WorldWideScience

Sample records for early physical medicine

  1. Nuclear medicine physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Lima, Joao Jose

    2011-01-01

    Edited by a renowned international expert in the field, Nuclear Medicine Physics offers an up-to-date, state-of-the-art account of the physics behind the theoretical foundation and applications of nuclear medicine. It covers important physical aspects of the methods and instruments involved in modern nuclear medicine, along with related biological topics. The book first discusses the physics of and machines for producing radioisotopes suitable for use in conventional nuclear medicine and PET. After focusing on positron physics and the applications of positrons in medicine and biology, it descr

  2. Physics in nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, Simon R; Phelps, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Physics in Nuclear Medicine - by Drs. Simon R. Cherry, James A. Sorenson, and Michael E. Phelps - provides current, comprehensive guidance on the physics underlying modern nuclear medicine and imaging using radioactively labeled tracers. This revised and updated fourth edition features a new full-color layout, as well as the latest information on instrumentation and technology. Stay current on crucial developments in hybrid imaging (PET/CT and SPECT/CT), and small animal imaging, and benefit from the new section on tracer kinetic modeling in neuroreceptor imaging.

  3. Why Physics in Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samei, Ehsan; Grist, Thomas M

    2018-05-18

    Despite its crucial role in the development of new medical imaging technologies, in clinical practice, physics has primarily been involved in the technical evaluation of technologies. However, this narrow role is no longer adequate. New trajectories in medicine call for a stronger role for physics in the clinic. The movement toward evidence-based, quantitative, and value-based medicine requires physicists to play a more integral role in delivering innovative precision care through the intentional clinical application of physical sciences. There are three aspects of this clinical role: technology assessment based on metrics as they relate to expected clinical performance, optimized use of technologies for patient-centered clinical outcomes, and retrospective analysis of imaging operations to ensure attainment of expectations in terms of quality and variability. These tasks fuel the drive toward high-quality, consistent practice of medical imaging that is patient centered, evidence based, and safe. While this particular article focuses on imaging, this trajectory and paradigm is equally applicable to the multitudes of the applications of physics in medicine. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Physics technologies in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Kreis, Roland; Wildermuth, Simon; Buck, Alfred; Von Schulthess, Gustav K

    2002-01-01

    Modern medicine is a large consumer of physics technologies. The series of lectures covers medical imaging starting with an overview and the history of medical imaging. Then follows four lectures covering x-ray imaging positron emission tomography imaging blood flow by ultrasound magnetic resonance 10 June 2002 100 Years of Medical Imaging Pr. Gustav K. von Schulthess MD, PhD, University of Zurich History and overview of Medical Imaging 11 June 2002 X-rays: still going strong Dr. Simon Wildermuth, MD, University Hospital Zurich Multidetector computed tomography: New developments and applications Since its introduction in 1992, spiral computed tomography (CT) scanners constructed with a single row of detectors have revolutionized imaging of thoracic and abdominal diseases. Current state-of-the-art models use up to 16 detectors and are capable of acquiring 16 contiguous slices of data with each gantry rotation; systems with 32 data acquisition units (and more) are currently in development. The principal advan...

  5. Shakespeare and the Words of Early Modern Physic: Between Academic and Popular Medicine. A Lexicographical Approach to the Plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Mullini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at showing how Shakespeare relied on the medical vocabulary shared by his coeval society, which had, for centuries, been witnessing the continuous process of vernacularization of ancient and medieval scientific texts. After outlining the state of early modern medicine, the author presents and discusses the results of her search for relevant medical terms in nine plays by Shakespeare. In order to do this, a wide range of medical treatises has been analysed (either directly or through specific corpora such as Medieval English Medical Texts, MEMT 2005, and Early Modern English Medical Texts, EMEMT 2010, so as to verify the ancestry or the novelty of Shakespearean medical words. In addition to this, the author has also built a corpus of word types derived from seventeenth-century quack doctors’ handbills, with the purpose of creating a word list of medical terms connected to popular rather than university medicine, comparable with the list drawn out of the Shakespearean plays. The results most stressed in the article concern Shakespeare’s use of medical terminology already well known to his contemporary society (thus confuting the Oxfordian thesis about the impossibility for William Shakespeare the actor to master so many medical words and the playwright’s skill in transforming – rather than inventing – old popular terms. The article is accompanied by five tables that collect the results of the various lexicographical searches.

  6. Physical bases of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isabelle, D.B.; Ducassou, D.

    1975-01-01

    The physical bases of nuclear medicine are outlined in several chapters devoted successively to: atomic and nuclear structures; nuclear reactions; radioactiity laws; a study of different types of disintegration; the interactions of radiations with matter [fr

  7. Physical medicine and rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bladder problems, chewing and swallowing, problems thinking or reasoning, movement or mobility, speech, and language. Information Many ... be needed to help with medical, physical, social, emotional, and work-related problems, including: Therapy for specific ...

  8. Radiation physics for nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Hoeschen, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The field of nuclear medicine is expanding rapidly, with the development of exciting new diagnostic methods and treatments. This growth is closely associated with significant advances in radiation physics. In this book, acknowledged experts explain the basic principles of radiation physics in relation to nuclear medicine and examine important novel approaches in the field. The first section is devoted to what might be termed the "building blocks" of nuclear medicine, including the mechanisms of interaction between radiation and matter and Monte Carlo codes. In subsequent sections, radiation sources for medical applications, radiopharmaceutical development and production, and radiation detectors are discussed in detail. New frontiers are then explored, including improved algorithms for image reconstruction, biokinetic models, and voxel phantoms for internal dosimetry. Both trainees and experienced practitioners and researchers will find this book to be an invaluable source of up-to-date information.

  9. Physics and medicine: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keevil, Stephen F

    2012-04-21

    Nowadays, the term medical physics usually refers to the work of physicists employed in hospitals, who are concerned mainly with medical applications of radiation, diagnostic imaging, and clinical measurement. This involvement in clinical work began barely 100 years ago, but the relation between physics and medicine has a much longer history. In this report, I have traced this history from the earliest recorded period, when physical agents such as heat and light began to be used to diagnose and treat disease. Later, great polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci and Alhazen used physical principles to begin the quest to understand the function of the body. After the scientific revolution in the 17th century, early medical physicists developed a purely mechanistic approach to physiology, whereas others applied ideas derived from physics in an effort to comprehend the nature of life itself. These early investigations led directly to the development of specialties such as electrophysiology, biomechanics, and ophthalmology. Physics-based medical technology developed rapidly during the 19th century, but it was the revolutionary discoveries about radiation and radioactivity at the end of the century that ushered in a new era of radiation-based medical diagnosis and treatment, thereby giving rise to the modern medical physics profession. Subsequent developments in imaging in particular have revolutionised the practice of medicine. We now stand on the brink of a new revolution in post-genomic personalised medicine, with physics-based techniques again at the forefront. As before, these techniques are often the unpredictable fruits of earlier investment in basic physics research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Early solar physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    1970-01-01

    Early Solar Physics reviews developments in solar physics, particularly the advent of solar spectroscopy and the discovery of relationships between the various layers of the solar atmosphere and between the different forms of solar activity. Topics covered include solar observations during 1843; chemical analysis of the solar atmosphere; the spectrum of a solar prominence; and the solar eclipse of December 12, 1871. Spectroscopic observations of the sun are also presented. This book is comprised of 30 chapters and begins with an overview of ideas about the sun in the mid-nineteenth century, fo

  11. Essentials of nuclear medicine physics and instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Powsner, Rachel A; Powsner, Edward R

    2013-01-01

    An excellent introduction to the basic concepts of nuclear medicine physics This Third Edition of Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation expands the finely developed illustrated review and introductory guide to nuclear medicine physics and instrumentation. Along with simple, progressive, highly illustrated topics, the authors present nuclear medicine-related physics and engineering concepts clearly and concisely. Included in the text are introductory chapters on relevant atomic structure, methods of radionuclide production, and the interaction of radiation with matter. Fu

  12. Introductory physics of nuclear medicine. Third edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, R.

    1987-01-01

    The new third edition includes essential details and many examples and problems taken from the routine practice of nuclear medicine. Basic principles and underlying concepts are explained, although it is assumed that the reader has some current use as a bone densitometer. For resident physicians in nuclear medicine, residents in pathology, radiology, and internal medicine, and students of nuclear medicine technology, the third edition offers a simplified and reliable approach to the physics and basic sciences of nuclear medicine

  13. Physics and radiobiology of nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Gopal B

    2013-01-01

    The Fourth Edition of Dr. Gopal B. Saha’s Physics and Radiobiology of Nuclear Medicine was prompted by the need to provide up-to-date information to keep pace with the perpetual growth and improvement in the instrumentation and techniques employed in nuclear medicine since the last edition published in 2006. Like previous editions, the book is intended for radiology and nuclear medicine residents to prepare for the American Board of Nuclear Medicine, American Board of Radiology, and American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine examinations, all of which require a strong physics background. Additionally, the book will serve as a textbook on nuclear medicine physics for nuclear medicine technologists taking the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board examination.

  14. Physics of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkhamer, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis, the author has assembled his papers on elementary particle physics which are of importance for studying cosmology viz. the physics of the early universe. A rather detailed introduction reviewing basic principles and current trends in the relation particle physics/cosmology precedes the papers. (Auth.)

  15. Elementary particle physics in early physics education

    CERN Document Server

    Wiener, Gerfried

    2017-01-01

    Current physics education research is faced with the important question of how best to introduce elementary particle physics in the classroom early on. Therefore, a learning unit on the subatomic structure of matter was developed, which aims to introduce 12-year-olds to elementary particles and fundamental interactions. This unit was iteratively evaluated and developed by means of a design-based research project with grade-6 students. In addition, dedicated professional development programmes were set up to instruct high school teachers about the learning unit and enable them to investigate its didactical feasibility. Overall, the doctoral research project led to successful results and showed the topic of elementary particle physics to be a viable candidate for introducing modern physics in the classroom. Furthermore, thanks to the design-based research methodology, the respective findings have implications for both physics education and physics education research, which will be presented during the PhD defen...

  16. Radiation physics in medicine and veterinary medicine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, D.; Djuric, G.

    2000-01-01

    Medical and veterinary medicine staff and specialists represent an important decision making group in national administration and institutions dealing with radiation protection and environmental protection matters in general. Still, their education in physics, especially in radiation physics is fragmentary and loose, both from technical and theoretical point of view. Within medicine and veterinary medicine studies as well as within other biomedical sciences (biology, pharmacology, biotechnology) radiation physics is usually incorporated in the first year curricula as a part of general physics or biophysics course. Some segments of radiation physics mainly as a technical base for different instrumentation methods and techniques could be also found within different graduate and post-graduate courses of radiology, physical therapy, radiation hygiene, environmental protection, etc. But the traditional approach in presenting the matter and inflexibility of the educational system strongly confront the growing public concern for the environmental problems dealing with radiation and demands for better informing and technical education for those involved in informing and administration. This paper considers some of these problems presenting a new approach in education in radiation physics for medical and veterinary medicine students based on education through student projects and work in the field, as well as on the strong collaboration among administration, universities and professional societies on the national and international level. (author)

  17. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  18. Introductory physics of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, R.

    1976-01-01

    This presentation is primarily addressed to resident physicians in nuclear medicine, as well as residents in radiology, pathology, and internal medicine. Topics covered include: basic review; nuclides and radioactive processes; radioactivity-law of decay, half-life, and statistics; production of radionuclides; radiopharmaceuticals; interaction of high-energy radiation with matter; radiation dosimetry; detection of high-energy radiation; in-vitro radiation detection; in-vivo radiation detection using external detectors; detectability or final contrast in a scan; resolution and sensitivity of a scanner; special techniques and instruments; therapeutic uses of radionuclides; biological effects of radiation; and safe handling of radionuclides

  19. Medical physics. The application of physics to medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ka Weibo

    2002-01-01

    Physics has been applied to medicine for several hundred years, and has greatly spurred the development of medical science. Two important examples are medical imaging and radiation oncology. A review of the state-of-the-art of these two fields is presented for physicists. The combination of physics and medicine has not only provided advanced techniques for clinical diagnosis and treatment but has also advanced physics itself

  20. Evidence based medicine in physical medicine and rehabilitation (German version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kern

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last twenty years the term “Evidence Based Medicine (EBM” has been increasingly applied in all areas of medicine and is often used for decision-making in the medical and public health sector. It is also used to verify the significance and/or the effectiveness of different therapies. The original definition of EBM rests on the following three pillars: the physician’s individual expertise, the patient’s needs and the best external evidence. Today, however, the term EBM is often wrongly used as a synonym for best external evidence, without taking into consideration the other two pillars of the model which was created by Gordon Guyatt, David Sackett and Archibald Cochrane. This problem becomes even greater the more social insurance institutions and politicians use external evidence alone as the main guideline for financing therapies and therapy guidelines in physical medicine and general rehabilitation without taking into account the physician’s expertise and the patient’s needs.The wrong interpretation of EBM can lead to the following problems: well established clinical therapies are either questioned or not granted and are therefore withheld from patients (for example physical pain management. An absence of evidence for individual therapy methods does not prove their ineffectiveness! In this short statement the significance of EBM in Physical Medicine and general rehabilitation will be analysed and discussed.

  1. Physics and radiobiology of nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Gopal B

    2010-01-01

    From a distinguished author comes this new edition for technologists, practitioners, residents, and students in radiology and nuclear medicine. Encompassing major topics in nuclear medicine from the basic physics of radioactive decay to instrumentation and radiobiology, it is an ideal review for Board and Registry examinations. The material is well organized and written with clarity. The book is supplemented with tables and illustrations throughout. It provides a quick reference book that is concise but comprehensive, and offers a complete discussion of topics for the nuclear medicine and radi

  2. Historical perspectives on health. Early Arabic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Harry

    2004-07-01

    The Arabian conquests during and after the 7th century led to a spread of Islam as well as the consequential influence of theology on health through the teachings of the Qur'an (Koran). Although traditional medicine was widely accepted and used, the character of early aggrandisement of Arabic medicine involved a facility for adapting and absorbing Graeco-Roman knowledge. The translation schools and libraries, famous in both the East and West, preserved and expanded the knowledge acquired. European academic learning owed much to the Arabs. Information came through Spain to Italy, France and, later on, England. The founding of hospitals, whilst not an Arab initiative, received a fillip from the religious prescriptions for care of the sick. The Military Orders developed specialist institutions for the sick, probably as a result of what they saw during their sojourn in the Middle East. The legacy of Arabic medical care is still with us today and deserves understanding and greater appreciation.

  3. Intermediate physics for medicine and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbie, Russell K

    2015-01-01

    This classic text has been used in over 20 countries by advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in biophysics, physiology, medical physics, neuroscience, and biomedical engineering. It bridges the gap between an introductory physics course and the application of physics to the life and biomedical sciences. Extensively revised and updated, the fifth edition incorporates new developments at the interface between physics and biomedicine. New coverage includes cyclotrons, photodynamic therapy, color vision, x-ray crystallography, the electron microscope, cochlear implants, deep brain stimulation, nanomedicine, and other topics highlighted in the National Research Council report BIO2010. As with the previous edition, the first half of the text is primarily biological physics, emphasizing the use of ideas from physics to understand biology and physiology, and the second half is primarily medical physics, describing the use of physics in medicine for diagnosis (mainly imaging) and therapy. Among the m...

  4. Education in nuclear physics, medical physics and radiation protection in medicine and veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, D.; Djuric, G.; Andric, S.

    2001-01-01

    Education in Nuclear Physics, Medical Physics and Radiation Protection in medicine and veterinary medicine studies on Belgrade University is an integral part of the curriculum, incorporated in different courses of graduate and post-graduate studies. During graduate studies students get basic elements of Nuclear Physics through Physics and/or Biophysics courses in the 1 st year, while basic knowledge in Medical Physics and Radiation Protection is implemented in the courses of Radiology, Physical Therapy, Radiation Hygiene, Diagnostic Radiology and Radiation Therapy in the 4 th or 5 th year. Postgraduate studies offer MSc degree in Radiology, Physical Therapy, while courses in Nuclear Physics, Nuclear Instrumentation, Radiation Protection and Radiology are core or optional. On the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine graduated students may continue their professional education and obtain specialization degree in Radiology, Physical Therapy or Radiation Protection. On the Faculty of Medicine there are specialization degrees in Medical Nuclear Physics. Still, a closer analysis reveals a number of problems both from methodological and cognitive point of view. They are related mostly to graduate students ability to apply their knowledge in practise and with the qualifications of the educators, as those engaged in graduate studies lack basic knowledge in biological and medical sciences, while those engaged in post graduate studies mostly lack basic education in physics. Therefore, a reformed curricula resulting from much closer collaboration among educators, universities and professional societies at the national level should be considered. (author)

  5. Basic Physics for Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podgorsak, E. B. [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Kesner, A. L. [Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Soni, P. S. [Medical Cyclotron Facility, Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-12-15

    The technologies used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic imaging have evolved over the last century, starting with Röntgen’s discovery of X rays and Becquerel’s discovery of natural radioactivity. Each decade has brought innovation in the form of new equipment, techniques, radiopharmaceuticals, advances in radionuclide production and, ultimately, better patient care. All such technologies have been developed and can only be practised safely with a clear understanding of the behaviour and principles of radiation sources and radiation detection. These central concepts of basic radiation physics and nuclear physics are described in this chapter and should provide the requisite knowledge for a more in depth understanding of the modern nuclear medicine technology discussed in subsequent chapters.

  6. Physics of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenberger, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    When studying the evolution of the very early universe it is necessary to use a description of matter which is appropriate at very high energies, namely in terms of quantum fields. In such models there may be a period during which the ratio of pressure and energy density is - 1, an equation of state which leads to an exponential expansion of the universe (inflation). There may also arise stable topological defects similar to vortex lines in condensed matter physics. These defects (cosmic strings) form seeds about which gas can accrete to form galaxies and clusters of galaxies. The author reviews inflation and cosmic strings, emphasizing their role in generating the energy density perturbations which are required in order to explain the existence of structures in the universe

  7. ACADEMIC TRAINING: Physics Technologies in Medicine

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    10, 11, 12, 13, 14 June LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Physics Technologies in Medicine by G. K. Von Schulthess / Univ. of Zürich, S. Wildermuth, A. Buck / Univ. Hospital Zürich, K. Jäger / Univ. Hospital Basel, R. Kreis / Univ. Hospital Bern Modern medicine is a large consumer of physics technologies. The series of lectures covers medical imaging starting with an overview and the history of medical imaging. Then follows four lectures covering x-ray imaging positron emission tomography imaging blood flow by ultrasound magnetic resonance Monday 10 June 100 Years of Medical Imaging Pr. Gustav K. von Schulthess MD, PhD / University of Zurich History and overview of Medical Imaging Tuesday 11 June X-rays: still going strong Dr. Simon Wildermuth / MD, University Hospital Zurich Multidetector computed tomography: New developments and applications Wednesday 12 June Nuclear Medicine: PET Positron Emission Tomography Dr. Alfred Buck / MD, MSc, University...

  8. ACADEMIC TRAINING Physics Technologies in Medicine

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    10, 11, 12, 13, 14 June LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Physics Technologies in Medicine by G. K. Von Schulthess / Univ. of Z rich, S. Wildermuth, A. Buck / Univ. Hospital Z rich, K. Jäger / Univ. Hospital Basel, R. Kreis / Univ. Hospital Bern Modern medicine is a large consumer of physics technologies. The series of lectures covers medical imaging starting with an overview and the history of medical imaging. Then follows four lectures covering x-ray imaging positron emission tomography imaging blood flow by ultrasound magnetic resonance Monday 10 June 100 Years of Medical Imaging Pr. Gustav K. von Schulthess MD, PhD / University of Zurich History and overview of Medical Imaging Tuesday 11 June X-rays: still going strong Dr. Simon Wildermuth / MD, University Hospital Zurich Multidetector computed tomography: New developments and applications Wednesday 12 June Nuclear Medicine: PET Positron Emission Tomography Dr. Alfred Buck / MD, MSc, University Hospital Zurich Elucidati...

  9. Introduction to the physics of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, P.N.; Rao, D.V.

    1977-01-01

    This book presents the fundamentals of physics as they relate to nuclear medicine in as elementary way as possible. The text concentrates solely on those facts which apply directly to the studies or to the instruments which the physician or technician will be using. After an introductory review of the necessary mathematics, the text examines the structure of matter and the nature of radioactivity. The discussion of nuclear decay processes incorporates information on negative beta decay, gamma emission, positron decay, electron capture and isomeric transitions. Alpha particles, beta particles and photons are explored in the chapter on the interaction of radiation with matter. Scintillation detectors, scanners, gamma cameras, and other imaging devices are all explored in detail. This overview of equipment is followed by a study of radionuclides in nuclear medicine and a review of statistics. The final two chapters are concerned with radiation safety and dosimetry

  10. Academic Training: Physics technologies in medicine

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise benz

    2005-01-01

    24, 25, 26, 27 January 2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Physics technologies in medicine M. GILARDI / Univ. of Milano, I. - U. AMALDI / Univ. of Milano Bicocca and TERA Foundation - M. SCHOLZ / GSI, Darmstadt, D. - O. JÄKEL / Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, D Monday 24 January The frontiers of medical imaging M. GILARDI / Univ. of Milano, I. Tuesday 25 January From the discovery of X-rays to CT/PET diagnostics and conformal radiation therapy U. AMALDI / Univ. of Milano Bicocca and TERA Foundation Wednesday 26 January The increased biological effectiveness of heavy charged particle radiation: from cell culture experiments to biophysics modelling M. SCHOLZ / GSI, Darmstadt, D. Thursday 27 January Medical Physics aspects of radiotherapy with ions O. JÄKEL / Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, D The lectures are open to all those interested, without application. The abstract of the lectures...

  11. Academic Training: Physics technologies in medicine

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    24, 25, 26, 27 January 2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Physics technologies in medicine M. GILARDI / Univ. of Milano, I. - U. AMALDI / Univ. of Milano Bicocca and TERA Foundation - M. SCHOLZ / GSI, Darmstadt, D. - O. JÄKEL / Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, D Monday 24 January The frontiers of medical imaging M. GILARDI / Univ. of Milano, I. The lecture will deal with the evolution of diagnostic imaging techniques, focussing on tomographic methods (x rays Computerized Tomography, CT, Magnetic Resonance Imaging. MRI, Positron Emission Tomography, PET). The physical parameters characterizing the performance of current generation scanners and their potential future improvement will be discussed. The clinical diagnostic value of multi modal imaging and the relevance of image fusion to image guided radiotherapy will be also presented. Tuesday 25 January From the discovery of X-rays to CT/PET diagnostics and co...

  12. Streamlining the path from physics to medicine

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    We all know them: the well-established cases of knowledge transfer from physics to medicine in which CERN has played an important role. From technology for PET scanners to dedicated accelerator designs for cancer therapy, we have contributed a lot over the years. But until recently, the pathway has been a little ad hoc, depending largely on enthusiastic individuals. That’s about to change.   CERN’s commitment to formalising the transfer of knowledge to the field of medicine has been growing over recent years. Notable successes are the establishment of a new conference series, ICTR-PHE, that brings together medical practitioners and members of the physics community, and the establishment of cancer therapy centres like CNAO in Italy and MedAustron in Austria, built on CERN accelerator technology. These are important, but there’s still more that we can and should do. To this end, we’ve created a new Office for CERN Medical Applications, whose first head w...

  13. Frequently Asked Questions about Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Physiatrist Do What is the Difference Between Physical Therapy and Physiatry What Conditions Do Physiatrists Treat What ... on one area such as pediatrics, sports medicine, geriatric medicine, brain injury, and many ... Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (AAPM&R) represents more than ...

  14. Physics with illustrative examples from medicine and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Benedek, George B

    Physics: with illustrative examples from medicine and biology is a three-volume set of textbooks in introductory physics written at the calculus level and designed primarily for students with career objectives in the life sciences.

  15. Early Childhood Physical Education. The Essential Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl

    1988-01-01

    Details are presented regarding the essential elements of an effective early childhood physical education curriculum. Components include movement awareness, fundamental locomotor skills, fundamental nonlocomotor skills, fundamental manipulative skills, and health-related fitness. (CB)

  16. LHC Detectors and Early Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dissertori, Guenther

    2010-01-01

    In this review I sketch the basic criteria and boundary conditions which have guided the design of the LHC detectors. The discussion will concentrate on the so-called general-purpose experiments, ATLAS and CMS. After an overview of the detector's characteristics and performance, I will elaborate on the expected measurements of hard processes, with emphasis on jet and vector boson production, i.e., tests of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and Electroweak Physics.

  17. BOOK REVIEW Handbook of Physics in Medicine and Biology Handbook of Physics in Medicine and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakov, Slavik

    2010-11-01

    This is a multi-author handbook (66 authors) aiming to describe various applications of physics to medicine and biology, from anatomy and physiology to medical equipment. This unusual reference book has 44 chapters organized in seven sections: 1. Anatomical physics; 2. Physics of perception; 3. Biomechanics; 4. Electrical physics; 5. Diagnostic physics; 6. Physics of accessory medicine; 7. Physics of bioengineering. Each chapter has separate page numbering, which is inconvenient but understandable with the number of authors. Similarly there is some variation in the emphasis of chapters: for some the emphasis is more technical and for others clinical. Each chapter has a separate list of references. The handbook includes hundreds of diagrams, images and tables, making it a useful tool for both medical physicists/engineers and other medical/biology specialists. The first section (about 40 pages) includes five chapters on physics of the cell membrane; protein signaling; cell biology and biophysics of the cell membrane; cellular thermodynamics; action potential transmission and volume conduction. The physics of these is well explained and illustrated with clear diagrams and formulae, so it could be a suitable reference for physicists/engineers. The chapters on cellular thermodynamics and action potential transmission have a very good balance of technical/clinical content. The second section (about 85 pages) includes six chapters on medical decision making; senses; somatic senses: touch and pain; hearing; vision; electroreception. Again these are well illustrated and a suitable reference for physicists/engineers. The chapter on hearing stands out with good balance and treatment of material, but some other chapters contain less physics and are close to typical physiological explanations. One could query the inclusion of the chapter on medical decision making, which also needs more detail. The third section (about 80 pages) includes eight chapters on biomechanics

  18. Thirty years from now: future physics contributions in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Dale L [School of Physics and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, 2006 (Australia); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, NSW 2065 (Australia)

    2014-05-01

    This paper is the first in a series of invited perspectives by pioneers of nuclear medicine imaging and physics. A medical physicist and a nuclear medicine physician each take a backward and a forward look at the contributions of physics to nuclear medicine. Here, we provide a forward look from the medical physicist’s perspective. The author examines a number of developments in nuclear medicine and discusses the ways in which physics has contributed to these. Future developments are postulated in the context of an increasingly personalised approach to medical diagnostics and therapies. A skill set for the next generation of medical physicists in nuclear medicine is proposed in the context of the increasing complexity of ‘Molecular Imaging’ in the next three decades. The author sees a shift away from ‘traditional’ roles in instrumentation QA to more innovative approaches in understanding radiobiology and human disease.

  19. Thirty years from now: future physics contributions in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Dale L

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series of invited perspectives by pioneers of nuclear medicine imaging and physics. A medical physicist and a nuclear medicine physician each take a backward and a forward look at the contributions of physics to nuclear medicine. Here, we provide a forward look from the medical physicist’s perspective. The author examines a number of developments in nuclear medicine and discusses the ways in which physics has contributed to these. Future developments are postulated in the context of an increasingly personalised approach to medical diagnostics and therapies. A skill set for the next generation of medical physicists in nuclear medicine is proposed in the context of the increasing complexity of ‘Molecular Imaging’ in the next three decades. The author sees a shift away from ‘traditional’ roles in instrumentation QA to more innovative approaches in understanding radiobiology and human disease.

  20. The Modern Value of Early Writings in Medicine and Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Sheldon

    2016-01-01

    This article illustrates three examples supporting the modern value of early writings in dentistry and medicine. First, by studying cases described in works published long before the era of genetic science, we are able to develop new hypotheses about familial conditions and their genetic roots. Tooth transposition is presented as an example. Second, old writings may lead us to valuable historical insights and perspectives in medicine that can be revealed only in retrospective analysis. An example of this kind of historical analysis uncovers why dentistry became unnaturally separated from mainstream medicine in the 19th century. Third, early writings become keys to unlocking forgotten knowledge that enriches our understanding of historically significant people and events. The discovery of Norman Kingsley's long forgotten pyrographic paintings after Rembrandt portraits is used as an example. Libraries, the traditional custodians of these valued old texts, must continue to be supported, and not undermined by the paperless digital revolution. Copyright American Academy of the History of Dentistry.

  1. The medicinal use of chocolate in early North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L; Grivetti, Louis E

    2008-10-01

    The medicinal use of chocolate has a long history in North America dating back to the 16th century. From Mesoamerican Codices and European Treatises scholars have determined that for hundreds of years the beverage called chocolate was administered to the sick and prescribed homeopathically to prevent illness. Yet, little scholarship exists that focuses on medicinal chocolate usage in early North America (18th-19th century). This paper examines medical practices during this era and associated medicinal norms with special attention given to chocolate/cocoa usage. Given the current scientific attention on the relationship between dark chocolate consumption and heart disease attenuation it is timely to investigate and chronicle America's medical forebears' understanding of, and practices related to, the medicinal use of chocolate. Indeed, there is a significant amount of literature to suggest that chocolate was used for wellness and to treat illness.

  2. Introducing the Institute of Physics in Engineering and Medicine (IPEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keevil, Stephen F.

    2014-04-01

    profile of the medical physics and bioengineering sectors. We seek to influence science and healthcare policy-makers through responses to consultations, high-level committee representation and policy statements. By providing expert spokespeople, we help to ensure accurate media coverage of IPEM-related issues. For example, in 2012 we contributed to the development of new European Commission regulations on medical implants and diagnostic devices. We also worked with the Science Media Centre to provide a press briefing on the subject that led to informed coverage by national media outlets, including BBC Radio 4's Today programme, The Times and the British Medical Journal. Enhancing science and technology in healthcare IPEM works to uphold the quality, safety and effectiveness of science and technology in healthcare. We do this by influencing healthcare policy and practice, helping to set international standards and guidelines and conducting surveys and audits. Our special interest groups (SIGs) provide specialized expertise on a range of topics (see table 1). For example, the Radiotherapy SIG was recently consulted on the distribution of the UK Department of Health's #23m Radiotherapy Innovation Fund. Table 1. IPEM special interest groups (SIGs). Clinical engineering Diagnostic radiology Informatics and computing Nuclear medicine Radiotherapy Magnetic resonance Radiation protection Physiological measurement Rehabilitation and biomechanics Ultrasound and non-ionizing radiation High-quality education and training We aim to maintain high standards of professional development for healthcare scientists, engineers and technicians. In the UK, we are an important source of accreditation for training centres. We also offer training and other support for trainees, such as the trainee network which enables early career healthcare scientists and engineers to collaborate and support each other. Through IPEM, members can seek professional registration on the Science Council and

  3. Annual conference on engineering and the physical sciences in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Heron, J.

    1999-01-01

    The venue for the 1998 annual conference on Engineering and the Physical Sciences in Medicine was the Wrest Point Casino Convention Centre, Hobart, from 15 to 19 November. Jointly sponsored by the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine, the College of Biomedical Engineers and the Society of Medical and Biomedical Engineering, this meeting is a major forum for professionals working in these areas in Australasia. The theme for the conference was Relevance beyond rationalism - charting a course for the future. This reviewer will consider only those presentations concerned with the use of radiation in medicine. (author)

  4. Uniting forces in physics and medicine

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the very successful ‘Physics for Health’ workshop held at CERN on 2-4 February this year, a strategy document has recently been issued. It outlines the main issues discussed at the workshop and indicates the most promising avenues in the field of medical applications derived from physics. Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General talks to the participants in the “Physics for Health in Europe” workshop. The response to the first “Physics for Health in Europe” workshop was enthusiastic: more than 400 scientists from 32 countries signed up, submitting 200 abstracts within a few weeks. Between fifty and a hundred people were connected to the live webcast at all times. “We had to close the registration before the planned deadline since the capacity of CERN’s main auditorium had been reached”, says Manjit Dosanjh from the organizing committee. Participants included physicists, medical doctors, experts in radio...

  5. Physics for students of medicine and natural sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, H.

    1978-01-01

    This textbook deals with the physics subjects of interest to students of medicine and biology. The author endlavoured to explain the physical and chemical fundamentals and their interrelationships as clear as possible on the basis of didactically descriptive examples. (RW) [de

  6. Intermediate Physics for Medicine and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbie, Russell K

    2007-01-01

    Intended for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in biophysics, physiology, medical physics, cell biology, and biomedical engineering, this wide-ranging text bridges the gap between introductory physics and its application to the life and biomedical sciences. This extensively revised and updated fourth edition reflects new developments at the burgeoning interface between physics and biomedicine. Among the many topics treated are: forces in the skeletal system; fluid flow, with examples from the circulatory system; the logistic equation; scaling; transport of neutral particles by diffusion and by solvent drag; membranes and osmosis; equipartition of energy in statistical mechanics; the chemical potential and free energy; biological magnetic fields; membranes and gated channels in membranes; linear and nonlinear feedback systems; nonlinear phenomena, including biological clocks and chaotic behavior; signal analysis, noise and stochastic resonance detection of weak signals; image formation and...

  7. Particle physics software aids space and medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Pia, M G

    2002-01-01

    Geant4 is a showcase example of technology transfer from particle physics to other fields such as space and medical science. Geant4 was first used for space applications by ESA in 1999, when ESA and NASA each launched an X-ray telescope. Geant4's extended set of physics models, which handle both electromagnetic and hadronic interactions, can be used to address a range of medical applications from conventional photon-beam radiotherapy to brachytherapy (using radioactive sources), hadron therapy and boron neutron capture therapy. The tools for describing geometries, materials and electromagnetic fields can precisely model diverse real-life configurations.

  8. The impact of fundamental Physics on Medicine

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Lecture in English, with simultaneous interpreting into French It is clear to anybody who visits a hospital that Physics applications are everywhere. Medical doctors use Physics when they measure blood pressure, when they perform an ultrasound scan to determine the sex of an unborn child, when they take a radiography or a CT scan. Fundamental physics, which aims at understanding how particles and forces act in the subatomic world and are organized to form everything we observe around us, has numerous medical applications. Everything started in 1895 with the discovery of X-rays by Roentgen, who was using the best particle accelerator of the time. In the lecture the theme of the title will be presented by following the 120 years long story of particle accelerators used to cure tumours. The time is well chosen because the year 2014 marks the 60th anniversary of CERN, the largest particle Physics laboratory in the world, and of the first cancer treatment with protons done at Berkeley. ------ Conférence en...

  9. Early history of physics with accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    The early history of physics at accelerators is reviewed, with emphasis on three experiments which have had a profound influence on our veiw of the structure of matter: The Franck and Hertz experiment opening practical ways of studying nuclear disintegration, and the discovery of the del ++ isobar of the proton by Fermi and collaborators, revealing structure in the nucleon. Fermi's work is illustrated by pages from his notebooks

  10. THE PHYSICS OF MELTING IN EARLY MODERN LOVE POETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brady

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Melting is a familiar trope in early modern erotic poetry, where it can signify the desire to transform the beloved from icy chastity through the warmth of the lover’s passion. However, this Petrarchan convention can be defamiliarised by thinking about the experiences of freezing and melting in this period. Examining melting in the discourses of early modern meteorology, medicine, proverb, scientific experiments, and preservative technologies, as well as weather of the Little Ice Age and the exploration of frozen hinterlands, this essay shows that our understanding of seeming constants – whether they be the physical properties of water or the passions of love – can be modulated through attention to the specific histories of cognition and of embodiment.

  11. Evolution viewed from physics, physiology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Denis

    2017-10-06

    Stochasticity is harnessed by organisms to generate functionality. Randomness does not, therefore, necessarily imply lack of function or 'blind chance' at higher levels. In this respect, biology must resemble physics in generating order from disorder. This fact is contrary to Schrödinger's idea of biology generating phenotypic order from molecular- level order, which inspired the central dogma of molecular biology. The order originates at higher levels, which constrain the components at lower levels. We now know that this includes the genome, which is controlled by patterns of transcription factors and various epigenetic and reorganization mechanisms. These processes can occur in response to environmental stress, so that the genome becomes 'a highly sensitive organ of the cell' (McClintock). Organisms have evolved to be able to cope with many variations at the molecular level. Organisms also make use of physical processes in evolution and development when it is possible to arrive at functional development without the necessity to store all information in DNA sequences. This view of development and evolution differs radically from that of neo-Darwinism with its emphasis on blind chance as the origin of variation. Blind chance is necessary, but the origin of functional variation is not at the molecular level. These observations derive from and reinforce the principle of biological relativity, which holds that there is no privileged level of causation. They also have important implications for medical science.

  12. Student performance of the general physical examination in internal medicine: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Many practicing physicians lack skills in physical examination. It is not known whether physical examination skills already show deficiencies after an early phase of clinical training. At the end of the internal medicine clerkship students are expected to be able to perform a general physical examination in every new patient encounter. In a previous study, the basic physical examination items that should standardly be performed were set by consensus. The aim of the current observational study was to assess whether medical students were able to correctly perform a general physical examination regarding completeness as well as technique at the end of the clerkship internal medicine. Methods One hundred students who had just finished their clerkship internal medicine were asked to perform a general physical examination on a standardized patient as they had learned during the clerkship. They were recorded on camera. Frequency of performance of each component of the physical examination was counted. Adequacy of performance was determined as either correct or incorrect or not assessable using a checklist of short descriptions of each physical examination component. A reliability analysis was performed by calculation of the intra class correlation coefficient for total scores of five physical examinations rated by three trained physicians and for their agreement on performance of all items. Results Approximately 40% of the agreed standard physical examination items were not performed by the students. Students put the most emphasis on examination of general parameters, heart, lungs and abdomen. Many components of the physical examination were not performed as was taught during precourses. Intra-class correlation was high for total scores of the physical examinations 0.91 (p internal medicine clerkship. Possible causes and suggestions for improvement are discussed. PMID:24712683

  13. Burnout and Physical Activity in Minnesota Internal Medicine Resident Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Shawn M.; Odo, Nnaemeka U.; Duran, Alisa M.; Pereira, Anne G.; Mandel, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity plays an important role in the amelioration of several mental health disorders; however, its relationship with burnout has not yet been clarified. Objective To determine the association between achievement of national physical activity guidelines and burnout in internal medicine resident physicians. Methods A Web-based survey of internal medicine resident physicians at the University of Minnesota and Hennepin County Medical Center was conducted from September to October 2012. Survey measures included the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Of 149 eligible residents, 76 (51.0%) completed surveys, which were used in the analysis. Burnout prevalence, determined by the Maslach Burnout Inventory, was 53.9% (41 of 76). Prevalence of failure to achieve US Department of Health and Human Services physical activity guidelines was 40.8% (31 of 76), and 78.9% (60 of 76) of residents reported that their level of physical activity has decreased since they began medical training. Residents who were able to meet physical activity guidelines were less likely to be burned out than their fellow residents (OR, 0.38, 95% CI 0.147–0.99). Conclusions Among internal medicine resident physicians, achievement of national physical activity guidelines appears to be inversely associated with burnout. Given the high national prevalence of burnout and inactivity, additional investigation of this relationship appears warranted. PMID:26140116

  14. Physical activity levels early after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickerson, Lisa; Mathur, Sunita; Singer, Lianne G; Brooks, Dina

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the early changes in physical activity after lung transplantation. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe physical activity levels in patients up to 6 months following lung transplantation and (2) to explore predictors of the change in physical activity in that population. This was a prospective cohort study. Physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-intensity activity) was measured using an accelerometer before and after transplantation (at hospital discharge, 3 months, and 6 months). Additional functional measurements included submaximal exercise capacity (measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test), quadriceps muscle torque, and health-related quality of life (measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey 36 [SF-36] and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire). Thirty-six lung transplant recipients (18 men, 18 women; mean age=49 years, SD=14) completed posttransplant measurements. Before transplant, daily steps were less than a third of the general population. By 3 months posttransplant, the largest improvement in physical activity had occurred, and level of daily steps reached 55% of the general population. The change in daily steps (pretransplant to 3 months posttransplant) was inversely correlated with pretransplant 6-minute walk distance (r=-.48, P=.007), daily steps (r=-.36, P=.05), and SF-36 physical functioning (SF-36 PF) score (r=-.59, P=.0005). The SF-36 PF was a significant predictor of the change in physical activity, accounting for 35% of the variation in change in daily steps. Only individuals who were ambulatory prior to transplant and discharged from the hospital in less than 3 months were included in the study. Physical activity levels improve following lung transplantation, particularly in individuals with low self-reported physical functioning. However, the majority of lung transplant recipients remain sedentary between 3 to 6 months following transplant. The role of exercise

  15. Why physical medicine, physical disability and physical rehabilitation? We should abandon Cartesian dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Derick

    2006-03-01

    Adjectives are supposed to describe the associated noun more fully or definitively, and the adjective physical is sometimes added to words such as medicine, rehabilitation and disability. What increase in description does its use allow? The adjective was probably added when rehabilitation started to develop for several reasons: it contrasted the mode of treatment with pharmacology and surgery; it contrasted the nature of the supposed aetiology with emotionally generated disorders, especially shell-shock; and it justified the presence of rehabilitation within the profession of medicine. Its continued use, however, perpetuates a Cartesian, dualist philosophy. This editorial uses the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning (WHO ICF) model of illness to analyse its continued use, and concludes that its continued use may disadvantage both patients and the practice of rehabilitation.

  16. A core physical examination in internal medicine: what should students do and how about their supervisors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Catharina M; van der Meer, Jos W M; Postma, Cornelis T

    2013-09-01

    Performance of a focused physical examination will induce a high cognitive load for medical students in the early phase of the clinical clerkships. To come to a workable and clinically applicable standard physical examination for medical students to be used in every new patient in the daily clinical practice of internal medicine. A questionnaire held among physicians that supervise students during the clerkship of internal medicine in one Dutch training region. Of the complete list of physical examination 55 items were considered to be an integral part of the standard general physical examination for medical students. Most emphasized were elements of the physical examination aimed at general parameters, thorax and abdomen, vascular status, lymph nodes, spinal column, skin and some parts of the neurological examination. The standard physical examinations performed by supervisors themselves contain fewer items than they expected from the students. The expectations a supervisor has towards the student correlates with the frequency with which they apply the various components in their own physical examination. This study provides us with a 'core' physical examination for medical students that can be applied in the early phase of the clinical clerkships.

  17. Why evidence-based medicine is a good approach in physical and rehabilitation medicine. Thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, S

    2014-10-01

    According to a good definition, evidence-based medicine (EBM) is: "The explicit, conscientious, and judicious use of the current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients (and populations)". More appropriate in a clinical context like that of physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) is looking at evidence based clinical practice (EBCP), whose definition is: "The integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values". In the past the term evidence-based physical and rehabilitation medicine (EBPRM) was also proposed. In this thesis, after some historical notes on EBM and on PRM, we will discuss why in our view EBPRM must be the real foundation of our everyday PRM clinical practice.

  18. The Physics of the Early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    The physics of the very small and the very large were successfully brought together in the 1980s through the idea of 'the universe as a particle accelerator'. The manifesto of this new campaign was laid out in the book 'The Early Universe' by Kolb and Turner in 1990. For at least the next decade that book was to be found on the shelves of every theorist (and many experimentalists) who professed an interest in this topic. But science marches on, and the last 10-15 years has seen an explosion in our understanding of the physics of the very earliest times and the very largest scales. Experimentally our world-view has changed utterly, through exquisitely precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background, galaxy clustering and supernova distances, with a refinement of the basic inflationary big bang paradigm into the new 'standard cosmological model'. And in tandem with these changes has been the development of new theoretical ideas, particularly involving dark energy and connections between string/brane theory and cosmology. So what is the new book for the shelves of today's cohort of young Rockys and Mikes? Despite a recent number of promising-sounding cosmology books, there is nothing at the advanced level which is broad enough to be a general introduction to the 'early universe' topic. Perhaps the best of the bunch is 'The Physics of the Early Universe', edited by E Papantonopoulos as part of Springer's series 'Lecture notes in physics'. This is a set of 9 review articles given as part of a 2003 summer school on Syros Island, Greece. Although far from perfect, the core of this book provides a solid introduction to current research in early universe physics, which should be useful for PhD students or postdoctoral researchers who want the real thing. The book starts with a competent introduction by Kyriakos Tamvakis, serving essentially as a summary of where we were in Kolb and Turner's text. We have learned since then, however, that inflation is really all

  19. Physics and Its Interfaces with Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ricardo N.; Andricopulo, Adriano D.

    2013-08-01

    Medicinal chemistry is a multidisciplinary subject that integrates knowledge from a variety of fields of science, including, but not limited to, chemistry, biology, and physics. The area of drug design involves the cooperative work of scientists with a diverse range of backgrounds and technical skills, trying to tackle complex problems using an integration of approaches and methods. One important contribution to this field comes from physics through studies that attempt to identify and quantify the molecular interactions between small molecules (drugs) and biological targets (receptors), such as the forces that govern the interactions, the thermodynamics of the drug-receptor interactions, and so on. In this context, the interfaces of physics, medicinal chemistry, and drug design are of vital importance for the development of drugs that not only have the right chemistry but also the right intermolecular properties to interact at the macromolecular level, providing useful information about the principles and molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic action of drugs. This article highlights some of the most important connections between physics and medicinal chemistry in the design of new drugs.

  20. Physics and medicine: ICTR-PHE 2016 opens abstract submission

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The third edition of the joint ICTR (International Conference on Transnational Research in Radiation Oncology) and PHE (Physics for Health in Europe) conference (see here) will take place from 15 to 19 February 2016 at the Geneva International Conference Centre (CICG). This biennial event, co-organised by CERN, has become a staple amongst the scientific communities involved in multidisciplinary research at the crossing of physics, medicine, and biology.   Abstract submission and registration are now open: detector physicists, radiochemists, nuclear-medicine physicians and physicists, biologists, software developers, accelerator experts, and oncologists are encouraged to “think outside the box” and make innovative proposals. Last year’s programme shows the breadth and diversity of subjects, which makes this conference a unique place to showcase your research, see how the same topic is approached by different disciplines, engage in stimulating discussions, ...

  1. Physics and medicine: ICTR-PHE 2016 opens abstract submission

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The third edition of the joint ICTR (International Conference on Transnational Research in Radiation Oncology) and PHE (Physics for Health in Europe) conference (see here) will take place from 15 to 19 February 2016 at the Geneva International Conference Centre (CICG). This biennial event, co-organised by CERN, has become a staple amongst the scientific communities involved in multidisciplinary research at the crossing of physics, medicine, and biology.   Abstract submission and registration are now open: detector physicists, radiochemists, nuclear-medicine physicians and physicists, biologists, software developers, accelerator experts, and oncologists are encouraged to “think outside the box” and make innovative proposals. Last year’s programme shows the breadth and diversity of subjects, which makes this conference a unique place to showcase your research, see how the same topic is approached by different disciplines, engage in stimulating discussions,...

  2. Nuclear Medicine Physics: A Handbook for Teachers and Students. Endorsed by: American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), Asia–Oceania Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (AFOMP), Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM), European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics (EFOMP), Federation of African Medical Physics Organisations (FAMPO), World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, D. L.; Humm, J. L.; Todd-Pokropek, A.; Aswegen, A. van [eds.

    2014-12-15

    This publication provides the basis for the education of medical physicists initiating their university studies in the field of nuclear medicine. The handbook includes 20 chapters and covers topics relevant to nuclear medicine physics, including basic physics for nuclear medicine, radionuclide production, imaging and non-imaging detectors, quantitative nuclear medicine, internal dosimetry in clinical practice and radionuclide therapy. It provides, in the form of a syllabus, a comprehensive overview of the basic medical physics knowledge required for the practice of medical physics in modern nuclear medicine.

  3. Nuclear physics and optoelectronics presence in industry, medicine and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robu, Maria; Peteu, Gh.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reveals applications of Nuclear Physics and Optoelectronics in numerous fields of interest in industry, medicine, environment. In the first part of the work basic elements are analyzed, among which: - the large possibilities offered by the investigation, analysis and testing techniques based on nuclear physics and optoelectronics; - the superior qualitative and quantitative characteristics of these techniques, with varied applicability in fields from industry, medicine and environment. These applications refers to: - elemental analyses of content and impurities; - non-destructive testing with X and gamma radiations; - investigations with radioactive and activable tracers in trophic chains as for instance, ground-vegetation-products-consumers-environment, including also the systemic pollution factors; - complex investigations in the interface tritium-vegetation-environment-humans; - techniques and radiopharmaceutical products for medical investigations; - determinations and automatic control for levels, density, thickness, humidity, surfaces covering; - monitoring by means of remote sensing for the evaluation of the environment, vegetation and pollution factors; - applications and production of laser and UV installations; - connections through optical fibres resistant to radiations; - imaging and medical bioengineering; - advances in X ray, laser and ultrasonic radiology; - monitoring with radiations beams. In the final part, there are presented examples of optoelectronics and nuclear physics applications in fields in industry, medicine and environment, with special stress on their basic characteristics and efficiency. (authors)

  4. Towards a conceptual description of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Meyer, Thorsten; Melvin, John; Stucki, Gerold

    2011-09-01

    Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) is an independent medical specialty focusing on the improvement of functioning. A shared understanding of concepts is of vital importance for integrated action in this field. The aim of the present paper is to provide a conceptual model of PRM, to give background on its development and adoptions, and to explain the choice of terms, phrases, and concepts. It is based on the terms and concepts of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) that provides a widely accepted conceptual model and taxonomy of human functioning. Based on the White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine in Europe of 2006 a first proposal for a conceptual description of rehabilitation has been published in 2007. This proposal has been subjected to comments for modifications and amendments. E.g. it was underlined that PRM can apply both a health condition perspective including curative approaches and measures aiming at body functions and structures and a multi-dimensional and multi-professional team approach aiming to optimize functioning from a comprehensive functioning and disability perspective. The interaction between the PRM specialist and the person should be characterized as a partnership. PRM specialists work across all areas of health services and across all age groups. In summary, the specialty of PRM is characterized as the medicine of functioning.

  5. ANTIMICROBIAL, PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL QUALITIES OF MEDICINAL ANTISEPTIC DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliy D. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In our research results of the study of antimicrobial, physical and chemical qualities of antiseptic medicines of decamethoxin (DCM. Antimicrobial activity of DCM, palisan, decasan, deseptol against srains of S.aureus (n 56, S.epidermidis (n 26, E.coli (n 24, P.mirabilis (n 11, P.vulgaris (n 8 was studied by means of method of serial dilutions. Obtained data of mass spectrometry study of antimicrobial compositions with constant concentrations of DCM have shown that medicinal forms of DCM are complex physical and chemical systems, because of different origin and number of adjuvant ingredients used during their fabrication. Among synthetic quaternary ammonium agents there have been found the substance (commercial name of medicine is decamethoxin to have high antimicrobial activity against strains of grampositive and gram-negative microorganisms, an also C.albicans. There was found that antimicrobial activity of antiseptic palisan had been higher comparably to DCM in equivalent concentration. The composition and concentrations of acting agents and the methodology of preparation of palisan have been substantiated on the basis of microbiological, mass spectrometry characteristics of antiseptics DCM, palisan.

  6. Electrodiagnostic medicine skills competency in physical medicine and rehabilitation residents: a method for development and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David; Cuccurullo, Sara; Lee, Joseph; Petagna, Ann; Strax, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    This project sought to create an educational module including evaluation methodology to instruct physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) residents in electrodiagnostic evaluation of patients with neuromuscular problems, and to verify acquired competencies in those electrodiagnostic skills through objective evaluation methodology. Sixteen residents were trained by board-certified neuromuscular and electrodiagnostic medicine physicians through technical training, lectures, and review of self-assessment examination (SAE) concepts from the American Academy of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation syllabus provided in the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. After delivery of the educational module, knowledge acquisition and skill attainment were measured in (1) clinical skill in diagnostic procedures via a procedure checklist, (2) diagnosis and ability to design a patient-care management plan via chart simulated recall (CSR) exams, (3) physician/patient interaction via patient surveys, (4) physician/staff interaction via 360-degree global ratings, and (5) ability to write a comprehensive patient-care report and to document a patient-care management plan in accordance with Medicare guidelines via written patient reports. Assessment tools developed for this program address the basic competencies outlined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). To test the success of the standardized educational module, data were collected on an ongoing basis. Objective measures compared resident SAE scores in electrodiagnostics (EDX) before and after institution of the comprehensive EDX competency module in a PM&R residency program. Fifteen of 16 residents (94%) successfully demonstrated proficiency in every segment of the evaluation element of the educational module by the end of their PGY-4 electrodiagnostic rotation. The resident who did not initially pass underwent remedial coursework and passed on the second attempt. Furthermore, the

  7. Physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, L

    1994-01-01

    In conclusion, physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century will be: new, exciting technologies, different patient populations, different practice settings, fewer PM&R residents, and more physician assistants, all operating under a universal access, single payer, Canadian-style health care system. I began my presentation with a quote from Yogi Berra. I'll close by paraphrasing the immortal words of Charles Dickens in the opening lines of A Tale Of Two Cities. PM&R in the 21st century will be "the best of times, the worst of times, the epoch of belief, the epoch of incredulity."

  8. Early modern Goa: Indian trade, transcultural medicine, and the Inquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Malieckal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Portugal’s introduction of the Inquisition to India in 1560 placed the lives of Jews, New Christians, and selected others labelled ‘heretics’, in peril. Two such victims were Garcia da Orta, a Portuguese New Christian with a thriving medical practice in Goa, and Gabriel Dellon, a French merchant and physician. In scholarship, Garcia da Orta and Gabriel Dellon’s texts are often examined separately within the contexts of Portuguese and French literature respectively and in terms of medicine and religion in the early modern period. Despite the similarities of their training and experiences, da Orta and Dellon have not previously been studied jointly, as is attempted in this article, which expands upon da Orta and Dellon’s roles in Portuguese India’s international commerce, especially the trade in spices, and the collaborations between Indian and European physicians. Thus, the connection between religion and food is not limited to food’s religious and religio-cultural roles. Food in terms of spices has been at the foundations of power for ethno-religious groups in India, and when agents became detached from the spice trade, their downfalls were imminent, as seen in the histories of Garcia da Orta and Gabriel Dellon.

  9. Intelligence in early adulthood and midlife physical performance in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Rikke Hodal; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether associations between intelligence in early adulthood and midlife physical performance in men were mediated by education and leisure-time physical activity. Intelligence correlated positively with later education (r = 0.47) and negatively with phy......The objective of this study was to examine whether associations between intelligence in early adulthood and midlife physical performance in men were mediated by education and leisure-time physical activity. Intelligence correlated positively with later education (r = 0.47) and negatively...... performance, but because intelligence in early adulthood was inversely associated with physical activity, the indirect effects through physical activity were negative. Overall, education and leisure-time physical activity were not strong mediators of the association between early adult intelligence...

  10. Early life physical activity and cognition at old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Miranda; Deeg, Dorly J H; Visser, Marjolein; Jonker, Cees

    Physical activity has shown to be inversely associated with cognitive decline in older people. Whether this association is already present in early life has not been investigated previously. The association between early life physical activity and cognition was studied in 1,241 subjects aged 62-85

  11. MIANN models in medicinal, physical and organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Munteanu, Cristian R; Pazos, Alejandro; Besada-Porto, Lina; Ruso, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    Reducing costs in terms of time, animal sacrifice, and material resources with computational methods has become a promising goal in Medicinal, Biological, Physical and Organic Chemistry. There are many computational techniques that can be used in this sense. In any case, almost all these methods focus on few fundamental aspects including: type (1) methods to quantify the molecular structure, type (2) methods to link the structure with the biological activity, and others. In particular, MARCH-INSIDE (MI), acronym for Markov Chain Invariants for Networks Simulation and Design, is a well-known method for QSAR analysis useful in step (1). In addition, the bio-inspired Artificial-Intelligence (AI) algorithms called Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are among the most powerful type (2) methods. We can combine MI with ANNs in order to seek QSAR models, a strategy which is called herein MIANN (MI & ANN models). One of the first applications of the MIANN strategy was in the development of new QSAR models for drug discovery. MIANN strategy has been expanded to the QSAR study of proteins, protein-drug interactions, and protein-protein interaction networks. In this paper, we review for the first time many interesting aspects of the MIANN strategy including theoretical basis, implementation in web servers, and examples of applications in Medicinal and Biological chemistry. We also report new applications of the MIANN strategy in Medicinal chemistry and the first examples in Physical and Organic Chemistry, as well. In so doing, we developed new MIANN models for several self-assembly physicochemical properties of surfactants and large reaction networks in organic synthesis. In some of the new examples we also present experimental results which were not published up to date.

  12. CMS experiment at the LHC Commissioning and early physics

    CERN Document Server

    Safonov, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS collaboration used the past year to greatly improve the level of detector readiness for the first collisions data. The acquired operational experience over this year, large gains in understanding the detector and improved preparedness for early physics will be instrumental in minimizing the time from the first collisions to first LHC physics. The following describes the status of the CMS experiment and outlines early physics plans with the first LHC data.

  13. Evidence - based medicine/practice in sports physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manske, Robert C; Lehecka, B J

    2012-10-01

    A push for the use of evidence-based medicine and evidence-based practice patterns has permeated most health care disciplines. The use of evidence-based practice in sports physical therapy may improve health care quality, reduce medical errors, help balance known benefits and risks, challenge views based on beliefs rather than evidence, and help to integrate patient preferences into decision-making. In this era of health care utilization sports physical therapists are expected to integrate clinical experience with conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of research evidence in order to make clearly informed decisions in order to help maximize and optimize patient well-being. One of the more common reasons for not using evidence in clinical practice is the perceived lack of skills and knowledge when searching for or appraising research. This clinical commentary was developed to educate the readership on what constitutes evidence-based practice, and strategies used to seek evidence in the daily clinical practice of sports physical therapy.

  14. Physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) care pathways: "stroke patients".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelnik, A-P; Schnitzler, A; Pradat-Diehl, P; Sengler, J; Devailly, J-P; Dehail, P; D'anjou, M-C; Rode, G

    2011-11-01

    This document is part of a series of documents designed by the French Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Society (SOFMER) and the French Federation of PRM (FEDMER). These documents describe the needs for a specific type of patients; PRM care objectives, human and material resources to be implemented, chronology as well as expected outcomes. "Care pathways in PRM" is a short document designed to enable the reader (physicians, decision-maker, administrator, lawyer or finance manager) to quickly apprehend the needs of these patients and the available therapeutic care structures for proper organization and pricing of these activities. Stroke patients are divided into four categories according to the severity of the impairments, each one being treated according to the same six parameters according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO), while taking into account personal and environmental factors that could influence the needs of these patients. 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Some Applications of Nuclear Physics in Medicine and Dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar Chaudhri, M.; Nasir Chaudhri, M.

    2009-01-01

    Some applications of nuclear physics, to solve problems in dentistry and medicine are presented. The following two topics are going to be discussed: A. Nuclear Analytical Methods For Trace Element Studies In Teeth Various nuclear analytical methods have been developed and applied to determine the elemental composition of teeth. Fluorine was determined by prompt gamma activation analysis through the 19 F (p, a v) 16 O reaction. Carbon was measured by activation analysis with He-3 ions, and the technique of Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was applied to simultaneously determine Ca, P, and trace elements in well-documented teeth. Dental hard tissues: enamel, dentine, cement, and their junctions, as well as different parts of the same tissue, were examined separately.

  16. Interdisciplinary team working in physical and rehabilitation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Vera; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Christodoulou, Nicolas; Varela, Enrique; Giustini, Alessandro; Delarque, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Effective team working plays a crucial role in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM). As part of its role of optimizing and harmonizing clinical practice across Europe, the Professional Practice Committee of Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section reviewed patterns of team working and debated recommendations for good practice at a meeting of national UEMS delegates held in Riga, Latvia, in September 2008. This consensus statement is derived from that discussion and from a review of the literature concerning team working. Effective team working produces better patient outcomes (including better survival rates) in a range of disorders, notably following stroke. There is limited published evidence concerning what constitute the key components of successful teams in PRM programmes. However, the theoretical basis for good team working has been well-described in other settings and includes agreed aims, agreement and understanding on how best to achieve these, a multi-professional team with an appropriate range of knowledge and skills, mutual trust and respect, willingness to share knowledge and expertise and to speak openly. UEMS PRM Section strongly recommends this pattern of working. PRM specialists have an essential role to play in interdisciplinary teams; their training and specific expertise enable them to diagnose and assess severity of health problems, a prerequisite for safe intervention. Training spans 4-5 years in Europe, and includes knowledge and critical analysis of evidence-based rehabilitation strategies. PRM physicians are therefore well-placed to coordinate PRM programmes and to develop and evaluate new management strategies. Their broad training also means that they are able to take a holistic view of an individual patient's care.

  17. Early physics with ATLAS and CMS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Approximate event rates for some physics processes at the LHC for a luminosity of L .... GeV/c2 and CP information from exclusive central production pp → pHp. ..... Prepare tools to interpret the new signals in a model-independent way as far.

  18. The European physical and rehabilitation medicine journal network: historical notes on national journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, S; Ilieva, E; Moslavac, S; Zampolini, M; Giustini, A

    2010-06-01

    In the last 40 years, physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) has made significant steps forward in Europe with the foundation of the European Federation of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (EFPMR) (1963) which gave rise to the European Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ESPRM) (2004) the European Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine (1970), the PRM Section of the European Union of Medical Specialists (1974), and the European Board of PRM (1991). Our journal, formerly Europa Medico-physica (1964), the official journal of the EFPMR, now European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (EJPRM) and official journal of the ESPRM since 2008, is distinct for its steadfast European vocation, long-standing Mediter-ranean interests and connections with various national scientific societies. Jointly with the ESPRM, efforts are under way to set up the European Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Journal Network (EPRMJN). The aim of this article is to present a profile of the national journals in the EPRMJN so as to give a better overview of how the scientific part of PRM in Europe has developed within a national perspective. A profile of the following national journals is presented: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (France), Fizikalna i rehabilitacijska medicina (Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine) (Croatia), Neurorehabilitation (Bulgaria), Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Portuguese Society Journal (Portugal), Physical Medicine, Rehabilitaton, Health (Bulgaria), Physikalische Medizin - Rehabilitationsmedizin - Kurort-medizin/Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (Germany and Austria) Prevention and Rehabilitation (Bulgaria), Rehabilitacija (Rehabilitation) (Slovenia), Rehabilitación (Madr) (Spain), Turkish Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (Turkey). Some national journals in Europe have a very long history and tradition of research and education. Having a better knowledge of these realities, usually

  19. Change in Physical Attraction in Early Romantic Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Karandashev; Brittany Fata

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our research was to study the changes in physical attraction during the early stages of romantic relationships. The longitudinal study explored the personality characteristics of a partner and relationship events affecting physical attraction of early (within the first year) romantic relationships. Participants completed an eight-week longitudinal rating of their attraction toward their romantic partner. Factor analysis revealed behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and physiological ...

  20. The Gravity of Regenerative Medicine; Physics, Chemistry & Biology behind it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedeepiya V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The in-vitro expansion of cells of the organs/tissues and their re-implantation into the affected region/ tissue for treating cell/organ failure have been in practice for long, but in limited specialties. The in-vitro cell culture protocols use variety of biological reagents derived from animal sources and recombinant technologies. However, the optimal quantity of such biological components such as growth factors, cytokines etc.,needed for such cells to be grown in a non-physiological environment is still unknown. The use of such biological components have started to stir a controversy of late, due to the recognition of its potential hazards such as spread of prion diseases and contamination with non-human sialic acid proteins. Therefore synthetic reproducible biomaterials are gaining popularity in cell culture and tissue engineering. The biomaterials made of several chemical components based on physical parameters are starting to change certain concepts about the niche of cell culture and that of stem cell expansion and differentiation to specific lineages. Engler et al have already proven that a simple change in the matrix elasticity alone could change the lineage of the cells. Spencer et al have reported that a change in bioelectricity could change the morphogenesis during development. NCRM has been involved in cell culture and tissue engineering using approximately 240 different materials ranging from polymer hydrogel, gel with adherent inserts, nano composite materials, nano-coating technologies, nano-sheets and nano-films. These materials are used in cell culture in different hybrid combinations such as Floating 3D cell culture without adherent components in a homogenous hydrogel. Floating 3D cell culture with anchorage inserts. Flat surface- 2D adherent cell culture. Combined flat surface 2D cell culture (for differentiating cells and floating 3D culture (for undifferentiated cells. These combinations have started yielding several

  1. Physical activity assessment and counseling in Quebec family medicine groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillot, Aurélie; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Paré, Alex; Poder, Thomas G; Brown, Christine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2018-05-01

    To determine how often primary health care providers (PHCPs) in family medicine groups (FMGs) assess physical activity (PA) levels, provide PA counseling (PAC), and refer patients to exercise professionals; to describe patients' PA levels, physical fitness, and satisfaction regarding their PA management in FMGs; to describe available PA materials in FMGs and PHCPs' PAC self-efficacy and PA knowledge; and to identify characteristics of patients and PHCPs that determine the assessment of PA and PAC provided by PHCPs. Cross-sectional study using questionnaires and a medical chart audit. Ten FMGs within the Integrated University Health Network of the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke in Quebec. Forty FPs, 24 nurses, and 439 patients. Assessment of PA level and PAC provided by PHCPs. Overall, 51.9% of the patients had had their PA level assessed during the past 18 months, but only 21.6% received PAC from at least 1 of the PHCPs. Similar percentages were found among the inactive (n = 244) and more active (n = 195) patients. The median PAC self-efficacy score of PHCPs was 70.2% (interquartile range 52.0% to 84.7%) and the median PA knowledge score was 45.8% (interquartile range 41.7% to 54.2%), with no significant differences between nurses and FPs. In multivariate analysis, 34% of the variance in PAC provided was explained by assessment of PA level, overweight or obese status, type 2 diabetes or prediabetes, less FP experience, lower patient annual family income, more nurse encounters, and a higher patient physical component summary of quality of life. The rates of assessment of PA and provision of PAC in Quebec FMGs were low, even though most of the patients were inactive. Initiatives to support PHCPs and more resources to assess PA levels and provide PAC should be implemented. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  2. Physics and chemistry of aging - early developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    2003-01-01

    The aging phenomena are very complex physical and chemical processes. The author attempts to qualitatively discuss various physical processes contributing to aging. A satisfactory quantitative explanation is not presently available. In this sense, little progress has been made since the 1986 LBL Aging Workshop. However, what was accomplished during the past decade is a heightened awareness from the research and management sides to pay more attention to this problem, and as a result a number of aging tests have increased in quantity and quality. These efforts will undoubtedly yield some new results in the future. Examples in this paper are mainly from a 'pre-LHC and pre-HERA-B era of aging', where the total charge doses are limited to much less than 1 C/cm

  3. Children's Physic: Medical Perceptions and Treatment of Sick Children in Early Modern England, c. 1580-1720.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Hannah

    2010-12-01

    Historians of medicine, childhood and paediatrics have often assumed that early modern doctors neither treated children, nor adapted their medicines to suit the peculiar temperaments of the young. Through an examination of medical textbooks and doctors' casebooks, this article refutes these assumptions. It argues that medical authors and practising doctors regularly treated children, and were careful to tailor their remedies to complement the distinctive constitutions of children. Thus, this article proposes that a concept of 'children's physic' existed in early modern England. This term refers to the notion that children were physiologically distinct, requiring special medical care. Children's physic was rooted in the ancient traditions of Hippocratic and Galenic medicine: it was the child's humoral make-up that underpinned all medical ideas about children's bodies, minds, diseases and treatments. Children abounded in the humour blood, which made them humid and weak, and in need of medicines of a particularly gentle nature.

  4. Physics and medicine: at Erice the new perspectives of an ancient cooperation

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From April the 15th to the 17th, at Ettore Majorana Foundation in Erice, in the context of the International School on Physics and Industry, there will be a congress entitled "Particle accelerators and detectors: from physics to medicine".

  5. Graduate Medical Education Funding and Curriculum in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: A Survey of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department Chairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Danielle; Knowlton, Tiffany; Worsowicz, Gregory

    2018-03-01

    This national survey highlights graduate medical education funding sources for physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) residency programs as well as perceived funding stability, alignment of the current funding and educational model, the need of further education in postacute care settings, and the practice of contemporary PM&R graduates as perceived by PM&R department/division chairs. Approximately half of the reported PM&R residency positions seem to be funded by Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services; more than 40% of PM&R chairs believe that their residency program is undersized and nearly a quarter feel at risk for losing positions. A total of 30% of respondents report PM&R resident experiences in home health, 15% in long-term acute care, and 52.5% in a skilled nursing facility/subacute rehabilitation facility. In programs that do not offer these experiences, most chairs feel that this training should be included. In addition, study results suggest that most PM&R graduates work in an outpatient setting. Based on the results that chairs strongly feel the need for resident education in postacute care settings and that most graduates go on to practice in outpatient settings, there is a potential discordance for our current Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services graduate medical education funding model being linked to the acute care setting.

  6. The early career researcher's toolkit:translating tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell therapy products

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiq, Qasim A.; Ortega, Ilida; Jenkins, Stuart I.; Wilson, Samantha L.; Patel, Asha K.; Barnes, Amanda L.; Adams, Christopher F.; Delcassian, Derfogail; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Although the importance of translation for the development of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies is widely recognized, the process of translation is less well understood. This is particularly the case among some early career researchers who may not appreciate the intricacies of translational research or make decisions early in development which later hinders effective translation. Based on our own research and experiences as early career researchers involved in...

  7. AAPM/SNMMI Joint Task Force: report on the current state of nuclear medicine physics training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Jerry D.; Clements, Jessica B.; Coffey, Charles W.; Fahey, Frederic H.; Gress, Dustin A.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Nickoloff, Edward L.; Mawlawi, Osama R.; MacDougall, Robert D.; Pizzuitello, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) recognized the need for a review of the current state of nuclear medicine physics training and the need to explore pathways for improving nuclear medicine physics training opportunities. For these reasons, the two organizations formed a joint AAPM/SNMMI Ad Hoc Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Physics Training. The mission of this task force was to assemble a representative group of stakeholders to: Estimate the demand for board‐certified nuclear medicine physicists in the next 5–10 years,Identify the critical issues related to supplying an adequate number of physicists who have received the appropriate level of training in nuclear medicine physics, andIdentify approaches that may be considered to facilitate the training of nuclear medicine physicists. As a result, a task force was appointed and chaired by an active member of both organizations that included representation from the AAPM, SNMMI, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), the American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine (ABSNM), and the Commission for the Accreditation of Medical Physics Educational Programs (CAMPEP). The Task Force first met at the AAPM Annual Meeting in Charlotte in July 2012 and has met regularly face‐to‐face, online, and by conference calls. This manuscript reports the findings of the Task Force, as well as recommendations to achieve the stated mission. PACS number: 01.40.G‐ PMID:26699325

  8. The art and science of prognostication in early university medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaitre, Luke

    2003-01-01

    Prognosis occupied a more prominent place in the medieval curriculum than it does at the modern university. Scholastic discussions were rooted in the Hippocratic Aphorisms and shaped by Galen's treatises On Crisis and On Critical Days. Medical prediction, as an art dependent on personal skills such as memory and conjecture, was taught with the aid of the liberal arts of rhetoric and logic. Scientific predictability was sought in branches of mathematics, moving from periodicity and numerology to astronomy. The search for certitude contributed to the cultivation of astrology; even at its peak, however, astrological medicine did not dominate the teaching on prognostication. The ultimate concern, which awaits further discussion, was not even with forecasting as such, but with the physician and, indeed, the patient.

  9. Discontinuities in Early Development of the Understanding of Physical Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschersleben, Gisa; Henning, Anne; Daum, Moritz M.

    2013-01-01

    Research on early physical reasoning has shown surprising discontinuities in developmental trajectories. Infants possess some skills that seem to disappear and then re-emerge in childhood. It has been suggested that prediction skills required in search tasks might cause these discontinuities (Keen, 2003). We tested 3.5- to 5-year-olds'…

  10. Tactility and the body in early Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Elisabeth

    2005-03-01

    If visual inspection of corpses was central to the development of anatomy in modern Europe, one may ask which of the senses was important for the emergence of the predominant currents of scholarly medical knowledge and practice in third- and second-century B.C.E. China? This article argues that it was tactile perception prompted by a tactile exploration of living bodies. The evidence, derived from a close reading of the Mawangdui medical manuscripts, the 105th chapter of the Records of the Historian, and selected passages from the Huang Di's Inner Canon, points to three important trends: first, the tactile exploration of the extremities led to a rich vocabulary of compound words for pain as localized in specific body parts; second, the tactile exploration of the mai gave rise to an even richer vocabulary on qualities of touch in pulse diagnostics; and third, the tactile exploration of the abdomen led to the assessment of the quality of the internal viscera with words that generally were used for describing the tactile quality of skin and flesh. This finding may appear surprising in the light of later developments during the dynastic history of Chinese medicine where tactile exploration of abdomen and extremities would appear unseemly. The author suggests that extensive tactile explorations of the body were possible before Confucius' teachings became a predominant aspect of state ideology.

  11. Change in Physical Attraction in Early Romantic Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Karandashev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our research was to study the changes in physical attraction during the early stages of romantic relationships. The longitudinal study explored the personality characteristics of a partner and relationship events affecting physical attraction of early (within the first year romantic relationships. Participants completed an eight-week longitudinal rating of their attraction toward their romantic partner. Factor analysis revealed behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and physiological dimensions. The behavioral and emotional dimensions play the largest role in attraction among both genders, with cognitive dimension also affecting attraction in women. Personality characteristics of one’s partner are significant predictors of physical attraction for both men and women. However, events occurring in the relationship seem to be only reliable predictors for a women’s attraction.

  12. An Evaluation of Early Education Based on Physical Environmental Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna J. Satterlee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The integration of environmental policies with political support for action on these policies is of prime significance for mobilization and progression of improving indoor environments. However, state licensing agencies and local county ordinances for child care centers do not universally follow these policies and standards. As a result, most early childhood educational programs operate without proper indoor environments. Indoor air quality, temperature, ventilation, daylighting, and acoustics are crucial factors for educational settings in early childhood education. This study documents the physical environment in early childhood education centers in three counties in Maryland. Results indicate that building performance and indoor air quality standards vary according to the socioeconomic status of children who attend early childhood programs, and environmental factors correlate with educational achievement (as measured by kindergarten readiness scores.

  13. Hospitalist and Internal Medicine Leaders' Perspectives of Early Discharge Challenges at Academic Medical Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hemali; Fang, Margaret C; Mourad, Michelle; Green, Adrienne; Wachter, Robert M; Murphy, Ryan D; Harrison, James D

    2018-06-01

    Improving early discharges may improve patient flow and increase hospital capacity. We conducted a national survey of academic medical centers addressing the prevalence, importance, and effectiveness of early-discharge initiatives. We assembled a list of hospitalist and general internal medicine leaders at 115 US-based academic medical centers. We emailed each institutional representative a 30-item online survey regarding early-discharge initiatives. The survey included questions on discharge prioritization, the prevalence and effectiveness of early-discharge initiatives, and barriers to implementation. We received 61 responses from 115 institutions (53% response rate). Forty-seven (77%) "strongly agreed" or "agreed" that early discharge was a priority. "Discharge by noon" was the most cited goal (n = 23; 38%) followed by "no set time but overall goal for improvement" (n = 13; 21%). The majority of respondents reported early discharge as more important than obtaining translators for non-English-speaking patients and equally important as reducing 30-day readmissions and improving patient satisfaction. The most commonly reported factors delaying discharge were availability of postacute care beds (n = 48; 79%) and patient-related transport complications (n = 44; 72%). The most effective early discharge initiatives reported involved changes to the rounding process, such as preemptive identification and early preparation of discharge paperwork (n = 34; 56%) and communication with patients about anticipated discharge (n = 29; 48%). There is a strong interest in increasing early discharges in an effort to improve hospital throughput and patient flow. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  14. Life sciences: Nuclear medicine, radiation biology, medical physics, 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The catalogue lists all sales publications of the IAEA dealing with Life Sciences issued during the period 1980-1994. The publications are grouped in the following chapters: Nuclear Medicine (including Radiopharmaceuticals), Radiation Biology and Medical Physics (including Dosimetry)

  15. Casebooks in early modern England: medicine, astrology, and written records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves.

  16. Attitudes of early adolescent age students towards physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Dušanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that a positive attitude towards physical education (PE is in connection with students' engagement in PE classes and with the development of an active lifestyle. The objective of this study was to examine attitudes of early adolescent age students towards physical education, as well as to examine whether such attitudes vary with regard to gender, grade they attend and students' engagement in sport and physical exercises in extracurricular activities. The research was conducted on the sample of 531 students from 6th to 8th grade. The instrument Student's Attitudes toward Physical Education - SATPE was used to measure student's attitude towards PE. A special questionnaire was used to collect data on gender, grade and engagement in sport and physical exercising outside school. The results have shown that students have positive attitudes of moderate intensity towards physical education. MANOVA has shown that male students have more positive attitudes than female students, as well as that positivity of attitudes declines with age. Likewise, it was shown that students with more positive attitudes towards PE are more often engaged in physical exercises outside school. The connection between the attitude towards PE and involvement in organized sport was not confirmed. The paper presents suggestions for further research of students' attitude towards PE and its connection with physical activity of students.

  17. Management of early pregnancy failure and induced abortion by family medicine educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbitter, Cara; Bennett, Ariana; Schubert, Finn D; Bennett, Ian M; Gold, Marji

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive health care, including treatment of early pregnancy failure (EPF) and induced abortion, is an integral part of patient-centered care provided by family physicians, but data suggest that comprehensive training is not widely available to family medicine residents. The purpose of this study was to assess EPF and induced abortion management practices and attitudes of family medicine physician educators throughout the United States and Canada. These data were collected as part of a cross-sectional survey conducted by the Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance that was distributed via E-mail to 3152 practicing physician members of Council of Academic Family Medicine organizations. The vast majority of respondents (88.2%) had treated EPF, whereas few respondents (15.3%) had provided induced medication or aspiration abortions. Of those who had treated EPF, most had offered medication management (72.7%), whereas a minority had provided aspiration management (16.4%). Almost all respondents (95%) agreed that EPF management is within the scope of family medicine, and nearly three-quarters (73.2%) agreed that early induced abortion is within the scope of family medicine. Our findings suggest that family physician educators are more experienced with EPF management than elective abortion. Given the overlap of skills needed for provision of these services, there is the potential to increase the number of family physician faculty members providing induced abortions.

  18. Maturational differences in physical self- perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Alisa G; Fawkner, Samantha G; Knowles, Anne-Marie; Stephenson, Claire

    2007-11-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between physical self-perceptions (PSPs), maturation, and physical activity and compared the strength of the relationships of biological and chronological age with PSPs in early adolescent girls (N = 208; mean age = 11.83 +/- 0.39 years). Participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, the Children's Physical Self-Perception Profile, and the Pubertal Development Scale. Results indicated that PSPs were significantly and moderately correlated with physical activity. There were no differences in physical activity between maturation stages. Girls who were in the early stages of maturation had significantly more positive perceptions of body attractiveness and physical self-worth than girls in the mid stages of maturation. There was no evidence of a relationship between PSPs and chronological age. This study provided further support for the relationship between PSPs and physical activity and the relationship between maturation and aspects of PSPs. In this age group, maturation does not appear to be related to physical activity or the PSPs most strongly influential on physical activity behavior.

  19. Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicines can treat diseases and improve your health. If you are like most people, you need to take medicine at some point in your life. You may need to take medicine every day, or you may only need to ...

  20. The early career researcher's toolkit: translating tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell therapy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Qasim A; Ortega, Ilida; Jenkins, Stuart I; Wilson, Samantha L; Patel, Asha K; Barnes, Amanda L; Adams, Christopher F; Delcassian, Derfogail; Smith, David

    2015-11-01

    Although the importance of translation for the development of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies is widely recognized, the process of translation is less well understood. This is particularly the case among some early career researchers who may not appreciate the intricacies of translational research or make decisions early in development which later hinders effective translation. Based on our own research and experiences as early career researchers involved in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine translation, we discuss common pitfalls associated with translational research, providing practical solutions and important considerations which will aid process and product development. Suggestions range from effective project management, consideration of key manufacturing, clinical and regulatory matters and means of exploiting research for successful commercialization.

  1. B Physics and Quarkonia studies with early ATLAS data

    CERN Document Server

    Etzion, Erez

    2010-01-01

    Quarkonia and B-Physics are among the first areas to be investigated with the first data collected by ATLAS. The ATLAS detector at CERN's LHC is preparing to take data from proton-proton collisions expected to start by the end of 2009. Investigation of the decay of B-hadrons represents a complementary approach to direct searches for Physics beyond the Standard Model. Early B-physics data will provide valuable information on the detector performance, as well as allow calibration studies in support of new Physics searches. Meaningful quarkonia studies performed with early data are expected to have the reach to make authoritative statements about the underlying production mechanism and provide cross-sections in this new energy regime. We review various aspects of prompt quarkonium production at the LHC: the accessible ranges in transverse momentum and pseudo-rapidity, spin alignment of vector states, separation of color octet and color singlet production mechanism and feasibility of observing radiative chi_c dec...

  2. The uses of isospin in early nuclear and particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Arianna

    2017-11-01

    This paper reconstructs the early history of isospin up to and including its employment in 1951sbnd 52 to conceptualize high-energy pion-proton scattering. Studying the history of isospin serves as an entry point for investigating the interplay of theoretical and experimental practices in early nuclear and particle physics, showing the complexity of processes of knowledge construction which have often been presented as straightforward both in physicists' recollections and in the historiography of science. The story of isospin has often been told in terms of the discovery of the first ;intrinsic property; of elementary particles, but I will argue that the isospin formalism emerged and was further developed because it proved to be a useful tool to match theory and experiment within the steadily broadening field of high-energy (nuclear) physics. Isospin was variously appropriated and adapted in the course of two decades, before eventually the physical-mathematical implications of its uses started being spelled out. The case study also highlights some interesting features of high-energy physics around 1950: the contribution to post-war research of theoretical methods developed before and during the war, the role of young theoretical post-docs in mediating between theorists and experimenters, and the importance of traditional formalisms such as those of spin and angular momentum as a template both for formalizing and conceptualizing experimental results.

  3. Early resident-to-resident physics education in diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Akash P

    2014-01-01

    The revised ABR board certification process has updated the method by which diagnostic radiology residents are evaluated for competency in clinical radiologic physics. In this work, the author reports the successful design and implementation of a resident-taught physics course consisting of 5 weekly, hour-long lectures intended for incoming first-year radiology residents in their first month of training. To the author's knowledge, this is the first description of a course designed to provide a very early framework for ongoing physics education throughout residency without increasing the didactic burden on faculty members. Twenty-six first-year residents spanning 2 academic years took the course and reported subjective improvement in their knowledge (90%) and interest (75%) in imaging physics and a high level of satisfaction with the use of senior residents as physics educators. Based on the success of this course and the minimal resources required for implementation, this work may serve as a blueprint for other radiology residency programs seeking to develop revised physics curricula. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical and rehabilitation medicine and self-management education : a comparative analysis of two approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, Feyuna F. I.; van Twillert, Sacha; Postema, Klaas; Sanderman, Robbert; Lettinga, Ant

    2010-01-01

    Background Discussion surrounds the publication The White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Methane in Europe as to whether the medical speeralty, termed physical and rehabilitation medicine" is in fact a reality Objective To disclose previously undiscussed issues related to The White Book on

  5. Women in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Leadership issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E Y; Cardenas, D D

    2001-02-01

    Academic medical centers share the triple missions of education, research, and clinical care, particularly in vulnerable populations. They are well positioned to have a significant impact on reducing health disparities between patients from diverse backgrounds, both now and in future generations. A key component to realizing this goal lies in increasing the number of women in academic medicine. Women bring a fresh perspective to the investigative process, often targeting gender is a better way of providing preventive services, and patient satisfaction studies have shown that many patients prefer women physicians.

  6. Early nucleosynthesis, particle physics and the quark-lithium connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, H.; Audouze, J.; Delbourgo-Salvador, P.; Salati, P.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1987-01-01

    Three questions relevant to the primordial nucleosynthesis of the very light elements are discussed in this contribution: 1. It is argued that the ''standard'' Big Bang nucleosynthesis models are strenghtened if D is destroyed thoroughly during the galactic history. This can be achieved by specific models of chemical evolution of galaxies like those assuming a rate of star formation varying with time. 2. The existence of non baryonic particles such as massive neutrinos or supersymetric particles (gravitinos, photinos ...) might affect this early nucleosynthesis. If they are massive (≥ 500 MeV) and long lived enough (≥ 10 5 sec) the energetic photons released by their possible decay might affect the relative abundances of the light elements. In the case of the photinos, which are the supersymetric particles and which might be experimentally detectable in a near future, this possible effect can be used as to constrain the predictions on their physical properties (mass, lifetime...). 3. The early nucleosynthesis can be affected by the inhomogeneities triggered by the quark-hadron phase transition. It is argued that the primordial abundance of 7 Li limits very severely this possibility. As in the case of photinos the relation between the early synthesis of 7 Li and the characteristics of this quark-hadron phase transition may provide interesting constraints on some important physical parameters such as the constant B of the quark-bag model

  7. Health physics considerations in intrainstitutional mobile nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    The use of a mobile scintillation camera within a hospital enables imaging procedures to be used on patients such as those in critical care units, who cannot be transported to the central nuclear medicine laboratory. Transport throughout the hospital of the radiopharmaceuticals for use with the mobile system and the associated radiation safety precautions are discussed. The nuclides most frequently used are sup(99m)Tc and 133 Xe. It is shown that radiation exposure to hospital personnel can be kept well below recognised guidelines when using sizeable quantities of radionuclides remote from the controlled environment of the central laboratory. Special care is needed in disposing of radioactive waste, particularly 133 Xe gas, which must be collected and returned to the laboratory. There is a need for education and reassurance of nurses concerning the use of ionizing radiation and hazards to them from patients containing radioactive material. (author)

  8. Health physics considerations in intrainstitutional mobile nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, P H [Baylor Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Coll. of Medicine

    1978-10-01

    The use of a mobile scintillation camera within a hospital enables imaging procedures to be used on patients such as those in critical care units, who cannot be transported to the central nuclear medicine laboratory. Transport throughout the hospital of the radiopharmaceuticals for use with the mobile system and the associated radiation safety precautions are discussed. The nuclides most frequently used are sup(99m)Tc and /sup 133/Xe. It is shown that radiation exposure to hospital personnel can be kept well below recognised guidelines when using sizeable quantities of radionuclides remote from the controlled environment of the central laboratory. Special care is needed in disposing of radioactive waste, particularly /sup 133/Xe gas, which must be collected and returned to the laboratory. There is a need for education and reassurance of nurses concerning the use of ionizing radiation and hazards to them from patients containing radioactive material.

  9. Germany plans 60m euro physics and medicine lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ned

    2017-09-01

    A new €60m medical-physics research lab is to be built in Erlangen, Germany, by the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light (MPL) together with the Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg and the University Hospital Erlangen.

  10. Andrological aspects of physical exercise and sport medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luigi, Luigi; Romanelli, Francesco; Sgrò, Paolo; Lenzi, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Appropriate physical activity is one of the bases of healthy lifestyle. In fact, physical exercise and playing sport may be associated with both improvements and injury to both general and reproductive health. A biologically normal testosterone secretion appears fundamental in males to guarantee both a physiological exercise adaptation and safe sport participation. The reproductive system is highly sensitive to the effects of exercise-related stress and the reproductive hormones may both increase and decrease after different acute or chronic exercises. Exercise and sport participation may positively or negatively influence andrological health status depending on the type, intensity and duration of performed physical activity and on individual health status. In addition, prohibited substances administration (e.g. androgenic-anabolic steroids, and so forth) in competitive and non-competitive athletes represents the main cause of iatrogenic andrological diseases. Preventing and treating andrological problems in active healthy and unhealthy individuals is as important as promoting a correct lifestyle. Physicians need to be educated on the relationships between the male reproductive system and sport participation and on the great role of the pre-participation physical examination in the prevention of andrological diseases.

  11. Medicine and Physiotherapy students: are they physically active? Comparative research on Spanish and German population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeńczak-Praga, Krystyna; Pluto-Prondzinska, Joanna; Zgorzalewicz-Stachowiak, Małgorzata

    2017-05-23

    Despite the fact that regular physical activity is beneficial to human life, there are still more and more overweight and obese people throughout the world today. Healthy habits taken from home or socioeconomic situation are factors which might influence on regular physical activity. People who lead a healthy lifestyle in childhood are also active during adulthood. On the other hand academic life might promote less healthy lifestyle. The aim of the study was to assess and compare the level of physical activity of both German and Spanish students of Medicine and Physiotherapy. The study involved 100 Spanish and 100 German students aged from 19 to 24 years. Based on Eurobarometer 72.3, the respondents were asked a set of questions regarding physical activity. The chi-squared test (χ2) and Mann-Whitney U test were used for the statistical analysis. The vast majority of students presented a normal BMI value, but it was not related to high physical activity. More than one-third of all students seldom practised any sports. The Spanish students usually did some form of physical activity outdoors, whereas the German students exercised in a fitness centre. Lack of time was to the Medicine and Physiotherapy students the most significant factor that did not allow them to be more physically active. Medicine and Physiotherapy students should be more physically active in order to promote a good, healthy lifestyle model to society and there should be more physical activity education to encourage more students to practise sports.

  12. Writing a case report for the American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçakar, L; Franchignoni, F; Frontera, W; Negrini, S

    2013-04-01

    Case reports (CR) have led to the description and discovery of new diseases, syndromes, therapeutic complications or side-effects, and previously unknown potential benefits of pharmacologic agents. CRs may also be used as an effective training strategy for novice authors to develop the skills needed for medical writing. Yet, too often, CRs do not follow standards for excellence in scientific writing. Therefore, in this article, the American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (AJPMR) and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (EJPRM) collaborate with the purpose of providing guidance to authors in selecting CRs that might be appropriate for publication. In addition, we discuss different aspects of the preparation of a well-written CR in accordance with the mission and editorial views of both journals.

  13. Writing a case report for the American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçakar, Levent; Franchignoni, Franco; Negrini, Stefano; Frontera, Walter

    2013-02-01

    Case reports (CRs) have led to the description and discovery of new diseases, syndromes, therapeutic complications or side effects, and previously unknown potential benefits of pharmacologic agents. CRs may also be used as an effective training strategy for novice authors to develop the skills needed for medical writing. However, too often, CRs do not follow standards for excellence in scientific writing. Therefore, in this article, the American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine collaborate with the purpose of providing guidance to authors in selecting CRs that might be appropriate for publication. In addition, the authors discuss different aspects of the preparation of a well written CR in accordance with the mission and editorial views of both journals.

  14. Tsunami Early Warning via a Physics-Based Simulation Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. M.; Rundle, J. B.; Donnellan, A.; Ward, S. N.; Komjathy, A.

    2017-12-01

    Through independent efforts, physics-based simulations of earthquakes, tsunamis, and atmospheric signatures of these phenomenon have been developed. With the goal of producing tsunami forecasts and early warning tools for at-risk regions, we join these three spheres to create a simulation pipeline. The Virtual Quake simulator can produce thousands of years of synthetic seismicity on large, complex fault geometries, as well as the expected surface displacement in tsunamigenic regions. These displacements are used as initial conditions for tsunami simulators, such as Tsunami Squares, to produce catalogs of potential tsunami scenarios with probabilities. Finally, these tsunami scenarios can act as input for simulations of associated ionospheric total electron content, signals which can be detected by GNSS satellites for purposes of early warning in the event of a real tsunami. We present the most recent developments in this project.

  15. Qualtum cosmics-and-chaotics--the ultimate tortoise in physics and modern medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari M

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualtum cosmics is the qualitative opposite of quantum mechanics. The flip-side of qualtum cosmics is qualtum chaotics, the two governing much of what is seen as inscrutable in medicine. The Ultimate (Last Tortoise is close to Einsteinean idea of a Unified Theory, a single concept that can explain whatsoever there is in physics, (and in medicine, or what have you.

  16. Early evaluation and value-based pricing of regenerative medicine technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerber, Florian; Rolauffs, Bernd; Rogowski, Wolf

    2013-11-01

    Since the first pioneering scientists explored the potential of using human cells for therapeutic purposes the branch of regenerative medicine has evolved to become a mature industry. The focus has switched from 'what can be done' to 'what can be commercialized'. Timely health economic evaluation supports successful marketing by establishing the value of a product from a healthcare system perspective. This article reports results from a research project on early health economic evaluation in collaboration with developers, clinicians and manufacturers. We present an approach to determine an early value-based price for a new treatment of cartilage defects of the knee from the area of regenerative medicine. Examples of using evaluation results for the purpose of business planning, market entry, preparing the coverage decision and managed entry are discussed.

  17. The Indian Ocean disaster: Tsunami physics and early warning dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Cinna; Nilsen-Hofseth, Sara

    Understanding the physics of tsunamis may save lives, especially near the epicenter of a large earthquake where the danger is highest and early warning is least likely to be effective.Normal modes of Earth are standing waves of the Love (toroidal) or the Rayleigh (spheroidal) variety. The Indian Ocean tsunami may have been partly or wholly caused by low-order spheroidal modes of the Earth such as 0S2, 0S3, and 0S4, that may have excited a waveguide—a layer that confines and guides a propagating wave—in the ocean.

  18. Early universe cosmology and tests of fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Frieman, Joshua A.; Trodden, Mark

    2002-01-01

    This is the report of the Working Group on Early Universe Cosmology and tests of Fundamental Physics, group P4.8 of the of the Snowmass 2001 conference. Here we summarize the impressive array of advances that have taken place in this field, and identify opportunities for even greater progress in the future. Topics include Dark Energy, Cosmic Acceleration, Inflation, Phase Transitions, Baryogenesis, and String/M-theory Cosmology. The introductory section gives an executive summary with six key open questions on which we can expect to make significant progress

  19. The physics and early history of the intergalactic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkana, Rennan; Loeb, Abraham

    2007-01-01

    The intergalactic medium-the cosmic gas that fills the great spaces between the galaxies-is affected by processes ranging from quantum fluctuations in the very early Universe to radiative emission from newly formed stars. This gives the intergalactic medium a dual role as a powerful probe both of fundamental physics and of astrophysics. The heading of fundamental physics includes conditions in the very early Universe and cosmological parameters that determine the age of the Universe and its matter content. The astrophysics refers to chapters of the long cosmic history of stars and galaxies that are being revealed through the effects of stellar feedback on the cosmic gas. This review describes the physics of the intergalactic medium, focusing on recent theoretical and observational developments in understanding early cosmic history. In particular, the earliest generation of stars is thought to have transformed the Universe from darkness to light and to have had an enormous impact on the intergalactic medium. Half a million years after the Big Bang the Universe was filled with atomic hydrogen. As gravity pulled gas clouds together, the first stars ignited and their radiation turned the surrounding atoms back into free electrons and ions. From the observed spectral absorption signatures of the gas between us and distant sources, we know that the process of reionization pervaded most of space a billion years after the Big Bang, so that only a small fraction of the primordial hydrogen atoms remained between galaxies. Knowing exactly when and how the reionization process happened is a primary goal of cosmologists, because this would tell us when the early stars and black holes formed and in what kinds of galaxies. The distribution and clustering of these galaxies is particularly interesting since it is driven by primordial density fluctuations in the dark matter. Cosmic reionization is beginning to be understood with the help of theoretical models and computer

  20. Physics and Medicine: ready for a new rendez-vous

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    The second ICTR-PHE conference is on the starting blocks. From 10 to 14 February, physicists, medical doctors and life science experts will meet again in Geneva to discuss how to improve the use of innovative techniques in the fight against cancer.   Over 400 participants from Europe, the US and Asia will gather at the Geneva International Conference Centre to attend the 2014 edition of the joint ICTR (International Conference on Transnational Research in Radiation Oncology) and PHE (Physics for Health in Europe) conference. “For this second conference we will reproduce the successful model tested in 2012 with just a few tweaks, suggested by the participants themselves,” says Manjit Dosanjh, CERN’s Advisor for Life Sciences and Chair of the conference together with radiation oncologist Jacques Bernier from Geneva’s Genolier Clinic. This second conference will feature more oral presentations on the themes proposed by PHE, including detectors, nuclear med...

  1. [Professor Jules Gavarret (1809-1890) and the application of mathematics and physics to medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyneix, A

    2001-01-01

    Professor Jules Gavarret has undertaken pretigious offices, has accumulated various titles and honours and has left an abundant bibliography about physics and chemistry of life phenomenon. To recount the career of one of the academics who were benefited the traditional medicine of the progress achieved in physical and mathematical sciences give us the opportunity of recalling one of the great Parisian personalities of 19th Century who had not been appreciated for too long.

  2. Biomaterials — where biology, physics, chemistry, engineering and medicine meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, K. A.

    2008-03-01

    The success or failure of an implant material in the body depends on a complex interaction between a synthetic 'foreign body' and the 'host tissue'. These interactions occur at many levels from the sub-microscopic level, where subtle changes in the surface physio-chemistry can substantially alter the nature of the biomaterial-host tissue interface, through the microscopical level (e.g. sensitivity to surface topography) to the macrostructural level (e.g. dependence on scaffold porosity). Thus the factors that control these responses are not only biologically determined but also mechanically, physically and chemically mediated, although identifying where one starts and the other finishes can be difficult. Design of a successful medical device has therefore to call on expertise within a wide range of disciplines. In terms of both investigating the basic science behind the factors which orchestrate a biological response and developing research tools that enable study of these responses. However, a medical device must also meet the economic and practical demands of health care professionals who will ultimately be using it in the clinic. Bone graft substitute materials are used in orthopaedics as an alternative or adjunct to autografting, a practice where the patient 'donates' bone from a healthy site to aid bone repair at a damaged or diseased site. These materials are used in a wide range of procedures from total hip revision to spinal fusion and their evolution over the last 10 years illustrates how an interdisciplinary approach has benefited their development and may lead to further innovation in the future.

  3. Engineering and physical sciences in medicine and health conference. Programme Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Topics on the agenda of the 1996 Annual Scientific Meting for engineers and physical scientists in medicine and health include: medical radiation safety, dosimetry, non-ionizing radiation, radiotherapy treatment planning, medical devices, diagnostic imaging and quality assurance, radiation protection, transport of radioactive materials and management of radioactive wastes

  4. Dynamical energy systems and modern physics: fostering the science and spirit of complementary and alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, G E; Russek, L G

    1997-05-01

    When systems theory is carefully applied to the concept of energy, some novel and far-reaching implications for modern physics and complementary medicine emerge. The heart of systems theory is dynamic interactions: systems do not simply act on systems, they interact with them in complex ways. By definition, systems at any level (e.g., physical, biological, social, ecological) are open to information, energy, and matter to varying degrees, and therefore interact with other systems to varying degrees. We first show how resonance between two tuning forks, a classic demonstration in physics, can be seen to reflect synchronized dynamic interactions over time. We then derive how the dynamic interaction of systems in mutual recurrent feedback relationships naturally create dynamic "memories" for their interactions over time. The mystery of how a photon (or electron) "knows" ahead of time whether to function as a particle or wave in the single slit/double slit quantum physics paradigm is potentially solved when energetic interactions inherent in the experimental system are recognized. The observation that energy decreases with the square of distance is shown not to be immutable when viewed from a dynamical energy systems perspective. Implications for controversial claims in complementary and alternative medicine, such as memory for molecules retained in water (homeopathy), remote diagnosis, and prayer and healing, are considered. A dynamical energy systems framework can facilitate the development of what might be termed "relationship consciousness," which has the potential to nurture both the science and spirit of complementary medicine and might help to create integrated medicine.

  5. Future Directions in Medical Physics: Models, Technology, and Translation to Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewerdsen, Jeffrey

    The application of physics in medicine has been integral to major advances in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. Two primary areas represent the mainstay of medical physics research in the last century: in radiation therapy, physicists have propelled advances in conformal radiation treatment and high-precision image guidance; and in diagnostic imaging, physicists have advanced an arsenal of multi-modality imaging that includes CT, MRI, ultrasound, and PET as indispensible tools for noninvasive screening, diagnosis, and assessment of treatment response. In addition to their role in building such technologically rich fields of medicine, physicists have also become integral to daily clinical practice in these areas. The future suggests new opportunities for multi-disciplinary research bridging physics, biology, engineering, and computer science, and collaboration in medical physics carries a strong capacity for identification of significant clinical needs, access to clinical data, and translation of technologies to clinical studies. In radiation therapy, for example, the extraction of knowledge from large datasets on treatment delivery, image-based phenotypes, genomic profile, and treatment outcome will require innovation in computational modeling and connection with medical physics for the curation of large datasets. Similarly in imaging physics, the demand for new imaging technology capable of measuring physical and biological processes over orders of magnitude in scale (from molecules to whole organ systems) and exploiting new contrast mechanisms for greater sensitivity to molecular agents and subtle functional / morphological change will benefit from multi-disciplinary collaboration in physics, biology, and engineering. Also in surgery and interventional radiology, where needs for increased precision and patient safety meet constraints in cost and workflow, development of new technologies for imaging, image registration, and robotic assistance can leverage

  6. Early Patient Access to Medicines: Health Technology Assessment Bodies Need to Catch Up with New Marketing Authorization Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyens, Lada; Brand, Angela

    National and international medicines agencies have developed innovative methods to expedite promising new medicines to the market and facilitate early patient access. Some of these approval pathways are the conditional approval and the adaptive pathways by the European Medicines Agency (EMA); the Promising Innovative Medicine (PIM) designation and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme (EAMS) by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), as well as the Fast Track, Breakthrough or Accelerated Approval methods by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, at least in Europe, these methods cannot achieve the goal of improving timely access for patients to new medicines on their own; the reimbursement process also has to become adaptive and flexible. In the past 2 years, the effective access (national patient access) to newly approved oncology drugs ranged from 1 to 30 months, with an extremely high variability between European countries. The goal of early patient access in Europe can only be achieved if the national health technology assessment bodies, such as NICE (ENG), HAS (FR), G-BA (DE) or AIFA (IT), provide harmonized, transparent, flexible, conditional and adaptive methods that adopt the level of evidence accepted by the medicines agencies. The efforts from medicines agencies are welcome but will be in vain if health technology assessments do not follow with similar initiatives, and the European 'postcode' lottery will continue. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Physics for students of medicine and natural sciences. Physik fuer Mediziner und Naturwissenschaftler. Mit Schluessel zum Gegenstandskatalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, H

    1978-01-01

    This textbook deals with the physics subjects of interest to students of medicine and biology. The author endeavoured to explain the physical and chemical fundamentals and their interrelationships as clearly as possible on the basis of didactically descriptive examples.

  8. A Physical – Geometrical Model of an Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu BERBENTE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A physical-geometrical model for a possible early universe is proposed. One considers an initial singularity containing the energy of the whole universe. The singularity expands as a spherical wave at the speed of light generating space and time. The relations of the special theory of relativity, quantum mechanics and gas kinetics are considered applicable. A structuring of the primary wave is adopted on reasons of geometrical simplicity as well as on satisfying the conservation laws. The evolution is able to lead to particles very close to neutrons as mass and radius. The actually admitted values for the radius and mass of the universe as well as the temperature of the ground radiation (3-5 K can be obtained by using the proposed model.

  9. [Physical medicine in hospital. Minimum standards in a physical medical department in acute inpatient areas in rheumatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reißhauer, A; Liebl, M E

    2012-07-01

    Standards for what should be available in terms of equipment and services in a department of physical medicine caring for acute inpatients do not exist in Germany. The profile of a department determines the therapeutic services it focuses on and hence the technical facilities required. The German catalogue of operations and procedures defines minimum thresholds for treatment. In the opinion of the authors a department caring for inpatients with acute rheumatic diseases must, as a minimum, have the facilities and equipment necessary for offering thermotherapeutic treatment. Staff trained in physical therapeutic procedures and occupational therapy is also crucial. Moreover, it is desirable that the staff should be trained in manual therapy.

  10. A measure of early physical functioning (EPF) post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Lois E; Higgins, Johanne; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Mayo, Nancy E

    2008-07-01

    To develop a comprehensive measure of Early Physical Functioning (EPF) post-stroke quantified through Rasch analysis and conceptualized using the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF). An observational cohort study. A cohort of 262 subjects (mean age 71.6 (standard deviation 12.5) years) hospitalized post-acute stroke. Functional assessments were made within 3 days of stroke with items from valid and reliable indices commonly utilized to evaluate stroke survivors. Information on important variables was also collected. Principal component and Rasch analysis confirmed the factor structure, and dimensionality of the measure. Rasch analysis combined items across ICF components to develop the measure. Items were deleted iteratively, those retained fit the model and were related to the construct; reliability and validity were assessed. A 38-item unidimensional measure of the EPF met all Rasch model requirements. The item difficulty matched the person ability (mean person measure: -0.31; standard error 0.37 logits), reliability of the person-item-hierarchy was excellent at 0.97. Initial validity was adequate. The 38-item EPF measure was developed. It expands the range of assessment post acute stroke; it covers a broad spectrum of difficulty with good initial psychometric properties that, once revalidated, can assist in planning and evaluating early interventions.

  11. The long-term effects of maternal depression: early childhood physical health as a pathway to offspring depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia; Najman, Jake

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional and retrospective studies have highlighted the long-term negative effects of maternal depression on offspring physical, social, and emotional development, but longitudinal research is needed to clarify the pathways by which maternal depression during pregnancy and early childhood affects offspring outcomes. The current study tested one developmental pathway by which maternal depression during pregnancy might negatively impact offspring mental health in young adulthood, via poor physical health in early childhood. The sample consisted of 815 Australian youth and their mothers who were followed for 20 years. Mothers reported on their own depressive symptoms during pregnancy and offspring early childhood. Youth completed interviews about health-related stress and social functioning at age 20 years, and completed a questionnaire about their own depressive symptoms 2 to 5 years later. Path analysis indicated that prenatal maternal depressive symptoms predicted worse physical health during early childhood for offspring, and this effect was partially explained by ongoing maternal depression in early childhood. Offspring poor physical health during childhood predicted increased health-related stress and poor social functioning at age 20. Finally, increased health-related stress and poor social functioning predicted increased levels of depressive symptoms later in young adulthood. Maternal depression had a significant total indirect effect on youth depression via early childhood health and its psychosocial consequences. Poor physical health in early childhood and its effects on young adults' social functioning and levels of health related stress is one important pathway by which maternal depression has long-term consequences for offspring mental health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Communication Concepts for Prevention and Early Intervention in Aesthetic Medicine: Consensus and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gout, Uliana; Anand, Chytra V; Braz, Andre; Chao, Yates Yen Yu; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen; Kerscher, Martina; Landau, Marina; Pavicic, Tatjana; Peng, Peter Hsien Li; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Tiryaki, Tunk; Waldorf, Heidi A; Besins, Thierry

    2017-09-01

    Communication concepts relating to prevention and early intervention (P&E) within aesthetic medicine are poorly understood and highly underexplored. However, effective communication is a key criterion for successful outcomes. To introduce the framework for P&E communication strategies within a younger population and explore the barriers that may be encountered. A literature review on P&E communication strategies in aesthetic medicine and related topics of interest was conducted and used to construct a working framework that may be applied in clinical practice. Examination of existing literature revealed a need for a more structured communication framework for P&E encompassing up-to-date evidence-based learning and educational marketing that is tailored to individual needs and target populations. Message framing-the way in which a message is presented-is an important consideration in the dissemination of information to promote changes in health behaviour. A structured consultation is key to optimising patient engagement and ensures a tailored approach to understanding and catering to the specific needs of each patient. This is the first paper to discuss the communication concepts behind P&E within aesthetic medicine and paves the way for further research and focus in this significant field. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):859-864..

  13. First Consensus on Primary Prevention and Early Intervention in Aesthetic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Marina; Anand, Chytra V; Besins, Thierry; Chao, Yates Yen Yu; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen; Gout, Uliana; Kerscher, Martina; Pavicic, Tatjana; Peng, Peter Hsien Li; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Tiryaki, Tunk; Waldorf, Heidi A; Braz, Andre

    2017-09-01

    Facial aging is a complex interplay of extrinsic and intrinsic factors leading to progressive changes in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and bone. Clinical experience suggests that early aesthetic intervention may slow the signs of aging, but treatment in the absence of symptoms or with minimal signs of aging has not yet been properly addressed. To provide treatment recommendations for primary prevention and early intervention in individuals with no or minimal signs of aging. Fourteen specialists in aesthetic medicine convened over a full-day meeting under the guidance of a certified moderator. Tailored treatment recommendations have been provided for prevention and early intervention of fine wrinkles, static lines and folds, irregular pigmentation, laxity, and subcutaneous volume loss by protecting the epidermis, stimulating neocollagenesis, reducing hyperkinetic musculature, and reinforcing supporting structures. Preventive measures and early therapeutic interventions that may alter the course of facial aging were defined. Further studies are needed to support these recommendations with the best possible evidence. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):846-854..

  14. The European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine in 2008: a year in a paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, S

    2009-05-01

    In 2007, the European Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ESPRM) established the European Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Journal Network (EPRMJN) with a view to increase scientific knowledge among physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) specialists and to foster collaboration among the national, regional (multinational) and European PRM journals. In this connection, this paper gives the readers of national and regional, and European PRM journals a complete overview of the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (EJPRM), the official ESPRM journal, and a review of the papers published in 2008. The evolution of the EJPRM in the last five years was analyzed, and the papers published in 2008 were systematically reviewed and classified by content and discussed. The EJPRM is listed in PubMed and Current Contents; at now the unofficial 2008 Impact Factor is 1.14, like the Impact Factor, also the independent SCImago Journal Rate and Cites per Doc (two years) have increased steadily since 2005. The EJPRM published 72 papers in 2008, with a well balanced coverage of different rehabilitation topics. The rejection rate is around 40%; the review and publication times are 1.2 and 10.0 months, respectively. The published papers are presented here by topic, highlighting multi-journal initiatives (such as the EPRMJN and the Euro-American Focus with the American Journal of PRM), monographic Special Sections, systematic Cochrane PRM reviews, original papers and case reports, and other contents including the Internet Bookshelf. This paper represents the start of the EPRMJN collaborative efforts to increase scientific knowledge among PRM specialists in Europe, independently of the language in which papers are published.

  15. Prevalence of chronic diseases and use of medicines among elders who practice supervised physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Tiago Ricarte Gonçalves

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of chronic diseases and use of medicines among elders who practice supervised physical activity. Methods: The study was conducted from September to October 2011 with 148 individuals, aged over 60 years, women (N =109 and men (N = 39 who practiced supervised physical activity, divided into Group 1– water aerobics, Group 2 - weight training, and Group 3 - gymnastics / walking. It was used a questionnaire with general questions (gender, age, type of exercise and closedended questions about health problems and use of medicines. Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation, absolute and relative frequency, and Chi-Square test were used for data analysis with a significance level of p <0.05. Results: There was a high prevalence of diseases of the metabolic, endocrine, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems among women in the three groups. There was a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among men in the three groups. Regarding the use of medicines, all groups presented a higher prevalence of antihypertensive medication use by both genders. Conclusion: There was no significant difference (for both genders in the prevalence of self-reported chronic diseases affecting organ systems among the groups of elders who practiced physical exercise. There was a high prevalence of elders affected by disorders relating to the musculoskeletalsystem and use of antihypertensive medication. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p372

  16. An introduction to nuclear physics, with applications in medicine and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyson, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    A concise account of the applications of nuclear physics to medical and biological science is given. Half the book is devoted to the basic aspects of nuclear and radiation physics such as interactions between radiation and matter, nuclear reactions and the production of isotopes, an introduction to α, β and γ-radiation detectors and finally the radiation from nuclear decay. Information is then given on the applications of radioisotopes and neutrons and other accelerator-based applications in medicine and biology. The book is aimed at not only those undergraduates and postgraduates who are devoting their main effort to medical physics, but also to those students who are looking primarily for an introduction to nuclear physics together with an account of some of the ways in which it impinges on the work of other scientists. (U.K.)

  17. Icones Plantarum Malabaricarum: Early 18th century botanical drawings of medicinal plants from colonial Ceylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Andel, Tinde; Scholman, Ariane; Beumer, Mieke

    2018-04-27

    snakebites. Many plants are characterised by their humoral properties, of which 'warming' is the most prevalent. Plant species were mostly used for their roots (28%), bark (16%) or leaves (11%). More Tamil names (260) were documented than Sinhalese (208). More than half of the Tamil names and 36% of the Sinhalese names are still used today. The author was probably a VOC surgeon based in northern Sri Lanka, who travelled around the island to document medicinal plant use. Less than half of the species were previously documented from Ceylon by the famous VOC doctor and botanist Paul Hermann in the 1670s. Further archival research is needed to identify the maker of this manuscript. Although the maker of this early 18th century manuscript remains unknown, the detailed, 300-year-old information on medicinal plant use in the Icones Plantarum Malabaricarum represents an important ethnobotanical treasure for Sri Lanka, which offers ample opportunities to study changes and continuation of medicinal plant names and practices over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Postgraduate Course 'Physics Aspects of Nuclear Medicine'. Theoretical and practical intensive version. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Diaz, A.; Gonzalez, G.J.; Torres, A.L.; Fraxedas, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    very good: the quality of conferences, excellent: the usefulness of different charters, very good: the support bibliography, and recommended the repetition of this kind of education and training. Conclusion: The first step of this Post-graduated course 'Introduction of basic physic aspects of Nuclear Medicine', was successful and satisfy the objective of education and training of medical physicist in Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  19. [Physical activity, screen time, and use of medicines among adolescents: the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Gabriel Gustavo; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Mielke, Grégore Iven; Camargo, Aline Lins; Matijasevich, Alicia; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical activity, screen time, and use of medicines among adolescents from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, followed at 11 (N = 4,452), 15 (N = 4,325), and 18 years of age (N = 4,106). The study recorded the use of medicines in the previous 15 days, continuous use of some medication, level of physical activity (by questionnaire and accelerometry), and screen time (TV, computer, and videogame). One-third of adolescents had used at least one medicine in the previous 15 days and approximately 10% were on some continuous medication. In the adjusted analysis, the results showed that higher levels of physical activity at 18 years and less screen time at 15 years in boys were associated with lower overall use of medicines (p adolescence showed lower use of medicines at 18 years of age.

  20. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Proctor, David N; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Minson, Christopher T; Nigg, Claudio R; Salem, George J; Skinner, James S

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide an overview of issues critical to understanding the importance of exercise and physical activity in older adult populations. The Position Stand is divided into three sections: Section 1 briefly reviews the structural and functional changes that characterize normal human aging, Section 2 considers the extent to which exercise and physical activity can influence the aging process, and Section 3 summarizes the benefits of both long-term exercise and physical activity and shorter-duration exercise programs on health and functional capacity. Although no amount of physical activity can stop the biological aging process, there is evidence that regular exercise can minimize the physiological effects of an otherwise sedentary lifestyle and increase active life expectancy by limiting the development and progression of chronic disease and disabling conditions. There is also emerging evidence for significant psychological and cognitive benefits accruing from regular exercise participation by older adults. Ideally, exercise prescription for older adults should include aerobic exercise, muscle strengthening exercises, and flexibility exercises. The evidence reviewed in this Position Stand is generally consistent with prior American College of Sports Medicine statements on the types and amounts of physical activity recommended for older adults as well as the recently published 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. All older adults should engage in regular physical activity and avoid an inactive lifestyle.

  1. The effect of a simple educational intervention on interest in early abortion training among family medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Justine P; Bennett, Ian; Levine, Jeffrey P; Aguirre, Abigail Calkins; Bellamy, Scarlett; Fleischman, Joan

    2006-06-01

    We aimed to assess the effect of an educational intervention on the interest in and support for abortion training among family medicine residents. We conducted a cross-sectional survey before and after an educational lecture on medical and surgical abortion in primary care among 89 residents in 10 New Jersey family medicine programs. Before the lecture, there was more interest in medical abortion training than surgical abortion. Resident interest in surgical abortion and overall support for abortion training increased after the educational intervention (p<.01). Efforts to develop educational programs on early abortion care may facilitate the integration of abortion training in family medicine.

  2. Ultrasound for internal medicine physicians: the future of the physical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulohery, Megan M; Stoven, Samantha; Kurklinsky, Andrew K; Kurklinksy, Andrew; Halvorsen, Andrew; McDonald, Furman S; Bhagra, Anjali

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of compact ultrasound (US) devices, it is easier for physicians to enhance their physical examinations through the use of US. However, although this new tool is widely available, few internal medicine physicians have US training. This study sought to understand physicians' baseline knowledge and skill, provide education in US principles, and demonstrate that proper use of compact US devices is a skill that can be quickly learned. Training was performed at the Mayo Clinic in June 2010 and June 2011. The participants consisted of internal medicine residents. The workshop included didactics and hands-on US experiences with human and cadaver models in a simulation center. Pretests and posttests of residents' knowledge, attitudes, and skills with US were completed. We reassessed the 2010 group in the spring of 2012 with a long-term retention survey for knowledge and confidence in viewing images. A total of 136 interns completed the workshop. Thirty-nine residents completed the long-term retention survey. Posttest assessments showed a statistically significant improvement in the knowledge of US imaging, confidence in identifying structures, image identification, and image acquisition (P internal medicine training and practice. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. Quixotic medicine: physical and economic laws perilously disregarded in health care and medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haburchak, David R; Mitchell, Bradford C; Boomer, Craig J

    2008-12-01

    Wise medical practice requires balancing the idealistic goals of medicine with the physical and economic realities of their application. Clinicians should know and employ the rules, maxims, and heuristics that summarize these goals and constraints. There has been little formal study of rules or laws pertaining to therapeutics and prognosis, so the authors postulate four physical and four economic laws that apply to health care: the laws of (1) finitude, (2) inertia, (3) entropy, and (4) the uncertainty principle; and the laws of (5) diminishing returns, (6) unintended consequences, (7) distribution, and (8) economizing. These laws manifest themselves in the absence of health, the pathogenesis of disease, prognosis, and the behaviors of participants in the health care enterprise. Physicians and the public perilously disregard these laws, frequently producing misdiagnoses, distraction, false expectations, unanticipated and undesirable outcomes, inequitable distribution of scarce resources, distrust, and cynicism: in short, quixotic medicine. The origins and public reinforcement of quixotic medicine make it deaf to calls for pragmatism. To achieve the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education competency of systems-based practice, the authors recommend that premedical education return to a broader liberal arts curriculum and that medical education and training foster didactic and experiential knowledge of these eight laws.

  4. Temperament, Parenting, and South Korean Early Adolescents' Physical Aggression: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the growth pattern in physical aggression over a five-year period among South Korean early adolescents and the effects of temperament (anger/frustration and emotion regulation) and parenting (harsh parenting and parental monitoring) on early adolescents' physical aggression. Design: A five-year longitudinal design…

  5. Physical foundations of image quality in nuclear medicine. Methods for its evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Diaz, Marlen; Diaz Rizo, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes the main physical factors which characterize image quality in Nuclear Medicine from the physical and mathematical point of view. A conceptual description of how image system (gamma camera) degrades the information emitted by the object is also presented. A critical review of some qualitative and quantitative methods for grading image quality, collateral to equipment quality control, follows this material. Among these methods we present the ROC analysis, Clustering Techniques and Discriminant Analysis. As a part of the two last ones, we also analyze the main factors which determine image quality and how they produce changes in the quantitative physical variables measured on the images. A comparison among the methods is also presented, remarking their utility to check image quality, as well as the main advantages and disadvantages of each one (au)

  6. Rheology and physical-chemical characteristics of the solutions of the medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urakov, A; Urakova, N

    2015-01-01

    In the laboratory studied the dynamics of rheology of water solutions with plasma- inflammatory and antiseptic funds when mixing them with blood, plasma and pus under the influence of the following physical and chemical factors of local interaction: gravity, specific gravity, temperature, relative viscosity, internal pressure, sparkling water, total concentration of the ingredients, surface activity, volume of acid and osmotic activity of medicines. Found that the rheology of biological liquids improve hyperthermic, highly alkaline and highly carbonated solution medicines. For the dilution of pus, dense festering mass of sulfur plugs and tear stones invited to apply heated to +39 – +42°C with aqueous solution of 0.5 – 3% hydrogen peroxide and 0.5 – 10% sodium bicarbonate saturated with carbon dioxide to excess pressure 0.2 ATM. (paper)

  7. Connecting QGP-Heavy Ion Physics to the Early Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafelski, Johann

    2013-10-15

    We discuss properties and evolution of quark-gluon plasma in the early Universe and compare to laboratory heavy ion experiments. We describe how matter and antimatter emerged from a primordial soup of quarks and gluons. We focus our discussion on similarities and differences between the early Universe and the laboratory experiments.

  8. Early Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J; Must, Aviva

    2017-06-01

    Childhood cancer survivors experience excessive weight gain early in treatment. Lifestyle interventions need to be initiated early in cancer care to prevent the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the existing literature on early lifestyle interventions in childhood cancer survivors and consider implications for clinical care. Few lifestyle interventions focus on improving nutrition in childhood cancer survivors. A consistent effect on reducing obesity and CVD risk factors is not evident from the limited number of studies with heterogeneous intervention characteristics, although interventions with a longer duration and follow-up show more promising trends. Future lifestyle interventions should be of a longer duration and include a nutrition component. Interventions with a longer duration and follow-up are needed to assess the timing and sustainability of the intervention effect. Lifestyle interventions introduced early in cancer care are both safe and feasible.

  9. Physical Fitness of Cleaners in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, November 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Wibisono Sulistijo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cleaning is an occupation that is carried out worldwide in many different environments. Cleaning workers (cleaners often have low occupational skills and belong to the less advantaged educational and socioeconomic groups. Because of the high physical work demands and low cardiorespiratory fitness, cleaners have the risk to have cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to measure the 5 components of physical fitness (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility and body composition of cleaners in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to all cleaners (31 persons of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran in November 2012. The subjects were tested for cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility and body composition. The results were categorized using the standard of Ministry of Health Republic Indonesia. Results: From 31 subjects, cardiorespiratory endurance was in poor category (50%. Shoulder and hand muscle endurance was in poor category (54.8% and stomach muscle endurance was in very poor category (67.7%. Hand−grip muscular strength was in very poor category: right hand (80.7% and left hand (87.1%. Back muscle strength was in poor category (58.1%. Leg muscular strength was in very poor category (48.4%. Flexibility was in a very good category (97% and body composition was also in a good category (54.8%. Conclusions: From 5 components of cleaners’ physical fitness, 3 components (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle endurance and muscular strength are in poor and very poor category.

  10. Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications: Applications of Detectors in Technology, Medicine and Other Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hillemanns, H

    2011-01-01

    Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications in 'Applications of Detectors in Technology, Medicine and Other Fields', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B2: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 2: Systems and Applications'. This document is part of Part 2 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '7.3 Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications' of Chapter '7 Applications of Detectors in Technology; Medicine and Other Fields' with the content: 7.3 Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications 7.3.1 Applications of HEP Detectors 7.3.2 Fast Micro- and Nanoelectronics for Particle Detector Readout 7.3.2.1 Fast Counting Mode Front End Electronics 7.3.2.2 NINO,...

  11. The observation of early childhood physical aggression: A psychometric study of the system for coding early physical aggression (SCEPA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, J.; Alink, L.R.A.; van Zeijl, J.; Stolk, M.N.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Juffer, F.; Koot, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the reliability and (convergent and discriminant) validity of an observational measure of physical aggression in toddlers and preschoolers, originally developed by Keenan and Shaw [1994]. The observation instrument is based on a developmental definition of aggression. Physical

  12. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kand, Purushottam

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a specialized area of radiology that uses very small amounts of radioactive materials to examine organ function and structure. Nuclear medicine is older than CT, ultrasound and MRI. It was first used in patients over 60-70 years ago. Today it is an established medical specialty and offers procedures that are essential in many medical specialities like nephrology, pediatrics, cardiology, psychiatry, endocrinology and oncology. Nuclear medicine refers to medicine (a pharmaceutical) that is attached to a small quantity of radioactive material (a radioisotope). This combination is called a radiopharmaceutical. There are many radiopharmaceuticals like DTPA, DMSA, HIDA, MIBI and MDP available to study different parts of the body like kidneys, heart and bones etc. Nuclear medicine uses radiation coming from inside a patient's body where as conventional radiology exposes patients to radiation from outside the body. Thus nuclear imaging study is a physiological imaging, whereas diagnostic radiology is anatomical imaging. It combines many different disciplines like chemistry, physics mathematics, computer technology, and medicine. It helps in diagnosis and to treat abnormalities very early in the progression of a disease. The information provides a quick and accurate diagnosis of wide range of conditions and diseases in a person of any age. These tests are painless and most scans expose patients to only minimal and safe amounts of radiation. The amount of radiation received from a nuclear medicine procedure is comparable to, or often many times less than, that of a diagnostic X-ray. Nuclear medicine provides an effective means of examining whether some tissues/organs are functioning properly. Therapy using nuclear medicine in an effective, safe and relatively inexpensive way of controlling and in some cases eliminating, conditions such as overactive thyroid, thyroid cancer and arthritis. Nuclear medicine imaging is unique because it provides doctors with

  13. Perspective: The physics, diagnostics, and applications of atmospheric pressure low temperature plasma sources used in plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, M.; Lu, X.; Keidar, M.

    2017-07-01

    Low temperature plasmas have been used in various plasma processing applications for several decades. But it is only in the last thirty years or so that sources generating such plasmas at atmospheric pressure in reliable and stable ways have become more prevalent. First, in the late 1980s, the dielectric barrier discharge was used to generate relatively large volume diffuse plasmas at atmospheric pressure. Then, in the early 2000s, plasma jets that can launch cold plasma plumes in ambient air were developed. Extensive experimental and modeling work was carried out on both methods and much of the physics governing such sources was elucidated. Starting in the mid-1990s, low temperature plasma discharges have been used as sources of chemically reactive species that can be transported to interact with biological media, cells, and tissues and induce impactful biological effects. However, many of the biochemical pathways whereby plasma affects cells remain not well understood. This situation is changing rather quickly because the field, known today as "plasma medicine," has experienced exponential growth in the last few years thanks to a global research community that engaged in fundamental and applied research involving the use of cold plasma for the inactivation of bacteria, dental applications, wound healing, and the destruction of cancer cells/tumors. In this perspective, the authors first review the physics as well as the diagnostics of the principal plasma sources used in plasma medicine. Then, brief descriptions of their biomedical applications are presented. To conclude, the authors' personal assessment of the present status and future outlook of the field is given.

  14. The early history of x-ray diagnosis with emphasis on the contributions of physics 1895-1915.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould, R F

    1995-11-01

    The contribution of physics to the development of x-ray diagnosis was vital in the early years of this century following Röntgen's discovery of x-rays in November 1895. This review records some of the highlights during the period 1895-1915. Much of the information presented has been buried in libraries for more than 50 years and the selection of illustrations and text will be largely unknown to today's readership of Physics in Medicine and Biology. It is also a celebration of what could be achieved in physics before the occurrence of the technological revolution involving not only computer applications but also the disappearance of the small independent x-ray companies into today's multinational companies. Research and development is nowadays just too expensive for much independent practical high-technology contributions without financial backing. Hence this review takes us to those bygone years of experimental physics in home laboratories, poorly equipped university physics laboratories and of the lecture-demonstrations of the period. The sections are presented in a logical order beginning with the discovery of x-rays, followed by x-ray tube technology to the advent of the hot cathode Coolidge tube, with the third and final section covering diagnostic radiology physics. It has been compiled from personal research over 35 years in libraries worldwide, drawing on textbooks, journals, popular magazines, newspapers, x-ray company catalogues and museum exhibits. I have included a certain amount of anecdotal information, because after all, much of the early commentaries were indeed anecdotal--and make very interesting reading. Finally it is commented that although this review is devoted to x-ray diagnosis, x-ray therapy should not be forgotten, and readers are referred to another review by the author on early therapeutic advances.

  15. The PM&R Journal Implements a Social Media Strategy to Disseminate Research and Track Alternative Metrics in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, William N; Silver, Julie K; Katz, Matthew S

    2017-12-16

    Implementation science is an evolving part of translating evidence into clinical practice and public health policy. This report describes how a social media strategy for the journal PM&R using metrics, including alternative metrics, contributes to the dissemination of research and other information in the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation. The primary goal of the strategy was to disseminate information about rehabilitation medicine, including but not limited to new research published in the journal, to health care professionals. Several different types of metrics were studied, including alternative metrics that are increasingly being used to demonstrate impact in academic medicine. A secondary goal was to encourage diversity and inclusion of the physiatric workforce-enhancing the reputations of all physiatrists by highlighting their research, lectures, awards, and other accomplishments with attention to those who may be underrepresented. A third goal was to educate the public so that they are more aware of the field and how to access care. This report describes the early results following initiation of PM&R's coordinated social media strategy. Through a network of social media efforts that are strategically integrated, physiatrists and their associated institutions have an opportunity to advance their research and clinical agendas, support the diverse physiatric workforce, and educate the public about the field to enhance patient awareness and access to care. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Monitored course at distance Nuclear Medicine: Introduction of Basic Physics Aspects. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Diaz, A.; San Pedro, A.P.; Petrirena, G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: This project try to evaluated the use of specialized multimedia product for a monitored education at distance of personnel who start to be close related with Nuclear Medicine Techniques like nurse, surgeons, specialized physician, oncologist, etc. The multimedia product included two items: Introduction to Nuclear Medicine Techniques and Basic aspects of radiation physics. Each item contents an audio visual conference (Power Point) and a charter (PDF): with theoretic aspects, understand verification questions and self-evaluation activities. The product need only a PC compatible with window 98 (or more advanced version), and 130MBy of memory spaced for archive. In order to verify the effectiveness of the distance course, we tested its results in 4 specialists: 1 nurse, 1 radio-pharmacist, 1 cardiologist and 1 neurologist. After consult and clarify their doubts, a final test was applied in order to check the knowledge acquired. With 100 point of maximum score and 60-point minimum to pass, the test contented 2 types of questions: true or false choice (with 50 aspects to verify, 1.5 point/ correct answer) and many correct choices (5 questions, 5 point/correct answer). The average result was 91.5 points/ students (89.5- 94 points); the four students pass the test with very good degree of comprehension (1 very good and 3 excellent). The course was polled about the quality of the material and their comprehension degree, asking the student to make suggestions if were needed. The average evaluation was 94 points (91-95 points). The suggestions made were: increase the number of examples and practical sequences, the understand verification questions and include monitored practical exercise. Conclusion: the product can be useful for a monitored education at distance of personnel who start to be related with Nuclear Medicine Techniques. Recommendation: The program should be enrich with the suggested things and extend to other important items like: radiation protection

  17. ICU early physical rehabilitation programs: financial modeling of cost savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Robert K; Mayhew, Christopher R; Korupolu, Radha; Mantheiy, Earl C; Friedman, Michael A; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Needham, Dale M

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the potential annual net cost savings of implementing an ICU early rehabilitation program. Using data from existing publications and actual experience with an early rehabilitation program in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical ICU, we developed a model of net financial savings/costs and presented results for ICUs with 200, 600, 900, and 2,000 annual admissions, accounting for both conservative- and best-case scenarios. Our example scenario provided a projected financial analysis of the Johns Hopkins Medical ICU early rehabilitation program, with 900 admissions per year, using actual reductions in length of stay achieved by this program. U.S.-based adult ICUs. Financial modeling of the introduction of an ICU early rehabilitation program. Net cost savings generated in our example scenario, with 900 annual admissions and actual length of stay reductions of 22% and 19% for the ICU and floor, respectively, were $817,836. Sensitivity analyses, which used conservative- and best-case scenarios for length of stay reductions and varied the per-day ICU and floor costs, across ICUs with 200-2,000 annual admissions, yielded financial projections ranging from -$87,611 (net cost) to $3,763,149 (net savings). Of the 24 scenarios included in these sensitivity analyses, 20 (83%) demonstrated net savings, with a relatively small net cost occurring in the remaining four scenarios, mostly when simultaneously combining the most conservative assumptions. A financial model, based on actual experience and published data, projects that investment in an ICU early rehabilitation program can generate net financial savings for U.S. hospitals. Even under the most conservative assumptions, the projected net cost of implementing such a program is modest relative to the substantial improvements in patient outcomes demonstrated by ICU early rehabilitation programs.

  18. A little something from physics for medicine (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 23 April 2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), entitled 'A little something from physics for medicine', was held on 23 April 2014 at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The agenda posted on the website of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS, http://www.gpad.ac.ru, included the following reports: (1) Rumyantsev S A (D Rogachev Federal Research and Clinical Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, and Immunology, Moscow) 'Translational medicine as a basis of progress in hematology/oncology'; (2) Akulinichev S V (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) 'Promising nuclear medicine research at the INR, RAS'; (3) Nikitin P P (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) 'Biosensorics: new possibilities provided by marker-free optical methods and magnetic nanoparticles for medical diagnostics'; (4) Alimpiev S S, Nikiforov S M, Grechnikov A A (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) 'New approaches in laser mass-spectrometry of organic objects'. The publication of the article based on the oral report No. 2 is presented below. • Promising nuclear medicine research in the Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, V V Akulinichev Physics-Uspekhi, 2014, Volume 57, Number 12, Pages 1239–1243 (conferences and symposia)

  19. Stratigraphy and uranium potential of early proterozoic metasedimentary rocks in the Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    The Medicine Bow Mountains of southeastern Wyoming contain an eight mile (13 km) thick section of Early Proterozoic (2500 to 1700 My b.p.) metasedimentary rocks which is subdivided into three successions: the Phantom Lake Metamorphic Suite (oldest), Deep Lake Group, and Libby Creek Group. The most promising units are the basal conglomerate of the upper Phantom Lake Suite, which appears to unconformably overlie metavolcanics of the lower Phantom Lake Suite, and the Magnolia Formation, which unconformably overlies the upper Phantom Lake Suite. Outcrops of the former have yielded assays of up to 141 ppM U and 916 ppM Th, with no appreciable gold. Outcrops of the Magnolia Formation have yielded up to 8.4 ppM U and 38 ppM Th. Several factors indicate that these units deserve further study. First, the lithologies of the radioactive and nonradioactive units are remarkably similar to those found in known uranium fossil-placers. Second, the paleogeography was favorable for placer accumulation if the conglomerates are fluvial sediments in an epicontinental clastic succession which was deposited during several transgressive-regressive cycles, as interpreted to be, Third, the age of the conglomerates may be similar to the age of other known uranium placers-i.e., more than 2000 My b.p. And fourth, geological and geochemical studies indicate that both uranium and pyrite have been strongly leached from outcrops and that subsurface rocks contain more uranium than surface rocks do

  20. Talk | The impact of fundamental Physics on Medicine by Ugo Amaldi | 10 April

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The impact of fundamental Physics on Medicine, by Ugo Amaldi, TERA Foundation and Technische Universität München.   Thursday 10 April 2014, at 7.30 p.m. Globe of Science and Innovation Route de Meyrin, 1211 Genève Talk in English with French translation. Abstract: It is clear to anybody who visits a hospital that Physics applications are everywhere. Medical doctors use Physics when they measure blood pressure, when they perform an ultrasound scan to determine the sex of an unborn child, when they take a radiography or a CT scan. Fundamental physics, which aims at understanding how particles and forces act in the subatomic world and are organized to form everything we observe around us, has numerous medical applications.  Everything started in 1895 with the discovery of X-rays by Röntgen, who was using the best particle accelerator of the time. In the lecture the theme of the title will be presented by following the 120 years long story of par...

  1. Physical Activity Opportunities Within the Schedule of Early Care and Education Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucca, Stephanie; Hales, Derek; Evenson, Kelly R; Ammerman, Alice; Tate, Deborah F; Berry, Diane C; Ward, Dianne S

    2018-02-01

    Physical activity has many benefits for young children's health and overall development, but few studies have investigated how early care and education centers allot time for physical activity, along with measured individual physical activity levels for indoor/outdoor activities during a typical day. Fifty early care and education centers in central North Carolina participated in 4 full-day observations, and 559 children aged 3-5 years within centers wore accelerometers assessing physical activity during observation days. Observation and physical activity data were linked and analyzed for associations between child activity and type of classroom activity. Children averaged 51 (13) minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity and 99 (18) minutes per day of light physical activity while in child care. Children averaged 6 (10) and 10 (13) minutes per day of observed outdoor and indoor daily teacher-led physical activity, respectively. Outdoor time averaged 67 (49) minutes per day, and physical activity levels were higher during outdoor time than during common indoor activities (center time, circle time, and TV time). Physical activity levels varied between indoor and outdoor class activities. Policy and program-related efforts to increase physical activity in preschoolers should consider these patterns to leverage opportunities to optimize physical activity within early care and education centers.

  2. Standard model physics with the ATLAS early data

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel

    2006-01-01

    The Standard Model, despite its open questions, has proved its consistency and predictive power to very high accuracy within the currently available energy reach. LHC, with its high CM energy and luminosity, will give us insight into new processes, possibly showing evidence of “new physics”. Excellent understanding of the SM processes will also be a key to discriminate against any new phenomena. Prospects of selected SM measurements with the ATLAS detector using early LHC luminosity are presented.

  3. Active Early: one-year policy intervention to increase physical activity among early care and education programs in Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L. LaRowe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childcare and education (ECE is a prime setting for obesity prevention and the establishment of healthy behaviors. The objective of this quasi-experimental study was to examine the efficacy of the Active Early guide, which includes evidenced-based approaches, provider resources, and training, to improve physical activity opportunities through structured (i.e. teacher-led activity and environmental changes thereby increasing physical activity among children, ages 2–5 years, in the ECE setting. Methods Twenty ECE programs in Wisconsin, 7 family and 13 group, were included. An 80-page guide, Active Early, was developed by experts and statewide partners in the fields of ECE, public health, and physical activity and was revised by ECE providers prior to implementation. Over 12 months, ECE programs received on-site training and technical assistance to implement the strategies and resources provided in the Active Early guide. Main outcome measures included observed minutes of teacher-led physical activity, physical activity environment measured by the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO instrument, and child physical activity levels via accelerometry. All measures were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months and were analyzed for changes over time. Results Observed teacher-led physical activity significantly increased from 30.9 ± 22.7 min at baseline to 82.3 ± 41.3 min at 12 months. The change in percent time children spent in sedentary activity decreased significantly after 12 months (−4.4 ± 14.2 % time, −29.2 ± 2.6 min, p < 0.02. Additionally, as teacher led-activity increased, percent time children were sedentary decreased (r = −0.37, p < 0.05 and percent time spent in light physical activity increased (r = 0.35, p < 0.05. Among all ECE programs, the physical activity environment improved significantly as indicated by multiple sub-scales of

  4. Discovery Monday - Physics for medicine: the use of accelerators in therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    What does research at CERN have to do with medicine? Perhaps very little at first glance. And yet particle beams are proving to be efficient weapons in the fight against certain diseases. Doctors and physicists will explain how and why at the next Discovery Monday, to be held at Microcosm on 3 May. Various technologies and instruments will be presented during the evening. You will learn, for example, how scientists use radioisotopes to destroy tumours without damaging the surrounding tissues. You will also find out about LIBO, a small linear accelerator used for treating deep-seated tumours. Before therapy can begin, it is vital to make the right diagnosis. On this subject, radiologists will be showing how to interpret a number of X-rays, as well as teaching the youngest visitors about their anatomy and explaining how useful particle physics can be in medicine. The event will take place at Microcosm on 3rd May, from 7.30 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Entrance free. For further information see: http://www.ce...

  5. Nanoscience The Science of the Small in Physics, Engineering, Chemistry, Biology and Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Hans-Eckhardt

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscience stands out for its interdisciplinarity. Barriers between disciplines disappear and the fields tend to converge at the very smallest scale, where basic principles and tools are universal. Novel properties are inherent to nanosized systems due to quantum effects and a reduction in dimensionality: nanoscience is likely to continue to revolutionize many areas of human activity, such as materials science, nanoelectronics, information processing, biotechnology and medicine. This textbook spans all fields of nanoscience, covering its basics and broad applications. After an introduction to the physical and chemical principles of nanoscience, coverage moves on to the adjacent fields of microscopy, nanoanalysis, synthesis, nanocrystals, nanowires, nanolayers, carbon nanostructures, bulk nanomaterials, nanomechanics, nanophotonics, nanofluidics, nanomagnetism, nanotechnology for computers, nanochemistry, nanobiology, and nanomedicine. Consequently, this broad yet unified coverage addresses research in academ...

  6. Organisation of nuclear medicine services. Health physics. Technical and administrative arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanteur, J.; Pellerin, P.

    1975-01-01

    Apart from safety and quality requirements the organisation of nuclear medicine services, or more generally of installations where non-sealed radioactive sources are used, is governed by profitability and efficiency criteria. In view of the high price of products and apparatus the equipment must be based on a rationalisation of options guiding the organisation arrangements as a whole. The following items are dealt with in succession: various categories of installations; general planning of equipment; equipment regulations based on a major requirement, the confinement of contamination sources; working rules examined with respect to the systematics adopted by the International Health Physics Commission and referred in turn to the protection of the patient and that of the surroundings practical observations concerning administrative and technical questions [fr

  7. Quality control test solutions for diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and health physics with PTW equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froescher, Olga

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. In 1922 PTW-Freiburg was founded to produce and market a revolutionary new electromechanical component for measuring very small electrical charges. Today PTW is the specialist and one of the global market leaders for manufacturing and supplying high-quality products in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, radiation therapy and health physics. The quality control of X-ray images is influenced by a number of parameters. To maintain a consistent performance of X-ray installations, quality checks have to be conducted regularly. PTW offers a variety of diagnostic test tools for different X-ray devices, and therefore to reduce patient exposure and costs for X-ray departments. PTW's 'Code of Practice' defines in an easy and compact way how to perform quality control measurements on different diagnostic X-ray installations. The necessary equipment for measuring main parameters as well as acceptable limits are mentioned accordingly. The 'Code of Practice' bases on actual standards.

  8. Cancer rehabilitation in Austria--aspects of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehr, Bruno; Keilani, Mohammad; Wiltschke, Christoph; Hassler, Marco; Licht, Thomas; Marosi, Christine; Huetterer, Elisabeth; Cenik, Fadime; Crevenna, Richard

    2016-02-01

    In Austria, cancer rehabilitation is an important issue in the management of cancer patients. Survival rates and survival time of cancer patients are increasing, and cancer rehabilitation is an important part in the treatment and care of cancer patients with the goal to improve functional status, quality of life, and (social) participation. Today, in Austria there are approximately 600 beds for inpatient rehabilitation. The field of outpatient rehabilitation will maybe be expanded after evaluating the existing pilot projects. Beside other specialities, the field of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) plays an important role in cancer rehabilitation. In cancer rehabilitation, especially activating modalities from PM&R such as exercise are very important and well-accepted parts to improve functional status, quality of life, and participation of patients.

  9. An Empirical Investigation of the Dimensionality of the Physical Literacy Environment in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment of early childhood education classrooms. Data on the classroom physical literacy environment were collected from 245 classrooms using the Classroom Literacy Observation Profile. A combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify five…

  10. Physical activity patterns in patients with early and late age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to visual impairment that affects visual functioning and thereby the ability to be physically active. We investigated physical activity patterns in patients with AMD. METHODS: Patients with early and late AMD and elderly controls were...

  11. EFFECTIVENESS OF ACTIVE TEACHING METHODS FOR THE RESIDENTS OF PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Raj Manjalavil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lecture is the most common teaching aid not only for medical undergraduates, but also specialty residents. There are many disadvantages for this type of teaching. Active teaching methods include didactic lectures followed by interactive sessions, problem-based teaching and hands on demonstration apart from the traditional didactic lecture. The aim of this project was to compare the effectiveness of active teaching method over the didactic lecture to the first year residents of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Settings- Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department among first year residents. Study Design- Educational intervention. Didactic lecture followed by active teaching method. Statistical Analysis- Analysed using SPSS-16 package software. Initially, the first year students were subjected to a pretest, which consists of ten single responses multiple choice questions regarding - “The Carpel Tunnel Syndrome.” This is followed by didactic lecture about the above topic. After this lecture, a post test was conducted with identical questions as the pretest. Then, an interactive session and hands on demonstration of confirming the carpel tunnel syndrome by nerve conduction studies were given. Following this, the same post test was then repeated. RESULTS The arithmetic mean value of pretest score was 3.5, which improved to 8.33 after the lecture session. After the live demonstration of nerve conduction studies, the mean value further increased to 9.8333. The ‘p’ value of the paired t-test after the lecture session was 0.000113, which is significant. The ‘p’ value after the live demonstration session was 0.008612, which is also significant. CONCLUSION The active teaching learning method is found to be more effective than the didactic lecture. Immediate and short-term gains are seen with such programmes.

  12. How Prospective Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Trainees Rank Residency Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriemma, Michael J; Whitehair, Curtis L

    2018-03-01

    Since the inception of the National Resident Matching Program, multiple studies have investigated the factors applicants consider important to ranking prospective residency programs. However, only 2 previous studies focused on prospective physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) trainees, and the most recent of these studies was published in 1993. It is unknown whether these previous studies are reflective of current prospective PM&R residents. To assess various factors that contribute to prospective PM&R residents' decision making in choosing a residency program and compare these findings with previous studies. An anonymous, voluntary questionnaire. A single PM&R residency program. All applicants to a single PM&R residency program. All applicants to our PM&R residency program were invited to participate in a 44-item, 5-point Likert-based questionnaire. Applicants were asked to rate the importance of various factors as they related to constructing their residency rank list. Means and standard deviations were calculated for items included in the survey. A response rate of 26% was obtained, with the responses of 98 applicants (20%) ultimately analyzed. The highest rated factors included "perceived happiness of current residents," "opportunities for hands-on procedure training," "perceived camaraderie among current residents," "perceived camaraderie among faculty and current residents," "perceived quality of current residents," and "perceived work/life balance among current residents." Although male and female respondents demonstrated similar ranking preferences, an apparent difference was detected between how genders rated the importance of "whether the program projects a favorable environment for women" and "whether the program projects a favorable environment for minorities." As compared with previous PM&R applicants, current prospective trainees seem to place greater importance on skill acquisition over didactic teaching. Prospective PM&R residents highly value

  13. MO-AB-206-00: Nuclear Medicine Physics and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    This education session will cover the physics and operation principles of gamma cameras and PET scanners. The first talk will focus on PET imaging. An overview of the principles of PET imaging will be provided, including positron decay physics, and the transition from 2D to 3D imaging. More recent advances in hardware and software will be discussed, such as time-of-flight imaging, and improvements in reconstruction algorithms that provide for options such as depth-of-interaction corrections. Quantitative applications of PET will be discussed, as well as the requirements for doing accurate quantitation. Relevant performance tests will also be described. Learning Objectives: Be able to describe basic physics principles of PET and operation of PET scanners. Learn about recent advances in PET scanner hardware technology. Be able to describe advances in reconstruction techniques and improvements Be able to list relevant performance tests. The second talk will focus on gamma cameras. The Nuclear Medicine subcommittee has charged a task group (TG177) to develop a report on the current state of physics testing of gamma cameras, SPECT, and SPECT/CT systems. The report makes recommendations for performance tests to be done for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests, and identifies those needed satisfy the ACR accreditation program and The Joint Commission imaging standards. The report is also intended to be used as a manual with detailed instructions on how to perform tests under widely varying conditions. Learning Objectives: At the end of the presentation members of the audience will: Be familiar with the tests recommended for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests of gamma cameras for planar imaging. Be familiar with the tests recommended for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests of SPECT systems. Be familiar with the tests of a SPECT/CT system that include the CT images

  14. MO-AB-206-00: Nuclear Medicine Physics and Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This education session will cover the physics and operation principles of gamma cameras and PET scanners. The first talk will focus on PET imaging. An overview of the principles of PET imaging will be provided, including positron decay physics, and the transition from 2D to 3D imaging. More recent advances in hardware and software will be discussed, such as time-of-flight imaging, and improvements in reconstruction algorithms that provide for options such as depth-of-interaction corrections. Quantitative applications of PET will be discussed, as well as the requirements for doing accurate quantitation. Relevant performance tests will also be described. Learning Objectives: Be able to describe basic physics principles of PET and operation of PET scanners. Learn about recent advances in PET scanner hardware technology. Be able to describe advances in reconstruction techniques and improvements Be able to list relevant performance tests. The second talk will focus on gamma cameras. The Nuclear Medicine subcommittee has charged a task group (TG177) to develop a report on the current state of physics testing of gamma cameras, SPECT, and SPECT/CT systems. The report makes recommendations for performance tests to be done for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests, and identifies those needed satisfy the ACR accreditation program and The Joint Commission imaging standards. The report is also intended to be used as a manual with detailed instructions on how to perform tests under widely varying conditions. Learning Objectives: At the end of the presentation members of the audience will: Be familiar with the tests recommended for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests of gamma cameras for planar imaging. Be familiar with the tests recommended for routine quality assurance, annual physics testing, and acceptance tests of SPECT systems. Be familiar with the tests of a SPECT/CT system that include the CT images

  15. Description and Early Outcomes of a Comprehensive Curriculum Redesign at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Heather L; O'Brien, Celia L; Curry, Raymond H; Green, Marianne M; Baker, James F; Kushner, Robert F; Thomas, John X; Corbridge, Thomas C; Corcoran, Julia F; Hauser, Joshua M; Garcia, Patricia M

    2017-09-26

    In 2012, the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine launched a redesigned curriculum addressing the four primary recommendations in the 2010 Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching report on reforming medical education. This new curriculum provides a more standardized evaluation of students' competency achievement through a robust portfolio review process coupled with standard evaluations of medical knowledge and clinical skills. It individualizes learning processes through curriculum flexibility, enabling students to take electives earlier and complete clerkships in their preferred order. The new curriculum is integrated both horizontally and vertically, combining disciplines within organ-based modules and deliberately linking elements (science in medicine, clinical medicine, health and society, professional development) and threads (medical decision making, quality and safety, teamwork and leadership, lifestyle medicine, advocacy and equity) across the three phases that replaced the traditional four-year timeline. It encourages students to conduct research in an area of interest and commit to lifelong learning and self-improvement. The curriculum formalizes the process of professional identity formation and requires students to reflect on their experiences with the informal and hidden curricula, which strongly shape their identities.The authors describe the new curriculum structure, explain their approach to each Carnegie report recommendation, describe early outcomes and challenges, and propose areas for further work. Early data from the first cohort to progress through the curriculum show unchanged United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 and 2 scores, enhanced student research engagement and career exploration, and improved student confidence in the patient care and professional development domains.

  16. Some doctors of medicine who published optometry books and played significant roles in early twentieth century optometric education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, David A

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides brief profiles of four doctors of medicine who wrote books for optometrists and who were faculty members in, and/or directors of, optometry schools in the early twentieth century. Those studied were Thomas G. Atkinson (1870-1946), Marshall B. Ketchum (1856-1937), Joseph I. Pascal (1890-1955), and Clarence W. Talbot (1883-1958). The content of the books they wrote is also discussed.

  17. Comparison between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association criteria to classify the physical activity profile in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Suzana Alves; Suzuki, Cláudio Shigueki; de Freitas, Isabel Cristina Martins

    2013-01-01

    the study aims to evaluate the reproducibility between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association criteria to classify the physical activity profile in an adult population living in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. population-based cross-sectional study, including 930 adults of both genders. The reliability was evaluated by Kappa statistics, estimated according to socio-demographic strata. the kappa estimates showed good agreement between the two criteria in all strata. However, higher prevalence of "actives" was found by using the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association. although the estimates have indicated good agreement, the findings suggest caution in choosing the criteria to classify physical activity profile mainly when "walking" is the main modality of physical activity.

  18. Effect of Early- and Adult-Life Socioeconomic Circumstances on Physical Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Sieber, Stefan; Guessous, Idris; Orsholits, Dan; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kliegel, Matthias; Stringhini, Silvia; Swinnen, Stephan P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Cullati, Stéphane; Boisgontier, Matthieu P

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations between early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity (level and evolution) in aging using large-scale longitudinal data. This study used the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 10-yr population-based cohort study with repeated measurements in five waves, every 2 yr between 2004 and 2013. Self-reported physical inactivity (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), household income (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), educational attainment (wave of the first measurement occasion), and early-life socioeconomic circumstance (wave 3) were collected in 22,846 individuals 50 to 95 yr of age. Risk of physical inactivity was increased for women with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.86). With aging, the risk of physical inactivity increased for both sexes and was strongest for those with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (OR, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) for women; OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05) for men), with the former effect being more robust than the latter one. The association between early-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity was mediated by adult-life socioeconomic circumstances, with education being the strongest mediator. Early-life socioeconomic circumstances predicted high levels of physical inactivity at older ages, but this effect was mediated by socioeconomic indicators in adult life. This finding has implications for public health policies, which should continue to promote education to reduce physical inactivity in people at older ages and to ensure optimal healthy aging trajectories, especially among women with disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances.

  19. Stress and resource pathways connecting early socioeconomic adversity to young adults' physical health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Kwon, Josephine A

    2015-05-01

    Although research has established the impact of early stress, including stressful life contexts, and early resources, such as educational attainment, on various adolescent health outcomes, previous research has not adequately investigated "integrative models" incorporating both stress and resource mediational pathways to explain how early socioeconomic adversity impacts physical health outcomes, particularly in early life stages. Data on early childhood/adolescent stress and socioeconomic resources as well as biomarkers indicating physical health status in young adulthood were collected from 11,798 respondents (54 % female) over a 13-year period from youth participating in the National Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Physical health risk in young adulthood was measured using a composite index of nine regulatory biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Heterogeneity in stress and socioeconomic resource pathways was assessed using latent class analysis to identify clusters, or classes, of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectories. The influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk, as measured by biomarkers, was estimated, and the role of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes as linking mechanisms was assessed. There was evidence for the influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk directly and indirectly through stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes over the early life course. These findings suggest that health models should be broadened to incorporate both stress and resource experiences simultaneously. Furthermore, these findings have prevention and intervention implications, including the importance of early socioeconomic adversity and key intervention points for "turning" the trajectories of at-risk youth.

  20. Trends in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Publications Over the Past 16 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Michael; Cismariu-Potash, Keren; Ratmansky, Motti; Shaklai, Sharon; Amir, Hagay; Mimouni-Bloch, Aviva

    2016-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that the number of publications in the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PMR) has increased over the last 16 years in a linear fashion, and to compare the trends in publication between the pediatric and adult literature. We evaluated all MEDLINE articles from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2013, using Medical Subject Headings categories of rehabilitation. An age filter separated adult and pediatric articles. We divided articles into those with a low level of scientific evidence such as letters and editorials, and those with a high level of evidence such as controlled trials and meta-analyses. We used regression analysis to evaluate the effect of the year of publication on the number of publications of each type. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. MEDLINE reported a total of 98,501 adult publications and 30,895 pediatric publications during the evaluated period. There was a significant linear increase in the total number of publications in adult and pediatric rehabilitation publications with multiplication factors of 3.3 and 2.9, respectively. Importantly, publications with a high level of evidence showed larger multiplication factors compared with those with a low level of evidence (5.5 and 5.1 vs 2.1 and 2.0) for the adult and pediatric literature. The number of publications in the PMR field, especially those with a high level of scientific evidence, has increased linearly over the years, reflecting the rapid evolution of both adult and pediatric PMR. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early and extraordinary peaks in physical performance come with a longevity cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Vijver, Paul L; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2016-01-01

    Life history theory postulates a trade-off between development and maintenance. This trade-off is observed when comparing life histories of different animal species. In humans, however, it is debated if variation in longevity is explained by differences in developmental traits. Observational...... studies found a trade-off between early and high fecundity and longevity in women. Development encompasses more than fecundity and also concerns growth and physical performance. Here, we show a life history trade-off between early and above average physical performance and longevity in male Olympic...... suffered a 4.7-year longevity cost. (95% CI 2.1-7.5 years, p=0.001). This is the first time a life history trade-off between physical performance and longevity has been found in humans. This finding deepens our understanding of early developmental influences on the variation of longevity in humans....

  2. A History of Medicine and the Establishment of Medical Institutions in Middlesex County, New Jersey that Transformed Doctor and Patient Relationships during the Early Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield-Spinner, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth century was a period of tremendous advancements in medicine and technology and as a result experienced a revolutionary change in the delivery of healthcare in America. Modern medicine which encompassed specialized knowledge, technical procedures, and rules of behavior, changed the way medical care was provided in the United…

  3. Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

  4. Early-Onset Physical Frailty in Adults with Diabesity and Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Lori J; Bittel, Daniel C; Bittel, Adam J; Sinacore, David R

    2017-12-07

    Diabesity (obesity and diabetes mellitus) has been identified as a potential contributor to early-onset frailty. Impairments contributing to early onset of physical frailty in this population are not well understood, and there is little evidence of the impact of peripheral neuropathy on frailty. The purpose of this study was to determine impairments that contribute to early-onset physical frailty in individuals with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy. We studied 105 participants, 82 with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy (57 years of age, body mass index [BMI] 31 kg/m 2 ); 13 with diabesity only (53 years of age, BMI 34 kg/m 2 ) and 10 obese controls (67 years of age, BMI 32 kg/m 2 ). Peripheral neuropathy was determined using Semmes Weinstein monofilaments; physical frailty was classified using the 9-item, modified Physical Performance Test; and knee extension and ankle plantarflexion peak torques were measured using isokinetic dynamometry. Participants with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy were 7.4 times more likely to be classified as physically frail. Impairments in lower-extremity function were associated with classification of frailty. Individuals with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy are particularly likely to be classified as frail. Earlier identification and interventions aimed at improving lower-extremity function may be important to mitigate the early-onset functional decline. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Associations of Midlife to Late Life Fatigue With Physical Performance and Strength in Early Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of fatigue in midlife and later life with physical performance and strength in early old age. METHODS: Data on approximately 1800 men and women from the UK Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development with data on fatigue at ages 43 and 60...... points. These associations were robust and were maintained after adjustment for a range of covariates including physical activity and health status. CONCLUSIONS: Reports of frequent fatigue were associated with poorer physical performance in early old age, especially if sustained from midlife to later...... to 64 years were used. Fatigue was defined as perceived tiredness and was assessed prospectively at ages 43 and 60 to 64 years. At both ages, participants were categorized as having no, occasional, or frequent fatigue. Physical performance and strength were measured at age 60 to 64 years using four...

  6. A sedentary job? Measuring the physical activity of emergency medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Elaine B; Caputo, Nicholas D; Pedraza, Solimar; Reynolds, Toussaint; Sharifi, Rahim; Waseem, Muhammad; Kornberg, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The debate on the quality of health care provided in the United States has continued to be waged as concerns have grown over the years. Stress, sleep deprivation, poor diet, and lack of exercise may lead to inadequate work performance by physicians. This study was undertaken to determine whether Emergency Medicine (EM) residents satisfy daily recommendations for total number of steps taken per day set forth by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Surgeon General in a 12-h shift. An observational prospective cohort study was conducted between August 2009 and November 2009 at an urban Level I trauma center with an annual census of over 165,000 Emergency Department (ED) visits per year. The mean number of steps taken by EM residents during 12-h shifts was measured. Mean steps taken during a shift were 7333 (95% confidence interval 6901-7764). Only nine (9.9%) pedometer readings reached the target level of 10,000 (10 K) steps or above. A t-test was used to compare steps with the hypothesized 10 K steps target. Recordings of 10K steps or greater were not correlated with ED sections (p=0.60) shift (medical vs. surgical, p=0.65) or ED census (r(2)physical activity regimens may help improve the overall well-being of EM residents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An individually tailored behavioral medicine treatment in physical therapy for tension-type headache - two experimental case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Anne; Lagerlöf, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate the effect of an individually tailored behavioral medicine treatment in physical therapy, based on a functional behavioral analysis (FBA), for tension-type headache (TTH). Two case studies with A1-A2-B-A3 design of two patients with TTH was conducted. Outcome variables were headache frequency, headache index (mean intensity), consumption of analgesics, self-efficacy in headache management (Headache Management Self-efficacy Scale [HMSE]), disability, and perceived loss of happiness for activities with family and friends. The results showed that headache frequency and headache index decreased for one of the patients. Self-efficacy in headache management increased markedly for both patients. A behavioral medicine treatment in physical therapy based on an FBA can be a way for physical therapists to handle patients with TTH. Future investigations should focus on large group studies with longer observation periods.

  8. Concept and treatment of hydrocephalus in the Greco-Roman and early Arabic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, P; Charalampaki, P; Ayyad, A

    2007-10-01

    In the ancient medical literature hydrocephalus was not often described although its existence and symptomatology were well known. Most detailed descriptions of hydrocephalus including the surgical treatment are extant in the encyclopaedic works on medicine of the physicians Oreibasios and Aetios from Amida from the 4th and 6th centuries AD, respectively. Because of their broad scientific interests, this type of physicians, typical for the late Roman empire, were known as philosophy-physicians (iota alpha tau rho o sigma o phi iota sigma tau alpha iota). They defined hydrocephalus in contrast to our present understanding as a fluid collection excluding abscesses visible as a bulging tumour localised either outside or inside the skull of an infant. They classified the hydrocephalus similar as stated first by Galen in the 2nd century AD in four types corresponding to the assumed anatomic localisation of the fluid collection: 1st Type between the skin and the pericranium corresponding to the subgaleal haematoma or caput succedaneum of the newborn in our terminology, 2nd Type between the pericranium and the skull corresponding to the cephal haematoma after delivery, 3rd Type between skull and the meninges with increased head circumference, bone sutures being increasingly driven apart corresponding most likely to the hydrocephalus in our understanding, and 4th Type between the menings and the brain characterised by severe neurological deficit with lethal prognosis corresponding probably to all pathologies which were accompanied by an excessive increase of the intracranial pressure with a bulging fontanel. Due to the lack of autopsies in ancient times, the hydrocephalus was never linked to the pathology of the ventricles. All forms of hydrocephalus were believed to be caused by improper handling of the head by the midwife during delivery. Only the extracranial fluid collections, but not hydrocephalus in our sense, were considered to be suitable for surgical treatment

  9. Racial and gender discrimination, early life factors, and chronic physical health conditions in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (n = 168; average age, 41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression owing to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Fifty percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health condition (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health condition(s) was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Early-Life Effects on Adult Physical Activity: Concepts, Relevance, and Experimental Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Theodore; Cadney, Marcell D; Waterland, Robert A

    Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment). Although tremendous progress has been made in identifying genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in behavior, early-life effects are not well understood. Early-life effects can in some cases persist across multiple generations following a single exposure and, in principle, may constrain or facilitate the rate of evolution at multiple levels of biological organization. Understanding the mechanisms of such transgenerational effects (e.g., exposure to stress hormones in utero, inherited epigenetic alterations) may prove crucial to explaining unexpected and/or sex-specific responses to selection as well as limits to adaptation. One area receiving increased attention is early-life effects on adult physical activity. Correlational data from epidemiological studies suggest that early-life nutritional stress can (adversely) affect adult human activity levels and associated physiological traits (e.g., body composition, metabolic health). The few existing studies of laboratory rodents demonstrate that both maternal and early-life exercise can affect adult levels of physical activity and related phenotypes. Going forward, rodents offer many opportunities for experimental studies of (multigenerational) early-life effects, including studies that use maternal

  11. White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine in Europe. Introductions, Executive Summary, and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The White Book (WB) of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe is produced by the 4 European PRM Bodies (European Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine - EARM, European Society of PRM - ESPRM, European Union of Medical Specialists - PRM Section, European College of PRM-ECPRM served by the European Union of Medical Specialists-PRM Board) and constitutes the reference book for PRM physicians in Europe. It has now reached its third edition; the first was published in 1989 and the second in 2006/2007. The WB has multiple purposes, including providing a unifying framework for European countries, to inform decision-makers on European and national level, to offer educational material for PRM trainees and physicians and information about PRM to the medical community, other rehabilitation professionals and the public. The WB states the importance of PRM, a primary medical specialty that is present all over Europe, with a specific corpus disciplinae, a common background and history throughout Europe. PRM is internationally recognized and a partner of major international bodies, including the World Health Organization (WHO). PRM activities are strongly based on the documents of the United Nations (UN) and WHO, such as the Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006), the World Report on Disability (2011), the WHO Global Disability Action Plan 2014-2021 (2014) and the WHO initiative "Rehabilitation 2030: a call for action" (2017). The WB is organized in 4 sections, 11 chapters and some appendices. The WB starts with basic definitions and concepts of PRM and continues with why rehabilitation is needed by individuals and society. Rehabilitation focuses not only on health conditions but also on functioning. Accordingly, PRM is the medical specialty that strives to improve functioning of people with a health condition or experiencing disability. The fundamentals of PRM, the history of the PRM specialty, and the structure and activities of PRM

  12. Is Intelligence in Early Adulthood Associated With Midlife Physical Performance among Danish Males?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Meincke, Rikke Hodal; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Insights into the causes of variances in physical performance are important to prevent mobility limitations in old age. We examined associations between intelligence in early adulthood and midlife physical performance. Method: Data from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank were...... analyzed using linear regression. In total, 2,848 male cohort members had intelligence scores from conscription and physical performance measures from midlife. Results: In adjusted models, a 1 SD increase in intelligence resulted in 1.10 more chair-rises (p

  13. "Physics Stories": How the Early Technologies of High Voltage and High Vacuum Led to "Modern Physics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2018-05-01

    Some of you may remember the 1979 television series "Connections" that was written and narrated by James Burke, a British science writer. Burke's technique was to choose a number of seemingly unrelated ideas and show how they led to developments in science and technology. This is an enjoyable business, even if some of the connections seem to be stretched at times, and led to a book by Burke. In a number of talks that I have given over the years, I have made somewhat less fanciful connections that suggest how the technologies of high vacuum and high voltage led to what used to be called "modern physics." Today we might limit the "modern" era to the years from 1890 to 1920 that gave the first workable theories of small-scale physics.

  14. Early Parenting and Children's Relational and Physical Aggression in the Preschool and Home Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Juan F.; Weigel, Stephanie M.; Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Woods, Kathleen E.; Yeh, Elizabeth A. Jansen; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated early parent-child relationships and how children's use of relational and physical aggression varies with aspects of those relationships during the preschool years. Specifically, parenting styles, parents' use of psychological control, and parents' report of their children's reunion behaviors were assessed. Analyses…

  15. Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Adjustment in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This research examined linkages between exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical punishment/abuse (CPA) and mental health issues in early adulthood. Method: The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of over 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Results: Exposure to CSA and CPA was…

  16. Early Sexual Intercourse : Prospective Associations with Adolescents Physical Activity and Screen Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nogueira Avelar e Silva, R.; Wijtzes, A.; van de Bongardt, D.; van de Looij-Jansen, P.; Bannink, R.; Raat, H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prospective associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time with early sexual intercourse initiation (i.e., before 15 years) in a large sample of adolescents. Methods: We used two waves of data from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal study conducted in

  17. Psychosocial Correlates of Physical and Sedentary Activities of Early Adolescent Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, Julie C.; Westling, Erika; Crowley, Ryann; Light, John M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines physical and sedentary activities of early adolescent boys and girls using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), a method that can link mood and behaviors in specific social situations. Twenty-seven assessments were collected across 7 days from 82 participating adolescents, three times in seventh grade and one time in eighth…

  18. Early sexual intercourse: Prospective associations with adolescents physical activity and screen time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avelar e Silva, R.N. (Raquel Nogueira); A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); Van De Bongardt, D. (Daphne); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); R. Bannink (Rienke); H. Raat (Hein)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To assess the prospective associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time with early sexual intercourse initiation (i.e., before 15 years) in a large sample of adolescents. Methods: We used two waves of data from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal study

  19. An Intervention for Relational and Physical Aggression in Early Childhood: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Massetti, Greta M.; Stauffacher, Kirstin; Godleski, Stephanie A.; Hart, Katie C.; Karch, Kathryn M.; Mullins, Adam D.; Ries, Emily E.

    2009-01-01

    A preventive intervention for reducing physical and relational aggression, peer victimization, and increasing prosocial behavior was developed for use in early childhood classrooms. Nine classrooms were randomly assigned to be intervention rooms (N = 202 children) and nine classrooms were control rooms (N = 201 children). Classroom was the unit of…

  20. Early signs of mobility decline and physical activity counseling as a preventive intervention in older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina

    indicate that self-reported preclinical mobility limitation and fall history should be considered as important early indicators of functional decline among community-dwelling older adults. In addition, the results suggest that physical activity counseling for older adults may provide an effective means......The purpose of this study was to examine the early signs of mobility decline and falls in older people. In addition, the effects of physical activity counseling on the development of mobility limitation in an older community-dwelling population were studied. Data from two larger studies were used......: Screening and Counseling for Physical activity and Mobility among Older People, SCAMOB, a 2-year single-blinded randomized controlled trial (n=632) with a 1.5-year post-intervention follow-up, focused on 75 to 81-year-old community-dwelling people and the FITSA study, a 3-year prospective observational...

  1. Laser-polarized noble gases: a powerful probe for biology, medicine, and subatomic physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Gordon

    2010-03-01

    For over a decade, laser-polarized noble gases such as ^3He and ^129Xe have proven useful for a wide range of scientific inquiries. These include investigations of pulmonary disease using the polarized gas as a signal source for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), measurements of various aspects of nucleon structure, and tests of fundamental symmetries. Early efforts were often limited by expensive and bulky laser systems, but ongoing advancements in solid-state lasers have enabled increasingly large volumes of polarized gas to be produced with steadily improved polarization. Equally important have been advances in the fundamental understanding of spin exchange. This has led, for example, to the introduction of hybrid mixtures of alkali metals that can increase the efficiency of spin exchange by an order of magnitude. As a consequence of these advances, the figure of merit for polarized nuclear targets has increased by roughly three orders of magnitude in comparison to early accelerator-based experiments. And in MRI applications, it has become possible to pursue increasingly sophisticated imaging protocols that provide a wide range of diagnostic information. Even the earliest noble-gas MR images of the gas space of the human lung provided unprecedented resolution. More recent work includes the use of diffusion-sensitizing pulse sequences to study lung microstructure, and tagging techniques that enable the visualization (in real-time MRI movies) of gas flow during breathing. The range of applications of laser-polarized noble gases is continuing to grow, and it is notable that with an improved understanding of the underlying physics, it is quite likely that the capabilities of this useful technology will expand for some time to come.

  2. Incidence of Osteoporosis in Patients Admitted to our Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Outpatient Clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Meryem Alkan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized with decreased bone mass and microarchtitectural deterioration of bone tissue which increases bone fragility and fracture risk. Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures constitute an important health problem in general population. This study aimed to determine the incidence of osteoporosis, chronic diseases accompanying osteoporosis and incidence of falls in male and female patients admitted to our out patient clinics retrospectively. Material and Methods: Patient records of the 11624 patients admitted to Ankara Atatürk Education and Research Hospital Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Outpatient clinics between January 2010 and July 2010 were retrospectively reviewed and 644 patients diagnosed as osteoporosis according to femoral neck and/or lumbar dual energy x ray absoptiometry measurements were included in the study. Ages of the patients, sexes, chronic ilnesses, musculoskeletal sytem complaints and fall histories were also recorded. Results: The incidence of osteoporosis was found to be 7.61% in female patients and it was determined that incidence was 5-fold increased in women than in men. Besides, chronic ilnesses and fall history were accompanying in higher ratios in osteoporotic patients. Conclusion: Heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, neurological diseases leading to impairment in balance and musculoskelatal system complaints were quite frequent in patients with osteoporosis and these diseases should be taken seriously since they increase the risk of falling. It is important to avoid using drugs which lead to balance impairment, to use walk aids like canes or walkers, to perform exercises including balance and coordination training and endurance exercises in order to prevent falls. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2011;17:10-3

  3. The historical social positioning of nursing and medicine: implications for career choice, early socialization and interprofessional collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sheri; Doucet, Shelley; Hall, Linda McGillis

    2014-03-01

    For almost half a century, research has identified that effective teamwork is essential in order to enhance care provision and health outcomes for patients. Although the value of teamwork is well-recognized in healthcare, the historically rooted dynamics of workplace relationships create a myriad of challenges to creating collaborative teams. Understanding the history of interpersonal dynamics between health professionals can provide direction for future interprofessional education and collaboration strategies. The aim of this paper is to provide a historical overview of the social positioning of nursing and medicine in the context of interprofessional collaboration. Few professions work as closely as nursing and medicine. Despite the well-recognized benefits of interprofessional collaboration, these two professions are often socially positioned in opposition to one another and depicted as adversarial. This analysis will seek to advance our understanding of the historical roots between these two professions and their relationships with and among each other in relation to career choice, early socialization and patient care delivery. An exploration of the historical social positioning of nursing and medicine can provide an enhanced understanding of the barriers to interprofessional collaboration and inform future successes in interprofessional education and practice among all health and social care professions.

  4. Parent and peer predictors of physical aggression and conflict management in romantic relationships in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Collins, W Andrew

    2005-06-01

    Violence between romantic partners is widespread, but developmental precursors of perpetration and victimization are little understood. Among participants followed from birth to 23 years of age, familial and extrafamilial childhood and adolescent relationships were examined in connection with couple violence in early adulthood. Predictors included early childhood physical abuse and witnessing of parental partner violence, features of parent-child interactions at the age of 13 years, and close friendship quality at the age of 16 years. Controlling for early familial violence, intrusive or overly familiar behavior in videotaped parent-child collaborations at 13 years of age consistently predicted violence perpetration and victimization in early adulthood. Friendship quality at the age of 16 years contributed over and above familial predictors. Understanding the role of both familial and extrafamilial close relationship precursors may lead to effective strategies for ameliorating the problem of romantic partner violence. 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Birth order and physical fitness in early adulthood: evidence from Swedish military conscription data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Kieron; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2014-12-01

    Physical fitness at young adult ages is an important determinant of physical health, cognitive ability, and mortality. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between early life conditions and physical fitness in adulthood. An important potential factor influencing physical fitness is birth order, which prior studies associate with several early- and later-life outcomes such as height and mortality. This is the first study to analyse the association between birth order and physical fitness in late adolescence. We use military conscription data on 218,873 Swedish males born between 1965 and 1977. Physical fitness is measured by a test of maximal working capacity, a measure of cardiovascular fitness closely related to V02max. We use linear regression with sibling fixed effects, meaning a within-family comparison, to eliminate the confounding influence of unobserved factors that vary between siblings. To understand the mechanism we further analyse whether the association between birth order and physical fitness varies by sibship size, parental socioeconomic status, birth cohort or length of the birth interval. We find a strong, negative and monotonic relationship between birth order and physical fitness. For example, third-born children have a maximal working capacity approximately 0.1 (p birth order effect does not depend on the length of the birth intervals, in two-child families a longer birth interval strengthens the advantage of the first-born. Our results illustrate the importance of birth order for physical fitness, and suggest that the first-born advantage already arises in late adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Commentary on the Nobel Prize that has been granted in Medicine-Physiology, Chemistry and Physics to noteable investigators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Arturo; Apolinar, Leticia Manuel; Saucedo, Renata; Basurto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was established by Alfred Nobel in 1901 to award people who have made outstanding achievements in physics, chemistry and medicine. So far, from 852 laureates, 45 have been female. Marie Curie was the first woman to receive the Nobel Prize in 1903 for physics and eight years later also for chemistry It is remarkable that her daughter Irene and her husband also received the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1935. Other two married couples, Cori and Moser, have also been awarded the Nobel Prize. The present commentary attempts to show the female participation in the progress of scientific activities.

  7. Early intervention services of children with physical disabilities: complexity of child and family needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziviani, Jenny; Darlington, Yvonne; Feeney, Rachel; Rodger, Sylvia; Watter, Pauline

    2014-04-01

    To gain insight into the special issues confronting parents when accessing early intervention for children with physical disabilities where child and/or family characteristics indicate complex needs within the unique Australian context. Qualitative interviews with families receiving early intervention for their children with physical disabilities (N=10). Families with complex circumstances such as having children with high support needs, those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, and single-parent families were recruited to the study. Families where parents had mental or health issues, parents/other family members had an identified disability, and/or where families lived in regional or rural locations were also purposively sampled. Participants highlighted issues around (i) the nature of early intervention services provided; (ii) the ways in which services were structured; and (ii) managing their child's needs/planning into the future. Parents stressed the importance of having access to a variety of early intervention services aside from therapy. They also emphasised the need for greater clarity about what to expect from services, the intensity of therapy, other services they could access and how long they would be able to receive these. Despite their complex circumstances and needs, participants' experiences of accessing early intervention services were largely consistent with the broader research literature. Of the parents interviewed, those with health problems and single mothers expressed most apprehension about managing their child's needs and planning for the future. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  8. Leisure-Time and Occupational Physical Activity in Early and Late Adulthood in Relation to Later Life Physical Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, Jenni; Ngandu, Tiia; Pajala, Satu; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Levälahti, Esko; Antikainen, Riitta; Laatikainen, Tiina; Oksa, Heikki; Peltonen, Markku; Rauramaa, Rainer; Soininen, Hilkka; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Kivipelto, Miia

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) has beneficial effects on older age physical functioning, but longitudinal studies with follow-ups extending up to decades are few. We investigated the association between leisure-time PA (LTPA) and occupational PA (OPA) from early to late adulthood in relation to later life performance-based physical functioning. The study involved 1260 people aged 60 to 79 years who took part in assessments of physical functioning (Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB] test, 10-m maximal walking test, and grip strength test). Participants' data on earlier life LTPA/OPA (age range 25 to 74 years) were received from the previous studies (average follow-up 13.4 years). Logistic, linear, and censored regression models were used to assess the associations between LTPA/OPA earlier in life and subsequent physical functioning. A high level of LTPA earlier in life was associated with a lower risk of having difficulties on the SPPB test (odds ratio [OR]: 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.58) and especially on the chair rise test (OR: 0.42; 95% CI, 0.27-0.64) in old age. Heavy manual work predicted difficulties on SPPB (OR: 1.91; 95% CI, 1.22-2.98) and the chair rise test (OR: 1.75; 95% CI, 1.14-2.69) and poorer walking speed (β = .10, P = .005). This study highlights the importance of LTPA on later life functioning, but also indicates the inverse effects that may be caused by heavy manual work.

  9. Modern Medicine Environment and Adaptation of Korean Trader for Medicinal Herbs From the Late 19th Century to the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jeongpil

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a

  10. Early brain development toward shaping of human mind: an integrative psychoneurodevelopmental model in prenatal and perinatal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Radovan; Maas, Lili M; Fedor-Freybergh, P G

    2013-01-01

    The article introduces an integrative psychoneurodevelopmental model of complex human brain and mind development based on the latest findings in prenatal and perinatal medicine in terms of integrative neuroscience. The human brain development is extraordinarily complex set of events and could be influenced by a lot of factors. It is supported by new insights into the early neuro-ontogenic processes with the help of structural 3D magnetic resonance imaging or diffusion tensor imaging of fetal human brain. Various factors and targets for neural development including birth weight variability, fetal and early-life programming, fetal neurobehavioral states and fetal behavioral responses to various stimuli and others are discussed. Molecular biology reveals increasing sets of genes families as well as transcription and neurotropic factors together with critical epigenetic mechanisms to be deeply employed in the crucial neurodevelopmental events. Another field of critical importance is psychoimmuno-neuroendocrinology. Various effects of glucocorticoids as well as other hormones, prenatal stress and fetal HPA axis modulation are thought to be of special importance for brain development. The early postnatal period is characterized by the next intense shaping of complex competences, induced mainly by the very unique mother - newborn´s interactions and bonding. All these mechanisms serve to shape individual human mind with complex abilities and neurobehavioral strategies. Continuous research elucidating these special competences of human fetus and newborn/child supports integrative neuroscientific approach to involve various scientific disciplines for the next progress in human brain and mind research, and opens new scientific challenges and philosophic attitudes. New findings and approaches in this field could establish new methods in science, in primary prevention and treatment strategies, and markedly contribute to the development of modern integrative and personalized

  11. Physical activity and sedentary behavior during the early years in Canada: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity and sedentary behavior habits are established during early childhood, yet only recently has objectively measured data been available on children aged 5 years and younger. This study presents data on the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of Canadian children aged 3–5 years. Methods Data were collected as part of the Canadian Health Measures Survey between 2009 and 2011. A nationally-representative sample (n = 459) of children aged 3–5 years wore Actical accelerometers during their waking hours for 7 consecutive days. Data were collected in 60-sec epochs and respondents with ≥4 valid days were retained for analysis. Parents reported their child’s physical activity and screen time habits in a questionnaire. Results Eighty-four percent of 3–4 year old children met the physical activity guideline of 180 minutes of total physical activity every day while 18% met the screen time target of physical activity guideline of 60 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) while 81% met the screen time target of physical activity and 66 minutes of MVPA while 5 year old children accumulated an average of 342 min/d of total physical activity and 68 minutes of MVPA. Children were sedentary for approximately half of their waking hours and spent an average of 2 hours per day in front of screens. Only 15% of 3–4 year olds and 5% of 5 year olds are meeting both the physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines. Conclusions Promoting physical activity while reducing sedentary behavior is important at all stages of life. The findings of the present study indicate that there remains significant room for improvement in these behaviors among young Canadian children. PMID:23642258

  12. Strategies for coping with stress in emergency medicine: Early education is vital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian R Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physician burnout has received considerable attention in the literature and impacts a large number of emergency medicine physicians, but there is no standardized curriculum for wellness in resident education. A culture change is needed to educate about wellness, adopt a preventative and proactive approach, and focus on resiliency. Discussion: We describe a novel approach to wellness education by focusing on resiliency rather than the unintended endpoint of physician burnout. One barrier to adoption of wellness education has been establishing legitimacy among emergency medicine (EM residents and educators. We discuss a change in the language of wellness education and provide several specific topics to facilitate the incorporation of these topics in resident education. Conclusion: Wellness education and a culture of training that promotes well-being will benefit EM residents. Demonstrating the impact of several factors that positively affect emergency physicians may help to facilitate alert residents to the importance of practicing activities that will result in wellness. A change in culture and focus on resiliency is needed to adequately address and optimize physician self-care.

  13. Design Principles for resilient cyber-physical Early Warning Systems - Challenges, Experiences, Design Patterns, and Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensch, S.; Wächter, J.; Schnor, B.

    2014-12-01

    Early warning systems (EWS) are safety-critical IT-infrastructures that serve the purpose of potentially saving lives or assets by observing real-world phenomena and issuing timely warning products to authorities and communities. An EWS consists of sensors, communication networks, data centers, simulation platforms, and dissemination channels. The components of this cyber-physical system may all be affected by both natural hazards and malfunctions of components alike. Resilience engineering so far has mostly been applied to safety-critical systems and processes in transportation (aviation, automobile), construction and medicine. Early warning systems need equivalent techniques to compensate for failures, and furthermore means to adapt to changing threats, emerging technology and research findings. We present threats and pitfalls from our experiences with the German and Indonesian tsunami early warning system, as well as architectural, technological and organizational concepts employed that can enhance an EWS' resilience. The current EWS is comprised of a multi-type sensor data upstream part, different processing and analysis engines, a decision support system, and various warning dissemination channels. Each subsystem requires a set of approaches towards ensuring stable functionality across system layer boundaries, including also institutional borders. Not only must services be available, but also produce correct results. Most sensors are distributed components with restricted resources, communication channels and power supply. An example for successful resilience engineering is the power capacity based functional management for buoy and tide gauge stations. We discuss various fault-models like cause and effect models on linear pathways, interaction of multiple events, complex and non-linear interaction of assumedly reliable subsystems and fault tolerance means implemented to tackle these threats.

  14. Views of adolescent female youth on physical activity during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yungblut, Hope E; Schinke, Robert J; McGannon, Kerry R

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004). This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes.

  15. VIEWS OF ADOLESCENT FEMALE YOUTH ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DURING EARLY ADOLESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope E. Yungblut

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004. This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes.

  16. A longitudinal examination of the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Niven, Ailsa G; Fawkner, Samantha G; Henretty, Joan M

    2009-06-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls (N=150; mean age=12.79+/-0.31). Physical characteristics were measured and participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children, the Children and Youth Physical Self-Perception Profile and the Pubertal Development Scale on two occasions 12 months apart. The results demonstrated a decrease in overall physical activity levels over 12 months which was not influenced by maturational status or physical characteristics. Additional analysis indicated that physical self-perceptions partially accounted for the explained variance in physical activity change, with physical condition being an important individual predictor of physical activity. Further analysis indicated that body mass was an important individual predictor of changes in perceptions of body attractiveness and physical self-worth. At this age maturation has a limited influence on the physical activity behaviours of early adolescent girls and although the variance in physical activity was partly accounted for by physical self-perceptions, this was a relatively small contribution and other factors related to this drop in physical activity need to be considered longitudinally.

  17. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine and IEAust College of Biomedical Engineers; Asia/Pacific Region of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is a celebration of the centenary of Rontgen''s discovery of Xrays. It is also the 50th anniversary of the first hospital physicist appointment in New Zealand. The historical element of the programme will complement the emphasis on current applications of the physical and engineering sciences to medicine and an anticipation of future developments. For the first time the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine, together with the IEAust College of Biomedical Engineers, are joined by the Asia/Pacific Region of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society to make this a truly international conference. The proceedings include many papers on radiology and radiotherapy

  18. White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe. Chapter 5. The PRM organizations in Europe: structure and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper addresses the structure, organization and activities of PRM bodies in Europe. There are four main bodies, the Section of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) very close to the European Union and is committed to define the professional competencies of PRM, the quality management and accreditation and with the Board the educational matters. The European College of PRM is served by the UEMS PRM Board and its main activities are analyzed below in the description of the Board of the UEMS PRM Section. The European Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ESPRM) mainly dedicated to promoting research in rehabilitation and create a network of knowledge of PRM across the Europe. The European Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine mainly dedicated to defining the ethical issues in rehabilitation and finding strategies for better educational approaches in rehabilitation. There are 2 further bodies (the regional Fora) aimed to create bridges across the Mediterranean area (Mediterranean Forum of PRM) and across the northern Europe including the eastern countries such as Russia, Belarus and Ukraine (Baltic and North Sea Forum of PRM). To support the knowledge, we have in Europe 7 main journals dedicated to Rehabilitation with a growing impact factor. Last but not least the PRM bodies have an important role across the world with a connection with the International Society of PRM and WHO. The UEMS Section approved motion of international collaboration. In conclusion, PRM activity in Europe is not limited to the official border but in the network included eastern countries and Mediterranean area. The European extended network is strongly connected with the international PRM bodies, first of all the International Society of PRM.

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF EARLY PHYSICAL REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS WITH SPASTIC INFANTILE CEREBRAL PALSIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Lupandina-Bolotova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infantile cerebral palsy is an urgent issue of pediatric neurology all over the world. Adequate choice of the term and methods of rehabilitation helps children with this pathology to adapt to the society and improves prognosis of motor and mental development thereof. The article presents the optimal methods of physical rehabilitation at early stages of a child’s development based on the current understanding of neuroplasticity, reserve capabilities of a developing brain, as well as of pathophysiological aspects of recovery and compensation of the damaged structures of the central nervous system. The authors demonstrate crucial differences between approaches to rehabilitation of children under and over 2 years of age. Despite the selected methods of rehabilitation of children with infantile cerebral palsy, successful results of the therapy require a multidisciplinary approach characterized by early onset, balanced combination of methods of physical rehabilitation and drug therapy, physiotherapy and psychological-pedagogic support. 

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  1. Early trauma and increased risk for physical aggression during adulthood: the moderating role of MAOA genotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Frazzetto

    Full Text Available Previous research has reported that a functional polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA gene promoter can moderate the association between early life adversity and increased risk for violence and antisocial behavior. In this study of a combined population of psychiatric outpatients and healthy volunteers (N = 235, we tested the hypothesis that MAOA genotype moderates the association between early traumatic life events (ETLE experienced during the first 15 years of life and the display of physical aggression during adulthood, as assessed by the Aggression Questionnaire. An ANOVA model including gender, exposure to early trauma, and MAOA genotype as between-subjects factors showed significant MAOAxETLE (F(1,227 = 8.20, P = 0.005 and genderxMAOAxETLE (F(1,227 = 7.04, P = 0.009 interaction effects. Physical aggression scores were higher in men who had experienced early traumatic life events and who carried the low MAOA activity allele (MAOA-L. We repeated the analysis in the subgroup of healthy volunteers (N = 145 to exclude that the observed GxE interactions were due to the inclusion of psychiatric patients in our sample and were not generalizable to the population at large. The results for the subgroup of healthy volunteers were identical to those for the entire sample. The cumulative variance in the physical aggression score explained by the ANOVA effects involving the MAOA polymorphism was 6.6% in the entire sample and 12.1% in the sub-sample of healthy volunteers. Our results support the hypothesis that, when combined with exposure to early traumatic life events, low MAOA activity is a significant risk factor for aggressive behavior during adulthood and suggest that the use of dimensional measures focusing on behavioral aspects of aggression may increase the likelihood of detecting significant gene-by-environment interactions in studies of MAOA-related aggression.

  2. Insights from early experience of a Rare Disease Genomic Medicine Multidisciplinary Team: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormondroyd, Elizabeth; Mackley, Michael P; Blair, Edward; Craft, Jude; Knight, Julian C; Taylor, John; Taylor, Jenny C; Wilkie, Andrew Om; Watkins, Hugh

    2017-06-01

    Whole-exome/whole-genome sequencing (WES/WGS) has the potential to enhance genetic diagnosis of rare disease, and is increasingly becoming part of routine clinical care in mainstream medicine. Effective translation will require ongoing efforts in a number of areas including: selection of appropriate patients, provision of effective consent, pre- and post-test genetic counselling, improving variant interpretation algorithms and practices, and management of secondary findings including those found incidentally and those actively sought. Allied to this is the need for an effective education programme for all members of clinical teams involved in care of patients with rare disease, as well as to maintain public confidence in the use of these technologies. We established a Genomic Medicine Multidisciplinary Team (GM-MDT) in 2014 to build on the experiences of earlier successful research-based WES/WGS studies, to address these needs and to review results including pertinent and secondary findings. Here we report on a qualitative study of decision-making in the GM-MDT combined with analysis of semi-structured interviews with GM-MDT members. Study findings show that members appreciate the clinical and scientific diversity of the GM-MDT and value it for education and oversight. To date, discussions have focussed on case selection including the extent and interpretation of clinical and family history information required to establish likely monogenic aetiology and inheritance model. Achieving a balance between effective use of WES/WGS - prioritising cases in a diverse and highly complex patient population where WES/WGS will be tractable - and meeting the recruitment targets of a large project is considered challenging.

  3. ["Lingue di seripi", "serpents' tongues" and "glossopetrae". Highlights from the history of popular "cult" medicine in early modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freller, T

    1997-01-01

    In the 16th, 17th and 18th century "Glossopetrae", popularly known as "Lingue di Serpi", found on the Mediterranean island of Malta, were extensively used for medical purposes as antidotes. These fossil teeth, including specimens of the "Carcharodon Megalodon" (an extinct variant of the great white shark), were ground to powder or used as amulet pendants and "credence" and exported to pharmacies and shops in various cities of Europe. In antiquity, authors like Plinius or Solinus, excluding any religious connotations, had regarded "Glossopetrae" as objects "fallen from heaven on dark moonless nights". However, from the beginning of the 16th century the miraculous antidotic power of the specimens found at Malta was very strongly connected with the Pauline cult there. This cult owed ist origin to the excerpt of the shipwreck of the Apostle of the Gentiles on this island, as recorded in the New Testament. As in so many cases found in medieval and early modern medicine and pharmacy, the renown, collection, distribution and use of the antidote "Glossopetrae" or "Lingue di Serpi" was never limited to its real chemical and pharmaceutical properties. In the period of enlightenment and secular thinking mythic medicine as "Glossopetrae" had lost ist "magical" power. Consequently, with beginning of the late 18th century also the Maltese "Glossopetrae" featured in literature merely as exotic objects of curiosity or symbols of an age bound to medical superstition.

  4. Recruitment and Early Retention of Women with Advanced Breast Cancer in a Complementary and Alternative Medicine Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Sikorskii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 80% of women with breast cancer are now reported to be using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies during conventional treatment. A randomized clinical trial (RCT of reflexology with late stage breast cancer patients serves as the data source for this article. The purposes were to investigate: (i reasons for refusal to participate in a RCT of reflexology; (ii the differences between those who completed the baseline interview and those who dropped out before baseline; and (iii the utility of the Palliative Prognostic Score (PPS as a prognostic screening tool in minimizing early attrition (before baseline from the trial. Eligible women (N = 400 approached at 12 cancer centers in the Midwest had advanced breast cancer, were on chemotherapy or hormonal therapy, and had a PPS of 11 or less. Comparisons of those who dropped out early (N = 33 to those who stayed in the trial (N = 240 were carried out using Wilcoxon rank, t-, chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. The reasons of being “too sick” or “overwhelmed” were given by less than 12% of the women who refused to participate. There was a higher early dropout rate among black women compared to other (primarily white women (P = .01. Cancer recurrence and metastasis, age, and the PPS were not predictive of early retention of women. Specialized techniques may be needed to ensure black women remain in the trial once consented. Women with advanced disease were likely to enter and remain in the trial despite deterioration in health.

  5. Effects of Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Methods. Electronic databases were searched through July 2017. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children (4–6 years were screened. Results. A total of 15 RCTs were included. Of the 10 studies assessing the effects of physical activity on motor skills, eight (80% reported significant improvements in motor performance and one observed mixed findings, but one failed to promote any beneficial outcomes. Of the five studies investigating the influence of physical activity on cognitive development, four (80% showed significant and positive changes in language learning, academic achievement, attention, and working memory. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention. Conclusions. Findings support causal evidence of effects of physical activity on both motor skills and cognitive development in preschool children. Given the shortage of available studies, future research with large representative samples is warranted to explore the relationships between physical activity and cognitive domains as well as strengthen and confirm the dose-response evidence in early childhood.

  6. Effects of Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Nan; Ayyub, Mohammad; Sun, Haichun; Wen, Xu; Xiang, Ping; Gao, Zan

    2017-01-01

    This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Electronic databases were searched through July 2017. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children (4-6 years) were screened. A total of 15 RCTs were included. Of the 10 studies assessing the effects of physical activity on motor skills, eight (80%) reported significant improvements in motor performance and one observed mixed findings, but one failed to promote any beneficial outcomes. Of the five studies investigating the influence of physical activity on cognitive development, four (80%) showed significant and positive changes in language learning, academic achievement, attention, and working memory. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention. Findings support causal evidence of effects of physical activity on both motor skills and cognitive development in preschool children. Given the shortage of available studies, future research with large representative samples is warranted to explore the relationships between physical activity and cognitive domains as well as strengthen and confirm the dose-response evidence in early childhood.

  7. The Relationship of Self-Concept and Perceived Athletic Competence to Physical Activity Level and Gender among Turkish Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosar, F. Hulya Asci S. Nazan; Isler, Ayse Kin

    2001-01-01

    Examined self-concept and perceived athletic competence of Turkish early adolescents in relation to physical activity level and gender. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant main effects for gender and physical activity level but no significant gender by physical activity interaction. Univariate analysis demonstrated significant…

  8. The decline of uroscopy in early modern learned medicine (1500-1650).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    From the early sixteenth century, uroscopy lost much of the great appeal it had possessed among medieval physicians. Once valued as an outstanding diagnostic tool which ensured authority and fame, it became an object of massive criticism if not derision. As this paper shows, growing awareness of theoretical inconsistencies, the new medical empiricism and humanistic opposition against Arabic and medieval predecessors can explain this drastic revaluation only in part. Uroscopy, it is argued here, came to be perceived above all as a threat to the physicians' professional authority. Faced with persistent demands that they diagnose diseases primarily if not exclusively from urine, they were left with an awkward choice. They risked making fools of themselves by blatant misdiagnosis, but if they rejected the patients' demands people would deem them incapable of a task which many of their less educated competitors were perfectly happy to perform. In the end, in spite of the physicians' massive campaign against it, uroscopy remained very much alive. On the highly competitive early modern medical market patient power had once more prevailed.

  9. Precision medicine for early breast cancer radiotherapy: Opening up new horizons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Jacques

    2017-05-01

    So far most efforts put forth to test the value of predictive and prognostic tools in the field of breast radiotherapy remained globally disappointing, or at least below the convincing levels reached for systemic therapy. Nevertheless the addition of predictive tools to the clinical armament tends to prevail over the use of the sole prognostic factors, also in radiotherapy. A number of predictive assays, clinically validated or not, have recently elicited significant associations between molecular profiles and tumor biological aggressiveness and/or radiosensitivity levels. Will it take a long time for these radiation-specific assays to provide added value to the - already crowded - constellation of predictive tools in the breast cancer? On the one hand, optimizing radiotherapy through the integration of precision medicine into the breast cancer management still remains a challenging issue. On the other hand, recent advances in predictive assays aimed at distinguishing patients with a more radioresistant tumor that necessitates radiation dose escalation or a switch to therapeutic approaches other than radiotherapy, plea in favor of an increasing role, in a near future, for radiation-specific molecular signatures. Streamlining predictive assays platforms via concerted actions should imperatively be given high priority, also in terms of health economics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Correlation between physical characteristics of sticks and quality of traditional Chinese medicine pills prepared by plastic molded method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Xian, Jiechen; Hong, Yanlong; Lin, Xiao; Feng, Yi

    2012-05-01

    To quantify the physical characteristics of sticks of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) honeyed pills prepared by the plastic molded method and the correlation of adhesiveness and plasticity-related parameters of sticks and quality of pills, in order to find major parameters and the appropriate range impacting pill quality. Sticks were detected by texture analyzer for their physical characteristic parameters such as hardness and compression action, and pills were observed by visual evaluation for their quality. The correlation of both data was determined by the stepwise discriminant analysis. Stick physical characteristic parameter l(CD) can exactly depict the adhesiveness, with the discriminant equation of Y0 - Y1 = 6.415 - 41.594l(CD). When Y0 Y1, pills were adhesive with each other. Pills' physical characteristic parameters l(CD) and l(AC), Ar, Tr can exactly depict smoothness of pills, with the discriminant equation of Z0 - Z1 = -195.318 + 78.79l(AC) - 3 258. 982Ar + 3437.935Tr. When Z0 Z1, pills were rough on surface. The stepwise discriminant analysis is made to show the obvious correlation between key physical characteristic parameters l(CD) and l(AC), Ar, Tr of sticks and appearance quality of pills, defining the molding process for preparing pills by the plastic molded and qualifying ranges of key physical characteristic parameters characterizing intermediate sticks, in order to provide theoretical basis for prescription screening and technical parameter adjustment for pills.

  11. Early Life Factors and Adult Leisure Time Physical Inactivity Stability and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Physical inactivity has a high prevalence and associated disease burden. A better understanding of influences on sustaining and changing inactive lifestyles is needed. We aimed to establish whether leisure time inactivity was stable in midadulthood and whether early life factors were associated with inactivity patterns. In the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 12,271), leisure time inactivity (frequency, less than once a week) assessed at 33 and 50 yr was categorized as "never inactive," "persistently inactive," "deteriorating," or "improving." Early life factors (birth to 16 yr) were categorized into three (physical, social, and behavioral) domains. Using multinomial logistic regression, we assessed associations with inactivity persistence and change of factors within each early life domain and the three domains combined with and without adjustment for adult factors. Inactivity prevalence was similar at 33 and 50 yr (approximately 31%), but 17% deteriorated and 18% improved with age. In models adjusted for all domains simultaneously, factors associated with inactivity persistence versus never inactive were prepubertal stature (8% lower risk/height SD), poor hand control/coordination (17% higher risk/increase on four-point scale), cognition (16% lower/SD in ability) (physical); parental divorce (25% higher), class at birth (7% higher/reduction on four-point scale), minimal parental education (16% higher), household amenities (2% higher/increase in 19-point score (high = poor)) (social); and inactivity (22% higher/reduction in activity on four-point scale), low sports aptitude (47% higher), smoking (30% higher) (behavioral). All except stature, parental education, sports aptitude, and smoking were associated also with inactivity deterioration. Poor hand control/coordination was the only factor associated with improved status (13% lower/increase on four-point scale) versus persistently inactive. Adult leisure time inactivity is moderately stable. Early life factors are

  12. Physical aspects of quality assurance in nuclear medicine and radiotherapy, regulatory approach of the National Nuclear Safety Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez C, D.; Fuente P, A. de la; Quevedo G, J.R.; Lopez F, Y.; Varela C, C.

    2006-01-01

    The physical aspects of the quality guarantee in Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy its are of cardinal importance to guarantee the quality of the diagnoses and treatments that are carried out to the patients in this type of services. The OIEA, the OMS and other scientific and professional organizations have contributed significantly to the elaboration of recommendations, Protocols, etc. applicable in the quality control programs and safety of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments. In spite of the great effort developed in this sense the Installation of the programs of quality control and safety of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments can fail if the same ones are not based in three decisive elements that are: the existence of national regulations, the existence of the infrastructure required for it and the existence of enough qualified personnel to develop this programs. The present work shows the regulatory focus that on this topic, it has followed the National Center of Nuclear Safety of Cuba (CNSN). The same left of strengthen all the existent Synergies in the different organizations of the country and it went in two fundamental directions: installation of the regulatory requirements that govern this activity and the Authorization of a Cuban Entity, specialized in carrying out audits to the quality control and safety programs of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments. After 4 work years in this direction, the results confirm the validity of the experience developed by the CNSN, at the moment all the services of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy of Cuba possess quality control and safety programs, these programs are annually Auditing by an Authorized entity by the CNSN and the Inspectors of the Regulatory Authority, control, during the inspections, the one execution of the established requirements in the national regulations. The work developed so far can serve, modestly, of reference to others countries of Latin America that

  13. Nicotine Dependence in Adolescence and Physical Health Symptoms in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesler, Pamela C; Hu, Mei-Chen; Kandel, Denise B

    2016-05-01

    To examine the prospective associations of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders nicotine dependence (ND) and other individual and parental factors in adolescence on self-reported health symptoms in early adulthood. Multiethnic prospective longitudinal cohort of adolescents from grades 6-10 and a parent (N = 908) from the Chicago Public Schools. Adolescents were interviewed five times at 6-month intervals (Waves 1-5) and once 4.5 years later (Wave 6). Parents were interviewed annually three times (W1, W3, W5). Multivariate regressions estimated prospective associations of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ND, other individual and familial risk factors in adolescence (mean age 16.6) on physical health symptoms in early adulthood (mean age 21.3), controlling for health symptoms in adolescence. Levels of health symptoms declined from adolescence to early adulthood, except among dependent smokers. Nicotine dependent adolescents reported more health symptoms as young adults than nonsmokers and nondependent smokers, especially if depressed. ND and health symptoms in adolescence were the strongest predictors of health in early adulthood. These two adolescent factors, depression, and the familial factors of parental ND, depression and health conditions, each independently predicted health symptoms in young adulthood. Females reported more symptoms than males. There is continuity of health status over time. ND, depression, and parental factors in adolescence contribute to poor health in early adulthood. The findings highlight not only the role of adolescent behavior, but the importance of the family in the development of young adult health. Reducing smoking, particularly ND, and depression among adolescents and parents will decrease physical health burden. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Mechanisms Underlying the Association Between Early-Life Adversity and Physical Health: Charting a Course for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Nicole R; Lane, Richard D; McLaughlin, Katie A

    Early-life adversities (ELA) are associated with subsequent pervasive alterations across a wide range of neurobiological systems and psychosocial factors that contribute to accelerated onset of health problems and diseases. In this article, we provide an integrated perspective on recent developments in research on ELA, based on the articles published in this Special Issue of Psychosomatic Medicine. We focus on the following: 1) the distinction between specific versus general aspects of ELA with regard to the nature of exposure (e.g., physical and sexual abuse, emotional abuse or neglect, relative socioeconomic deprivation), biological and behavioral correlates of ELA, and differences across diseases; 2) the importance of timing in the critical phases of exposure to ELA; and 3) adaptive versus dysfunctional responses to ELA and their consequences for biological and behavioral risk factors for adverse health outcomes. This article concludes with outlining important new targets for research in this area, including the neurobiology of affect as a mechanism linking ELA to adverse health outcomes, and the need for large-scale longitudinal investigations of multisystem processes relevant to ELA in diverse samples, starting prenatally, continuing to late adolescence, and with long-term follow-up assessments that enable evaluation of incident disease outcomes.

  15. MEDYCYNA, PŁYWANIE I SPRAWNOŚĆ FIZYCZNA, WYBRANE ASPEKTY = MEDICINE, SWIMMING AND PHYSICAL EFFICIENCY, SELECTED ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad El-Essa; Ewa Zieliński; Kinga Grobelska; Dariusz Skalski

    2018-01-01

    MEDYCYNA, PŁYWANIE I SPRAWNOŚĆ FIZYCZNA, WYBRANE ASPEKTY = MEDICINE, SWIMMING AND PHYSICAL EFFICIENCY, SELECTED ASPECTS Stan zdrowia populacji oraz systemu opieki zdrowotnej w krajach rozwijających się na przykładzie Ghany = Health status and healthcare system condition in developing countries on the Ghana’s example Zarys anatomii i fizjologii narządu wzroku = Outline of anatomy and phisiology of the organ of eyesight Mechaniczne urazy gałki ocznej i ich możliwe powikłania = Mecha...

  16. Early germs of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund, F.

    1983-01-01

    The main concepts of quantum electrodynamics: duality of fields and particles, field quanta, antiparticles, creation and annihilation of particles, reactions based on a coupling, these concepts are common for all quantum field theory. Roots and germs of them we find already in the early history of quantum physics. Up to creation and physical understanding of quantum mechanics (1927) we can distinguish three steps. The first, ranging from black body radiation to specific heat (1900-1913) was essentially low temperature physics; h became the natural unity for counting cases in statistics. The second step was search for atomic mechanics (19131925): it was guided by a special law of atomic spectra, the combination principle ν=F (n,1...) - F (n',1'...); The third step (1923-1927), De Broglie's transfer of duality from light to matter, Schrodinger's equation, the concept of probability amplitudes, led to a general mathematical formalism and its physical understanding. During the first of these historical steps duality of light was detected and a sort of quantization of the light field took place; during the second step this duality remained in the background; during the third step duality of light and matter were seen as the center of quantum physics

  17. Role overload, pain and physical dysfunction in early rheumatoid or undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Sally Sabry; Looper, Karl Julian; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Purden, Margaret; Baron, Murray

    2012-05-03

    Inflammatory arthritis impairs participation in societal roles. Role overload arises when the demands by a given role set exceed the resources; time and energy, to carry out the required tasks. The present study examines the association between role overload and disease outcomes in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Patients (n = 104) of 7.61 months mean duration of inflammatory arthritis completed self-report questionnaires on sociodemographics, disease characteristics and role overload. Pain was assessed using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and physical functioning was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical functioning score. Role overload was measured by the Role Overload Scale. Patients indicated the number of social roles they occupied from a total of the three typical roles; marital, parental and paid work. Participants' mean age was 56 years and 70.2% were female. Role overload was not correlated to the number of social roles, however, it was positively associated with pain (p = 0.004) and negatively associated with physical functioning (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, role overload was negatively associated with physical functioning after controlling for the relevant sociodemographic variables. This study identifies a possible reciprocal relationship between role overload and physical functioning in patients with EIA.

  18. Prediction of early summer rainfall over South China by a physical-empirical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2014-10-01

    In early summer (May-June, MJ) the strongest rainfall belt of the northern hemisphere occurs over the East Asian (EA) subtropical front. During this period the South China (SC) rainfall reaches its annual peak and represents the maximum rainfall variability over EA. Hence we establish an SC rainfall index, which is the MJ mean precipitation averaged over 72 stations over SC (south of 28°N and east of 110°E) and represents superbly the leading empirical orthogonal function mode of MJ precipitation variability over EA. In order to predict SC rainfall, we established a physical-empirical model. Analysis of 34-year observations (1979-2012) reveals three physically consequential predictors. A plentiful SC rainfall is preceded in the previous winter by (a) a dipole sea surface temperature (SST) tendency in the Indo-Pacific warm pool, (b) a tripolar SST tendency in North Atlantic Ocean, and (c) a warming tendency in northern Asia. These precursors foreshadow enhanced Philippine Sea subtropical High and Okhotsk High in early summer, which are controlling factors for enhanced subtropical frontal rainfall. The physical empirical model built on these predictors achieves a cross-validated forecast correlation skill of 0.75 for 1979-2012. Surprisingly, this skill is substantially higher than four-dynamical models' ensemble prediction for 1979-2010 period (0.15). The results here suggest that the low prediction skill of current dynamical models is largely due to models' deficiency and the dynamical prediction has large room to improve.

  19. Early detection of ovarian cancer in FB&H - role of family medicine team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dž. Ljuca

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of problems with ovarian malignancy in the Federation B&H requires a comprehensive and precise analysis of the population characteristics with particular focus on risk factors such as age, parity, hereditary factors, menstrual cycle characteristics (short cycle, early menarche, late menopause. A retrospective study of medical documentation involving 272 patients with ovarian cancer within the Federation of BiH in the period from 1996 to 2000 was conducted. Usual statistical methods were used (T- test, 2 -Test, Fisher exact test. The research showed that the disease was in most cases diagnosed too late, in the stages III and IV (60% whereas histology of the tissue showed epithelial cancer in 88,6% cases, most frequently between the age of 55 to 70. Out of 272 patients null-parity was recorded in 16,9 %, whereas 19,8 % of patients had just one pregnancy. Menstrual cycle duration shorter than 21 days was recorded in 26,5% cases. Approximately 1,8% patients had close relatives that suffered of cancer of breast, ovary or colon. Prerequisites for application of algorhithms in diagnostic procedures would be met by identification of risk groups consisting of those with one or more risk factors in their history. Bearing in mind the role of the family doctors in the future health system reform, it can be concluded that they could have an important role in the process.

  20. Discovery Monday - Physics for medicine: the use of accelerators in therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    What does research at CERN have to do with medicine? Perhaps very little at first glance. And yet particle beams are proving to be efficient weapons in the fight against certain diseases. Doctors and physicists will explain how and why at the next Discovery Monday, to be held at Microcosm on 3 May. The event will take place at Microcosm on 3 May, from 7.30 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Entrance free.

  1. Use of health physics in radiation medicine and its status in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastva, R.N.L.; Jauhari, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    Science of health physics has assumed importance in the use of complicated radiation equipment and procedure of radiotherapy. In India there are training facilities in health physics available at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and in Bombay University. They are described (R.G.)

  2. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included Within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P

    2016-03-01

    The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA intervention and a second site participating as the control site. The PA program was designed to promote 300 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous PA academic lessons. Academic achievement related to early literacy and phonological awareness in the areas of rhyming and alliteration were assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 months. Over 8 months, rhyming significantly (p literacy. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  3. Emerging New Physics with Major Implications for Energy Technology, Biology, and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallove, Eugene F.

    2003-03-01

    In the past 15 years, reproducible experiments and prototype technological devices have emerged that may revolutionize much of physics and chemistry(despite the common perception that modern physics is on very solid ground and is nearing a "Theory of Everything"). This new physics has flourished despite very strong opposition by the entrenched foundational paradigms within physics and chemistry ( not to forget vested financial interests within academia). In fact, beginning with "cold fusion" (more generically low-energy nuclear reactions, LENR), one of the most important discoveries of the late 20th Century has been the irrefutable proof of the failure of the physics establishment to deal ethically and appropriately with potential and real paradigm shifts, when its "sacred writ" ( i.e. Its textbooks) -- are threatened with the need for massive revision.

  4. Role of forensic medicine in evaluating non-fatal physical violence against women by their husbands in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedr-Rahman, Hasan; Salameh, Hafsah Omar; Salameh, Rakiz J; Alabdallat, Laith I; Al-Abdallat, Imad M

    2017-07-01

    Intimate partner violence against women is a major health problem in most nations, but to date, there has been little awareness of the extent or seriousness of this issue in Jordan. Forensic medical practitioners play a significant role in diagnosing, evaluating and reporting these cases. The Jordanian judicial system is dependent on forensic reports. This study aims to assess the role of forensic medicine in evaluating the physical injuries sustained by women who are abused by their husbands. A retrospective review of 158 forensic reports of Jordanian women alleging assault by their husbands and who were seen at Jordan University Hospital over the period 2010-2015. Of the 158 women who presented, 87 had multiple injuries. The majority of injuries were soft tissue injuries, but others included fractures, tympanic membrane perforation, burns and neck contusions. Twelve women were pregnant at the time of the assessment. The period of incapacity caused by these injuries (an important factor for the Jordanian judicial system) was between 1 and 14 days. Intimate partner violence can present with a range of injuries from relatively minor to potentially disabling or life threatening. Forensic medicine has a role in documenting and evaluating these injuries and advising the judicial system in these cases. These are all key elements in increasing the awareness of the nature and extent of this behavior and its impact on women (and men) and the wider society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical health problems experienced in the early postoperative recovery period following total knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szötz, Kirsten; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Hørdam, Britta

    2015-01-01

    of exercising in the early recovery period after discharge from hospital following total knee replacement. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a questionnaire. A total of 86 patients were included following first-time elective total knee replacement. Descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS......: The majority of the patients experienced leg oedema (90.7%). Secondary to this were pain (81.4%), sleeping disorders (47.7%) problems with appetite (38.4%) and bowel function (34.9%) were the most frequently identified physical health problems. In total, 69.8% of the patients indicated that they did...... not exercise or only partly exercise as recommended, but without associated experience of pain. CONCLUSION: Patients experienced a wide range of physical health problems following total knee replacement and deviation from recommended self-training was identified. These findings are valuable for health...

  6. Physical abuse in early childhood and transition to first sexual intercourse among youth in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkorang, Eric Y; Obeng Gyimah, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of physical abuse in early childhood and timing of first sexual intercourse among young South Africans aged 14 to 22 in Cape Town. Using the Cape area panel survey and applying log-normal models, time ratios were estimated to show how rapidly or slowly youth experience first sexual intercourse. Results indicated that boys who experienced physical abuse in early childhood had faster timing to first sex. Boys and girls with violent school environments had faster timing to first sex. Race moderated the effects of physical abuse. Compared to Blacks, Coloreds who experienced higher levels of physical abuse in early childhood had faster timing to first sex. Youth with greater knowledge about HIV/AIDS and those with greater risk perception of contracting HIV/AIDS delayed first sex. On the basis of these findings, policy makers are encouraged to consider the early childhood experiences of youth when designing policies toward HIV/AIDS prevention in South Africa.

  7. White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe. Chapter 7. The clinical field of competence: PRM in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    In the context of the White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe this paper deals with the scope and competencies of PRM starting from its definition as the "medicine of functioning." PRM uses the rehabilitative health strategy as its core strategy together with the curative strategy. According to the complexity of disabling health conditions, PRM also refers to prevention and maintenance and provides information to the patients and other caregivers. The rehabilitation process according to the so-called rehabilitation cycle including an assessment and definition of the (individual) rehabilitation goals, assignment to the rehabilitation program evaluation of individual outcomes. PRM physicians treat a wide spectrum of diseases and take a transversal across most of the medical specialties. They also focus on many functional problems such as immobilization, spasticity, pain syndromes, communication disorders, and others. The diagnosis in PRM is the interaction between the medical diagnosis and a PRM-specific functional assessment. The latter is based on the ICF conceptual framework, and obtained through functional evaluations and scales: these are classified according to their main focus on impairments, activity limitations or participation restrictions; environmental and personal factors are included as barriers or facilitators. Interventions in PRM are either provided directly by PRM physicians or within the PRM team. They include a wide range of treatments, including medicines, physical therapies, exercises, education and many others. Standardized PRM programs are available for many diseases and functional problems. In most cases rehabilitation is performed in multi-professional teams working in a collaborative way, as well as with other disciplines under the leadership of a PRM physician and it is a patient-centered approach. Outcomes of PRM interventions and programs, showed reduction of impairments in body functions, activity limitations

  8. MAOA-uVNTR and early physical discipline interact to influence delinquent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Alexis C; Dodge, Kenneth A; Latendresse, Shawn J; Lansford, Jennifer E; Bates, John E; Pettit, Gregory S; Budde, John P; Goate, Alison M; Dick, Danielle M

    2010-06-01

    A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidizing gene monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) has been associated with behavioral sensitivity to adverse environmental conditions in multiple studies (e.g., Caspi et al. 2002; Kim-Cohen et al., 2006). The present study investigates the effects of genotype and early physical discipline on externalizing behavior. We expand on the current literature in our assessment of externalizing, incorporating information across multiple reporters and over a broad developmental time period, and in our understanding of environmental risk. This study uses data from the Child Development Project, an ongoing longitudinal study following a community sample of children beginning at age 5. Physical discipline before age 6 was quantified using a subset of questions from the Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus, 1979). Externalizing behavior was assessed in the male, European-American sub-sample (N = 250) by parent, teacher, and self-report using Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher Report Form, and Youth Self-Report (Achenbach, 1991), at 17 time points from ages 6 to 22. Regression analyses tested the influence of genotype, physical discipline, and their interaction on externalizing behavior, and its subscales, delinquency and aggression. We found a significant interaction effect between genotype and physical discipline on levels of delinquent behavior. Similar trends were observed for aggression and overall externalizing behavior, although these did not reach statistical significance. Main effects of physical discipline held for all outcome variables, and no main effects held for genotype. The adverse consequences of physical discipline on forms of externalizing behavior are exacerbated by an underlying biological risk conferred by MAOA genotype.

  9. Reconstructing the early 19th-century Waal River by means of a 2D physics-based numerical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montes Arboleda, A.; Crosato, A.; Middelkoop, H.

    2010-01-01

    Suspended-sediment concentration data are a missing link in reconstructions of the River Waal in the early 1800s. These reconstructions serve as a basis for assessing the long-term effects of major interventions carried out between 1850 AD and the early 20th century. We used a 2D physics-based

  10. Predicting Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement, Social Competence, and Physical Health from Parenting, Ego Resilience, and Engagement Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; O'Brien, T. Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ego resilience and engagement coping as mediators of the relationships between supportive and controlling parenting practices and early adolescents' academic achievement, social competence, and physical health. Participants were 240 predominantly Mexican American early adolescents, their parents, and their teachers. There were…

  11. Physical Activity Throughout Adolescence and Hba1c in Early Adulthood: Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Priscila M; Mielke, Grégore I; Horta, Bernardo L; Assunção, Maria Cecília; Gonçalves, Helen; Menezes, Ana M B; Barros, Fernando C; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Oliveira, Isabel O; Hallal, Pedro C

    2017-05-01

    Physical inactivity is responsible for 7% of diabetes deaths worldwide, but little is known whether low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence increase the risk of diabetes in early adulthood. We evaluated the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between PA throughout adolescence and HbA1c concentration in early adulthood. HbA1c was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. PA was assessed by self-report at the ages of 11, 15, and 18 years and by accelerometry at the ages of 13 (subsample) and 18 years. The loss percentages of follow up were 12.5% at 11 years, 14.4% at 15 years, and 18.7% at 18 years. At 18 years, boys showed higher HbA1c than girls. At age 18 years, accelerometrybased PA at 18 years was inversely related to HbA1c levels in boys. Self-reported leisure-time PA at ages 11, 15, and 18 were unrelated to HbA1c in both genders. PA at 13 years of age was unrelated to HbA1c among both genders. In trajectory analysis, PA and accelerometer PA trajectories were not associated with later HbA1c. Objectively measured PA at 18 years was cross-sectionally inversely associated with HbA1c in boys only. No prospective associations were identified.

  12. Early maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and adult psychopathic personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Raine, A.; Chan, F.; Venables, P. H.; Mednick, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant gap in the literature on risk factors for psychopathy is the relative lack of research on parental bonding. Method This study examines the cross-sectional relationship between maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and psychopathic personality at age 28 years in a community sample of 333 males and females. It also assesses prospectively whether children separated from their parents in the first 3 years of life are more likely to have a psychopathic-like personality 25 years later. Results Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that: (1) poor parental bonding (lack of maternal care and low paternal overprotection) and childhood physical abuse were both associated with a psychopathic personality; (2) parental bonding was significantly associated with psychopathic personality after taking into account sex, social adversity, ethnicity and abuse; (3) those separated from parents in the first 3 years of life were particularly characterized by low parental bonding and a psychopathic personality in adulthood; and (4) the deviant behavior factor of psychopathy was more related to lack of maternal care whereas the emotional detachment factor was related to both lack of maternal care and paternal overprotection. Conclusions Findings draw attention to the importance of different components of early bonding in relation to adult psychopathy, and may have potential implications for early intervention and prevention of psychopathy. PMID:20441692

  13. Early motor skill competence as a mediator of child and adult physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In order to effectively promote physical activity (PA during childhood, and across the lifespan, a better understanding of the role of early motor skill development on child and adult PA is needed. Methods: Here, we propose a conceptual model delineating the hypothesized influence of motor skill development on child and adult PA, while providing an overview of the current empirical research related to this model. Results: There is consistent and emerging evidence showing that adequate motor skill competence, particularly locomotor and gross motor skills, is associated with increased PA levels during the preschool, child, and adolescent years, with early motor skill development also influencing enjoyment of PA as well as long-term PA and motor skill performance. The physical education setting appears to be a well-suited environment for motor skill development. Conclusion: Employing appropriate strategies to target motor skill development across the childhood years is of paramount interest in helping shape children's PA behavior, their experiences related to PA, as well as maintain their PA.

  14. Physical and mental health conditions of young college students with different Traditional Chinese Medicine constitutions in Zhejiang Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Heli; Zhu, Li; Chen, Zhiqiang; Jin, Huijuan; Jin, Lei

    2015-12-01

    To investigate Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) constitutions of youths in colleges, and their physical and mental health conditions of different TCM constitutions, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the TCM way to improve young people's physical and mental health. The Standard TCM Constitutions' Classification and Determination Questionnaire was used to measure the body health condition, and the Symptom Checklist 90 Questionnaire and the Questionnaire of the National Student Physical Health Standards were used to determine mental and physical health conditions respectively in 1421 young participants validly answering the questionnaires in Zhejiang Province. The participants had a mean age of 19.96 years (SD = 0.95 years) with the majority of females (55.10%). One fourth of the 1421 participants were the Ping-he constitution and others were the tendency constitutions. Participants with Pinghe module (which has characteristics of moderate posture, rosy, energetic and is a healthy condition in TCM) were healthier than those with tendency constitutions in physical and mental health, with 65.81 ± 7.83 (men) and 77.99 ± 7.24 (women) scores in the physical test and around 1.25 scores in the mental health test. College students with combined biased constitutions were more likely suffer force, sensitive, depression and anxiety. Most of college students have a tendency or biased constitution which could be more likely to suffer suboptimal health status and diseases. Youths in college themselves and health providers should pay more attention to their potential health issues and make proper healthcare plan according to their own TCM constitution.

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  16. WE-D-213-00: Preparing for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medicine Physics Exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Adequate, efficient preparation for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medical Physics exams is key to successfully obtain ABR professional certification. Each part of the ABR exam presents its own challenges: Part I: Determine the scope of basic medical physics study material, efficiently review this material, and solve related written questions/problems. Part II: Understand imaging principles, modalities, and systems, including image acquisition, processing, and display. Understand the relationship between imaging techniques, image quality, patient dose and safety, and solve related written questions/problems. Part III: Gain crucial, practical, clinical medical physics experience. Effectively communicate and explain the practice, performance, and significance of all aspects of clinical medical physics. All three parts of the ABR exam require specific skill sets and preparation: mastery of basic physics and imaging principles; written problem solving often involving rapid calculation; responding clearly and succinctly to oral questions about the practice, methods, and significance of clinical medical physics. This symposium focuses on the preparation and skill sets necessary for each part of the ABR exam. Although there is some overlap, the nuclear exam covers a different body of knowledge than the diagnostic exam. A separate speaker will address those aspects that are unique to the nuclear exam. Medical physicists who have recently completed each of part of the ABR exam will share their experiences, insights, and preparation methods to help attendees best prepare for the challenges of each part of the ABR exam. In accordance with ABR exam security policy, no recalls or exam questions will be discussed. Learning Objectives: How to prepare for Part 1 of the ABR exam by determining the scope of basic medical physics study material and related problem solving/calculations How to Prepare for Part 2 of the ABR exam by understanding diagnostic and/or nuclear imaging physics

  17. WE-D-213-00: Preparing for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medicine Physics Exams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Adequate, efficient preparation for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medical Physics exams is key to successfully obtain ABR professional certification. Each part of the ABR exam presents its own challenges: Part I: Determine the scope of basic medical physics study material, efficiently review this material, and solve related written questions/problems. Part II: Understand imaging principles, modalities, and systems, including image acquisition, processing, and display. Understand the relationship between imaging techniques, image quality, patient dose and safety, and solve related written questions/problems. Part III: Gain crucial, practical, clinical medical physics experience. Effectively communicate and explain the practice, performance, and significance of all aspects of clinical medical physics. All three parts of the ABR exam require specific skill sets and preparation: mastery of basic physics and imaging principles; written problem solving often involving rapid calculation; responding clearly and succinctly to oral questions about the practice, methods, and significance of clinical medical physics. This symposium focuses on the preparation and skill sets necessary for each part of the ABR exam. Although there is some overlap, the nuclear exam covers a different body of knowledge than the diagnostic exam. A separate speaker will address those aspects that are unique to the nuclear exam. Medical physicists who have recently completed each of part of the ABR exam will share their experiences, insights, and preparation methods to help attendees best prepare for the challenges of each part of the ABR exam. In accordance with ABR exam security policy, no recalls or exam questions will be discussed. Learning Objectives: How to prepare for Part 1 of the ABR exam by determining the scope of basic medical physics study material and related problem solving/calculations How to Prepare for Part 2 of the ABR exam by understanding diagnostic and/or nuclear imaging physics

  18. Effects of Perinatal HIV Infection and Early Institutional Rearing on Physical and Cognitive Development of Children in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie

    2010-01-01

    To study the effects of perinatal HIV-1 infection and early institutional rearing on the physical and cognitive development of children, 64 Ukrainian uninfected and HIV-infected institutionalized and family-reared children were examined (mean age = 50.9 months). Both HIV infection and institutional care were related to delays in physical and…

  19. Does leisure time physical activity in early pregnancy protect against pre-eclampsia? Prospective cohort in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerdal, M L; Strøm, M; Klemmensen, A K

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between physical activity in early pregnancy and risk of pre-eclampsia. DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 85,139 pregnant Danish women, recruited between 1996 and 2002. METHODS: The authors assessed leisure time physical...

  20. Informatics for the solution of health physics problems in nuclear medicine laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rossi, G.; Montesanti, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    As the use of 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' radioisotope studies spreads more and more, many organizational and management problems arise. Hence an exact evaluation of current contamination levels and protection standards is very important for radiation-protection purposes. Environmental and personnel contamination levels in Nuclear Medicine Laboratories were recorded for four years and the results were evaluated by a computer-assisted method which furnished parameters such as the maximum permissible level of radioactivity at different timeintervals. They allow the health physicist to assess laboratory contamination levels as well as to classify radiation workers and places. A continuous 'monitoring' of radiation safety is possible in order to modify worker and/or laboratory classification as soon as possible, in close connection with possible changes in radiation hazards. This computer program applies equally well to other fields involving radioisotope use, such as industry, agriculture, etc. (Author)

  1. The cost of physical inactivity to a nation: the role of sports medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cost up to $1 trillion in health care and lost production costs. Physi- cal inactivity ... than physical exercise to reduce the risk of virtually all chronic diseases'. ... and the dissemination of a clear, simple, yet effective message. 5. The Agita São ...

  2. Origins and early days of the Bristol school of cosmic-ray physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, W.O.

    1990-01-01

    The founder of the Bristol School was Cecil Frank Powell, Nobel Laureate for Physics in 1950 for his discovery of the pi-meson and sometimes called the father of meson physics. The article describes first his early life and his many years of systematic work to perfect the nuclear emulsion technique. This is followed by a brief description of the circumstances of the discovery of the pi-meson and of the so-called 'strange particles'. An attempt is made to give a portrait of Powell and to explain his success in building up one of the first post-war international research teams, which paved the way for large international laboratories such as CERN. The account concludes with some personal memories of the award of the Nobel Prize and of the happy and creative atmosphere which Powell created around him at one of the most exciting times in the physics of cosmic rays since their discovery just after the beginning of the century. (author)

  3. The treatment of facial palsy from the point of view of physical and rehabilitation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafshak, T S

    2006-03-01

    There are evidences to support recommending the early intake of prednisone (in its appropriate dose of 1 mg/kg body weight for up to 70 or 80 mg/day) or the combined use of prednisone and acyclovir (or valacyclovir) within 72 h following the onset of paralysis in order to improve the outcome of Bell's palsy (BP). Although there may be a controversy about the role of physiotherapy in BP or facial palsy, it seemed that local superficial heat therapy, massage, exercises, electrical stimulation and biofeedback training have a place in the treatment of lower motor facial palsy. However, each modality has its indications. Moreover, some rehabilitative surgical methods might be of benefit for some patients with traumatic facial injuries or long standing paralysis without recovery, but early surgery in BP is usually not recommended. However, few may recommend early surgery in BP when there is 90-100% facial nerve degeneration. The efficacy of acupuncture, magnetic pellets and other modalities of physiotherapy needs further investigation. The general principles and the different opinions in treating and rehabilitating facial palsy are discussed and the need for further research in this field is suggested.

  4. [The scientific revolution in medicine of second half of XX - early XXI centuries: occurrence of new conceptions about human organism and essence of diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepin, V S; Zatravkin, S N

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of analysis of works of supreme Russian physiologists and pathologists of XX-XXI centuries. The analysis was applied on the basis concept of structure and dynamics of scientific cognition developed by one o the authors of the present article. The applied analysis permits affirming that during second half of XX-early XXI centuries in medicine occurred and continues to occurring transformations whose character and scope totally corresponds to scientific revolution and occurring and establishing in medicine new conceptions have all signs permitting referring them to post-neoclassic type of scientific rationality.

  5. Variations in corticosteroid/anesthetic injections for painful shoulder conditions: comparisons among orthopaedic surgeons, rheumatologists, and physical medicine and primary-care physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Skedros John G; Hunt Kenneth J; Pitts Todd C

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Variations in corticosteroid/anesthetic doses for injecting shoulder conditions were examined among orthopaedic surgeons, rheumatologists, and primary-care sports medicine (PCSMs) and physical medicine and rehabilitation (PMRs) physicians to provide data needed for documenting inter-group differences for establishing uniform injection guidelines. Methods 264 surveys, sent to these physicians in our tri-state area of the western United States, addressed corticosteroid/anest...

  6. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: a unifying model for the conceptual description of physical and rehabilitation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Gerold; Melvin, John

    2007-05-01

    There is a need to develop a contemporary and internationally accepted conceptual description of physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM). The process of evolving such a definition can now rely on the unifying conceptual model and taxonomy of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and an ICF-based conceptual description of rehabilitation understood as a health strategy. The PRM section of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) has endorsed the application of the ICF as a unifying conceptual model for PRM and supports the process of moving towards an "ICF-based conceptual description and according definitions of PRM". With this goal in mind, the authors have developed a first tentative conceptual description in co-operation with the professional practice committee of the UEMS-PRM-section. A respective brief definition describes PRM as the medical specialty that, based on the assessment of functioning and including the diagnosis and treatment of health conditions, performs, applies and co-ordinates biomedical and engineering and a wide range of other interventions with the goal of optimizing functioning of people experiencing or likely to experience disability. Readers of the Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine are invited to contribute to the process of achieving an internationally accepted ICF-based conceptual description of PRM by submitting commentaries to the Editor of this journal.

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  8. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  9. [Contribution of the physical and rehabilitation medicine in pediatric plastic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottrand, L; Devinck, F; Martinot Duquennoy, V; Guerreschi, P

    2016-10-01

    Physical, non-painful processes guide the scar reshaping in children in order to prevent growth anomalies due to cutaneous shrinkage. The objective of the surgical treatment, coordinated with the reeducation care, is to improve the physical abilities of the skin, to restore the function and avoid the deformations. Reeducation uses various techniques (i.e. sensitive-motility, massage and mobilizations) with or without physical agent (water, aspiration and touch-drive technique). Posture and positioning rely on the small or major aids, from orthosis to prosthesis. Compression is obtained by the adjustment of aids on molding and compression garment. Indications of the reeducation treatment depend on the timing of cutaneous covering and the advance of the healing process. It also depends on the underlying condition including skin traumas (frictions, wounds, burns), skin surgeries (purpura fulminans consequences, skin graft reconstruction after giant nevus resection, malignant lesion or vascular malformations). The final goal is the rehabilitation and development of the child and the adolescent in its entire somatopsychic dimension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    ACSM Position Stand on Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults. Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc., Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 992-1008, 1998. By the year 2030, the number of individuals 65 yr and over will reach 70 million in the United States alone; persons 85 yr and older will be the fastest growing segment of the population. As more individuals live longer, it is imperative to determine the extent and mechanisms by which exercise and physical activity can improve health, functional capacity, quality of life, and independence in this population. Aging is a complex process involving many variables (e.g., genetics, lifestyle factors, chronic diseases) that interact with one another, greatly influencing the manner in which we age. Participation in regular physical activity (both aerobic and strength exercises) elicits a number of favorable responses that contribute to healthy aging. Much has been learned recently regarding the adaptability of various biological systems, as well as the ways that regular exercise can influence them. Participation in a regular exercise program is an effective intervention/ modality to reduce/prevent a number of functional declines associated with aging. Further, the trainability of older individuals (including octo- and nonagenarians) is evidenced by their ability to adapt and respond to both endurance and strength training. Endurance training can help maintain and improve various aspects of cardiovascular function (as measured by maximal VO2, cardiac output, and arteriovenous O2 difference), as well as enhance submaximal performance. Importantly, reductions in risk factors associated with disease states (heart disease, diabetes, etc.) improve health status and contribute to an increase in life expectancy. Strength training helps offset the loss in muscle mass and strength typically associated with normal aging. Additional benefits from regular exercise include improved bone health and, thus, reduction in risk for osteoporosis; improved

  11. Dust Plate, Retina, Photograph: Imaging on Experimental Surfaces in Early Nineteenth-Century Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Chitra

    2015-09-01

    This article explores the entangled histories of three imaging techniques in early nineteenth-century British physical science, techniques in which a dynamic event (such as a sound vibration or an electric spark) was made to leave behind a fixed trace on a sensitive surface. Three categories of "sensitive surface" are examined in turn: first, a metal plate covered in fine dust; second, the retina of the human eye; and finally, a surface covered with a light-sensitive chemical emulsion (a photographic plate). For physicists Michael Faraday and Charles Wheatstone, and photographic pioneer William Henry Fox Talbot, transient phenomena could be studied through careful observation and manipulation of the patterns wrought on these different surfaces, and through an understanding of how the imaging process unfolded through time. This exposes the often-ignored materiality and temporality of epistemic practices around nineteenth-century scientific images said to be "drawn by nature."

  12. Applications of Nuclear Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Anna C.

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that und...

  13. Improvement of early detection of breast cancer through collaborative multi-country efforts: Medical physics component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Patricia; Faulkner, Keith; Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Gershan, Vesna; Kausik, Aruna; Zdesar, Urban; Brandan, María-Ester; Kurt, Serap; Davidović, Jasna; Salama, Dina H; Aribal, Erkin; Odio, Clara; Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Sabih, Zahida; Vujnović, Saša; Paez, Diana; Delis, Harry

    2018-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through a Coordinated Research Project on "Enhancing Capacity for Early Detection and Diagnosis of Breast Cancer through Imaging", brought together a group of mammography radiologists, medical physicists and radiographers; to investigate current practices and improve procedures for the early detection of breast cancer by strengthening both the clinical and medical physics components. This paper addresses the medical physics component. The countries that participated in the CRP were Bosnia and Herzegovina, Costa Rica, Egypt, India, Kenya, the Frmr. Yug. Rep. of Macedonia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Slovenia, Turkey, Uganda, United Kingdom and Zambia. Ten institutions participated using IAEA quality control protocols in 9 digital and 3 analogue mammography equipment. A spreadsheet for data collection was generated and distributed. Evaluation of image quality was done using TOR MAX and DMAM2 Gold phantoms. QC results for analogue equipment showed satisfactory results. QC tests performed on digital systems showed that improvements needed to be implemented, especially in thickness accuracy, signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) values for achievable levels, uniformity and modulation transfer function (MTF). Mean glandular dose (MGD) was below international recommended levels for patient radiation protection. Evaluation of image quality by phantoms also indicated the need for improvement. Common activities facilitated improvement in mammography practice, including training of medical physicists in QC programs and infrastructure was improved and strengthened; networking among medical physicists and radiologists took place and was maintained over time. IAEA QC protocols provided a uniformed approach to QC measurements. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Physical activity communication between oncology providers and patients with early-stage breast, colon, or prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyrop, Kirsten A; Deal, Allison M; Williams, Grant R; Guerard, Emily J; Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Muss, Hyman B

    2016-02-01

    National guidelines recommend that patients with a cancer diagnosis engage in regular physical activity to reduce cancer-related fatigue, maintain quality of life and physical function, and improve overall prognosis and survival. This study investigates oncology provider communications about physical activity during routine clinic visits with patients with early-stage breast, colon, or prostate cancer. This study used a retrospective chart review for documentation of inquiries or recommendations pertaining to physical activity in clinician notes and after-visit patient summaries. In a 1-month period, 55 oncology providers had 361 encounters (clinic visits) with early-stage cancer patients. Thirty-five percent of these encounters included a provider communication about "physical activity," "exercise," or "activity." Encounters with a medical oncologist resulted in a physical activity communication 55% of the time, whereas encounters with other clinician specialties did so 20% of the time (P communication increased with patient age (P communications was significantly higher (46%, 37%, and 58%, respectively) than the rate when the visit was during radiation treatment or surgery (6% and 19%, respectively; P communications during routine clinic visits; however, the frequency of physical activity communications varies among providers. Interventions are needed to remind and encourage all oncology providers to encourage their patients with early-stage cancer to be physically active. . © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  15. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfien Van Dyck

    Full Text Available The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined.In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models.More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal.Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an

  16. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an important subgroup to focus on during interventions

  17. The physical principles of near infrared breast diaphanography and early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Feijun; Jia Zhuoying

    2009-01-01

    The early-screening and diagnosis of breast cancer is very important for improving the life quality of women as well decreasing the death rate. As a main diagnostic technique, mammography might cause radiation damage to the human body. Near infrared (NIR) computer diaphanography imaging diagnosis (CDI) is a new technique for breast cancer diagnosis which can be performed multiple times with no harm. However, its high incidence of false positivity has raised doubts and questions. We introduce the physical principles of CDI, and discuss the mechanism of how a malignant growth surrounds itself with a dense network of tiny blood-filled capillaries to feed oxygen and nutrients to active tumors, thus forming unique NIR transmittance markers that reveal the presence of cancer. The advantages and difficulties of CDI are evaluated, with the conclusion that CDI satisfies all the 'three-conditions' of imaging diagnosis. The influence of competition with mammography in the development of CDI is reviewed. The opportunities of physics interacting with the life sciences are outlined. (authors)

  18. Antenatal weight management: Diet, physical activity, and gestational weight gain in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Judy A; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Pearce, Jo; Jethwa, Preeti H; Taylor, Moira A; Avery, Amanda; Ellis, Sarah; McMullen, Sarah; Elliott-Sale, Kirsty J

    2017-06-01

    to investigate women's physical activity levels, diet and gestational weight gain, and their experiences and motivations of behavior change. analysis of cross-sectional data collected during a longitudinal, cohort study examining physiological, psychological, sociodemographic, and self-reported behavioural measures relating to bodyweight. women recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust. 193 women ≤27 weeks gestation and aged 18 years or over. MEASUREMENTS & FINDINGS: measurements included weight and height, the Dietary Instrument for Nutrition Education (Brief Version), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Short Form), and open questions of perceptions of behaviour change. 50.3% (n=97) were overweight/obese, and women gained 0.26kg/wk (IQR 0.34kg/wk) since conception. The majority consumed low levels of fat (n=121; 63.4%), high levels of unsaturated fat (n=103; 53.9%), and used a dietary supplement (n=166; 86.5%). However, 41% (n=76) were inactive, 74.8% (n=143) did not consume high levels of fibre, and 90.0% (n=171) consumed less than 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day. Body mass index category was not associated with diet, physical activity levels, or gestational weight gain. Themes generated from open-questions relating to behaviour change were: (1) Risk management, (2) Coping with symptoms, (3) Self-control, (4) Deviation from norm, (5) Nature knows best. early pregnancy is a period of significant and heterogeneous behaviour change, influenced by perceptions of risk and women's lived experience. Behaviour was influenced not only by perceptions of immediate risk to the fetus, but also by the women's lived experience of being pregnant. There are exciting opportunities to constructively reframe health promotion advice relating to physical activity and diet in light of women's priorities. The need for individualized advice is highlighted, and women across all body mass index categories would

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  20. Effectiveness of Home-Based Exercises Without Supervision by Physical Therapists for Patients With Early-Stage Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Kosuke; Asakawa, Takashi; Kamide, Naoto; Yorimoto, Keisuke; Yoneda, Masaki; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Sawada, Makoto; Komori, Tetsuo

    2018-03-31

    To verify the effects of structured home-based exercises without supervision by a physical therapist in patients with early-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A historical controlled study that is part of a multicenter collaborative study. Rehabilitation departments at general hospitals and outpatient clinics with a neurology department. Patients (N=21) with ALS were enrolled and designated as the home-based exercise (Home-EX) group, and they performed unsupervised home-based exercises. As a control group, 84 patients with ALS who underwent supervised exercise with a physical therapist for 6 months were extracted from a database of patients with ALS and matched with the Home-EX group in terms of their basic attributes and clinical features. The Home-EX group was instructed to perform structured home-based exercises without supervision by a physical therapist that consisted of muscle stretching, muscle training, and functional training for 6 months. The primary outcome was the score on the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R), which is composed of 3 domains: bulbar function, limb function, and respiratory function. The score ranges from 0 to 48 points, with a higher score indicating better function. In the Home-EX group, 15 patients completed the home-based exercises for 6 months, and 6 patients dropped out because of medical reasons or disease progression. No adverse events were reported. The Home-EX group was found to have a significantly higher respiratory function subscore and total score on the ALSFRS-R than the control group at follow-up (P<.001 and P<.05, respectively). Structured home-based exercises without supervision by a physical therapist could be used to alleviate functional deterioration in patients with early-stage ALS. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical and chemical stability of proflavine contrast agent solutions for early detection of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawedia, Jitesh D; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Myers, Alan L; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R; Kramer, Mark A; Gillenwater, Ann M; Culotta, Kirk S

    2016-02-01

    Proflavine hemisulfate solution is a fluorescence contrast agent to visualize cell nuclei using high-resolution optical imaging devices such as the high-resolution microendoscope. These devices provide real-time imaging to distinguish between normal versus neoplastic tissue. These images could be helpful for early screening of oral cancer and its precursors and to determine accurate margins of malignant tissue for ablative surgery. Extemporaneous preparation of proflavine solution for these diagnostic procedures requires preparation in batches and long-term storage to improve compounding efficiency in the pharmacy. However, there is a paucity of long-term stability data for proflavine contrast solutions. The physical and chemical stability of 0.01% (10 mg/100 ml) proflavine hemisulfate solutions prepared in sterile water was determined following storage at refrigeration (4-8℃) and room temperature (23℃). Concentrations of proflavine were measured at predetermined time points up to 12 months using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Proflavine solutions stored under refrigeration were physically and chemically stable for at least 12 months with concentrations ranging from 95% to 105% compared to initial concentration. However, in solutions stored at room temperature increased turbidity and particulates were observed in some of the tested vials at 9 months and 12 months with peak particle count reaching 17-fold increase compared to baseline. Solutions stored at room temperature were chemically stable up to six months (94-105%). Proflavine solutions at concentration of 0.01% were chemically and physically stable for at least 12 months under refrigeration. The solution was chemically stable for six months when stored at room temperature. We recommend long-term storage of proflavine solutions under refrigeration prior to diagnostic procedure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Physical frailty, sarcopenia, and the enablement of autonomy: philosophical issues in geriatric medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasimme, Alessandro

    2017-02-01

    Physical frailty and loss of muscular mass (sarcopenia) are believed to be predictors of age-related conditions, such as disability and loss of autonomy. In this paper, I show that what in political and moral philosophy has come to be known as "the capability approach" may indeed provide much needed conceptual clarification in the area of frailty research. Other than being useful at the theoretical level, the capability approach can definitely help in the implementation of clinical guidelines and public health measures aimed at translating the results that are accumulating from frailty research. I will first briefly review the main philosophical tenets of the capability approach, and then analyze how they relate to current debates about frailty and sarcopenia by introducing the notion of "enablement". Finally, I will show how my analysis bears on both clinical research in this domain and public policy aimed at tackling some of the age-related issues in an aging society.

  3. Occupational health hazards in veterinary medicine: physical, psychological, and chemical hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports physical, psychological, and chemical hazards relevant to western Canadian veterinarians as obtained by a self-administered mailed questionnaire. Nine-three percent (750/806) of veterinarians reported some form of injury during the previous 5 years; 17% of respondents (131/791) indicated injuries that resulted in 1 or more days off work. Median stress levels were similar across work environments; overall, 7% (57/813) indicated either no stress or severe stress, while 53% (428/813) indicated moderate stress. Twenty percent (3/15) of food animal practitioners and 37% (114/308) of companion animal practitioners who took X-rays reported accidental exposure. Accidental exposure to gas anesthetic was reported by 69% (394/570) of those in private practice. Exposure to chemicals occurred in all work environments. Veterinarians in western Canada are at risk of minor to severe injury due to both animal and non-animal related causes.

  4. The treatment of patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms in China: a study comparing expectations and treatment satisfaction in psychosomatic medicine, biomedicine, and traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Kurt; Xudong, Zhao; Anselm, Kathrin; Kern, Stephanie; Wirsching, Michael; Schaefert, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about treatment for patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) in China. This study investigates the treatment expectations and treatment satisfaction of patients with MUS in psychosomatic medicine, biomedicine, and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). In a cross-sectional survey, n = 96 (10.3%) out of 931 participating patients were screened positive for multiple somatoform symptoms. These patients answered questionnaires concerning symptom duration, number of doctor visits, functional impairment, emotional distress, treatment expectations, treatment satisfaction, and empathy in the consultation. The physicians filled in a questionnaire about applied or recommended treatment. Most of the patients from psychosomatic medicine wanted psychotherapy. In TCM, 55% of the patients had already received TCM treatment and most of them wanted to continue TCM treatment. Patients in biomedicine did not express clear expectations; most of them had had no previous treatment. A combination of treatment methods was most prevalent in biomedicine in comparison to psychosomatic medicine and TCM. The outcome from the patients' point of view was significantly better in TCM than in psychosomatic medicine and biomedicine. Psychosomatic medicine's strength was the empathetic physician-patient interaction. From a biopsychosocial perspective, these results suggest that various treatment approaches with various emphases can be effective depending on the patient's complaints, his illness beliefs, and what the physician offers. The results will be verified in a larger multicenter longitudinal study.

  5. Application of accelerators in industry, medicine and for environmental research in Almaty Institute of Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyssukhin, S.N.; Arzumanov, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Institute of Nuclear Physics in Almaty is the only Kazakhstan institution with a significant activity at the national level in the field of physics of accelerators, their application and associated technology. Three accelerators of different type are being used in the Institute: high power electron beam accelerator, isochronous cyclotron and heavy ion electrostatic tandem. Electron beam accelerator ELV-4 - This high power machine is only electron beam irradiation facility of industrial scale in the Republic. It was produced by Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia and installed in Almaty in 1991 for development of radiation technology in Kazakhstan. The accelerator generates electron beams of following parameters: Energy range (MeV) 1.0-1.5; Max. beam power (kW) 40; Max. beam current (mA) 40. The machine is equipped with beam scanning system, extraction device with output window 980x75 mm 2 and chain conveyer for irradiated material supply. Tn the time being the accelerator is regularly used for radiation cross-linking technology and for sterilization. Cross-linking technology is the base of high quality roof material production for building industry. Raw ethylene-propylene rubber mixture is rolled as strip of 50 m length, 1 m width, 1 mm thickness and then irradiated by dose of about 120 kGy. The final product is waterproof flexible material, very stable in hard atmospheric conditions and non sensitive to sun UV radiation. Sterilization of medical materials and items is not traditional application of such low energy installations but due to uniqueness of this accelerator in Kazakhstan and high actuality of the task for the Republic this technology was developed in INP. Hermetically packed items (medical cotton , bandages, syringes, surgical gloves, small plastic bottles) with thickness less than penetration range of 1.5 MeV electrons are put at the conveyer as mono-layer and irradiated by sterilizing dose of 25 kGy. Isochronous

  6. Model for Physical Education Content Standards at Early Stages of Primary Education in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Klincarov, Ilija; Popeska, Biljana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a model for designing national physical education content standards in early stages of primary education in the Republic of Macedonia. Proposed model is based on the findings about motor structure of children at the early stage of primary education obtained in researches realized in 5 primary schools in Skopje, the Republic of Macedonia, in relation with Macedonian PE curriculum, and overarching standards for children at this age in California, USA,chosen...

  7. Physical factors affecting single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) applied in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.I.; Khalil, W.A.; Hassan, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    many physical factors degrade single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images both qualitatively and quantitatively. Physical properties important for the assessment of the potential of emission computed tomography implemented by collimated detector systems include sensitivity, statistical and angular sampling requirements, attenuation compensation, resolution, uniformity, and multisection design constraints. SPECT has highlighted the used to improve gamma camera performance. Flood field nonuniformity is translated into tomographic the need to improve gamma camera performance. Flood field nonuniformity is translated into tomographic images as major artifacts because it distorts the data obtained at each projection. Also, poor energy resolution translates directly into degraded spatial resolution through reduced ability to reject scattered photons on the basic of pluses height analysis. The aim of this work is study the different and most important acquisition and processing parameters, which affect the quality of the SPECT images. The present study investigates the various parameters effecting SPECT images and experimental results demonstrate that: daily uniformity checks and evaluation are essential to ensure that the SPECT system is working properly. The Core used in the reconstruction process could be correct to avoid data misalignment. 60 mumblers of views gave the best image quality, rather than 20 or 30 views. Time per view (TPV) 30 or 20 sec gave a good image quality, rather than high-resolution collimator, is recommended in order to provide good spatial resolution. On the other hand patient motion could cause serious reconstruction artifacts. A cine display is recommended to identify movement artifacts. In the case of matrix size, matrix 128x128 give the best resolution than matrix 64x64. Energy window width, 15% compared with the standard 20% improved the resolution. Butter worth filter (cut off 0.57 cyc/cm with order 6 ) give the best resolution

  8. [Physical activity as prevention and treatment resource of chronic diseases in the syllabus of Medicine and Sport Sciences at Spanish universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonge Pascual, Sergio; Casajús Mallén, José Antonio; González Gross, Marcela

    2017-07-28

    Currently, there is scientific evidence about the benefits of physical exercise over human health. The aim of this study was to review the curricula of Medicine and Sport Sciences at Spanish universities, specifically regarding the contents related to physical exercise in the promotion, prevention and treatment of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). In a systematic way, all syllabus, programs and contents of the different subjects were reviewed for all Spanish universities which offer the Bachelors of Medicine and Sport Sciences. Total, compulsory and optional European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) were analyzed and added for each university. Practicum and Bachelor thesis were not considered. In the mean, Medicine studies dedicate 3.62% (2.38% mandatory and 1.20% optional) of the total 360 ECTS to these contents. In Sport Sciences studies, of the total 240 ECTS, 17.78% (9.87% mandatory and 7.92% optional) were identified as related to these areas of knowledge. Contents ranged from 36 to 4.5 ECTS in Medicine and from 48 to 28 ECTS in Sport Sciences. There is a great disparity between universities for both degrees among Spanish universities. Contents related to the efficient use of physical exercise for the prevention and treatment of non-communicable chronic diseases are scarce, especially in Medicine. Results indicate the need of increasing these contents in undergraduate studies and/or include them in Master or other programs.

  9. Statistical and physical content of low-energy photons in nuclear medicine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, D.; Pouliot, N.; Laperriere, L.; Harel, F.; Gregoire, J.; Arsenault, A.

    1990-01-01

    Limit in the energy resolution of present gamma camera technology prevents a total rejection of Compton events: inclusion of bad photons in the image is inescapable. Various methods acquiring data over a large portion of the spectrum have already been described. This paper investigates the usefulness of low energy photons using statistical and physical models. Holospectral Imaging, for instance, exploits correlation between energy frames to build an information related transformation optimizing primary photon image. One can also use computer simulation to show that a portion of low energy photons is detected at the same location (pixel) as pure primary photons. These events are for instance: photons undergoing scatter interaction in the crystal; photons undergoing a small angle backscatter or forwardscatter interaction in the medium, photons backscattered by the Pyrex into the crystal. For a 140 keV source in 10 cm of water and a 1/4 inch thick crystal, more than 6% of all the photons detected do not have the primary energy and still are located in the right 4 mm pixel. Similarly, it is possible to show that more than 5% of all the photons detected at 140 keV deposit their energy in more than one pixel. These results give additional support to techniques considering low energy photons and more sophisticated ways to segregate between good and bad events

  10. Physical, Complementary, and Alternative Medicine in the Treatment of Pelvic Floor Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnouk, Alex; De, Elise; Rehfuss, Alexandra; Cappadocia, Carin; Dickson, Samantha; Lian, Fei

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to catalog the most recent available literature regarding the use of conservative measures in treatment of pelvic floor disorders. Pelvic floor disorders encompass abnormalities of urination, defecation, sexual function, pelvic organ prolapse, and chronic pain, and can have significant quality of life implications for patients. Current guidelines recommend behavioral modifications and conservative treatments as first-line therapy for pelvic floor disorders. We have reviewed the literature for articles published on physical, complementary, and alternative treatments for pelvic floor disorders over the past 5 years. Review of pelvic floor muscle physiotherapy (PFMT) and biofeedback (BF) shows a benefit for patients suffering from bladder dysfunction (incontinence, overactive bladder), bowel dysfunction (constipation, fecal incontinence), pelvic organ prolapse, and sexual dysfunction (pelvic pain). Combination of PFMT and BF has shown improved results compared to PFMT alone, and some studies find that electrical stimulation can augment the benefit of BF and PFMT. Additionally, acupuncture and cognitive behavioral therapy has shown to be an effective treatment for pelvic floor disorders, particularly with respect to pelvic pain. This update highlights beneficial conservative treatments available for pelvic floor dysfunction, and supplements the current literature on treatment options for patients suffering from these disorders.

  11. Documenting the conversion from traditional to Studio Physics formats at the Colorado School of Mines: Process and early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Patrick B.; Kuo, H. Vincent; Ruskell, Todd G.

    2008-10-01

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) has taught its first-semester introductory physics course using a hybrid lecture/Studio Physics format for several years. Over the past year we have converted the second semester of our calculus-based introductory physics course (Physics II) to a Studio Physics format, starting from a traditional lecture-based format. In this paper, we document the early stages of this conversion in order to better understand which features succeed and which do not, and in order to develop a model for switching to Studio that keeps the time and resource investment manageable. We describe the recent history of the Physics II course and of Studio at Mines, discuss the PER-based improvements that we are implementing, and characterize our progress via several metrics, including pre/post Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) scores, Colorado Learning About Science Survey scores (CLASS), solicited student comments, failure rates, and exam scores.

  12. Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the association between physical abuse severity and aggressive behavior. A sample of 240 maltreated early adolescents (ages 9–11) and their caregivers were inte...

  13. Friendship Network Characteristics Are Associated with Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is limited understanding of the association between peer social networks and physical activity (PA), sedentary and screen-related behaviors. This study reports on associations between personal network characteristics and these important health behaviors for early adolescents. Participants were 310 students, aged 11-13 years, from fifteen randomly selected Victorian primary schools (43% response rate). PA and sedentary behaviors were collected via accelerometer and self-report questionnaire, and anthropometric measures via trained researchers. Participants nominated up to fifteen friends, and described the frequency of interaction and perceived activity intensity of these friends. Personal network predictors were examined using regression modelling for PA and sedentary/screen behavior. Perceived activity levels of friends, and friendships with very frequent interaction were associated with outside-of-school PA and/or sedentary/screen time. Differences according to sex were also observed in the association between network characteristics and PA and sedentary time. A higher number of friends and greater proportion of same sex friends were associated with boys engaging in more moderate-to-vigorous PA outside of school hours. PA intensity during school-day breaks was positively associated with having a greater proportion of friends who played sports for girls, and a greater proportion of male friends for boys. Friendship network characteristics are associated with PA and sedentary/screen time in late childhood/early adolescence, and these associations differ by sex. The positive influence of very active peers may be a promising avenue to strengthen traditional interventions for the promotion of PA and reduction in screen time.

  14. THE EFFECT OF COMMUNICATION SKILLS TRAINING PROGRAMME ON THE ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTIONS OF THE RESIDENTS OF PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeba Mary Mani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Communication skills are essential for all practicing doctors, which can be taught and assessed by a structured programme. Hence, a specialty-based communication skills training programme was conducted among the residents of the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PMR Department. The aim of the study is to assess the change in attitude and perception among the residents of PMR by a communication skills training programme. MATERIALS AND METHODS It comprised of a data collection procedure. Here, a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the subjects. It was given as a pre-intervention, post-intervention and as a second phase post-intervention questionnaire. The communication skills training programme (n=16 was conducted after a pre-test evaluation using the validated questionnaire tool. A half-day training programme using composite Teaching-Learning methods (lectures/role play/videos/check list were included. The post-test-1 (n=16 was conducted after the training programme and the post-test-2 (n=16 was conducted after 6 weeks. All the tests used the same validated questionnaire tool with scores allocated to each item. Settings- Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PMR Department among the residents. Study Design- Educational Intervention- A communication skills training programme using composite teaching learning methods. Statistical Analysis- Analysed using SPSS-16 package software. RESULTS The median pre-test score of the sixteen PMR residents was noted to be 33. The median post-test-1 score of the group was noted to be 37. A significant difference was noted between the pre- and post-test-1 score, which was statistically significant Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test z=-3.249 and p value <0.0001. The post-test-2, which was done after 6 weeks of the programme yielded a score of 36, a similar value of post-test-1. The comparison of pre-test score with post-test-1 and post-test-2 scores showed a highly significant improvement in the

  15. Effect of physical effectiveness on digestibility of ration for cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, B; Grubic, G; Djordjevic, N; Bozickovic, A; Ivetic, A; Davidovic, V

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of a diet particle size on nutrient digestibility in cows in early lactation. Treatments were diets with forage to concentrate ratio 43:57% in diet dry matter, with four different physically effective fibres (peNDF) content based on different cut length of corn silage and alfalfa haylage. The physical effectiveness factors (pef) and peNDF content of TMRs (total mixed ration) were determined using Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS) with two (pef8.0 , peNDF8.0) or three (pef1.18, peNDF1.18) sieves. The reducing of cut length of forages and particle size of diets did not affect on dry matter intake, while decreased peNDF intake by 16.34 and 8.83%, for peNDF8.0 and peNDF1.18 respectively. Apparent total tract digestibility of the nutrients was measured using two indicators: acid insoluble ash (AIA) and acid detergent insoluble lignin (ADL). Decreasing of forages cut length significantly increased apparent total tract digestibility of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) from 48.39% to 53.84% and from 53.9% to 58.66%, of crude protein from 73.96% to 79.24% and from 71.56% to 77.90%, with contemporary decreasing of non-fibre carbohydrate from 90.89% to 84.81% and from 91.99% to 86.80%, with AIA or ADL as indicator respectively. Dietary value of net energy for lactation (NEL) and energy intake was not affected by the peNDF content of the diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Effects of different levels of physically effective fibers in diets for cows in early lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovic, B.; Grubic, G.; Djordjevic, N.; Glamocie, D.; Bozieckovic, A.; Ivetic, A.

    2012-11-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of a total mixed ration (TMR) particle size on digestibility and production performances of the high-yielding cows in early lactation. The treatments were TMRs with forage-toconcentrate ratio 43:57 in diet dry matter, with four different mean particle lengths and physically effective fiber (PENDF) content based on different cut length of corn silage and alfalfa haylage. Determined values of PEF (physical effectiveness factor) and PENDF (through original and modified Penn State Particle Separator, PSPS) were considerably higher for forages and TMRs using the modified PSPS. The cut length of forage and particle size of TMRs did not affect dry matter intake. However reduced forage cut length significantly increased the apparent total tract digestibility of NDF (from 53.9 to 58.66%), and crude protein (from 71.56 to 77.90%), with the decrease in the non-fiber carbohydrate digestibility (from 91.99 to 86.80%). The increase in the milk yield (35.62 vs. 38.36 kg), and decrease in the milk fat (3.50 vs. 3.10%) and protein content (3.11 vs. 2.99%) were observed with the reduction of particle size in forages. There was no effect on milk fat daily yield, but the increase of the milk protein yield (1.08 vs. 1.15 kg) was determined with the reduced forage cut lengths. The milk fat to protein ratio had tendency to decrease with the reduced forage cut length. Decrease in forage particle size improved feed conversion ratio for milk production, improved digestibility and the milk yield, whereas milk protein content was reduced. (Author) 25 refs.

  17. Reliability and Validity of the Early Years Physical Activity Questionnaire (EY-PAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Bingham

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Measuring physical activity (PA and sedentary time (ST in young children (<5 years is complex. Objective measures have high validity but require specialist expertise, are expensive, and can be burdensome for participants. A proxy-report instrument for young children that accurately measures PA and ST is needed. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Early Years Physical Activity Questionnaire (EY-PAQ. In a setting where English and Urdu are the predominant languages spoken by parents of young children, a sample of 196 parents and their young children (mean age 3.2 ± 0.8 years from Bradford, UK took part in the study. A total of 156 (79.6% questionnaires were completed in English and 40 (20.4% were completed in transliterated Urdu. A total of 109 parents took part in the reliability aspect of the study, which involved completion of the EY-PAQ on two occasions (7.2 days apart; standard deviation (SD = 1.1. All 196 participants took part in the validity aspect which involved comparison of EY-PAQ scores against accelerometry. Validty anaylsis used all data and data falling with specific MVPA and ST boundaries. Reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations (ICC and validity by Bland–Altman plots and rank correlation coefficients. The test re-test reliability of the EY-PAQ was moderate for ST (ICC = 0.47 and fair for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA(ICC = 0.35. The EY-PAQ had poor agreement with accelerometer-determined ST (mean difference = −87.5 min·day−1 and good agreement for MVPA (mean difference = 7.1 min·day−1 limits of agreement were wide for all variables. The rank correlation coefficient was non-significant for ST (rho = 0.19 and significant for MVPA (rho = 0.30. The EY-PAQ has comparable validity and reliability to other PA self-report tools and is a promising population-based measure of young children’s habitual MVPA but not ST. In situations when objective methods are not

  18. Early MIMD experience with a plasma physics simulation program on the CRAY X-MP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoades, C.E. Jr.

    1986-02-01

    This paper describes some early experience with converting a plasma physics simulation program to the CRAY X-MP, a current multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD) computer consisting of two processors with architecture similar to that of the CRAY-1. The computer program used in this study is an all Fortran version of SELF, a two species, one space, two velocity, electromagnetic, Newtonian, particle in cell, plasma simulation code. The approach to converting SELF to use both processors of the CRAY X-MP is described in some detail. The resulting multiprocessor version of SELF is nearly a factor of two faster in real time than the single processor version. The multiprocessor version obtains 58.2+-.1 seconds of central processor time in 30+-.5 seconds of real time. For comparison, the CRAY-1 execution time if 74.5 seconds. For SELF, which is mostly scalar coding, the CRAY X-MP is about 2.5 times faster overall than the CRAY-1

  19. Early socioeconomic adversity and young adult physical illness: the role of body mass index and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, K A S; Kwon, Josephine A; Oshri, Assaf; Lee, Tae Kyoung

    2014-10-01

    The present study investigated the psychophysiological inter- and intra-individual processes that mediate the linkage between childhood and/or adolescent socioeconomic adversities and adult health outcomes. Specifically, the proposed model examined the roles of youth depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) trajectories as mediators that explain the link between early adversity and young adults' general health and physical illnesses after controlling for gender, race or ethnicity, and earlier general health reports. Using a nationally representative sample of 12,424 from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), this study used growth curve modeling to consider both the severity (initial level) and the change over time (deterioration or elevation) as psychophysiological mediators, thereby acknowledging multiple facets of depressive symptoms and BMI trajectories as psychophysiological mediators of early adversity to adult health. Results provide evidence for (1) the influence of early childhood and early adolescent cumulative socioeconomic adversity on both the initial levels and changes over time of depressive symptoms and BMI and (2) the independent influences depressive symptoms and BMI trajectories on the general health and the physical illnesses of young adults. These findings contribute valuable knowledge to existing research by elucidating how early adversity exerts an enduring long-term influence on physical health problems in young adulthood; furthermore, this information suggests that effective intervention and prevention programs should incorporate multiple facets (severity and change over time) of multiple mechanisms (psychological and physiological). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Promoting Risk-Taking and Physically Challenging Play in Australian Early Childhood Settings in a Changing Regulatory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Helen

    2017-01-01

    This article presents data from a survey of Early Childhood Education and Care services in Australia. The study investigated outdoor play provision in terms of space, resources and planning for risk-taking in play. Overall, the results indicate that the participating centres are well-resourced to promote physical play, but vary in terms of…

  1. Body Size at Birth, Physical Development and Cognitive Outcomes in Early Childhood: Evidence from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    Using a rich sample created from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children, we investigate the extent to which the relationship between body size at birth and early childhood cognitive skills is mediated by physical development indicators. Consistent with existing evidence from other countries, we find a significant relationship between body…

  2. Parent and Peer Predictors of Physical Dating Violence Perpetration in Early Adolescence: Tests of Moderation and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Sullivan, Terri; Orpinas, Pamela; Simon, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined parenting and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration during early adolescence and tested moderation among these predictors and gender. Participants were 2,824 ethnically diverse sixth-grade students with a recent boyfriend/girlfriend who was part of a multisite, longitudinal investigation of the development…

  3. Performance of Physical Examination Skills in Medical Students during Diagnostic Medicine Course in a University Hospital of Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Li, Na; Han, Qunying; He, Shuixiang; Bae, Ricard S.; Liu, Zhengwen; Lv, Yi; Shi, Bingyin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of physical examination (PE) skills during our diagnostic medicine course and analyze the characteristics of the data collected to provide information for practical guidance to improve the quality of teaching. Seventy-two fourth-year medical students were enrolled in the study. All received an assessment of PE skills after receiving a 17-week formal training course and systematic teaching. Their performance was evaluated and recorded in detail using a checklist, which included 5 aspects of PE skills: examination techniques, communication and care skills, content items, appropriateness of examination sequence, and time taken. Error frequency and type were designated as the assessment parameters in the survey. The results showed that the distribution and the percentage in examination errors between male and female students and among the different body parts examined were significantly different (pexaminations was higher than in abdominal (0.867) and head, neck and nervous system examinations (0.917). Female students had a lower average error frequency than males in cardiac examinations (p = 0.041). Additionally, error in examination techniques was the highest type of error among the 5 aspects of PE skills irrespective of participant gender and assessment content (pexaminations and examination techniques may be included in the main focus of improving the teaching of diagnostics in these medical students. PMID:25329685

  4. Human Amniotic Membrane-Derived Products in Sports Medicine: Basic Science, Early Results, and Potential Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboh, Jonathan C; Saltzman, Bryan M; Yanke, Adam B; Cole, Brian J

    2016-09-01

    Amniotic membrane (AM)-derived products have been successfully used in ophthalmology, plastic surgery, and wound care, but little is known about their potential applications in orthopaedic sports medicine. To provide an updated review of the basic science and preclinical and clinical data supporting the use of AM-derived products and to review their current applications in sports medicine. Systematic review. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. The search term amniotic membrane was used alone and in conjunction with stem cell, orthopaedic, tissue engineering, scaffold, and sports medicine. The search identified 6870 articles, 80 of which, after screening of the titles and abstracts, were considered relevant to this study. Fifty-five articles described the anatomy, basic science, and nonorthopaedic applications of AM-derived products. Twenty-five articles described preclinical and clinical trials of AM-derived products for orthopaedic sports medicine. Because the level of evidence obtained from this search was not adequate for systematic review or meta-analysis, a current concepts review on the anatomy, physiology, and clinical uses of AM-derived products is presented. Amniotic membranes have many promising applications in sports medicine. They are a source of pluripotent cells, highly organized collagen, antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory cytokines, immunomodulators, and matrix proteins. These properties may make it beneficial when applied as tissue engineering scaffolds, improving tissue organization in healing, and treatment of the arthritic joint. The current body of evidence in sports medicine is heavily biased toward in vitro and animal studies, with little to no human clinical data. Nonetheless, 14 companies or distributors offer commercial AM products. The preparation and formulation of these products alter their biological and mechanical properties, and a thorough understanding of these

  5. The early history of x-ray diagnosis with emphasis on the contributions of physics 1895-1915

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    The contribution of physics to the development of X-ray diagnosis was vital in the early years of this century following Rontgen's discovery 1895-1915. The sections are presented in a logical order beginning with the discovery of X-rays, followed by X-ray tube technology to the advent of the hot cathode Coolidge tube, with the third and final section covering diagnostic radiology physics. It has been compiled from personal research over 35 years in libraries worldwide, drawing on textbooks, journals, popular magazines, newspapers, X-ray company catalogues and museum exhibits. I have included a certain amount of anecdotal information, because after all, much of the early commentaries were indeed anecdotal - and make very interesting reading. Finally it is commented that although this review is devoted to X-ray diagnosis, X-ray therapy should not be forgotten, and readers are referred to another review by the author on early therapeutic advances. (Author)

  6. Early-life adversity-induced long-term epigenetic programming associated with early onset of chronic physical aggression: Studies in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Chekhonin, Vladimir P

    2017-06-05

    To examine whether chronic physical aggression (CPA) in adulthood can be epigenetically programmed early in life due to exposure to early-life adversity. Literature search of public databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus. Children/adolescents susceptible for CPA and exposed to early-life abuse fail to efficiently cope with stress that in turn results in the development of CPA later in life. This phenomenon was observed in humans and animal models of aggression. The susceptibility to aggression is a complex trait that is regulated by the interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms mediate this interaction. Subjects exposed to stress early in life exhibited long-term epigenetic programming that can influence their behaviour in adulthood. This programming affects expression of many genes not only in the brain but also in other systems such as neuroendocrine and immune. The propensity to adult CPA behaviour in subjects experienced to early-life adversity is mediated by epigenetic programming that involves long-term systemic epigenetic alterations in a whole genome.

  7. Functional ability at age 75: is there an impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Støvring, N; Schultz-Larsen, K

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age on functional ability at age 75. Physical activity is measured both as cumulated activity from age 50 to 60 to 70 and at three separate points in time. Three hundred eighty-seven men and women...... born in 1914 and living in seven municipalities in the western part of the County of Copenhagen were followed for 25 years with examinations in 1964, 1974, 1984 and 1989. Analyses were conducted with physical inactivity as an independent variable (accumulated and separately for each point in time......) and smoking, sex, school education, household composition, chronic disease at baseline and functional ability at age 70 as possible confounders. There was a strong association between physical inactivity at age 70 and disability at age 75. However, the analyses showed no effect of cumulated physical...

  8. High-level physical activity in childhood seems to protect against low back pain in early adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, Niels; Kjær, Per; Hestbæk, Lise

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The evidence on the impact of physical activity on back pain in children and adolescents has been contradicting. It has also been shown that the physical activity cannot accurately be estimated in children using questionnaires. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to establish if physical...... activity in childhood had any impact on back pain reporting in early adolescence (3 years later), using an objective instrumental measurement of physical activity. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PATIENT SAMPLE: Representative random sample of Danish children from the city of Odense sampled at age...... 9 years and followed-up at age 12 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: The 1-month period prevalence of back pain (neck pain, mid back pain, and low back pain) was established using a structured interview. METHODS: Physical activity was assessed with the MTI-accelerometer. The accelerometer provides a minute...

  9. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demortier

    Physics-wise, the CMS week in December was dominated by discussions of the analyses that will be carried out in the “next six months”, i.e. while waiting for the first LHC collisions.  As presented in December, analysis approvals based on Monte Carlo simulation were re-opened, with the caveat that for this work to be helpful to the goals of CMS, it should be carried out using the new software (CMSSW_2_X) and associated samples.  By the end of the week, the goal for the physics groups was set to be the porting of our physics commissioning methods and plans, as well as the early analyses (based an integrated luminosity in the range 10-100pb-1) into this new software. Since December, the large data samples from CMSSW_2_1 were completed. A big effort by the production group gave a significant number of events over the end-of-year break – but also gave out the first samples with the fast simulation. Meanwhile, as mentioned in December, the arrival of 2_2 meant that ...

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  12. Stories from early-career women physicians who have left academic medicine: a qualitative study at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Rachel B; Lin, Fenny; Kern, David E; Wright, Scott M; Carrese, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    The number of women in academic medicine has steadily increased, although gender parity still does not exist and women leave academics at somewhat higher rates than men. The authors investigated the reasons why women leave careers in academic medicine. Semistructured, one-on-one interviews were conducted in 2007-2008 with 20 women physicians who had left a single academic institution to explore their reasons for opting out of academic careers. Data analysis was iterative, and an editing analysis style was used to derive themes. A lack of role models for combining career and family responsibilities, frustrations with research (funding difficulties, poor mentorship, competition), work-life balance, and the institutional environment (described as noncollaborative and biased in favor of male faculty) emerged as key factors associated with a decision to leave academic medicine for respondents. Faced with these challenges, respondents reevaluated their priorities and concluded that a discrepancy existed between their own and institutional priorities. Many respondents expressed divergent views with the institutional norms on how to measure success and, as a consequence, felt that they were undervalued at work. Participants report a disconnection between their own priorities and those of the dominant culture in academic medicine. Efforts to retain women faculty in academic medicine may include exploring the aspects of an academic career that they value most and providing support and recognition accordingly.

  13. An exploration of Early Childhood Education students’ knowledge and preparation to facilitate physical activity for preschoolers: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Martyniuk, Olivia JM; Tucker, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background Early childhood educators play an important role in influencing preschoolers’ physical activity levels. The current study sought to explore Early Childhood Education (ECE) students’ physical activity-related knowledge and educational experience during their formal training in Ontario. Methods A total of 1,113 ECE students from 20 Ontario Colleges completed the study survey (online or on paper), which examined students’ physical activity course content; awareness of physical activit...

  14. Steps to Enhance Early Recovery After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Lessons Learned From a Physical Activity Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Peters, Tara; Patel, Pritesh; Rondelli, Damiano

    This pilot study tested and refined a free-living physical activity intervention. The investigators evaluated the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and determined preliminary effects on physical activity, fatigue, muscle strength, functional ability, and quality of life. This pilot study used a 1-group, pretest-posttest design. The free-living physical activity intervention consisted of an education component and 6 weeks of gradually increasing physical activity after discharge from the hospital. The intervention was designed to increase steps by 10% weekly. Subjects were assessed before transplantation and during the seventh week after discharge from the hospital after completing the intervention. Pretest-posttest scores were analyzed with paired t tests. Subject wore the physical activity tracker for an average of 38 of 42 days and met their physical activity goals 57% of the time. Subjects reported significantly less physical fatigue after the free-living physical activity intervention compared with baseline (P = .05). Improvements in quality of life approached significance (P = .06). The findings demonstrate that the free-living physical activity intervention implemented during the very early recovery period after transplantation is feasible and acceptable. The intervention potentially reduces fatigue and improves quality of life. The positive results must be interpreted cautiously given the pilot nature of the study. The evidence supports continued investigation.

  15. The influence of the neighborhood physical environment on early child health and development: A review and call for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Hayley; Zubrick, Stephen R; Foster, Sarah; Giles-Corti, Billie; Bull, Fiona; Wood, Lisa; Knuiman, Matthew; Brinkman, Sally; Houghton, Stephen; Boruff, Bryan

    2015-05-01

    This review examines evidence of the association between the neighborhood built environment, green spaces and outdoor home area, and early (0-7 years) child health and development. There was evidence that the presence of child relevant neighborhood destinations and services were positively associated with early child development domains of physical health and wellbeing and social competence. Parents׳ perceptions of neighborhood safety were positively associated with children׳s social-emotional development and general health. Population representative studies using objective measures of the built environment and valid measures of early child development are warranted to understand the impact of the built environment on early child health and development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In God and CAM we trust. Religious faith and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide cohort of women treated for early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Christina Gundgaard; Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Zachariae, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Turning to faith in God or a higher spiritual power is a common way of coping with life-threatening disease such as cancer. Little, however, is known about religious faith among cancer patients in secular societies. The present study aimed at exploring the prevalence of religious faith among Danish breast cancer patients and at identifying whether socio-demographic, pre-cancer health status, clinical, and health behavior characteristics, including their use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), were associated with their degree of faith. Information on faith in God or a higher spiritual power and use of CAM was provided by a nationwide sample of 3,128 recurrence-free Danish women who had received surgery for early-stage breast cancer 15-16 months earlier. Socio-demographic, clinical, and health status variables were obtained from national longitudinal registries, and health behaviors had been assessed at 3-4 months post-surgery. Of the women, 47.3% reported a high degree of faith (unambiguous believers), 35.9% some degree of faith (ambiguous believers), while the remaining 16.8% were non-believers. Unambiguous believers were more likely than ambiguous believers to experience their faith as having a positive impact on their disease and their disease-related quality-of-life. When compared to non-believers, unambiguous believers were also older, had poorer physical function, and were more frequent users of CAM, and more inclined to believe that their use of CAM would have a beneficial influence on their cancer. Disease- and treatment-related variables were unrelated to faith. While overall religious faith appears equally prevalent among Danish and US breast cancer patients, the majority of Danish breast cancer patients experienced ambiguous faith, whereas the majority of US patients have been found to express unambiguous faith. Our results suggest that future studies may benefit from exploring the role of faith for health behaviors, adherence to

  17. Efficient drilling problem detection. Early fault detection by the combination of physical models and artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyboe, Roar

    2009-09-15

    The drilling of an oil or gas well is an expensive undertaking. Hence, it is not surprising that mistakes and accidents during drilling incur a high cost. Accidents could result in the loss of expensive equipment and subsequent delays setting back the operation for days or weeks and thus running up large bills on rig-time and personnel hours. Some types of accidents also pose a risk to the personnel or the environment. In this dissertation we study alarm systems which could give the driller an early warning of upcoming problems, and thus provide time to avoid these accidents. We explore alarm systems which combine advanced physical models of the well and drilling process with artificial intelligence and time series analysis. Finally, we determine the advantages as well as the challenges of this approach. It is our hope that this dissertation is accessible to both practitioners in machine learning and control engineering, as well as to petroleum engineers with a passing familiarity with machine learning. Hence this dissertation starts with a quick introduction to drilling problems and some terms from time series analysis and machine learning. We then briefly describe the theory of observer-based fault detection and isolation. Theories of supervisory control systems are also introduced, as these concern both the choice of algorithms and how AI-based alarm systems integrate with the rest of the operation. From chapter 6 and onward, the challenges to fault detection in drilling are discussed. We focus on clarifying what restrictions the available training data put on our choice of machine learning methods. In chapter 8 and 9, we propose ways to combine machine learning and observer-based fault detection. Experimental results are presented in chapter 10, before we end with concluding remarks in chapter 11. Our main conclusion, reflected in our experimental results, is that physical models and artificial intelligence can be combined to produce hybrid alarm systems that

  18. Physical activity and coronary artery calcification in two cohorts of women representing early and late postmenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storti, Kristi L; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley K; Underwood, Darcy A; Kuller, Lewis H; Kriska, Andrea M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical activity (PA) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) among two cohorts of postmenopausal (PM) women representing early and late postmenopause. The cross-sectional relationship between PA and CAC was examined in 173 younger PM women (mean age ± SD, 56.8 ± 2.9 y) from the Women on the Move Through Activity and Nutrition (WOMAN) study and 121 older PM women (mean age ± SD, 73.9 ± 3.8 y) from the Walking Women Follow-up (WWF) study who had complete PA and CAC data. PA was measured objectively using a pedometer over a 7-day period in both cohorts. CAC was assessed using electron beam tomography. Descriptive statistics were used to describe median levels of PA and CAC, as well as proportions of detectable CAC (0 vs > 0). Fifty-seven percent of WOMAN study participants and 74% of WWF study participants had detectable CAC. The median (interquartile range) CAC score was 1.4 (0-23.3) for participants in the WOMAN study and 38.8 (0-264.4) among WWF study participants. Median (interquartile range) step counts were 6,447 (4,823-8,722) steps per day in the WOMAN study and 5,466 (3,610-7,576) steps per day for WWF study participants. Among WWF study participants, there was a statistically significant inverse association between pedometer steps and CAC (P for trend = 0.002); no association was found among WOMAN study participants. Among older PM women, higher levels of PA were associated with lower CAC. However, the relationship was not observed in PM women, likely due to the lower prevalence of CAC in this age group.

  19. Physical Activity and Motor Competence Present a Positive Reciprocal Longitudinal Relationship Across Childhood and Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rodrigo A; Pfeiffer, Karin; Larsen, Lisbeth R; Bugge, Anna; Moller, Niels C; Anderson, Lars B; Stodden, David F

    2017-06-01

    The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS), with 3 measuring points [mean ages (in years) and respective sample size: 6.75 ± 0.37, n = 696; 9.59 ± 1.07, n = 617; 13.35 ± 0.34, n = 513]. PA was assessed using accelerometers. MC was evaluated by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) test battery. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak) was evaluated using a continuous running protocol until exhaustion. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the longitudinal associations. Vigorous PA (VPA) and MC presented reciprocal longitudinal association during the 7-year follow-up (VPA → MC; β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.26; MC → VPA; β = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.21). In addition, VO 2 peak mediated the relationship in both directions (VPA → MC; β = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.12; MC → VPA; β = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.09). PA and MC presented a positive reciprocal relationship across childhood through early adolescence and VO 2 peak mediated the association in both directions. Interventions targeting to increase PA in children and adolescents should also address the development of MC skills because of the clear positive feedback loop between PA and MC.

  20. Prospective randomized study of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using an early versus delayed postoperative physical therapy protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, Derek J; Pupello, Derek R

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluated patient outcomes and rotator cuff healing after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using a postoperative physical therapy protocol with early passive motion compared with a delayed protocol that limited early passive motion. The study enrolled 68 patients (average age, 63.2 years) who met inclusion criteria. All patients had a full-thickness crescent-shaped tear of the supraspinatus that was repaired using a transosseous equivalent suture-bridge technique along with subacromial decompression. In the early group, 33 patients were randomized to passive elevation and rotation that began at postoperative day 2. In the delayed group, 35 patients began the same protocol at 6 weeks. Patients were monitored clinically for a minimum of 12 months, and rotator cuff healing was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Both groups had similar improvements in preoperative to postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores (early group: 43.9 to 91.9, P rotator cuff healing, or range of motion between the early and delayed groups. Patients in the early group and delayed group both demonstrated very similar outcomes and range of motion at 1 year. There was a slightly higher rotator cuff healing rate in the delayed passive range of motion group compared with the early passive range of motion group (91% vs 85%). Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mothers' perceived physical health during early and middle childhood: relations with child developmental delay and behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L

    2013-03-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N=116) or typical development (TD; N=129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that mothers in the DD group experienced poorer health from age 3 but that the two groups showed similar growth across ages 3-9 years. Second, cross-lagged panel analyses supported a child-driven pathway in early childhood (ages 3-5) by which early mother-reported child behavior problems predicted poorer maternal health over time, while the reversed, health-driven path was not supported. Third, this cross-lagged path was significantly stronger in the DD group, indicating that behavior problems more strongly impact mothers' health when children have developmental delay than when children have typical development. The health disparity between mothers of children with DD vs. TD stabilized by child age 5 and persisted across early and middle childhood. Early interventions ought to focus on mothers' well-being, both psychological and physical, in addition to child functioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Social marketing approaches to nutrition and physical activity interventions in early care and education centres: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecking, C T; Hennink-Kaminski, H; Ihekweazu, C; Vaughn, A; Mazzucca, S; Ward, D S

    2017-12-01

    Social marketing is a promising planning approach for influencing voluntary lifestyle behaviours, but its application to nutrition and physical activity interventions in the early care and education setting remains unknown. PubMed, ISI Web of Science, PsycInfo and the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health were systematically searched to identify interventions targeting nutrition and/or physical activity behaviours of children enrolled in early care centres between 1994 and 2016. Content analysis methods were used to capture information reflecting eight social marketing benchmark criteria. The review included 135 articles representing 77 interventions. Two interventions incorporated all eight benchmark criteria, but the majority included fewer than four. Each intervention included behaviour and methods mix criteria, and more than half identified audience segments. Only one-third of interventions incorporated customer orientation, theory, exchange and insight. Only six interventions addressed competing behaviours. We did not find statistical significance for the effectiveness of interventions on child-level diet, physical activity or anthropometric outcomes based on the number of benchmark criteria used. This review highlights opportunities to apply social marketing to obesity prevention interventions in early care centres. Social marketing could be an important strategy for early childhood obesity prevention efforts, and future research investigations into its effects are warranted. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  3. 30 days in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the 58 men who tested positive for oral gonorrhoea, 33 were randomly ... Medicine suggests that compressing this amount of physical activity into a weekend ... practise medicine differently; for example, women are more likely to adhere to ...

  4. Difference between early versus delayed postoperative physical rehabilitation protocol following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar M Fawzy

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Significant improvement in pain, ROM, and function after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was seen at 1 year postoperatively, regardless of early or delayed postoperative rehabilitation protocols. However, early motion increases pain scores and may increase the possibility of rotator cuff retear but with early regain of ROM. A delayed rehabilitation protocol with immobilization for 6 weeks would be better for tendon healing without risk for retear or joint stiffness and easily convalescence with less postoperative pain.

  5. White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine in Europe. Chapter 2. Why rehabilitation is needed by individual and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper describes the background to the context of PRM services and comprises the following: - Epidemiological Aspects of Functioning and Disability - Ethical Aspects and Human Rights - Rehabilitation and Health Systems - Economic Burden of Disability - Effects of Lack of Rehabilitation Health care service planning accounts for the burden of disability among society and the chapter describes the justification for specialist rehabilitation, the background of PRM and why making a functional diagnosis and a management plan based on function is its core competence. The chapter describes the increasing burden of disability due to conditions seen in PRM practice rather than on all those diseases contributing to physical disablement and does not include mental illness, learning disabilities, etc. Ten percent of Western Europe's population have a disability and are surviving longer, resulting in higher costs for health and social care and a greater impact of co-morbidities. The chapter also describes the impact and increased costs in the absence of rehabilitation. Not only is money spent on rehabilitation recovered with five to nine-fold savings (e.g. in return to work), but rehabilitation is effective in all phases of health conditions. Specialized rehabilitation (as delivered by PRM services) is highly cost-efficient for all neurological conditions, producing substantial savings in ongoing care costs, especially in high-dependency patients. Disability discrimination has been outlawed and the text describes the legal context and status of a person living in Europe with a disability. The second part highlights the United Nations Conventions on human rights, confirmed in the World Report on Disability, but also on the principles of ethical practice among PRM physicians. The third part addresses the variability of access to and funding of rehabilitation services across countries. The

  6. Louis XIV’s Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17 and the Early 18 Century France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Min LEE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state’s policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people’s health. The Thévenot company’s activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV’s dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king’s physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris

  7. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  8. High-level physical activity in childhood seems to protect against low back pain in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedderkopp, N; Kjaer, P; Hestbaek, L; Korsholm, L; Leboeuf-Yde, C

    2009-02-01

    The evidence on the impact of physical activity on back pain in children and adolescents has been contradicting. It has also been shown that the physical activity cannot accurately be estimated in children using questionnaires. The aim of this study was to establish if physical activity in childhood had any impact on back pain reporting in early adolescence (3 years later), using an objective instrumental measurement of physical activity. Prospective cohort study. Representative random sample of Danish children from the city of Odense sampled at age 9 years and followed-up at age 12 years. The 1-month period prevalence of back pain (neck pain, mid back pain, and low back pain) was established using a structured interview. Physical activity was assessed with the MTI-accelerometer. The accelerometer provides a minute-by-minute measure of the physical activity performed. An overall measure of physical activity and time spent in high activity were studied in relation to back pain using logistic regression. The analyses were performed on the total sample and then stratified on back pain (yes/no) at baseline. High physical activity (HPA) levels seem to protect against future low back pain and appear to actually "treat" and reduce the odds of future mid back pain. When comparing the least active children to the most active children, the least active had a multivariate odds ratio of 3.3 of getting low back pain and 2.7 of getting mid back pain 3 years later. When stratified on back pain at baseline, this effect on mid back pain was especially noticeable in children who had had mid back pain already at baseline, with an odds ratio of 7.2. HPA in childhood seems to protect against low back pain and mid back pain in early adolescence. Larger prospective studies with repetitive follow-ups and preferably intervention studies should be performed, to see if these findings can be reproduced.

  9. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. D'Hondt

    The Electroweak and Top Quark Workshop (16-17th of July) A Workshop on Electroweak and Top Quark Physics, dedicated on early measurements, took place on 16th-17th July. We had more than 40 presentations at the Workshop, which was an important milestone for 2007 physics analyses in the EWK and TOP areas. The Standard Model has been tested empirically by many previous experiments. Observables which are nowadays known with high precision will play a major role for data-based CMS calibrations. A typical example is the use of the Z to monitor electron and muon reconstruction in di-lepton inclusive samples. Another example is the use of the W mass as a constraint for di-jets in the kinematic fitting of top-quark events, providing information on the jet energy scale. The predictions of the Standard Model, for what concerns proton collisions at the LHC, are accurate to a level that the production of W/Z and top-quark events can be used as a powerful tool to commission our experiment. On the other hand the measure...

  10. TH-E-9A-01: Medical Physics 1.0 to 2.0, Session 4: Computed Tomography, Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samei, E; Nelson, J [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Hangiandreou, N [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Medical Physics 2.0 is a bold vision for an existential transition of clinical imaging physics in face of the new realities of value-based and evidencebased medicine, comparative effectiveness, and meaningful use. It speaks to how clinical imaging physics can expand beyond traditional insular models of inspection and acceptance testing, oriented toward compliance, towards team-based models of operational engagement, prospective definition and assurance of effective use, and retrospective evaluation of clinical performance. Organized into four sessions of the AAPM, this particular session focuses on three specific modalities as outlined below. CT 2.0: CT has been undergoing a dramatic transition in the last few decades. While the changes in the technology merits discussions of their own, an important question is how clinical medical physicists are expected to effectively engage with the new realities of CT technology and practice. Consistent with the upcoming paradigm of Medical Physics 2.0, this CT presentation aims to provide definitions and demonstration of the components of the new clinical medical physics practice pertaining CT. The topics covered include physics metrics and analytics that aim to provide higher order clinicallyrelevant quantification of system performance as pertains to new (and not so new) technologies. That will include the new radiation and dose metrics (SSDE, organ dose, risk indices), image quality metrology (MTF/NPS/d’), task-based phantoms, and the effect of patient size. That will follow with a discussion of the testing implication of new CT hardware (detectors, tubes), acquisition methods (innovative helical geometries, AEC, wide beam CT, dual energy, inverse geometry, application specialties), and image processing and analysis (iterative reconstructions, quantitative CT, advanced renditions). The presentation will conclude with a discussion of clinical and operational aspects of Medical Physics 2.0 including training and

  11. TH-E-9A-01: Medical Physics 1.0 to 2.0, Session 4: Computed Tomography, Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samei, E; Nelson, J; Hangiandreou, N

    2014-01-01

    Medical Physics 2.0 is a bold vision for an existential transition of clinical imaging physics in face of the new realities of value-based and evidencebased medicine, comparative effectiveness, and meaningful use. It speaks to how clinical imaging physics can expand beyond traditional insular models of inspection and acceptance testing, oriented toward compliance, towards team-based models of operational engagement, prospective definition and assurance of effective use, and retrospective evaluation of clinical performance. Organized into four sessions of the AAPM, this particular session focuses on three specific modalities as outlined below. CT 2.0: CT has been undergoing a dramatic transition in the last few decades. While the changes in the technology merits discussions of their own, an important question is how clinical medical physicists are expected to effectively engage with the new realities of CT technology and practice. Consistent with the upcoming paradigm of Medical Physics 2.0, this CT presentation aims to provide definitions and demonstration of the components of the new clinical medical physics practice pertaining CT. The topics covered include physics metrics and analytics that aim to provide higher order clinicallyrelevant quantification of system performance as pertains to new (and not so new) technologies. That will include the new radiation and dose metrics (SSDE, organ dose, risk indices), image quality metrology (MTF/NPS/d’), task-based phantoms, and the effect of patient size. That will follow with a discussion of the testing implication of new CT hardware (detectors, tubes), acquisition methods (innovative helical geometries, AEC, wide beam CT, dual energy, inverse geometry, application specialties), and image processing and analysis (iterative reconstructions, quantitative CT, advanced renditions). The presentation will conclude with a discussion of clinical and operational aspects of Medical Physics 2.0 including training and

  12. Spectrum of topics for world congresses and other activities of the International Society for Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM): a first proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Ward, Anthony B; Li, Leonard SW; Li, Jianan; Guzman, Manuel; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Vanderstraeten, Guy; Imamura, Marta; Stucki, Gerold

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the objectives of the International Society for Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine is to improve the continuity of World Congresses. This requires the development of an abstract topic list for use in congress announcements and abstract submissions. Methods: An abstract topic list was developed on the basis of the definitions of human functioning and rehabilitation research, which define 5 main areas of research (biosciences in rehabilitation, biomedical rehabilitation...

  13. Improving Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies and Practices in Early Care and Education in Three States, 2014-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Blaser, Casey; Geno-Rasmussen, Cristy; Shuell, Julie; Plumlee, Catherine; Gargano, Tony; Yaroch, Amy L

    2017-08-31

    The National Early Care and Education Learning Collaboratives (ECELC) project aims to facilitate best practices in nutrition, physical activity, screen time, and breastfeeding support and infant feeding among early care and education (ECE) programs across multiple states. The project uses a train-the-trainer approach with 5, in-person learning-collaborative sessions, technical assistance, and action planning. We describe the longitudinal practice-based evaluation of the project and assess whether ECE programs evaluated (n = 104) sustained changes in policies and practices 1 year after completing the project. The number of best practices increased from pre-assessment to post-assessment (P professional development and training focused on improving best practices for environment-level child nutrition and physical activity, which is one strategy among many that are warranted for obesity prevention in young children.

  14. Naturally-occurring changes in social-cognitive factors modify change in physical activity during early adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod K Dishman

    Full Text Available To determine whether naturally-occurring changes in children's motives and beliefs are associated with the steep decline in physical activity observed from childhood to early adolescence.Latent growth modeling was applied in longitudinal tests of social-cognitive influences, and their interactions, on physical activity in a large cohort of boys and girls evaluated annually between 5th and 7th grades.Measurement equivalence of motives and beliefs was confirmed between boys and girls. After adjustment for gender and maturity differences, physical activity declined less in children who reported the least decreases in self-efficacy for overcoming barriers to activity and perceived parental support. Physical activity also declined less in students who persistently felt they had more parental and friend support for activity compared to those who reported the largest decrease in support from friends. After further adjustment for race, the decline in physical activity was less in those who had the largest decrease in perceived barriers and maintained a favorable perception of their neighborhood environment. Changes in enjoyment and social motives were unrelated to change in physical activity.Using an objective measure of physical activity, we confirm that naturally-occurring changes in children's beliefs about barriers to physical activity and their ability to overcome them, as well as perceptions of their neighborhood environment and social support, are concurrent with age-related declines in children's physical activity. The longitudinal findings confirm these putative social-cognitive mediators as plausible, interacting targets of interventions designed to mitigate the marked decline in physical activity that occurs during the transition between elementary and middle schools.

  15. Physical education in early education: An intervention program for reducing aggressive and social insecure behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mouratidou, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of a physical education program on the reduction of aggressive and social insecure behavior of young children. The sample comprised of 194 children, aged 4-5 years. The experimental group consisted of 99 children, while the rest 95 children formed the control group. The experimental group participated in an 8-week physical education program, based on physical activities and kinetic theatrical playing, while the control group was engaged in free-pl...

  16. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, H.G.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear medicine as a complex diagnostical method is used mainly to detect functional organic disorders, to locate disorders and for radioimmunologic assays (RIA) in vitro. In surgery, its indication range comprises the thyroid (in vivo and in vitro), liver and bile ducts, skeletal and joint diseases, disorders of the cerebro-spinal liquor system and the urologic disorders. In the early detection of tumors, the search for metastases and tumor after-care, scintiscanning and the tumor marcher method (CEA) can be of great practical advantage, but the value of myocardial sciritiscanning in cardiac respectively coronary disorders is restricted. The paper is also concerned with the radiation doses in nuclear medicine. (orig.) [de

  17. Development of electronic medical record charting for hospital-based transfusion and apheresis medicine services: Early adoption perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Levy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electronic medical records (EMRs provide universal access to health care information across multidisciplinary lines. In pathology departments, transfusion and apheresis medicine services (TAMS involved in direct patient care activities produce data and documentation that typically do not enter the EMR. Taking advantage of our institution′s initiative for implementation of a paperless medical record, our TAMS division set out to develop an electronic charting (e-charting strategy within the EMR. Methods: A focus group of our hospital′s transfusion committee consisting of transfusion medicine specialists, pathologists, residents, nurses, hemapheresis specialists, and information technologists was constituted and charged with the project. The group met periodically to implement e-charting TAMS workflow and produced electronic documents within the EMR (Cerner Millenium for various service line functions. Results: The interdisciplinary working group developed and implemented electronic versions of various paper-based clinical documentation used by these services. All electronic notes collectively gather and reside within a unique Transfusion Medicine Folder tab in the EMR, available to staff with access to patient charts. E-charting eliminated illegible handwritten notes, resulted in more consistent clinical documentation among staff, and provided greater real-time review/access of hemotherapy practices. No major impediments to workflow or inefficiencies have been encountered. However, minor updates and corrections to documents as well as select work re-designs were required for optimal use of e-charting by these services. Conclusion: Documentation of pathology subspecialty activities such as TAMS can be successfully incorporated into the EMR. E-charting by staff enhances communication and helps promote standardized documentation of patient care within and across service lines. Well-constructed electronic documents in the EMR may also

  18. Physical Education Teachers' Perspectives and Experiences When Teaching FMS to Early Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Natalie J.; Hanna, Lisa; Brown, Helen; Telford, Amanda; Morgan, Philip J.; Salmon, Jo; Barnett, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Competence in fundamental movement skills (FMSs) is positively associated with physical activity, fitness, and healthy weight status. However, adolescent girls exhibit very low levels of fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency. Method: In the current study, interviews were carried out with physical education teachers to investigate…

  19. Associations between Cannabis Use and Physical Health Problems in Early Midlife: A Longitudinal Comparison of Persistent Cannabis versus Tobacco Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H.; Caspi, Avshalom; Cerdá, Magdalena; Hancox, Robert J.; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Poulton, Richie; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Thomson, W. Murray; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Following major policy changes in the United States, policy makers, clinicians, and the general public seek information about whether recreational cannabis use is associated with physical health problems later in life. Objective To test associations between cannabis use over twenty years and a variety of physical health indices at early midlife. Design A 38-year, prospective, longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study of New Zealand. Participants The study included 1,037 male and female participants. Exposure We assessed frequency of cannabis use and also cannabis dependence at ages 18, 21, 26, 32, and 38 years. Main Outcomes and Measures We obtained laboratory measures of physical health (periodontal health, lung function, systemic inflammation, and metabolic health), as well as self-reported physical health, at ages 26 and 38. Results Cannabis use was associated with poorer periodontal health at age 38 and within-individual decline in periodontal health from age 26–38. For example, 55.61% of those with 15+ joint years had periodontal disease, compared with 13.53% of those who never used cannabis. Cannabis use was unrelated to other physical health problems, however. Unlike cannabis use, tobacco use was associated with worse lung function, systemic inflammation, and metabolic health at age 38, as well as within-individual decline in health from age 26 to 38. Conclusions and Relevance Cannabis use for up to 20 years is associated with periodontal disease but is not associated with other physical health problems in early midlife. PMID:27249330

  20. Physical and Radiological Characterisation of Measuring Sites Within The Croatian Gamma Dose Rate Early Warning Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cindro, M.; Stepisnik, M.; Pinezic, D.; Sinka, D.; Skanata, D.

    2016-01-01

    The work described in this paper was done within the EU funded project 'Upgrading the systems for the on- and off-line monitoring of radioactivity in the environment in Croatia in regular and emergency situations'. The existing system of early warning in case of nuclear accident in Croatia (SPUNN), managed by the State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Safety, includes 33 stations for measuring ambient gamma dose rate (GDR). The aim of the project was to determine appropriate correction factors that will allow the results from this network to be used not only for timely warning in case of nuclear accident but also in routine environmental monitoring to determine the background radiation. Additionally, in the case of fresh deposition due to radioactive contamination, the corrected values are better suited to be used as an input for support systems for decision making in the case of emergency (such as RODOS), as well as for international data exchange (EURDEP) or automatic interpolation and mapping of radiological data (INTAMAP). The response of the individual probes to natural or accidental radiation mostly depends on the geometry or topography, surrounding buildings, vegetation (trees) and the type of soil beneath the detector. In the case of measuring the dose rate, objects such as buildings act as a shield against gamma radiation and limit the field of vision of the detector. If we want to have representative values that can be compared with other measuring sites, it is clear that we need to define standard conditions that each location has to meet. This is true not only for the probes within the same network, but can also be applied more broadly, at the international level, since data exchange mechanisms for GDR data already exist across Europe. The response of each probe is not determined only by the physical features, it is also important to understand the radiological characteristics of the site. Radiological characterization was performed through

  1. Sports Physicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...

  2. [Sexual hormone and traditional Chinese patent medicine for early postmenopausal women: effect on quality of life and cost-utility analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling-Ling; Xu, Liang-Zhi; Liu, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Tang, Liu-Lin; Zhuang, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Xian; Qiao, Lin

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of Premarin and Kuntai capsule (a traditional Chinese patent medicine) on the quality of life (QOL) and their cost-utility in early postmenopausal women. Fifty-seven women with menopausal syndrome in the early postmenopausal stage were randomly allocated into Premarin group (0.3 mg/day and 0.6 mg/day alternately, n=29) and Kuntai group (4 g/day, n=28). The therapies lasted for one year and the patients were followed up every 3 months. The QOL of the patients was evaluated and the utility scores were obtained from rating scale to conduct a cost-utility analysis (CUA). At each follow-up examination, no significant difference was found in the QOL between the two groups (P>0.05). The QOL obviously increased after the 1-year-long therapy in both the groups, and Kuntai required longer treatment time than Premarin to take effect. The cost-utility ratio of Premarin and Kuntai were 13581.45 yuan/QALY (quality adjusted life year) and 25105.12 yuan/QALY, respectively. Both incremental cost analysis and sensitivity analysis showed that Kuntai was more costly than Premarin. The result of per-protocol analysis was consistent with that of intention-to-treat analysis. At early stage of menopause, the QOL of women with menopausal syndrome can be significantly improved by low-dose Premarin and Kuntai capsule, but the latter is more costly.

  3. Building human capacity through early childhood intervention: the Child Development Research Programme at the Tropical Medicine Research Institute, the University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S P; Chang, S M; Powell, C A; Baker-Henningham, H

    2012-07-01

    Research conducted by the Child Development Research Group in the Tropical Medicine Research Institute has made significant contributions to the understanding of the importance of early nutrition and the home environment for children's development and the impact of psychosocial stimulation for disadvantaged and/or undernourished children. The work has provided critical evidence that has contributed to the increasing attention given to early childhood development in the work and policies of agencies such as the World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF). This review concerns research which documented the impact of malnutrition on children's development and for the first time demonstrated the benefits and necessity of psychosocial stimulation for improvement in development. Subsequent research was critical in establishing the importance of linear growth retardation (stunting) as a risk factor for poor child development. A twenty-two-year study of stunted children has demonstrated benefits through to adulthood in areas such as educational attainment, mental health and reduced violent behaviour from an early childhood home visiting programme that works through mothers to promote their children's development. The group's research has also demonstrated that it is feasible and effective to integrate the stimulation intervention into primary care services with benefits to children's development and mothers'child rearing knowledge and practices. The group is currently conducting a study to provide information needed for scaling-up of parenting programmes through evaluation of a new approach to improving parenting through health centres and a modified home visit programme.

  4. Physical examination of the hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula to detect early dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreo, Kenneth; Amin, Bakhtiar M; Abreo, Adrian P

    2018-04-01

    The maintenance of vascular access patency for end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis is necessary for survival. Many nephrologists, nurse practitioners, and nurses have limited experience with the physical examination of the arteriovenous fistula. In this review, we define key terms used in the assessment of an arteriovenous fistula. We discuss the arteriovenous fistula physical exam, including details of inspection, palpation, and auscultation. Using these concepts, we review the abnormal findings that can assist practitioners in determining the location of a stenosis. We review the existing literature that validates physical exam findings with gold standard tests such as ultrasound and angiography. Finally, we review data supporting the value of training physicians and nurses in arteriovenous fistula physical examination.

  5. Physical activity and motor competence present a positive reciprocal longitudinal relationship across childhood and early adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Rodrigo A.; Pfeiffer, Karin; Larsen, Lisbeth R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. Methods: This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child Intervent......Background: The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. Methods: This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child...

  6. A century of x-rays and radioactivity in medicine. With emphasis on photographic records of the early years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    This book is a predominately photographic presentation, along with full captions and short accompanying essays, about the history of radiology. It concentrates on the early years of discovery and invention, diagnosis and therapy, with archival accounts, antedotes, historical snippets. In most chapters the history is briefly brought up to date so old methods may be compared with newer technologies. Source material, diaries, historic photographs are all used

  7. Transcriptome profiling and digital gene expression by deep sequencing in early somatic embryogenesis of endangered medicinal Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lei; Zhao, Yue; Wu, Ying; Wang, Qiuyu; Yuan, Hongmei; Zhao, Lijuan; Guo, Wendong; You, Xiangling

    2016-03-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) has been studied as a model system to understand molecular events in physiology, biochemistry, and cytology during plant embryo development. In particular, it is exceedingly difficult to access the morphological and early regulatory events in zygotic embryos. To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating early SE in Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim., we used high-throughput RNA-Seq technology to investigate its transcriptome. We obtained 58,327,688 reads, which were assembled into 75,803 unique unigenes. To better understand their functions, the unigenes were annotated using the Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Gene Ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. Digital gene expression libraries revealed differences in gene expression profiles at different developmental stages (embryogenic callus, yellow embryogenic callus, global embryo). We obtained a sequencing depth of >5.6 million tags per sample and identified many differentially expressed genes at various stages of SE. The initiation of SE affected gene expression in many KEGG pathways, but predominantly that in metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and plant hormone signal transduction. This information on the changes in the multiple pathways related to SE induction in E. senticosus Maxim. embryogenic tissue will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms involved in early SE. Additionally, the differentially expressed genes may act as molecular markers and could play very important roles in the early stage of SE. The results are a comprehensive molecular biology resource for investigating SE of E. senticosus Maxim. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Early adulthood determinants of mid-life leisure-time physical inactivity stability and change: Findings from a prospective birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Power, Chris

    2018-07-01

    Physical inactivity is highly prevalent. Knowledge is needed of influences on inactive lifestyles. We aimed to establish whether early adult factors predict subsequent inactivity patterns in mid-adulthood. Leisure-time inactivity (activity frequencyphysical status, mental function, social, family and neighbourhood circumstances with four 33-50y patterns (never inactive, persistently inactive, deteriorating or improving) using multinomial logistic regression with and without adjustment for childhood factors (e.g. social class). Inactivity prevalence was similar at 33y and 50y (∼31%), but 17% deteriorated and 18% improved with age. Factors associated with persistent vs never inactive were: limiting illness (relative risk ratio (RRR):1.21(1.04,1.42) per number of ages exposed (0,1 or 2 times across ages 23y and 33y), obesity (1.33(1.16,1.54) per number of ages exposed), height (0.93(0.89,0.98) per 5cm), depression (1.32(1.19,1.47) per number of ages exposed); education (1.28(1.20,1.38) per decrease on 5-point scale) and neighbourhood (1.59(1.37,1.86) in 'industrial/local authority housing areas' and 1.33(1.12,1.58) in 'growth/metropolitan inner areas' vs 'suburbs, service, rural or seaside areas'). Associations were broadly similar for inactivity deterioration. Industrial/local authority housing areas (0.75(0.61,0.91)) and longer obesity exposure (0.78(0.64,0.95)) were associated with lower RRRs for improvement. Number of children was associated with improvement, although associations varied by age. Associations remained after adjustment for childhood factors. Several early adult factors are associated with inactivity persistence and deterioration; fewer with improvement. Obesity duration and neighbourhood lived in during young adulthood had long-lasting associations with inactivity patterns in mid-life. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An assemblage of science and home. The gendered lifestyle of Svante Arrhenius and early twentieth-century physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwik, Staffan

    2014-06-01

    This essay explores the gendered lifestyle of early twentieth-century physics and chemistry and shows how that way of life was produced through linking science and home. In 1905, the Swedish physical chemist Svante Arrhenius married Maja Johansson and established a scientific household at the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry in Stockholm. He created a productive context for research in which ideas about marriage and family were pivotal. He also socialized in similar scientific sites abroad. This essay displays how scholars in the international community circulated the gendered lifestyle through frequent travel and by reproducing gendered behavior. Everywhere, husbands and wives were expected to perform distinct duties. Shared performances created loyalties across national divides. The essay thus situates the physical sciences at the turn of the twentieth century in a bourgeois gender ideology. Moreover, it argues that the gendered lifestyle was not external to knowledge making but, rather, foundational to laboratory life. A legitimate and culturally intelligible lifestyle produced the trust and support needed for collaboration. In addition, it enabled access to prestigious facilities for Svante Arrhenius, ultimately securing his position in international physical chemistry.

  10. Depletion of HPV16 early genes induces autophagy and senescence in a cervical carcinogenesis model, regardless of viral physical state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Jennifer E; Saini, Harpreet K; Murray, Matthew J; Caffarel, Maria M; van Dongen, Stijn; Ward, Dawn; Barker, Emily M; Scarpini, Cinzia G; Groves, Ian J; Stanley, Margaret A; Enright, Anton J; Pett, Mark R; Coleman, Nicholas

    2013-11-01

    In cervical carcinomas, high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) may be integrated into host chromosomes or remain extra-chromosomal (episomal). We used the W12 cervical keratinocyte model to investigate the effects of HPV16 early gene depletion on in vitro cervical carcinogenesis pathways, particularly effects shared by cells with episomal versus integrated HPV16 DNA. Importantly, we were able to study the specific cellular consequences of viral gene depletion by using short interfering RNAs known not to cause phenotypic or transcriptional off-target effects in keratinocytes. We found that while cervical neoplastic progression in vitro was characterized by dynamic changes in HPV16 transcript levels, viral early gene expression was required for cell survival at all stages of carcinogenesis, regardless of viral physical state, levels of early gene expression or histology in organotypic tissue culture. Moreover, HPV16 early gene depletion induced changes in host gene expression that were common to both episome-containing and integrant-containing cells. In particular, we observed up-regulation of autophagy genes, associated with enrichment of senescence and innate immune-response pathways, including the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). In keeping with these observations, HPV16 early gene depletion induced autophagy in both episome-containing and integrant-containing W12 cells, as evidenced by the appearance of autophagosomes, punctate expression of the autophagy marker LC3, conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II, and reduced levels of the autophagy substrate p62. Consistent with the reported association between autophagy and senescence pathways, HPV16 early gene depletion induced expression of the senescence marker beta-galactosidase and increased secretion of the SASP-related protein IGFBP3. Together, these data indicate that depleting HR-HPV early genes would be of potential therapeutic benefit in all cervical carcinogenesis pathways, regardless of viral

  11. Is early rehabilitation a myth? Physical inactivity in the first week after myocardial infarction and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Sarah; Bernhardt, Julie; West, Tanya; Churilov, Leonid; Dart, Anthony; Hayes, Kate; Cumming, Toby B

    2015-12-18

    To compare physical activity levels of patients in the first week after myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. We conducted an observational study using behavioural mapping. MI patients were consecutively recruited from Alfred Hospital, Melbourne. Data for stroke patients (Royal Perth Hospital or Austin Hospital, Melbourne) were retrieved from an existing database. Patients were observed for 1 min every 10 min from 8 am to 5 pm. At each observation, the patient's highest level of physical activity, location and people present were recorded. Details of physiotherapy and occupational therapy sessions were recorded by the therapists. Proportion of the day spent physically inactive was lower in MI (n = 32, median 48%) than stroke (n = 125, median 59%) patients, but this difference was not significant in univariate or multivariate (adjusting for age, walking ability and days post-event) regression. Time spent physically active was higher in MI (median 23%) than stroke (median 10%) patients (p = 0.009), but this difference did not survive multivariate adjustment (p = 0.67). More stroke patients (78%) than MI patients (19%) participated in therapy. This study provides the first objective data on physical activity levels of acute MI patients. While they were more active than acute stroke patients, the difference was largely attributable to walking ability. Implications for rehabilitation In the first week after myocardial infarction, patients spent about half the day physically inactive (even though 81% were able to walk independently). Similar levels of inactivity were seen in a comparable cohort of acute stroke patients, suggesting that environmental factors play an important role. There appears to be wide scope for increasing levels of physical rehabilitation after acute cardiovascular events, though optimal timing and dose remain unclear.

  12. The Rest-Activity Rhythm and Physical Activity in Early-Onset Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghiemstra, A.M.; Eggermont, L.H.P.; Scheltens, P.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A substantial part of elderly persons with dementia show rest-activity rhythm disturbances. The rest-activity rhythm is important to study in people with early-onset dementia (EOD) for rest-activity rhythm disturbances are predictive of institutionalization, and caregivers of young

  13. A Strategy for Embedding Functional Motor and Early Numeracy Skill Instruction into Physical Education Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whinnery, Stacie B.; Whinnery, Keith W.; Eddins, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges educators face when attempting to find a balance between both functional and academic skill instruction for students with severe, multiple disabilities including motor impairments. The authors describe a strategy that employs embedded instruction of early numeracy and functional motor skills during physical…

  14. Psychosocial Correlates of Physical Dating Violence Victimization among Latino Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang A.; Howard, Donna E.; Beck, Kenneth H.; Shattuck, Teresa; Hallmark-Kerr, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between dating violence victimization and psychosocial risk and protective factors among Latino early adolescents. An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported survey was administered to a convenience sample of Latino youth (n = 322) aged 11 to 13 residing in suburban Washington, D.C. The dependent variable was…

  15. Physical Activity, Self-Regulation, and Early Academic Achievement in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Derek R.; McClelland, Megan M.; Loprinzi, Paul; Trost, Stewart G.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated whether active play during recess was associated with self-regulation and academic achievement in a prekindergarten sample. A total of 51 children in classes containing approximately half Head Start children were assessed on self-regulation, active play, and early academic achievement. Path…

  16. "Intensive Mothering" in the Early Years: The Cultivation and Consolidation of (Physical) Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirrup, Julie; Duncombe, Rebecca; Sandford, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Growing pressure on parents to equip their children with the skills required for future success, coupled with an increased focus on providing quality learning experiences in the early years, has contributed to an upsurge in the enrolment of young children in formal (often privatised) activities. Moreover, in response to growing societal concerns…

  17. Physical and Sexual Abuse and Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder in Youths Receiving Outpatient Services: Frequent, but Not Specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngstrom, Eric A.; Martinez, Maria; KogosYoungstrom, Jennifer; Scovil, Kelly; Ross, Jody; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if physical and sexual abuse showed relationships to early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD) consistent with findings from adult retrospective data. Participants (N=829, M= 10.9 years old ±3.4 SD, 60 % male, 69 % African American, and 18 % with BPSD), primarily from a low socio-economic status, presented to an urban community mental health center and a university research center. Physical abuse was reported in 21 %, sexual abuse in 20 %, and both physical and sexual abuse in 11 % of youths with BPSD. For youths without BPSD, physical abuse was reported in 16 %, sexual abuse in 15 %, and both physical and sexual abuse in 5 % of youths. Among youth with BPSD, physical abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe depressive and manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, a greater likelihood of suicidality, a greater likelihood of being diagnosed with PTSD, and more self-reports of alcohol or drug use. Among youth with BPSD, sexual abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, greater mood swings, more frequent episodes, more reports of past hospitalizations, and a greater number of current and past comorbid Axis I diagnoses. These findings suggest that if physical and/or sexual abuse is reported, clinicians should note that abuse appears to be related to increased severity of symptoms, substance use, greater co-morbidity, suicidality, and a worse family environment. PMID:25118660

  18. Family Socioeconomic Status, Cortisol, and Physical Health in Early Childhood: The Role of Advantageous Neighborhood Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubinov, Danielle S; Hagan, Melissa J; Boyce, W Thomas; Adler, Nancy E; Bush, Nicole R

    2018-06-01

    Children from families with lower socioeconomic status (SES) evidence greater physiological dysregulation and poorer health. Despite recognition of environmental contributors, little is known about the influence of neighborhood characteristics. The present study examined the moderating role of community-level risks and resources on the relation of family SES to children's daily cortisol output and physical health during the kindergarten year. In fall and spring of kindergarten, children's (N = 338) daily total cortisol was measured and parents and teachers rated children's global physical health. Parents reported family SES. Neighborhood characteristics were assessed using the Child Opportunity Index, a population-level tool that evaluates the quality of multiple domains of neighborhood attributes. In fall, children reared in lower SES family environments had higher cortisol when residing in lower quality (lower opportunity) neighborhoods (b = -.097, p family SES and children's cortisol in more advantaged (higher opportunity) neighborhoods (b = -.023, p = .36). Lower family SES was prospectively associated with poorer physical health in spring (controlling for fall health) only among children living in lower opportunity neighborhoods (b = -.250, p = .018) and was unrelated to physical health among children residing in higher opportunity neighborhoods (b = .042, p = .70). Higher opportunity neighborhoods may protect against the negative consequences of low family SES on children's stress physiology and physical health. Public health interventions that bolster neighborhood opportunities may benefit young children reared in socioeconomically disadvantaged family environments.

  19. Importance of early physical rehabilitation in improving functional state of vegetative nervous system of women with postmastectomy syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Odynets

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the expediency of early application of physical rehabilitation to improve the functional state of vegetative nervous system of women with postmastectomy syndrome. Material & Methods: theoretical analysis of scientific and methodical literature, analysis of heart rate variability, methods of mathematical statistics. The study involved 135 women with postmastectomy syndrome who underwent radical mastectomy for Madden. Results: at the end of the research value of high-frequency component of the spectrum was significantly higher in women MG1 compared to MG on 257,72 ms² (p<0,01 and the stress index was lower on 107,01 c. u (p<0,001. Conclusions: the feasibility of early rehabilitation intervention to improve the functional state of the autonomic nervous system is not detected during the year classes on problem-oriented programs.

  20. Physical and relational aggression in early adolescence: associations with narcissism, temperament, and social goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Findley, Danielle; Fuller, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study examined adolescent narcissism, temperament (frustration and affiliation), and social goals in association with peer-reported physical and relational aggression (N = 384; 12-14 years). Narcissism was positively associated with dominance goals and negatively with closeness goals for peer interaction. Moreover, narcissism was positively associated with physical aggression via dominance goals for boys, and with relational aggression via dominance goals for both genders. Temperamental frustration and affiliation were both positively associated with relational aggression, but also interacted in their associations with this variable; affiliation was positively associated with relational aggression only at high levels of frustration. Supporting and extending existing research, the present findings suggest that adolescent personality and social goals are meaningfully associated with physical and relational aggression in the peer context. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. An individually tailored behavioral medicine treatment in physical therapy for tension-type headache – an experimental single-case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderlund A

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anne Söderlund,1 Helena Lagerlöf2 1Physiotherapy, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, 2Fysiokliniken Västra Aros AB, Västerås, Sweden Aim: The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate the effect of an individually tailored behavioral medicine treatment in physical therapy, based on a functional behavioral analysis (FBA, for tension-type headache (TTH. Patients and methods: A single-case study with A1-A2-B-A3 design of two patients with TTH was conducted. Outcome variables were headache frequency, headache index (mean intensity, consumption of analgesics, self-efficacy in headache management (Headache Management Self-efficacy Scale [HMSE], disability, and perceived loss of happiness for ­activities with family and friends. Results: The results showed that headache frequency and headache index decreased for one of the patients. Self-efficacy in headache management increased markedly for both patients. Conclusion: A behavioral medicine treatment in physical therapy based on an FBA can be a way for physical therapists to handle patients with TTH. Future investigations should focus on large group studies with longer observation periods. Keywords: headache index, self-efficacy, loss of happiness, functional behavioral analysis

  2. Early-life predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity in midadulthood: findings from a prospective British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Much adult physical inactivity research ignores early-life factors from which later influences may originate. In the 1958 British birth cohort (followed from 1958 to 2008), leisure-time inactivity, defined as activity frequency of less than once a week, was assessed at ages 33, 42, and 50 years (n = 12,776). Early-life factors (at ages 0-16 years) were categorized into 3 domains (i.e., physical, social, and behavioral). We assessed associations of adult inactivity 1) with factors within domains, 2) with the 3 domains combined, and 3) allowing for adult factors. At each age, approximately 32% of subjects were inactive. When domains were combined, factors associated with inactivity (e.g., at age 50 years) were prepubertal stature (5% lower odds per 1-standard deviation higher height), hand control/coordination problems (14% higher odds per 1-point increase on a 4-point scale), cognition (10% lower odds per 1-standard deviation greater ability), parental divorce (21% higher odds), institutional care (29% higher odds), parental social class at child's birth (9% higher odds per 1-point reduction on a 4-point scale), minimal parental education (13% higher odds), household amenities (2% higher odds per increase (representing poorer amenities) on a 19-point scale), inactivity (8% higher odds per 1-point reduction in activity on a 4-point scale), low sports aptitude (13% higher odds), and externalizing behaviors (i.e., conduct problems) (5% higher odds per 1-standard deviation higher score). Adjustment for adult covariates weakened associations slightly. Factors from early life were associated with adult leisure-time inactivity, allowing for early identification of groups vulnerable to inactivity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Post-graduated course 'Basic aspects of medical physics in nuclear medicine': theoretical/practical intensive version: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Adlin; Gonzalez, Joaquin; Torres, Leonel; Fraxedas, Roberto; Varela, Consuelo; Freixas, Vivian.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Using national and international recommendation about human resource in nuclear medicine, a group of experts organized a national course for the education and training of physicist who works in Cuban hospital, adapted to national condition and practice of nuclear medicine. The program was approved for National Authorities in Nuclear Security and University School in Medicine and content three intensive theoretic and practical courses (15 days of full time duration each), complemented with 4 months full time in Nuclear Medicine Service monitored by accredited expert and 2 months at distance with practical task. The theoretical/practical intensive courses have final evaluation: combining practical exercise and write final test. When all docent activities finish the students should pass a final evaluation by a testing board composed for (at least) three accredited experts. The first theoretical/practical course included 19 physicists who work in hospital, the second 17 and the third 16 students. With 100 point of maximum score and 60 point minimum to pass, the partial final tests included: true or false choice (with 10 aspects to verify, 1 point/correct answer) and questions to write developed answer. The average result was 83.02 points/ students (range 65-100 points). The students evaluated satisfactory the quality of different courses (in anonymous poll), reporting like very good; the quality of conferences, excellent; the usefulness of different charters, very good; the support bibliography, and recommended the repetition of this kind of education and training in order to warranty the human resource, in the same way and content, and included others item in the future. Conclusion: the theoretical/practice intensive courses of this post-graduated course were successful and satisfied the objective of education and training of medical physicist in nuclear medicine. (author)

  4. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Treatment of Physical Health Problems Without a Known Cause, Exemplified by Hypertension and Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the medical clinic, we often face health problems that have no known cause, even after a thorough examination. Biomedicine is often unable to find a cure in these situations, leaving the problem unsolved or leaving the patient on a palliative pharmaceutical cure, which is often for a lifetime. In this case, consciousness-based, holistic medicine could be an alternative. Using the theories and tools of holistic medicine wisely, the physician can often provide treatment for the patient. The toolbox of holistic medicine makes it possible to work on everybody because there is always something related to the patients quality of life that can be improved: his love, his purpose of life, and the way he uses his talents, his mind, his feelings, his body, and his sexuality. For treatment in holistic medicine, it really does not matter as much that you cannot give the patient a precise medical diagnosis, because you can always work on the patient with the intention of healing his or her whole life and existence. It is quite a paradox that many of these diseases can be understood on the level of the individual patient at the same moment that the patient is cured; many of these diseases seem to be clearly related to the repression of the individual character, as stressed already by Hippocrates. So if you simply start working with the patient to help him confront old existential pain and coach him in his personal development of his life by intensifying its meaning and purpose, the symptoms very often simply disappear. The toolbox of holistic medicine also seems relevant to even difficult, neurotic, psychosomatic, and hypochondriac patients. Believing in the treatment and not giving up on your patient, and moving forward in the treatment with the patient himself is the ultimate goal, even when you yourself do not understand the mechanism fully. This will force you to develop your own competence and is, in essence, what makes an outstanding holistic

  5. Early and late physical and psychosocial effects of primary surgery in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Annelise; Jarden, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to explore early and late physical and psychosocial effects of primary surgery for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and to investigate the factors that influence these effects. PubMed, Cinahl, and PsycInfo were searched for studies concerning patients...... diagnosed with oral and oropharyngeal cancers and treated with primary surgery and which followed the treatment trajectory from time of diagnosis to 10 years after surgery; these studies reported the quantitative assessments and qualitative experiences of the patient's physical and psychosocial well...... in this review was 3386; of these, 1996 were treated by surgery alone and 1390 with combined surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. The studies showed that because of the nature of their disease, patients are negatively affected by the different types of surgical treatment for oral...

  6. Moxibustion in Early Chinese Medicine and Its Relation to the Origin of Meridians: A Study on the Unearthed Literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Moxibustion is an integral part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM. It achieved higher level of recognition and had more general application in ancient times than in contemporary life. As the vital historical sources, the records of unearthed literatures offered precious insights to Chinese social life pattern and medical practice in Qin and Han dynasties (221 BC–220 AD. There was no surprise that the bamboo and silk documents excavated from Mawangdui (马王堆 tomb, Hantanpo (旱滩坡 tomb, and other relics had a large amount of texts relevant to moxibustion. This research sorted moxibustion recordings from seven unearthed literatures and discovered that moxibustion had been developed into different modalities and utilized to treat many diseases at that time. In addition, the indications, contraindications of moxibustion, and the method of postmoxibustion care were also discussed. On this basis, some hints were provided to support the hypothesis that the practice of moxibustion led to the discovery of meridians. All our preliminary results in the research have drawn attention for this old therapy and given a new source for its application in clinic and scientific research.

  7. Role overload, pain and physical dysfunction in early rheumatoid or undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Sally; Looper Karl; Zelkowitz Phyllis; Purden Margaret; Baron Murray

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Inflammatory arthritis impairs participation in societal roles. Role overload arises when the demands by a given role set exceed the resources; time and energy, to carry out the required tasks. The present study examines the association between role overload and disease outcomes in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Methods Patients (n = 104) of 7.61 months mean duration of inflammatory arthritis completed self-report questionnaires on sociodemographics, disease character...

  8. Physical Activity Promotes Academic Achievement and a Healthy Lifestyle when Incorporated into Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, Ben R.; Brown, Stanley P.

    2010-01-01

    The detrimental effects of physical inactivity within children have enormous personal health consequences. These health conditions have the potential to impact the economic vitality of society as a whole. Studies have indicated that inactive children are far more likely to suffer from obesity, type II diabetes, and hypertension than their…

  9. Use of complementary and alternative medicine for physical performance, energy, immune function, and general health among older women and men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Elizabeth M; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N; Nies, Mary A; Racine, Elizabeth F

    2012-01-01

    We examined use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for health and well-being by older women and men. Data were from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey, representing 89.5 million Americans ages 50+. Multivariate logistic regression accounted for the survey design. For general health, 52 million people used CAM. The numbers for immune function, physical performance, and energy were 21.6, 15.9, and 10.1 million respectively. In adjusted results, women were much more likely than men to use CAM for all four reasons, especially energy. Older adults, particularly women, could benefit from research on CAM benefits and risks.

  10. Which psychological, social and physical environmental characteristics predict changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviors during early retirement? A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfien Van Dyck

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background In the context of healthy ageing, it is necessary to identify opportunities to implement health interventions in order to develop an active lifestyle with sufficient physical activity and limited sedentary time in middle-aged and older adults. The transition to retirement is such an opportunity, as individuals tend to establish new routines at the start of retirement. Before health interventions can be developed, the psychological, social and physical environmental determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviors during early retirement should be identified, ideally with longitudinal studies. The aim of this paper was first to examine whether psychological, social and physical environmental factors at the start of retirement predict longitudinal changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviors during the first years of retirement. Second, moderating effects of gender and educational levels were examined. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in Flanders, Belgium. In total, 180 recently retired (>1 month, <2 years at baseline adults completed a postal questionnaire twice (in 2012–2013 and two years later in 2014–2015. The validated questionnaire assessed socio-demographic information, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and psychological, social and physical environmental characteristics. Multiple moderated hierarchic regression analyses were conducted in SPSS 22.0. Results Higher perceived residential density (p < 0.001 and lower aesthetics (p = 0.08 predicted an increase in active transportation (adjusted R2 = 0.18. Higher baseline self-efficacy was associated with an increase in leisure-time physical activity (p = 0.001, adjusted R2 = 0.13. A more positive perception of old age (p = 0.04 and perceiving less street connectivity (p = 0.001 were associated with an increase in screen time (adjusted R2 = 0.06. Finally, higher baseline levels of modeling from friends (p = 0.06 and lower

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  12. The social representations of dance in physical education classes in the early years of primary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Schiebelbein Capri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey of social representations of dance in the context of School Physical Education. The survey was conducted in two city schools and two private schools in Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. The observation and the questionnaire were the instruments used to collect data. Five teachers of Physical Education and 331 students of Primary Education (5th year of Primary Education took part in the research. The results indicate that the social representations of dance teachers are related to holidays and anniversaries of the school and students, to pleasure and to musical preference. The practice of dance in the school has room for choreographic creations, June Festival rehearsals, and school presentations.

  13. Associations Between Cannabis Use and Physical Health Problems in Early Midlife: A Longitudinal Comparison of Persistent Cannabis vs Tobacco Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H; Caspi, Avshalom; Cerdá, Magdalena; Hancox, Robert J; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Poulton, Richie; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Thomson, W Murray; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2016-07-01

    After major policy changes in the United States, policymakers, health care professionals, and the general public seek information about whether recreational cannabis use is associated with physical health problems later in life. To test associations between cannabis use over 20 years and a variety of physical health indexes at early midlife. Participants belonged to a representative birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972 and 1973 and followed to age 38 years, with 95% retention (the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study). We tested whether cannabis use from ages 18 to 38 years was associated with physical health at age 38, even after controlling for tobacco use, childhood health, and childhood socioeconomic status. We also tested whether cannabis use from ages 26 to 38 years was associated with within-individual health decline using the same measures of health at both ages. We assessed frequency of cannabis use and cannabis dependence at ages 18, 21, 26, 32, and 38 years. We obtained laboratory measures of physical health (periodontal health, lung function, systemic inflammation, and metabolic health), as well as self-reported physical health, at ages 26 and 38 years. The 1037 study participants were 51.6% male (n = 535). Of these, 484 had ever used tobacco daily and 675 had ever used cannabis. Cannabis use was associated with poorer periodontal health at age 38 years and within-individual decline in periodontal health from ages 26 to 38 years. For example, cannabis joint-years from ages 18 to 38 years was associated with poorer periodontal health at age 38 years, even after controlling for tobacco pack-years (β = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.05-0.18; P accounting for periodontal health at age 26 years and tobacco pack-years (β = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.05-0.16; P problems. Unlike cannabis use, tobacco use was associated with worse lung function, systemic inflammation, and metabolic health at age 38 years, as well as within

  14. Physical activity and motor competence present a positive reciprocal longitudinal relationship across childhood and early adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Rodrigo Antunes; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Bugge, Anna; Møller, Niels Christian; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stodden, David F.

    2017-01-01

    I Brage finner du siste tekst-versjon av artikkelen, og den kan inneholde ubetydelige forskjeller fra forlagets pdf-versjon. Forlagets pdf-versjon finner du på humankinetics.com / In Brage you'll find the final text version of the article, and it may contain insignificant differences from the journal's pdf version. The definitive version is available at humankinetics.com Background: The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and moto...

  15. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  16. Can early physical therapy positively affect the onset of independent walking in infants with Down syndrome? A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Bruno; Sommella, Nadia; Ciardi, Gianluca; Raiano, Enza; Scala, Iris; Strisciuglio, Pietro; Servodio Iammarrone, Clemente

    2018-02-19

    The development of both gross and fine motor skills in a child with Down syndrome is generally delayed. The most seriously affected stage is the achievement of independent walking ability, which influences the onset of all following motor and cognityive skills. The study objectives were (a) to assess the time taken to achieve independent walking ability in a cohort of children with Down syndrome, (b) to examine differences in walking onset by patient characteristics, (c) to verify the effect of early physical therapy (Neurodevelopmental Treatment on the basis of Bobath Concept practised within the first months of life) in the achievement of that skill. A retrospective study was carried out on a cohort of 86 children with Down Syndrome. The knowledge of the exact age of walking onset and information about comorobities and rehabilitation practised since birth were the eligibility criteria. The average age at which walking began in the sample was 26 months (Standard Deviation = 9.66). Some patient characteristics proved to be related negatively to the walking onset: gender male, trisomy 21, improved joint ligamentous laxity. When practised, early physical therapy was able to contrast the delay in walking. NDT-Bobath is a well-known and valid instrument for a child with Down syndrome to attain his highest possible psychomotor functioning level. This study pointed out for the first time ever its capability to contrast the delay on walking onset, which can influences positively the development of the following motor and cognitive skills.

  17. Safeguards-by-Design: Early Integration of Physical Protection and Safeguardability into Design of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Bjornard; R. Bean; S. DeMuth; P. Durst; M. Ehinger; M. Golay; D. Hebditch; J. Hockert; J. Morgan

    2009-09-01

    The application of a Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process for new nuclear facilities has the potential to minimize proliferation and security risks as the use of nuclear energy expands worldwide. This paper defines a generic SBD process and its incorporation from early design phases into existing design / construction processes and develops a framework that can guide its institutionalization. SBD could be a basis for a new international norm and standard process for nuclear facility design. This work is part of the U.S. DOE’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), and is jointly sponsored by the Offices of Non-proliferation and Nuclear Energy.

  18. Exercise is medicine: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Jack W

    2010-01-01

    Much of the early information about exercise and medicine appeared in the ancient, medieval, and Renaissance medical literature in the context of the "six things nonnatural." These were the things that were under everyone's own control, directly influenced health, and became the central part of the new "physical education" movement in the early 19 century in the United States. They were known then as the "Laws of Health." Until the early 1900s, "physical education" was dominated by physicians who specialized in health and exercise. However, physical education changed to a games and sports curriculum led by coaches who introduced competition and athletic achievement into the classroom. As that happened, physicians disappeared from the profession. Through the last half of the twentieth century, as exercise became more central to public health, the medical community began to view exercise as part of lifestyle, a concept embracing what was once called the "six things nonnatural."

  19. CONSTRAINING GAMMA-RAY BURST EMISSION PHYSICS WITH EXTENSIVE EARLY-TIME, MULTIBAND FOLLOW-UP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchiara, A.; Cenko, S. B.; Bloom, J. S.; Morgan, A.; Perley, D. A.; Li, W.; Butler, N. R.; Filippenko, A. V.; Melandri, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Smith, R. J.; Mundell, C. G.; Steele, I. A.; Hora, J. L.; Da Silva, R. L.; Prochaska, J. X.; Worseck, G.; Fumagalli, M.; Milne, P. A.; Cobb, B.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the origin and diversity of emission processes responsible for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remains a pressing challenge. While prompt and contemporaneous panchromatic observations have the potential to test predictions of the internal-external shock model, extensive multiband imaging has been conducted for only a few GRBs. We present rich, early-time, multiband data sets for two Swift events, GRB 110205A and GRB 110213A. The former shows optical emission since the early stages of the prompt phase, followed by the steep rising in flux up to ∼1000 s after the burst (t –α with α = –6.13 ± 0.75). We discuss this feature in the context of the reverse-shock scenario and interpret the following single power-law decay as being forward-shock dominated. Polarization measurements, obtained with the RINGO2 instrument mounted on the Liverpool Telescope, also provide hints on the nature of the emitting ejecta. The latter event, instead, displays a very peculiar optical to near-infrared light curve, with two achromatic peaks. In this case, while the first peak is probably due to the onset of the afterglow, we interpret the second peak to be produced by newly injected material, signifying a late-time activity of the central engine.

  20. CONSTRAINING GAMMA-RAY BURST EMISSION PHYSICS WITH EXTENSIVE EARLY-TIME, MULTIBAND FOLLOW-UP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucchiara, A.; Cenko, S. B.; Bloom, J. S.; Morgan, A.; Perley, D. A.; Li, W.; Butler, N. R.; Filippenko, A. V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Melandri, A. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomicodi Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Saint Lucia) (Italy); Kobayashi, S.; Smith, R. J.; Mundell, C. G.; Steele, I. A. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead, CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Hora, J. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Da Silva, R. L.; Prochaska, J. X.; Worseck, G.; Fumagalli, M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Milne, P. A. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Cobb, B., E-mail: acucchia@ucolick.org [Department of Physics, George Washington University, Corcoran 105, 725 21st St, NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); and others

    2011-12-20

    Understanding the origin and diversity of emission processes responsible for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remains a pressing challenge. While prompt and contemporaneous panchromatic observations have the potential to test predictions of the internal-external shock model, extensive multiband imaging has been conducted for only a few GRBs. We present rich, early-time, multiband data sets for two Swift events, GRB 110205A and GRB 110213A. The former shows optical emission since the early stages of the prompt phase, followed by the steep rising in flux up to {approx}1000 s after the burst (t{sup -{alpha}} with {alpha} = -6.13 {+-} 0.75). We discuss this feature in the context of the reverse-shock scenario and interpret the following single power-law decay as being forward-shock dominated. Polarization measurements, obtained with the RINGO2 instrument mounted on the Liverpool Telescope, also provide hints on the nature of the emitting ejecta. The latter event, instead, displays a very peculiar optical to near-infrared light curve, with two achromatic peaks. In this case, while the first peak is probably due to the onset of the afterglow, we interpret the second peak to be produced by newly injected material, signifying a late-time activity of the central engine.

  1. Prospective associations between early childhood television exposure and academic, psychosocial, and physical well-being by middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Linda S; Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Barnett, Tracie A; Dubow, Eric

    2010-05-01

    To estimate the influence of early childhood television exposure on fourth-grade academic, psychosocial, and lifestyle characteristics. Prospective longitudinal study. Institut de la Statistique du Québec, Québec, Canada. A total of 1314 (of 2120) children. Main Exposure Parent-reported data on weekly hours of television exposure at 29 and 53 months of age. We conducted a series of ordinary least-squares regressions in which children's academic, psychosocial, and lifestyle characteristics are linearly regressed on early and preschool television exposure. Parent and teacher reports of academic, psychosocial, and health behaviors and body mass index measurements (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) at 10 years of age. Adjusting for preexisting individual and family factors, every additional hour of television exposure at 29 months corresponded to 7% and 6% unit decreases in classroom engagement (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.02 to -0.004) and math achievement (95% CI, -0.03 to 0.01), respectively; 10% unit increases in victimization by classmates (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.05); 13% unit decreases in time spent doing weekend physical activity (95% CI, 0.81 to 2.25); 9% unit decreases in activities involving physical effort (95% CI, -0.04 to 0.00); higher consumption scores for soft drinks and snacks by 9% and 10% (95% CI, 0.00 to 0.04 and 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.02), respectively; and 5% unit increases in body mass index (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.05). Preschool increments in exposure also made a unique contribution to developmental risk. The long-term risks associated with higher levels of early exposure may chart developmental pathways toward unhealthy dispositions in adolescence. A population-level understanding of such risks remains essential for promoting child development.

  2. Use of Allelopathic Traits of Several Medicinal Plants on Some Germination Characteristics and Early Growth of Wheat and Wild Oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Piraste Anoshe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem pollution and weed resistance to herbicides have led researchers to pay more attention to natural herbicides. To examine allelopathic effects of liquorice, rosemary, chamomile and eucalypt on germination characteristics and early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and wild oat (Avena fatua L., a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with 20 treatments and four replicates was conducted at Cereal Laboratory of College of Agricultural, Shiraz University, Iran in 2010. The results showed that rosemary essential oil had most negative effect on germination percentage (G%, seedling length (SL, radicle length (RL, shoot to root length ratio (S/R, relative water content (RWC and total water content (TWC. The lowest negative effect on G%, SL, RL and TWC was obtained from eucalypt essential oil and the least effect on RWC was observed from liquorice essential oil treatments. Most reduction on S/R was obtained from chamomile essential oil. The effect of stem essential oil on all measured traits, except G%, was more than leaf essential oil. Also wild oat was found to be more responsive than wheat to rosemary and chamomile essential oils. Considering these results, it appeared that control of wild oat by using such essential oil as rosemary and chamomile might be possible under some conditions with appropriate cautions.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging assessed inflammation in the wrist is associated with patient-reported physical impairment, global assessment of disease activity and pain in early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glinatsi, Daniel; Baker, Joshua F; Hetland, Merete L

    2017-01-01

    metacarpophalangeal joints in the analyses did not strengthen the associations between MRI pathology and PROs. CONCLUSIONS: MRI-assessed inflammation, but not damage, in early RA wrists is associated with patient-reported physical impairment, global assessment of disease activity and pain and influences the physical...

  4. The effects of early prevention programs for families with young children at risk for physical child abuse and neglect : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geeraert, L; Van den Noortgate, W; Grietens, H; Onghena, P

    In this article, a meta-analysis is presented on 40 evaluation studies of early prevention programs for families with young children at risk for physical child abuse and neglect with mostly nonrandomized designs. The main aim of all programs was to prevent physical child abuse and neglect by

  5. The Effect of Elective Rotations on the Self-assessment Examination Results of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Residents: Implications for Minimizing Educational Resource Disparities in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, I-Nan; Wu, Pei-Shen; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Lew, Henry L

    2017-08-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to assess whether a knowledge disparity existed between physical medicine and rehabilitation residents from community hospitals versus those from medical centers, before the introduction of short-term elective training at the end of 2008 and (2), if such disparity existed, to determine whether 1-month short-term elective training was associated with minimizing such disparity, as reflected in the self-assessment examination scores. Self-assessment examination scores from 2007-2016 were analyzed in each of the following three topics: (a) cardiac rehabilitation, (b) pulmonary rehabilitation, and (c) orthotics. Student's t tests were used to identify score discrepancies between both groups. (1) At baseline (2007-2008), trainees from community hospitals scored lower in all three topics (P < 0.05). (2) After the short-term elective training, follow-up comparisons showed no differences in either cardiac or pulmonary rehabilitation for 2009-2016. Regarding orthotics, trainees from both groups showed no significant differences for 2009-2010 and 2011-2012. Interestingly, for 2013-2014 and 2015-2016, trainees from medical centers scored higher again, but only in orthotics. (1) In 2007-2008, a knowledge disparity existed between physical medicine and rehabilitation residents from community hospitals and medical centers in Taiwan. (2) Short-term elective training was associated with minimizing such disparity from 2009-2016, especially in cardiac and pulmonary rehabilitation.

  6. The practice of physical medicine and rehabilitation in sub-Saharan Africa and Antarctica: a white paper or a black mark?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Andrew J; Im, Jonathan; Adewole, Adodeji; Nelson, Virginia S; Krabek, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The medical specialty of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) has had a proven impact on persons with disability and on healthcare systems. Documents such as The White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine in Europe have been important in defining the scope of practice within various regions. However in some continents the practice has not been well defined. To explore the practice of PM&R in sub-Saharan Africa and Antarctica. Medline searches, membership data searches, fax survey of medical schools, Internet searches and interviews with experts. The continents are dissimilar in terms of climate and government. However both Antarctica and sub-Saharan Africa have no PM&R training programs, no professional organisations, no specialty board requirements and no practicing physicians in the field. Since there are no known disabled children in Antarctica and adults are airlifted to world-class health care, the consequences of this deficit are minimal there. However, the 788,000,000 permanent residents of sub-Saharan Africa including approximately 78 million persons with disability are left unserved. Antarctica is doing fine. Africa is in a crisis. Local medical schools, hospitals doctors, and persons with disability; along with foreign volunteers, aid groups and policymakers can impact the crisis. However government--specifically national ministries of health--is ultimately responsible for the health and well-being of citizens.

  7. The practice of physical medicine and rehabilitation in subSaharan Africa and Antarctica: A white paper or a black mark?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Andrew J; Im, Jonathan; Adewole, Ayodeji; Nelson, Virgina S; Krabak, Brian

    2009-05-01

    The medical specialty of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) has had a proven impact on persons with disability and on health care systems. Documents such as The White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine in Europe have been important in defining the scope of practice within various regions. However, on some continents, the practice has not been well defined. To explore the practice of PM&R in subSaharan Africa and Antarctica. Medline searches, membership data searches, fax survey of medical schools, Internet searches, and interviews with experts. The continents are dissimilar in terms of climate and government. However both Antarctica and subSaharan Africa have no PM&R training programs, no professional organizations, no specialty board requirements, and no practicing physicians in the field. Because there are no known disabled children on Antarctica and adults are airlifted to world-class health care, the consequences of this deficit are minimal there. However, the 788,000,000 permanent residents of subSaharan Africa, including approximately 78 million persons with disability, are left unserved. Antarctica is doing fine. Africa is in a crisis. Local medical schools, hospitals doctors, and persons with disability; along with foreign volunteers, aid groups, and policymakers can impact the crisis. However government-specifically national ministries of health-is ultimately responsible for the health and wellbeing of citizens.

  8. Developing post-disaster physical rehabilitation: role of the World Health Organization Liaison Sub-Committee on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosney, James; Reinhardt, Jan Dietrich; Haig, Andrew J; Li, Jianan

    2011-11-01

    This special report presents the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) Liaison Sub-Committee on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief (CRDR) of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM) in developing an enhanced physical rehabilitation relief response to large-scale natural disasters. The CRDR has stated that disaster rehabilitation is an emerging subspecialty within physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM). In reviewing the existing literature it was found that large natural disasters result in many survivors with disabling impairments, that these survivors may have better clinical outcomes when they are treated by PRM physicians and teams of rehabilitation professionals, that the delivery of these rehabilitation services to disaster sites is complicated, and that their absence can result in significant negative consequences for individuals, communities and society. To advance its agenda, the CRDR sponsored an inaugural Symposium on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief as a concurrent scientific session at the 2011 ISPRM 6th World Congress in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The symposium included oral and poster presentations on a range of relevant topics and concluded with an international non-governmental organization panel discussion that addressed the critical question "How can rehabilitation actors coordinate better in disaster?" Building upon the symposium, the CRDR is developing a disaster rehabilitation evidence-base, which will inform and educate the global professional rehabilitation community about needs and best practices in disaster rehabilitation. The Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine (JRM) has commissioned this special report to announce a series of papers on disaster rehabilitation from the symposium's scientific programme. Authors are invited to submit papers on the topic for inclusion in this special series. JRM also encourages expert commentary in the form of Letters to the Editor.

  9. Physical activity and motor competence present a positive reciprocal longitudinal relationship across childhood and early adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Rodrigo Antunes; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Bugge, Anna; Møller, Niels Christian; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stodden, David F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. Methods: This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS), with 3 measuring points [mean ages (in years) and respective sample size: 6.75 ± 0.37, n = 696; 9.59 ± 1.07, n = 617; 13.35 ± 0.34, n = 513]. PA was assessed using accelerometers. ...

  10. Feasibility and safety of early combined cognitive and physical therapy for critically ill medical and surgical patients: the Activity and Cognitive Therapy in ICU (ACT-ICU) trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, N.E.; Girard, T.D.; Ely, E.W.; Pandharipande, P.P.; Morandi, A.; Hughes, C.G.; Graves, A.J.; Shintani, A.K.; Murphy, E.; Work, B.; Pun, B.T.; Boehm, L.; Gill, T.M.; Dittus, R.S.; Jackson, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Cognitive impairment after critical illness is common and debilitating. We developed a cognitive therapy program for critically ill patients and assessed the feasibility and safety of administering combined cognitive and physical therapy early during a critical illness. METHODS We randomized 87 medical and surgical ICU patients with respiratory failure and/or shock in a 1:1:2 manner to three groups: usual care, early once-daily physical therapy, or early once-daily physical therapy plus a novel, progressive, twice-daily cognitive therapy protocol. Cognitive therapy included orientation, memory, attention, and problem solving exercises, and other activities. We assessed feasibility outcomes of the early cognitive plus physical therapy intervention. At 3-months, we also assessed cognitive, functional and health-related quality of life outcomes. Data are presented as median [interquartile range] or frequency (%). RESULTS Early cognitive therapy was a delivered to 41/43 (95%) of cognitive plus physical therapy patients on 100% [92–100%] of study days beginning 1.0 [1.0–1.0] day following enrollment. Physical therapy was received by 17/22 (77%) of usual care patients, by 21/22 (95%) of physical therapy only patients and 42/43 (98%) of cognitive plus physical therapy patients on 17% [10–26%], 67% [46–87%] and 75% [59–88%] of study days, respectively. Cognitive, functional and health-related quality of life outcomes did not differ between groups at 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS This pilot study demonstrates that early rehabilitation can be extended beyond physical therapy to include cognitive therapy. Future work to determine optimal patient selection, intensity of treatment and benefits of cognitive therapy in the critically ill is needed. PMID:24257969

  11. Early Prediction of Disease Progression in Small Cell Lung Cancer: Toward Model-Based Personalized Medicine in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buil-Bruna, Núria; Sahota, Tarjinder; López-Picazo, José-María; Moreno-Jiménez, Marta; Martín-Algarra, Salvador; Ribba, Benjamin; Trocóniz, Iñaki F

    2015-06-15

    Predictive biomarkers can play a key role in individualized disease monitoring. Unfortunately, the use of biomarkers in clinical settings has thus far been limited. We have previously shown that mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling enables integration of nonvalidated biomarker data to provide predictive model-based biomarkers for response classification. The biomarker model we developed incorporates an underlying latent variable (disease) representing (unobserved) tumor size dynamics, which is assumed to drive biomarker production and to be influenced by exposure to treatment. Here, we show that by integrating CT scan data, the population model can be expanded to include patient outcome. Moreover, we show that in conjunction with routine medical monitoring data, the population model can support accurate individual predictions of outcome. Our combined model predicts that a change in disease of 29.2% (relative standard error 20%) between two consecutive CT scans (i.e., 6-8 weeks) gives a probability of disease progression of 50%. We apply this framework to an external dataset containing biomarker data from 22 small cell lung cancer patients (four patients progressing during follow-up). Using only data up until the end of treatment (a total of 137 lactate dehydrogenase and 77 neuron-specific enolase observations), the statistical framework prospectively identified 75% of the individuals as having a predictable outcome in follow-up visits. This included two of the four patients who eventually progressed. In all identified individuals, the model-predicted outcomes matched the observed outcomes. This framework allows at risk patients to be identified early and therapeutic intervention/monitoring to be adjusted individually, which may improve overall patient survival. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Objectively recorded physical activity in early pregnancy: a multiethnic population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsen, S; Richardsen, K R; Mørkrid, K; Sletner, L; Birkeland, K I; Jenum, A K

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to compare objectively recorded physical activity (PA) levels and walking steps among pregnant women. Cross-sectional data from a multiethnic cohort (n = 823) of pregnant women consisting of 44% from Western countries, 24% from South Asia, 14% from Middle East, and 18% from other countries. PA and steps were recorded by the activity monitor SenseWear™ Pro3 Armband. A total of 678 women were included in the analysis. Western women walked significantly more steps and had higher moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) levels compared with South Asian women per weekday and weekend day. Interaction terms (P = 0.008) between ethnicity (Western vs South Asian) and parity, and education, respectively, were identified: having ≥ 1 children was positively associated with steps during weekends in South Asians in contrast to Western women. Having pregnancy and South Asian women without children and with higher education may have an elevated risk for an inactive lifestyle during pregnancy. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. From Student of Physics to Historian of Science: T.S. Kuhn's Education and Early Career, 1940-1958

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufbauer, Karl

    2012-12-01

    I first show that Kuhn came to have doubts about physics soon after entering college but did not make up his mind to leave the discipline until 1947-1948 when a close association with Harvard's President James B. Conant convinced him of the desirability of an alternative career in the history of science. I go on to maintain that it was realistic for Kuhn to prepare for such a career in essentially autodidactic ways both because he enjoyed Conant's patronage and because he could expect that his credentials in physics would be an asset in this relatively young interdisciplinary specialty. I then suggest that it was through his work as a teacher, researcher, and journeyman gatekeeper in the history of science that Kuhn gradually came to identify with the field. Finally, I argue that his training in physics, his teaching of general-education courses, and his hopes of influencing current philosophy of science helped shape his early practice as a historian of science. By way of epilogue, I briefly consider Kuhn's path from his tenuring at Berkeley in 1958 to the appearance of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962.

  14. Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold David McIntyre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n=13 versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone support; n=15. Baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD were: Age  33±4  years; Weight 80 ± 20 kg and Body Mass Index (BMI 30.0±9.7 kg/m2. The primary outcome, planned physical activity {Median (Range}, increased by 60 (0–540 mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0–580 mins/week in the UC group (P=0.234. Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period.

  15. Inhibitory effects of inhaled complex traditional Chinese medicine on early and late asthmatic responses induced by ovalbumin in sensitized guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Cheng-Chung

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many formulae of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs have been used for antiasthma treatment dating back many centuries. There is evidence to suggest that TCMs are effective as a cure for this allergenic disease administered via gastric tubes in animal studies; however, their efficacy, safety and side effects as an asthmatic therapy are still unclear. Methods In this study, guinea pigs sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA were used as an animal model for asthma challenge, and the sensitization of animals by bronchial reactivity to methacholine (Mch and the IgE concentration in the serum after OVA challenge were estimated. Complex traditional Chinese herbs (CTCM were administered to the animals by nebulization, and the leukocytes were evaluated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Results The results showed that inhalation of CTCM could abolish the increased lung resistance (13-fold increase induced by challenge with OVA in the early asthmatic response (EAR, reducing to as low as baseline (1-fold. Moreover, our results indicated higher IgE levels (range, 78-83 ng/ml in the serum of sensitized guinea pigs than in the unsensitized controls (0.9 ± 0.256 ng/ml. In addition, increased total leukocytes and higher levels of eosinophils and neutrophils were seen 6 hours after challenge, and the increased inflammatory cells were reduced by treatment with CTCM inhalation. The interleukin-5 (IL-5 level in BALF was also reduced by CTCM. Conclusion Our findings indicate a novel method of administering traditional Chinese medicines for asthma treatment in an animal model that may be more effective than traditional methods.

  16. [The contradictive tendencies in medical treatment of the Hellenistic age--diversity versus simplification, chronic extension (physical therapy) versus rapidity, humane medicine versus worldly success].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jayoung

    2008-06-01

    It is a one-sided view to find the greatness of Hippocrates just in seeking after scientific medicine (medicina scientia) and sublating superstitious treatment. The scientific medicine did not begin with him, and the succeeding generations of him were not one and the same in opinions. For example, there were the confrontations between the school of Kos and that of Knidos in the very age of Hippocrates, as well as the opposition of rationalism and empiricism. The school of Kos was alleged to succeed the tradition of Hippocrates, taking into consideration individual physical conditions and being based on the principle of various clinical methods of physical therapy assuming chronical extension. On the contrary, the school of Knidos tended to define the diseases in simple aspects, paying no much attention to the difference of physical conditions and developmental stages of illness. Futhermore, the latter grasped the diseases rather in the point of individual organs than the disorder of physical state of the body. It can be said that the anatomical knowledge was more useful for the school of Knidos. The difference between the two schools can also be found in what purpose the medicine sought after. While Hippocrates attached much importance to physical therapy and made the people including the poor as object of medical treatment, there were doctors in no small number, we can suppose, in pursuit of money, power, worldly glory. As time passed, however, the two schools gradually got similar to each other, the difference of them reduced as well as the tradition of Hippocrates faded. The opposition between rationalism and empiricism in the Hellenistic Age shared, in some aspect, the difference of Kos and Knidos. According to Celsus, the conflict between rationalism and empiricism did not refer to pharmacy or anatomy, but just to diet. The rationalism materialized various methods of therapy considering environmental elements as well as individual physical conditions, but the

  17. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  18. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  19. Gene expression profiling of porcine skeletal muscle in the early recovery phase following acute physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeanette; Conley, Lene; Hedegaard, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Acute physical activity elicits changes in gene expression in skeletal muscles to promote metabolic changes and to repair exercise-induced muscle injuries. In the present time-course study, pigs were submitted to an acute bout of treadmill running until near exhaustion to determine the impact...... associated with proteolytic events, such as the muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1, were significantly upregulated, suggesting that protein breakdown, prevention of protein aggregation and stabilization of unfolded proteins are important processes for restoration of cellular homeostasis. We also...... detected an upregulation of genes that are associated with muscle cell proliferation and differentiation, including MUSTN1, ASB5 and CSRP3, possibly reflecting activation, differentiation and fusion of satellite cells to facilitate repair of muscle damage. In addition, exercise increased expression...

  20. WE-D-213-04: Preparing for Parts 2 & 3 of the ABR Nuclear Medicine Physics Exam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, R.

    2015-01-01

    Adequate, efficient preparation for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medical Physics exams is key to successfully obtain ABR professional certification. Each part of the ABR exam presents its own challenges: Part I: Determine the scope of basic medical physics study material, efficiently review this material, and solve related written questions/problems. Part II: Understand imaging principles, modalities, and systems, including image acquisition, processing, and display. Understand the relationship between imaging techniques, image quality, patient dose and safety, and solve related written questions/problems. Part III: Gain crucial, practical, clinical medical physics experience. Effectively communicate and explain the practice, performance, and significance of all aspects of clinical medical physics. All three parts of the ABR exam require specific skill sets and preparation: mastery of basic physics and imaging principles; written problem solving often involving rapid calculation; responding clearly and succinctly to oral questions about the practice, methods, and significance of clinical medical physics. This symposium focuses on the preparation and skill sets necessary for each part of the ABR exam. Although there is some overlap, the nuclear exam covers a different body of knowledge than the diagnostic exam. A separate speaker will address those aspects that are unique to the nuclear exam. Medical physicists who have recently completed each of part of the ABR exam will share their experiences, insights, and preparation methods to help attendees best prepare for the challenges of each part of the ABR exam. In accordance with ABR exam security policy, no recalls or exam questions will be discussed. Learning Objectives: How to prepare for Part 1 of the ABR exam by determining the scope of basic medical physics study material and related problem solving/calculations How to Prepare for Part 2 of the ABR exam by understanding diagnostic and/or nuclear imaging physics

  1. WE-D-213-04: Preparing for Parts 2 & 3 of the ABR Nuclear Medicine Physics Exam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDougall, R. [Children’s Hospital (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Adequate, efficient preparation for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medical Physics exams is key to successfully obtain ABR professional certification. Each part of the ABR exam presents its own challenges: Part I: Determine the scope of basic medical physics study material, efficiently review this material, and solve related written questions/problems. Part II: Understand imaging principles, modalities, and systems, including image acquisition, processing, and display. Understand the relationship between imaging techniques, image quality, patient dose and safety, and solve related written questions/problems. Part III: Gain crucial, practical, clinical medical physics experience. Effectively communicate and explain the practice, performance, and significance of all aspects of clinical medical physics. All three parts of the ABR exam require specific skill sets and preparation: mastery of basic physics and imaging principles; written problem solving often involving rapid calculation; responding clearly and succinctly to oral questions about the practice, methods, and significance of clinical medical physics. This symposium focuses on the preparation and skill sets necessary for each part of the ABR exam. Although there is some overlap, the nuclear exam covers a different body of knowledge than the diagnostic exam. A separate speaker will address those aspects that are unique to the nuclear exam. Medical physicists who have recently completed each of part of the ABR exam will share their experiences, insights, and preparation methods to help attendees best prepare for the challenges of each part of the ABR exam. In accordance with ABR exam security policy, no recalls or exam questions will be discussed. Learning Objectives: How to prepare for Part 1 of the ABR exam by determining the scope of basic medical physics study material and related problem solving/calculations How to Prepare for Part 2 of the ABR exam by understanding diagnostic and/or nuclear imaging physics

  2. MO-F-204-04: Preparing for Parts 2 & 3 of the ABR Nuclear Medicine Physics Exam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, R.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate, efficient preparation for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medical Physics exams is key to successfully obtain ABR certification. Each part of the ABR exam presents its own challenges: Part I: Determine the scope of basic medical physics study material, efficiently review this material, and solve related written questions/problems. Part II: Understand imaging principles, modalities, and systems, including image acquisition, processing, and display. Understand the relationship between imaging techniques, image quality, patient dose and safety, and solve related written questions/problems. Part III: Gain crucial, practical, clinical medical physics experience. Effectively communicate and explain the practice, performance, and significance of all aspects of clinical medical physics. All parts of the ABR exam require specific skill sets and preparation: mastery of basic physics and imaging principles; written problem solving often involving rapid calculation; responding clearly and succinctly to oral questions about the practice, methods, and significance of clinical medical physics. This symposium focuses on the preparation necessary for each part of the ABR exam. Although there is some overlap, the nuclear exam covers a different body of knowledge than the diagnostic exam. A separate speaker will address those unique aspects of the nuclear exam, and how preparing for a second specialty differs from the first. Medical physicists who recently completed each ABR exam portion will share their experiences, insights, and preparation methods to help attendees best prepare for the challenges of each part of the ABR exam. In accordance with ABR exam security policy, no recalls or exam questions will be discussed. Learning Objectives: How to prepare for Part 1 of the ABR exam by determining the scope of basic medical physics study material and related problem solving/calculations How to prepare for Part 2 of the ABR exam by understanding diagnostic and/or nuclear

  3. MO-F-204-04: Preparing for Parts 2 & 3 of the ABR Nuclear Medicine Physics Exam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDougall, R. [Boston Children’s Hospital (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Adequate, efficient preparation for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medical Physics exams is key to successfully obtain ABR certification. Each part of the ABR exam presents its own challenges: Part I: Determine the scope of basic medical physics study material, efficiently review this material, and solve related written questions/problems. Part II: Understand imaging principles, modalities, and systems, including image acquisition, processing, and display. Understand the relationship between imaging techniques, image quality, patient dose and safety, and solve related written questions/problems. Part III: Gain crucial, practical, clinical medical physics experience. Effectively communicate and explain the practice, performance, and significance of all aspects of clinical medical physics. All parts of the ABR exam require specific skill sets and preparation: mastery of basic physics and imaging principles; written problem solving often involving rapid calculation; responding clearly and succinctly to oral questions about the practice, methods, and significance of clinical medical physics. This symposium focuses on the preparation necessary for each part of the ABR exam. Although there is some overlap, the nuclear exam covers a different body of knowledge than the diagnostic exam. A separate speaker will address those unique aspects of the nuclear exam, and how preparing for a second specialty differs from the first. Medical physicists who recently completed each ABR exam portion will share their experiences, insights, and preparation methods to help attendees best prepare for the challenges of each part of the ABR exam. In accordance with ABR exam security policy, no recalls or exam questions will be discussed. Learning Objectives: How to prepare for Part 1 of the ABR exam by determining the scope of basic medical physics study material and related problem solving/calculations How to prepare for Part 2 of the ABR exam by understanding diagnostic and/or nuclear

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  5. Early Exposure to Environmental Chaos and Children’s Physical and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Kull, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Environmental chaos has been proposed as a central influence impeding children’s health and development, with the potential for particularly pernicious effects during the earliest years when children are most susceptible to environmental insults. This study evaluated a high-risk sample, following 495 low-income children living in poor urban neighborhoods from infancy to age 6. Longitudinal multilevel models tested the main tenets of the ecobiodevelopmental theory, finding that: (1) numerous distinct domains of environmental chaos were associated with children’s physical and mental health outcomes, including housing disorder, neighborhood disorder, and relationship instability, with no significant results for residential instability; (2) different patterns emerged in relation to the timing of exposure to chaos, with more proximal exposure most strongly associated with children’s functioning; and (3) the intensity of chaos also was a robust predictor of child functioning. Contrary to expectations, neither biological vulnerability (proxied through low birth weight status), maternal sensitivity, nor maternal distress moderated the role of chaos. Rather, maternal psychological distress functioned as a pathway through which environmental chaos was associated with children’s functioning. PMID:25844016

  6. Early Exposure to Environmental Chaos and Children's Physical and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Kull, Melissa

    Environmental chaos has been proposed as a central influence impeding children's health and development, with the potential for particularly pernicious effects during the earliest years when children are most susceptible to environmental insults. This study evaluated a high-risk sample, following 495 low-income children living in poor urban neighborhoods from infancy to age 6. Longitudinal multilevel models tested the main tenets of the ecobiodevelopmental theory, finding that: (1) numerous distinct domains of environmental chaos were associated with children's physical and mental health outcomes, including housing disorder, neighborhood disorder, and relationship instability, with no significant results for residential instability; (2) different patterns emerged in relation to the timing of exposure to chaos, with more proximal exposure most strongly associated with children's functioning; and (3) the intensity of chaos also was a robust predictor of child functioning. Contrary to expectations, neither biological vulnerability (proxied through low birth weight status), maternal sensitivity, nor maternal distress moderated the role of chaos. Rather, maternal psychological distress functioned as a pathway through which environmental chaos was associated with children's functioning.

  7. Variability in soil-water retention properties and implications for physics-based simulation of landslide early warning criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Matthew A.; Mirus, Benjamin B.; Collins, Brian D.; Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2018-01-01

    Rainfall-induced shallow landsliding is a persistent hazard to human life and property. Despite the observed connection between infiltration through the unsaturated zone and shallow landslide initiation, there is considerable uncertainty in how estimates of unsaturated soil-water retention properties affect slope stability assessment. This source of uncertainty is critical to evaluating the utility of physics-based hydrologic modeling as a tool for landslide early warning. We employ a numerical model of variably saturated groundwater flow parameterized with an ensemble of texture-, laboratory-, and field-based estimates of soil-water retention properties for an extensively monitored landslide-prone site in the San Francisco Bay Area, CA, USA. Simulations of soil-water content, pore-water pressure, and the resultant factor of safety show considerable variability across and within these different parameter estimation techniques. In particular, we demonstrate that with the same permeability structure imposed across all simulations, the variability in soil-water retention properties strongly influences predictions of positive pore-water pressure coincident with widespread shallow landsliding. We also find that the ensemble of soil-water retention properties imposes an order-of-magnitude and nearly two-fold variability in seasonal and event-scale landslide susceptibility, respectively. Despite the reduced factor of safety uncertainty during wet conditions, parameters that control the dry end of the soil-water retention function markedly impact the ability of a hydrologic model to capture soil-water content dynamics observed in the field. These results suggest that variability in soil-water retention properties should be considered for objective physics-based simulation of landslide early warning criteria.

  8. Applications of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  9. Applications of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  10. Environmental medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steneberg, A.

    1996-01-01

    'Environmental medicine' deals with the manifold health problems from environmental factors of chemical, physical and psychosocial origin that are possible or have been observed. The book gives insight into the current state of knowledge of environmental medicine institutions, possibilities of diagnosis and therapeutic methods. It offers a systematic overview of pollutant sources and pollutant effects and points out, inter alia, syndromes that are discussed in connection with environmental factors: not only allergies and carcinogenous diseases but also symptom complexes that are hard to diagnose by ordinary methods such as the sick-building syndrome, multiple sensitivity to chemicals, electrosensitivity, amalgam intoxications, disorders due to wood preservatives and fungal diseases. The lingering course of a disease and a set of symptoms varying from one patient to another are the rule, not the exception, because environmental diseases are due above all to the chronic uptake of low pollutant doses (orig./MG) [de

  11. Do mental health problems in childhood predict chronic physical conditions among males in early adulthood? Evidence from a community-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, R D; Sourander, A; Duarte, C S; Niemelä, S; Multimäki, P; Nikolakaros, G; Helenius, H; Piha, J; Kumpulainen, K; Moilanen, I; Tamminen, T; Almqvist, F

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have documented associations between mental and physical health problems in cross-sectional studies, yet little is known about these relationships over time or the specificity of these associations. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between mental health problems in childhood at age 8 years and physical disorders in adulthood at ages 18-23 years. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between childhood mental health problems, reported by child, parent and teacher, and physical disorders diagnosed by a physician in early adulthood. Significant linkages emerged between childhood mental health problems and obesity, atopic eczema, epilepsy and asthma in early adulthood. Specifically, conduct problems in childhood were associated with a significantly increased likelihood of obesity and atopic eczema; emotional problems were associated with an increased likelihood of epilepsy and asthma; and depression symptoms at age 8 were associated with an increased risk of asthma in early adulthood. Our findings provide the first evidence of an association between mental health problems during childhood and increased risk of specific physical health problems, mainly asthma and obesity, during early adulthood, in a representative sample of males over time. These data suggest that behavioral and emotional problems in childhood may signal vulnerability to chronic physical health problems during early adulthood.

  12. Biocompatibility of two model elastin-like recombinamer-based hydrogels formed through physical or chemical cross-linking for various applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Fonseca, Arturo; Ramos, Teresa L; González de Torre, Israel; Sánchez-Abarca, Luis Ignacio; Muntión, Sandra; Arias, Francisco Javier; Del Cañizo, María Consuelo; Alonso, Matilde; Sánchez-Guijo, Fermín; Rodríguez-Cabello, José Carlos

    2018-03-01

    Biocompatibility studies, especially innate immunity induction, in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity, and fibrosis, are often lacking for many novel biomaterials including recombinant protein-based ones, such as elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs), and has not been extensively explored in the scientific literature, in contrast to traditional biomaterials. Herein, we present the results from a set of experiments designed to elucidate the preliminary biocompatibility of 2 types of ELRs that are able to form extracellular matrix-like hydrogels through either physical or chemical cross-linking both of which are intended for different applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Initially, we present in vitro cytocompatibility results obtained upon culturing human umbilical vein endothelial cells on ELR substrates, showing optimal proliferation up to 9 days. Regarding in vivo cytocompatibility, luciferase-expressing hMSCs were viable for at least 4 weeks in terms of bioluminescence emission when embedded in ELR hydrogels and injected subcutaneously into immunosuppressed mice. Furthermore, both types of ELR-based hydrogels were injected subcutaneously in immunocompetent mice and serum TNFα, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, confirming the lack of inflammatory response, as also observed upon macroscopic and histological evaluation. All these findings suggest that both types of ELRs possess broad biocompatibility, thus making them very promising for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine-related applications. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Importance of physical examination in early detection of lump in breast in women of different age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, H.; Imran, S.; Waris, Noorul-ain-Hafeez; Khanam, A.; Khurshid, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The spectrum of breast lesions in adolescents varies markedly from that for adults, with the former lesions being overwhelmingly benign. Fine needle biopsy can be used to distinguish benign and malignant tumour. Study Design: This study examined the characteristics and outcome of women with different age groups in whom physical examination was their sole method of lump in breast detection. Patients and Methods: A total of 200 patients were included in the study. These were divided into 3 groups. Group A was consisting of 75 girls with age of pubescent. Group B included 69 suspected breast cancer women with age range 26-38 years. Fifty-six suspected breast cancer women with age range 41-60 year were included as group C. Study was carried out in patients admitted in the Department/Out-door of Surgery, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Study period was 6 months. All women received a physical examination by a breast surgeon. Proforma including demographic and clinical characteristics were filled. The diagnosis for patients in this study was achieved by core needle biopsy using a 14-gauge cutting needle. Results: It was observed that early age at menarche ( 25 may be a risk factor in peri/post menopausal women. Active life style is more important with increasing age as it decreases the risk of developing tumour state. Family history was more common in women with peri/post menopausal status as compared to other age groups. Clinical characteristics showed that lump size <2.5 cm was more common in both pubescent and reproductive age. While lump size with a range of 2.5-5.0 cm, was observed in all groups of patients. Fibroadenoma is observed in almost all women with pubescent age while both benign and malignant tumour observed in women with reproductive age. Malignant tumour was observed mostly in women with peri/post menopausal status. Conclusion: Study concluded that early detection or clinical examination with FNA cut out the patients from harassment

  14. Healing, Mental Energy in the Physics Classroom: Energy Conceptions and Trust in Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Grade 10-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedholm, Annika M.; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2013-03-01

    Lay conceptions of energy often conflict with scientific knowledge, hinder science learning and scientific literacy, and provide a basis for ungrounded beliefs. In a sample of Finnish upper secondary school students, energy was attributed with features of living and animate beings and thought of as a mental property. These ontologically confused conceptions (OCC) were associated with trust in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and independent of scientifically valid conceptions. Substance-based energy conceptions followed the correlational pattern of OCC, rather than scientific conceptions. OCC and CAM decreased both during the regular school physics curriculum and after a lesson targeted at the ontological confusions. OCC and CAM were slightly less common among students with high actively open-minded thinking, low trust in intuition and high need for cognition. The findings are discussed in relation to the goals of scientific education.

  15. White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe. Chapter 9. Education and continuous professional development: shaping the future of PRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM), this paper deals with the education of PRM physicians in Europe. To acquire the wide field of competence needed, specialists in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine have to undergo a well organised and appropriately structured training of adequate duration. In fact they are required to develop not only medical knowledge, but also competence in patient care, specific procedural skills, and attitudes towards interpersonal relationship and communication, profound understanding of the main principles of medical ethics and public health, ability to apply policies of care and prevention for disabled people, capacity to master strategies for reintegration of disabled people into society, apply principles of quality assurance and promote a practice-based continuous professional development. This paper provides updated detailed information about the education and training of specialists, delivers recommendations concerning the standards required at a European level, in agreement with the UEMS rules of creating a Common Training Framework, that consists of a common set of knowledge, skills and competencies for postgraduate training. The role of the European PRM Board is highlighted as a body aimed at ensuring the highest standards of medical training and health care across Europe and the harmonization of PRM physicians' qualifications. To this scope, the theoretical knowledge necessary for the practice of PRM specialty and the core competencies (training outcomes) to be achieved at the end of training have been established and the postgraduate PRM core curriculum has been added. Undergraduate training of medical students is also focused, being considered a mandatory element for the growth of both PRM specialty and the medical community as a whole, mainly in front of the future challenges of the ageing population and the increase of disability in our continent. Finally, the problems of continuing

  16. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  17. Early risk pathways to physical versus relational peer aggression: The interplay of externalizing behavior and corporal punishment varies by child sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulauf, Courtney A; Sokolovsky, Alexander W; Grabell, Adam S; Olson, Sheryl L

    2018-03-01

    Children who aggress against their peers may use physical or relational forms, yet little research has looked at early childhood risk factors and characteristics that uniquely predict high levels of relational versus physical aggression in preadolescence. Accordingly, the main aim of our study was to link early corporal punishment and externalizing behavior to children's physical and relational peer aggression during preadolescence and to examine how these pathways differed by sex. Participants were 193, 3-year-old boys (39%) and girls who were reassessed following the transition to kindergarten (5.5 years) and preadolescence (10.5 years). A series of autoregressive, cross-lagged path analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between child externalizing problems and corporal punishment at ages 3 and 5.5 years, and their association with physical and relational aggression at age 10.5. Multiple group analysis was used to determine whether pathways differed by sex. Three developmental pathways were identified: (i) direct associations between stable childhood externalizing problems and later physical aggression; (ii) a direct pathway from early corporal punishment to preadolescent relational and physical peer aggression; and (iii) an indirect pathway from early corporal punishment to later physical aggression via continuing externalizing problems in middle childhood. Child sex moderated the nature of these pathways, as well as the direction of association between risk and outcome variables. These data advance our understanding of the etiology of distinct forms of peer aggression and highlight the potential for more efficacious prevention and intervention efforts in the early childhood years. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Physical activity reduces systemic blood pressure and improves early markers of atherosclerosis in pre-pubertal obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Aggoun, Yacine; Marchand, Laetitia M; Martin, Xavier E; Herrmann, François R; Beghetti, Maurice

    2009-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of physical activity on systemic blood pressure (BP) and early markers of atherosclerosis in pre-pubertal obese children. Hypertension and endothelial dysfunction are premature complications of obesity. We performed a 3-month randomized controlled trial with a modified crossover design: 44 pre-pubertal obese children (age 8.9 + or - 1.5 years) were randomly assigned (1:1) to an exercise (n = 22) or a control group (n = 22). We recruited 22 lean children (age 8.5 + or - 1.5 years) for baseline comparison. The exercise group trained 60 min 3 times/week during 3 months, whereas control subjects remained relatively inactive. Then, both groups trained twice/week during 3 months. We assessed changes at 3 and 6 months in office and 24-h BP, arterial intima-media thickness (IMT) and stiffness, endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation), body mass index (BMI), body fat, cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption [VO(2)max]), physical activity, and biological markers. Obese children had higher BP, arterial stiffness, body weight, BMI, abdominal fat, insulin resistance indexes, and C-reactive protein levels, and lower flow-mediated dilation, VO(2)max, physical activity, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than lean subjects. At 3 months, we observed significant changes in 24-h systolic BP (exercise -6.9 + or - 13.5 mm Hg vs. control 3.8 + or - 7.9 mm Hg, -0.8 + or - 1.5 standard deviation score [SDS] vs. 0.4 + or - 0.8 SDS), diastolic BP (-0.5 + or - 1.0 SDS vs. 0 + or - 1.4 SDS), hypertension rate (-12% vs. -1%), office BP, BMI z-score, abdominal fat, and VO(2)max. At 6 months, change differences in arterial stiffness and IMT were significant. A regular physical activity program reduces BP, arterial stiffness, and abdominal fat; increases cardiorespiratory fitness; and delays arterial wall remodeling in pre-pubertal obese children. (Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Arterial Function and

  19. “If I had to do it, then I would”: Understanding early middle school students’ perceptions of physics and physics-related careers by gender

    OpenAIRE

    Emily A. Dare; Gillian H. Roehrig

    2016-01-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This study examined the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls’ and boys’ perceptions surrounding physics and physics-related careers as part of a long-term effort to increase female interest and representation in this particular field of science. A theoretical framework based...

  20. Radiation and medicine: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.; Singh, H.

    1984-01-01

    A brief historical review is given of the development of the various nuclear medicine techniques which have been evolved since the discovery of X-rays and radioactivity. The role of various disciplines, such as radiobiology, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and computers in the application of radiation in medicine is discussed. (U.K.)

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  4. Fast neutron breeder reactor Rapsodie - situation of physics, hydraulic, thermal and dynamics studies and studies of stability early in 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Early in 1963, it was necessary to make a choice among the two fuels examined for Rapsodie: the UPuMo alloy with double cladding, Nb and stainless steel, and the UO 2 -PuO 2 mix oxide. This report presents the results of the studies effected with the two types of fuel. We reconsider at first the different models which have been studied and we give a detailed description of the alloy and oxide cores as they are envisaged early in 1963. We give then the most important physics performances of the two cores: neutron flux and spectrum, reactivity of the compensation find safety rods, neutrons balance, specific power, effective fraction of delayed neutrons, lifetime of the prompt neutrons, reactivity coefficient. We describe the hydraulic studies and experiments which have been done concerning the two cores. We discuss the criteria adopted as basis for the flow calculations. We give the results of pressure drop and sub-assembly lifting, force measurements, and vibration and pin flow distribution experiments. We discuss the constants utilized for the thermal calculations and we give the temperatures of sodium and alloy or oxide fuel, the temperature increases due to the hot points, and the limitation of the oxide fuel burn-up, originated by the pressure of the fission gases. We treat the hypotheses having been utilized for the dynamics calculations and we describe the different accidents which have been studied. We give the results of the calculations for every accident and each fuel, and we show fuel melting or sodium boiling can be avoided, even in case of the most pessimistic hypotheses, by modifying reactor characteristics (shim-rod reactivity or power of the reactor with only one cooling circuit). The reactor stability has been evaluated with the hypotheses utilized for the dynamics calculations, except of the Doppler coefficient which was intentionally increased. We show that the alloy and oxide cores are stable for every envisaged reactor power. (authors) [fr

  5. Implementation of Early Childhood Development Education Service Standard Guidelines on Physical Facilities in Public and Private Early Childhood Education Centres Kakamega County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitati, Emmily M.; Ndirangu, Mwangi; Kennedy, Bota; Rapongo, George S.

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the Kenyan Ministry of Education (MoE) developed an early childhood development education (ECDE) service standard guidelines to guide the ECDE stakeholders in provision of early childhood education (ECE) programmes. The study sought to investigate the implementation of the ECDE service standard guidelines on provision of physical…

  6. Role of Counseling to Promote Adherence in Healthy Lifestyle Medicine: Strategies to Improve Exercise Adherence and Enhance Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonerock, Gregory L; Blumenthal, James A

    Although healthy lifestyles (HL) offer a number of health benefits, nonadherence to recommended lifestyle changes remains a frequent and difficult obstacle to realizing these benefits. Behavioral counseling can improve adherence to an HL. However, individuals' motivation for change and resistance to altering unhealthy habits must be considered when developing an effective approach to counseling. In the present article, we review psychological, behavioral, and environmental factors that may promote adherence and contribute to nonadherence. We discuss two established models for counseling, motivational interviewing and the transtheoretical model of behavior change, and provide an example of how these approaches can be used to counsel patients to exercise and increase their levels of physical activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A study of effects of scattered reaction on physical parameters of a new gamma camera used in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, Martine.

    1979-01-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of the performance of a new gamma camera. This camera is characterized by the introduction of an image amplifier between the crystal detector and the localization system which compound four photomultipliers. The appreciation of performances of this new instrument is based on the measure of the physical parameters usually studied in this purpose: energy resolution, spatial resolution, modulation transfert fonction and contrast, sensitivity and deadtime. Furthermore, we have studied the influence of scattered radiation on the value of these parameters. Two studies complete this work: the artificial deterioration of the energy resolution of the camera inserting a noise, to estimate the importance of the energy resolution on the image contrast; the scanning of pulse amplitude spectra obtained from brain of patients in order to evaluate the participation of scattered radiation in the peak's constitution. We present, at last, a quality control programm for scintillation camera [fr

  8. The Attitudes of Physicians, Nurses, Physical Therapists, and Midwives Toward Complementary Medicine for Chronic Pain: A Survey at an Academic Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveni, Eléonore; Bauer, Brent; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Kottelat, Yolande; Decosterd, Isabelle; Finti, Guillaume; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Bonvin, Eric; Rodondi, Pierre-Yves

    2016-01-01

    To assess the attitudes of physicians, nurses, physical therapists, and midwives toward complementary medicine (CM) at a Swiss academic hospital and toward its use for treating chronic pain. The cross-sectional survey took place from October to December 2013. An e-mail sent to 4925 healthcare professionals (1969 physicians, 2372 nurses, 145 physical therapists, and 111 midwives) working at Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland, invited them to answer a web-based questionnaire. The questionnaire was answered by 1247 healthcare professionals (response rate: 25.3%). Of these, 96.1% strongly agreed or agreed that CM could be useful for the treatment of chronic pain, with more nurses (96.7%) and midwives (100%) than physicians (93.8%) agreeing that CM could be useful (P chronic pain. Respondents listed migraine (74.7%), tension headaches (70.6%), and low back pain (70.1%) as three main conditions for which they would refer patients for acupuncture. The three therapies with which respondents were the most unfamiliar were neuraltherapy (57.2%), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) (54.1%), and biofeedback (51.9%). Over half of respondents, 58.3%, had never referred a patient to a CM practitioner. A total of 84.3% of the respondents felt that they lacked the knowledge to inform their patients about CM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical holistic medicine (mindful, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy complemented with bodywork) in the treatment of experienced physical illness and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Thegler, Suzette; Andreasen, Tove; Struve, Flemming; Enevoldsen, Lars; Bassaine, Laila; Torp, Margrethe; Merrick, Joav

    2007-03-02

    We investigated the treatment effect of psychodynamic short-term therapy complemented with bodywork on patients who presented with physical illness at the Research Clinic for Holistic Medicine in Copenhagen. Psychodynamic short-term therapy was complemented with bodywork (Marion Rosen) to help patients confront old emotional pain from childhood trauma(s). Patients were measured with a five-item quality of life and health questionnaire (QOL5), a one-item questionnaire of self-assessed quality of life (QOL1), and four questions on self-rated ability to love and to function sexually, socially, and at work (ability to sustain a full-time job). Most of the patients had chronic pain that could not be alleviated with drugs. Results showed that 31 patients with the experience of being severely physically ill (mostly from chronic pain), in spite of having consulted their own general practitioner, entered the study. The holistic approach and body therapy accelerated the therapy dramatically and no significant side effects were detected. After the intervention, 38.7% did not feel ill (1.73 treatment responders, the treatment seemingly provided lasting benefits.

  10. Impact of a Revised Curriculum Focusing on Clinical Neurology and Musculoskeletal Care on a Required Fourth-Year Medical Student Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clerkship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Norbury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A Required Fourth-Year Medical Student Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R Clerkship was found to increase students’ knowledge of PM&R; however the students’ overall rotation evaluations were consistently lower than the other 8 required clerkships at the medical school. Objective. To describe the impact of a revised curriculum based upon Entrustable Professional Activities and focusing on basic pain management, musculoskeletal care, and neurology. Setting. Academic Medical Center. Participants. 73 fourth-year medical students. Methods. The curriculum changes included a shift in the required readings from rehabilitation specific topics toward more general content in the areas of clinical neurology and musculoskeletal care. Hands-on workshops on neurological and musculoskeletal physical examination techniques, small group case-based learning, an anatomy clinical correlation lecture, and a lecture on pain management were integrated into the curriculum. Main Outcome Measurements. Student evaluations of the clerkship. Results. Statistically significant improvements were found in the students’ evaluations of usefulness of lecturers, development of patient interviewing skills, and diagnostic and patient management skills (p≤0.05. Conclusions. This study suggests that students have a greater satisfaction with a required PM&R clerkship when lecturers utilize a variety of pedagogic methods to teach basic pain, neurology and musculoskeletal care skills in the rehabilitation setting rather than rehabilitation specific content.

  11. Early postoperative physical therapy for improving short-term gross motor outcome in infants with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseba, Sumihito; Sakakima, Harutoshi; Nakao, Syuhei; Ohira, Misaki; Yanagi, Shigefumi; Imoto, Yutaka; Yoshida, Akira; Shimodozono, Megumi

    2018-07-01

    We analysed the gross motor recovery of infants and toddlers with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) who received early postoperative physical therapy to see whether there was any difference in the duration to recovery. This study retrospectively evaluated the influence of early physical therapy on postoperative gross motor outcomes of patients with CHD. The gross motor ability of patients with cyanotic (n = 25, average age: 376.4 days) and acyanotic (n = 26, average age: 164.5 days) CHD was evaluated using our newly developed nine-grade mobility assessment scale. Physical therapy was started at an average of five days after surgery, during which each patient's gross motor ability was significantly decreased compared with the preoperative level. Patients (who received early postoperative physical therapy) with cyanotic (88.0%) and acyanotic CHD (96.2%) showed improved preoperative mobility grades by the time of hospital discharge. However, patients with cyanotic CHD had a significantly prolonged recovery period compared to those with acyanotic CHD (p congenital heart disease are likely at greater risk of gross motor delays and have a prolonged recovery period of gross motor ability compared to those with acyanotic congenital heart disease. Early postoperative physical therapy for patients with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery promoted gross motor recovery. The postoperative recovery period to preoperative mobility grade was affected by pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors. Rehabilitation experts should consider the risk of gross motor delays of patients with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery and the early postoperative physical therapy to promote their gross motor recovery.

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      The period since the last CMS Bulletin has been historic for CMS Physics. The pinnacle of our physics programme was an observation of a new particle – a strong candidate for a Higgs boson – which has captured worldwide interest and made a profound impact on the very field of particle physics. At the time of the discovery announcement on 4 July, 2012, prominent signals were observed in the high-resolution H→γγ and H→ZZ(4l) modes. Corroborating excess was observed in the H→W+W– mode as well. The fermionic channel analyses (H→bb, H→ττ), however, yielded less than the Standard Model (SM) expectation. Collectively, the five channels established the signal with a significance of five standard deviations. With the exception of the diphoton channel, these analyses have all been updated in the last months and several new channels have been added. With improved analyses and more than twice the i...

  15. Massive pulmonary embolism: the predisposing and complicating factors, its current diagnostic approaches and critical importance of early diagnostic physical exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip A. Konecny

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Massive pulmonary embolism (MPE often leads to circulation collapse, a form of shock. The process is set off by thrombus or multiple thrombi dislodgement followed by a rapid perfusion insufficiency of pulmonary arterial system. Patients experience severe hypotension with diastolic and systolic failure with an acute tricuspid regurgitation. On many occasions, release of an obstruction is unattainable and death is occurring frequently within one hour of presentation. A key reported source of MPE is its occurrence as a complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT. While long-term immobilization and surgery are both directly associated with MPE, others such as previous DVT, malignancy, infectious lung and heart diseases, family thrombophilia, lower limb paralysis and pregnancy have to be considered as risk factors mainly due to its silent nature. Predisposing and complicating risks should be addressed by an early diagnostic physical exam. The clinician might offer a wide variety of diagnostic approaches, combining techniques into algorithms to better deal with the embolism severity. Multiple patient life-style changes and decisions to adhere to the proposed plan should be built up on patient-physician team effort. KEY WORDS: Massive pulmonary embolism, predisposing factors, current diagnostic approaches.

  16. Physical Activity Levels in Chinese One-Year-Old Children and Their Parents, an Early STOPP China Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hong; Johansson, Elin; Hagströmer, Maria; Xiong, Yuelin; Zhang, Lanlan; Zhang, Jianduan; Marcus, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is associated with health benefits, already in childhood. However, little is known about actual levels, patterns and gender differences in PA level in very young children. This study examines Chinese one-year-old children and their parents' PA levels and patterns, and assesses the correlations between children's PA level and gender, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS), parental BMI and parental PA level. Data from 123 families participating in the Early STOPP China study were used. Families were recruited based on parental BMI and were classified as either high-risk or low-risk of obesity. Parents and children wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ to assess the average PA levels. PA levels and hourly patterns during weekdays and weekends were examined as were correlations with gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI and parental PA levels. There were no significant differences in children's averaged PA between risk groups, genders, or between weekdays and weekends. Children's peak average activity level was at 7 pm and they were least active at 3 pm (pgender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA levels. Maternal PA was found positively associated with child PA (pgender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA. Larger scale studies with more contextual information are needed to improve the understanding of our findings.

  17. Future Directions in the Study of Early-Life Stress and Physical and Emotional Health: Implications of the Neuroimmune Network Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E; Nusslock, Robin; Miller, Gregory E

    2018-01-01

    Early-life stress is associated with increased vulnerability to physical and emotional health problems across the lifespan. The recently developed neuroimmune network hypothesis proposes that one of the underlying mechanisms for these associations is that early-life stress amplifies bidirectional crosstalk between the brain and the immune system, contributing to several mental and physical health conditions that have inflammatory underpinnings, such as depression and coronary heart disease. Neuroimmune crosstalk is thought to perpetuate inflammation and neural alterations linked to early-life stress exposure, and also foster behaviors that can further compromise health, such as smoking, drug abuse and consumption of high-fat diets. The goal of the present review is to briefly summarize the neuroimmune network hypothesis and use it as a starting point for generating new questions about the role of early-life stress in establishing a dysregulated relationship between neural and immune signaling, with consequences for lifespan physical and emotional health. Specifically, we aim to discuss implications and future directions for theory and empirical research on early-life stress, as well as for interventions that may improve the health and well-being of children and adolescents living in adverse conditions.

  18. The Role of Occupational Therapists and Physical Therapists in Elementary School System Early Intervening Services and Response to Intervention: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Deborah L.; Arnold, Sandra H.; Jeffries, Lynn M.; McEwen, Irene R.

    2011-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act and No Child Left Behind Act broadened the roles of occupational therapists (OTs) and physical therapists (PTs) to include therapist participation in early intervening services including response to intervention (RTI). This case report describes one school district's inclusion of OT and PT in the…

  19. Exploring Daily Physical Activity and Nutrition Patterns in Early Learning Settings: Snapshots of Young Children in Head Start, Primary, and After-School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelin, Dolores A.; Anderson, Denise; Kemper, Karen; Wagner, Jennifer; Evans, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to gain a greater understanding of daily routines of 4-7 year olds regarding physical activity and nutrition practices in typical early learning environments. The settings selected for this observational study included Head Start, primary, and after-school learning environments in a city in the southeast.…

  20. Exploring direct and indirect influences of physical work environment on job satisfaction for early-career registered nurses employed in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol S; Fatehi, Farida; Greene, William H

    2014-08-01

    We explored direct and indirect influences of physical work environment on job satisfaction in a nationally representative sample of 1,141 early-career registered nurses. In the fully specified model, physical work environment had a non-significant direct effect on job satisfaction. The path analysis used to test multiple indirect effects showed that physical work environment had a positive indirect effect (p nurse-physician relations, quantitative workload, organizational constraints, distributive justice, promotional opportunity, local and non-local job opportunities. The findings make important contributions to the understanding of the relationship between physical work environment and job satisfaction. The results can inform health care leaders' insight about how physical work environment influences nurses' job satisfaction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    The period since the last CMS bulletin has seen the end of proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy 8 TeV, a successful proton-lead collision run at 5 TeV/nucleon, as well as a “reference” proton run at 2.76 TeV. With these final LHC Run 1 datasets in hand, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have been busy analysing these data in preparation for the winter conferences. Moreover, despite the fact that the pp run only concluded in mid-December (and there was consequently less time to complete data analyses), CMS again made a strong showing at the Rencontres de Moriond in La Thuile (EW and QCD) where nearly 40 new results were presented. The highlight of these preliminary results was the eagerly anticipated updated studies of the properties of the Higgs boson discovered in July of last year. Meanwhile, preparations for Run 2 and physics performance studies for Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrade scenarios are ongoing. The Higgs analysis group produced updated analyses on the full Run 1 dataset (~25 f...

  4. Aerospace Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  5. Circadian rhythm and the influence of physical activity on circulating surfactant protein D in early and long-standing rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, A F; Hoegh, S V; Lottenburger, T

    2011-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) belongs to the collectin family and has pro-and anti-inflammatory capacities depending on its oligomerization. Previously, circulating SP-D was shown to be decreased in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and negatively correlated to disease activity. This study aimed...... at assessing the diurnal rhythmicity and the influence of physical activity on circulating SP-D in patients with RA at different stages compared with healthy individuals. Patients with early RA (ERA) with disease duration ... in two sub-studies. Healthy individuals served as controls. Diurnal variation: blood samples were collected every 3 h from 7 a.m to 10 p.m and the following morning. Physical activity: blood sampling was done before and after standardized physical challenge. SP-D was measured by ELISA. SP-D exhibited...

  6. Use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Generic-30 Set for the characterization of outpatients: Italian Society of Physical and Rehabilitative Medicine Residents Section Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimigliano, Francesca; De Sire, Alessandro; Gastaldo, Marco; Maghini, Irene; Paoletta, Marco; Pasquini, Andrea; Boldrini, Paolo; Selb, Melissa; Prodinger, Birgit

    2018-06-11

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Generic- 30 Set (previously referred to as Rehabilitation Set) is a minimal set of ICF categories for reporting and assessing functioning and disability in clinical populations with different health conditions along the continuum of care. Recently, the Italian Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (SIMFER) developed an Italian modification of the simple and intuitive descriptions (SID) of these categories. This study was the first one to implement the use of the SID in practice. 1) To implement the use of the ICF in clinical practice and research among Italian Residents in PRM. 2) To verify if the SID made the application of ICF Generic 30 Set more user-friendly than the original descriptions. 3) To examine the prevalence of functioning problems of patients accessing Rehabilitation Services to serve as reference for the development of an ICF-based clinical data collection tool. Multicenter cross-sectional study. Italian Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PRM) outpatient rehabilitation services. Patients referring to Italian PRM outpatient rehabilitation services and Italian Residents in PRM. Each School of Specialization involved, randomly, received the ICF Generic-30 Set with the original descriptions or with the SID. Residents collected over a 4-month period (April-July 2016) patients data related to the ICF Generic-30 Set categories. Moreover, the residents self- assessed their difficulty in using the ICF Generic-30 Set with the original descriptions or with the SID, through a Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Ninety-three residents collected functioning data of 864 patients (mean aged 57.7±19.3) with ICF Generic-30 Set: 304 with the original descriptions and 560 with SID. The difficulty in using the ICF Generic-30 Set with SID was rated as lower than using the original descriptions (NRS = 2.8±2.5 vs 3.5±3.1; p<0.001). The most common disease was the back pain (9.6%) and

  7. Does objectively measured physical activity modify the association between early weight gain and fat mass in young adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle, Elin; Horta, Bernardo L; Wells, Jonathan; Brage, Soren; Barros, Fernando C; Ekelund, Ulf; Hallal, Pedro C

    2017-11-25

    Substantial evidence suggests that weight gain in early life is associated with increased adiposity and other metabolic disorders later in life. It is, however, unknown whether physical activity (PA) may modify these associations. We aimed to examine whether objectively measured PA at 30 years modified the associations between conditional weight gain in infancy (0-2 y) and childhood (2-4 y) with fat mass index (FMI) and visceral abdominal fat measured at age 30 years. Prospective birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil, including 1874 participants with weight data at birth, two and four years of age, and measures of FMI, visceral abdominal fat and PA at a mean age of 30.2 years. At age 30, time spent (min/day) in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured objectively using a wrist-worn accelerometer worn for four to seven consecutive days.. Multiple linear regression analyses was performed to assess the associations between conditional weight gain and outcome variables at 30 years, adjusting for covariates. We examined whether PA modified the association between conditional weight gain and the outcomes of interest by introducing an interaction term (conditional weight gain × PA) in the models. Conditional weight gain in infancy and childhood were both positively associated with later FMI (infancy weight gain: β = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.88; P gain: β = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.70, 1.11; P gain and later FMI (β = -0.006, 95% CI: -0.011, -0.001; P = 0.029), suggesting stronger associations between weight gain and FMI in those with lower levels of MVPA. Conditional weight gain in childhood was also positively associated with visceral abdominal fat (β = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.15, 0424, P gain between 2 and 4 years of age is associated with increased FMI at age 30 years. However, higher levels of MVPA appear to attenuate this detrimental association.

  8. Diagnostic radiology physics: A handbook for teachers and students. Endorsed by: American Association of Physicists in Medicine, Asia-Oceania Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics, European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dance, D. R. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford (United Kingdom); Christofides, S. [New Nicosia General Hospital (Cyprus); Maidment, A. D.A. [University of Pennsylvania (United States); McLean, I. D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Ng, K. H. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-09-15

    This publication is written for students and teachers involved in programmes that train medical physicists for work in diagnostic radiology. It provides, in the form of a syllabus, a comprehensive overview of the basic medical physics knowledge required for the practice of modern diagnostic radiology. This makes it particularly useful for graduate students and residents in medical physics programmes. The material presented in the publication has been endorsed by the major international organizations and is the foundation for academic and clinical courses in both diagnostic radiology physics and in emerging areas such as imaging in radiotherapy.

  9. Clinical Holistic Medicine (Mindful, Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Complemented with Bodywork in the Treatment of Experienced Physical Illness and Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the treatment effect of psychodynamic short-term therapy complemented with bodywork on patients who presented with physical illness at the Research Clinic for Holistic Medicine in Copenhagen. Psychodynamic short-term therapy was complemented with bodywork (Marion Rosen to help patients confront old emotional pain from childhood trauma(s. Patients were measured with a five-item quality of life and health questionnaire (QOL5, a one-item questionnaire of self-assessed quality of life (QOL1, and four questions on self-rated ability to love and to function sexually, socially, and at work (ability to sustain a full-time job. Most of the patients had chronic pain that could not be alleviated with drugs. Results showed that 31 patients with the experience of being severely physically ill (mostly from chronic pain, in spite of having consulted their own general practitioner, entered the study. The holistic approach and body therapy accelerated the therapy dramatically and no significant side effects were detected. After the intervention, 38.7% did not feel ill (1.73 < NNT < 4.58 (p = 0.05. Psychodynamic short-term therapy complemented with bodywork can help patients. When the patients responded to the therapy, the self-assessed mental health, relationship with partner, ability to work, self-assessed quality of life, relationships in general, measured QOL (with the validated questionnaire QOL5, and life's total state (mean of health, QOL and ability were significantly improved, statistically and clinically. Most importantly, all aspects of life were improved simultaneously, due to induction of Antonovsky-salutogenesis. The patients received in average 20 sessions over 14 months at a cost of 1600 EURO. For the treatment responders, the treatment seemingly provided lasting benefits.

  10. Modeling and simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Corey C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Taylor, Paul Allen

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this modeling and simulation study was to establish the role of stress wave interactions in the genesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) from exposure to explosive blast. A high resolution (1 mm{sup 3} voxels), 5 material model of the human head was created by segmentation of color cryosections from the Visible Human Female dataset. Tissue material properties were assigned from literature values. The model was inserted into the shock physics wave code, CTH, and subjected to a simulated blast wave of 1.3 MPa (13 bars) peak pressure from anterior, posterior and lateral directions. Three dimensional plots of maximum pressure, volumetric tension, and deviatoric (shear) stress demonstrated significant differences related to the incident blast geometry. In particular, the calculations revealed focal brain regions of elevated pressure and deviatoric (shear) stress within the first 2 milliseconds of blast exposure. Calculated maximum levels of 15 KPa deviatoric, 3.3 MPa pressure, and 0.8 MPa volumetric tension were observed before the onset of significant head accelerations. Over a 2 msec time course, the head model moved only 1 mm in response to the blast loading. Doubling the blast strength changed the resulting intracranial stress magnitudes but not their distribution. We conclude that stress localization, due to early time wave interactions, may contribute to the development of multifocal axonal injury underlying TBI. We propose that a contribution to traumatic brain injury from blast exposure, and most likely blunt impact, can occur on a time scale shorter than previous model predictions and before the onset of linear or rotational accelerations traditionally associated with the development of TBI.

  11. Physical Activity Levels in Chinese One-Year-Old Children and Their Parents, an Early STOPP China Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Mei

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA is associated with health benefits, already in childhood. However, little is known about actual levels, patterns and gender differences in PA level in very young children. This study examines Chinese one-year-old children and their parents' PA levels and patterns, and assesses the correlations between children's PA level and gender, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS, parental BMI and parental PA level.Data from 123 families participating in the Early STOPP China study were used. Families were recruited based on parental BMI and were classified as either high-risk or low-risk of obesity. Parents and children wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ to assess the average PA levels. PA levels and hourly patterns during weekdays and weekends were examined as were correlations with gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI and parental PA levels.There were no significant differences in children's averaged PA between risk groups, genders, or between weekdays and weekends. Children's peak average activity level was at 7 pm and they were least active at 3 pm (p<0.001. Both mothers and fathers demonstrated a similar PA pattern as their children, although paternal PA level was consistently lower than that of mothers and children. No significant association was found between children's PA and their gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA levels. Maternal PA was found positively associated with child PA (p<0.05.PA in one-year-old Chinese children vary over the day but weekdays and weekends are similar. At this age, children's PA is not related to gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA. Larger scale studies with more contextual information are needed to improve the understanding of our findings.

  12. THE LONG ROAD TO THE USE OF MICROSCOPE IN CLINICAL MEDICINE IN VIVO: FROM EARLY PIONEERING PROPOSALS TO THE MODERN PERSPECTIVES OF OPTICAL BIOPSY

    OpenAIRE

    Ponti, Giovanni; Muscatello, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    For a long period the scientists did not recognized the potentialities of the compound microscope in medicine. Only few scientists recognized the potentialities of the microscope for the medicine; among them G. Campani who proposed the utilization of his microscope to investigate the skin lesions directly on the patient. The proposal was illustrated in a letter Acta Eruditorum of 1686. The recent development of optical techniques, capable of providing in-focus images of an object from differe...

  13. Systematic review of the relationships between physical activity and health indicators in the early years (0-4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Carson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the rapid development during the early years (0-4 years, an understanding of the health implications of physical activity is needed. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the relationships between objectively and subjectively measured physical activity and health indicators in the early years. Methods Electronic databases were originally searched in April, 2016. Included studies needed to be peer-reviewed, written in English or French, and meet a priori study criteria. The population was apparently healthy children aged 1 month to 59.99 months/4.99 years. The intervention/exposure was objectively and subjectively measured physical activity. The comparator was various volumes, durations, frequencies, patterns, types, and intensities of physical activity. The outcomes were health indicators ranked as critical (adiposity, motor development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, fitness and important (bone and skeletal health, cardiometabolic health, and risks/harm. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE framework was used to assess the quality of evidence for each health indicator by each study design. Results Ninety-six studies representing 71,291 unique participants from 36 countries were included. Physical activity interventions were consistently (>60% of studies associated with improved motor and cognitive development, and psychosocial and cardiometabolic health. Across observational studies, physical activity was consistently associated with favourable motor development, fitness, and bone and skeletal health. For intensity, light- and moderate-intensity physical activity were not consistently associated with any health indicators, whereas moderate- to vigorous-intensity, vigorous-intensity, and total physical activity were consistently favourably associated with multiple health indicators. Across study designs, consistent favourable associations with

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    V.Ciulli

    2011-01-01

    The main programme of the Physics Week held between 16th and 20th May was a series of topology-oriented workshops on di-leptons, di-photons, inclusive W, and all-hadronic final states. The goal of these workshops was to reach a common understanding for the set of objects (ID, cleaning...), the handling of pile-up, calibration, efficiency and purity determination, as well as to revisit critical common issues such as the trigger. Di-lepton workshop Most analysis groups use a di-lepton trigger or a combination of single and di-lepton triggers in 2011. Some groups need to collect leptons with as low PT as possible with strong isolation and identification requirements as for Higgs into WW at low mass, others with intermediate PT values as in Drell-Yan studies, or high PT as in the Exotica group. Electron and muon reconstruction, identification and isolation, was extensively described in the workshop. For electrons, VBTF selection cuts for low PT and HEEP cuts for high PT were discussed, as well as more complex d...

  15. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    Several growth areas for nuclear medicine were defined. Among them were: cardiac nuclear medicine, neuro-psychiatric nuclear medicine, and cancer diagnosis through direct tumor imaging. A powerful new tool, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was lauded as the impetus for new developments in nuclear medicine. The political environment (funding, degree of autonomy) was discussed, as were the economic and scientific environments

  16. Early physical training and psycho-educational intervention for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The SheppHeart randomized 2 × 2 factorial clinical pilot trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højskov, Ida E; Moons, Philip; Hansen, Niels V

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery often experience a range of problems and symptoms such as immobility, pain and insufficient sleep. Results from trials investigating testing in-hospital physical exercise or psychological intervention have been promising. However......, no randomized clinical trials have tested a comprehensive rehabilitation programme consisting of both physical exercise and psycho-education in the early rehabilitation phase. AIMS: The aims of the present SheppHeart pilot randomized clinical trial were to evaluate the feasibility of patient recruitment......, patient acceptance of the intervention, safety and tolerability of the intervention. METHODS AND DESIGN: Sixty patients admitted for coronary artery bypass graft were randomized 1:1:1:1 to: 1) physical exercise plus usual care, or 2) psycho-educational intervention plus usual care, or 3) physical exercise...

  17. Physical activity prescription: a critical opportunity to address a modifiable risk factor for the prevention and management of chronic disease: a position statement by the Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Jane S; Frémont, Pierre; Khan, Karim; Poirier, Paul; Fowles, Jonathon; Wells, Greg D; Frankovich, Renata J

    2016-09-01

    Non-communicable disease is a leading threat to global health. Physical inactivity is a large contributor to this problem; in fact, the WHO ranks it as the fourth leading risk factor for overall morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Canada, at least 4 of 5 adults do not meet the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines of 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week. Physicians play an important role in the dissemination of physical activity (PA) recommendations to a broad segment of the population, as over 80% of Canadians visit their doctors every year and prefer to get health information directly from them. Unfortunately, most physicians do not regularly assess or prescribe PA as part of routine care, and even when discussed, few provide specific recommendations. PA prescription has the potential to be an important therapeutic agent for all ages in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of chronic disease. Sport and exercise medicine (SEM) physicians are particularly well suited for this role and should collaborate with their primary care colleagues for optimal patient care. The purpose of this Canadian Academy and Sport and Exercise Medicine position statement is to provide an evidence-based, best practices summary to better equip SEM and primary care physicians to prescribe PA and exercise, specifically for the prevention and management of non-communicable disease. This will be achieved by addressing common questions and perceived barriers in the field.Author note This position statement has been endorsed by the following nine sport medicine societies: Australasian College of Sports and Exercise Physicians (ACSEP), American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM), British Association of Sports and Exercise Medicine (BASEM), European College of Sport & Exercise Physicians (ECOSEP), Norsk forening for idrettsmedisin og fysisk aktivite (NIMF), South African Sports Medicine Association (SASMA), Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin

  18. "If I had to do it, then I would": Understanding early middle school students' perceptions of physics and physics-related careers by gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Emily A.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This study examined the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls' and boys' perceptions surrounding physics and physics-related careers as part of a long-term effort to increase female interest and representation in this particular field of science. A theoretical framework based on the literature of girl-friendly and integrated STEM instructional strategies guided this work to understand how instructional strategies may influence and relate to students' perceptions. This convergent parallel mixed-methods study used a survey and focus group interviews to understand similarities and differences between girls' and boys' perceptions. Our findings indicate very few differences between girls and boys, but show that boys are more interested in the physics-related career of engineering. While girls are just as interested in science class as their male counterparts, they highly value the social aspect that often accompanies hands-on group activities. These findings shed light on how K-12 science reform efforts might help to increase the number of women pursuing careers related to physics.

  19. “If I had to do it, then I would”: Understanding early middle school students’ perceptions of physics and physics-related careers by gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Dare

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This study examined the perceptions of 6th grade middle school students regarding physics and physics-related careers. The overarching goal of this work was to understand similarities and differences between girls’ and boys’ perceptions surrounding physics and physics-related careers as part of a long-term effort to increase female interest and representation in this particular field of science. A theoretical framework based on the literature of girl-friendly and integrated STEM instructional strategies guided this work to understand how instructional strategies may influence and relate to students’ perceptions. This convergent parallel mixed-methods study used a survey and focus group interviews to understand similarities and differences between girls’ and boys’ perceptions. Our findings indicate very few differences between girls and boys, but show that boys are more interested in the physics-related career of engineering. While girls are just as interested in science class as their male counterparts, they highly value the social aspect that often accompanies hands-on group activities. These findings shed light on how K-12 science reform efforts might help to increase the number of women pursuing careers related to physics.

  20. Heart failure - medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  1. Variations in corticosteroid/anesthetic injections for painful shoulder conditions: comparisons among orthopaedic surgeons, rheumatologists, and physical medicine and primary-care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedros, John G; Hunt, Kenneth J; Pitts, Todd C

    2007-07-06

    Variations in corticosteroid/anesthetic doses for injecting shoulder conditions were examined among orthopaedic surgeons, rheumatologists, and primary-care sports medicine (PCSMs) and physical medicine and rehabilitation (PMRs) physicians to provide data needed for documenting inter-group differences for establishing uniform injection guidelines. 264 surveys, sent to these physicians in our tri-state area of the western United States, addressed corticosteroid/anesthetic doses and types used for subacromial impingement, degenerative glenohumeral and acromioclavicular arthritis, biceps tendinitis, and peri-scapular trigger points. They were asked about preferences regarding: 1) fluorinated vs. non-fluorinated corticosteroids, 2) acetate vs. phosphate types, 3) patient age, and 4) adjustments for special considerations including young athletes and diabetics. 169 (64% response rate, RR) surveys were returned: 105/163 orthopaedic surgeons (64%RR), 44/77 PCSMs/PMRs (57%RR), 20/24 rheumatologists (83%RR). Although corticosteroid doses do not differ significantly between specialties (p > 0.3), anesthetic volumes show broad variations, with surgeons using larger volumes. Although 29% of PCSMs/PMRs, 44% rheumatologists, and 41% surgeons exceed "recommended" doses for the acromioclavicular joint, >98% were within recommendations for the subacromial bursa and glenohumeral joint. Depo-Medrol(R) (methylprednisolone acetate) and Kenalog(R) (triamcinolone acetonide) are most commonly used. More rheumatologists (80%) were aware that there are acetate and phosphate types of corticosteroids as compared to PCSMs/PMRs (76%) and orthopaedists (60%). However, relatively fewer rheumatologists (25%) than PCSMs/PMRs (32%) or orthopaedists (32%) knew that phosphate types are more soluble. Fluorinated corticosteroids, which can be deleterious to soft tissues, were used with these frequencies for the biceps sheath: 17% rheumatologists, 8% PCSMs/PMRs, 37% orthopaedists. Nearly 85% use the same

  2. Variations in corticosteroid/anesthetic injections for painful shoulder conditions: comparisons among orthopaedic surgeons, rheumatologists, and physical medicine and primary-care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skedros John G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in corticosteroid/anesthetic doses for injecting shoulder conditions were examined among orthopaedic surgeons, rheumatologists, and primary-care sports medicine (PCSMs and physical medicine and rehabilitation (PMRs physicians to provide data needed for documenting inter-group differences for establishing uniform injection guidelines. Methods 264 surveys, sent to these physicians in our tri-state area of the western United States, addressed corticosteroid/anesthetic doses and types used for subacromial impingement, degenerative glenohumeral and acromioclavicular arthritis, biceps tendinitis, and peri-scapular trigger points. They were asked about preferences regarding: 1 fluorinated vs. non-fluorinated corticosteroids, 2 acetate vs. phosphate types, 3 patient age, and 4 adjustments for special considerations including young athletes and diabetics. Results 169 (64% response rate, RR surveys were returned: 105/163 orthopaedic surgeons (64%RR, 44/77 PCSMs/PMRs (57%RR, 20/24 rheumatologists (83%RR. Although corticosteroid doses do not differ significantly between specialties (p > 0.3, anesthetic volumes show broad variations, with surgeons using larger volumes. Although 29% of PCSMs/PMRs, 44% rheumatologists, and 41% surgeons exceed "recommended" doses for the acromioclavicular joint, >98% were within recommendations for the subacromial bursa and glenohumeral joint. Depo-Medrol® (methylprednisolone acetate and Kenalog® (triamcinolone acetonide are most commonly used. More rheumatologists (80% were aware that there are acetate and phosphate types of corticosteroids as compared to PCSMs/PMRs (76% and orthopaedists (60%. However, relatively fewer rheumatologists (25% than PCSMs/PMRs (32% or orthopaedists (32% knew that phosphate types are more soluble. Fluorinated corticosteroids, which can be deleterious to soft tissues, were used with these frequencies for the biceps sheath: 17% rheumatologists, 8% PCSMs/PMRs, 37

  3. Experiences of four parents with physical therapy and early mobility of their children in a pediatric critical care unit: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisien, Rachel B; Gillanders, Kirstie; Hennessy, Erin K; Herterich, Lisa; Saunders, Kendra; Lati, Jamil; Dos Santos, Stephanie; Hassall, Alison; O'Brien, Kelly K

    2016-05-31

    The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into parents' experiences of physical therapy and early mobility (EM) for their children in a pediatric critical care unit (PCCU). We conducted a series of four qualitative case studies using in-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews. We recruited parents of children who had undergone surgery and received at least one EM physical therapy intervention while intubated. We conducted a thematic analysis of transcribed interviews to illuminate the factors that influenced EM experiences. Four parents participated in the study. We developed an overview of Parental Experiences with Physical Therapy and Early Mobility in a PCCU, which includes four themes that parents believed influenced their experiences: (1) environmental factors; (2) awareness of physical therapist and health care professional (HCP) roles; (3) communication among parents and HCPs; and (4) parental participation in their child's EM, within the overarching parental experiences in the PCCU. This study affords a preliminary understanding of parents' experiences with physical therapy and EM in a PCCU setting. Results provide an important foundation for future research on mobility in the context of pediatric critical care research and practice.

  4. The long road to the use of microscope in clinical medicine in vivo: from early pioneering proposals to the modern perspectives of optical biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Giovanni; Muscatello, Umberto; Sgantzos, Markos

    2015-01-01

    For a long period the scientists did not recognized the potentialities of the compound microscope in medicine. Only few scientists recognized the potentialities of the microscope for the medicine; among them G. Campani who proposed the utilization of his microscope to investigate the skin lesions directly on the patient. The proposal was illustrated in a letter Acta Eruditorum of 1686. The recent development of optical techniques, capable of providing in-focus images of an object from different planes with high spatial resolution, significantly increased the diagnostic potential of the microscope directly on the patient.

  5. Purposefulness of early application of physical rehabilitation means for improvement of external respiration system functional state of women with post mastectomies syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Briskin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine purposefulness of early application of physical rehabilitation means for improvement of external respiration system functional state of women with post mastectomies syndrome. Material: in the research 135 women with post mastectomies syndrome, who endured radical mastectomy by Madden, participated. Women of main groups were trained in compliance with appropriate programs during one year. Effectiveness of trainings was controlled after half of year. Admission to trainings was given by oncologist. Patients of these groups belonged to third clinical group. At the beginning of dispensary period the groups were equal by all indicators of external system function. Results: it was found that early rehabilitation is more effective exclusively for indicators of bronchial patency. Complex, personality oriented program included: aqua-fitness; conditional swimming; health related aerobic and Pilates. It was found that after half year training advantages of early physical rehabilitation were noticed only in indicators of forced exhale volume at first second. Conclusions: we stated importance of early rehabilitation trainings of women with post mastectomies syndrome.

  6. Physical activity during the early years of life and osteoporosis in adulthood: study among users of the Brazilian National Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Camilo Turi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to analyze the association between osteoporosis and current/early physical activity and also to identify whether early sport participation, osteoporosis, age and sex are somehow connected. The study sample included 963 participants. Osteoporosis was diagnosed through medical records. Physical activity in current and the early years of life, age, sex and economic condition were assessed through questionnaires. Abdominal obesity was identified by waist circumference. Results showed that osteoporosis was associated with female sex and higher age. Participants that were active in adulthood had 47% lower chance of osteoporosis (odds ration [OR] = 0.53[0.30-0.93]. Adults that were active in childhood and adolescence had a lower chance of osteoporosis only in the crude model (OR = 0.38[0.22-0.64]. Women that were inactive in their youth were almost five times more likely to have osteoporosis when compared to men under the same conditions (OR = 4.80[2.46-9.37]. A lack of sports participation in the early years of life seems to be associated with osteoporosis, age and sex.

  7. Precision Medicine In Action | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: NIH Precision Medicine Initiative Precision Medicine In Action Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of ... Dishman "I am totally motivated to support precision medicine because I am one of the early prototype ...

  8. Systematic reviews of physical and rehabilitation medicine Cochrane contents. Part 1. Disabilities due to spinal disorders and pain syndromes in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, S; Imperio, G; Villafañe, J H; Negrini, F; Zaina, F

    2013-08-01

    This article is the first in a series presenting the strongest published evidence for physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) to date coming from the Cochrane Collaboration. The intent of the series is to stimulate ideas for reviews and research in neglected areas of PRM. To systematically review the rehabilitation contents of the Cochrane Collaboration on disabilities due to spinal disorders or pain syndromes in adults. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched at the end of June 2013 for articles relevant for PRM about disabilities resulting from spinal disorders or pain syndromes in adults. Retrieved papers were classified according to the PRM approach: active therapies, which require active participation by patients to achieve treatment goals, and passive treatments, which rely on the application of external forces. The quality of the reviews was checked against the AMSTAR checklist. Reviews on spinal disorders or pain syndromes were found in the Cochrane Back Group (CBG) and in the Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Group (CPPSCG). Thirty-eight (42.8%) of 89 Cochrane reviews in the CBG and 7 (2.4%) of 293 Cochrane reviews in the CPPSCG were included. All were of high quality (range, 8-11 points out of 11 on the AMSTAR checklist). The contents of the reviews are given in detail. This review presents an overview of the current evidence for PRM in the treatment of disabilities due to spinal disorders or pain syndromes in adults. Within PRM there is ample space for research in the Cochrane Collaboration and for producing original studies (randomized controlled trials [RCTs]). To apply evidence-based clinical practice, clinicians must be familiar with the current best evidence.

  9. Incorporation of core competency questions into an annual national self-assessment examination for residents in physical medicine and rehabilitation: results and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joseph B

    2009-03-01

    To determine the performance and change over time when incorporating questions in the core competency domains of practice-based learning and improvement (PBLI), systems-based practice (SBP), and professionalism (PROF) into the national PM&R Self-Assessment Examination for Residents (SAER). Prospective, longitudinal analysis. The national Self-Assessment Examination for Residents (SAER) in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, which is administered annually. Approximately 1100 PM&R residents who take the examination annually. Inclusion of progressively more challenging questions in the core competency domains of PBLI, SBP, and PROF. Individual test item level of difficulty (P value) and discrimination (point biserial index). Compared with the overall test, questions in the subtopic areas of PBLI, SBP, and PROF were relatively easier and less discriminating (correlation of resident performance on these domains compared with that on the total test). These differences became smaller during the 3-year time period. The difficulty level of the questions in each of the subtopic domains was raised during the 3 year period to a level close to the overall exam. Discrimination of the test items improved or remained stable. This study demonstrates that, with careful item writing and review, multiple-choice items in the PBLI, SBP, and PROF domains can be successfully incorporated into an annual, national self-assessment examination for residents. The addition of these questions had value in assessing competency while not compromising the overall validity and reliability of the exam. It is yet to be determined if resident performance on these questions corresponds to performance on other measures of competency in the areas of PBLI, SBP, and PROF.

  10. Early Exercise in the Burn Intensive Care Unit Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves Mental Health, and Physical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves Mental Health , and Physical Performance 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Oscar E. Suman, PhD...Multicenter Study of the Effect of In-Patient Exercise Training on Length of Hospitalization, Mental Health , and Physical Performance in Burned...Intensive Care Unit Decreases Hospital Stay, Improves Mental Health , and Physical Performance,” Proposal Log Number 13214039, Award Number W81XWH-14

  11. Trends in brain oxygenation during mental and physical exercise measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): potential for early detection of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Monica S.; Allen, Jeffery W.; Mikkilineni, Shweta; Liu, Hanli

    2005-04-01

    Motivation: Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is crucial because symptoms respond best to available treatments in the initial stages of the disease. Recent studies have shown that marked changes in brain oxygenation during mental and physical tasks can be used for noninvasive functional brain imaging to detect Alzheimer"s disease. The goal of our study is to explore the possibility of using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and mapping (NIRM) as a diagnostic tool for AD before the onset of significant morphological changes in the brain. Methods: A 16-channel NIRS brain imager was used to noninvasively measure spatial and temporal changes in cerebral hemodynamics induced during verbal fluency task and physical activity. The experiments involved healthy subjects (n = 10) in the age range of 25+/-5 years. The NIRS signals were taken from the subjects' prefrontal cortex during the activities. Results and Conclusion: Trends of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex of the brain were observed. During the mental stimulation, the subjects showed significant increase in oxygenated hemoglobin [HbO2] with a simultaneous decrease in deoxygenated hemoglobin [Hb]. However, physical exercise caused a rise in levels of HbO2 with small variations in Hb. This study basically demonstrates that NIRM taken from the prefrontal cortex of the human brain is sensitive to both mental and physical tasks and holds potential to serve as a diagnostic means for early detection of Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Long-Term Placement Trajectories of Children Who Were Maltreated and Entered the Child Welfare System at an Early Age: Consequences for Physical and Behavioral Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villodas, Miguel T; Litrownik, Alan J; Newton, Rae R; Davis, Inger P

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify children's long-term placement trajectories following early child welfare involvement and the association of these trajectories with subsequent physical and behavioral well-being. Participants were 330 children who entered out-of-home care following a substantiated report of child abuse or neglect during infancy/early childhood and their caregivers. Participants were interviewed at child ages 4 and 12 years to assess children's physical and behavioral well-being and every 2 years in between to determine child placements. Latent Class Analyses identified four stable placement trajectories (i.e., adopted [32%], kinship care [15%], stable reunified [27%], and stable foster care [9%]), and two unstable trajectories (i.e., disrupted reunified [12%] and unstable foster care [5%]). Logistic regressions revealed that children in the unstable trajectories had significantly poorer physical and behavioral well-being than children in stable trajectories. Maltreated children placed in out-of-home care are at risk for long-term placement instability and poorer physical and behavioral well-being. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Friendship conflict and the development of generalized physical aggression in the early school years: a genetically informed study of potential moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Several authors consider high and frequent conflicts between friends during childhood as a serious risk for subsequent conduct problems such as generalized physical aggression toward others (e.g., Kupersmidt, Burchinal, & Patterson, 1995; Sebanc, 2003). Although it seems logical to assume that friendship conflict could have some negative consequences on children's behaviors, some scholars have suggested that a certain amount of conflict between friends may actually promote social adjustment (e.g., Laursen & Pursell, 2009). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of friendship conflict in regard to the development of generalized physical aggression toward others in the early school years (i.e., from kindergarten to Grade 1), as well as the moderating role of relational (i.e., shared positive affect and dyadic conflict resolution skills) and personal (i.e., children's sex and genetic liability for aggression) characteristics in this context. The sample included 745 twins assessed through teacher, peer, child, and friend ratings in kindergarten and Grade 1. Friendship conflict in kindergarten was linearly related to an increase in boys' but not girls' generalized physical aggression. However, shared positive affect and conflict resolution skills mitigated the prospective associations between friendship conflict and generalized physical aggression. These results were independent of children's sex, genetic risk for physical aggression, and initial levels of generalized physical aggression in kindergarten. Fostering a positive relationship between friends at school entry may buffer against the risk associated with experiencing friendship conflict. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Early physical training and psycho-educational intervention for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The SheppHeart randomized 2 × 2 factorial clinical pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højskov, Ida E; Moons, Philip; Hansen, Niels V; Greve, Helle; Olsen, Dorte Bæk; Cour, Søren La; Glud, Christian; Winkel, Per; Lindschou, Jane; Egerod, Ingrid; Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg

    2016-10-01

    Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery often experience a range of problems and symptoms such as immobility, pain and insufficient sleep. Results from trials investigating testing in-hospital physical exercise or psychological intervention have been promising. However, no randomized clinical trials have tested a comprehensive rehabilitation programme consisting of both physical exercise and psycho-education in the early rehabilitation phase. The aims of the present SheppHeart pilot randomized clinical trial were to evaluate the feasibility of patient recruitment, patient acceptance of the intervention, safety and tolerability of the intervention. Sixty patients admitted for coronary artery bypass graft were randomized 1:1:1:1 to: 1) physical exercise plus usual care, or 2) psycho-educational intervention plus usual care, or 3) physical exercise and psycho-educational plus usual care, or 4) usual care alone during a four week period after surgery. The acceptability of trial participation was 67% during the three month recruitment period. In the physical exercise groups, patients complied with 59% of the total expected training sessions during hospitalization. Nine patients (30%) complied with >75% and nine patients (30%) complied with 50% of the planned exercise sessions. Eleven patients (42%) participated in ⩾75% of the four consultations and six patients (23%) participated in 50% of the psycho-educational programme. Comprehensive phase one rehabilitation combining physical exercise and psycho-education in coronary artery bypass graft patients shows reasonably high inclusion, feasibility and safety. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  15. Mothers' Perceived Physical Health during Early and Middle Childhood: Relations with Child Developmental Delay and Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N = 116) or typical development (TD; N = 129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent…

  16. Evaluation of the current status of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Naturopathy education 10 years after the reform of the Medical Licensure Act – a nationwide survey of German Medical Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stock-Schröer, Beate

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After the reform of the German Medical Licensure Act of 2003, Rehabilitation, Naturopathy and Physical Medicine were integrated into one discipline to be taught in Medical University. The aim of this survey is to determine the outcome of this change by evaluating the current status of education of these three disciplines based on the experience and satisfaction reported by lecturers responsible for teaching these subjects to medical students. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey. A paper version of the questionnaire for each discipline was posted to each Medical University in Germany. The first part asked about the current status of teaching; the second part asked about facilities and requirements; the third part asked respondents to give information on their career and teaching experience in this subjectResults: The response rate was 51.5% for Rehabilitation, 48.5% for Physical Medicine and 60.6% for Naturopathy. A vast range of people and faculties were involved in the curricula. The percentage of each discipline taught was unevenly distributed: the major proportion being rehabilitation (38%, then naturopathy 34% lastly physical medicine with less than a third (28%. The main delivery of these disciplines was through lectures in plenary sessions. Modern teaching methods were not in evidence. Lecturers were generally pleased to be working with the combination of the three disciplines. Conclusion: Future medical education should improve upon teaching coordination and aim towards a common curriculum for these three disciplines. Expected future changes to medical curricula will provide opportunities to improve the implementation of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Naturopathy in teaching and research.

  17. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... extracts, and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  18. Unstable child welfare permanent placements and early adolescent physical and mental health: The roles of adverse childhood experiences and post-traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villodas, Miguel T; Cromer, Kelly D; Moses, Jacqueline O; Litrownik, Alan J; Newton, Rae R; Davis, Inger P

    2016-12-01

    Although researchers have found that child welfare placement disruptions are associated with elevated youth physical and mental health problems, the mechanisms that explain this association have not been previously studied. The present study built on a previous investigation of the physical and behavioral consequences of long-term permanent placement patterns among youth who participated in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). The current investigation (n=251) aimed to (a) report the early adolescent living situations of youth with different long-term placement patterns, and (b) to delineate the roles of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and post-traumatic stress (PTS) reactions in the association between unstable long-term placement patterns and physical and mental health problems during the transition to adolescence. Information about youth's living situations, ACEs, and physical and mental health was gathered prospectively from child protective services records and biannual caregiver and youth interviews when youth were 4-14 years old. The majority of youth remained with the same caregiver during early adolescence, but youth with chronically unstable permanent placement patterns continued to experience instability. Path analyses revealed that ACEs mediated the association between unstable placement patterns and elevated mental, but not physical, health problems during late childhood. Additionally, late childhood PTS mediated the association between unstable placement patterns and subsequent escalations in physical and mental health problems during the transition to adolescence. Findings highlight the importance of long-term permanency planning for youth who enter the child welfare system and emphasize the importance of trauma-focused assessment and intervention for these youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of regional physically-based landslide early warning model: tuning of the input parameters and validation of the results

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Michele; Tofani, Veronica; Rossi, Guglielmo; Salvatici, Teresa; Tacconi Stefanelli, Carlo; Rosi, Ascanio; Benedetta Masi, Elena; Pazzi, Veronica; Vannocci, Pietro; Catani, Filippo; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    The Aosta Valley region is located in North-West Alpine mountain chain. The geomorphology of the region is characterized by steep slopes, high climatic and altitude (ranging from 400 m a.s.l of Dora Baltea's river floodplain to 4810 m a.s.l. of Mont Blanc) variability. In the study area (zone B), located in Eastern part of Aosta Valley, heavy rainfall of about 800-900 mm per year is the main landslides trigger. These features lead to a high hydrogeological risk in all territory, as mass movements interest the 70% of the municipality areas (mainly shallow rapid landslides and rock falls). An in-depth study of the geotechnical and hydrological properties of hillslopes controlling shallow landslides formation was conducted, with the aim to improve the reliability of deterministic model, named HIRESS (HIgh REsolution Stability Simulator). In particular, two campaigns of on site measurements and laboratory experiments were performed. The data obtained have been studied in order to assess the relationships existing among the different parameters and the bedrock lithology. The analyzed soils in 12 survey points are mainly composed of sand and gravel, with highly variable contents of silt. The range of effective internal friction angle (from 25.6° to 34.3°) and effective cohesion (from 0 kPa to 9.3 kPa) measured and the median ks (10E-6 m/s) value are consistent with the average grain sizes (gravelly sand). The data collected contributes to generate input map of parameters for HIRESS (static data). More static data are: volume weight, residual water content, porosity and grain size index. In order to improve the original formulation of the model, the contribution of the root cohesion has been also taken into account based on the vegetation map and literature values. HIRESS is a physically based distributed slope stability simulator for analyzing shallow landslide triggering conditions in real time and in large areas using parallel computational techniques. The software

  20. Folk Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead’s effects on health. How to tell if herbal medicines or folk medicines contain lead You only can ... as high as 90%. Ghasard, an Indian folk medicine, has also been found to contain lead. It is a brown powder used as a tonic. Ba-baw-san is a Chinese herbal remedy that contains lead. It is used to ...

  1. Wilderness medicine in southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    injuries, and trauma care, whereas jungle expeditions require an understanding ... series will address expedition medicine, psychological and human factors, and ... Dead. Fig. 1. Cumulative wilderness rescue statistics from 1900 to early 2017,.

  2. Short-term lower-body plyometric training improves whole body BMC, bone metabolic markers, and physical fitness in early pubertal male basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi, Anis; Zouch, Mohamed; Chaari, Hamada; Bouajina, Elyes; Ben Nasr, Hela; Zaouali, Monia; Tabka, Zouhair

    2014-02-01

    The effects of a 9-week lower-body plyometric training program on bone mass, bone markers and physical fitness was examined in 51 early pubertal male basketball players divided randomly into a plyometric group (PG: 25 participants) and a control group (CG: 26 participants). Areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) in the whole body, L2-L4 vertebrae, and in total hip, serum levels of osteocalcin (Oc) and C-terminal telopeptide fragment of Type I collagen (CTx), jump, sprint and power abilities were assessed at baseline and 9 weeks. Group comparisons were done by independent student's t-test between means and analyses of (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA), adjusting for baseline values. PG experienced a significant increase in Oc (p BMC and BA in any measured site, except in whole body BMC of the PG. A positive correlation was observed between percentage increase (Δ%) of physical fitness and those of (Oc) for the PG. In summary, biweekly sessions of lower body plyometric training program were successful for improving whole body BMC, bone formation marker (Oc) and physical fitness in early pubertal male basketball players.

  3. Neighborhood Poverty Impacts Children's Physical Health and Well-Being over Time: Evidence from the Early Development Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushon, Jennifer A.; Vu, Lan T. H.; Janzen, Bonnie L.; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to investigate how neighborhoods and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage impact school readiness over time. School readiness was measured using the Early Development Instrument (EDI) for 3 populations of kindergartners in 2001, 2003, and 2005 in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. EDI results…

  4. Medicine organizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ricardo; Belchior, Ismael

    2015-04-01

    In the last year of secondary school, students studying physics and chemistry are incentivized to do a project where they must put in practice their improvement of scientific knowledge and skills, like observation of phenomena and analysis of data with scientific knowledge. In this project a group of students, tutored by the teacher, wanted to build an instrument that helps people to take their medical drugs at the right time. This instrument must have some compartments with an alarm and an LED light where the people can put their medical drugs. The instrument must be easily programed using an android program that also registers if the medicine has been taken. The students needed to simulate the hardware and software, draw the electronic system and build the final product. At the end of the school year, a public oral presentation was prepared by each group of students and presented to the school community. They are also encouraged to participate in national and international scientific shows and competitions.

  5. The Effect and Mechanism of Transdermal Penetration Enhancement of Fu's Cupping Therapy: New Physical Penetration Technology for Transdermal Administration with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Ping; Xu, Jian; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Fang-Fang

    2017-03-27

    In this paper, a new type of physical penetration technology for transdermal administration with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) characteristics is presented. Fu's cupping therapy (FCT), was established and studied using in vitro and in vivo experiments and the penetration effect and mechanism of FCT physical penetration technology was preliminarily discussed. With 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methylindole-3-ylacetic acid (indomethacin, IM) as a model drug, the establishment of high, medium, and low references was completed for the chemical permeation system via in vitro transdermal tests. Furthermore, using chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) and iontophoresis as references, the percutaneous penetration effect of FCT for IM patches was evaluated using seven species of in vitro diffusion kinetics models and in vitro drug distribution; the IM quantitative analysis method in vivo was established using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technology (UPLC-MS/MS), and pharmacokinetic parameters: area under the zero and first moment curves from 0 to last time t (AUC 0-t , AUMC 0-t ), area under the zero and first moment curves from 0 to infinity (AUC 0-∞ , AUMC 0-∞ ), maximum plasma concentration (C max ) and mean residence time (MRT), were used as indicators to evaluate the percutaneous penetration effect of FCT in vivo. Additionally, we used the 3 K factorial design to study the joint synergistic penetration effect on FCT and chemical penetration enhancers. Through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging, micro- and ultrastructural changes on the surface of the stratum corneum (SC) were observed to explore the FCT penetration mechanism. In vitro and in vivo skin permeation experiments revealed that both the total cumulative percutaneous amount and in vivo percutaneous absorption amount of IM using FCT were greater than the amount using CPEs and iontophoresis. Firstly, compared with

  6. Use Medicines Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prescription Medicines 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Prescription Medicines There are different types of medicine. The 2 ... medicine are prescription and over-the-counter (OTC). Prescription medicines Prescription medicines are medicines you can get only ...

  7. The origins of medical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duck, Francis A

    2014-06-01

    The historical origins of medical physics are traced from the first use of weighing as a means of monitoring health by Sanctorius in the early seventeenth century to the emergence of radiology, phototherapy and electrotherapy at the end of the nineteenth century. The origins of biomechanics, due to Borelli, and of medical electricity following Musschenbroek's report of the Leyden Jar, are included. Medical physics emerged as a separate academic discipline in France at the time of the Revolution, with Jean Hallé as its first professor. Physiological physics flowered in Germany during the mid-nineteenth century, led by the work of Adolf Fick. The introduction of the term medical physics into English by Neil Arnott failed to accelerate its acceptance in Britain or the USA. Contributions from Newton, Euler, Bernoulli, Nollet, Matteucci, Pelletan, Gavarret, d'Arsonval, Finsen, Röntgen and others are noted. There are many origins of medical physics, stemming from the many intersections between physics and medicine. Overall, the early nineteenth-century definition of medical physics still holds today: 'Physics applied to the knowledge of the human body, to its preservation and to the cure of its illnesses'. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical outcome and school performance of very-low-birthweight infants treated with minimal handling and early nasal CPAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Marianne; Kamper, Jens

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To describe physical outcome and school performance in a cohort of very-low-birthweight infants treated with early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP)/minimal handling regimen with permissive hypercapnia, in comparison to siblings of normal birthweight. MATERIAL AND METHODS......% attended ordinary schools, with near-average performances in mathematics and reading/spelling, which were not statistically different to their siblings. The overall results indicate that these infants fare at least as well as survivors after conventional treatment....... of these differences reached statistical significance. However, the performance ratings correlated significantly with socio-economic conditions. CONCLUSION: In this study of infants treated with a regimen of early NCPAP/minimal handling, we found a relatively low incidence of handicaps and impairments. Nearly 90...

  9. Numerical Simulation of Early Age Cracking of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks with a Full-3D Multiscale and Multi-Chemo-Physical Integrated Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Ishida

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In November 2011, the Japanese government resolved to build “Revival Roads” in the Tohoku region to accelerate the recovery from the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011. Because the Tohoku region experiences such cold and snowy weather in winter, complex degradation from a combination of frost damage, chloride attack from de-icing agents, alkali–silica reaction, cracking and fatigue is anticipated. Thus, to enhance the durability performance of road structures, particularly reinforced concrete (RC bridge decks, multiple countermeasures are proposed: a low water-to-cement ratio in the mix, mineral admixtures such as ground granulated blast furnace slag and/or fly ash to mitigate the risks of chloride attack and alkali–silica reaction, anticorrosion rebar and 6% entrained air for frost damage. It should be noted here that such high durability specifications may conversely increase the risk of early age cracking caused by temperature and shrinkage due to the large amounts of cement and the use of mineral admixtures. Against this background, this paper presents a numerical simulation of early age deformation and cracking of RC bridge decks with full 3D multiscale and multi-chemo-physical integrated analysis. First, a multiscale constitutive model of solidifying cementitious materials is briefly introduced based on systematic knowledge coupling microscopic thermodynamic phenomena and microscopic structural mechanics. With the aim to assess the early age thermal and shrinkage-induced cracks on real bridge deck, the study began with extensive model validations by applying the multiscale and multi-physical integrated analysis system to small specimens and mock-up RC bridge deck specimens. Then, through the application of the current computational system, factors that affect the generation and propagation of early age thermal and shrinkage-induced cracks are identified via experimental validation and full-scale numerical simulation on real

  10. Fluorine in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Since its first use in the steroid field in the late 1950s, the use of fluorine in medicinal chemistry has become commonplace, with the small electronegative fluorine atom being a key part of the medicinal chemist's repertoire of substitutions used to modulate all aspects of molecular properties including potency, physical chemistry and pharmacokinetics. This review will highlight the special nature of fluorine, drawing from a survey of marketed fluorinated pharmaceuticals and the medicinal chemistry literature, to illustrate key concepts exploited by medicinal chemists in their attempts to optimize drug molecules. Some of the potential pitfalls in the use of fluorine will also be highlighted. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphisms are associated with disease activity and physical disability in untreated, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide-positive patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Garred, Peter; Madsen, Hans Ole

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between polymorphisms in the mannose-binding lectin gene (MBL2) and disease activity, physical disability, and joint erosions in patients with newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Patients with early RA (n=158) not previously treated with disease...... modifying antirheumatic drugs, participating in a treatment trial (CIMESTRA study) were examined at inclusion for MBL2 pooled structural genotypes (O/O, A/O, A/A), regulatory MBL2 promoter polymorphism in position -221 (XX, XY, YY), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide 2 antibodies (anti-CCP2), disease...... activity by Disease Activity Score-28 (DAS28 score), physical disability by Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score, and erosive changes in hands and feet (Sharp-van der Heijde score). RESULTS: Eight patients were homozygous MBL2 defective (O/O), 101 belonged to an intermediate group, and 49 were MBL2...

  12. Commissioning with low-intensity beams helps prepare CMS for this year’s physics run. This event is one of the first low-intensity collisions recorded in the CMS detector, during the early hours of 23 April 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068005

    2016-01-01

    Commissioning with low-intensity beams helps prepare CMS for this year’s physics run. This event is one of the first low-intensity collisions recorded in the CMS detector, during the early hours of 23 April 2016

  13. Relational Aggression, Physical Aggression and Deception during Early Childhood: A Multimethod, Multi-Informant Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Ries, Emily E.; Stauffacher, Kirstin; Godleski, Stephanie A.; Mullins, Adam D.

    2008-01-01

    A short-term longitudinal study examined relational and physical aggression and deceptive behavior among 120 preschool-aged children (M = 44.36 months old, SD = 11.07). Multiple informants and methods (i.e., observational, teacher reports) were used. Evidence for discriminant validity of the observations of aggression subtypes was found. For…

  14. Prospective Links between Friendship and Early Physical Aggression: Preliminary Evidence Supporting the Role of Friendship Quality through a Dyadic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Cantin, Ste´phane

    2016-01-01

    Positive friendships have been related to decreasing levels of children's physical aggression over time. While this evidence calls for interventions aimed at helping children build good-quality friendships, tests of causality through experimental manipulations are still needed. The goal of this study was to examine whether an intervention aimed to…

  15. Socialization of Physical and Social Aggression in Early Adolescents' Peer Groups: High-Status Peers, Individual Status, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…

  16. Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…

  17. Three-year follow-up of an early childhood intervention: what about physical activity and weight status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Zask, Avigdor; Rose, Lauren; Hughes, Denise; Adams, Jillian

    2015-03-01

    Fundamental movement skills are a correlate of physical activity and weight status. Children who participated in a preschool intervention had greater movement skill proficiency and improved anthropometric measures (waist circumference and BMI z scores) post intervention. Three years later, intervention girls had retained their object control skill advantage. The study purpose was to assess whether at 3-year follow up a) intervention children were more physically active than controls and b) the intervention effect on anthropometrics was still present. Children were assessed at ages 4, 5, and 8 years for anthropometric measures and locomotor and object control proficiency (Test of Gross Motor Development-2). At age 8, children were also assessed for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (using accelerometry). Several general linear models were run, the first with MVPA as the outcome, intervention/control, anthropometrics, object control and locomotor scores as predictors, and age and sex as covariates. The second and third models were similar, except baseline to follow-up anthropometric differences were the outcome. Overall follow-up rate was 29% (163/560), with 111 children having complete data. There were no intervention control differences in either MVPA or anthropometrics. Increased skill competence did not translate to increased physical activity.

  18. Effects of an Integrated Physical Education/Music Program in Changing Early Childhood Perceptual-Motor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judy; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Two approaches to facilitating perceptual-motor development in children ages 4-6 were investigated. Fifteen children (the experimental group) received integrated physical education/music instruction based on Kodaly and Dalcroze (Eurhythmics) concepts. The control group received movement exploration and self-testing instruction. Significant…

  19. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems: spatial early warnings and management procedures (Inspired in the physics of phase transitions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, H [Complex Systems Group, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, 11400 Montevideo (Uruguay); Mazzeo, N [Depto. de EcologIa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, 11400 Montevideo (Uruguay); Scheffer, M; Nes, E van, E-mail: hugo@fisica.edu.u [Wageningen Agricultural University, Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-09-01

    Ecosystems are complex systems which can respond to gradual changes of their conditions by a sudden shift to a contrasting regime or alternative stable state (ASS). Predicting such critical points before they are reached is extremely difficult and providing early warnings is fundamental to design management protocols for ecosystems. Here we study different spatial versions of popular ecological models which are known to exhibit ASS. The spatial heterogeneity is introduced by a local parameter varying from cell to cell in a regular lattice. Transport of biomass among cells occurs by simple diffusion. We investigate whether different quantities from statistical mechanics -like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness-may serve as early warnings of catastrophic phase transitions between the ASS. In particular, we find that the patch-size distribution follows a power law when the system is close to the catastrophic transition. We also provide links between spatial and temporal indicators and analyze how the interplay between diffusion and spatial heterogeneity may affect the earliness of each of the observables. Finally, we comment on similarities and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid-vapor change of state for a fluid like water.

  20. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems: spatial early warnings and management procedures (Inspired in the physics of phase transitions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, H; Mazzeo, N; Scheffer, M; Nes, E van

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystems are complex systems which can respond to gradual changes of their conditions by a sudden shift to a contrasting regime or alternative stable state (ASS). Predicting such critical points before they are reached is extremely difficult and providing early warnings is fundamental to design management protocols for ecosystems. Here we study different spatial versions of popular ecological models which are known to exhibit ASS. The spatial heterogeneity is introduced by a local parameter varying from cell to cell in a regular lattice. Transport of biomass among cells occurs by simple diffusion. We investigate whether different quantities from statistical mechanics -like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness-may serve as early warnings of catastrophic phase transitions between the ASS. In particular, we find that the patch-size distribution follows a power law when the system is close to the catastrophic transition. We also provide links between spatial and temporal indicators and analyze how the interplay between diffusion and spatial heterogeneity may affect the earliness of each of the observables. Finally, we comment on similarities and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid-vapor change of state for a fluid like water.