger, Andreas

    2012-03-29

    Among the four major bilaterian clades, Deuterostomia, Acoelomorpha, Ecdysozoa, and Lophotrochozoa, the latter shows an astonishing diversity of bodyplans. While the largest lophotrochozoan assemblage, the Spiralia, which at least comprises Annelida, Mollusca, Entoprocta, Platyhelminthes, and Nemertea, show a spiral cleavage pattern, Ectoprocta, Brachiopoda and Phoronida (the Lophophorata) cleave radially. Despite a vast amount of recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, the interrelationships of lophotrochozoan phyla remain largely unresolved. Thereby, Entoprocta play a key role, because they have frequently been assigned to the Ectoprocta, despite their differently cleaving embryos. However, developmental data on entoprocts employing modern methods are virtually non-existent and the data available rely exclusively on sketch drawings, thus calling for thorough re-investigation. By applying fluorescence staining in combination with confocal microscopy and 3D-imaging techniques, we analyzed early embryonic development of a basal loxosomatid entoproct. We found that cleavage is asynchronous, equal, and spiral. An apical rosette, typical for most spiralian embryos, is formed. We also identified two cross-like cellular arrangements that bear similarities to both, a "molluscan-like" as well as an "annelid-like" cross, respectively. A broad comparison of cleavage types and apical cross patterns across Lophotrochozoa shows high plasticity of these character sets and we therefore argue that these developmental traits should be treated and interpreted carefully when used for phylogenetic inferences.

  15. Early male partnership patterns, social support, and sexual risk behavior among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Sara Nelson; Golden, Matthew R

    2014-08-01

    Few data exist on the early sexual behavior patterns of contemporary young men who have sex with men (YMSM), the social context of these patterns, and which of these factors influence risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). We enrolled 94 YMSM (age 16-30) into a 1-year cohort study with serial online retrospective surveys and HIV/STI testing. The first three partnerships of YMSM were characterized by relatively high rates of unprotected anal sex and a rapidly expanding sexual repertoire, but also increasing rates of HIV status disclosure. During follow-up, 17 % of YMSM reported any nonconcordant unprotected anal intercourse (NCUAI) and 15 % were newly diagnosed with HIV/STI. Sex education in high school and current maternal support were protective against HIV/STI, while isolation from family and friends was associated with recent NCUAI. Social support-including from parents, peers, and school-based sex education-may help mitigate HIV/STI risk in this population.

  16. Quantitative models of the mechanisms that control genome-wide patterns of transcription factor binding during early Drosophila development.

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    Tommy Kaplan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors that drive complex patterns of gene expression during animal development bind to thousands of genomic regions, with quantitative differences in binding across bound regions mediating their activity. While we now have tools to characterize the DNA affinities of these proteins and to precisely measure their genome-wide distribution in vivo, our understanding of the forces that determine where, when, and to what extent they bind remains primitive. Here we use a thermodynamic model of transcription factor binding to evaluate the contribution of different biophysical forces to the binding of five regulators of early embryonic anterior-posterior patterning in Drosophila melanogaster. Predictions based on DNA sequence and in vitro protein-DNA affinities alone achieve a correlation of ∼0.4 with experimental measurements of in vivo binding. Incorporating cooperativity and competition among the five factors, and accounting for spatial patterning by modeling binding in every nucleus independently, had little effect on prediction accuracy. A major source of error was the prediction of binding events that do not occur in vivo, which we hypothesized reflected reduced accessibility of chromatin. To test this, we incorporated experimental measurements of genome-wide DNA accessibility into our model, effectively restricting predicted binding to regions of open chromatin. This dramatically improved our predictions to a correlation of 0.6-0.9 for various factors across known target genes. Finally, we used our model to quantify the roles of DNA sequence, accessibility, and binding competition and cooperativity. Our results show that, in regions of open chromatin, binding can be predicted almost exclusively by the sequence specificity of individual factors, with a minimal role for protein interactions. We suggest that a combination of experimentally determined chromatin accessibility data and simple computational models of transcription

  17. The Association between Food Group Consumption Patterns and Early Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Non-Diabetic Healthy People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Rimkyo; Yoon, So Ra; Kim, Oh Yoen

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the association between dietary habits/food group consumption patterns and early risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), a main cause for metabolic disease. Study participants were recruited from the health promotion center in Dong-A University Hospital and public advertisement. Study subjects (n = 243, 21-80 years) were categorized into three groups: Super-healthy (MetS risk factor [MetS RF] = 0, n = 111), MetS-risk carriers (MetS RF = 1-2, n = 96), and MetS (MetS RF ≥ 3, n = 27). Higher regularity in dietary habits (breakfast-everyday, regular eating time, non-frequent overeating, and non-frequent eating-out) was observed in the Super-healthy group than in the MetS-risk carriers, and particularly in the MetS subjects. The relationship between food group consumption patterns and MetS-risk related parameters were investigated with adjustment for confounding factors. Fruit consumption was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol, and tended to be negatively associated with waist circumference, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, and insulin resistance (IR). The consumption of low-fat meats and fish, and vegetables was negatively associated with hs-CRP. Specifically, the consumption of sea-foods belonging to the low-fat fish was negatively associated with fasting glucose, hs-CRP, and interleukin (IL)-6. Anchovy/dried white baits consumption was negatively associated with fasting insulin and IR. Green-yellow vegetables consumption was negatively associated with fasting insulin, IR, and hs-CRP. On the other hand, sugars and fast-foods were positively associated with LDL-cholesterol. Additionally, fast-foods consumption was positively associated with hs-CRP and IL-6 levels. In conclusion, dietary habits/food group consumption patterns are closely associated with MetS-risk related parameters in Koreans. It may suggest useful information to educate people to properly select healthy foods for early prevention of MetS.

  18. Facility Delivery, Postnatal Care and Neonatal Deaths in India: Nationally-Representative Case-Control Studies.

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    Shaza A Fadel

    Full Text Available Clinical studies demonstrate the efficacy of interventions to reduce neonatal deaths, but there are fewer studies of their real-life effectiveness. In India, women often seek facility delivery after complications arise, rather than to avoid complications. Our objective was to quantify the association of facility delivery and postnatal checkups with neonatal mortality while examining the "reverse causality" in which the mothers deliver at a health facility due to adverse perinatal events.We conducted nationally representative case-control studies of about 300,000 live births and 4,000 neonatal deaths to examine the effect of, place of delivery and postnatal checkup on neonatal mortality. We compared neonatal deaths to all live births and to a subset of live births reporting excessive bleeding or obstructed labour that were more comparable to cases in seeking care.In the larger study of 2004-8 births, facility delivery without postnatal checkup was associated with an increased odds of neonatal death (Odds ratio = 2.5; 99% CI 2.2-2.9, especially for early versus late neonatal deaths. However, use of more comparable controls showed marked attenuation (Odds ratio = 0.5; 0.4-0.5. Facility delivery with postnatal checkup was associated with reduced odds of neonatal death. Excess risks were attenuated in the earlier study of 2001-4 births.The combined effect of facility deliveries with postnatal checks ups is substantially higher than just facility delivery alone. Evaluation of the real-life effectiveness of interventions to reduce child and maternal deaths need to consider reverse causality. If these associations are causal, facility delivery with postnatal check up could avoid about 1/3 of all neonatal deaths in India (~100,000/year.

  19. Postnatal Treatment in Antenatally Diagnosed Meconium Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, S; Andrei, B; Oancea, M; Licsandru, E; Ivanov, M; Marcu, V; Popa-Stanila, R; Mocanu, M

    2015-01-01

    Meconium peritonitis is a rare prenatal disease with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Distinctive features revealed by prenatal and postnatal ultrasoundmay be present: abdominal calcifications, ascites, polyhydramnios, meconium pseudocyst, echogenic mass and dilated bowel or intestinal obstruction. Establishing clear postnatal treatment and prognosis is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the results obtained by ultrasound. The aim of the study is to determine how prenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis is associated with perinatal management and further evolution. Clinical results are different depending on the presence of antenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis and its form, which can be mild or severe. Surgical treatment and management of meconium peritonitis depend on the clinical presentation of the newborn. Meconium peritonitis diagnosed prenatally differs from that of the newborn, not only concerning the mortality rates but also through reduced morbidity and overall better prognosis. Celsius.

  20. Fibrochondrogenesis, an Antenatal and Postnatal Correlation

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    Nischal G Kundaragi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrochondrogenesis is a rare, neonatally lethal osteochondrodysplasia, with autosomal recessive inheritance. It differs from other lethal dwarfisms in that it leads to broad, long-bone metaphyses (dumb-bell shaped and pear-shaped vertebral bodies. We report a case of fibrochondrogenesis with severe pear-shaped platyspondyly, suspected antenatally, and give a comprehensive pictorial review of the antenatal ultrasound and postnatal radiographic findings. Only few cases of fibrochondrogenesis are diagnosed before the termination of pregnancy.

  1. Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort

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    Gül Pınar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Başkent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.

  2. Thyroid hormone action in postnatal heart development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone is a critical regulator of cardiac growth and development, both in fetal life and postnatally. Here we review the role of thyroid hormone in postnatal cardiac development, given recent insights into its role in stimulating a burst of cardiomyocyte proliferation in the murine heart in preadolescence; a response required to meet the massive increase in circulatory demand predicated by an almost quadrupling of body weight during a period of about 21 days from birth to adolescence. Importantly, thyroid hormone metabolism is altered by chronic diseases, such as heart failure and ischemic heart disease, as well as in very sick children requiring surgery for congenital heart diseases, which results in low T3 syndrome that impairs cardiovascular function and is associated with a poor prognosis. Therapy with T3 or thyroid hormone analogs has been shown to improve cardiac contractility; however, the mechanism is as yet unknown. Given the postnatal cardiomyocyte mitogenic potential of T3, its ability to enhance cardiac function by promoting cardiomyocyte proliferation warrants further consideration.

  3. HIV evolution in early infection: selection pressures, patterns of insertion and deletion, and the impact of apobec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giorgi, Elena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gaschen, B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daniels, M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The pattern of viral diversification in newly infected individuals provides information about the host environment and immune responses typically experienced by the newly transmitted virus. For example, sites that tend to evolve rapidly across multiple early-infection patients could be involved in enabling escape from common early immune responses, represent adaptation for rapid growth in a newly infected host, or reversion from less fit forms of the virus that were selected for immune escape in previous hosts. Here we investigated the diversification of HIV -I env coding sequences in 81 very early B SUbtype infections previously shown to have resulted from transmission or expansion of single viruses (n=78) or two closely related viruses (n=3). In these cases the sequence of the infecting virus can be estimated accurately, enabling inference of both the direction of substitutions as well as distinction between insertion and deletion events. By integrating information across multiple acutely infected hosts, we find evidence of adaptive evolution of HIV-1 envand identified a subset of codon sites that diversified more rapidly than can be explained by a model of neutral evolution. Of 24 such rapidly diversifying sites, 14 were either (i) clustered and embedded in CTL epitopes that were verified experimentally or predicted based on the individual's HLA or (ii) in a nucleotide context indicative of APOBEC mediated G-to-A substitutions, despite having excluded heavily hypermutated sequences prior to the analysis. In several cases, a rapidly evolving site was both embedded in an APOBEC motif and in a CTL epitope, suggesting that APOBEC may facilitate early immune escape. Ten rapidly diversifying sites could not be explained by CTL escape or APOBEC hypermutation, including the most frequently mutated site, in the fusion peptide of gp4l. We also examined the distribution, extent, and sequence context of insertions and deletions and provide evidence that the length

  4. Expression pattern of neuregulin-1 type III during the development of the peripheral nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-liang Huang; Zhong-yang Liu; Jing-hui Huang; Zhuo-jing Luo

    2015-01-01

    Neuregulin-1 type III is a key regulator in Schwann cell proliferation, committing to a myelinat-ing fate and regulating myelin sheath thickness. However, the expression pattern of neuregulin-1 type III in the peripheral nervous system during developmental periods (such as the premyelin-ating stage, myelinating stage and postmyelinating stage) has rarely been studied. In this study, dorsal root ganglia were isolated from rats between postnatal day 1 and postnatal day 56. The expression pattern of neuregulin-1 type III in dorsal root ganglia neurons at various develop-mental stages were compared by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot assay and immunolfuorescent staining. The expression of neuregulin-1 type III mRNA reached its peak at postnatal day 3 and then stabilized at a relative high expression level from postnatal day 3 to postnatal day 56. The expression of neuregulin-1 type III protein increased gradually from postnatal day 1, reached a peak at postnatal day 28, and then decreased at postnatal day 56. Immunolfuorescent staining results showed a similar tendency to western blot assay results. Experimental findings indicate that the expression of neuregulin-1 type III in rat dorsal root ganglion was increased during the premyelinating (from postnatal day 2 to postnatal day 5) and myelinating stage (from postnatal day 5 to postnatal day 10), but remained at a high level in the postmyelinating stage (after postnatal day 10).

  5. Postnatal development and plasticity of specialized muscle fiber characteristics in the hindlimb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, D J; Bassel-Duby, R S; Richardson, J A; Grayson, J; Neufer, P D; Williams, R S

    1996-01-01

    Recent progress in defining molecular components of pathways controlling early stages of myogenesis has been substantial, but regulatory factors that govern the striking functional specialization of adult skeletal muscle fibers in vertebrate organisms have not yet been identified. A more detailed understanding of the temporal and spatial patterns by which specialized fiber characteristics arise may provide clues to the identity of the relevant regulatory factors. In this study, we used immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization, and Northern blot analyses to examine the time course and spatial characteristics of expression of myoglobin protein and mRNA during development of the distal hindlimb in the mouse. In adult animals, myoglobin is expressed selectively in oxidative, mitochondria-rich, fatigue-resistant myofibers, and it provides a convenient marker for this particular subset of specialized fibers. We observed only minimal expression of myoglobin in the hindlimb prior to the second day after birth, but a rapid and large (50-fold) induction of this gene in the ensuing neonatal period. Myoglobin expression was limited, however, to fibers located centrally within the limb which coexpress myosin isoforms characteristic of type I, IIA, and IIX fibers. This induction of myoglobin expression within the early postnatal period was accompanied by increased expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, and exhibited a time course similar to the upregulation of myoglobin and mitochondrial proteins, and exhibited a time course similar to the upregulation of myoglobin and mitochondrial protein expression that can be induced in adult muscle fibers by continuous motor nerve stimulation. This comparison suggests that progressive locomotor activity of neonatal animals may provide signals which trigger the development of the specialized features of oxidative, fatigue-resistant skeletal muscle fibers.

  6. Postnatal depression and socio-cultural practices among postnatal mothers in Kota Bahru, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azidah, A K; Shaiful, B I; Rusli, N; Jamil, M Y

    2006-03-01

    This is a cross sectional study to determine the relationship of postnatal depression (PND) and socio-cultural practices post-delivery among women in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Four hundred and twenty one pregnant women were screened for depression between 36 - 42 weeks of pregnancy, 1 week and 4 - 6 weeks postpartum using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The women also completed questionnaires on socio-demography, psychosocial support and traditional postnatal care. The prevalence of PND at 4-6 weeks postpartum was 20.7%. Depressive symptoms at the end of pregnancy (p<0.05) and one week postpartum (p<0.05), worry about the baby (p<0.05), use of traditional medication (p<0.05) and traditional massage (p<0.05) were significantly associated with PND.