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Sample records for early phase resolution

  1. Supercritical fluid chromatography and steady-state recycling: phase appropriate technologies for the resolutions of pharmaceutical intermediates in the early drug development stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tony Q; Orihuela, Carlos; Preston, Jay P; Xia, Fang

    2010-11-01

    The use of phase appropriate technologies is critical for efficiently moving drug candidates forward in the early stages of drug discovery and development. Phase appropriate purification technology develops the analytical method and subsequently scales up the method and turns the sample around quickly (Kennedy et al., J Chromatogr A 2004; 1046:55). In this article, separation results and conditions from supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and steady-state recycling (SSR) for the resolutions of three pharmaceutical intermediates in the early stage of the drug development are discussed. The first study used SFC and SSR to separate an impurity for a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) campaign. The analytical method development and scale-up conditions are discussed. Productivity, solvent usage, and sample solubility under SFC and SSR conditions are also compared. The second study compared SFC to batch HPLC in separating a diastereomer. Due to higher separation efficiency, SFC was able to resolute multiple peaks. The third study involved the addition of dichloromethane as a co-solvent in SFC purification--improving sample selectivity and solubility. From the separation results of these purifications, SFC and SSR are clearly phase appropriate technologies in the early drug development stage.

  2. Super-resolution Phase Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Depeursinge, Christian

    2013-04-21

    Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) yields reconstructed complex wavefields. It allows synthesizing the aperture of a virtual microscope up to 2π, offering super-resolution phase images. Live images of micro-organisms and neurons with resolution less than 100 nm are presented.

  3. Abnormal lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle tissue of patients with muscular dystrophy: In vitro, high-resolution NMR spectroscopy based observation in early phase of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Niraj Kumar; Yadav, Ramakant; Mukherjee, Somnath; Pal, Lily; Sinha, Neeraj

    2017-05-01

    Qualitative (assignment of lipid components) and quantitative (quantification of lipid components) analysis of lipid components were performed in skeletal muscle tissue of patients with muscular dystrophy in early phase of the disease as compared to control/normal subjects. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy based experiment was performed on the lipid extract of skeletal muscle tissue of patients with muscular dystrophy in early phase of the disease and normal individuals for the analysis of lipid components [triglycerides, phospholipids, total cholesterol and unsaturated fatty acids (arachidonic, linolenic and linoleic acid)]. Specimens of muscle tissue were obtained from patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) [n=11; Age, Mean±SD; 9.2±1.4years; all were males], Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) [n=12; Age, Mean±SD; 21.4±5.0years; all were males], facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) [n=11; Age, Mean±SD; 23.7±7.5years; all were males] and limb girdle muscular dystrophy-2B (LGMD-2B) [n=18; Age, Mean±SD; 24.2±4.1years; all were males]. Muscle specimens were also obtained from [n=30; Mean age±SD 23.1±6.0years; all were males] normal/control subjects. Assigned lipid components in skeletal muscle tissue were triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL), total cholesterol (CHOL) and unsaturated fatty acids (arachidonic, linolenic and linoleic acid)]. Quantity of lipid components was observed in skeletal muscle tissue of DMD, BMD, FSHD and LGMD-2B patients as compared to control/normal subjects. TG was significantly elevated in muscle tissue of DMD, BMD and LGMD-2B patients. Increase level of CHOL was found only in muscle of DMD patients. Level of PL was found insignificant for DMD, BMD and LGMD-2B patients. Quantity of TG, PL and CHOL was unaltered in the muscle of patients with FSHD as compared to control/normal subjects. Linoleic acids were significantly reduced in muscle tissue of DMD, BMD, FSHD and LGMD-2B as compared to normal

  4. Compact high-resolution spectral phase shaper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, S.; Walle, van der P.; Offerhaus, H.L.; Hulst, van N.F.

    2005-01-01

    The design and operation of a high-resolution spectral phase shaper with a footprint of only 7×10 cm2 is presented. The liquid-crystal modulator has 4096 elements. More than 600 independent degrees of freedom can be positioned with a relative accuracy of 1 pixel. The spectral shaping of pulses fro

  5. Theory of Carrier Phase Ambiguity Resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. J. G. Teunissen

    2003-01-01

    Carrier phase ambiguity resolution is the key to high precision Global Navigation Satellite System(GNSS) positioning and navigation. It applies to a great variety of current and future models of GPS, modernized GPS and Galileo. A proper handling of carrier phase ambiguity resolution requires a proper understanding of the underlying theory of integer inference. In this contribution a brief review is given of the probabilistic theory of integer ambiguity estimation. We describe the concept of ambiguity pull-in regions, introduce the class of admissible integer estimators, determine their probability mass functions and show how their variability solution. The theory is worked out in more detail for integer least-squares and integer bootstrapping. It is shown that the integer least-squares principle maximizes the probability of correct integer estimation. Sharp and easy-to-compute bounds are given for both the ambiguity success rate and the baseline's probability of concentration. Finally the probability density function of the ambiguity residuals is determined. This allows one for the first time to formulate rigorous tests for the integerness of the parameters.

  6. Resolution enhancement phase-contrast imaging by microsphere digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunxin; Guo, Sha; Wang, Dayong; Lin, Qiaowen; Rong, Lu; Zhao, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Microsphere has shown the superiority of super-resolution imaging in the traditional 2D intensity microscope. Here a microsphere digital holography approach is presented to realize the resolution enhancement phase-contrast imaging. The system is designed by combining the microsphere with the image-plane digital holography. A microsphere very close to the object can increase the resolution by transforming the object wave from the higher frequency to the lower one. The resolution enhancement amplitude and phase images can be retrieved from a single hologram. The experiments are carried on the 1D and 2D gratings, and the results demonstrate that the observed resolution has been improved, meanwhile, the phase-contrast image is obtained. The proposed method can improve the transverse resolution in all directions based on a single exposure. Furthermore, this system has extended the application of the microsphere from the conventional 2D microscopic imaging to 3D phase-contrast microscopic imaging.

  7. Phase measurements exhibiting super sensitivity and super resolution features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfermeier, Clemens; Jezek, Miroslav; Gehring, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    By using an optical squeezed state and a post-processed homodyne detection scheme we show that phase measurements can overcome Rayleigh's resolution criterion and beat the quantum shot noise limit simultaneously......By using an optical squeezed state and a post-processed homodyne detection scheme we show that phase measurements can overcome Rayleigh's resolution criterion and beat the quantum shot noise limit simultaneously...

  8. Early Phase Process Evaluation: Industrial Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfan Adi Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Process route evaluation is a part of research and development (R&D works in an industrial chemical project life cycle. In this early phase, good process evaluation, including process synthesis and designs, provide guidance’s on the R&D project. The paper aimed to collect practical methods used in this early phase process route evaluation from author’s 10 years of industrial experiences.  The collected methods range from forward-backward process synthesis, functional process design, use of cost estimation, and applications of Monte Carlo simulation. Led by a good project management (e.g. via a stage-gate approach use of these methods have shown beneficial results. Some important results are strong arguments on whether or not the project will continue, as well as relevant technical and economic issues identified during this early phase process synthesis and design. Later on, these issues become guidance’s to the follow-up project, if it is continued.

  9. Early Work on Defect Driven Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterlitz, J. Michael; Thouless, David J.

    2016-12-01

    This article summarizes the early history of the theory of phase transitions driven by topological defects, such as vortices in superfluid helium films or dislocations and disclinations in two-dimensional solids. We start with a review of our two earliest papers, pointing out their errors and omissions as well as their insights. We then describe the work, partly done by Kosterlitz but mostly done by other people, which corrected these oversights, and applied these ideas to experimental systems, and to numerical and experimental simulations.

  10. Early-Phase Studies of Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Janes, Holly; Li, Christopher I.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many cancer biomarker research studies seek to develop markers that can accurately detect or predict future onset of disease. To design and evaluate these studies, one must specify the levels of accuracy sought. However, justified target levels are rarely available. METHODS: We describe...... for ovarian cancer. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to specify target levels of biomarker performance that enable evaluation of the potential clinical impact of biomarkers in early-phase studies. Nevertheless, biomarkers meeting the criteria should still be tested rigorously in studies that measure the actual...

  11. Spatial-temperature high resolution map for early cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriloaia, Gheorghe V.; Hurduc, Anca; Ghimigean, Ana-Maria; Fumarel, Radu

    2009-02-01

    Heat is one of the most important parameters of living beings. Skin temperature is not the same on the entire body and so, a thermal signature can be got. Infrared map on serial imaging can constitute an early sign of an abnormality. Thermography detects changes in tissue that appear before and accompany many diseases including cancer. As this map has a better resolution an early cancer diagnosis can be done. The temperature of neoplasic tissue is different up to 1.5 °C than that of the healthy tissue as a result of the specific metabolic rate. The infrared camera images show very quickly the heat transferred by radiation. A lot of factors disturb the temperature conversion to pixel intensity. A sensitive temperature sensor with a 10 Mpixels video camera, showing its spatial position, and a computer fusion program were used for the map with high spatial-temperature resolution. A couple of minutes are necessary to get a high resolution map. The asymmetry and borders were the main parameters analyzed. The right cancer diagnosis was for about 78.4% of patients with thyroid cancer, and more than 89.6% from patients with breast cancer. In the near future, the medical prognosis will be improved by fractal analysis.

  12. Super-resolution by pupil plane phase filtering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L N Hazra; N Reza

    2010-11-01

    Resolution capability of any optical imaging system is limited by residual aberrations as well as diffraction effects. Overcoming this fundamental limit is called super-resolution. Several new paradigms for super-resolution in optical systems use ‘a posteriori’ digital image processing. In these ventures the three-dimensional point spread function (PSF) of the lens plays a key role in image acquisition. A straightforward tailoring of the PSF can be performed by appropriate pupil plane filtering. With a brief review of the state-of-art in this research area, this paper dwells upon the inverse problem of global optimization of the pupil function by phase filtering in accordance with the desired PSF.

  13. Late Mesolithic and early Neolithic forest disturbance: a high resolution palaeoecological test of human impact hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, James B.; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Rowley-Conwy, Peter A.

    2013-10-01

    The transition in north-west Europe from the hunter-gatherer societies of the Late Mesolithic to the pioneer farming societies of the early Neolithic is not well understood, either culturally or palaeoecologically. In Britain the final transition was rapid but it is unclear whether novel Neolithic attributes were introduced by immigrants who supplanted the native hunter-gatherers, or whether the latest Mesolithic foragers gradually adopted elements of the Neolithic economic package. In this study, relatively coarse- (10 mm interval) and fine-resolution (2 mm), multi-proxy palaeoecological data including pollen, charcoal and NPPs including fungi, have been used to investigate two phases of vegetation disturbance of (a) distinctly Late Mesolithic and (b) early Neolithic age, at an upland site in northern England in a region with both a Neolithic and a Late Mesolithic archaeological presence. We identify and define the palaeoecological characteristics of these two disturbance phases, about a millennium apart, in order to investigate whether differing land-use techniques can be identified and categorised as of either foraging or early farming cultures. The Late Mesolithic phase is defined by the repetitive application of fire to the woodland to encourage a mosaic of productive vegetation regeneration patches, consistent with the promotion of Corylus and to aid hunting. In this phase, weed species including Plantago lanceolata, Rumex and Chenopodiaceae are frequent, taxa which are normally associated with the first farmers. The early Neolithic phase, including an Ulmus decline, has characteristics consistent with 'forest farming', possibly mainly for domestic livestock, with an inferred succession of tree girdling, fire-prepared cultivation, and coppice-woodland management. Such fine-resolution, potentially diagnostic land-use signatures may in future be used to recognise the cultural complexion of otherwise enigmatic woodland disturbance phases during the centuries of

  14. Optical resolution improvement by nanoparticle's amplitude and phase pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xin; Sun, Xiaoyaun

    2016-11-01

    Optical detection of nanoparticle with ultra-high sensitivity plays an important role in bio- / nano- and their relative research fields. In our recently developed method, each single particle exhibits unique 4-lobes pattern both in the amplitude and phase images respectively, based on which we explored the possibility of resolution improvement by a particle pair. In this paper two polystyrene beads at the diameter of 100nm were employed with the gap distance ranging from 100-400nm. The amplitude and phase images of the particle pair were simulated by FDTD solver. The images are sensitive to geometrical parameters of the two particles, such as gap distance and direction. The simulation results lead to a resolution of 100nm.

  15. High resolution ultrasound and arterial wall changes in early atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renton, Sophie Caroline

    Non-invasive vascular testing evolved initially to meet the needs of the surgeon to identify haemodynamically significant lesions. However, with refinement of techniques and the development of high resolution ultrasound, it has become possible to detect early lesions and to measure the thickness of die arterial wall with an accuracy of 0.2mm. Such measurements have epidemiological and prognostic potential. They may allow the study of progression (or regression) of atherosclerotic disease before symptoms develop. The aim of this thesis was to assess the value of arterial wall measurements of intima-media thickness and compliance of the common carotid artery in the prediction of early atherosclerotic disease. Four different anatomical patterns of carotid bulb morphology have been identified, according to the position of the bulb origin in relation to the flow divider. It has been demonstrated that bulb morphology influences the site of early plaque formation. The presence of plaque at the carotid and femoral bifurcations was found to be associated with increased intima-media thickening of the common carotid artery. Histological analysis of common carotid arteries taken at post-mortem showed that this diffuse intima-media thickening is the result of deposition of cholesterol crystals, medial atrophy, fatty and fibrous change, and accumulation of necrotic debris, the features characteristic of plaques, even though discrete plaques rarely occur at this site. Subsequently, a number of clinical studies were undertaken which demonstrated that the intima-media thickness is increased in diabetics, hypopituitary patients and claudicants as compared to controls. It was found that the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery could be used to predict the presence of bifurcation plaques and macrovascular disease. The work of this thesis has demonstrated that high resolution ultrasound is a powerful technique for die study of the arterial wall and should be tested in

  16. Lung findings on high resolution CT in early ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiris, Adem E-mail: ademkiris@hotmail.com; Ozgocmen, Salih; Kocakoc, Ercan; Ardicoglu, Ozge; Ogur, Erkin

    2003-07-01

    Objective: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease mainly affecting the axial skeleton and pulmonary involvement is a well known feature of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the pulmonary high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of patients with early AS. The relationship between pulmonary function tests (PFT) and HRCT findings was also determined. Subjects and methods: Twenty-eight patients with AS (mean age 30.8{+-}7.4 and disease duration 7.0{+-}2.6) were included in the study. Patients with a disease duration of >10 years or had other pulmonary diseases were excluded. All patients underwent plain chest radiography (posteroanterior and lateral views), thoracic HRCT and PFT. Results: All chest radiographs were normal and HRCT revealed abnormalities in 18 patients. The most common abnormalities seen on HRCT were mosaic pattern (ten of 28), subpleural nodule (seven of 28) and parenchymal bands (five of 28). Seven of ten patients with mosaic pattern revealed air trapping areas on end expiratory scans. Twelve patients had abnormal PFT and all had restrictive type of involvement. Ten of these 12 patients had abnormal HRCT and the remaining two patients had normal HRCT. On the other hand, eight patients with normal PFT had abnormalities on HRCT. Conclusion: Patients with early AS frequently have abnormalities on HRCT, even though they have normal PFT and chest X-ray. Small airway involvement was found as frequent as interstitial lung disease in early AS.

  17. Chandra Catches Early Phase of Cosmic Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    A NASA Chandra X-ray Observatory image has revealed a complex of several intergalactic hot gas clouds in the process of merging. The superb Chandra spatial resolution made it possible to distinguish individual galaxies from the massive clouds of hot gas. One of the clouds, which that envelops hundreds of galaxies, has an extraordinarily low concentration of iron atoms, indicating that it is in the very early stages of cluster evolution. "We may be seeing hot intergalactic gas in a relatively pristine state before it has been polluted by gas from galaxies," said Q. Daniel Wang of the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, and lead author on an upcoming Astrophysical Journal article describing the study. "This discovery should provide valuable insight into how the most massive structures in the universe are assembled." 3-Panel Image of Abell 2125, Its Core & Galaxy C153 3-Panel Image of Abell 2125, Its Core & Galaxy C153 The complex, known as Abell 2125,is about 3 billion light years from Earth, and is seen at a time about 11 billion years after the Big Bang, when many galaxy clusters are believed to have formed. The Chandra Abell 2125 image shows several huge elongated clouds of multimillion degree gas coming together from different directions. These hot gas clouds, each of which contains hundreds of galaxies, appear to be in the process of merging to form a single massive galaxy cluster. Chandra, Hubble Space Telescope, and Very Large Array radio telescope data show that several galaxies in the Abell 2125 core cluster are being stripped of their gas as they fall through surrounding high-pressure hot gas. This stripping process has enriched the core cluster's gas in heavy elements such as iron. Abell 2125's Core & Galaxy C153 Abell 2125's Core & Galaxy C153 The gas in the pristine cloud, which is still several million light years away from the core cluster, is conspicuous for its lack of iron atoms. This anemic cloud must be in a very early evolutionary stage. The

  18. Development of high resolution Michelson interferometer for stable phase-locked ultrashort pulse pair generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takumi; Komori, Kazuhiro; Goshima, Keishiro; Yamauchi, Shohgo; Morohashi, Isao; Sugaya, Takeyoshi; Ogura, Mutsuo; Tsurumachi, Noriaki

    2008-10-01

    We developed a high resolution Michelson interferometer with a two-frequency He-Ne laser positioning system in order to stabilize the relative phase of a pulse pair. The control resolution corresponded to a 12 as time resolution or a phase of 1.5 degrees at 900 nm. This high resolution Michelson interferometer can generate a phase-locked pulse pair either with a specific relative phase such as 0 or pi radians or with an arbitrary phase. Coherent control of an InAs self-assembled quantum dot was demonstrated using the high resolution Michelson interferometer with a microspectroscopy system.

  19. Spatial resolution of proton tomography. Methods, initial phase space and object thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Uwe [Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland). Vetsuisse Faculty; Radiotherapy Hirslanden AG, Aarau (Switzerland). Hirslanden Medical Center; Pedroni, Eros; Lomax, Tony [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Center for Proton Therapy; Hartmann, Matthias; Besserer, Juergen [Radiotherapy Hirslanden AG, Aarau (Switzerland). Hirslanden Medical Center

    2012-07-01

    Proton radiography and tomography was investigated since the early 1970s because of its low radiation dose, high density resolution and ability to image directly proton stopping power. However, spatial resolution is still a limiting factor and as a consequence experimental methods and image reconstruction should be optimized to improve position resolution. Methods: Spatial resolution of proton radiography and tomography is given by multiple Coloumb scattering (MCS) of the protons in the patient. In this paper we employ an improved MCS model to study the impact of various proton tomographic set-ups on the spatial resolution, such as different combinations of entrance and exit coordinate and angle measurements, respectively, initial particle energy and angular confusion of the incident proton field. Results: It was found that best spatial resolution is obtained by measuring in addition to the entrance and exit coordinates also the entrance and exit angles. However, by applying partial backprojection and by using a perfect proton fan beam a sufficient spatial resolution can be achieved with less experimental complexity (measuring only exit angles). It was also shown that it is essential to use the most probable proton trajectory to improve spatial resolution. A simple straight line connection for image reconstruction results in a spatial resolution which is not clinically sufficient. The percentage deterioration of spatial resolution due to the angular confusion of the incident proton field is less than the phase space in mrad. A clinically realistic proton beam with 10 mrad angular confusion results in a less than 10% loss of spatial resolution. Conclusions: Clinically sufficient spatial resolution can be either achieved with a full measurement of entrance and exit coordinates and angles, but also by using a fan beam with small angular confusion and an exit angle measurement. It is necessary to use the most probable proton path for image reconstruction. A simple

  20. Quadrature phase interferometer for high resolution force spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Paolino, Pierdomenico; Bellon, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a deflection measurement setup for Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). It is based on a quadrature phase differential interferometer: we measure the optical path difference between a laser beam reflecting above the cantilever tip and a reference beam reflecting on the static base of the sensor. A design with very low environmental susceptibility and another allowing calibrated measurements on a wide spectral range are described. Both enable a very high resolution (down to $2.5E-15 m/sqrt{Hz}$), illustrated by a thermal noise measurement on an AFM cantilever. A quick review shows that our precision is equaling or outperforming the best results reported in the literature, but for a much larger deflection range, up to a few microns.

  1. High-resolution MRI encoding using radiofrequency phase gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Jonathan C; King, Scott B; Deng, Qunli; Volotovskyy, Vyacheslav; Tomanek, Boguslaw

    2013-11-01

    Although MRI offers highly diagnostic medical imagery, patient access to this modality worldwide is very limited when compared with X-ray or ultrasound. One reason for this is the expense and complexity of the equipment used to generate the switched magnetic fields necessary for MRI encoding. These field gradients are also responsible for intense acoustic noise and have the potential to induce nerve stimulation. We present results with a new MRI encoding principle which operates entirely without the use of conventional B0 field gradients. This new approach--'Transmit Array Spatial Encoding' (TRASE)--uses only the resonant radiofrequency (RF) field to produce Fourier spatial encoding equivalent to conventional MRI. k-space traversal (image encoding) is achieved by spin refocusing with phase gradient transmit fields in spin echo trains. A transmit coil array, driven by just a single transmitter channel, was constructed to produce four phase gradient fields, which allows the encoding of two orthogonal spatial axes. High-resolution two-dimensional-encoded in vivo MR images of hand and wrist were obtained at 0.2 T. TRASE exploits RF field phase gradients, and offers the possibility of very low-cost diagnostics and novel experiments exploiting unique capabilities, such as imaging without disturbance of the main B0 magnetic field. Lower field imaging (imaging are favorable application domains as, in both cases, it is technically easier to achieve the short RF pulses desirable for long echo trains, and also to limit RF power deposition. As TRASE is simply an alternative mechanism (and technology) of moving through k space, there are many close analogies between it and conventional B0 -encoded techniques. TRASE is compatible with both B0 gradient encoding and parallel imaging, and so hybrid sequences containing all three spatial encoding approaches are possible.

  2. Early Earth plume-lid tectonics: A high-resolution 3D numerical modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, R.; Gerya, T.

    2016-10-01

    Geological-geochemical evidence point towards higher mantle potential temperature and a different type of tectonics (global plume-lid tectonics) in the early Earth (>3.2 Ga) compared to the present day (global plate tectonics). In order to investigate tectono-magmatic processes associated with plume-lid tectonics and crustal growth under hotter mantle temperature conditions, we conduct a series of 3D high-resolution magmatic-thermomechanical models with the finite-difference code I3ELVIS. No external plate tectonic forces are applied to isolate 3D effects of various plume-lithosphere and crust-mantle interactions. Results of the numerical experiments show two distinct phases in coupled crust-mantle evolution: (1) a longer (80-100 Myr) and relatively quiet 'growth phase' which is marked by growth of crust and lithosphere, followed by (2) a short (∼20 Myr) and catastrophic 'removal phase', where unstable parts of the crust and mantle lithosphere are removed by eclogitic dripping and later delamination. This modelling suggests that the early Earth plume-lid tectonic regime followed a pattern of episodic growth and removal also called episodic overturn with a periodicity of ∼100 Myr.

  3. A Super High Resolution Distance Measurement Method Based on Phase Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-Qi; ZHOU Wei; MIAO Miao; ZHOU Hui; ZHENG Sheng-Feng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Phase comparison method can enhance the measurement resolution to 10-13/τ in time domain. This method can also be used in distance measurement in the navigation and positioning. We propose a super high-resolution distance measurement based on linear phase comparison method. A high resolution scheme is put forward on the basis of the research of major factors concerning the phase comparison in the distance measurement. Conversion of a high-linearity phase difference to voltage and high-resolution voltage meter make it possible to obtain a very high phase measurement resolution. When the purpose is to measure distance, the phase noise of frequency source used in the measurement can be reduced partly. Thus this method is favourable for high resolution distance measurement. The precision of the distance measurement can reach 0.1c ps with c being the velocity of light in vacuum.

  4. Early Phases of Protoplanetary Disk Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Inga; Macchetto, FD

    2010-01-01

    It is widely accepted that planetary systems form from protoplanetary disks, and observations of the dust reveal significant grain growth over timescales of a few million years. However, we know little about the gas processing in the first 10-20 Myr of disk evolution. This is the phase where protopl

  5. GNSS carrier phase ambiguity resolution based on integrity restriction in ambiguity domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiying; Chen, Zhiming; Ye, Weisong; Wang, Huinan

    2014-04-01

    Carrier phase ambiguity resolution of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a key technology for high-precision navigation and positioning, and it is a challenge for applications which require both high accuracy and high integrity. This paper proposes efficient ambiguity resolution methods based on integrity restriction using Fixed Failure rate Ratio Test (FF-RT) and Doubly Non-central F-distribution Ratio Test (DNF-RT), and derives the related processing models and numerical algorithms compared with the traditional Ratio Test (RT) method. Firstly, the integer ambiguity resolution and validation procedures, especially the Least squares AMBiguity Decorrelation Adjustment (LAMBDA) estimation and RT validation are analyzed. Then the quality evaluation using success rate, the FF-RT method using Integer Aperture (IA) estimation and the NDF-RT method are proposed. Lastly, the simulation and analysis for LAMBDA using RT, FF-RT and DNF-RT methods are performed. Simulation results show that in case of unbiased scenario FF-RT and DNF-RT have similar performances, which are significantly better than RT. In case of biased scenario it is difficult for FF-RT to predict the biased success rate thus it should not be used for bias detection, while DNF-RT can detect biases in most cases except for the biases are approximate or equal to integer, which has the important benefit for early detection of potential threat to the position solution.

  6. A simple technique for high resolution time domain phase noise measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, V. S.; Donahoe, T.

    1977-01-01

    A new time domain phase comparator is described. The device uses a novel technique to allow time domain phase measurements to be made with period and time interval counters without the use of offset reference oscillators. The device uses a single reference oscillator and allows measurements with a phase resolution greater than the noise floor of the reference. Data is presented showing a phase resolution of 0.02ps at 5 MHz with a crystal reference. The device has application in measuring the phase stability of systems where approximate phase quadrature can be maintained.

  7. Metacognition in Early Phase Psychosis: Toward Understanding Neural Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohs, Jenifer L; Hummer, Tom A; Yung, Matthew G; Francis, Michael M; Lysaker, Paul H; Breier, Alan

    2015-06-29

    Individuals in the early phases of psychotic illness have disturbed metacognitive capacity, which has been linked to a number of poor outcomes. Little is known, however, about the neural systems associated with metacognition in this population. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the neuroanatomical correlates of metacognition. We anticipated that higher levels of metacognition may be dependent upon gray matter density (GMD) of regions within the prefrontal cortex. Examining whole-brain structure in 25 individuals with early phase psychosis, we found positive correlations between increased medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum GMD and higher metacognition. These findings represent an important step in understanding the path through which the biological correlates of psychotic illness may culminate into poor metacognition and, ultimately, disrupted functioning. Such a path will serve to validate and promote metacognition as a viable treatment target in early phase psychosis.

  8. Early Phase Observations of the KVN+VERA Joint Array

    CERN Document Server

    Sawada-Satoh, S

    2013-01-01

    The KVN+VERA array is a joint VLBI project of seven VLBI stations spread throughout Korea and Japan. Since the first fringe detection in 2008, the early phase observations of the KVN+VERA have been carried out every several months. Currently, two observing bands of 22 and 43 GHz are available. We are aiming for early realization of science observations with the 1-Gbps recording system from 2012.

  9. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Harlou, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system and qual......During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system......) customers with very convincing results. © International Journal of Industrial Engineering....

  10. Development toward high-resolution X-ray phase imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi

    2017-06-01

    Since the 1990s, the use of X-ray phase contrast has been extensively studied for imaging weakly absorbing objects consisting of low-Z elements such as biological soft tissues and polymers. The development of X-ray microscopy was also progressing during this time, although absorption contrast was only available. It was straightforward and important to develop phase-contrast X-ray microscopy. One characteristic in the development is that quantitative phase measurement is possible through the acquisition of phase-contrast images under a specific procedure, thanks to digital X-ray image detectors. Therefore, such a technique is called 'phase imaging' rather than phase-contrast imaging in this review. Highly sensitive three-dimensional phase imaging is feasible in combination with tomography. This article reviews the progress in X-ray phase imaging, especially with regards to X-ray microscopy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Improving early clinical trial phase identification of promising therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Thomas A; Shah, Shreyansh D; Mandava, Pitchaiah

    2015-07-21

    This review addresses decision-making underlying the frequent failure to confirm early-phase positive trial results and how to prioritize which early agents to transition to late phase. While unexpected toxicity is sometimes responsible for late-phase failures, lack of efficacy is also frequently found. In stroke as in other conditions, early trials often demonstrate imbalances in factors influencing outcome. Other issues complicate early trial analysis, including unequally distributed noise inherent in outcome measures and variations in natural history among studies. We contend that statistical approaches to correct for imbalances and noise, while likely valid for homogeneous conditions, appear unable to accommodate disease complexity and have failed to correctly identify effective agents. While blinding and randomization are important to reduce selection bias, these methods appear insufficient to insure valid conclusions. We found potential sources of analytical errors in nearly 90% of a sample of early stroke trials. To address these issues, we recommend changes in early-phase analysis and reporting: (1) restrict use of statistical correction to studies where the underlying assumptions are validated, (2) select dichotomous over continuous outcomes for small samples, (3) consider pooled samples to model natural history to detect early therapeutic signals and increase the likelihood of replication in larger samples, (4) report subgroup baseline conditions, (5) consider post hoc methods to restrict analysis to subjects with an appropriate match, and (6) increase the strength of effect threshold given these cumulative sources of noise and potential errors. More attention to these issues should lead to better decision-making regarding selection of agents to proceed to pivotal trials.

  12. Early phase Technology Assessment of nanotechnology in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retèl, Valesca P; Hummel, Marjan J M; van Harten, Willem H

    2008-01-01

    To perform early Technology Assessment (TA) of nanotechnology in oncology. The possibilities of nanotechnology for detection (imaging), diagnosis and treatment of cancer are subject of different research programs where major investments are concerned. As a range of bio- nanotechnologies is expected to enter the oncology field it is relevant to consider the various aspects involved in especially early TA. This article provides two cases of early assessment of (predecessors of) nanotechnologies: Microarray Analysis and Photodynamic Therapy implementation, which methodology can be extrapolated to other nanotechnologies in oncology. Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) is used for the introduction of technologies that are still in a dynamic phase of development or in an early stage of diffusion. The selection of studied aspects in CTA is based on: clinical aspects (safety, efficacy, and effectiveness), economic (cost-effectiveness), patient related (QoL, ethical/juridical and psychosocial), organizational aspects (diffusion and adoption) and scenario drafting. The features of the technology and the phase of implementation are decisive for choices and timing of the specific aspects to be studied. A framework was drafted to decide on the relevant aspects. In the first case, early implementation of Microarray Analysis; clinical effectiveness, logistics, patient centeredness and scenario drafting were given priority. Related to the diffusion-phase of Photodynamic Therapy however other aspects were evaluated, such as early cost-effectiveness analysis for possible reimbursement. Often CTA will result in a mixed method design. Especially scenario drafting is a powerful instrument to predict possible developments that can be anticipated upon in the assessment. CTA is appropriate for the study of early implementation of new technologies in oncology. In early TA small series often necessitate a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. The features of nanotechnology

  13. Early Phase Requirements Assessment of a Teletreatment Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widya, I.A.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Bults, Richard G.A.; Sandjö, L.; Schaake, L.; Huis in 't Veld, M.H.A.; Jones, Valerie M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Shin, S.Y.; Ossowski, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the early phase requirements elicitation of a teletreatment trial and the assessment of the requirements in respect of their importance to the trial and the feasibility of the corresponding adaptations of the telemedicine system within the trial project constraints. The

  14. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf; Haug, Anders

    2008-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system and qual......During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system......¬eling in configuration projects. Each of the five phases is sup¬ported by a set of tools. The main idea of the pro¬cedure is utili¬zation of a so-called Product Family Master Plan, which is a formal description of the product assortment and its variation. The procedure has been tested at one of Baan's cus¬tomers...

  15. Early phase of acute pancreatitis: Assessment and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Veit; Phillip; Jrg; M; Steiner; Hana; Algül

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis(AP) is a potentially life-threatening disease with a wide spectrum of severity. The overall mortality of AP is approximately 5%. According to the revised Atlanta classification system, AP can be classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Severe AP often takes a clinical course with two phases, an early and a late phase, which should both be considered separately. In this review article, we first discuss general aspects of AP, including incidence, pathophysiology, etiology, and grading of severity, then focus on the assessment of patients with suspected AP, including diagnosis and risk stratification, followed by the management of AP during the early phase, with special emphasis on fluid therapy, pain management, nutrition, and antibiotic prophylaxis.

  16. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf; Haug, Anders

    2008-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system and qual......During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system......¬eling in configuration projects. Each of the five phases is sup¬ported by a set of tools. The main idea of the pro¬cedure is utili¬zation of a so-called Product Family Master Plan, which is a formal description of the product assortment and its variation. The procedure has been tested at one of Baan's cus...

  17. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Harlou, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system and qual......During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system...... in configuration projects. Each of the five phases is supported by a set of tools. The main idea of the procedure is utilization of a so-called Product Family Master Plan, which is a formal description of the product assortment and its variation. The procedure has been tested at one of Baan's (SSA Global...

  18. Horava-Lifshitz early universe phase transition beyond detailed balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheyri, F.; Khodadi, M.; Sepangi, H.R. [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The early universe is believed to have undergone a QCD phase transition to hadrons at about 10 {mu}s after the big bang. We study such a transition in the context of the non-detailed balance Horava-Lifshitz theory by investigating the effects of the dynamical coupling constant {lambda} in a flat universe. The evolution of the relevant physical quantities, namely the energy density {rho}, temperature T, scale factor a and the Hubble parameter H is investigated before, during and after the phase transition, assumed to be of first order. Also, in view of the recent lattice QCD simulations data, we study a cross-over phase transition of the early universe whose results are based on two different sets of lattice data. (orig.)

  19. Box Graphs and Resolutions II: From Coulomb Phases to Fiber Faces

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Andreas P

    2015-01-01

    Box graphs, or equivalently Coulomb phases of three-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories with matter, give a succinct, comprehensive and elegant characterization of crepant resolutions of singular elliptically fibered varieties. Furthermore, the box graphs predict that the phases are organized in terms of a network of flop transitions. The geometric construction of the resolutions associated to the phases is, however, a difficult problem. Here, we identify a correspondence between box graphs for the gauge algebras su(2k+1) with resolutions obtained using toric tops and generalizations thereof. Moreover, flop transitions between different such resolutions agree with those predicted by the box graphs. Our results thereby provide explicit realizations of the box graph resolutions.

  20. Super-resolution phase reconstruction technique in electron holography with a stage-scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dan; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Harada, Ken; Shimojo, Masayuki; Ju, Dongying; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2014-02-01

    Super-resolution image reconstruction is a digital signal processing technique that allows creating a high-resolution image from multiple low-resolution images taken at slightly different positions. We introduce the super-resolution image reconstruction technique into electron holography for reconstructing phase images as follows: the studied specimen is shifted step-wise with a high-precision piezo holder, and a series of holograms is recorded. When the step size is not a multiple of the CCD pixel size, processing of the acquired series results in a higher pixel density and spatial resolution as compared to the phase image obtained with conventional holography. The final resolution exceeds the limit of the CCD pixel size divided by the magnification.

  1. Super-resolution with complex masks using a phase-only LCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá Ochoa, Noé; Pérez-Santos, Carlos

    2013-12-15

    Two methods to achieve super-resolution with complex masks displayed in one-phase-only liquid crystal display (LCD) are described. The first method decomposes the complex mask into two phase-only elements with a posterior recombination using an interferometer, and the second method simultaneously encodes the amplitude and the phase by modulating the amplitude of the carrier phase. Experimental results are presented using a liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator under reflection.

  2. Unreplicated DNA remaining from unperturbed S phases passes through mitosis for resolution in daughter cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Alberto; Carrington, Jamie T; Albergante, Luca; Al Mamun, Mohammed; Haagensen, Emma J; Komseli, Eirini-Stavroula; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G; Newman, Timothy J; Blow, J Julian

    2016-09-27

    To prevent rereplication of genomic segments, the eukaryotic cell cycle is divided into two nonoverlapping phases. During late mitosis and G1 replication origins are "licensed" by loading MCM2-7 double hexamers and during S phase licensed replication origins activate to initiate bidirectional replication forks. Replication forks can stall irreversibly, and if two converging forks stall with no intervening licensed origin-a "double fork stall" (DFS)-replication cannot be completed by conventional means. We previously showed how the distribution of replication origins in yeasts promotes complete genome replication even in the presence of irreversible fork stalling. This analysis predicts that DFSs are rare in yeasts but highly likely in large mammalian genomes. Here we show that complementary strand synthesis in early mitosis, ultrafine anaphase bridges, and G1-specific p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) nuclear bodies provide a mechanism for resolving unreplicated DNA at DFSs in human cells. When origin number was experimentally altered, the number of these structures closely agreed with theoretical predictions of DFSs. The 53BP1 is preferentially bound to larger replicons, where the probability of DFSs is higher. Loss of 53BP1 caused hypersensitivity to licensing inhibition when replication origins were removed. These results provide a striking convergence of experimental and theoretical evidence that unreplicated DNA can pass through mitosis for resolution in the following cell cycle.

  3. Unreplicated DNA remaining from unperturbed S phases passes through mitosis for resolution in daughter cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Alberto; Carrington, Jamie T.; Al Mamun, Mohammed; Haagensen, Emma J.; Komseli, Eirini-Stavroula; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G.; Newman, Timothy J.; Blow, J. Julian

    2016-01-01

    To prevent rereplication of genomic segments, the eukaryotic cell cycle is divided into two nonoverlapping phases. During late mitosis and G1 replication origins are “licensed” by loading MCM2-7 double hexamers and during S phase licensed replication origins activate to initiate bidirectional replication forks. Replication forks can stall irreversibly, and if two converging forks stall with no intervening licensed origin—a “double fork stall” (DFS)—replication cannot be completed by conventional means. We previously showed how the distribution of replication origins in yeasts promotes complete genome replication even in the presence of irreversible fork stalling. This analysis predicts that DFSs are rare in yeasts but highly likely in large mammalian genomes. Here we show that complementary strand synthesis in early mitosis, ultrafine anaphase bridges, and G1-specific p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) nuclear bodies provide a mechanism for resolving unreplicated DNA at DFSs in human cells. When origin number was experimentally altered, the number of these structures closely agreed with theoretical predictions of DFSs. The 53BP1 is preferentially bound to larger replicons, where the probability of DFSs is higher. Loss of 53BP1 caused hypersensitivity to licensing inhibition when replication origins were removed. These results provide a striking convergence of experimental and theoretical evidence that unreplicated DNA can pass through mitosis for resolution in the following cell cycle. PMID:27516545

  4. High Resolution Processing with an Active Phased Array SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenboer, F.J.; Otten, M.P.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch PHARUS system is a polarimetric active phased array SAR capable of performing advanced SAR modes. Advanced SAR modes that are being investigated are: spotlight SAR, sliding spotlight SAR, stepped frequency SAR and interferometric SAR. The flight experiments and automatic beam steering

  5. Entropy production in the early-cosmology pionic phase

    CERN Document Server

    Dobado, Antonio; Rodriguez-Fernandez, David

    2015-01-01

    We point out that in the early universe, for temperatures in the approximate interval 175-80 MeV (after the quark-gluon plasma), pions carried a large share of the entropy and supported the largest inhomogeneities. Thus, we examine the production of entropy in a pion gas, particularizing to inhomogeneities of the temperature, for which we benefit from the known thermal conductivity. We finally put that entropy produced in relaxing such thermal inhomogeneities in the broad context of this relatively unexplored phase of early-universe cosmology.

  6. Improvement of spatial resolution in confocal microscope with shifted-focus phase filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangdong; Xiang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chongyang

    2015-02-01

    A spatial super-resolution method is proposed based on the multiplicative character of confocal microscope's amplitude point-spread functions. The axial resolution can be greatly improved by introducing a shifted-focus phase filters in illumination part of a confocal microscope. However, this improvement is accompanied by a decrease of transversal resolution. Thus, a super-Gaussian phase filter is optimized to control the focal shift and transversal intensity distribution in a confocal microscope. Numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed method is useful to obtain a significant improvement in the optical sectioning capacity.

  7. Anomalous scaling law for noise variance and spatial resolution in differential phase contrast computed tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Guang-Hong; Qi, Zhihua; Bevins, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    In conventional absorption based x-ray computed tomography (CT), the noise variance in reconstructed CT images scales with spatial resolution following an inverse cubic relationship. Without reconstruction, in x-ray absorption radiography, the noise variance scales as an inverse square with spatial resolution. In this letter we report that while the inverse square relationship holds for differential phase contrast projection imaging, there exists an anomalous scaling law in differential phase contrast CT, where the noise variance scales with spatial resolution following an inverse linear relationship. The anomalous scaling law is theoretically derived and subsequently validated with phantom results from an experimental Talbot-Lau interferometer system.

  8. Flood Forecast and Early Warning with High-Resolution Ensemble Rainfall from Numerical Weather Prediction Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Wansik; NAKAKITA, Eiichi; Jung, Kwansue

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of ensemble forecasts of numerical weather prediction (NWP) model for flood forecasting. In this study, 10 km resolution ensemble rainfalls forecast and their downscaled forecasts of 2 km resolution were used in the hydrologic model as input data for flood forecasting and application of flood early warning. Ensemble data consists of 51 members and 48 hr forecast time. Ensemble outputs are verified spatially whether they can produce suitable rainfall p...

  9. The retention of academics in the early career phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coenraad Bester

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent academics in the early career phase at a South African higher education institution are committed to the institution in question and the impact which this commitment has on labour turnover. More than 21% of the original respondents left the institution while this research was still underway. Insufficient financial remuneration was the most important reason why the respondents considered leaving the institution.

  10. Dispositional Optimism and Therapeutic Expectations in Early Phase Oncology Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A.; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Klein, William MP; Weinstein, Neil D.; Mori, Motomi; Daffé, Racky; Sulmasy, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials. Optimism, however, is not a unitary construct – it can also be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. We assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. We also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. Methods Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. Results Dispositional optimism was significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman r=0.333, poptimism was weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r=0.215, p=0.005). In multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (p=0.02) and unrealistic optimism (poptimism (p=.0001), but not dispositional optimism, was independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. Conclusion High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information about the trials. Our data reveal that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations about specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have different consequences for informed consent in early phase oncology research. PMID:26882017

  11. Information about robustness, reliability and safety in early design phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Vinicius Kaster

    This thesis is motivated by the need for support in considerations of robustness, reliability and safety during early design phases. The thesis deals with the question of how to codify and communicate failures and hazards, and devises measures against these. Current methods to robustness, reliabi......This thesis is motivated by the need for support in considerations of robustness, reliability and safety during early design phases. The thesis deals with the question of how to codify and communicate failures and hazards, and devises measures against these. Current methods to robustness......, reliability and safety reviewed have shortcomings including the complexity of using them and dependence on expert input for mitigating uncertainty and ambiguity among solution alternatives. This research is carried out using case studies: a pilot case to assess information requirements from reliability...... methods, and an industrial case to assess how the use of information about robustness, reliability and safety as practised by current methods influences concept development. Current methods cannot be used in early design phases due to their dependence on detailed design information for the identification...

  12. Physiotherapy in early phase of low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Paatelma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Markku PaatelmaDepartment of Education, Auron – OMT Center, Helsinki, FinlandAbstract: Low back pain (LBP is a substantial health problem and has subsequently attracted a considerable amount of research both in the early and chronic phases. Chronic, nonspecific LBP indicates limited effectiveness from most commonly applied interventions and approaches, but it seems to be opposite in the early phase. Intervention is more effective than advice on staying active in acute LBP, leading to more rapid improvement in function, mood, quality of life, and general health. We compared physiotherapy (PT that involved 3–7 treatment sessions based on subclassification in early phase LBP (acute and subacute LBP lasting <3 months to one session of PT that advised staying active, in 134 LBP patients. Low back and leg pain, disability, and days of sick-leave were evaluated. After 12 months, all groups had only minimal pain and disability. In the advice-only group, those patients who had radiating pain had less improvement compared with other groups, and increasing days of sick-leave because of LBP after 12 months. Compared with the advice-only group, orthopedic manual therapy and McKenzie methods seemed to be slightly more effective than one session of assessment in pain and disability.Keywords: OMT, advice, low back pain 

  13. Early to Middle Jurassic palaeoenvironmental changes: High resolution δ13C and δ18O records from the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korte, Christoph; Hesselbo, Stephen; Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz

    Low-Mg-calcite fossils, such as bivalves, belemnites and brachiopods, and bulk rocks have been extensively utilized to reconstruct past seawater chemistry and paleoenviron¬mental changes. Recent work on major bioevents demonstrated that particularly higher resolution stable isotope records...... are necessary to reveal short-term paleoenviron¬mental fluctuations and, in addition, to discover its causes. Here we present a new high resolution carbon and oxygen isotope dataset generated from low-Mg-calcite fossils, fossil wood and bulk rocks collected from Early to Middle Jurassic marine successions...... inference of partial icehouse conditions at that time. More uncertain are potential icehouse interludes during the Aalenian-Bajocian interval. The new isotope datasets show partly a strong similarity between the positions of the global warming/cooling events within transgressive/regressive phases of second...

  14. Quark-Hadron Phase Transitions in Viscous Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2011-01-01

    Based on hot big bang theory, the cosmological matter is conjectured to undergo QCD phase transition(s) to hadrons, when the universe was about $1-10 \\mu$s old. In the present work, we study the quark-hadron phase transition, by taking into account the effect of the bulk viscosity. We analyze the evolution of the quantities relevant for the physical description of the early universe, namely, the energy density $\\rho$, temperature $T$, Hubble parameter $H$ and scale factor $a$ before, during and after the phase transition. To study the cosmological dynamics and the time evolution we use both analytical and numerical methods. By assuming that the phase transition may be described by an effective nucleation theory (prompt {\\it first-order} phase transition), we also consider the case where the universe evolved through a mixed phase with a small initial supercooling and monotonically growing hadronic bubbles. The numerical estimation of the cosmological parameters, $a$ and $H$ for instance, makes it clear that th...

  15. Schreiber Approach for GPS Carrier Phase Ambiguity Resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jian-jun; Ding Xiao-li; Chen Yong-qi

    2003-01-01

    Differenced GPS carrier phase observations are usually used in GPS positioning to eliminate the various common GPS errors. A different approach is proposed in this paper where no differencing of the observations is required. In this method, the common GPS errors are modelled explicitly and eliminated by introducing the Schreiber method, which is used in traditional geodesy to eliminate the azimuth unknowns in observation equations. The paper first introduces the Schreiber method, and then discusses its application to the various GPS common-mode error models. It is shown that if only the real ambiguity solution is concerned, the estimate of the position parameters from the Schreiber approach is the same as that from the differencing approach. However, the variance of the ambiguity estimate from the Schreiber approach is smaller than that from the differencing approach. Numerical examples are given to show that the results are reliable.

  16. Enhancing effect of phase coherence factor for improvement of spatial resolution in ultrasonic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Spatial resolution is one of the important factors that determines ultrasound image quality. In the present study, methods using the phase variance of ultrasonic echoes received by individual transducer elements have been examined for improvement of spatial resolution. An imaging method, i.e., phase coherence imaging, which uses the phase coherence factor (PCF) obtained from the phase variance of received ultrasonic echoes, was recently proposed. Spatial resolution is improved by weighting ultrasonic RF signals obtained by delay-and-sum (DAS) beam forming using PCF. In the present study, alternative PCFs, i.e., exponential PCF, harmonic PCF, and Gaussian PCF, have been proposed and examined for further improvement of spatial resolution. Spatial resolutions realized by the proposed PCFs were evaluated by an experiment using a phantom. The full widths at half maxima of the lateral profiles of an echo from a string phantom were 2.61 mm (DAS only), 1.46 mm (conventional PCF), and 0.48-0.62 mm (proposed PCFs). The PCFs newly proposed in the present study showed better spatial resolutions than the conventional PCF. The proposed PCFs also realized better visualization of echoes from a diffuse scattering medium than the conventional PCF.

  17. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iketaki, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Katsuichi; Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira; Bokor, Nandor

    2014-07-01

    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope.

  18. A Quick Method of Phase Ambiguity Resolution with X-Ray Pulsar Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuerui Li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we proposes a quick resolution method based on space search method which is based on least square method, space search method and ambiguity covariance method. The results of simulation indicate that this method can effectively improve the speed and efficiency of phase ambiguity resolution and has some certain reference value to the researches which is related to X-ray pulsar navigation.

  19. Improving the Estimation of Uncalibrated Fractional Phase Offsets for PPP Ambiguity Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Xingxing Li; Zhang, X

    2012-01-01

    Integer ambiguity resolution in Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can shorten convergence time and improve accuracy significantly. Uncalibrated Fractional Offsets (UFOs) originating in the satellites destroy the integer nature of carrier phase ambiguities observed at a single station. Several methods have been developed to estimate UFO information from a reference network for PPP ambiguity resolution. In this paper, we present a new approach for estimating Zero-Differenced (ZD) UFOs via float Z...

  20. High-Resolution Group Quantization Phase Processing Method in Radio Frequency Measurement Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Baoqing; Feng, Dazheng; Tang, Yaohua; Geng, Xin; Zhang, Duo; Cai, Chaofeng; Wan, Maoquan; Yang, Zhigang

    2016-07-08

    Aiming at the more complex frequency translation, the longer response time and the limited measurement precision in the traditional phase processing, a high-resolution phase processing method by group quantization higher than 100 fs level is proposed in radio frequency measurement range. First, the phase quantization is used as a step value to quantize every phase difference in a group by using the fixed phase relationships between different frequencies signals. The group quantization is formed by the results of the quantized phase difference. In the light of frequency drift mainly caused by phase noise of measurement device, a regular phase shift of the group quantization is produced, which results in the phase coincidence of two comparing signals which obtain high-resolution measurement. Second, in order to achieve the best coincidences pulse, a subtle delay is initiatively used to reduce the width of the coincidences fuzzy area according to the transmission characteristics of the coincidences in the specific medium. Third, a series of feature coincidences pulses of fuzzy area can be captured by logic gate to achieve the best phase coincidences information for the improvement of the measurement precision. The method provides a novel way to precise time and frequency measurement.

  1. Phase relationship between alternans of early and late phases of ventricular action potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyuan eJing

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alternans of early phase and of duration of action potential (AP critically affect dispersion of refractoriness through their influence on conduction and repolarization. We investigated the phase relationship between the two alternans and its effect on conduction. Methods and Results: Transmembrane potentials recorded from ventricles of 8 swine and 3 canines during paced activation intervals of ≤ 300 ms were used to quantify alternans of maximum rate of depolarization (|dv/dt|max and of APD. Incidence of APD alternans was 62% and 76% in swine and canines. Alternans of APD was frequently accompanied with alternans of |dv/dt|max. Of these, 4 and 26 % were out of phase in swine and canines, i.e. low |dv/dt|max preceded long APD. Computer simulations show that out of phase alternans attenuate variation of wavelength and thus minimize formation of spatially discordant alternans. Conclusions: The spontaneous switching of phase relationship between alternans of depolarization and repolarization suggests that mechanisms underlying these alternans may operate independent of each other. The phase between these alternans can critically impact spatial dispersion of refractoriness and thus stability of conduction, with the in phase relation promoting transition from concord to discord while out of phase preventing formation of discord.

  2. Time-reversed two-photon interferometry for phase super-resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Ogawa, Kazuhisa; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Kitano, Masao

    2013-01-01

    We observed two-photon phase super-resolution in an unbalanced Michelson interferometer with classical Gaussian laser pulses. Our work is a time-reversed version of a two-photon interference experiment using an unbalanced Michelson interferometer. A measured interferogram exhibits two-photon phase super-resolution with a high visibility of 97.9% \\pm 0.4%. Its coherence length is about 22 times longer than that of the input laser pulses. It is a classical analogue to the large difference between the one- and two-photon coherence lengths of entangled photon pairs.

  3. High resolution orientation mapping of secondary phases in ATI 718Plus® alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krakow Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The polycrystalline superalloy ATI 718Plus ® (hereafter 718Plus has been developed to replace the established alloy Inconel 718 by offering higher temperature capability for applications in gas turbines. The alloy exhibits two secondary phases in the austenitic matrix; it is strengthened by the γ′-phase with η-phase discontinuously precipitated at the grain boundaries. It can be utilized to control grain growth during forging. Generally, hexagonal η phase has been reported to possess a defined crystallographic orientation with the matrix. However, the material studied here exhibits blocky η-phase that has been precipitated and grown during thermo-mechanical processing. Therefore a measurable change in orientation relationship is expected. The standard technique for orientation mapping is electron back-scattered diffraction with spatial resolution of 100 nm. That is insufficient for studying η-phase in 718Plus. By applying high resolution orientation mapping in the transmission electron microscope (Philips CM 300 FEGTEM equipped with a Nanomegas ASTARTM system a resolution of 3 nm was achieved. The indexed diffraction data was analysed using the Matlab Toolbox Mtex. The analysis included grain reconstruction and exclusion of low confidence measurements. The data set allows generating phase boundary maps indicating interfaces characteristics. Quantitative assessment shows that only 19% of the γ-η-interfaces fulfil the orientation relationship.

  4. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall,G.E.; Sears, T.J.

    2009-04-03

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. High-resolution spectroscopy, augmented by theoretical and computational methods, is used to investigate the structure and collision dynamics of chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry. Applications and methods development are equally important experimental components of this work.

  5. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, G.E.

    2011-05-31

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry are investigated by high resolution spectroscopic tools. Production, reaction, and energy transfer processes are investigated by transient, double resonance, polarization and saturation spectroscopies, with an emphasis on technique development and connection with theory, as well as specific molecular properties.

  6. Is High Temporal Resolution Achievable for Paediatric Cardiac Acquisitions during Several Heart Beats? Illustration with Cardiac Phase Contrast Cine-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemains, Laurent; Odille, Freddy; Meyer, Christophe; Hossu, Gabriella; Felblinger, Jacques; Vuissoz, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    During paediatric cardiac Cine-MRI, data acquired during cycles of different lengths must be combined. Most of the time, Feinstein's model is used to project multiple cardiac cycles of variable lengths into a mean cycle. To assess the effect of Feinstein projection on temporal resolution of Cine-MRI. 1/The temporal errors during Feinstein's projection were computed in 306 cardiac cycles fully characterized by tissue Doppler imaging with 6-phase analysis (from a population of 7 children and young adults). 2/The effects of these temporal errors on tissue velocities were assessed by simulating typical tissue phase mapping acquisitions and reconstructions. 3/Myocardial velocities curves, extracted from high-resolution phase-contrast cine images, were compared for the 6 volunteers with lowest and highest heart rate variability, within a population of 36 young adults. 1/The mean of temporal misalignments was 30 ms over the cardiac cycle but reached 60 ms during early diastole. 2/During phase contrast MRI simulation, early diastole velocity peaks were diminished by 6.1 cm/s leading to virtual disappearance of isovolumic relaxation peaks. 3/The smoothing and erasing of isovolumic relaxation peaks was confirmed on tissue phase mapping velocity curves, between subjects with low and high heart rate variability (p = 0.05). Feinstein cardiac model creates temporal misalignments that impair high temporal resolution phase contrast cine imaging when beat-to-beat heart rate is changing.

  7. High resolution AFM and single cell resonance Raman spectroscopy of Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms early in growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai eLebedev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AFM and confocal resonance Raman microscopy (CRRM of single-cells were used to study the transition of anode-grown Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms from lag phase (initial period of low current to exponential phase (subsequent period of rapidly increasing current. Results reveal that lag phase biofilms consist of lone cells and tightly packed single-cell thick clusters crisscrossed with extracellular linear structures that appear to be comprised of nodules approximately 20 nm in diameter aligned end to end. By early exponential phase cell clusters expand laterally and a second layer of closely packed cells begins to form on top of the first. Abundance of c-type cytochromes (c-Cyt is > 3-fold greater in 2-cell thick regions than in 1-cell thick regions. The results indicate that early biofilm growth involves two transformations. The first is from lone cells to 2-dimensionally associated cells during lag phase when current remains low. This is accompanied by formation of extracellular linear structures. The second is from 2- to 3-dimensionally associated cells during early exponential phase when current begins to increases rapidly. This is accompanied by a dramatic increase in c-Cyt abundance.

  8. Improvement of the Energy Resolution via an Optimized Digital Signal Processing in GERDA Phase I

    CERN Document Server

    Agostini, M; Bakalyarov, A M; Balata, M; Barabanov, I; Barros, N; Baudis, L; Bauer, C; Becerici-Schmidt, N; Bellotti, E; Belogurov, S; Belyaev, S T; Benato, G; Bettini, A; Bezrukov, L; Bode, T; Borowicz, D; Brudanin, V; Brugnera, R; Budjáš, D; Caldwell, A; Cattadori, C; Chernogorov, A; D'Andrea, V; Demidova, E V; di Vacri, A; Domula, A; Doroshkevich, E; Egorov, V; Falkenstein, R; Fedorova, O; Freund, K; Frodyma, N; Gangapshev, A; Garfagnini, A; Grabmayr, P; Gurentsov, V; Gusev, K; Hegai, A; Heisel, M; Hemmer, S; Heusser, G; Hofmann, W; Hult, M; Inzhechik, L V; Csáthy, J Janicskó; Jochum, J; Junker, M; Kazalov, V; Kihm, T; Kirpichnikov, I V; Kirsch, A; Klimenko, A; Knöpfle, K T; Kochetov, O; Kornoukhov, V N; Kuzminov, V V; Laubenstein, M; Lazzaro, A; Lebedev, V I; Lehnert, B; Liao, H Y; Lindner, M; Lippi, I; Lubashevskiy, A; Lubsandorzhiev, B; Lutter, G; Macolino, C; Majorovits, B; Maneschg, W; Medinaceli, E; Misiaszek, M; Moseev, P; Nemchenok, I; Palioselitis, D; Panas, K; Pandola, L; Pelczar, K; Pullia, A; Riboldi, S; Rumyantseva, N; Sada, C; Salathe, M; Schmitt, C; Schneider, B; Schönert, S; Schreiner, J; Schütz, A -K; Schulz, O; Schwingenheuer, B; Selivanenko, O; Shirchenko, M; Simgen, H; Smolnikov, A; Stanco, L; Stepaniuk, M; Ur, C A; Vanhoefer, L; Vasenko, A A; Veresnikova, A; von Sturm, K; Wagner, V; Walter, M; Wegmann, A; Wester, T; Wilsenach, H; Wojcik, M; Yanovich, E; Zavarise, P; Zhitnikov, I; Zhukov, S V; Zinatulina, D; Zuber, K; Zuzel, G

    2015-01-01

    An optimized digital shaping filter has been developed for the GERDA experiment which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge. The GERDA Phase I energy calibration data have been reprocessed and an average improvement of 0.3 keV in energy resolution (FWHM) at the 76Ge Q value for 0\

  9. Effect of Mobile Phase Additives on the Resolution of Four Bioactive Compounds by RP-HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Li

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of mobile phase additives enhances the separation and resolution of the bioactive compounds on the C18 column. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and scoparone from Herba Artemisiae Scopariae were investigated as the target compounds. Acetic acid, triethylamine, inorganic salts, and several ionic liquids were added as mobile phase additives into methanol/water (40:60, v/v. The result revealed that a mobile phase with 0.01 mol/L of ionic liquid [BMIM][BF4] enabled the optimum separation of the four target compounds.

  10. Influence of standing wave phase error on super-resolution optical inspection for periodic microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, R.; Usuki, S.; Takahashi, S.; Takamasu, K.

    2012-05-01

    The miniaturization of microfabricated structures such as patterned semiconductor wafers continues to advance, thereby increasing the demand for a high-speed, nondestructive and high-resolution measurement technique. We propose a novel optical inspecting method for a microfabricated structure using the standing wave illumination (SWI) shift as such a measurement technique. This method is based on a super-resolution algorithm in which the inspection system's resolution exceeds the diffraction limit by shifting the SWI. Resolution beyond the diffraction limit has previously been studied theoretically and realized experimentally. The influence of various experimental error factors needs to be investigated and calibration needs to be performed accordingly when actual applications that utilize the proposed method are constructed. These error factors include errors related to the phase, pitch and shift step size of the standing wave. Identifying the phase accurately is extremely difficult and greatly influences the resolution result. Hence, the SWI phase was focused upon as an experimental error factor. The effect of the phase difference between the actual experimental standing wave and the computationally set standing wave was investigated using a computer simulation. The periodic structure characteristic of a microfabricated structure was analyzed. The following findings were obtained as a result. The influence of an error is divided into three modes depending on the pitch of the periodic structure: (1) if the pitch is comparatively small, the influence of the error is cancelled, allowing the structure of a sample to be resolved correctly; (2) if the pitch of the structure is from 150 to 350 nm, the reconstructed solution shifts in a transverse direction corresponding to a phase gap of SWI; and (3) if it is a comparatively large pitch, then it is difficult to reconstruct the right pitch. Verification was experimentally attempted for mode (2), and the same result as

  11. Towards quantitative, atomic-resolution reconstruction of the electrostatic potential via differential phase contrast using electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, R.; Chen, Z. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Shibata, N. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Findlay, S.D., E-mail: scott.findlay@monash.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Differential phase contrast images in scanning transmission electron microscopy can be directly and quantitatively related to the gradient of the projected specimen potential provided that (a) the specimen can be treated as a phase object and (b) full 2D diffraction patterns as a function of probe position can be obtained. Both are challenging to achieve in atomic resolution imaging. The former is fundamentally limited by probe spreading and dynamical electron scattering, and we explore its validity domain in the context of atomic resolution differential phase contrast imaging. The latter, for which proof-of-principle experimental data sets exist, is not yet routine. We explore the extent to which more established segmented detector geometries can instead be used to reconstruct a quantitatively good approximation to the projected specimen potential. - Highlights: • Atomic-resolution differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging explored via simulation. • Phase-object approximation limits quantification to specimens a few nanometers thick. • Segmented detectors give good estimates of the diffraction pattern's first moment.

  12. Differential interferometric phases at high spectral resolution as a sensitive physical diagnostic of circumstellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Faes, D M; Rivinius, Th; Štefl, S; Baade, D; de Souza, A Domiciano

    2013-01-01

    Context. The circumstellar disks ejected by many rapidly rotating B stars (so-called Be stars) offer the rare opportunity of studying the structure and dynamics of gaseous disks at high spectral as well as angular resolution. Aims. This paper explores a newly identified effect in spectro-interferometric phase that can be used for probing the inner regions of gaseous edge-on disks on a scale of a few stellar radii. Methods. The origin of this effect (dubbed central quasi-emission phase signature, CQE-PS) lies in the velocity-dependent line absorption of photospheric radiation by the circumstellar disk. At high spectral and marginal interferometric resolution, photocenter displacements between star and isovelocity regions in the Keplerian disk reveal themselves through small interferometric phase shifts. To investigate the diagnostic potential of this effect, a series of models are presented, based on detailed radiative transfer calculations in a viscous decretion disk. Results. Amplitude and detailed shape of ...

  13. Probing early-universe phase transitions with CMB spectral distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mustafa A.; Grin, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Global, symmetry-breaking phase transitions in the early universe can generate scaling seed networks which lead to metric perturbations. The acoustic waves in the photon-baryon plasma sourced by these metric perturbations, when Silk damped, generate spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In this work, the chemical potential distortion (μ ) due to scaling seed networks is computed and the accompanying Compton y -type distortion is estimated. The specific model of choice is the O (N ) nonlinear σ -model for N ≫1 , but the results remain the same order of magnitude for other scaling seeds. If CMB anisotropy constraints to the O (N ) model are saturated, the resulting chemical potential distortion μ ≲2 ×1 0-9 .

  14. Probing early-universe phase transitions with CMB spectral distortions

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Mustafa A

    2014-01-01

    Global, symmetry-breaking phase transitions in the early universe can generate scaling seed networks which lead to metric perturbations. The acoustic waves in the photon-baryon plasma sourced by these metric perturbations, when Silk damped, generate spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In this work, the chemical potential distortion ($\\mu$) due to scaling seed networks is computed and the accompanying Compton $y$-type distortion is estimated. The specific model of choice is the $O(N)$ nonlinear $\\sigma$-model for $N\\gg 1$, but the results remain the same order of magnitude for other scaling seeds. If CMB anisotropy constraints to the $O(N)$ model are saturated, the resulting chemical potential distortion $\\mu \\lesssim 2\\times 10^{-9}$.

  15. Phase-Synchronization Early Epileptic Seizure Detector VLSI Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhalim, K; Smolyakov, V; Genov, R

    2011-10-01

    A low-power VLSI processor architecture that computes in real time the magnitude and phase-synchronization of two input neural signals is presented. The processor is a part of an envisioned closed-loop implantable microsystem for adaptive neural stimulation. The architecture uses three CORDIC processing cores that require shift-and-add operations but no multiplication. The 10-bit processor synthesized and prototyped in a standard 1.2 V 0.13 μm CMOS technology utilizes 41,000 logic gates. It dissipates 3.6 μW per input pair, and provides 1.7 kS/s per-channel throughput when clocked at 2.5 MHz. The power scales linearly with the number of input channels or the sampling rate. The efficacy of the processor in early epileptic seizure detection is validated on human intracranial EEG data.

  16. Creating an information quantum leap in early design phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard; Heller, Alfred; Hurup-Felby, Brian

    2014-01-01

    urban environment climatic conditions, broad multi-­‐criteria sustainability certification in early design phases aiming a.o. at meeting the obligations defined by smart cities challenges. Civil and Environmental Engineering has special challenges concerning design processes. These design projects...... are always influenced by their location and the topography (be it natural or manmade), climate, etc. This means that each project is unique and must be viewed in its own right. This reduces the benefits of mass production and standardization that are so heavily emphasized in mechanical design...... and behavior. This is more true than ever when considering the challenge of climate change. The requirements and behavior of the human users also vary in time. To meet these challenges, Civil and Environmental Engineering projects must be designed to be flexible so they can adjust for temporary changes...

  17. Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma Diagnosed and Treated Early, in Prejaundice Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denes M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hilar cholangiocarcinoma, Klatskin tumor or proximal bile duct cancer, is a tumor growing in the right hepatic duct, left hepatic duct or at their confluence. It is a relatively rare but devastating disease. The tight stricture of the biliary ducts and the development of obstructive jaundice are the main characteristics of the disease. In the early phase, symptoms are nonspecific and jaundice is not present, leading to delayed diagnosis and denying the possibility of curative treatment. We present the case of a 74 years old woman who was referred to us with ambiguous symptomatology and without jaundice. The ultrasound and CT scan showed dilation of the left biliary tree, without increase of the cholestatic enzymes. Magnetic resonance cholangiography depicted a tumor in the left hepatic duct (3X3 cm. with enlargement of the bile ducts above. The surgical treatment consisted of left hepatectomy and hilar lymph nodes dissection. The pathology findings showed a cholangiocarcinoma with a few hilar nodes involvement. Our approach was potentially curative. Unfortunately these situations are seldom because in the majority of cases the patients have obstructive jaundice at presentation and the tumors are unresectable. We consider that a magnetic resonance cholangiography made when we suspect a bile duct tumor, leads us to an early diagnosis and gives us the possibility of a potential curative surgical treatment.

  18. Phase-contrast tomography of neuronal tissues: from laboratory- to high resolution synchrotron CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töpperwien, Mareike; Krenkel, Martin; Müller, Kristin; Salditt, Tim

    2016-10-01

    Assessing the three-dimensional architecture of neuronal tissues with sub-cellular resolution presents a significant analytical challenge. Overcoming the limitations associated with serial slicing, phase-contrast x-ray tomography has the potential to contribute to this goal. Even compact laboratory CT at an optimized liquid-metal jet micro- focus source combined with suitable phase-retrieval algorithms and preparation protocols can yield renderings with single cell sensitivity in millimeter sized brain areas of mouse. Here, we show the capabilities of the setup by imaging a Golgi-Cox impregnated mouse brain. Towards higher resolution we extend these studies at our recently upgraded waveguide-based cone-beam holo-tomography instrument GINIX at DESY. This setup allows high resolution recordings with adjustable field of view and resolution, down to the voxel sizes in the range of a few ten nanometers. The recent results make us confident that important issues of neuronal connectivity can be addressed by these methods, and that 3D (virtual) histology with nanoscale resolution will become an attractive modality for neuroscience research.

  19. High resolution quantitative phase imaging of live cells with constrained optimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiyan, Vimal Prabhu; Khare, Kedar; John, Renu

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) aims at studying weakly scattering and absorbing biological specimens with subwavelength accuracy without any external staining mechanisms. Use of a reference beam at an angle is one of the necessary criteria for recording of high resolution holograms in most of the interferometric methods used for quantitative phase imaging. The spatial separation of the dc and twin images is decided by the reference beam angle and Fourier-filtered reconstructed image will have a very poor resolution if hologram is recorded below a minimum reference angle condition. However, it is always inconvenient to have a large reference beam angle while performing high resolution microscopy of live cells and biological specimens with nanometric features. In this paper, we treat reconstruction of digital holographic microscopy images as a constrained optimization problem with smoothness constraint in order to recover only complex object field in hologram plane even with overlapping dc and twin image terms. We solve this optimization problem by gradient descent approach iteratively and the smoothness constraint is implemented by spatial averaging with appropriate size. This approach will give excellent high resolution image recovery compared to Fourier filtering while keeping a very small reference angle. We demonstrate this approach on digital holographic microscopy of live cells by recovering the quantitative phase of live cells from a hologram recorded with nearly zero reference angle.

  20. Sensorless Modeling of Varying Pulse Width Modulator Resolutions in Three-Phase Induction Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Matthew David; Shevach, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    A sensorless algorithm was developed to predict rotor speeds in an electric three-phase induction motor. This sensorless model requires a measurement of the stator currents and voltages, and the rotor speed is predicted accurately without any mechanical measurement of the rotor speed. A model of an electric vehicle undergoing acceleration was built, and the sensorless prediction of the simulation rotor speed was determined to be robust even in the presence of fluctuating motor parameters and significant sensor errors. Studies were conducted for varying pulse width modulator resolutions, and the sensorless model was accurate for all resolutions of sinusoidal voltage functions. PMID:28076418

  1. Ultrafast, high resolution, phase contrast imaging of impact response with synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Jensen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamic response of materials at extreme conditions requires diagnostics that can provide real-time, in situ, spatially resolved measurements on the nanosecond timescale. The development of methods such as phase contrast imaging (PCI typically used at synchrotron sources offer unique opportunities to examine dynamic material response. In this work, we report ultrafast, high-resolution, dynamic PCI measurements of shock compressed materials with 3 μm spatial resolution using a single 60 ps synchrotron X-ray bunch. These results firmly establish the use of PCI to examine dynamic phenomena at ns to μs timescales.

  2. High-resolution analysis of the duodenal interdigestive phase III in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castedal, M; Abrahamsson, H

    2001-10-01

    To study the spatial organization of the propagating pressure waves of duodenal phase III, we performed fasting antroduodenal high-resolution manometry with a 16-channel catheter in 12 healthy subjects. The phase III pressure waves diverged in an anterograde and retrograde direction from the start site of each pressure wave. The pressure waves maintained this configuration as the activity front moved distally in the duodenum. The start site of the pressure waves moved gradually to a point approximately 12 cm (median) distal to the pylorus and remained at this point for about 40% of the phase III time before moving further distally. The length of retrograde pressure wave propagation increased to 6 cm (median) as the pressure wave origin moved aborally to a point 10-14 cm distal to the pylorus, and then decreased when the origin of pressure waves reached the distal end of the duodenum. Bidirectional pressure waves dominated in both retrograde and anterograde activity fronts. Three pressure-wave mechanisms behind the duodenal phase IV were observed. Isolated pyloric pressure waves were absent during late duodenal phase III retroperistalsis. Thus, a number of new features of the duodenal phase III-related motility were observed using high-temporospatial resolution recordings.

  3. Differential aquaporin 4 expression during edema build-up and resolution phases of brain inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brochet Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vasogenic edema dynamically accumulates in many brain disorders associated with brain inflammation, with the critical step of edema exacerbation feared in patient care. Water entrance through blood-brain barrier (BBB opening is thought to have a role in edema formation. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of edema resolution remain poorly understood. Because the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4 provides an important route for vasogenic edema resolution, we studied the time course of AQP4 expression to better understand its potential effect in countering the exacerbation of vasogenic edema. Methods Focal inflammation was induced in the rat brain by a lysolecithin injection and was evaluated at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 20 days using a combination of in vivo MRI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC measurements used as a marker of water content, and molecular and histological approaches for the quantification of AQP4 expression. Markers of active inflammation (macrophages, BBB permeability, and interleukin-1β and markers of scarring (gliosis were also quantified. Results This animal model of brain inflammation demonstrated two phases of edema development: an initial edema build-up phase during active inflammation that peaked after 3 days (ADC increase was followed by an edema resolution phase that lasted from 7 to 20 days post injection (ADC decrease and was accompanied by glial scar formation. A moderate upregulation in AQP4 was observed during the build-up phase, but a much stronger transcriptional and translational level of AQP4 expression was observed during the secondary edema resolution phase. Conclusions We conclude that a time lag in AQP4 expression occurs such that the more significant upregulation was achieved only after a delay period. This change in AQP4 expression appears to act as an important determinant in the exacerbation of edema, considering that AQP4 expression is insufficient to counter the water influx during the build

  4. Characterization of Early-Phase Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanbao; Kwon, Keehwan; Tsitrin, Tamara; Bekele, Shiferaw; Sikorski, Patricia; Nelson, Karen E; Pieper, Rembert

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils have an important role in the antimicrobial defense and resolution of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Our research suggests that a mechanism known as neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is a defense strategy to combat pathogens that have invaded the urinary tract. A set of human urine specimens with very high neutrophil counts had microscopic evidence of cellular aggregation and lysis. Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase) treatment resulted in disaggregation of such structures, release of DNA fragments and a proteome enriched in histones and azurophilic granule effectors whose quantitative composition was similar to that of previously described in vitro-formed NETs. The effector proteins were further enriched in DNA-protein complexes isolated in native PAGE gels. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed a flattened morphology of neutrophils associated with decondensed chromatin, remnants of granules in the cell periphery, and myeloperoxidase co-localized with extracellular DNA, features consistent with early-phase NETs. Nuclear staining revealed that a considerable fraction of bacterial cells in these structures were dead. The proteomes of two pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, were indicative of adaptive responses to early-phase NETs, specifically the release of virulence factors and arrest of ribosomal protein synthesis. Finally, we discovered patterns of proteolysis consistent with widespread cleavage of proteins by neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3 and cathepsin G and evidence of citrullination in many nuclear proteins.

  5. Characterization of Early-Phase Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanbao; Kwon, Keehwan; Tsitrin, Tamara; Sikorski, Patricia; Nelson, Karen E.; Pieper, Rembert

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils have an important role in the antimicrobial defense and resolution of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Our research suggests that a mechanism known as neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is a defense strategy to combat pathogens that have invaded the urinary tract. A set of human urine specimens with very high neutrophil counts had microscopic evidence of cellular aggregation and lysis. Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase) treatment resulted in disaggregation of such structures, release of DNA fragments and a proteome enriched in histones and azurophilic granule effectors whose quantitative composition was similar to that of previously described in vitro-formed NETs. The effector proteins were further enriched in DNA-protein complexes isolated in native PAGE gels. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed a flattened morphology of neutrophils associated with decondensed chromatin, remnants of granules in the cell periphery, and myeloperoxidase co-localized with extracellular DNA, features consistent with early-phase NETs. Nuclear staining revealed that a considerable fraction of bacterial cells in these structures were dead. The proteomes of two pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, were indicative of adaptive responses to early-phase NETs, specifically the release of virulence factors and arrest of ribosomal protein synthesis. Finally, we discovered patterns of proteolysis consistent with widespread cleavage of proteins by neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3 and cathepsin G and evidence of citrullination in many nuclear proteins. PMID:28129394

  6. High resolution laboratory grating-based x-ray phase-contrast CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viermetz, Manuel P.; Birnbacher, Lorenz J. B.; Fehringer, Andreas; Willner, Marian; Noel, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2017-03-01

    Grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (gbPC-CT) is a promising imaging method for imaging of soft tissue contrast without the need of any contrast agent. The focus of this study is the increase in spatial resolution without loss in sensitivity to allow visualization of pathologies comparable to the convincing results obtained at the synchrotron. To improve the effective pixel size a super-resolution reconstruction based on subpixel shifts involving a deconvolution of the image is applied on differential phase-contrast data. In our study we could achieve an effective pixel sizes of 28mm without any drawback in terms of sensitivity or the ability to measure quantitative data.

  7. Propagation-based phase-contrast tomography for high-resolution lung imaging with laboratory sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krenkel, Martin, E-mail: mkrenke@gwdg.de; Töpperwien, Mareike; Salditt, Tim, E-mail: tsaldit@gwdg.de [Institute for X-Ray Physics, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Dullin, Christian [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Alves, Frauke [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Department of Haematology and Medical Oncology, Medical Center Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Department of Molecular Biology of Neuronal Signals, Max-Planck-Institute of Experimental Medicine, 37075 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    We have performed high-resolution phase-contrast tomography on whole mice with a laboratory setup. Enabled by a high-brilliance liquid-metal-jet source, we show the feasibility of propagation-based phase contrast in local tomography even in the presence of strongly absorbing surrounding tissue as it is the case in small animal imaging of the lung. We demonstrate the technique by reconstructions of the mouse lung for two different fields of view, covering the whole organ, and a zoom to the local finer structure of terminal airways and alveoli. With a resolution of a few micrometers and the wide availability of the technique, studies of larger biological samples at the cellular level become possible.

  8. High resolution kilometric range optical telemetry in air by radio frequency phase measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillory, Joffray; García-Márquez, Jorge; Truong, Daniel; Wallerand, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-Cnam (LCM), LNE, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris (France); Šmíd, Radek [Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-Cnam (LCM), LNE, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris (France); Institute of Scientific Instruments of the CAS, Kralovopolska 147, 612 64 Brno (Czech Republic); Alexandre, Christophe [Centre d’Études et de Recherche en Informatique et Communications (CEDRIC), Cnam, 292 rue St-Martin, 75003 Paris (France)

    2016-07-15

    We have developed an optical Absolute Distance Meter (ADM) based on the measurement of the phase accumulated by a Radio Frequency wave during its propagation in the air by a laser beam. In this article, the ADM principle will be described and the main results will be presented. In particular, we will emphasize how the choice of an appropriate photodetector can significantly improve the telemeter performances by minimizing the amplitude to phase conversion. Our prototype, tested in the field, has proven its efficiency with a resolution better than 15 μm for a measurement time of 10 ms and distances up to 1.2 km.

  9. High resolution kilometric range optical telemetry in air by radio frequency phase measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Joffray; Šmíd, Radek; García-Márquez, Jorge; Truong, Daniel; Alexandre, Christophe; Wallerand, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    We have developed an optical Absolute Distance Meter (ADM) based on the measurement of the phase accumulated by a Radio Frequency wave during its propagation in the air by a laser beam. In this article, the ADM principle will be described and the main results will be presented. In particular, we will emphasize how the choice of an appropriate photodetector can significantly improve the telemeter performances by minimizing the amplitude to phase conversion. Our prototype, tested in the field, has proven its efficiency with a resolution better than 15 μm for a measurement time of 10 ms and distances up to 1.2 km.

  10. Early developmental stages of Ascaris lumbricoides featured by high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Carlos Fernando Odir Rodrigues; Esteves, Cibele Zanardi; de Oliveira, Rosimeire Nunes; Guerreiro, Tatiane Melina; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Lima, Estela de Oliveira; Miné, Júlio César; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2016-11-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is responsible for a highly disseminated helminth parasitic disease, ascariosis, a relevant parasitosis that responds for great financial burden on the public health system of developing countries. In this work, metabolic fingerprinting using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was employed to identify marker molecules from A. lumbricoides in different development stages. We have identified nine biomarkers, such as pheromones and steroidal prohormones in early stages, among other molecules in late development stages, making up four molecules for fertilized eggs, four marker molecules for first larvae (L1) and one marker molecule for third larvae (L3). Therefore, our findings indicate that this approach is suitable for biochemical characterization of A. lumbricoides development stages. Moreover, the straightforward analytical method employed, with almost no sample preparation from a complex matrix (feces) using high-resolution mass spectrometry, suggests that it is possible to seek for an easier and faster way to study animal molding processes.

  11. [High resolution MR imaging of the hip using pelvic phased-array coil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsu, M; Mishima, H; Itai, Y

    1997-01-01

    A pelvic phased-array coil was applied to obtain high resolution MR images of the hip. Three-mm-thick fast spinecho images were obtained in seven hips. Images with a pelvic coil enhanced delineation of acetabular labrum and articular cartilage more clearly than those with a body coil or flexible-surface coil. The use of a pelvic coil in imaging of the hip may be of diagnostic value because of its superior delineation.

  12. Improvement of the energy resolution via an optimized digital signal processing in GERDA Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Vacri, A. di; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, ********************M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stepaniuk, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2015-06-01

    An optimized digital shaping filter has been developed for the Gerda experiment which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in Ge. The Gerda Phase I energy calibration data have been reprocessed and an average improvement of 0.3 keV in energy resolution (FWHM) corresponding to 10 % at the value for decay in Ge is obtained. This is possible thanks to the enhanced low-frequency noise rejection of this Zero Area Cusp (ZAC) signal shaping filter.

  13. GAS PHASE MOLECULAR DYNAMICS: HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC PROBES OF CHEMICAL DYNAMICS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HALL, G.E.

    2006-05-30

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas Phase Molecular Dynamics group program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. High-resolution spectroscopic tools are developed and applied to problems in chemical dynamics. Recent topics have included the state-resolved studies of collision-induced electronic energy transfer, dynamics of barrierless unimolecular reactions, and the kinetics and spectroscopy of transient species.

  14. Quantum phase amplification for temporal pulse shaping and super-resolution in remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanchun

    QPA in the spatial domain has also been studied as a method to enhance the spatial resolution of imaging systems. A detailed model has been developed for achieving both super-resolution and detection of phase-amplified light. The imaging resolution problem considered here is treated as a binary hypotheses testing problem. Resolution enhancement is achieved by magnification of the angular separation of two targets in the sub-Rayleigh regime. The detection model includes optimization of detector segmentation, detector noise, and detection in both the spatial and the spatial frequency domain, which provide strategies for the optimization of the signal-to-noise ratio that take advantage of both the change of the field distribution and the change of energy of the signal in the QPA process. Proof-of-principle experiments have been conducted in the spatial domain. For the first time, beam angular amplification has been demonstrated, and the experimental result is in good agreement with simulations. The experimental demonstration has been achieved by observing the correlation of amplitude and angular phase in the phase-sensitive three-wave mixing process using ultrashort laser pulses and utilizing a type I three-wave mixing process. Several diagnostics have been developed and employed in the experimental measurements, including the near-field diagnostic, the far-field diagnostic, and the interferometry diagnostic. They have all been used to confirm the existence and study the properties of the QPA process on a shot-to-shot basis. Specifically, amplitude was measured in the near-field diagnostic, while the angular phase was indirectly measured in the far-field diagnostic by determining the position of the beam centroid. Interferometric measurements have been found to be of insufficient accuracy for this measurement in the way they were implemented. The demonstration of beam angular amplification by use of QPA lays the foundation for future integrated demonstration of imaging

  15. A high-resolution multi-phase delay-locked loop with offset locking technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chi-Nan; Wu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Tsui-Wei

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we propose a new type of high-resolution delay-locked loop (DLL) which achieves the performance of high-resolution output by offset locking techniques without restrictions of intrinsic delay in the delay cell. Compared to traditional multi-phase clock generator, this architecture has the features of small size, low jitters, low-power consumption and high resolution. This DLL has been fabricated in 0.35 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. The measured root-mean-square and peak-to-peak jitters are 2.89 ps and 31.1 ps at 250 MHz, respectively. The power dissipation is 68 mW for a supply voltage of 3.3 V. The maximum resolution of this work is 144 p and the intrinsic delay of 0.35 μm CMOS process is 220 ps. Comparing with intrinsic delay, the improvement of maximum resolution is 34.5%.

  16. Topographic Phase Recovery from Stacked ERS Interferometry and a Low-Resolution Digital Elevation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandwell, David T.; Sichoix, Lydie; Frey, Herbert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid approach to topographic recovery from ERS interferometry is developed and assessed. Tropospheric/ionospheric artifacts, imprecise orbital information, and layover are key issues in recovering topography and surface deformation from repeat-pass interferometry. Previously, we developed a phase gradient approach to stacking interferograms to reduce these errors and also to reduce the short-wavelength phase noise (see Sandwell arid Price [1998] and Appendix A). Here the method is extended to use a low-resolution digital elevation model to constrain long-wavelength phase errors and an iteration scheme to minimize errors in the computation of phase gradient. We demonstrate the topographic phase recovery on 16-m postings using 25 ERS synthetic aperture radar images from an area of southern California containing 2700 m of relief. On the basis of a comparison with 81 GPS monuments, the ERS derived topography has a typical absolute accuracy of better than 10 m except in areas of layover. The resulting topographic phase enables accurate two-pass, real-time interferometry even in mountainous areas where traditional phase unwrapping schemes fail. As an example, we form a topography-free (127-m perpendicular baseline) interferogram spanning 7.5 years; fringes from two major earthquakes and a seismic slip on the San Andreas Fault are clearly isolated.

  17. 7T T₂*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals cortical phase differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooden, Sanneke; Doan, Nhat Trung; Versluis, Maarten J; Goos, Jeroen D C; Webb, Andrew G; Oleksik, Ania M; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Weverling-Rynsburger, Annelies W E; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Reiber, Johan H C; van Buchem, Mark A; Milles, Julien; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore regional iron-related differences in the cerebral cortex, indicative of Alzheimer's disease pathology, between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, LOAD, respectively) patients using 7T magnetic resonance phase images. High-resolution T2(∗)-weighted scans were acquired in 12 EOAD patients and 17 LOAD patients with mild to moderate disease and 27 healthy elderly control subjects. Lobar peak-to-peak phase shifts and regional mean phase contrasts were computed. An increased peak-to-peak phase shift was found for all lobar regions in EOAD patients compared with LOAD patients (p iron accumulation, possibly related to an increased amyloid deposition, in specific cortical regions as compared with LOAD patients.

  18. Impaired Early Attentional Processes in Parkinson's Disease: A High-Resolution Event-Related Potentials Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrine Bocquillon

    Full Text Available The selection of task-relevant information requires both the focalization of attention on the task and resistance to interference from irrelevant stimuli. A previous study using the P3 component of the event-related potentials suggested that a reduced ability to resist interference could be responsible for attention disorders at early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD, with a possible role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC.Our objective was to better determine the origin of this impairment, by studying an earlier ERP component, the N2, and its subcomponents, as they reflect early inhibition processes and as they are known to have sources in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, which is involved together with the DLPFC in inhibition processes. Fifteen early-stage PD patients and 15 healthy controls (HCs performed a three-stimulus visual oddball paradigm, consisting in detecting target inputs amongst standard stimuli, while resisting interference from distracter ones. A 128-channel electroencephalogram was recorded during this task and the generators of the N2 subcomponents were identified using standardized weighted low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (swLORETA.PD patients displayed fewer N2 generators than HCs in both the DLPFC and the ACC, for all types of stimuli. In contrast to controls, PD patients did not show any differences between their generators for different N2 subcomponents.Our data suggest that impaired inhibition in PD results from dysfunction of the DLPFC and the ACC during the early stages of attentional processes.

  19. Detecting phase-amplitude coupling with high frequency resolution using adaptive decompositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin; Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Kaur, Satvinder; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hu, Kun

    2014-04-15

    Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC)--the dependence of the amplitude of one rhythm on the phase of another, lower-frequency rhythm - has recently been used to illuminate cross-frequency coordination in neurophysiological activity. An essential step in measuring PAC is decomposing data to obtain rhythmic components of interest. Current methods of PAC assessment employ narrowband Fourier-based filters, which assume that biological rhythms are stationary, harmonic oscillations. However, biological signals frequently contain irregular and nonstationary features, which may contaminate rhythms of interest and complicate comodulogram interpretation, especially when frequency resolution is limited by short data segments. To better account for nonstationarities while maintaining sharp frequency resolution in PAC measurement, even for short data segments, we introduce a new method of PAC assessment which utilizes adaptive and more generally broadband decomposition techniques - such as the empirical mode decomposition (EMD). To obtain high frequency resolution PAC measurements, our method distributes the PAC associated with pairs of broadband oscillations over frequency space according to the time-local frequencies of these oscillations. We compare our novel adaptive approach to a narrowband comodulogram approach on a variety of simulated signals of short duration, studying systematically how different types of nonstationarities affect these methods, as well as on EEG data. Our results show: (1) narrowband filtering can lead to poor PAC frequency resolution, and inaccuracy and false negatives in PAC assessment; (2) our adaptive approach attains better PAC frequency resolution and is more resistant to nonstationarities and artifacts than traditional comodulograms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 78 FR 8184 - DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase II Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Review (Phase II ERP/ER) describing the second set of... availability of the Phase II ERP/ER. ADDRESSES: Obtaining Documents: You may download the Phase II ERP/ER and... the Phase II ERP/ER at any of the public repositories listed at...

  1. Electronic Wave Packet Interferometry of Gas Phase Samples: High Resolution Spectra and Collective Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienkemeier, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Time-resolved coherent spectroscopy has opened many new directions to study ultrafast dynamics in complex quantum systems. While most applications have been achieved in the condensed phase, we are focusing on dilute gas phase samples, in particular, on doped helium droplet beams. Isolation in such droplets at millikelvin temperatures provides unique opportunities to synthesize well-defined complexes, to prepare specific ro-vibronic states, and study their dynamics. To account for the small densities in our samples, we apply a phase modulation technique in order to reach enough sensitivity and a high spectral resolution in electronic wave packet interferometry experiments. The combination with mass-resolved ion detection enabled us e.g. to characterize vibrational structures of excimer molecules. By extending this technique we have observed collective resonances in samples of very low density (10^8 cm^{-3}). With a variant of this method, we are currently elaborating the implementation of nonlinear all-XUV spectroscopy.

  2. An Early Pleistocene high-resolution paleoclimate reconstruction from the West Turkana (Kenya) HSPDP drill site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhecke, Mona; Beck, Catherine; Brown, Erik T.; Cohen, Andrew; Deocampo, Daniel M.; Feibel, Craig S.; Pelletier, Jon D.; Rabideaux, Nathane M.; Sier, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP), and the related Olorgesailie Drilling Project (ODP), recovered ~2 km of drill core since 2012. At the HSPDP West Turkana Kaitio (WTK) site a 216 m-long core that covers the Early Pleistocene time window (1.3 to 1.87 Ma) during which hominids first expanded out of Africa and marine records document reorganization of tropical climate and the development of the strong Walker circulation. WTK carries particular interest for paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental reconstructions as it is located only 2.5 km from the location of one of the most complete hominin skeletons ever recovered (Nariokotome Boy). XRF core scanning data provide a means of evaluating records of past environmental conditions continuously and at high resolution. However, the record contains complex lithologies reflecting repeated episodes of inundation and desiccation along a dynamic lake margin. Here we present a methodological approach to address the highly variable lithostratigraphy of the East African records to establish comprehensive paleoclimate timeseries. The power spectrum of the presented hydroclimate record peaks at Milankovitch cycles, qualifying HSPDP drill cores from the Turkana Basin to be used as high-resolution Early Pleistocene paleoclimate archive. Comparing these data with marine climate reconstructions sheds light into athmospheric processes and continental climate dynamics.

  3. Discriminating among stellar population synthesis models of the TP-AGB phase in early quiescent galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Mason; Newman, Andrew; Belli, Sirio; Ellis, Richard S.

    2017-01-01

    Galactic evolution at high redshifts is largely understood through stellar population synthesis (SPS) modeling of spectra and photometry integrated over all starlight of a galaxy. However, complex and poorly understood stellar phases like the unstable thermally-pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase make SPS modeling a difficult task. Recent models fail to agree on the TP-AGB contribution to the infrared luminosity, leading to significant discrepancy among the properties derived from modern SPS models when applied to early galaxies. Here we provide a thorough assessment of each of the most widely used SPS models by comparing their results and assessing their accuracy in modeling our unique dataset. We combine high-resolution spectroscopic observations from Keck/MOSFIRE with photometric data for 21 early quiescent galaxies with redshifts of z ~ 2. These galaxies are around the age of peak TP-AGB activity, between ~0.3 and 2 Gyr, and therefore provide an ideal test of the models. We find that models with a “light” TP-AGB contribution provide much better descriptions of our galaxies at ages of ~1 Gyr or less. This is true at high statistical significance and holds for models with or without dust reddening. However, contrary to previous studies, the model-dependent photometrically estimated ages are similar among the models, but they show only moderate agreement with the more model-independent spectroscopic ages derived from stellar absorption lines. The largest discrepancies are found for the Charlot & Bruzual (2007) models which show an artificial clustering of ages around 1 Gyr. The TP-AGB “light” models require more reddening, which can be independently tested by examining dust emission in the mid-infrared. The modeled fluxes are also mostly consistent with mid-infrared observations, with the exception of one model. Resolving these differences among the models will substantially strengthen our estimates of the properties of early quiescent

  4. From lows to highs: using low-resolution models to phase X-ray data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, David I. [University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Ltd, Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot (United Kingdom); Abrescia, Nicola G. A., E-mail: nabrescia@cicbiogune.es [CIC bioGUNE, CIBERehd, Bizkaia Technology Park, Bld 800, 48160 Derio (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-01

    An unusual example of how virus structure determination pushes the limits of the molecular replacement method is presented. The study of virus structures has contributed to methodological advances in structural biology that are generally applicable (molecular replacement and noncrystallographic symmetry are just two of the best known examples). Moreover, structural virology has been instrumental in forging the more general concept of exploiting phase information derived from multiple structural techniques. This hybridization of structural methods, primarily electron microscopy (EM) and X-ray crystallography, but also small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, is central to integrative structural biology. Here, the interplay of X-ray crystallography and EM is illustrated through the example of the structural determination of the marine lipid-containing bacteriophage PM2. Molecular replacement starting from an ∼13 Å cryo-EM reconstruction, followed by cycling density averaging, phase extension and solvent flattening, gave the X-ray structure of the intact virus at 7 Å resolution This in turn served as a bridge to phase, to 2.5 Å resolution, data from twinned crystals of the major coat protein (P2), ultimately yielding a quasi-atomic model of the particle, which provided significant insights into virus evolution and viral membrane biogenesis.

  5. Instantaneous high-resolution focus tracking and a vibrometery system using parallel phase shift interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Michael; Safrani, Avner; Abdulhlaim, Ibrahim

    2016-09-01

    High resolution fast focus tracking and vibrometery system based on parallel phase shift polarization interferometry using three detectors is presented. The basic design and algorithm are described, followed by an experimental demonstration showing sub nm resolution of different controlled motion profiles instantaneously monitored at a feedback rate of 100 kHz. The fact that the method does not rely on active optical components, potentially allows extremely high vibration rates to be measured; limited only by the detector bandwidth and sampling rate. In addition, the relatively simple design relies only on standard optical equipment, combined with the simple algorithm, makes the task of setting up a high performance vibrometry system cheap and readily available.

  6. High Resolutions Obtained by Microspheres, and Phase Contrast Microscope with a Microsphere

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Aryeh, Y

    2015-01-01

    High resolutions obtained in optical systems with microspheres are studied by Helmholtz equation and boundary conditions for the EM fields. The large lateral spatial wave vectors of the evanescent waves, which include information on the fine structures of the object, are converted at the microsphere surface to smaller spatial wave vectors. Due to reduction in the magnitudes of these spatial wave vectors a part of the EM waves propagate in the microsphere without decay, but preserve the fine structures which can be recovered in the image plane. A new method for measuring phase objects, like those of semi-transparent biological tissues, with high resolutions is described by an optical system composed of a combination of the microsphere with an interferometer.

  7. Impact of laser phase and amplitude noises on streak camera temporal resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlotzko, V., E-mail: wlotzko@optronis.com [ICube, UMR 7357, University of Strasbourg and CNRS, 23 rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Optronis GmbH, Ludwigstrasse 2, 77694 Kehl (Germany); Uhring, W. [ICube, UMR 7357, University of Strasbourg and CNRS, 23 rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Summ, P. [Optronis GmbH, Ludwigstrasse 2, 77694 Kehl (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Streak cameras are now reaching sub-picosecond temporal resolution. In cumulative acquisition mode, this resolution does not entirely rely on the electronic or the vacuum tube performances but also on the light source characteristics. The light source, usually an actively mode-locked laser, is affected by phase and amplitude noises. In this paper, the theoretical effects of such noises on the synchronization of the streak system are studied in synchroscan and triggered modes. More precisely, the contribution of band-pass filters, delays, and time walk is ascertained. Methods to compute the resulting synchronization jitter are depicted. The results are verified by measurement with a streak camera combined with a Ti:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solid state laser oscillator and also a fiber oscillator.

  8. High Resolution DOA Estimation Using Unwrapped Phase Information of MUSIC-Based Noise Subspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichige, Koichi; Saito, Kazuhiko; Arai, Hiroyuki

    This paper presents a high resolution Direction-Of-Arrival (DOA) estimation method using unwrapped phase information of MUSIC-based noise subspace. Superresolution DOA estimation methods such as MUSIC, Root-MUSIC and ESPRIT methods are paid great attention because of their brilliant properties in estimating DOAs of incident signals. Those methods achieve high accuracy in estimating DOAs in a good propagation environment, but would fail to estimate DOAs in severe environments like low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), small number of snapshots, or when incident waves are coming from close angles. In MUSIC method, its spectrum is calculated based on the absolute value of the inner product between array response and noise eigenvectors, means that MUSIC employs only the amplitude characteristics and does not use any phase characteristics. Recalling that phase characteristics plays an important role in signal and image processing, we expect that DOA estimation accuracy could be further improved using phase information in addition to MUSIC spectrum. This paper develops a procedure to obtain an accurate spectrum for DOA estimation using unwrapped and differentiated phase information of MUSIC-based noise subspace. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated through computer simulation in comparison with some conventional estimation methods.

  9. Improvement of the energy resolution via an optimized digital signal processing in GERDA Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M.; Bode, T.; Budjas, D.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Allardt, M.; Domula, A.; Lehnert, B.; Schneider, B.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Bakalyarov, A.M.; Belyaev, S.T.; Lebedev, V.I.; Zhukov, S.V. [National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Balata, M.; D' Andrea, V.; Di Vacri, A.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Macolino, C.; Zavarise, P. [LNGS, Assergi (Italy); Barabanov, I.; Bezrukov, L.; Doroshkevich, E.; Fedorova, O.; Gurentsov, V.; Kazalov, V.; Kuzminov, V.V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Moseev, P.; Selivanenko, O.; Veresnikova, A.; Yanovich, E. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Barros, N. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); University of Pennsylvania, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Walter, M. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauer, C.; Heisel, M.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.; Kirsch, A.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Salathe, M.; Schreiner, J.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stepaniuk, M.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Caldwell, A.; Liao, H.Y.; Majorovits, B.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulz, O.; Vanhoefer, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Bellotti, E. [Universita Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Belogurov, S.; Kornoukhov, V.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bettini, A.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Hemmer, S.; Medinaceli, E.; Sada, C.; Sturm, K. von [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padua (Italy); INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Borowicz, D. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Kochetov, O.; Nemchenok, I.; Rumyantseva, N.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zinatulina, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Cattadori, C. [INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Chernogorov, A.; Demidova, E.V.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Vasenko, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Falkenstein, R.; Freund, K.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schuetz, A.K. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Frodyma, N.; Misiaszek, M.; Panas, K.; Pelczar, K.; Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Gangapshev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gusev, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Hult, M.; Lutter, G. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Inzhechik, L.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Klimenko, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); International University for Nature, Society and Man ' ' Dubna' ' , Dubna (Russian Federation); Lippi, I.; Stanco, L.; Ur, C.A. [INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Lubashevskiy, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Pandola, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Milano (Italy); Shirchenko, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2015-06-15

    An optimized digital shaping filter has been developed for the Gerda experiment which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The GERDA Phase I energy calibration data have been reprocessed and an average improvement of 0.3 keV in energy resolution (FWHM) corresponding to 10% at the Q value for 0νββ decay in {sup 76}Ge is obtained. This is possible thanks to the enhanced low-frequency noise rejection of this Zero Area Cusp (ZAC) signal shaping filter. (orig.)

  10. Improvement of the energy resolution via an optimized digital signal processing in GERDA Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M. [Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Allardt, M. [Institut für Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Bakalyarov, A. M. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Balata, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, LNGS, and Gran Sasso Science Institute, GSSI, Assergi (Italy); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration; and others

    2015-06-09

    An optimized digital shaping filter has been developed for the Gerda experiment which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The Gerda Phase I energy calibration data have been reprocessed and an average improvement of 0.3 keV in energy resolution (FWHM) corresponding to 10 % at the Q value for 0νββ decay in {sup 76}Ge is obtained. This is possible thanks to the enhanced low-frequency noise rejection of this Zero Area Cusp (ZAC) signal shaping filter.

  11. Resolution of DL-Pantolactone with Ethyldiamine Bridged Dimer Permethyβ-Cyclodextrin as GC Stationary Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ethyldiamine bridged dimer permethy-β-CD and other cyclodextrins were used as GC stationary phase to resolute DL-pantolactone.It is found that this CD dimer has a good selectivity for DL-pantolactone.

  12. High-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction analysis of ordinary Portland cements: Phase coexistence of alite

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Ángeles G.; Losilla, Enrique R.; Cabeza, Aurelio; Aranda, Miguel A. G.

    2005-08-01

    The mineralogical composition of four commercial and NIST RM-8488 Portland clinkers have been analysed by Rietveld methodology using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. Alite phase coexistence has been observed in four patterns. White Portland clinkers show a single alite or a very small amount of a second alite with smaller volume due to higher magnesium content. Grey Portland clinkers show a much pronounced alite phase coexistence which has been related to higher magnesium contents. Details about these analyses are given. Furthermore, the full mineralogical composition (including the non-diffracting content) has been determined from the overestimation of the added standard, α-Al2O3, in the Rietveld analyses. White clinkers contain ∼15 wt.% of non-diffracting content while this fraction is much smaller in grey clinkers, ∼7 wt.%.

  13. High-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction analysis of ordinary Portland cements: Phase coexistence of alite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre, Angeles G. de la [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Losilla, Enrique R. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Cabeza, Aurelio [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Aranda, Miguel A.G. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain)]. E-mail: g_aranda@uma.es

    2005-08-15

    The mineralogical composition of four commercial and NIST RM-8488 Portland clinkers have been analysed by Rietveld methodology using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. Alite phase coexistence has been observed in four patterns. White Portland clinkers show a single alite or a very small amount of a second alite with smaller volume due to higher magnesium content. Grey Portland clinkers show a much pronounced alite phase coexistence which has been related to higher magnesium contents. Details about these analyses are given. Furthermore, the full mineralogical composition (including the non-diffracting content) has been determined from the overestimation of the added standard, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, in the Rietveld analyses. White clinkers contain {approx}15 wt.% of non-diffracting content while this fraction is much smaller in grey clinkers, {approx}7 wt.%.

  14. Improvement of Axial Resolution in Confocal Microscopy by an Optical Pupil Filter with Two Zones Phase-Shifted by π

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林列; 王湘晖; 王肇圻; 母国光

    2003-01-01

    A filter with two zones phase-shifted by π is proposed to improve the axial resolution of confocal microscopes with a finite-sized detector. The optimum axial resolution for a given size of the detector can be achieved by adjusting the zone boundary of the filter. The experimental results are well in agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  15. Time-Frequency Filtering and Carrier-Phase Ambiguity Resolution for GPS-Based TSPI Systems in Jamming Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-15

    34Efficiency of carrier-phase integer ambiguity resolution for precise GPS positioning in noisy environments," Journal of Geodesy 81, 149-156 (2007). * A...and S. Mahmood "Efficiency of carrier-phase integer ambiguity resolution for precise GPS positioning in noisy environments," Journal of Geodesy 81...was an active collaboration with Drs. S. Mohamod and J. Murchison at Eglin AFB. The activities resulted in one joint paper published in Journal of Geodesy . During

  16. Simulation study of spatial resolution in phase-contrast X-ray imaging with Takagi-Taupin equation

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, I

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate attainable spatial resolution of phase-contrast X-ray imaging using an LLL X-ray interferometer with a thin crystal wafer, a computer simulation study with Takagi-Taupin equation was performed. Modulation transfer function of the wafer for X-ray phase was evaluated. For a polyester film whose thickness is 0.1 mm, it was concluded that the spatial resolution can be improved up to 3 mu m by thinning the wafer, under our experimental condition.

  17. Coherent Brightfield Microscopy Provides the Spatiotemporal Resolution To Study Early Stage Viral Infection in Live Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Fan; Zhuo, Guan-Yu; Chou, Chun-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Hao; Chang, Wen; Hsieh, Chia-Lung

    2017-03-28

    Viral infection starts with a virus particle landing on a cell surface followed by penetration of the plasma membrane. Due to the difficulty of measuring the rapid motion of small-sized virus particles on the membrane, little is known about how a virus particle reaches an endocytic site after landing at a random location. Here, we use coherent brightfield (COBRI) microscopy to investigate early stage viral infection with ultrahigh spatiotemporal resolution. By detecting intrinsic scattered light via imaging-based interferometry, COBRI microscopy allows us to track the motion of a single vaccinia virus particle with nanometer spatial precision (speed scattering-based optical imaging may provide opportunities for resolving rapid virus-receptor interactions with nanometer clarity.

  18. Human duodenal phase III migrating motor complex activity is predominantly antegrade, as revealed by high-resolution manometry and colour pressure plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J M; O'donovan, D G; Hebbard, G S; Malbert, C H; Doran, S M; Dent, J

    2002-08-01

    Abstract Late phase III migrating motor complex activity has been said to be primarily retroperistaltic but has not been assessed with high resolution manometry or three-dimensional colour pressure plots (pressure/time/distance). Duodenal phase III was examined in healthy young volunteers (seven male, two female) with a 20-lumen assembly. With the most proximal sidehole in the distal antrum, after a 4.5-cm interval 18 sideholes at 1.5-cm intervals spanned the duodenum with a final sidehole 3 cm beyond. Fasting pressures were recorded until phase III occurred. Comparisons were made between proximal (P) and distal (D) duodenum during early (E) (first 0.5-1 min) and late (L) (last 0.5-1 min) phase III. With colour pressure analysis, 121 of 180 pressure wave (PW) sequences were purely antegrade, two purely retrograde and 57 bidirectional. Ten of fifty-seven bidirectional PW sequences were complex, branching to become two separate sequences. Bidirectional sequences occurred more frequently in late than early phase III (L 43 vs. E 14 of 57), but their occurrence did not differ between proximal and distal duodenum (P31 vs. D 24 of 57). Antegrade propagation velocity was faster in late compared with early phase III (L 28.50 vs. E 17.05 mm s(-1); P = 0.006), but did not differ between proximal and distal duodenum. Colour pressure analysis also indicated an intermittent segmental pattern to phase III, with each subject exhibiting a change in velocity or direction, or a relative failure of peristalsis somewhere along the duodenum during part of phase III. Duodenal phase III is not homogenous and, in contrast with previous studies, does not primarily constitute a retroperistaltic pump. Colour pressure analysis is useful in interpreting intraluminal pressure profiles and may improve the sensitivity and specificity of clinical studies.

  19. High temporal resolution parametric MRI monitoring of the initial ischemia/reperfusion phase in experimental acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Andreas; Hentschel, Jan; Fechner, Mandy; Hoff, Uwe; Bubalo, Gordana; Arakelyan, Karen; Cantow, Kathleen; Seeliger, Erdmann; Flemming, Bert; Waiczies, Helmar; Waiczies, Sonia; Schunck, Wolf-Hagen; Dragun, Duska; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2013-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, a consequence of kidney hypoperfusion or temporary interruption of blood flow is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). There is an unmet need to better understand the mechanisms operative during the initial phase of ischemic AKI. Non-invasive in vivo parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may elucidate spatio-temporal pathophysiological changes in the kidney by monitoring the MR relaxation parameters T2* and T2, which are known to be sensitive to blood oxygenation. The aim of our study was to establish the technical feasibility of fast continuous T2*/T2 mapping throughout renal I/R. MRI was combined with a remotely controlled I/R model and a segmentation model based semi-automated quantitative analysis. This technique enabled the detailed assessment of in vivo changes in all kidney regions during ischemia and early reperfusion. Significant changes in T2* and T2 were observed shortly after induction of renal ischemia and during the initial reperfusion phase. Our study demonstrated for the first time that continuous and high temporal resolution parametric MRI is feasible for in-vivo monitoring and characterization of I/R induced AKI in rats. This technique may help in the identification of the timeline of key events responsible for development of renal damage in hypoperfusion-induced AKI.

  20. High temporal resolution parametric MRI monitoring of the initial ischemia/reperfusion phase in experimental acute kidney injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Pohlmann

    Full Text Available Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury, a consequence of kidney hypoperfusion or temporary interruption of blood flow is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI. There is an unmet need to better understand the mechanisms operative during the initial phase of ischemic AKI. Non-invasive in vivo parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may elucidate spatio-temporal pathophysiological changes in the kidney by monitoring the MR relaxation parameters T2* and T2, which are known to be sensitive to blood oxygenation. The aim of our study was to establish the technical feasibility of fast continuous T2*/T2 mapping throughout renal I/R. MRI was combined with a remotely controlled I/R model and a segmentation model based semi-automated quantitative analysis. This technique enabled the detailed assessment of in vivo changes in all kidney regions during ischemia and early reperfusion. Significant changes in T2* and T2 were observed shortly after induction of renal ischemia and during the initial reperfusion phase. Our study demonstrated for the first time that continuous and high temporal resolution parametric MRI is feasible for in-vivo monitoring and characterization of I/R induced AKI in rats. This technique may help in the identification of the timeline of key events responsible for development of renal damage in hypoperfusion-induced AKI.

  1. In vivo high-resolution 7 Tesla MRI shows early and diffuse cortical alterations in CADASIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guio, François; Reyes, Sonia; Vignaud, Alexandre; Duering, Marco; Ropele, Stefan; Duchesnay, Edouard; Chabriat, Hugues; Jouvent, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Recent data suggest that early symptoms may be related to cortex alterations in CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy), a monogenic model of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). The aim of this study was to investigate cortical alterations using both high-resolution T2* acquisitions obtained with 7 Tesla MRI and structural T1 images with 3 Tesla MRI in CADASIL patients with no or only mild symptomatology (modified Rankin's scale ≤1 and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) ≥24). Complete reconstructions of the cortex using 7 Tesla T2* acquisitions with 0.7 mm isotropic resolution were obtained in 11 patients (52.1±13.2 years, 36% male) and 24 controls (54.8±11.0 years, 42% male). Seven Tesla T2* within the cortex and cortical thickness and morphology obtained from 3 Tesla images were compared between CADASIL and control subjects using general linear models. MMSE, brain volume, cortical thickness and global sulcal morphology did not differ between groups. By contrast, T2* measured by 7 Tesla MRI was significantly increased in frontal, parietal, occipital and cingulate cortices in patients after correction for multiple testing. These changes were not related to white matter lesions, lacunes or microhemorrhages in patients having no brain atrophy compared to controls. Seven Tesla MRI, by contrast to state of the art post-processing of 3 Tesla acquisitions, shows diffuse T2* alterations within the cortical mantle in CADASIL whose origin remains to be determined.

  2. Early Detection of Summer Crops Using High Spatial Resolution Optical Image Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Marais Sicre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the context of climate change, agricultural managers have the imperative to combine sufficient productivity with durability of the resources. Many studies have shown the interest of recent satellite missions as suitable tools for agricultural surveys. Nevertheless, they are not predictive methods. A system able to detect summer crops as early as possible is important in order to obtain valuable information for a better water management strategy. The detection of summer crops before the beginning of the irrigation period is therefore our objective. The study area is located near Toulouse (southwestern France, and is a region of mixed farming with a wide variety of irrigated and non-irrigated crops. Using the reference data for the years concerned, a set of fixed thresholds are applied to a vegetation index (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI for each agricultural season of multi-spectral satellite optical imagery acquired at decametric spatial resolutions from 2006 to 2013. The performance (i.e., accuracy is contrasted according to the agricultural practices, the development states of the different crops and the number of acquisition dates (one to three in the results presented here. The detection of summer crops reaches 64% to 88% with a single date, 80% to 88% with two dates and 90% to 99% with three dates. The robustness of this method is tested for several years (showing an impact of meteorological conditions on the actual choice of images, several sensors and several resolutions.

  3. High-Resolution and Quantitative X-Ray Phase-Contrast Tomography for Mouse Brain Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging techniques for visualizing cerebral vasculature and distinguishing functional areas are essential and critical to the study of various brain diseases. In this paper, with the X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique, we proposed an experiment scheme for the ex vivo mouse brain study, achieving both high spatial resolution and improved soft-tissue contrast. This scheme includes two steps: sample preparation and volume reconstruction. In the first step, we use heparinized saline to displace the blood inside cerebral vessels and then replace it with air making air-filled mouse brain. After sample preparation, X-ray phase-contrast tomography is performed to collect the data for volume reconstruction. Here, we adopt a phase-retrieval combined filtered backprojection method to reconstruct its three-dimensional structure and redesigned the reconstruction kernel. To evaluate its performance, we carried out experiments at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results show that the air-tissue structured cerebral vasculatures are highly visible with propagation-based phase-contrast imaging and can be clearly resolved in reconstructed cross-images. Besides, functional areas, such as the corpus callosum, corpus striatum, and nuclei, are also clearly resolved. The proposed method is comparable with hematoxylin and eosin staining method but represents the studied mouse brain in three dimensions, offering a potential powerful tool for the research of brain disorders.

  4. High-Resolution and Quantitative X-Ray Phase-Contrast Tomography for Mouse Brain Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yan; Lin, Xiaojie; Yuan, Falei; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Zhao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Imaging techniques for visualizing cerebral vasculature and distinguishing functional areas are essential and critical to the study of various brain diseases. In this paper, with the X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique, we proposed an experiment scheme for the ex vivo mouse brain study, achieving both high spatial resolution and improved soft-tissue contrast. This scheme includes two steps: sample preparation and volume reconstruction. In the first step, we use heparinized saline to displace the blood inside cerebral vessels and then replace it with air making air-filled mouse brain. After sample preparation, X-ray phase-contrast tomography is performed to collect the data for volume reconstruction. Here, we adopt a phase-retrieval combined filtered backprojection method to reconstruct its three-dimensional structure and redesigned the reconstruction kernel. To evaluate its performance, we carried out experiments at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results show that the air-tissue structured cerebral vasculatures are highly visible with propagation-based phase-contrast imaging and can be clearly resolved in reconstructed cross-images. Besides, functional areas, such as the corpus callosum, corpus striatum, and nuclei, are also clearly resolved. The proposed method is comparable with hematoxylin and eosin staining method but represents the studied mouse brain in three dimensions, offering a potential powerful tool for the research of brain disorders.

  5. R×B drift momentum spectrometer with high resolution and large phase space acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Konrad, G; Abele, H

    2013-02-11

    We propose a new type of momentum spectrometer, which uses the R×B drift effect to disperse the charged particles in a uniformly curved magnetic field, and measures the particles with large phase space acceptance and high resolution. This kind of R×B spectrometer is designed for the momentum analyses of the decay electrons and protons in the PERC (Proton and Electron Radiation Channel) beam station, which provides a strong magnetic field to guide the charged particles in the instrument. Instead of eliminating the guiding field, the R×B spectrometer evolves the field gradually to the analysing field, and the charged particles can be adiabatically transported during the dispersion and detection. The drifts of the particles have similar properties as their dispersion in the normal magnetic spectrometer. Besides, the R×B spectrometer is especially ideal for the measurements of particles with low momenta and large incident angles. We present a design of the R×B spectrometer, which can be used in PERC. For the particles with solid angle smaller than 88 msr, the maximum aberration is below 10(-4). The resolution of the momentum spectra can reach 14.4 keV/c, if the particle position measurements have a resolution of 1 mm.

  6. Improving the resolution in phase-shifting Gabor holography by CCD shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, L.; Micó, V.; Zalevsky, Z.; García, J.; Javidi, B.

    2015-05-01

    Holography dates back to the year when Dennis Gabor reported on a method to avoid spherical aberration and to improve image quality in electron microscopy. Gabor's two-step holographic method was pioneer but suffered from three major drawbacks: the reconstructed image is affected by coherent noise, the twin image problem of holography that also affects the final image quality, and a restricted sample range (weak diffraction assumption) for preserving the holographic behavior of the method. Nowadays, most of those drawbacks have been overcome and new capabilities have been added due to the replacement of the classical recording media (photographic plate) by digital sensors (CCD and CMOS cameras). But in the Gabor' regime, holography is restricted to weak diffraction assumptions because otherwise, diffraction prevents an accurate recovery of the object's complex wavefront. In this contribution, we present an experimental approach to overcome such limitation and improve final image resolution. We use the phase-shifting Gabor configuration while the CCD camera is shifted to different off-axis positions in order to capture a bigger portion of the diffracted wavefront. Thus, once the whole image set is recorded and digitally processed for each camera's position, we merge the resulting band-pass images into one image by assembling a synthetic aperture. Finally, a superresolved image is recovered by Fourier transformation of the information contained in the generated synthetic aperture. Experimental results are provided using a USAF resolution test target and validating our concepts for a gain in resolution of close to 2.

  7. The optimization of super-high resolution frequency measurement techniques based on phase quantization regularities between any frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqi; Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Xueping; Zhao, Jie

    2013-02-01

    Step phase quantization regularity between different nominal frequency signals is introduced in this paper. Based on this regularity, an optimized high resolution frequency measurement technique is presented. The key features and issues of phase quantization characteristics and measurements are described. Based on the relationship between the same or multiple nominal signals with a certain differences, the resolution of frequency measurements is developed and the range is widened. Several measurement results are provided to support the concepts with experimental evidence. The resolution of frequency measurement can reach 10(-12) (s(-1)) over a wide range or higher for specific frequency signals.

  8. Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP): High-Resolution Continental Records of Early Paleogene Hyperthermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, W.; Wing, S.; Gingerich, P.

    2012-04-01

    Hyperthermals like the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) are transient global warming events associated with large negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) that may serve as analogs to present-day climate change. Determining the causes and effects of hyperthermals is important for understanding the long-term carbon cycle and its effects on other parts of the Earth system. Most detailed stratigraphic records of hyperthermals come from marine sediment cores (e.g. IODP) with relatively few well-resolved continental stratigraphic records available. The Bighorn Basin is an intermontane basin that formed during the Laramide orogeny and experienced rapid subsidence and aggradational fluvial deposition from the early Paleocene through the early Eocene (~65-50 million years ago). It preserves the most complete early Paleogene continental sequence in the world and includes an approximately 40-meter-thick PETM interval During the summer of 2011, over 900 meters of core were recovered as part of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP). Two 6.2-cm diameter overlapping cores were drilled at each of three sites. Two of the sites (Basin Substation and Polecat Bench) target the PETM in different environments, and the third site (Gilmore Hill) targets the younger and smaller hyperthermals known as ETM2 and H2. The BBCP cores make it possible to develop high-resolution (circa 1000-year) proxy records of climate change, carbon cycling, and biotic change from unweathered material to investigate the response of a terrestrial depositional and ecological system to extreme global warming events. The coring localities are also distributed along a transect from the margin to the axis of the basin to compare the tectonic and depositional effects on the hyperthermal records. Down-hole logs, multi-sensor core logs (magnetic susceptibility and color reflectance), visual core descriptions, and preliminary isotopic samples will be evaluated, with special emphasis on correlation to previous

  9. Experimental study of z resolution in acousto-optical coherence tomography using random phase jumps on ultrasound and light

    CERN Document Server

    Lesaffre, Max; Ramaz, François; Gross, Michel; 10.1364/AO.52.000949

    2013-01-01

    Acousto-Optical Coherence Tomography (AOCT) is a variant of Acousto Optic Imaging (also called Ultrasound modulated Optical Tomography) that makes possible to get resolution along the ultrasound propagation axis $z$. We present here new AOCT experimental results, and we study how the $z$ resolution depends on time step between phase jumps $T_\\phi$, or on the correlation length $\\Delta z$. By working at low resolution, we perform a quantitative comparison of the $z$ measurements with the theoretical Point Spread Function (PSF). We present also images recorded with different $z$ resolution, and we qualitatively show how the image quality varies with $T_\\phi$, or $\\Delta z$.

  10. The Early Neolithic phases of Beidha in a regional context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlott Hoffmann

    2007-01-01

    The paper is a preliminary account of the new analyses of the Beidha material and concentrates on the earliest levels from the site: the pre-architectural levels as well as a sample of material from Phase A1 buildings. A contextual analysis of some of the phase A1 buildings is introduced and the ...... and the development from temporary shelters to stone-built architecture in the area is discussed....

  11. Robust and flexible mapping for real-time distributed applications during the early design phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Junhe; Pop, Paul; Gruian, Flavius

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in mapping hard real-time applications on distributed heterogeneous architectures. An application is modeled as a set of tasks, and we consider a fixed-priority preemptive scheduling policy. We target the early design phases, when decisions have a high impact on the subsequent...... implementation choices. However, due to a lack of information, the early design phases are characterized by uncertainties, e.g., in the worst-case execution times (wcets), or in the functionality requirements. We model uncertainties in the wcets using the “percentile method”. The uncertainties...... of taking into account the uncertainties during the early design phases....

  12. Ultrasound array transmitter architecture with high timing resolution using embedded phase-locked loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter R; Cowell, David M J; Raiton, Benjamin; Ky, Chau Vo; Freear, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Coarse time quantization of delay profiles within ultrasound array systems can produce undesirable side lobes in the radiated beam profile. The severity of these side lobes is dependent upon the magnitude of phase quantization error--the deviation from ideal delay profiles to the achievable quantized case. This paper describes a method to improve interchannel delay accuracy without increasing system clock frequency by utilizing embedded phase-locked loop (PLL) components within commercial field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Precise delays are achieved by shifting the relative phases of embedded PLL output clocks in 208-ps steps. The described architecture can achieve the necessary interelement timing resolution required for driving ultrasound arrays up to 50 MHz. The applicability of the proposed method at higher frequencies is demonstrated by extrapolating experimental results obtained using a 5-MHz array transducer. Results indicate an increase in transmit dynamic range (TDR) when using accurate delay profiles generated by the embedded-PLL method described, as opposed to using delay profiles quantized to the system clock.

  13. Development of Heart Rate Variaty in the Early and Rehabilitation Phase of AMI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Tanhbalouti; Feng Jianzhang; Feng Xiuhua

    2000-01-01

    Heart rate variaty (HRV) of 85 cases with AMI was observed in the early phase after onset and rehabilitation phase at first month and sixth month, and was contrasted with six time threshold indices of 111 cases with coronary heart disease and that of 35 normal control. We found the HRV of AMI was apperantly lower in the acute phase than that of coronary heart disease and normal controls. HRV recovered gradually with inclining to be stable after half a year, but it was still lower than that of controls. Low HRV in early phase of AMI suggested the poor prognosis.

  14. Early phase Technology Assessment of nanotechnology in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retèl, Valesca P.; Hummel, Marjan J.M.; Harten, van Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    To perform early Technology Assessment (TA) of nanotechnology in oncology. The possibilities of nanotechnology for detection (imaging), diagnosis and treatment of cancer are subject of different research programs where major investments are concerned. As a range of bio- nanotechnologies is expected

  15. Naive Fault Trees for Safety Evaluations in Early Project Phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabali Nejad, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Naive Fault Trees (NFT) aim to extend the application of Fault Trees (FT) and make them appealing for system designers in the early project life cycle. NFT use input intervals and values to estimate the frequency of a top event. This extension facilitates the assignment of failure probability to

  16. In vivo high-resolution 7 Tesla MRI shows early and diffuse cortical alterations in CADASIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François De Guio

    Full Text Available Recent data suggest that early symptoms may be related to cortex alterations in CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy, a monogenic model of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD. The aim of this study was to investigate cortical alterations using both high-resolution T2* acquisitions obtained with 7 Tesla MRI and structural T1 images with 3 Tesla MRI in CADASIL patients with no or only mild symptomatology (modified Rankin's scale ≤1 and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE ≥24.Complete reconstructions of the cortex using 7 Tesla T2* acquisitions with 0.7 mm isotropic resolution were obtained in 11 patients (52.1±13.2 years, 36% male and 24 controls (54.8±11.0 years, 42% male. Seven Tesla T2* within the cortex and cortical thickness and morphology obtained from 3 Tesla images were compared between CADASIL and control subjects using general linear models.MMSE, brain volume, cortical thickness and global sulcal morphology did not differ between groups. By contrast, T2* measured by 7 Tesla MRI was significantly increased in frontal, parietal, occipital and cingulate cortices in patients after correction for multiple testing. These changes were not related to white matter lesions, lacunes or microhemorrhages in patients having no brain atrophy compared to controls.Seven Tesla MRI, by contrast to state of the art post-processing of 3 Tesla acquisitions, shows diffuse T2* alterations within the cortical mantle in CADASIL whose origin remains to be determined.

  17. Design and modeling of a moderate-resolution astronomic spectrograph with volume-phase holographic gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Muslimov, Eduard R; Fabrika, Sergey N; Pavlycheva, Nadezhda K

    2016-01-01

    We present an optical design of astronomic spectrograph based on a cascade of volume-phase holographic gratings. The cascade consists of three gratings. Each of them provides moderately high spectral resolution in a narrow range of 83 nm. Thus the spectrum image represents three lines covering region 430-680 nm. Two versions of the scheme are described: a full-scale one with estimated resolving power of 5300-7900 and a small-sized one intended for creation of a lab prototype, which provides the resolving power of 1500-3000. Diffraction efficiency modeling confirms that the system throughput can reach 75 %, while stray light caused by the gratings crosstalk is negligible. We also propose a design of image slicer and focal reducer allowing to couple the instrument with the 6-m telescope. Finally, we present concept of the opto-mechanical design.

  18. Measurement of Two Phase Flow in Porous Medium Using High-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Lanlan; SONG Yongchen; LIU Yu; YANG Mingjun; ZHU Ningjun; WANG Xiaojing; DOU Binlin

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of two phase flow in porous medium for sequestration was carried out using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique.The porous medium was a packed bed of glass beads.Spin echo multi sequence was used to measure the distribution of CO2 and water in the porous medium.The intensity images show that the fluid distribution is non-uniform due to its viscosity and pore structure of porous medium.The velocity distribution of fluids is calculated from the saturation of water and porosity of porous medium.The experimental results show that fluid velocities vary with time and position.The capillary dispersion rate donated the effects of capillary,which was largest at water saturations of 0.45.The displacement process is different between in BZ-02 and BZ-2.The final water residual saturation depends on permeability and porosity.

  19. 76 FR 9583 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Clinical Pharmacogenomics: Premarketing Evaluation in Early Phase...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... guidance for industry entitled ``Clinical Pharmacogenomics: Premarketing Evaluation in Early Phase Clinical Studies.'' The draft guidance is intended to assist the pharmaceutical industry and other investigators... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Clinical...

  20. A low power MICS band phase-locked loop for high resolution retinal prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiawei; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2013-08-01

    Ultra low power dissipation is essential in retinal prosthesis and many other biomedical implants. Extensive research has been undertaken in designing low power biomedical transceivers, however to date, most effort has been focused on low frequency inductive links. For higher frequency, more robust and more complex applications, such as Medical Implant Communication Service (MICS) band multichannel transceivers, power consumption remains high. This paper explores the design of micro-power data links at 400 MHz for a high resolution retinal prosthesis. By taking advantage of advanced small geometry CMOS technology and precise transistor-level modeling, we successfully utilized subthreshold FET operation, which has been historically limited to low frequency circuits due to the inadequate transistor operating speed in and near weak inversion; we have implemented a low power MICS transceiver. Particularly, a low power, MICS band multichannel phase-locked loop (PLL) that employs a subthreshold voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and digital synchronous dividers has been implemented on a 65-nm CMOS. A design methodology is presented in detail with the demonstration of EKV model parameters extraction. This PLL provides 600- mVpp quadrature oscillations and exhibits a phase noise of -102 dBc/Hz at 200-kHz offset, while only consuming 430- μW from a 1-V supply. The VCO has a gain (KVCO) of 12 MHz/V and is designed to operate in the near-weak inversion region and consumes 220- μA DC current. The designed PLL has a core area of 0.54 mm(2). It satisfies all specifications of MICS band operation with the advantage of significant reduction in power which is crucial for high resolution retinal prosthesis.

  1. Cosmological Consequences of QCD Phase Transition(s) in Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the cosmological consequences of QCD phase transition(s) on the early universe. We argue that our recent knowledge about the transport properties of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) should throw additional lights on the actual time evolution of our universe. Understanding the nature of QCD phase transition(s), which can be studied in lattice gauge theory and verified in heavy ion experiments, provides an explanation for cosmological phenomenon stem from early universe.

  2. Early-phase clinical trials of anti-HIV Drugs——understanding and discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YaJie; ZHAO Ming; ZHAO DeHeng

    2009-01-01

    Innovative anti-HIV drugs developed by local sponsors in China have come into the stage of early-phase clinical trials. How to systemically design the clinical trials of innovative anti-HIV drugs still remains a challenge for them. This article references the literature and the experience of reviewers, to introduce general considerations concerning early-phase clinical trials of innovative anti-HIV drugs.

  3. Early-phase clinical trials of anti-HIV Drugs——understanding and discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Innovative anti-HIV drugs developed by local sponsors in China have come into the stage of early-phase clinical trials.How to systemically design the clinical trials of innovative anti-HIV drugs still remains a challenge for them.This article references the literature and the experience of reviewers,to introduce general considerations concerning early-phase clinical trials of innovative anti-HIV drugs.

  4. Assessing gut microbiota perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea in Vietnamese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The, Hao Chung; Florez de Sessions, Paola; Jie, Song; Pham Thanh, Duy; Thompson, Corinne N; Nguyen Ngoc Minh, Chau; Chu, Collins Wenhan; Tran, Tuan-Anh; Thomson, Nicholas R; Thwaites, Guy E; Rabaa, Maia A; Hibberd, Martin; Baker, Stephen

    2017-08-02

    Diarrheal diseases remain the second most common cause of mortality in young children in developing countries. Efforts have been made to explore the impact of diarrhea on bacterial communities in the human gut, but a thorough understanding has been impeded by inadequate resolution in bacterial identification and the examination of only few etiological agents. Here, by profiling an extended region of the 16S rRNA gene in the fecal microbiome, we aimed to elucidate the nature of gut microbiome perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea caused by various etiological agents in Vietnamese children. Fecal samples from 145 diarrheal cases with a confirmed infectious etiology before antimicrobial therapy and 54 control subjects were analyzed. We found that the diarrheal fecal microbiota could be robustly categorized into 4 microbial configurations that either generally resembled or were highly divergent from a healthy state. Factors such as age, nutritional status, breastfeeding, and the etiology of the infection were significantly associated with these microbial community structures. We observed a consistent elevation of Fusobacterium mortiferum, Escherichia, and oral microorganisms in all diarrheal fecal microbiome configurations, proposing similar mechanistic interactions, even in the absence of global dysbiosis. We additionally found that Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum was significantly depleted during dysenteric diarrhea regardless of the etiological agent, suggesting that further investigations into the use of this species as a dysentery-orientated probiotic therapy are warranted. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the complex influence of infectious diarrhea on gut microbiome and identify new opportunities for therapeutic interventions.

  5. Motor memory in childhood: early expression of consolidation phase gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtamker, Lilach; Karni, Avi

    2013-11-01

    Are children faster than adults in consolidating procedural knowledge? In adults, the expression of the full benefits of motor practice requires a few hours of consolidation and sleep. Here we show that, although the processes generating the delayed gains continued beyond the first few hours post-training, children expressed significant gains as early as 1 h post-training, in the awake state. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Control of Early Age Concrete. Phase 3: Creep in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe; Damkilde, Lars; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1997-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the "Road Directorate Concrete" at early ages are studied. Creep in tension at 24 and 72 maturity hours are measured on dogbone shaped specimens. The development of tensile modulus of elasticity and strength are measured with a method developed here. The results...... are compared to compression values and splitting strengths. It is found that the properties of creep in tension are similar to the properties in compression. Further the influence form temperature on creep is found to be significant....

  7. Biomarkers in early phase development of central nervous system drugs : a conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Jeroen-Paul van der

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide a conceptual framework for the use of Central Nervous System (CNS) biomarkers in early phase clinical drug development. In the Introduction the current use of biomarkers in early CNS drug development is discussed. A conceptual framework for the classif

  8. High spatial resolution hard X-ray microscope using X-ray refractive lens and phase contrast imaging experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kohmura, Y; Takeuchi, A; Takano, H; Suzuki, Y; Ishikawa, T; Ohigashi, T; Yokosuka, H

    2001-01-01

    A high spatial resolution X-ray microscope was constructed using an X-ray refractive lens as an objective. The spatial resolution was tested using 18 keV X-ray. A 0.4 mu m line and 0.4 mu m space tantalum test pattern was successfully resolved. Using the similar setup with the addition of a phase plate, a Zernike type phase-contrast microscopy experiment was carried out for the phase retrieval of the samples. Two-dimensional phase-contrast images were successfully taken for the first time in the hard X-ray region. Images of a gold mesh sample were analyzed and the validity of this method was indicated. An improvement of the lens, however, is required for the precise phase retrieval of the samples.

  9. Role of Early Arterial Phase Multislice Helical CT Angiography in Evaluation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGBinghang; HEYaqi; LILiangcai; HUANGDecheng; WURenguo; YUYuanlong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical application of early arterial phase multislice CT angiography (MSCTA) of hepatic vessels in evaluation of middle or advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma.Methods: Trigger Bolus program was used to carry out MSCTA in early and late arterial phases and portal vein phase with single breath holding. Hepatic vessels were reconstructed from the original images of early arterial phase by post processing. The blood supply of tumor and normal liver tissue and the appearances of venous thrombosis and arteriovenous shunts were analyzed. Results: The MSCTA with early arterial phase could perfectly display the origin, shape and amount of feeding vessels to normal liver tissue and tumor in middle or advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma. It had the ability of displaying the arteriovenous shunts better than that in conventional dual phased liver scanning. Conclusion: MSCTA of hepatic vessels with early arterial phase acquisition using multislice helical CT in middle or advance stage hepatocellular carcinoma has favorable and promising application. It can be used as an imaging method for comprehensive assessment of the hepatocellular carcinoma before treatment.

  10. Hybrid flux splitting schemes for numerical resolution of two-phase flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaatten, Tore

    2003-07-01

    This thesis deals with the construction of numerical schemes for approximating. solutions to a hyperbolic two-phase flow model. Numerical schemes for hyperbolic models are commonly divided in two main classes: Flux Vector Splitting (FVS) schemes which are based on scalar computations and Flux Difference Splitting (FDS) schemes which are based on matrix computations. FVS schemes are more efficient than FDS schemes, but FDS schemes are more accurate. The canonical FDS schemes are the approximate Riemann solvers which are based on a local decomposition of the system into its full wave structure. In this thesis the mathematical structure of the model is exploited to construct a class of hybrid FVS/FDS schemes, denoted as Mixture Flux (MF) schemes. This approach is based on a splitting of the system in two components associated with the pressure and volume fraction variables respectively, and builds upon hybrid FVS/FDS schemes previously developed for one-phase flow models. Through analysis and numerical experiments it is demonstrated that the MF approach provides several desirable features, including (1) Improved efficiency compared to standard approximate Riemann solvers, (2) Robustness under stiff conditions, (3) Accuracy on linear and nonlinear phenomena. In particular it is demonstrated that the framework allows for an efficient weakly implicit implementation, focusing on an accurate resolution of slow transients relevant for the petroleum industry. (author)

  11. Spatial resolution characterization of differential phase contrast CT systems via modulation transfer function (MTF) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zambelli, Joseph; Bevins, Nicholas; Ge, Yongshuai; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2013-06-01

    By adding a Talbot-Lau interferometer to a conventional x-ray absorption computed tomography (CT) imaging system, both differential phase contrast (DPC) signal and absorption contrast signal can be simultaneously measured from the same set of CT measurements. The imaging performance of such multi-contrast x-ray CT imaging systems can be characterized with standard metrics such as noise variance, noise power spectrum, contrast-to-noise ratio, modulation transfer function (MTF), and task-based detectability index. Among these metrics, the measurement of the MTF can be challenging in DPC-CT systems due to several confounding factors such as phase wrapping and the difficulty of using fine wires as probes. To address these technical challenges, this paper discusses a viable and reliable method to experimentally measure the MTF of DPC-CT. It has been found that the spatial resolution of DPC-CT is degraded, when compared to that of the corresponding absorption CT, due to the presence of a source grating G0 in the Talbot-Lau interferometer. An effective MTF was introduced and experimentally estimated to describe the impact of the Talbot-Lau interferometer on the system MTF.

  12. X-ray phase-contrast tomography for high-spatial-resolution zebrafish muscle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vågberg, William; Larsson, Daniel H.; Li, Mei; Arner, Anders; Hertz, Hans M.

    2015-11-01

    Imaging of muscular structure with cellular or subcellular detail in whole-body animal models is of key importance for understanding muscular disease and assessing interventions. Classical histological methods for high-resolution imaging methods require excision, fixation and staining. Here we show that the three-dimensional muscular structure of unstained whole zebrafish can be imaged with sub-5 μm detail with X-ray phase-contrast tomography. Our method relies on a laboratory propagation-based phase-contrast system tailored for detection of low-contrast 4-6 μm subcellular myofibrils. The method is demonstrated on 20 days post fertilization zebrafish larvae and comparative histology confirms that we resolve individual myofibrils in the whole-body animal. X-ray imaging of healthy zebrafish show the expected structured muscle pattern while specimen with a dystrophin deficiency (sapje) displays an unstructured pattern, typical of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The method opens up for whole-body imaging with sub-cellular detail also of other types of soft tissue and in different animal models.

  13. [Occupational therapy: benefit of early intervention in the manic phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, Gaëlle

    When people experiencing a manic episode arrive in hospital, restrictive measures are often put in place. The priority is to avoid all sources of stimulation, especially anything likely to activate the patient. The prescribing of occupational therapy sessions in a well-defined framework may however be appropriate at an early stage in the care. Aside from its effect on the therapeutic alliance, occupational therapy can help on the cognitive and temporal level, increasing awareness of the condition and engagement in the care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Design and development of the high-resolution spectrograph HERMES and the unique volume phase holographic gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijmans, J. A. C.; Gers, L.; Faught, B.

    2011-10-01

    We report on the grating development for the High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph (HERMES). This paper discusses the challenges of designing, optimizing, and tolerancing large aperture volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings for HERMES. The high spectral resolution requirements require steep angles of incidence, of 67.2 degrees, and high line densities, ranging between 2400 and 3800 lines per mm, resulting in VPH gratings that are highly s-polarized that push the fabrication process to its limits.

  15. High-resolution synchrotron radiation-based phase tomography of the healthy and epileptic brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikis, Christos; Janz, Philipp; Schulz, Georg; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Thalmann, Peter; Deyhle, Hans; Chicherova, Natalia; Rack, Alexander; Khimchenko, Anna; Hieber, Simone E.; Mariani, Luigi; Haas, Carola A.; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    Phase-contrast micro-tomography using synchrotron radiation has yielded superior soft tissue visualization down to the sub-cellular level. The isotropic spatial resolution down to about one micron is comparable to the one of histology. The methods, however, provide different physical quantities and are thus complementary, also allowing for the extension of histology into the third dimension. To prepare for cross-sectional animal studies on epilepsy, we have standardized the specimen's preparation and scanning procedure for mouse brains, so that subsequent histology remains entirely unaffected and scanning of all samples (n = 28) is possible in a realistic time frame. For that, we have scanned five healthy and epileptic mouse brains at the ID19 beamline, ESRF, Grenoble, France, using grating- and propagation-based phase contrast micro-tomography. The resulting datasets clearly show the cortex, ventricular system, thalamus, hypothalamus, and hippocampus. Our focus is on the latter, having planned kainate-induced epilepsy experiments. The cell density and organization in the dentate gyrus and Ammon's horn region were clearly visualized in control animals. This proof of principle was required to initiate experiment. The resulting three-dimensional data have been correlated to histology. The goal is a brain-wide quantification of cell death or structural reorganization associated with epilepsy as opposed to histology alone that represents small volumes of the total brain only. Thus, the proposed technique bears the potential to correlate the gold standard in analysis with independently obtained data sets. Such an achievement also fuels interest for other groups in neuroscience research to closely collaborate with experts in phase micro-tomography.

  16. The glial scar-monocyte interplay: a pivotal resolution phase in spinal cord repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravid Shechter

    cross-regulation between the glial scar and monocytes primes the resolution of this interim phase of spinal cord repair, thereby providing a fundamental platform for the dynamic healing response.

  17. Single-beam self-referenced phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance sensor with high detection resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Yuen Wu; Ho-Pui Ho

    2008-01-01

    A versatile and low-cost single-beam self-referenced phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance(SPR)sensing system with ultra-high resolution performance is presented.The system exhibits a root-mean-square phase fluctuation of ±0.0028.over a period of 45 min.i.e.a resolution of±5.2×10-9 refractive index units.The enhanced performance has been achieved through the incorporation of three design elements:a true single-beam configuration enabling complete self-referencing so that only the phase change associated with SPR gets detected,a differential measurement scheme to eliminate spurious signals not related to the sensor response,and the elimination of retardation drifts by incorporating temperature stabilization in the liquid crystal phase modulato .Our design should bring the detection sensitivity of non-labeling SPR biosensing closer to that achievable by conventional fluorescence-based techniques.

  18. Profiling of Burkholderia cepacia secretome at mid-logarithmic and early-stationary phases of growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha Mariappan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burkholderia cepacia is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes serious respiratory infections in immunocompromised patients and individuals with cystic fibrosis. This bacterium is known to release extracellular proteins that may be involved in virulence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, B. cepacia grown to mid-logarithmic and early-stationary phases were investigated on their ability to invade and survive intracellularly in A549 lung epithelial cells in order to discern the fate of these bacteria in the pathogenesis of B. cepacia lung infections in in vitro condition. The early-stationary phase B. cepacia was demonstrated to be more invasive than mid-logarithmic phase. In addition, culture supernatants of B. cepacia obtained from these phases of growth were also demonstrated to cause different cytotoxic potency on the A549 human lung epithelial cells. Profiling of the supernatants using the gel-based proteomics approach identified 43 proteins that were commonly released in both the growth phases and 40 proteins newly-released at the early-stationary phase. The latter proteins may account for the higher cytotoxic activity of the early-stationary culture supernatant compared to that obtained at the mid-logarithmic phase. Among the newly-released proteins in the early-stationary phase supernatant were flagellar hook-associated domain protein (FliD, flagellar hook-associated protein (FlgK, TonB-dependent siderophore (Fiu, Elongation factor G (FusA, phosphoglycerate kinase (Pgk and sulfatase (AslA which are known for their virulence. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Differences in the ability of B. cepacia to invade and survive intracellularly inside the epithelial cells at different phases of growth may improve our understanding of the varied disease progressions associated with B. cepacia infections. In addition, the identified culture supernatant proteins may be used as targets for the development of new strategies to

  19. GLONASS Precise Point Positioning with Ambiguity Resolution (PPP-AR) and its Integration with GPS for Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Geng, J.; Avallone, A.; Ganas, A.; Melgar, D.; Riquelme, S.

    2015-12-01

    GPS has been recognized as an essential technique to measure static and dynamic displacements for earthquake early warning (EEW), in particular for near-field large earthquake monitoring where broadband seismometers clip, filtering of strong-motion accelerometer data eliminates the static component, and seismic data are affected by magnitude saturation. We have developed a prototype EEW system for the U.S. West Coast using real-time precise point positioning with ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR). It includes about 200 GPS stations spanning the areas of greatest seismic risk: Cascadia, the San Francisco Bay Area and southern California, using IGS ultra-rapid orbits and a North-America based GPS network well outside the region of expected deformation to estimate satellite clock and fractional cycle biases. We have analyzed, retrospectively in real time, earthquakes from Mw5.1 to Mw9.0; we can detect dynamic displacements with a precision of about one cm, but we've encountered several issues that could improve our operational system. Reinitialization of the integer-cycle phase ambiguities is problematic when a (not unusual) data gap of more than about 5 minutes is encountered. Also, ambiguity resolution is less reliable when there are only a limited number (six or less) of GPS satellites available. Nowadays, GNSS is evolving to a true multi-constellation environment with GLONASS having been restored to a 24-satellite constellation in 2012. We present a method for GNSS (GPS+GLONASS) PPP-AR to improve on the performance of GPS PPP-AR in EEW. We find that GNSS-AR has higher reliability in achieving ambiguity-fixed solutions, improves vertical accuracy by 20%, reduces initialization time to less than 7 minutes from about 20 minutes, and reduces outlier rates from 1.2% to below 0.2%. We use three earthquakes to demonstrate GNSS-AR, the M7.8 2014 Iquique, Chile aftershock, and Mw 6.9 2014 North Aegean, Greece and Mw 6.3 2009 L'Aquila, Italy earthquakes.

  20. Mixed integer programming for the resolution of GPS carrier phase ambiguities

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Peiliang; Lachapelle, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    This arXiv upload is to clarify that the now well-known sorted QR MIMO decoder was first presented in the 1995 IUGG General Assembly. We clearly go much further in the sense that we directly incorporated reduction into this one step, non-exact suboptimal integer solution. Except for these first few lines up to this point, this paper is an unaltered version of the paper presented at the IUGG1995 Assembly in Boulder. Ambiguity resolution of GPS carrier phase observables is crucial in high precision geodetic positioning and navigation applications. It consists of two aspects: estimating the integer ambiguities in the mixed integer observation model and examining whether they are sufficiently accurate to be fixed as known nonrandom integers. We shall discuss the first point in this paper from the point of view of integer programming. A one-step nonexact approach is proposed by employing minimum diagonal pivoting Gaussian decompositions, which may be thought of as an improvement of the simple rounding-off method, ...

  1. Calibration of the High Resolution Phase Shifter (HRPS) in Linac 3/Rex using a dedicated LabView program

    CERN Document Server

    Winsvold, D

    2013-01-01

    This is a document describing how to calibrate the High Resolution Phase Shifters of Linac 3 and REX. The document also describes how to do tests on the Delay Lines in Linac 2, 3 and REX, but these cannot be calibrated.

  2. High-resolution short-exposure small-animal laboratory x-ray phase-contrast tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Daniel H.; Vågberg, William; Yaroshenko, Andre; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Hertz, Hans M.

    2016-12-01

    X-ray computed tomography of small animals and their organs is an essential tool in basic and preclinical biomedical research. In both phase-contrast and absorption tomography high spatial resolution and short exposure times are of key importance. However, the observable spatial resolutions and achievable exposure times are presently limited by system parameters rather than more fundamental constraints like, e.g., dose. Here we demonstrate laboratory tomography with few-ten μm spatial resolution and few-minute exposure time at an acceptable dose for small-animal imaging, both with absorption contrast and phase contrast. The method relies on a magnifying imaging scheme in combination with a high-power small-spot liquid-metal-jet electron-impact source. The tomographic imaging is demonstrated on intact mouse, phantoms and excised lungs, both healthy and with pulmonary emphysema.

  3. The environment of early humans in Southern Caucasus - High-resolution reconstruction of climate and vegetation in Armenia at the Matuyama/Jaramillo reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Angela; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Scharrer, Steffen; Teodoridis, Vasilis

    2014-05-01

    The Southern Caucasus is the area of earliest human occupation in Eurasia, proven by findings of Homo fossils in Georgia with an age of ca. 1.8 Ma. The pace and causes of the early human colonization, in one or several migratory waves from Africa in new environments of the Eurasian continent during the Early Pleistocene, are still a matter of debate. However, climate change is considered a major driving factor of hominin evolution and dispersal patterns. In fact directly or indirectly by its severe influence on vegetation, physiography of landscape, and animal distribution, climate modulates the availability of resources. Lake sediments from Sisian Formation, Vorotan River Basin, southern Armenia, provide detailed information on environmental changes during late Early Pleistocene. Based on magnetostratigraphic and radiometric dating, the exposed part of the succession covers a stratigraphic age from ca. 1.3 to 0.9 Ma and includes the Jaramillo subchron. Due to the precise age control high-resolution pollen analysis was conducted at the Matuyama/Jaramillo reversal spanning from 1.12 to 1.035 Ma (MIS 33 - MIS 30) with a mean resolution of ca. 250 years per samples. Results document a clear vegetation response on orbitally forced climatic changes with open vegetation during the less pronounced cycles MIS 33/34, the expansion of broadleaved deciduous forests during the very warm and humid MIS 31, and the expansion of needleleaved forests during the long, cool and humid MIS 30. Furthermore, the age of the numerous macro floral assemblages could be constrained to warm and humid parts of the climatic phases, most of them connected to MIS 31 confirming the dominance of mosaic vegetation at that time. Plant species compositions show strong relations to Euxinian and Hycanian forests occurring today at the coasts of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea, respectively, which must have been expanded considerably during warmer and more humid periods of the Early Pleistocene. Climate

  4. Specification of Requirements for Safety in the Early Development Phases - Misuse Case and HAZOP in the Concept Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Maringa, Joshua; Sæther, Thorbjørn

    2011-01-01

    In the course TDT4520 - Specialization Project, the preparatory course to this thesis, we looked at several safety analysis methods and how they could be exploited to identify software hazards in the early stages of development. After our evaluation, and with the results from a survey conducted on experts in the field, we proposed a procedure to improve software hazard identification in the concept phase of projects. The procedure consisted of a Misuse Case analysis with a sub-sequential HAZO...

  5. Fresnel zone-plate based X-ray microscopy in Zernike phase contrast with sub-50 nm resolution at NSRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jie; Li Wenjie; Tian Jinping; Liu Longhua; Xiong Ying; Liu Gang; Wu Ziyu; Tian Yangchao [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (China); Liu Yijin [School of Physics (China); Yue Zhengbo; Yu Hanqing [Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, School of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei Anhui 230029 (China); Wang Chunru, E-mail: ychtian@ustc.edu.c [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10060 (China)

    2009-09-01

    A transmission X-ray microscope using Fresnel zone-plates (FZPs) has been installed at U7A beamline of National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). The objective FZP with 45 nm outermost zone width delivers a sub-50 nm resolution. A gold phase ring with 2.5 {mu}m thickness and 4 {mu}m width was placed at the focal plane of the objective FZP at 8 keV to produce a negative Zernike phase contrast. A series of samples were used to test the performance of the Zernike phase contrast X-ray microscopy.

  6. Modelling production system architectures in the early phases of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Martin Ravn, Poul; Mortensen, Niels Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    on – leading to an improved basis for prioritizing activities in the project. Requirements for the contents of the framework are presented, and literature on production and system models is reviewed. The production system architecture modelling framework is founded on methods and approaches in literature......This article suggests a framework for modelling a production system architecture in the early phases of product development.The challenge in these phases is that the products to be produced are not completely defined and yet decisions need to be made early in the process on what investments...... and adjusted to fit the modelling requirements of a production system architecture at an early phase of development. The production system architecture models capture and describe the structure, capabilities and expansions of the production system architecture underdevelopment. The production system...

  7. Early-phase thin-slice CT in the diagnosis of small insulinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishioka, Hideki; Sata, Naohiro; Ishiguro, Yasunao; Lefor, Alan; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-31

    Insulinomas, which are generally smaller than 2 cm, may be difficult to detect by routine imaging modalities including abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Although preoperative detection of insulinomas is essential for operative planning, it is often challenging due to their small size. While arterial stimulation and venous sampling has been used in patients with insulinomas it has been largely supplanted by early-phase thin-slice computed tomography. We report three patients with insulinomas, which were not detected by routine computed tomography scan, but were successfully imaged using early-phase thin-slice computed tomography. Enucleation was performed in all patients based on preoperative imaging. All three patients had an unremarkable postoperative course. Early-phase thin-slice computed tomography is recommended for the preoperative identification of insulinomas. This non-invasive imaging technique should be considered before performing arterial stimulation and venous sampling.

  8. Improved Early Crop Type Identification By Joint Use of High Temporal Resolution SAR And Optical Image Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Inglada

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available High temporal and spatial resolution optical image time series have been proven efficient for crop type mapping at the end of the agricultural season. However, due to cloud cover and image availability, crop identification earlier in the season is difficult. The recent availability of high temporal and spatial resolution SAR image time series, opens the possibility of improving early crop type mapping. This paper studies the impact of such SAR image time series when used in complement of optical imagery. The pertinent SAR image features, the optimal working resolution, the effect of speckle filtering and the use of temporal gap-filling of the optical image time series are assessed. SAR image time series as those provided by the Sentinel-1 satellites allow significant improvements in terms of land cover classification, both in terms of accuracy at the end of the season and for early crop identification. Haralik textures (Entropy, Inertia, the polarization ratio and the local mean together with the VV imagery were found to be the most pertinent features. Working at at 10 m resolution and using speckle filtering yield better results than other configurations. Finally it was shown that the use of SAR imagery allows to use optical data without gap-filling yielding results which are equivalent to the use of gap-filling in the case of perfect cloud screening, and better results in the case of cloud screening errors.

  9. A resolution approach of racemic phenylalanine with aqueous two-phase systems of chiral tropine ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haoran; Yao, Shun; Qian, Guofei; Yao, Tian; Song, Hang

    2015-10-30

    Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) based on tropine type chiral ionic liquids and inorganic salt solution were designed and prepared for the enantiomeric separation of racemic phenylalanine. The phase behavior of IL-based ATPS was comprehensive investigated, and phase equilibrium data were correlated by Merchuk equation. Various factors were also systematically investigated for their influence on separation efficiency. Under the appropriate conditions (0.13g/g [C8Tropine]pro, 35mg/g Cu(Ac)2, 20mg/g d,l-phenylalanine, 0.51g/g H2O and 0.30g/g K2HPO4), the enantiomeric excess value of phenylalanine in solid phase (mainly containing l-enantiomer) was 65%. Finally, the interaction mechanism was studied via 1D and 2D NMR. The results indicate that d-enantiomer of phenylalanine interacts more strongly with chiral ILs and Cu(2+) based on the chiral ion-pairs space coordination mechanism, which makes it tend to remain in the top IL-rich phase. By contrast, l-enantiomer is transferred into the solid phase. Above chiral ionic liquids aqueous two-phase systems have demonstrated obvious resolution to racemic phenylalanine and could be promising alterative resolution approach for racemic amino acids in aqueous circumstance.

  10. Biomarkers in early phase development of central nervous system drugs: a conceptual framework

    OpenAIRE

    Post, Jeroen-Paul van der

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide a conceptual framework for the use of Central Nervous System (CNS) biomarkers in early phase clinical drug development. In the Introduction the current use of biomarkers in early CNS drug development is discussed. A conceptual framework for the classification of biomarkers is suggested, based on general questions that these markers should provide information on. The body of this thesis (Chapters 1-7) exemplifies the use of these markers within t...

  11. The role of ambiguity and discrepancy in the early phases of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Linda Nhu; Tollestrup, Christian H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Innovation literature mainly focuses on eliminating ambiguity and discrepancy from the early phases of innovation. This study questions this implicit assumption, as it may provide an oversimplified view on, how to attain proficiency. Instead of narrowly focusing on reducing ambiguity...... and discrepancy, we seek to understand if it might be there for a reason. Through a laboratory experiment, we propose ambiguity and discrepancy actually have a function in concept development. Accordingly the paper contributes with a better understanding of, the role ambiguity and discrepancy as triggers of sense...... making in conceptualisation in the early phases of innovation....

  12. High-resolution magneto-biostratigraphy of the early Eocene to early Oligocene from Indian Ocean Hole 711A and Italian Monte Cagnero section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savian, J. F.; Jovane, L.; Coccioni, R.; Frontalini, F.; Bohaty, S.; Wilson, P.; Roberts, A. P.; Florindo, F.; Trindade, R.

    2013-05-01

    One of the main challenges in the integration and analysis of palaeorecords is development of high-resolution age models. An accurate age control is fundamental for the reliable determination of sequences of events in the geological record. The early Eocene to the early Oligocene interval witnessed major changes in Earth's paleoclimate and paleogeography. Stable isotope records (δ18O and δ13C) from pelagic foraminifera for this time period show a long-term cooling trend which ends with an abrupt step, the Oi-1, near the Eocene/Oligocene transition at ~34 Ma, interpreted as the onset of glaciation in Antarctica. Several mechanisms have been proposed as the cause for this event, including the opening of the Southern Ocean, the decrease in atmospheric greenhouse gases, and the closure of the Neo-Tethys (STENT). Superimposed on this long-term cooling trend, some anomalous warming events occur, from which the middle Eocene climatic optimum (MECO) at 40 Ma is the most important. Here we report a high-resolution integrated age model of early Eocene-early Oligocene successions from two sites (Monte Cagnero, Central Italy and ODP Hole 711A, Indian Ocean), using magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy, and we also show lithostratigraphy, environmental magnetism, CaCO3, and isotope records on bulk carbonate. In parallel, we provide a high-resolution rock magnetic study of these sections including environmental magnetism data (magnetic susceptibility, ARM, IRM, and BIRM), IRM acquisition, thermomagnetic curves, hysteresis and FORC diagrams. Through these data, the main climatic events are recognized in these sections by the ubiquitous occurrence of non-interacting SD magnetite (in a mixture with fine hematite in the inland sections) associated with spikes in geochemical and isotopic data. These paleorecords will contribute to better understanding of the Eocene and Oligocene global climatic changes.

  13. Complete Control of Polarization and Phase of Light with High Efficiency and Sub-wavelength Spatial Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Arbabi, Amir; Bagheri, Mahmood; Faraon, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    Meta-surfaces are planar structures that locally change polarization, phase, and amplitude of light, thus enabling flat, lithographically patterned free-space optical components with functionalities controlled by design. Several types of meta-surfaces have been reported, but low efficiency and the inability to provide simultaneous phase and polarization control have limited their applications. Here we demonstrate a platform based on high-contrast dielectric elliptical nano-posts providing complete and efficient control of polarization and phase with sub-wavelength spatial resolution. The unprecedented freedom in manipulating light not only enables realization of conventional free-space transmissive optical elements such as phase-plates, wave-plates and beam-splitters, but also elements with novel functionalities such as general polarization switchable phase holograms and arbitrary vector beam generators which will change the design paradigms for free-space optical systems.

  14. Challenges and perspective of drug repurposing strategies in early phase clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Shumei; Moulder, Stacy L.; Ueno, Naoto T; Wheler, Jennifer J.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kurzrock, Razelle; Janku, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant investments in the development of new agents only 5% of cancer drugs entering Phase I clinical trials are ultimately approved for routine clinical cancer care. Drug repurposing strategies using novel combinations of previously tested anticancer agents could reduce the cost and improve treatment outcomes. At MD Anderson Cancer Center, early phase clinical trials with drug repurposing strategies demonstrated promising outcomes in patients with both rare and common treatment ...

  15. A Case Study of Idea Work in the Early Phases of Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv; Clausen, Christian; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2009-01-01

    Focus in this paper is on the early innovation activities, in particular idea work. Based on a case study from industrial practice on the development of a new circulator (the Alpha Pro circulator) we aim at getting a better understanding of the work with ideas in the early phases of product...... development. Based on our case we will point out four central findings: 1) Early idea work is a complex process and interlinked with many other activities both inside and outside the organization. 2) Ideas evolve,combine and change over time. 3) Idea work involves a wide range of actors. 4) Carrying ideas...

  16. Implementing Effective Mission Systems Engineering Practices During Early Project Formulation Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moton, Tryshanda

    2016-01-01

    Developing and implementing a plan for a NASA space mission can be a complicated process. The needs, goals, and objectives of any proposed mission or technology must be assessed early in the Project Life Cycle. The key to successful development of a space mission or flight project is the inclusion of systems engineering in early project formulation, namely during Pre-phase A, Phase A, and Phase B of the NASA Project Life Cycle. When a space mission or new technology is in pre-development, or "pre-Formulation", feasibility must be determined based on cost, schedule, and risk. Inclusion of system engineering during project formulation is key because in addition to assessing feasibility, design concepts are developed and alternatives to design concepts are evaluated. Lack of systems engineering involvement early in the project formulation can result in increased risks later in the implementation and operations phases of the project. One proven method for effective systems engineering practice during the pre-Formulation Phase is the use of a mission conceptual design or technology development laboratory, such as the Mission Design Lab (MDL) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper will review the engineering process practiced routinely in the MDL for successful mission or project development during the pre-Formulation Phase.

  17. Webcam Delivery of the Lidcombe Program for Early Stuttering: A Phase I Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brian, Sue; Smith, Kylie; Onslow, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Lidcombe Program is an operant treatment for early stuttering shown with meta-analysis to have a favorable odds ratio. However, many clients are unable to access the treatment because of distance and lifestyle factors. In this Phase I trial, we explored the potential efficacy, practicality, and viability of an Internet webcam Lidcombe…

  18. Histone modifications induced by MDV infection at early cytolytic and latency phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Marek’s disease (MD) is a highly contagious, lymphomatous disease of chickens induced by a herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV) that is the cause of major annual losses to the poultry industry. MD pathogenesis involves multiple stages including an early cytolytic phase and latency, a...

  19. Teachers' Beliefs on Foreign Language Teaching Practices in Early Phases of Primary Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caner, Mustafa; Subasi, Gonca; Kara, Selma

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether teacher beliefs would play a role in their actual practices while teaching target language in early phases of primary education, principally, in kindergarten and first grades in a state school. As it is a very broad research area, the researchers exclusively analyzed teaching practices and teaching…

  20. Statistical controversies in clinical research: early-phase adaptive design for combination immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wages, N A; Slingluff, C L; Petroni, G R

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, investigators have asserted that the 3 + 3 design lacks flexibility, making its use in modern early-phase trial settings, such as combinations and/or biological agents, inefficient. More innovative approaches are required to address contemporary research questions, such as those posed in trials involving immunotherapies. We describe the implementation of an adaptive design for identifying an optimal treatment regimen, defined by low toxicity and high immune response, in an early-phase trial of a melanoma helper peptide vaccine plus novel adjuvant combinations. Operating characteristics demonstrate the ability of the method to effectively recommend optimal regimens in a high percentage of trials with reasonable sample sizes. The proposed design is a practical, early-phase, adaptive method for use with combined immunotherapy regimens. This design can be applied more broadly to early-phase combination studies, as it was used in an ongoing study of two small molecule inhibitors in relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma.

  1. 77 FR 23741 - DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase I Early Restoration Plan and... DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill (Framework Agreement), notice is hereby given that ] the Federal and State... the DEEPWATER HORIZON oil spill, which occurred on or about April 20, 2010, in the Gulf of Mexico....

  2. Men Managing, Not Teaching Foundation Phase: Teachers, Masculinity and the Early Years of Primary Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Shaaista; Bhana, Deevia

    2017-01-01

    In this article we argue that eliminating the divisions of labour between men and women could work towards counteracting gender inequality within professions. Globally women are over-represented in the teaching of young children in the early years of primary school, or Foundation Phase (FP), as it is known in South Africa. We are concerned to go…

  3. Ambiguity resolution in SAR interferometry by use of three phase centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakowatz, C.V. Jr.; Wahl, D.E.; Thompson, P.A.

    1996-03-01

    In a typical interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) system employed for terrain elevation mapping, terrain height is estimated from phase difference data obtained from two phase centers separated spatially in the cross-track direction. In this paper we show how the judicious design of a three phase center IFSAR renders phase unwrapping, i.e., the process of estimating true continuous phases from principal values of phase (wrapped modulo 2{pi}), a much simpler process than that inherent in traditional algorithms. With three phase centers, one IFSAR baseline can be chosen to be relatively small (two of the phase centers close together) so that all of the scene`s terrain relief causes less than one cycle of phase difference. This allows computation of a coarse height map without use of any form of phase unwrapping. The cycle number ambiguities in the phase data derived from the other baseline, chosen to be relatively large (two of the phase centers far apart), can then be resolved by reference to the heights computed from the small baseline data. This basic concept of combining phase data from one small and one large baseline to accomplish phase unwrapping has been previously employed in other interferometric problems, e.g., laser interferometry and direction-of-arrival determination from multiple element arrays, The new algorithm is shown to possess a certain form of immunity to corrupted interferometric phase data that is not inherent in traditional two-dimensional path-following phase unwrappers. This is because path-following algorithms must estimate, either implicity or explicity, those portions of the IFSAR fringe data where discontinuities in phase occur. Such discontinuties typically arise from noisy phase measurements derived from low radar return areas of the SAR imagery, e.g., shadows, or from areas of steep terrain slope.

  4. SWARM: A Compact High Resolution Correlator and Wideband VLBI Phased Array Upgrade for SMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintroub, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    A new digital back end (DBE) is being commissioned on Mauna Kea. The “SMA Wideband Astronomical ROACH2 Machine”, or SWARM, processes a 4 GHz usable band in single polarization mode and is flexibly reconfigurable for 2 GHz full Stokes dual polarization. The hardware is based on the open source Reconfigurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware 2 (ROACH2) platform from the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER). A 5 GSps quad-core analog-to-digital converter board uses a commercial chip from e2v installed on a CASPER-standard printed circuit board designed by Homin Jiang’s group at ASIAA. Two ADC channels are provided per ROACH2, each sampling a 2.3 GHz Nyquist band generated by a custom wideband block downconverter (BDC). The ROACH2 logic includes 16k-channel Polyphase Filterbank (F-engine) per input followed by a 10 GbE switch based corner-turn which feeds into correlator-accumulator logic (X-engines) co-located with the F-engines. This arrangement makes very effective use of a small amount of digital hardware (just 8 ROACH2s in 1U rack mount enclosures). The primary challenge now is to meet timing at full speed for a large and very complex FPGA bit code. Design of the VLBI phased sum and recorder interface logic is also in process. Our poster will describe the instrument design, with the focus on the particular challenges of ultra wideband signal processing. Early connected commissioning and science verification data will be presented.

  5. The α/Β interface phase in titanium alloys: Artifact or real phase contribution to problem resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortial, F.

    1994-02-01

    During X-ray inspections of a grade 4 titanium weld, a defect in the weld metal, materialized in the form of a white spot, appeared on the control film. In order to determine the metallurgical origins of this defect, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron micros-copy (TEM) examinations were carried out on the base metal, on the weld metal outside the white spot area, and on the weld metal corresponding to the white spot area. These examinations have demonstrated that the spot results from the presence of the W heavy element in the Β, L, and α phases. Under identical preparation conditions of thin foils, the L α/Β interface phase has been observed within the spot area exclusively; it is absent from the parent metal and weld metal beyond the spot area. Therefore, the L phase observed during that study is in this case a real phase of the titanium, which occurs under nonequilibrium state, and not a preparation ar-tifact of the thin foils. The L phase has a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystalline structure with a lattice parameter a = 0.447 ± 0.003 nm; it features a Kurdjumov-Sachs relationship with the Β phase. It is slightly enriched with tungsten and silicon bÊta-stabilizer elements as compared to α.

  6. Simple and robust synchrotron and laboratory solutions for high-resolution multimodal X-ray phase-based imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrizzi, M.; Vittoria, F. A.; Diemoz, P. C.; Kallon, G. K.; Basta, D.; Zamir, A.; Hagen, C. K.; Wagner, U. H.; Rau, C.; Robinson, I. K.; Olivo, A.

    2017-06-01

    Edge illumination X-ray phase contrast imaging techniques are capable of quantitative retrieval of differential phase, absorption and X-ray scattering. We have recently developed a series of approaches enabling high-resolution implementations, both using synchrotron radiation and laboratory-based set-ups. Three-dimensional reconstruction of absorption, phase and dark-field can be achieved with a simple rotation of the sample. All these approaches share a common trait which consists in the use of an absorber that shapes the radiation field, in order to make the phase modulations introduced by the sample detectable. This enables a well-defined and high-contrast structuring of the radiation field as well as an accurate modelling of the effects that are related to the simultaneous use of a wide range of energies. Moreover, it can also be adapted for use with detectors featuring large pixel sizes, which could be desirable when a high detection efficiency is important.

  7. Reconstructing Changes in Deep Ocean Temperature and Global Carbon Cycle during the Early Eocene Warming Trend: High-Resolution Benthic Stable Isotope Records from the SE Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretano, V.; Zachos, J. C.; Lourens, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    From the late Paleocene to the early Eocene, Earth's surface temperatures generally rose, resulting in an increase of at least 5°C in the deep ocean and culminating in the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). This long-term warming was punctuated by a series of short-lived global warming events known as "hyperthermals", of which the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) represents the most extreme example. At least two other short-term episodes have been identified as hyperthermals: the ETM2 (or Elmo event) at about 53.7 Myr and the ETM3 (or X-event) at about 52.5 Myr. These transient events are marked by prominent carbon isotope excursions (CIEs), recorded in marine and continental sedimentary sequences and driven by fast and massive injections of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. Recently, evidence has indicated the presence of a regular series of hyperthermal events following the peak in temperatures of the EECO. However, continuous records are needed to investigate short- and long- term changes in the climate system throughout the Early Eocene warming trend. Here, we present new high-resolution benthic stable isotope records of the Early Eocene from ODP Site 1263, (Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic). The carbon and oxygen records document changes in deep-sea temperature and global carbon cycle encompassing the Early Eocene hyperthermal events and the EECO interval. The transition phase to the post-EECO events is distinct by the decoupling of carbon and oxygen isotopes on the long-term scale. Spectral and wavelet analyses suggest the influence of orbital forcing, specifically long and short eccentricity cycles.

  8. Improved oxygen uptake efficiency slope in acute myocardial infarction patients after early phase I cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yun-Jeng; Li, Min-Hui; Chen, Chia-Hsin; Tuan, Sheng-Hui; Chen, Yi-Jen; Lin, Ko-Long

    2017-09-01

    A predischarge submaximal exercise test is often recommended after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as part of phase I cardiac rehabilitation. In this study, a submaximal exercise parameter, oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), was used to monitor the benefit of early mobilization within 48 h after AMI. An early mobilization protocol within 48 h after AMI has been initiated since 1 September 2012 in our center. Patients with onset time of AMI within 1 year before and 1 year after initiation of the early mobilization protocol were recruited for comparisons. Sixty patients were analyzed on the basis of this criterion, and were subjected to predischarge submaximal exercise tests. The OUES calculated with 100% exercise duration (OUES100) and calculated with the first 50% of exercise duration (OUES50) were obtained and analyzed. Both OUES100 and OUES50 of the AMI patients with early mobilization were significantly higher than those without early mobilization (P=0.025 and 0.007, respectively). The OUES100 and OUES50 were also highly correlated (r=0.891, P<0.001). The subgroup analysis using patients within 3 months before and 3 months after initiation of the protocol also showed a significant difference. OUES could be used to measure the exercise capacity and monitor the effect of phase I cardiac rehabilitation in patients soon after AMI. Early mobilization within 48 h following AMI significantly enhanced the patient's exercise capacity.

  9. Real-time in vitro Fourier ptychographic microscopy for high resolution wide field of view phase imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Lei; Yeh, Li-Hao; Chen, Michael; Waller, Laura

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, microscopes have had to trade field of view (FOV) for resolution. Recently, a new computational imaging technique, termed Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM), circumvents this limit in order to capture gigapixel-scale images having both wide FOV and high resolution. FPM has enormous potential for revolutionizing biomedical microscopy; however, it has until now been limited to fixed samples, since acquisition time is on the order of minutes. Live biological samples are continuously evolving on multiple spatial and temporal scales, which can cause motion blur. Here, we present a Fast FPM method to achieve sub-second capture times for FPM results with 0.8 NA resolution across a 4x objective's FOV. We demonstrate the first FPM quantitative phase results for both growing and confluent in vitro cell cultures. Experiments capture real-time videos of HeLa and human mammary epithelial (MCF10A) cell division and migration and subcellular dynamical phenomena in adult rat neural stem cells.

  10. High spatial resolution recording of near-infrared hologram based on photo-induced phase transition of vanadium dioxide film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xiubao; Zeng, Junjie; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guohua

    2015-04-01

    We present a method to record near-infrared (NIR) hologram at high spatial resolution. This method up-converts the NIR holograms to visible holograms taking advantage of the photo-induced phase transition characteristic of vanadium dioxide (VO2) material, and subsequently, the visible holograms are recorded by a high-resolution visible CMOS sensor. Obviously the pitch of visible sensor is much smaller than NIR sensors, so our method can extremely increase the recording resolution of NIR holograms. The experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. Our method can improve the viewing angle of NIR holography to observe large-scale objects and shorten the observation distance so that the application area of NIR holography is expanded. It has the potential to become a more effective NIR hologram recording method.

  11. Direct chiral resolution of metalaxyl and metabolite metalaxyl acid in aged mobile phases: the role of trace water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Xia, Tingting; Chen, Jingwen; Huang, Liping; Cai, Xiyun

    2010-04-28

    The separation of chiral transformation products greatly complements the understanding of the stereochemistry of chiral pollutants. In this study, direct enantiomeric resolution of metalaxyl and its main degradation product metalaxyl acid, often co-occurring in the environment, was carried out in normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with a Chiralcel OJ-H column. (R)-Metalaxyl acid and (S)-metalaxyl, which were almost parallel bonding to the chiral stationary phase, tended to separate, started to overlap, coeluted, and separated again with subtle changes of the mobile phase consisting of n-hexane, 2-propanol, acetic acid, and trace water. Their competition above hampered an acceptable direct separation in fresh mobile phases. Aged mobile phases with a storage period of 3-5 days, however, significantly improved their separation, in which trace water from moisture air diffusion was found to play a major role. Trace water differentially affected peak width and retention times and then induced enhanced peak separation, confirmed by deliberate addition of water to fresh mobile phases. Furthermore, none of the studied factors, involving temperature, concomitant analytes, and trace water, could cause changes of the configuration of the chiral stationary phase. Simultaneous enantiomeric separation of both compounds was achieved in aged or fresh mobile phases with adventitious or added water and gave satisfactory peak separation, all with Rs values of more than 1.20 in environmental samples.

  12. Automated multimode phase speed measurements for high-resolution regional-scale tomography: application to North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, K.; Ekström, Göran

    2010-12-01

    A fully automated method for obtaining multimode phase speed measurements from a single seismogram has been developed and applied to a large data set of three-component long-period seismograms in North America, constructing high-resolution phase speed maps on a continental scale. The method of our phase speed estimation is based on a fully non-linear waveform inversion by Yoshizawa & Kennett working with a global search method (the Neighbourhood Algorithm). The entire process of waveform fitting and the evaluation of the estimated phase speed have been fully automated employing several empirical quantitative measures, assessing the quality of waveform fit and the relative contributions of each mode in a chosen time window. The measured phase speed data undergo automatic screening for quality control, comprising the threshold evaluation of their reliability and outlier detection and removal. This new automated method has been applied to a large data set recorded at North American stations, including the latest transportable stations of USArray. Using long-period three-component seismograms recorded during the past eight years, we have successfully retrieved large numbers of regional surface wave paths, including over 20000 paths for the fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves over a wide range of frequencies, and over 10000 paths for the higher mode Rayleigh as well as the fundamental-mode Love waves. The consistent results of the automated measurement procedure suggest that the method works well at regional distances, allowing us to perform a high-resolution mapping of multimode phase speeds in North America. The results of the automated waveform analysis also indicate some intrinsic limitations in the higher mode phase speed measurements from a single seismogram particularly in the short period range, mainly due to the overlapping of higher mode arrivals as well as coupling between mode branches. Despite such an innate difficulty in the higher mode dispersion measurements

  13. Terahertz in-line digital holography of dragonfly hindwing: amplitude and phase reconstruction at enhanced resolution by extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lu; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Wang, Dayong; Zhou, Xun; Huang, Haochong; Li, Zeyu; Wang, Yunxin

    2014-07-14

    We report here on terahertz (THz) digital holography on a biological specimen. A continuous-wave (CW) THz in-line holographic setup was built based on a 2.52 THz CO(2) pumped THz laser and a pyroelectric array detector. We introduced novel statistical method of obtaining true intensity values for the pyroelectric array detector's pixels. Absorption and phase-shifting images of a dragonfly's hindwing were reconstructed simultaneously from single in-line hologram. Furthermore, we applied phase retrieval routines to eliminate twin image and enhanced the resolution of the reconstructions by hologram extrapolation beyond the detector area. The finest observed features are 35 μm width cross veins.

  14. Direct visualization of cell division using high-resolution imaging of M-phase of the cell cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Hesse, Michael; Raulf, Alexandra; Pilz, Gregor-Alexander; Haberlandt, Christian; Klein, Alexandra M; Jabs, Ronald; Zaehres, Holm; Fügemann, Christopher J.; Zimmermann, Katrin; Trebicka, Jonel; Welz, Armin; Pfeifer, Alexander; Röll, Wilhelm; Kotlikoff, Michael I.; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Current approaches to monitor and quantify cell division in live cells, and reliably distinguish between acytokinesis and endoreduplication, are limited and complicate determination of stem cell pool identities. Here we overcome these limitations by generating an in vivo reporter system using the scaffolding protein anillin fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein, to provide high spatiotemporal resolution of mitotic phase. This approach visualizes cytokinesis and midbody formation as hall...

  15. High Spectral Resolution, High Cadence, Imaging X-ray Microcalorimeters for Solar Physics - Phase 2 Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcalorimeter x-ray instruments are non-dispersive, high spectral resolution, broad-band, high cadence imaging spectrometers. We have been developing these...

  16. Comparison of chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography findings in early and low-grade coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savranlar, Ahmet; Altin, Remzi; Mahmutyazicioğlu, Kamran; Ozdemir, Hüseyin; Kart, Levent; Ozer, Tülay; Gündoğdu, Sadi

    2004-08-01

    High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is more sensitive than chest X-ray (CXR) in the depiction of parenchymal abnormalities. We aimed to present and compare CXR and HRCT findings in coal workers with and without early and low-grade coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP). 71 coal workers were enrolled in this study. All workers were male. The CXR and HRCT of those workers were obtained and graded by two trained readers. HRCT's were graded according to Hosoda and Shida's Japanese classification. After grading, 67 workers with CXR profusion 0/0-2/2 were included in the study. Four patients with major opacity were excluded. Profusion 0/1 to 1/1 cases were accepted as early and profusion 1/2 and 2/2 cases as low-grade pneumoconiosis. Discordance between CXR and HRCT was high. Discordance rate was found higher in the early pneumoconiosis cases with negative CXR than low-grade pneumoconiosis (60, 36 and 8%, respectively). When coal miners with normal CXR were evaluated by HRCT, six out of 10 cases were diagnosed as positive. In low-grade pneumoconiosis group, the number of patients with positive CXR but negative HRCT were low in comparison to patients with CXR negative and early pneumoconiosis findings. Most of the CXR category 0 patients (10/16) were diagnosed as category 1 by HRCT. Eleven cases diagnosed as CXR category 1 were diagnosed as category 0 (7/11) and category 2 (4/11) by HRCT. In CXR category 2 (eight cases), there were four cases diagnosed as category 1 by HRCT. Discordance between CXR and HRCT was high, especially for CXR negative and early pneumoconiosis cases. The role of CXR in screening coal workers to detect early pneumoconiosis findings should be questioned. We suggest using HRCT as a standard screening method instead of CXR to distinguish between normal and early pneumoconiosis.

  17. Late Pliensbachian-early Toarcian paleoenvironmental changes in the Cleveland Basin: new clues from high-resolution trace element analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Ruhl, Micha; Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz

    The early Toarcian (~183 Ma ago) was characterized by massive carbon burial and a pronounced negative carbon-isotope excursion (CIE) in marine carbonate and marine and terrestrial organic matter. These features along with the high abundance of redox sensitive trace metals in that interval led...... areas for this interval is the Cleveland Basin, UK, which is well-studied for litho-, bio- and chemostratigraphy. Here, we present a new dataset of high-resolution element data produced by hand-held X-ray fluorescence analysis to test for the expression of redox-sensitive trace metals and detrital...

  18. Resolution of heterogeneous fluorescence emission signals and decay lifetime measurement on fluorochrome-labeled cells by phase-sensitive FCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, J.A.; Crissman, H.A.

    1993-02-01

    A phase-sensitive flow cytometer has been developed to resolve signals from heterogeneous fluorescence emission spectra and quantify fluorescence decay times on cells labeled with fluorescent dyes. This instrument combines flow cytometry (FCM) and fluorescence spectroscopy measurement principles to provide unique capabilities for making phase-resolved measurements on single cells in flow, while preserving conventional FCM measurement capabilities. Stained cells are analyzed as they pass through an intensity-modulated (sinusoid) laser excitation beam. Fluorescence is measured orthogonally using a s barrier filter to block scattered laser excitation light, and a photomultiplier tube detector output signals, which are shifted in phase from a reference signal and amplitude demodulated, are processed by phase-sensitive detection electronics to resolve signals from heterogeneous emissions and quantify decay lifetimes directly. The output signals are displayed as frequency distribution histograms and bivariate diagrams using a computer-based data acquisition system. Results have demonstrated signal phase shift, amplitude demodulation, and average measurement of fluorescence lifetimes on stained cells; a detection limit threshold of 300 to 500 fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC); fluorescence measurement precision of 1.3% on alignment fluorospheres and 3.4% on propidium iodide (PI)-stained cells; the resolution of PI and FITC signals from cells stainedin combination with PI and FITC, based on differences in their decay lifetimes; and the ability to measure single decay nines by the two-phase, phase comparator, method.

  19. Resolution of heterogeneous fluorescence emission signals and decay lifetime measurement on fluorochrome-labeled cells by phase-sensitive FCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, J.A.; Crissman, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    A phase-sensitive flow cytometer has been developed to resolve signals from heterogeneous fluorescence emission spectra and quantify fluorescence decay times on cells labeled with fluorescent dyes. This instrument combines flow cytometry (FCM) and fluorescence spectroscopy measurement principles to provide unique capabilities for making phase-resolved measurements on single cells in flow, while preserving conventional FCM measurement capabilities. Stained cells are analyzed as they pass through an intensity-modulated (sinusoid) laser excitation beam. Fluorescence is measured orthogonally using a s barrier filter to block scattered laser excitation light, and a photomultiplier tube detector output signals, which are shifted in phase from a reference signal and amplitude demodulated, are processed by phase-sensitive detection electronics to resolve signals from heterogeneous emissions and quantify decay lifetimes directly. The output signals are displayed as frequency distribution histograms and bivariate diagrams using a computer-based data acquisition system. Results have demonstrated signal phase shift, amplitude demodulation, and average measurement of fluorescence lifetimes on stained cells; a detection limit threshold of 300 to 500 fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC); fluorescence measurement precision of 1.3% on alignment fluorospheres and 3.4% on propidium iodide (PI)-stained cells; the resolution of PI and FITC signals from cells stainedin combination with PI and FITC, based on differences in their decay lifetimes; and the ability to measure single decay nines by the two-phase, phase comparator, method.

  20. Early phase in e-money development: from Edvard Bellamy to Frank Macknamary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Vysochan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the phases of e-money development from the first mentioning of «a credit card» in literary sources to the appearance of Diners Club which preceded modern credit cards. The author has used the historical and geographic method for the decomposition of the early phase in the e-money development concerning the basic motives that induced emitters to develop and implement particular credit-payment systems. The article singles out three stages within the early phase of the e-money development, namely, the beginning of the ХХ-th century (supplying with short-term credits to obtain consumer’s goods, from 1920 to 1940 (guarantee of consumer’s loyalty to a brand, increasing the safety of clearing transactions by payer’s authorization, and 1950-ies (the use of the same credit for payment to various enterprises. It establishes the main features of the early phase in the e-money development; they are such as the absence of the necessary technical supply; emission, sale, guaranty on credits, on the cards issued take place outside the banking system; the lack of corporation credit card segment; the limitation of the application area; the low level of safety of the transactions accomplished.

  1. Phase I and phase II reductive metabolism simulation of nitro aromatic xenobiotics with electrochemistry coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussy, Ugo; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Li, Ke; Li, Weiming

    2014-11-01

    Electrochemistry combined with (liquid chromatography) high resolution mass spectrometry was used to simulate the general reductive metabolism of three biologically important nitro aromatic molecules: 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), niclosamide, and nilutamide. TFM is a pesticide used in the Laurential Great Lakes while niclosamide and nilutamide are used in cancer therapy. At first, a flow-through electrochemical cell was directly connected to a high resolution mass spectrometer to evaluate the ability of electrochemistry to produce the main reduction metabolites of nitro aromatic, nitroso, hydroxylamine, and amine functional groups. Electrochemical experiments were then carried out at a constant potential of -2.5 V before analysis of the reduction products by LC-HRMS, which confirmed the presence of the nitroso, hydroxylamine, and amine species as well as dimers. Dimer identification illustrates the reactivity of the nitroso species with amine and hydroxylamine species. To investigate xenobiotic metabolism, the reactivity of nitroso species to biomolecules was also examined. Binding of the nitroso metabolite to glutathione was demonstrated by the observation of adducts by LC-ESI(+)-HRMS and the characteristics of their MSMS fragmentation. In conclusion, electrochemistry produces the main reductive metabolites of nitro aromatics and supports the observation of nitroso reactivity through dimer or glutathione adduct formation.

  2. The flat decay phase in the early X-ray afterglows of Swift GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Granot, J

    2006-01-01

    Many Swift GRBs show an early phase of shallow decay in their X-ray afterglows, lasting from $t \\sim 10^{2.5} $s to $\\sim 10^4 $s after the GRB, where the flux decays as $\\sim t^{-0.2}-t^{-0.8}$. This is perhaps the most mysterious of the new features discovered by Swift in the early X-ray afterglow, since it is still not clear what causes it. I discuss different possible explanations for this surprising new discovery, as well as their potential implications for the gamma-ray efficiency, the afterglow kinetic energy, and perhaps even for the physics of collisionless relativistic shocks.

  3. CRP at early follicular phase of menstrual cycle can cause misinterpretation for cardiovascular risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursoy, Asli Yarci; Caglar, Gamze Sinem; Kiseli, Mine; Pabuccu, Emre; Candar, Tuba; Demirtas, Selda

    2015-12-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-known marker of inflammation and infection in clinical practice. This study is designed to evaluate CRP levels in different phases of menstrual cycle, which might end up with misleading conclusions especially when used for cardiovascular risk assessment. Twenty-seven women were eligible for the cross-sectional study. Venous blood samples from each participant were collected twice during the menstrual cycle. The first sampling was held at 2nd to 5th days of the menstrual cycle for FSH, estradiol, CRP, and sedimentation, and the second was done at 21st to 24th days of the menstrual cycle for measurement of progesterone, CRP, and sedimentation values. CRP values were significantly higher in the early follicular phase compared to luteal phase (1.8 mg/L [0.3-7.67] vs. 0.7 mg/L [0.1-8.3], p menstrual cycle, sedimentation rate was similar (12.1 ± 6.7 vs. 12.3 ± 7.7; p = 0.717, respectively). CRP levels in early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (menstruation) are significantly higher than CRP levels in luteal phase of the same cycle. In reproductive age women, detection of CRP for cardiovascular risk assessment during menstruation might not be appropriate.

  4. Atomic resolution investigations of phase transformation from TaN to CrTaN in a steel matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson; Hald, John

    2012-01-01

    , thus preserving long-term creep strength. This can be done by alloying with Ta instead of Nb and V. Recent investigations have indicated a direct transformation of MN into CrMN to take place, not the traditional nucleation/dissolution process. In this paper atomic resolution microscopy shows how Cr......In development of 12%Cr high temperature steels used for fossil fired power plants, the precipitation of large Z-phase particles, CrMN, has been identified as a major problem since they replace small and finely distributed MN particles. This causes a premature breakdown in the longterm creep...... strength of the steel. The Cr content promotes Z-phase precipitation, making MN strengthening of these materials unfeasible, since 12%Cr is necessary for oxidation resistance. The authors have suggested an acceleration of Z-phase precipitation to obtain a fine and stable distribution of CrMN instead of MN...

  5. Early life stress-induced alterations in rat brain structures measured with high resolution MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabdjitsingh, R Angela; Loi, Manila; Joëls, Marian; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; van der Toorn, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Adverse experiences early in life impair cognitive function both in rodents and humans. In humans this increases the vulnerability to develop mental illnesses while in the rodent brain early life stress (ELS) abnormalities are associated with changes in synaptic plasticity, excitability and microstructure. Detailed information on the effects of ELS on rodent brain structural integrity at large and connectivity within the brain is currently lacking; this information is highly relevant for understanding the mechanism by which early life stress predisposes to mental illnesses. Here, we exposed rats to 24 hours of maternal deprivation (MD) at postnatal day 3, a paradigm known to increase corticosterone levels and thereby activate glucocorticoid receptors in the brain. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging we examined: i) volumetric changes and white/grey matter properties of the whole cerebrum and of specific brain areas; and ii) whether potential alterations could be normalized by blocking glucocorticoid receptors with mifepristone during the critical developmental window of early adolescence, i.e. between postnatal days 26 and 28. The results show that MD caused a volumetric reduction of the prefrontal cortex, particularly the ventromedial part, and the orbitofrontal cortex. Within the whole cerebrum, white (relative to grey) matter volume was decreased and region-specifically in prefrontal cortex and dorsomedial striatum following MD. A trend was found for the hippocampus. Grey matter fractions were not affected. Treatment with mifepristone did not normalize these changes. This study indicates that early life stress in rodents has long lasting consequences for the volume and structural integrity of the brain. However, changes were relatively modest and-unlike behavior- not mitigated by blockade of glucocorticoid receptors during a critical developmental period.

  6. Imaging resolution signal-to-noise ratio in transverse phase amplification from classical information theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Doug [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)], E-mail: french@purdue.edu; Huang Zun; Pao, H.-Y.; Jovanovic, Igor [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2009-03-02

    A quantum phase amplifier operated in the spatial domain can improve the signal-to-noise ratio in imaging beyond the classical limit. The scaling of the signal-to-noise ratio with the gain of the quantum phase amplifier is derived from classical information theory.

  7. Limits on the early afterglow phase of gamma-ray burst sources from TAROT-1

    CERN Document Server

    Boër, M; Bringer, M; Gendre, B; Klotz, A H; Malina, R; De Pacheco, J A F; Pedersen, H

    2001-01-01

    The T\\'elescope \\`a Action Rapide pour les Objets Transitoires (TAROT-1) has as prime objective the observation of the prompt and delayed emission of cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We have performed a search for optical emission from 6 GRBs detected by BATSE. The positioning error circle was fully covered within typically thirty minutes after the trigger. No detection of the early afterglow phase was made, and magnitude limits in the range of $ \\mathrm{m}_{\\mathrm{R}} = 13-15 $ were estimated using 20s exposures. These limits are compared to optical afterglow data obtained in later phases and the results are interpreted in terms of source distances. They correspond to a median redshift of z = 0.5. With HETE-2 and the planned instrument upgrade, TAROT-1 will be able to detect the early optical emission of GRBs up to a redshift of the order of 5.

  8. Sustainability certification systems as guidelines for early-phase urban design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard; Bjerre, Lærke; Mansfelt, Lise

    2016-01-01

    The German Sustainable Building Council (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen or DGNB) has one of the most comprehensive sustainability certification systems for urban districts (UD). Their explicit aim is that the system should impact the very earliest design decisions. The Technical...... University of Denmark has tested the DGNB-UD system in two experimental design projects for similar locations to find out how it can be used in the early-phase design process. This paper describes these two independent design processes, compares them and discusses their general features. We found that DGNB......-UD addresses a broad sustainable focus and can be used as a tool for setting sustainability goals from the very first design steps. The system tends to promote multifunctional compromise solutions that meet several criteria at the same time. Using the DGNB-UD certification system in the early design phases...

  9. Integrating Pharmacoproteomics into Early-Phase Clinical Development: State-of-the-Art, Challenges, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandal, Savita; Burt, Tal

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacoproteomics is the study of disease-modifying and toxicity parameters associated with therapeutic drug administration, using analysis of quantitative and temporal changes to specific, predetermined, and select proteins, or to the proteome as a whole. Pharmacoproteomics is a rapidly evolving field, with progress in analytic technologies enabling processing of complex interactions of large number of unique proteins and effective use in clinical trials. Nevertheless, our analysis of clinicaltrials.gov and PubMed shows that the application of proteomics in early-phase clinical development is minimal and limited to few therapeutic areas, with oncology predominating. We review the history, technologies, current usage, challenges, and potential for future use, and conclude with recommendations for integration of pharmacoproteomic in early-phase drug development. PMID:28218733

  10. Early diagnosis of cerebral involvement in Sturge-Weber syndrome using high-resolution BOLD MR venography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentzel, Hans-J.; Fitzek, Clemens; Reichenbach, Juergen R.; Kaiser, Werner A. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Jena (Germany); Dieckmann, Andrea; Brandl, Ulrich [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Neuropediatrics, Jena (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a congenital disorder characterized by a vascular birthmark and neurological abnormalities. Typical imaging findings using MRI or CT are superficial cerebral calcification, atrophy and leptomeningeal enhancement. We present a neonate diagnosed with SWS because of a port-wine stain. In the absence of neurological symptoms the first MRI was performed when he was 4 months old, and follow-up MRI studies were performed after his first seizure at the age of 12 months. MRI was performed using standard sequences before and after administration of IV gadolinium. A high-resolution T2*-weighted, rf-spoiled 3D gradient-echo sequence with first-order flow compensation in all three directions was used for additional venographic imaging [blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) venography]. The initial conventional MRI sequences did not demonstrate any abnormality, but BOLD venography identified leptomeningeal internal veins. Follow-up MRI after the first onset of seizures demonstrated strong leptomeningeal enhancement, while BOLD venography revealed pathological medullary and subependymal veins as well as deep venous structures. At this time there were the first signs of atrophy and CT showed marginal calcifications. This report demonstrates that high-resolution BOLD MR venography allows early diagnosis of venous anomalies in SWS, making early therapeutic intervention possible. (orig.)

  11. Low-Resolution Screening of Early Stage Acquisition Simulation Scenario Development Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    28 Figure 9. COMBATXXI preprocessor view of ACV Phase 0. .......................................32 Figure 10. Unit...Analysis of Alternatives ACV Amphibious Combat Vehicle CAS Close Air Support COA Course of Action COMBATXXI Combined Arms Analysis Tool for the...MCCDC) on the Amphibious Combat Vehicle ( ACV ) cost an estimate of $1,281,000 (part of which was the cost of COMBATXXI development and analysis

  12. Bayesian Decision Theory and its Applications in Early Phase Clinical Trails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ying-hui

    2004-01-01

    Bayes'theorem is named after the Reverend Thomas Bayes who proposed the idea in the 18th century[1].It has been adapted by scientists for many different applications.One of the applications is clinical trials,where decisions are guided by clinical expertise as well as by data,especially in early phases.This paper reviews Bayes' theorem,decision theory and their applications in clinical trials.

  13. Research Biopsies in the Context of Early Phase Oncology Studies: Clinical and Ethical Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Matilde Saggese; Divyanshu Dua; Emily Simmons; Charlotte Lemech; Hendrik-Tobias Arkenau

    2013-01-01

    The Personalized Medicine approach in oncology is a direct result of an improved understanding of complex tumor biology and advances in diagnostic technologies. In recent years, there has been an increased demand for archival and fresh tumor analysis in early clinical trials to foster proof-of-concept biomarker development, to understand resistance mechanisms, and ultimately to assess biological response. Although phase I studies are aimed at defining drug safety, pharmacokinetics, and to rec...

  14. Muscle fiber conduction velocity in different gait phases of early and late-stage diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Eneida Yuri; Gomes, Aline A; Butugan, Marco Kenji; Sacco, Isabel C N

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) during gait phases of the lower limb muscles in individuals with various degrees of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Forty-five patients were classified into severity degrees of DPN by a fuzzy model. The stages were absent (n=11), mild (n=14), moderate (n=11) and severe (n=9), with 10 matched healthy controls. While walking, all subjects had their sEMG (4 linear electrode arrays) recorded for tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF). MFCV was calculated using a maximum likelihood algorithm with 30ms standard deviation Gaussian windows. In general, individuals in the earlier stages of DPN showed lower MFCV of TA, GM and BF, whilst individuals with severe DPN presented higher MFCV of the same muscles. We observed that mild patients already showed lower MFCV of TA at early stance and swing, and lower MFCV of BF at swing. All diabetic groups showed a markedly reduction in MFCV of VL, irrespective of DPN. Severe patients presented higher MFCV mainly in distal muscles, TA at early and swing phases and GM at propulsion and midstance. The absent group already showed MFCV of VL and GM reductions at the propulsion phase and of VL at early stance. Although MFCV changes were not as progressive as the DPN was, we clearly distinguished diabetic patients from controls, and severe patients from all others.

  15. Evaluation of early phase nuclear accident clean-up procedures for Nordic residential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The work reported was carried out as a part of the EKO-5 project under the framework of the Nordic co-operative NKS programme. The project is aimed at giving guidelines relating to Nordic conditions for the reduction of external doses in the early phase of a major accidental airborne nuclear contamination (essentially with {sup 137}Cs) situation in urban areas. The material in this report describes the expected effects, in terms of immediate dose rate reduction and of reduction of the integrated doses over 70 years, of implementation of the methods which were considered to be feasible for early phase treatment of contaminated urban surfaces. Also given are estimates of the integrated doses if no action were taken. The given estimates were based on the experience obtained through large amounts of in situ measurements on different types of surface, mainly since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The computer model URGENT, was used to apply the information on the migration of the radioactive material with time, together with the results of Monte Carlo photon transport calculations, for the time-integrated dose estimates. 66 data sheets describe the beneficial effects, costs and disadvantages of application of a feasible method for cleaning in the early phase of a specific type of surface in one of five different urban or suburban environments. These data form the foundation for the recommendations on guidelines, which are the ultimate goal of the EKO-5 project. References are given to recommended supplementary reading. (EG).

  16. Super resolution microscopy of lipid bilayer phases and single molecule kinetic studies on merocyanine 540 bound lipid vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chin-Kuei

    Recently, observing biological process and structural details in live cell became feasible after the introduction of super-resolution microscopy. Super-resolution microscopy by single molecule localization is the method that has commonly been used for such purpose. There are mainly three approaches to it: stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM), and point accumulation in nanoscale topology (PAINT). STORM and PALM rely on external laser control and use of photoactivable fluorescent protein or photoswitchable dyes and are technically challenging. The PAINT method relies on the control of thermal reaction rates to enable the switching between bright and dark states. Therefore, many conventional fluorescent probes can be applied in PAINT method and the images denote different information composed of interactions between the probe and its immediate environment by variations of probe parameters. The existence of lipid rafts has been under debates for decades due to the lack of a tool to directly visualize them in live cells. In the thesis, we combine PAINT with a phase sensitive dye, Merocyanine 540, to enable nanoscale observation of phase separation on supported lipid bilayers of mixed liquid/gel phases. The imaging results are presented in the chapter 3. Given that this is the first example of visualization of nanoscale phase separation of lipid bilayers using an optical microscope, we further looked into the kinetics of MC540 monomer dimer equilibrium in lipid bilayers using single molecule intensity time trajectory analysis and polarization dependent imaging. Our finding confirms that perpendicular monomeric MC540 (to the membrance surface) is the emitting speices in our system and it stays fluorescent for roughly 3 ms before it switches off to dark states. This part of analysis is presented in the chapter 4. All the materials, procedures to carry out experiments and data analysis, methods involved in our

  17. Thermal to Nonthermal Energy Partition at the Early Rise Phase of Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Altyntsev, Alexander A; Lesovoi, Sergey V; Meshalkina, Natalia S

    2012-01-01

    In some flares the thermal component appears much earlier than the nonthermal component in X-ray range. Using sensitive microwave observations we revisit this finding made by Battaglia et al. (2009) based on RHESSI data analysis. We have found that nonthermal microwave emission produced by accelerated electrons with energy of at least several hundred keV, appears as early as the thermal soft X-ray emission indicative that the electron acceleration takes place at the very early flare phase. The non-detection of the hard X-rays at that early stage of the flares is, thus, an artifact of a limited RHESSI sensitivity. In all considered events, the microwave emission intensity increases at the early flare phase. We found that either thermal or nonthermal gyrosynchrotron emission can dominate the low-frequency part of the microwave spectrum below the spectral peak occurring at 3-10 GHz. In contrast, the high-frequency optically thin part of the spectrum is always formed by the nonthermal, accelerated electron compon...

  18. Early mortality estimates for different nuclear accidents. Final Phase I report, October 1977-April 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F.F.

    1979-08-01

    Several studies have previously been made of the number of early deaths which might be expected in a population exposed to a cloud of radionuclides which could result from a nuclear accident. These analyses, however, have been limited to one accident scenario or to exposures involving limited numbers of radionuclides. The purpose of this Phase I study was to examine the existing data on the early health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and determined what, if any, new studies were needed to make reasonable estimates of early mortality after exposure of a population to a cloud of radionuclides of any type. The approach used in the Phase I project was to analyze the data bases available on the health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and document those which were adequate and useful. Using these data, a computer based simulation model was developed depicting exposure to a radioactive aerosol, the dose to an individual exposed to the aerosol and the probability of dying from early effects.

  19. Renal Arteries: Isotropic, High-Spatial-Resolution, Unenhanced MR Angiography with Three-dimensional Radial Phase Contrast1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Darren P.; Johnson, Kevin M.; Landgraf, Benjamin R.; Bley, Thorsten A.; Reeder, Scott B.; Schiebler, Mark L.; Grist, Thomas M.; Wieben, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare a new three-dimensional (3D) radial phase-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) angiographic method with contrast material–enhanced MR angiography for anatomic assessment of the renal arteries. Materials and Methods: An institutional review board approved this prospective HIPAA-compliant study. Informed consent was obtained. Twenty-seven subjects (mean age, 52.6 years ± 20.5 [standard deviation]) were imaged with respiratory-gated phase-contrast vastly undersampled isotropic projection reconstruction (VIPR) prior to contrast-enhanced MR angiographic acquisition with a 3.0-T clinical system. The imaging duration for phase-contrast VIPR was 10 minutes and provided magnitude and complex difference (“angiographic”) images with 3D volumetric (320 mm) coverage and isotropic high spatial resolution (1.25 mm3). Quantitative analysis consisted of comparing vessel diameters between the two techniques. Qualitative assessment included evaluation of the phase-contrast VIPR and contrast-enhanced MR angiographic techniques for artifacts, noise, and image quality. Bland-Altman analysis was used for comparison of quantitative measurements, and the Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for comparison of qualitative scores. Results: Phase-contrast VIPR images were successfully acquired in all subjects. The vessel diameters measured with phase-contrast VIPR were slightly greater than those measured with contrast-enhanced MR angiography (mean bias = 0.09 mm). Differences in mean artifact, quality scores for the proximal renal arteries, and overall image quality scores between phase-contrast VIPR and contrast-enhanced MR angiographic techniques were not statistically significant (P = .31 and .29, .27 and .39, and .43 and .69 for readers 1 and 2, respectively). The quality scores for the segmental renal arteries were higher for phase-contrast VIPR than for contrast-enhanced MR angiography (P contrast-enhanced MR angiography and were statistically

  20. Main corrective measures in an early phase of nuclear power plants’ preparation for safe long term operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivanek, Robert, E-mail: r.krivanek@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Operational Safety Section, Vienna 1400 (Austria); Fiedler, Jan, E-mail: fiedler@fme.vutbr.cz [University of Technology Brno, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Institute, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Results of SALTO missions provide the most important issues for safe long term operation (LTO) of nuclear power plants. • The most important technical corrective measures in an early phase of preparation for safe LTO are described. • Their satisfactory resolution creates a basis for further activities to demonstrate preparedness for safe LTO. - Abstract: This paper presents the analysis of main technical deficiencies of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in preparedness for safe long term operation (LTO) and the main corrective measures in an early phase of preparation for safe LTO of NPPs. It focuses on technical aspects connected with management of physical ageing of NPP structures, systems and components (SSCs). It uses as a basis results of IAEA SALTO missions performed between 2005 and 2016 (see also paper NED8805 in Nuclear Engineering and Design in May 2016) and the personal experiences of the authors with preparation of NPPs for safe LTO. This paper does not discuss other important aspects of safe LTO of NPPs, e.g. national nuclear energy policies, compliance of NPPs with the latest international requirements on design, obsolescence, environmental impact and economic aspects of LTO. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction of the current status of the NPP’ fleet in connection with LTO. Chapter 2 provides an overview of SALTO peer review service results with a focus on deficiencies related to physical ageing of safety SSCs and a demonstration that SSCs will perform their safety function during the intended period of LTO. Chapter 3 discusses the main corrective measures which NPPs typically face during the preparation for demonstration of safe LTO. Chapter 4 summarizes the current status of the NPP’ fleet in connection with LTO and outlines further steps needed in preparation for safe LTO.

  1. Phase closure retrieval in an infrared-to-visible upconversion interferometer for high resolution astronomical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceus, Damien; Tonello, Alessandro; Grossard, Ludovic; Delage, Laurent; Reynaud, François; Herrmann, Harald; Sohler, Wolfgang

    2011-04-25

    This paper demonstrates the use of a nonlinear upconversion process to observe an infrared source through a telescope array detecting the interferometric signal in the visible domain. We experimentally demonstrate the possibility to retrieve information on the phase of the object spectrum of an infrared source by using a three-arm upconversion interferometer. We focus our study on the acquisition of phase information of the complex visibility by means of the phase closure technique. In our experimental demonstration, a laboratory binary star with an adjustable photometric ratio is used as a test source. A real time comparison between a standard three-arm interferometer and our new concept using upconversion by sum-frequency generation demonstrates the preservation of phase information which is essential for image reconstruction.

  2. High resolution microendoscopy for early detection of esophageal cancer in low-resource settings (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    Esophageal squamous cell neoplasia (ESCN) is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Most deaths due to ESCN occur in developing countries, with highest risk areas in northern China. Lugol's chromoendoscopy (LCE) is the gold-standard for ESCN screening; while the sensitivity of LCE for ESCN is >95%, LCE suffers poor specificity (< 65%) due to false positive findings from inflammatory lesions. High resolution microendoscopy (HRME) uses a low-cost, fiber-optic fluorescence microscope to image morphology of the surface epithelium without need for biopsy. We developed a tablet-interfaced HRME with automated, real-time image analysis. In an in vivo study of 177 patients referred for endoscopy in China, use of the algorithm identified neoplasia with a sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 91% compared to the gold standard of histology.

  3. Conflict resolution in the context of Early Childhood Bilingual Education: towards a multicultural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Gazzotti

    Full Text Available This article discusses how young children learn to deal with conflicts from a multicultural standpoint. The present work is based on the view that, in a world of multiple demands and perspectives, children learn to deal with life in a variety of ways that will enable them to choose who they will become. The main underlying concepts of this article include: multiculturalism, linked to multilingualism and multimodality, as well as collaborative intervention for the creation of zones of proximal development and children's oral argumentation. The data consists of a multimodally transcribed episode of a snack time situation among two-year-old children, showing the multicultural development of kids in their way of dealing with conflict resolution.

  4. Evaluation of high spatial resolution imaging of magnetic stray fields for early damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Robert; Cabeza, Sandra; Pelkner, Matthias; Lyamkin, Viktor; Sonntag, Nadja; Bruno, Giovanni; Skrotzki, Birgit; Kreutzbruck, Marc

    2017-02-01

    The paper discusses the evaluation of elastic and plastic strain states in two low-carbon steels of the same steel group with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors. The residual stress distributions of tungsten inert gas welded plates were determined by means of neutron diffraction as a reference. The normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields arise in the vicinity of the positions of maximum stress. The experiments performed on flat tensile specimen indicate that the boundaries of plastic deformations are a source of stray fields. The spatial variations of magnetic stray fields for both the weld and the tensile samples are in the order of the earths magnetic field.

  5. Super-resolution microscopy reveals protein spatial reorganization in early innate immune responses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, Bryan D.; Aaron, Jesse S.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann

    2010-10-01

    Over the past decade optical approaches were introduced that effectively break the diffraction barrier. Of particular note were introductions of Stimulated Emission/Depletion (STED) microscopy, Photo-Activated Localization Microscopy (PALM), and the closely related Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM). STORM represents an attractive method for researchers, as it does not require highly specialized optical setups, can be implemented using commercially available dyes, and is more easily amenable to multicolor imaging. We implemented a simultaneous dual-color, direct-STORM imaging system through the use of an objective-based TIRF microscope and filter-based image splitter. This system allows for excitation and detection of two fluorophors simultaneously, via projection of each fluorophor's signal onto separate regions of a detector. We imaged the sub-resolution organization of the TLR4 receptor, a key mediator of innate immune response, after challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacteria-specific antigen. While distinct forms of LPS have evolved among various bacteria, only some LPS variations (such as that derived from E. coli) typically result in significant cellular immune response. Others (such as from the plague bacteria Y. pestis) do not, despite affinity to TLR4. We will show that challenge with LPS antigens produces a statistically significant increase in TLR4 receptor clusters on the cell membrane, presumably due to recruitment of receptors to lipid rafts. These changes, however, are only detectable below the diffraction limit and are not evident using conventional imaging methods. Furthermore, we will compare the spatiotemporal behavior of TLR4 receptors in response to different LPS chemotypes in order to elucidate possible routes by which pathogens such as Y. pestis are able to circumvent the innate immune system. Finally, we will exploit the dual-color STORM capabilities to simultaneously image LPS and TLR4 receptors in the

  6. Readout Electronics Calibration and Energy Resolution Analysis for ATLAS New Small Wheel Phase I Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Trischuk, Dominique Anderson

    2016-01-01

    The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), a planned upgrade of the LHC for 2025, will provide a challenging environment the detectors. The ATLAS muon endcap system was not designed to operate at the high rates that will be provided by the HL-LHC and must be upgraded. The New Small Wheel (NSW) will replace the current Muon Small Wheel and will provide enhanced trigger and tracking capabilities. The VMM chip is a custom applied specific integrated circuit (ASIC), designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, that will serve as the frontend ASIC for the detectors in the NSW. In order to provide precise timing measurements, the VMM chip must be calibrated. The micromegas are one of two detectors that will be installed in the NSW. A measurement of the energy spectrum can be used to calculate the energy resolution of the micromegas. The calibration method for the VMM chips and energy resolution measurements of the micromegas are described in this report.

  7. Early Earth tectonics: A high-resolution 3D numerical modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, R.; Gerya, T.

    2014-12-01

    Early Earth had a higher amount of remaining radiogenic elements as well as a higher amount of leftover primordial heat. Both contributed to the increased temperature in the Earth's interior and it is mainly this increased mantle potential temperature ΔTp that controls the dynamics of the crust and upper mantle and the style of Early Earth tectonics. For a minor increase in temperature ΔTp buckling, delamination and Rayleigh-Taylor style dripping of the plate is observed in addition. For higher temperatures ΔTp > 250 K no subduction can be observed anymore and tectonics is dominated by delamination and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. We conduct 3D petrological-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of the crust and upper mantle under Early Earth conditions and a plume tectonics model setup. For varying crustal structures and an increased mantle potential temperature ΔTp, a thermal anomaly in the bottom temperature boundary introduces a plume. The model is able to self-sufficiently form depleted mantle lithosphere after repeated melt removal. New crust can be produced in the form of volcanics or plutonics. To simulate differentiation the newly formed crust can have a range in composition from basaltic over dacitic to granitic depending on its source rock. Models show large amounts of subcrustal decompression melting and consequently large amounts of new formed crust which in turn influences the dynamics. Mantle and crust are convecting separately. Dome-shaped plutons of mafic or felsic composition can be observed in the crust. Between these domes elongated belts of upper crust, volcanics and sediments are formed. These structures look similar to, for example, the Kaapvaal craton in South Africa where the elongated shape of the Barberton Greenstone Belt is surrounded by multiple plutons.

  8. Beamline 9.0.1 - a high-resolution undulator beamline for gas-phase spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozek, J.D.; Heimann, P.A.; Mossessian, D. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.0.1 at the Advanced Light Source is an undulator beamline with a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) which provides very high resolution and flux over the photon energy range 20-320eV. The beamline has been used primarily by the atomic and molecular science community to conduct spectroscopy experiments using electron, ion and fluorescence photon detection. A description of the beamline and its performance will be provided in this abstract.

  9. The early Holocene humid period in the Tayma palaeolake, NW Arabian Peninsula -- A high-resolution micro-facies and geochemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Ina; Plessen, Birgit; Dinies, Michèle; Engel, Max; Tjallingii, Rik; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The Tayma palaeolake is a rare archive of the early Holocene humid period in northern Arabia (Dinies et al. 2015; Engel et al. 2012). Here we present a ca. 1 m thick and 500 years spanning annually laminated sediment section that was deposited in the centre of the former lake from ca. 8500 to 8000 calibrated years (cal. yrs) BP, as determined by AMS 14C dating of pollen concentrates (Dinies et al. 2015). High-resolution micro-facies analyses based on thin section microscopy, μXRF element scanning, δ18Ocarb and δ13Ccarb measurements on single carbonate laminae, as well as geochemical measurements on bulk samples for TOC, CaCO3, C/N ratio, δ18Ocarb, δ13Ccarb, δ13Corg and δ15N determination were performed in order to investigate the sedimentological and geochemical changes along the varved sequence in great detail. The finely laminated marl sediments are mainly composed of sub-mm thick laminae of endogenic aragonite, organic matter and diatoms, as well as occasional, often graded silt-clay layers. Following an early lake phase from ca. 8700 to 8500 cal. yrs BP characterized by coarsely laminated, presumably non-annual marl sediments that are rich in ostracods, three main varved phases can be distinguished within the investigated section: (1) aragonitic-organic varves from ca. 8500 to 8300 cal. yrs BP, (2) diatom-organic varves from ca. 8300 to 8100 cal. yrs BP that frequently include aragonite laminae and occasionally gastropod and ostracod shells, and (3) organic varves from ca. 8100 to 8000 cal. yrs BP with decreasing diatom and aragonite laminae and an increasing frequency of gypsum layers. After this period, gypsum becomes abundant and fine lamination appears only sporadically. In addition, we observe increasing trends of TOC, C/N and δ13Ccarb and decreasing δ18Ocarb during phase 1 and excess δ18Ocarb, δ13Ccarb and TOC values during phase 2, pointing towards the maximum lake productivity and increased seasonal precipitation. We interpret this

  10. High-resolution study of Late Glacial and Early Holocene vegetation and tree line changes in the Southern Carpathian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, E.; Jakab, G.; Braun, M.; Buczkó, K.; Bálint, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Retezat Massif of the S Carpathian Mountains abounds in glacial lakes, mainly above 1900 m a.s.l., just above the present day tree limit formed by Picea abies and Pinus cembra in the northern slopes. For the reconstruction of Late Glacial and Early Holocene vegetation and tree line changes in this mountain, two lakes were selected: Taul dintre Brazi (1740 m a.s.l.) and Lake Gales (1990 m a.s.l.). Sediments obtained from these lakes extend back to the Late Glacial, and so provide us an exceptional opportunity to study 1) when trees were first established locally around the lower lake following glacial retreat and 2) what tree and shrub species were present and replaced each other in the Late Glacial and early postglacial forests in response to the high-amplitude climatic fluctuation, and in case of the Early Holocene, the high-amplitude climatic amelioration. Pollen, conifer stomata and plant macrofossils were studied from both lake sediments at approximately 100 years resolution. Sediment chronologies were based on multiple AMS radiocarbon dates. Preliminary results from this study show that Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies and Betula nana appeared very early during the lateglacial interstadial, ca. 14,500 cal yr BP followed by Larix decidua around 14,200 cal yr BP. Pinus cembra gained dominance in the Latglacial interstadial forest and survived locally during the Younger Dryas reversal unlike Picea abies. Another important result was the reconstruction of the Early Holocene forest composition around the lower lake that proved much more species rich than the present-day forest; Picea abies grew together with Larix decidua, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Alnus viridis, Juniperus, Betula nana and Betula pubescens during the Early Holocene, furthermore the stomatal record suggested that conifer species were evenly distributed around the lake. In light of our data, the position of the Early Holocene tree line reached 1990 m a.s.l. by ca. 10,700 cal yr BP (i

  11. Ultra resolution chemical fingerprinting of dense non-aqueous phase liquids from manufactured gas plants by reversed phase comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Laura A; Gauchotte-Lindsay, Caroline; Daéid, Niamh Nic; Thomas, Russell; Daly, Paddy; Kalin, Robert M

    2011-07-22

    Ultra resolution chemical fingerprinting of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) from former manufactured gas plants (FMGPs) was investigated using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC TOFMS). Reversed phase GC×GC (i.e. a polar primary column coupled to a non-polar secondary column) was found to significantly improve the separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated homologues. Sample extraction and cleanup was performed simultaneously using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), with recovery rates between 76% and 97%, allowing fast, efficient extraction with minimal solvent consumption. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the GC×GC data was performed in an attempt to differentiate between twelve DNAPLs based on their chemical composition. Correlations were discovered between DNAPL composition and historic manufacturing processes used at different FMGP sites. Traditional chemical fingerprinting methods generally follow a tiered approach with sample analysis on several different instruments. We propose ultra resolution chemical fingerprinting as a fast, accurate and precise method of obtaining more chemical information than traditional tiered approaches while using only a single analytical technique.

  12. Terahertz in-line digital holography of dragonfly hindwing: amplitude and phase reconstruction at enhanced resolution by extrapolation

    CERN Document Server

    Rong, Lu; Wang, Dayong; Zhou, Xun; Huang, Haochong; Li, Zeyu; Wang, Yunxin

    2014-01-01

    We report here on terahertz (THz) digital holography on a biological specimen. A continuous-wave (CW) THz in-line holographic setup was built based on a 2.52 THz CO2 pumped THz laser and a pyroelectric array detector. We introduced novel statistical method of obtaining true intensity values for the pyroelectric array detector's pixels. Absorption and phase-shifting images of a dragonfly's hind wing were reconstructed simultaneously from single in-line hologram. Furthermore, we applied phase retrieval routines to eliminate twin image and enhanced the resolution of the reconstructions by hologram extrapolation beyond the detector area. The finest observed features are 35 {\\mu}m width cross veins.

  13. In-house phase determination of the lima bean trypsin inhibitor: a low-resolution sulfur-SAD case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debreczeni, Judit E; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Girmann, Beatrix; Sheldrick, George M

    2003-02-01

    SAD (single-wavelength anomalous diffraction) has enormous potential for phasing proteins using only the anomalous signal of the almost ubiquitous native sulfur, but requires extremely precise data. The previously unknown structure of the lima bean trypsin inhibitor (LBTI) was solved using highly redundant data collected to 3 A using a CCD detector with a rotating-anode generator and three-circle goniometer. The seven 'super-S' atoms (disulfide bridges) were located by dual-space recycling with SHELXD and the high solvent content enabled the density-modification program SHELXE to generate high-quality maps despite the modest resolution. Subsequently, a 2.05 A synchrotron data set was collected and used for further phase extension and structure refinement.

  14. Gas-phase fragmentation of peptides to increase the spatial resolution of the Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Generation of overlapping peptides in solution via multiple proteases requires a very high peak capacity for the LC-MS analysis to minimize signal overlap. An inherent advantage of a gas-phase fragmentation step is that the additional gas-phase fragment ions used to sublocalize deuterium...... are produced after precursor ion selection and thus do not add complexity to the LC-MS analysis. The key to obtaining optimal spatial resolution in a hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HX-MS) experiment is the fragmentation efficiency. This chapter discusses common fragmentation techniques like collision......-induced dissociation (CID) occur with complete Hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) scrambling, while other techniques that induce dissociation on a faster timescale through radical-based fragmentation channels, like electron-capture dissociation (ECD) and electron-transfer dissociation (ETD), occur inherently without H...

  15. Resolution of deep angiosperm phylogeny using conserved nuclear genes and estimates of early divergence times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liping; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Renran; Kong, Hongzhi; Zhang, Ning; Ma, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Angiosperms are the most successful plants and support human livelihood and ecosystems. Angiosperm phylogeny is the foundation of studies of gene function and phenotypic evolution, divergence time estimation and biogeography. The relationship of the five divergent groups of the Mesangiospermae (~99.95% of extant angiosperms) remains uncertain, with multiple hypotheses reported in the literature. Here transcriptome data sets are obtained from 26 species lacking sequenced genomes, representing each of the five groups: eudicots, monocots, magnoliids, Chloranthaceae and Ceratophyllaceae. Phylogenetic analyses using 59 carefully selected low-copy nuclear genes resulted in highly supported relationships: sisterhood of eudicots and a clade containing Chloranthaceae and Ceratophyllaceae, with magnoliids being the next sister group, followed by monocots. Our topology allows a re-examination of the evolutionary patterns of 110 morphological characters. The molecular clock estimates of Mesangiospermae diversification during the late to middle Jurassic correspond well to the origins of some insects, which may have been a factor facilitating early angiosperm radiation. PMID:25249442

  16. Predictors of Early Readmission in Patients With Cirrhosis After the Resolution of Bacterial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Salvatore; Morando, Filippo; Carretta, Giovanni; Tonon, Marta; Vettore, Elia; Rosi, Silvia; Stanco, Marialuisa; Pilutti, Chiara; Romano, Antonietta; Brocca, Alessandra; Sticca, Antonietta; Donato, Daniele; Angeli, Paolo

    2017-08-29

    In patients with cirrhosis, infections represent a frequent trigger for complications, increasing frequency of hospitalizations and mortality rate. This study aimed to identify predictors of early readmission (30 days) and of mid-term mortality (6 months) in patients with liver cirrhosis discharged after a hospitalization for bacterial and/or fungal infection. A total of 199 patients with cirrhosis discharged after an admission for a bacterial and/or fungal infection were included in the study and followed up for a least 6 months. During follow-up, 69 patients (35%) were readmitted within 30 days from discharge. C-reactive protein (CRP) value at discharge (odds ratio (OR)=1.91; P=0.022), diagnosis of acute-on-chronic liver failure during the hospital stay (OR=2.48; P=0.008), and the hospitalization in the last 30 days previous to the admission/inclusion in the study (OR=1.50; P=0.042) were found to be independent predictors of readmission. During the 6-month follow-up, 47 patients (23%) died. Age (hazard ratio (HR)=1.05; P=0.001), model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (HR=1.13; P10 mg/l at discharge had a significantly higher probability of being readmitted within 30 days (44% vs. 24%; P=0.007) and a significantly lower probability of 6-month survival (62% vs. 88%; P<0.001) than those with a CRP ≤10 mg/l. CRP showed to be a strong predictor of early hospital readmission and 6-month mortality in patients with cirrhosis after hospitalization for bacterial and/or fungal infection. CRP values could be used both in the stewardship of antibiotic treatment and to identify fragile patients who deserve a strict surveillance program.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 29 August 2017; doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.253.

  17. High-resolution computed tomography findings of early mucinous adenocarcinomas and their pathologic characteristics in 22 surgically resected cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Naoko, E-mail: n.miyata@scchr.jp [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan); Endo, Masahiro [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Nakajima, Takashi [Division of Pathology, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Kojima, Hideaki; Maniwa, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Shoji; Isaka, Mitsuhiro [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan); Kameya, Toru [Division of Pathology, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Ohde, Yasuhisa [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, 1007 Shimonagakubo, Nagaizumi, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka 411-8777 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We clinicopathologically reviewed 22 cases of early mucinous adenocarcinoma. • Radiologically, all cases showed solid or part-solid nodules. • Lobular-bounded margins were observed in 7 cases. • The radiological features could be histologically attributed to mucin production. • One-third of the cases were preoperatively misdiagnosed as inflammatory nodules. - Abstract: Background: The pathological criteria of early-stage mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung have recently been defined; however, its characteristic radiologic imaging findings are still poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed to clarify the radiologic and pathological findings of early-stage mucinous adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods: In this study, we clinicopathologically reviewed 22 cases of surgically resected mucinous adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimal invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and attempted to elucidate the characteristic radiologic features of early mucinous adenocarcinomas using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Results: Radiologically, the mean value of the maximum diameter of 22 tumours was 2.1 cm (range, 1.0–2.9 cm). Based on the HRCT findings, the tumours were divided into part-solid ground glass nodules (n = 11) and solid nodules (n = 11). The mean CT attenuation value was 25.7 HU (range, 17–35 HU). All tumours, except 3 tumours pathologically diagnosed as AIS, showed air-containing features. According to the preoperative CT findings, 7 (35%) cases were diagnosed as inflammatory nodules. Of these, 4 cases had lobular-bounded margins, and 3 showed vaguely outlined ground glass shadows. Conclusion: The characteristic HRCT findings of mucinous AIS and MIA were solid or part-solid nodules with air-containing spaces. However, some AIS and MIA nodules showed lobular-bounded margins or marginally vaguely outlined ground glass shadows, and were difficult to differentiate from inflammatory nodules.

  18. GNSS Carrier Phase Integer Ambiguity Resolution with Camera and Satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Ambiguity Resolution is the key to high precision position and attitude determination with GNSS. However, ambiguity resolution of kinematic receivers becomes challenging in environments with substantial multipath, limited satellite availability and erroneous cycle slip corrections. There is a need for other sensors, e.g. inertial sensors that allow an independent prediction of the position. The change of the predicted position over time can then be used for cycle slip detection and correction. In this paper, we provide a method to improve the initial ambiguity resolution for RTK and PPP with vision-based position information. Camera images are correlated with geo-referenced aerial/ satellite images to obtain an independent absolute position information. This absolute position information is then coupled with the GNSS and INS measurements in an extended Kalman filter to estimate the position, velocity, acceleration, attitude, angular rates, code multipath and biases of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. The camera and satellite images are matched based on some characteristic image points (e.g. corners of street markers). We extract these characteristic image points from the camera images by performing the following steps: An inverse mapping (homogenous projection) is applied to transform the camera images from the driver's perspective to bird view. Subsequently, we detect the street markers by performing (a) a color transformation and reduction with adaptive brightness correction to focus on relevant features, (b) a subsequent morphological operation to enhance the structure recognition, (c) an edge and corner detection to extract feature points, and (d) a point matching of the corner points with a template to recognize the street markers. We verified the proposed method with two low-cost u-blox LEA 6T GPS receivers, the MPU9150 from Invensense, the ASCOS RTK corrections and a PointGrey camera. The results show very precise and seamless position and attitude

  19. RODOS and decision conferencing on early phase protective actions in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Lindstedt, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Systems Analysis Lab.; Sinkko, K.; Ammann, M. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Salo, A

    1998-12-01

    This work was undertaken in order to study the utilisation of decision conferencing and of the RODOS system when considering early phase protective actions in the case of a nuclear accident. Altogether four meetings with various people were organised. The meetings were attended by competent national safety authorities and technical level decision-makers, i.e., those who are responsible for preparing advice or making presentations of matters for decision-makers responsible for practical implementation of actions. In the first set of meetings the aim was to elicit the factors/attributes that have to be considered when making a decision on sheltering, evacuation and iodine tablets. No uncertainties nor a threat phase were considered but everything was assumed to happen as described in the given scenario. The theme in the second set of meetings was to study the implications of probabilities. All information was calculated with the support of the RODOS system. In the early phases of a nuclear accident time is limited. Prestructured generic value trees or a list of possible attributes can help to save time. A possible approach is to present a large generic value tree. Either the decision-makers select the attributes that are suitable for the case in hand or the facilitator offers a choice between more structured value trees. The decision-makers then just examine the suggested value trees, check the generic tree to make sure that no important factors have been omitted and choose the appropriate one. As in previous RODOS exercises, the participants felt that RODOS could be used for providing information but found it more problematic to use decision analysis methods when deciding on countermeasures in the early phase of a nuclear accident. Furthermore, it was noted that understanding the actual meaning of `soft` attributes, such as socio-psychological impacts or political cost, was not a straightforward issue. Consequently, the definition of attributes in advance would be

  20. High resolution cyclostratigraphy of the early Eocene – new insights into the origin of the Cenozoic cooling trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Westerhold

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a high-resolution cyclostratigraphy based on X-ray fluorescence (XRF core scanning data from a new record retrieved from the tropical western Atlantic (Demerara Rise, ODP Leg 207, Site 1258. The Eocene sediments from ODP Site 1258 cover magnetochrons C20 to C24 and show well developed cycles. This record includes the missing interval for reevaluating the early Eocene part of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS, also providing key aspects for reconstructing high-resolution climate variability during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO. Detailed spectral analysis demonstrates that early Eocene sedimentary cycles are characterized by precession frequencies modulated by short (100 kyr and long (405 kyr eccentricity with a generally minor obliquity component. Counting of both the precession and eccentricity cycles results in revised estimates for the duration of magnetochrons C21r through C24n. Our cyclostratigraphic framework also corroborates that the geochronology of the Eocene Green River Formation (Wyoming, USA is still questionable mainly due to the uncertain correlation of the "Sixth Tuff" to the GPTS.

    Right at the onset of the long-term Cenozoic cooling trend the dominant eccentricity-modulated precession cycles of ODP Site 1258 are interrupted by strong obliquity cycles for a period of ~800 kyr in the middle of magnetochron C22r. These distinct obliquity cycles at this low latitude site point to (1 a high-latitude driving mechanism on global climate variability from 50.1 to 49.4 Ma, and (2 seem to coincide with a significant drop in atmospheric CO2 concentration below a critical threshold between 2- and 3-times the pre-industrial level (PAL. The here newly identified orbital configuration of low eccentricity in combination with high obliquity amplitudes during this ~800-kyr period and the crossing of a critical pCO2 threshold may have led to the formation of the first ephemeral

  1. Differential association with cellular substructures of pseudorabies virus DNA during early and late phases of replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Porat, T.; Veach, R.A.; Blankenship, M.L.; Kaplan, A.S.

    1984-12-01

    Pseudorabies virus DNA synthesis can be divided into two phases, early and late, which can be distinguished from each other on the basis of the structures of the replicating DNA. The two types of replicating virus DNA can also be distinguished from each other on the basis of the cellular substructures with which each is associated. Analysis by electron microscopic autoradiography showed that during the first round of replication, nascent virus DNA was found in the vicinity of the nuclear membrane; during later rounds of replication the nascent virus DNA was located centrally within the nucleus. The degree of association of virus DNA synthesized at early and late phases with the nuclear matrix fractions also differed; a larger proportion of late than of early nascent virus DNA was associated with this fraction. While nascent cellular DNA only was associated in significant amounts with the nuclear matrix fraction, a large part (up to 40%) of all the virus DNA remained associated with this fraction. However, no retention of specific virus proteins in this fraction was observed. Except for two virus proteins, which were preferentially extracted from the nuclear matrix, approximately 20% of all virus proteins remained in the nuclear matrix fraction. The large proportion of virus DNA associated with the nuclear fraction indicated that virus DNA may be intimately associated with some proteins.

  2. Probing Vitamine C, Aspirin and Paracetamol in the Gas Phase: High Resolution Rotational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, S.; Cabezas, C.; Varela, M.; Pena, I.; Nino, A.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.; Grabow, J.-U.

    2011-06-01

    A solid sample of Vitamin C (m.p. 190°C) vaporized by laser ablation has been investigated in gas phase and characterized through their rotational spectra. Two spectroscopy techniques has been used to obtain the spectra: a new design of broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy with in-phase/quadrature-phase-modulation passage-acquired-coherence technique (IMPACT) and conventional laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (LA-MB-FTMW). Up to now, two low-energy conformer have been observed and their rotational constants determined. Ab initio calculations at the MP2/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory predicted rotational constants which helped us to identify these conformers unequivocally. Among the molecules to benefit from the LA-MB-FTMW technique there are common important drugs never observed in the gas phase through rotational spectroscopy. We present here the results on acetyl salicylic acid and acetaminophen (m.p. 136°C), commonly known as aspirin and paracetamol respectively. We have observed two stable conformers of aspirin and two for paracetamol. The internal rotation barrier of the methyl group in aspirin has been determined for both conformers from the analysis of the A-E splittings due to the coupling of internal and overall rotation. J. L. Alonso, C. Pérez, M. E. Sanz, J. C. López, S. Blanco, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11,617-627 (2009)and references therein

  3. High-Resolution Regional Phase Attenuation Models of the Iranian Plateau and Surrounding Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-03

    Mayeda, W. R. Walter, L. Malagnini, and W. S. Phillips, Regional Attenuation in Northern California: A Comparison of Five 1D Q Methods, Bull. Seism ...regional phase amplitude tomography, Seism . Res. Lett., 80, p. 360, 2009. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 49 Priestley, K

  4. Improving the resolution of three-dimensional acoustic imaging with planar phased arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Jacobsen, Finn; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines and compares two methods of improving the quality of three-dimensional beamforming with phased microphone arrays. The intended application is the detection of aerodynamic noise sources on wind turbines. Both methods employ Fourier based deconvolution. The first method involves...

  5. Modeling Stellar Parameters for High Resolution Late-M and Early-L Dwarf SDSS/APOGEE Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birky, Jessica L.; Aganze, Christian; Burgasser, Adam J.; Theissen, Christopher; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Teske, Johanna K.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Bird, Jonathan C.; UCSD FAST Team

    2017-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV has measured high resolution (R~22,500), near-infrared (1.51-1.70 µm) spectra for nearly 100,000 stars within the Milky Way Galaxy. While the APOGEE experiment was designed to research Galactic structure by targeting bright stellar populations in the disk, we have focused attention on the lesser-studied subset of faint and low-temperature late-M and early-L dwarfs, with the objective of characterizing their chemical abundances. Using spectral synthesis routines from the Starfish package, we report preliminary determinations of Teff, logg, and [Fe/H] for a small sample of spectra using PHOENIX models ranging in the 2,300 to 3,000K temperature grids.This work is supported by the SDSS Faculty and Student (FAST) initiative, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

  6. High-frequency rTMS on leg motor area in the early phase of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Nobuyuki; Abo, Masahiro; Hara, Takatoshi; Yamada, Naoki; Niimi, Masachika; Kakuda, Wataru

    2017-03-01

    Although repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for upper limb motor area in stroke patients is beneficial, it has been poorly investigated in rTMS for leg motor area. Furthermore, no study has examined the usefulness of rTMS for leg motor area in patients in the early phase of stroke. Twenty-one patients with a hemispheric stroke lesion in the early phase were randomly assigned into two groups: the high-frequency (HF)-rTMS group [N = 11] and the sham stimulation group [N = 10]. Patients received rTMS for 5 consecutive days, beginning 10.9 ± 6.6 days on average after the onset. Brunnstrom Recovery Stages (BRS) for the lower limbs and the Ability for Basic Movement Scale Revised (ABMS II) were assessed before and after the intervention. The improvement in BRS for the lower limbs was significant after the intervention in the HF-rTMS group. Although both the HF-rTMS and sham stimulation groups had significant improvements in ABMS II scores, the extent of improvement in the AMBS II was significantly greater in the HF-rTMS group than in the sham stimulation group. Application of HF-rTMS over the bilateral leg motor areas has potential to be a new rehabilitation therapy for patients in the acute phase of stroke.

  7. Variations in Unrealistic Optimism Between Acceptors and Decliners of Early Phase Cancer Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S; Klein, William M P; Weinstein, Neil D; Mori, Motomi; Degnin, Catherine; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2017-10-01

    Research has found that patient-subjects in early phase cancer trials exhibit unrealistic optimism regarding the risks and possible benefits of trial participation. Unrealistic optimism is associated with therapeutic misconception and failures to appreciate research-related information. This is the first study to assess whether those who decline to participate in these trials also exhibit unrealistic optimism. It is also the first study to assess whether there are significant differences in appreciation of research-related risks/benefits and therapeutic misconception between these two groups. We approached 261 patients at two academic medical centers who were offered enrollment in a Phase I, II, or I/II cancer trial (between 2012 and 2016). Two hundred thirty-three patients agreed to enroll in an early phase cancer trial, 171 of whom agreed to be interviewed for the study. Twenty-eight patients declined the offer to enroll, 15 of whom agreed to be interviewed for the study. Subjects participated in a structured face-to-face interview with a research associate trained to administer the study questionnaires. Acceptors demonstrated a significantly higher level of unrealistic optimism than decliners ( p optimism is consequential for the decision to participate in these trials. The different levels of unrealistic optimism exhibited by these groups suggest that it may be a factor that affects the decision to participate.

  8. High-Resolution Multi-Shot Spiral Diffusion Tensor Imaging with Inherent Correction of Motion-Induced Phase Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Trong-Kha; Guidon, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop and compare three novel reconstruction methods designed to inherently correct for motion-induced phase errors in multi-shot spiral diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) without requiring a variable-density spiral trajectory or a navigator echo. Theory and Methods The first method simply averages magnitude images reconstructed with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) from each shot, whereas the second and third methods rely on SENSE to estimate the motion-induced phase error for each shot, and subsequently use either a direct phase subtraction or an iterative conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm, respectively, to correct for the resulting artifacts. Numerical simulations and in vivo experiments on healthy volunteers were performed to assess the performance of these methods. Results The first two methods suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or from residual artifacts in the reconstructed diffusion-weighted images and fractional anisotropy maps. In contrast, the third method provides high-quality, high-resolution DTI results, revealing fine anatomical details such as a radial diffusion anisotropy in cortical gray matter. Conclusion The proposed SENSE+CG method can inherently and effectively correct for phase errors, signal loss, and aliasing artifacts caused by both rigid and nonrigid motion in multi-shot spiral DTI, without increasing the scan time or reducing the SNR. PMID:23450457

  9. A solver for the two-phase two-fluid model based on high-resolution total variation diminishing scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu Saleem, Rabie A., E-mail: raabusaleem@just.edu.jo [Nuclear Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan); Kozlowski, Tomasz, E-mail: txk@illinois.edu [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 216 Talbot Laboratory, 104 S. Wright St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Shrestha, Rijan, E-mail: rijan.shrestha@intel.com [Portland Technology Development, Intel Corporation, 2501 NW 229th Ave Hillsboro OR 97124 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The two-fluid model and the challenges associated with its numerical modeling are investigated. • A high-order solver based on flux limiter schemes and the theta method was developed. • The solver was compared to existing thermal hydraulics codes used in nuclear industry. • The solver was shown to handle fast transients with discontinuities and phase change. - Abstract: Finite volume techniques with staggered mesh are used to develop a new numerical solver for the one-dimensional two-phase two-fluid model using a high-resolution, Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) scheme. The solver is implemented to analyze numerical benchmark problems for verification and testing its abilities to handle discontinuities and fast transients with phase change. Convergence rates are investigated by comparing numerical results to analytical solutions available in literature for the case of the faucet flow problem. The solver based on a new TVD scheme is shown to exhibit higher-order of accuracy compared to other numerical schemes. Mass errors are also examined when phase change occurs for the shock tube problem, and compared to those of the 1st-order upwind scheme implemented in the nuclear thermal-hydraulics code TRACE. The solver is shown to exhibit numerical stability when applied to problems with discontinuous solutions and results of the new solver are free of spurious oscillations.

  10. Characterization of a custom-built RF coil for a high-resolution phase-contrast magnetic resonance velocimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Byungkuen; Cho, Jee-Hyun; Song, Simon

    2016-11-01

    For the use of clinical purpose magnetic resonance velocimeter (MRV) is a versatile flow visualization technique in that it allows opaque flow, complex geometry, no use of tracer particles and facile fast non-invasive measurements of 3 dimensional and 3 component velocity vectors. However, the spatial resolution of a commercial MR machine is lower than optics-based techniques like PIV. On the other hand, the use of MRV for clinical purposes like cardiovascular flow visualization requires accurate measurements or estimations on wall shear stress (WSS) with a high spatial resolution. We developed a custom-built solenoid RF coil for phase-contrast (PC) MRV to improve its resolution. We compared signal-to-noise ratio, WSS estimations, partial volume effects near wall between the custom RF coil and a commercial coil. Also, a Hagen-Poiseuille flow was analyzed with the custom RF coil. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2016R1A2B3009541).

  11. Topical dorzolamide for macular edema in the early phase after vitrectomy and epiretinal membrane removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki T

    2013-04-01

    /ms and the control group (467.8 µm, 64.0 pc/ms. Differences in mean intraocular pressure preoperatively and at 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery were not statistically significant between the two groups. Intraocular pressure never exceeded 21 mmHg.Conclusion: Topical dorzolamide significantly reduced mean central macular thickness at 1 month and mean aqueous flare at 2 weeks after surgery for epiretinal membrane compared with controls. Although further investigation of more cases and longer follow-up are needed, this study suggests that topical dorzolamide can be efficacious in reducing macular edema in the early phase after vitrectomy via its anti-inflammatory effect.Keywords: macular edema, dorzolamide, epiretinal membrane, vitrectomy, anti-inflammatory

  12. High resolution isotopic ages for the early Miocene "Patagoniense" transgression in Southwest Patagonia: Stratigraphic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuitiño, José I.; Pimentel, Marcio M.; Ventura Santos, Roberto; Scasso, Roberto A.

    2012-10-01

    The classical marine Patagoniense succession at Lago Argentino, southwestern Patagonia (Argentina), known as Estancia 25 de Mayo Formation, was dated by radiometric U-Pb on zircon grains from pyroclastic rocks and 87Sr/86Sr ratio on calcitic oyster shells. U-Pb data yielded an age of 19.14 Ma for the lower portion of the Patagoniense succession and 18.85 Ma for the lowermost part of the overlying Santa Cruz Formation. 87Sr/86Sr data yielded ages ranging from 20.05 Ma at the lower part and 19.1 Ma for the upper portion of the Estancia 25 de Mayo Formation, in good agreement with respect to the U-Pb results. Our results constrain the age of these beds entirely into the early Miocene Burdigalian stage, and locally into the Superpatagoniense stage. Correlation with other Patagoniense units in Santa Cruz, especially in the westernmost parts of the Austral Basin, reveals the existence of a shallow and extended sea, and lack of correlation with global sea-level highstands suggests a local Andean tectonic overprint as the cause of the sea level rise.

  13. Early adult psychological consequences for males of adolescent pregnancy and its resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, M; Robbins, C

    1990-08-01

    Using data front 2522 young men who were first surveyed as 7th-grade students in Houston, Texas in 1971, we examined the psychological consequences in early adulthood of having a girlfriend become pregnant in adolescence. By age 21, 15% of the young men were involved in a nonmarital pregnancy. Rates were higher for blacks (24%) than for whites (12%) or Hispanics (16%). Among whites, most adolescent pregnancies were ended by abortion (58%). Adolescent pregnancies to blacks most often resulted in single parenthood (56%). Hispanics tended to have the child, and marry or live together (55%). Consistent with the life course perspective, young men involved in adolescent pregnancies were more psychologically distressed as young adults than those who did not have a girlfriend become pregnant in adolescence. The greater distress in adulthood is not simply a function of accelerated role transitions, because men whose girlfriends had abortions are also distressed, and those who let their girlfriends assume major parenting responsibility are no less distressed than those who became fathers and married or lived with their girlfriends. Subgroup comparisons revealed that psychological distress levels of young black men were not influenced by adolescent pregnancy.

  14. High incidence and spontaneous resolution of mastoid effusion after craniotomy on early postoperative magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T.; Saito, N.; Takahashi, A.; Fujimaki, H.; Tosaka, M.; Sasaki, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Gunma University School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, 371-8511, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Sato, N. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Gunma University School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Mastoid effusion is a poorly understood complication after craniotomy. The incidence and severity of postoperative mastoid effusion were retrospectively examined on postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images to assess any association with craniotomy procedures, time course, and neuro-otological complications. We evaluated the early postoperative MR images (within 4 days of craniotomy) and medical records of 74 patients who underwent 77 operations for the treatment of various intracranial diseases from January 2000 to December 2001. Mastoid effusion was classified into four grades: none, partial, moderate, and severe diffuse effusion in the mastoid air cells. Thirty-three follow-up MR images from 26 patients were also reviewed. Postoperative mastoid effusion occurred ipsilateral to the craniotomy site in 62 cases and contralateral in 56 cases. Mastoid effusion was significantly more severe ipsilateral than contralateral to craniotomy with exposure of the mastoid air cells (P<0.0001). There was no significant difference in severity between the contralateral and ipsilateral sides after craniotomy without mastoid air cell opening (P=0.437). Mastoid effusion following craniotomy without exposure of mastoid air cells resolved within 3 months. However, otitis media with effusion developed in six patients with severe mastoid effusion ipsilateral to craniotomy with exposure of the mastoid air cells. Mastoid effusion frequently developed on both sides. Any grade of mastoid effusion on the ipsilateral side to craniotomy without exposure of mastoid air cells, or on the contralateral side, was asymptomatic or had a benign course, and disappeared within 3 months. (orig.)

  15. High-resolution ultrahigh-pressure long column reversed-phase liquid chromatography for top-down proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yufeng; Tolic, Nikola; Piehowski, Paul D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Kim, Sangtae; Zhao, Rui; Qu, Yi; Robinson, E. W.; Smith, Richard D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2017-05-01

    We report development of an approach providing high-resolution RPLC of proteins and its utility for mass spectrometry-based top-down proteomics. A chromatographic peak capacity of ~450 was achieved for proteins and large polypeptides having MWs up to 43 kDa in the context of proteomics applications. RPLC column lengths from 20 to 200 cm, particle sizes from 1.5 to 5 m, bonding alkyl chains from C1 to C2, C4, C8, and C18, and particle surface structures that spanned porous, superficially porous (porous shell, core-shell), and nonporous were investigated at pressures up to14K psi. Column length was found as the most important factor for >20 kDa proteins in gradient RPLC, and shortening column length degraded RPLC resolution and sensitivity regardless of the size and surface structure of the packing particles used. The alkyl chains bonded to the silica particle surface significantly affected the RPLC recovery and efficiency, and short alkyl C1-C4 phases provided higher sensitivity and resolution than C8 and C18 phases. Long gradient separations (e.g., >10 hours) with long columns (e.g., 100 cm) were particularly effective in conjunction with use of high accuracy mass spectrometers (e.g., the Orbitrap Elite) for top-down proteomics with improved proteoform coverage by allowing multiple HCD, CID, and ETD dissociation modes. It was also found that HCD produced small fragments useful for proteoform identification, while low energy CID and ETD often complemented HCD by providing large fragments.

  16. Patellar Subluxation With Early-Phase Synovial Chondromatosis of the Knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashaireh, Khaldoon M

    2016-01-01

    Primary synovial chondromatosis is a rare, benign, monoarticular disease process that affects the synovial membrane of the joint, the synovial sheath, or the bursa around the joint. The etiology is unknown, but it has been associated with trauma in some cases. Although it is a benign lesion, if left untreated, it may lead to early secondary osteoarthritis of the joint. The knee joint is affected in 50% to 65% of cases, followed by the elbow and the hip. This article reports a 30-year-old active woman who presented to the author's clinic with a large infrapatellar mass that caused lateral subluxation of the patella, swelling, and episodic pain with crepitations 14 months after direct trauma to the knee. Clinical examination, magnetic resonance imaging, and arthroscopy revealed a large infrapatellar mass causing lateral subluxation of the patella with no loose bodies. Hoffa's disease, para-articular osteochondroma, and early-phase synovial chondromatosis were considered in the differential diagnosis. The histopathologic and clinical features were consistent with early synovial chondromatosis. The patient underwent local excision of the mass through a medial parapatellar arthrotomy. At 5 years of follow-up, she had no recurrence of the lesion or progression of the disease. Early diagnosis of synovial chondromatosis with local excision offers a reliable cure. However, long-term follow-up is advised because of the high recurrence rates as well as the risk of metaplastic transformation.

  17. Covariance analysis and phase ambiguity resolution for a linear interferometer antenna array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James Andrew

    This thesis explores the application of mathematical techniques for estimating the angle of arrival (AOA) using a receiving platform having a linear interferometer antenna array. It addresses the estimation accuracy of interferometer phase measurements of a signal with superposed Gaussian noise from multiple antenna baselines, and provides a method for resolving the modulo two-pi problem inherent to many phase measurement systems. The study extends prior theoretical work (Hanna, C., 1983) by laying a mathematical foundation to complement his geometrical approach, provides a robust method of performance prediction for such a system. Key elements include estimation accuracy of a signal parameter with additive noise; the design of the linear antenna array element spacings and the relationship to Diophantine equations; and the application of the Cramer-Rao lower bound on variance of parameter estimation. It is hoped that the work presented here will serve as a practical guide for research scientists and engineers.

  18. Radicular dysfunction preponderance at early phase clinical evaluation in myelitis by Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Henrique Fernandes Vidal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In neuroschistosomiasis, the spinal cord is the most common place of the disease. In high prevalent areas for schistosomiasis mansoni, the clinical alertness is important for an early diagnostic, in order to decrease the final neurological damage. This study provides some useful neurologic information about a series of patients with schistosomal myelitis. METHOD: The sample consisted of 13 schistosomiasis mansoni carriers examined at the moment of the diagnosis of myelitis. RESULTS: The classical triad (lumbago, weakness at the lower limbs and urinary dysfunctions was documented in 11 (86.61% patients. The distribution of the clinical forms was: myeloradicular in six patients (46.15%, radicular in four (30.76% and myelitic in three (23.07%. CONCLUSION: The radicular dysfunction and their clinical associated forms were the most prominent pattern during the early phase of this disease.

  19. Ultrastructural Complexity of Nuclear Components During Early Apoptotic Phases in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Castelli

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractal morphometry was used to investigate the ultrastructural features of the plasma membrane, perinuclear membrane and nuclear chromatin in SK‐BR‐3 human breast cancer cells undergoing apoptosis. Cells were incubated with 1 μM calcimycin (A23187 for 24 h. Cells in the early stage of apoptosis had fractal dimension (FD values indicating that their plasma membranes were less rough (lower FD than those of control cells, while their perinuclear membranes were unaffected. Changes of the chromatin texture within the entire nucleus and in selected nuclear domains were more pronounced in treated cells. This confirms that the morphological reorganization imputable to a loss of structural complexity (reduced FD occurs in the early stage of apoptosis, is accompanied by the inhibition of distinct enzymatic events and precedes the onset of conventional cellular markers, which can only be detected during the active phases of the apoptotic process.

  20. Efficient runner safety assessment during early design phase and root cause analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q. W.; Lais, S.; Gentner, C.; Braun, O.

    2012-11-01

    Fatigue related problems in Francis turbines, especially high head Francis turbines, have been published several times in the last years. During operation the runner is exposed to various steady and unsteady hydraulic loads. Therefore the analysis of forced response of the runner structure requires a combined approach of fluid dynamics and structural dynamics. Due to the high complexity of the phenomena and due to the limitation of computer power, the numerical prediction was in the past too expensive and not feasible for the use as standard design tool. However, due to continuous improvement of the knowledge and the simulation tools such complex analysis has become part of the design procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO. This article describes the application of most advanced analysis techniques in runner safety check (RSC), including steady state CFD analysis, transient CFD analysis considering rotor stator interaction (RSI), static FE analysis and modal analysis in water considering the added mass effect, in the early design phase. This procedure allows a very efficient interaction between the hydraulic designer and the mechanical designer during the design phase, such that a risk of failure can be detected and avoided in an early design stage.The RSC procedure can also be applied to a root cause analysis (RCA) both to find out the cause of failure and to quickly define a technical solution to meet the safety criteria. An efficient application to a RCA of cracks in a Francis runner is quoted in this article as an example. The results of the RCA are presented together with an efficient and inexpensive solution whose effectiveness could be proven again by applying the described RSC technics. It is shown that, with the RSC procedure developed and applied as standard procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO such a failure is excluded in an early design phase. Moreover, the RSC procedure is compatible with different commercial and open source codes and can be easily adapted to apply for

  1. Numerical investigation of the early flight phase in ski-jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardan, N; Schneider, A; Polidori, G; Trenchard, H; Seigneur, J M; Beaumont, F; Fourchet, F; Taiar, R

    2017-07-05

    The purpose of this study is to develop a numerical methodology based on real data from wind tunnel experiments to investigate the effect of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. To improve our knowledge of the aerodynamic behavior of the ski jumper and his equipment during the early flight phase of the ski jump, we applied CFD methodology to evaluate the influence of angle of attack (α=14°, 21.5°, 29°, 36.5° and 44°) and speed (u=23, 26 and 29m/s) on aerodynamic forces in the situation of stable attitude of the ski jumper's body and skis. The standard k-ω turbulence model was used to investigate both the influence of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic performance during the early flight phase. Numerical results show that the ski jumper's speed has very little impact on the lift and drag coefficients. Conversely, the lift and drag forces acting on the ski jumper's body during the early flight phase of the jump are strongly influenced by the variations of the angle of attack. The present results suggest that the greater the ski jumper's angle of inclination, with respect to the relative flow, the greater the pressure difference between the lower and upper parts of the skier. Further studies will focus on the dependency of the parameters with both the angle of attack α and the body-ski angle β as control variables. It will be possible to test and optimize different ski jumping styles in different ski jumping hills and investigate different environmental conditions such as temperature, altitude or crosswinds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dispositional optimism and therapeutic expectations in early-phase oncology trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S; Klein, William M P; Weinstein, Neil D; Mori, Motomi; Daffé, Racky; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2016-04-15

    Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials. However, optimism is not a unitary construct; it also can be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. The authors assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. The authors also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. Dispositional optimism was found to be significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman rank correlation coefficient [r], 0.333; Poptimism was found to be weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r, 0.215; P = .005). On multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (P = .02) and unrealistic optimism (Poptimism (P = .0001), but not dispositional optimism, was found to be independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information regarding the trials. The data from the current study indicate that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations concerning specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have different consequences for informed consent in early-phase oncology research. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  3. OPTIMUM RESOLUTION OF PHASE FREQUENCY DETECTOR BY CMOS TECHNOLOGY FOR PLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Y. Vinay Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the nonlinear components in PLL is Phase Frequency Detector (PFD,the purpose is to compare two input frequencies in terms of their phase and frequency. In this process jitter will be introduced to the PLL system by PFD. proposed PFD is the preferred approach for detecting weak signals as from a deep space profile. The increase of MOS devices on a single chip will consume more power. Various applications of the PLL such as wireless communication systems, digital circuits, and receivers, targets optimum PFD Design. Optimized PFD reduces jitter effect on PLL and enhances the performance of PLL by increasing the locking range, reducing the phase error variance, reducing the acquisition time and reducing the power consumption. The power consumption in the design of PFD is dependent on CMOS logic of the gates In this paper we propose CMOS PFD, where the performance of the result will be analyzed by using Tanner EDA Tool by considering 45nm technology.

  4. Phase-only hologram generation based on integral imaging and its enhancement in depth resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiwoon Yeom; Jisoo Hong; Jae-Hyun Jung; Keehoon Hong; Jae-Hyeung Park; Byoungho Lee

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a phase-only hologram generation method based on an integral imaging,and propose an enhancement method in representable depth interval.The computational integral imaging reconstruction method is modified based on optical flow to obtain depth-slice images for the focused objects only.A phaseonly hologran for multiple plane images is generated using the iterative Fresnel transform algorithm.In addition,a division method in hologram plane is proposed for enhancement in the representable minimum depth interval.%We introduce a phase-only hologram generation method based on an integral imaging, and propose an enhancement method in representable depth interval. The computational integral imaging reconstruction method is modified based on optical flow to obtain depth-slice images for the focused objects only. A phase-only hologram for multiple plane images is generated using the iterative Fvesnel transform algorithm. In addition, a division method in hologram plane is proposed for enhancement in the representable minimum depth interval.

  5. Nanocrystal Phase Identification by Lattice Fringe Fingerprinting from High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorge, Ruben; Seipel, Bjoern; Moeck, Peter; Fraundorf, Philip

    2006-05-01

    Lattice fringe fingerprinting is a novel and powerful method of identifying and characterizing nanocrystalline structures or materials based on images from direct space high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We examine Fourier transformed HRTEM images of nanocrystals in certain orientations (i.e. lattice fringes and cross fringes) in order to obtain a lattice fringe fingerprint plot. Such plots are used to identify a crystalline nanoparticle by comparing the experimental data with data that are derived from a comprehensive database. A lattice fringe fingerprint plot is similar to a classical X-ray powder diffractogram, but an important advantage is that the intersection angles of lattice fringes give us additional information. When transmission electron microscope image acquisition and data interpretation are automated and connected to a comprehensive database (such as our Nano-Crystallography Database, http://nanocrystallography.research.pdx.edu/), fringe fingerprinting will be able to compete with powder X-ray diffraction in identifying unknown nanocrystals on a routine basis.

  6. Quantum chromodynamics phase transition in the early Universe and quark nuggets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhijit Bhattacharyya; Shibaji Banerjee; Sanjay K Ghosh; Sibaji Raha; Bikash Sinha; Hiroshi Toki

    2003-05-01

    A first-order quark hadron phase transition in the early Universe may lead to the formation of quark nuggets. The baryon number distribution of these quark nuggets have been calculated and it has been found that there are sizeable number of quark nuggets in the stable sector. The nuggets can clump and form bigger objects in the mass range of 0.0003$M_{\\odot}$ to 0.12$M_{\\odot}$. It has been discussed that these bigger objects can be possible candidates for cold dark matter.

  7. The role of ambiguity and discrepancy in the early phases of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Linda Nhu; Tollestrup, Christian H. T.

    2015-01-01

    and discrepancy, we seek to understand if it might be there for a reason. Through a laboratory experiment, we propose ambiguity and discrepancy actually have a function in concept development. Accordingly the paper contributes with a better understanding of, the role ambiguity and discrepancy as triggers of sense......Innovation literature mainly focuses on eliminating ambiguity and discrepancy from the early phases of innovation. This study questions this implicit assumption, as it may provide an oversimplified view on, how to attain proficiency. Instead of narrowly focusing on reducing ambiguity...

  8. Across an early Holocene humid phase in western Sahara:Pollen and isotope stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lézine, Anne-Marie; Casanova, Joël; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    1990-03-01

    Paleohydrology and paleoecology of the region around the Chemchane sabkha (Mauritania) are reconstructed from the comparative analyses of mineralogy, stable isotope ratios of bulk carbonates, and palynology from sediment cores. The age of the section is from ca. 13.5 ka to the middle Holocene. Maximum lake expansion between about 8.3 and 6.5 ka is recorded in a girdle of stromatolite carbonates. These document a lower-salinity lake concomitant with a general establishment of Sahel-Sudan vegetation. The Chemchane area is the northernmost (lat 21°N) occurrence of humid- phase elements that are related to maximum intensity of monsoon activity during the early Holocene.

  9. The early Holocene optimum inferred from a high-resolution pollen record of Huguangyan Maar Lake in southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A high-resolution pollen record of the past 13000 a from Huguangyan Maar Lake reveals the vegetation and environment changes in southern China during the Holocene. It shows that (i) pollen percentage of trees and shrubs reached 56% during the early Holocene (11600―7800 cal a BP), of which the pollen percentage of tropical trees reached a maximum at 9500―8000 cal a BP, reflecting a hot and wet environment; (ii) during the mid-Holocene (7800―4200 cal a BP), the pollen percentage of montane coniferous trees and herbs increased, while the percentage of tropical-subtropical trees decreased, indicating lower temperature and humidity; (iii) in the late Holocene spanning from 4200 to 350 cal a BP, the pollen percentage of herbs and montane conifer increased significantly, indicating a marked decrease of temperature and humidity. Our pollen data reveal that the time period 9500―8000 cal a BP in southern China represents a climatic optimum for the Holocene characterized by hot and wet conditions. This is consistent with the Holocene optimum found in lower latitude regions globally. We speculate that strong insolation might cause the northward migration of the ITCZ and subtropical summer monsoon front, which resulted in an early Holocene optimum in the Huguangyan area. The dry tendency and climate fluctuations of the middle and late Holocene could be associated with a decrease in solar insolation and frequent ENSO event.

  10. A Tale of Two Timescales: Mixing, Mass Generation, and Phase Transitions in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Dienes, Keith R; Thomas, Brooks

    2015-01-01

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically --- such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions --- the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this paper, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the tot...

  11. Dual effects of a high-protein diet on DSS-treated mice during colitis resolution phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Annaïg; Blais, Anne; Coelho, Desire; Capron, Juliette; Maarouf, Manar; Benamouzig, Robert; Lancha, Antonio H; Walker, Francine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, François

    2016-10-01

    The impact of the dietary protein level on the process of colonic mucosal inflammation and subsequent recovery remains largely unknown. In this study, we fed DSS-treated mice with either a normoproteic (NP) or a high-protein (HP) isocaloric diet from the beginning of the 5-day dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) treatment to 14 days later. Measurements of colitis indicators (colon weight:length ratio, myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine expressions) showed a similar level of colonic inflammation in both DSS groups during the colitis induction phase. However, during the colitis resolution phase, inflammation intensity was higher in the DSS-HP group than in the DSS-NP group as evidenced by higher inflammatory score and body weight loss. This coincided with a higher mortality rate. In surviving animals, an increase in colonic crypt height associated with a higher number of colon epithelial cells per crypt, and TGF-β3 content was observed in the DSS-HP vs. DSS-NP group. Moreover, colonic expression patterns of tight junction proteins and E-cadherin were also different according to the diet. Altogether, our results indicate that the HP diet, when given during both the induction and resolution periods of DSS-induced colitis, showed deleterious effects during the post-induction phase. However, HP diet ingestion was also associated with morphological and biochemical differences compatible with higher colonic epithelium restoration in surviving animals, indicating an effect of the dietary protein level on colonic crypt repair after acute inflammation. These data highlight the potential impact of the dietary protein amount during the colitis course. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Feasibility study for early removal of HEU from CPP-651-Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.V.; Henry, R.; Milligan, C.; Harmon, B.; Peterson, J.; Thom, M.A.; Campbell, R.; Hendrix, B.

    1997-09-01

    A two-phase feasibility study was initiated in late 1996 to identify a way to expedite the removal of SNM from the CPP-651 vault. The first phase of this study provided preliminary information that appeared promising, but needed additional detailed planning and evaluate to validate the concepts and conclusions. The focus of Phase 2 was to provide the validation via resource-loaded schedules and more detailed cost estimates. Section 1 describes the purpose and objectives of the Phase 2 tasks and the programmatic drivers that influence related CPP-651 high-enriched uranium (HEU) management issues. Section 2 identifies the evaluation criteria and methodology and the transfer issues and barriers preventing shipment. Section 3 provides site-specific background information for the CPP-651 facility and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and describes the development of the basic material removal schedule, the proposed base case plan for removal of SNM, and the proposed HEU material management/shipping issues and strategies. Section 4 identifies the proposed options for accelerated removal of SNM and how they were evaluated via detailed scheduling, resource histograms, and cost analysis. Section 5 summarizes principal tasks for implementing this plan and other related HEU CPP-651 management issues that require continued planning efforts to assure successful implementation of this proposed early removal strategy.

  13. Trace elements in early phase type 2 diabetes mellitus-A population-based study. The HUNT study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ailin Falkmo; Simić, Anica; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Romundstad, Pål Richard; Midthjell, Kristian; Syversen, Tore; Flaten, Trond Peder

    2017-03-01

    Differences in trace elements levels between individuals with type 2 diabetes and controls have been reported in several studies in various body fluids and tissues, but results have been inconsistent. In order to examine trace element levels in the early phase of type 2 diabetes, we investigated the association between whole blood levels of 26 trace elements and the prevalence of previously undiagnosed, screening-detected type 2 diabetes. The study was conducted as a case-control study nested within the third survey of the population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3 Survey). Among participants without previously known diabetes, 128 cases of type 2 diabetes were diagnosed in people with a high diabetes risk score (FINDRISC≥15), and frequency-matched for age and sex with 755 controls. Blood samples were analyzed by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Associations between trace element levels and the prevalence of previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes were evaluated with multivariable conditional logistic regression controlling for age, sex, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, education, income, smoking and family history of diabetes. The prevalence of previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes increased across tertiles/quartiles for cadmium, chromium, iron, nickel, silver and zinc, and decreased with increasing quartiles of bromine (Ptrendzinc in the development of type 2 diabetes.

  14. Active stabilization of a Michelson interferometer at an arbitrary phase with sub-nm resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Grassani, Davide; Bajoni, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    We report on the active stabilization of a Michelson interferometer at an arbitrary phase angle with a precision better than one degree at $\\lambda = 632.8$ nm, which corresponds to an optical path difference between the two arms of less than 1 nm. The stabilization method is ditherless and the error signal is computed from the spatial shift of the interference pattern of a reference laser, measured in real-time with a CCD array detector. We discuss the usefulness of this method for nanopositioning, optical interferometry and quantum optical experiments.

  15. Active stabilization of a Michelson interferometer at an arbitrary phase with subnanometer resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassani, Davide; Galli, Matteo; Bajoni, Daniele

    2014-04-01

    We report on the active stabilization of a Michelson interferometer at an arbitrary phase angle with a precision better than one degree at $\\lambda = 632.8$ nm, which corresponds to an optical path difference between the two arms of less than 1 nm. The stabilization method is ditherless and the error signal is computed from the spatial shift of the interference pattern of a reference laser, measured in real-time with a CCD array detector. We discuss the usefulness of this method for nanopositioning, optical interferometry and quantum optical experiments.

  16. Resolution of a phase ambiguity in a calibration procedure for polarimetric radar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sletten, M.A. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Radar Div.)

    1994-01-01

    In response to the remote sensing communities' interest in radar polarimetry, considerable effort has recently been devoted to the development of calibration techniques for polarimetric radar systems. A cross-pol/co-pol phase ambiguity in a previously published calibration procedure for polarimetric radar systems is discussed. The original procedure is modified to resolve the ambiguity while still retaining insensitivity to calibration target orientation. The modified form is then generalized and applied to an ultrawideband radar system for which the ambiguity in the original procedure is particularly evident.

  17. Active stabilization of a Michelson interferometer at an arbitrary phase with subnanometer resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassani, Davide; Galli, Matteo; Bajoni, Daniele

    2014-04-15

    We report on the active stabilization of a Michelson interferometer at an arbitrary phase angle with a precision better than 1° at λ=632.8  nm, which corresponds to a precision in the optical path difference between the two arms of less than 1 nm. The stabilization method is ditherless, and the error signal is computed from the spatial shift of the interference pattern of a reference laser, measured in real-time with a CCD array detector. We discuss the usefulness of this method for nanopositioning, optical interferometry, and quantum optical experiments.

  18. The Optical Resolution of Chiral Tetrahedrone-type Clusters Contai- ning SCoFeM (M=Mo or W) Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Chiral Stationary Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Amylose tris (phenylcarbamate) chiral stationary phase (ATPC-CSP) was prepared and used for optical resolution of clusters 1 and 2. n-Hexane/2-propanol ( 99/1; v/v) were found to be the most suitable mobile phase on ATPC-CSP.

  19. Effect of perioperative lfuid therapy on early phase prognosis after liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Qing Jiang; Min-Hao Peng; Ding-Hua Yang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Although liver transplantation (LT) has made rapid progress, early pulmonary complications still occur. More attention should be paid to lfuid therapy that may be an important factor leading to these complications. It is necessary to investigate the correlation between intraoperative and postoperative lfuid therapy and early pulmonary complications after LT, then attempt to provide a reasonable lfuid therapy in the perioperative period. METHODS:Sixty-two patients who had undergone LT were enrolled and analyzed retrospectively. Based on early phase prognosis after LT, the 62 patients were divided into a non-pulmonary complication group and a pulmonary complication group. Twenty perioperative variables were analyzed in both groups to screen out several factors causing early pulmonary complications, then the parameters relfecting postoperative recovery were analyzed. RESULTS:The pulmonary complication group had 29 patients (46.77%), 3 (4.84%) of whom died during the perioperative period. Using monofactorial analysis for each variable, the two groups differed in the following variables:preoperative lung function, volume of intraoperative transfusion, volume of intraoperative bleeding, and volume of intraoperative net lfuid retention and lfuid balance (≤-500 ml) in≥2 of the ifrst 3 days after operation. Analysis of the relationship between multivariate factors and pulmonary complications after LT by logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that preoperative lung function, volume of intraoperative bleeding, and lfuid balance (≤-500 ml) in≥2 of the ifrst 3 days after operation were inlfuential factors. CONCLUSIONS:It is important to maintain lfuid balance during the perioperative period of LT. If the hemodynamics are stable, appropriate negative lfuid balance in the ifrst 3 days after operation apparently decreases the incidence of early pulmonary complications after LT. These measures are associated with better postoperative recovery.

  20. Efficient phase contrast imaging in STEM using a pixelated detector. Part 1: Experimental demonstration at atomic resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennycook, Timothy J., E-mail: tpennycook@gmail.com [EPSRC SuperSTEM Facility, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Lupini, Andrew R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Yang, Hao [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Murfitt, Matthew F. [Nion Co., 1102 8th St., Kirkland, WA 98033 (United States); Jones, Lewys [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Nellist, Peter D. [EPSRC SuperSTEM Facility, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    We demonstrate a method to achieve high efficiency phase contrast imaging in aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with a pixelated detector. The pixelated detector is used to record the Ronchigram as a function of probe position which is then analyzed with ptychography. Ptychography has previously been used to provide super-resolution beyond the diffraction limit of the optics, alongside numerically correcting for spherical aberration. Here we rely on a hardware aberration corrector to eliminate aberrations, but use the pixelated detector data set to utilize the largest possible volume of Fourier space to create high efficiency phase contrast images. The use of ptychography to diagnose the effects of chromatic aberration is also demonstrated. Finally, the four dimensional dataset is used to compare different bright field detector configurations from the same scan for a sample of bilayer graphene. Our method of high efficiency ptychography produces the clearest images, while annular bright field produces almost no contrast for an in-focus aberration-corrected probe. - Highlights: • Ptychographic high efficiency phase contrast imaging is demonstrated in STEM. • We rely on a hardware aberration corrector to eliminate aberrations. • High efficiency is achieved by collecting all the relevant interference. • Use of a pixelated detector allows comparison of bright field modes post acquisition. • Ptychography provides the clearest images among the STEM bright field modes tested.

  1. Liver CT for vascular mapping during radioembolisation workup : comparison of an early and late arterial phase protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoven, Andor F; Braat, Manon N G J A; Prince, Jip F; van Doormaal, Pieter J; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; Lam, Marnix G E H; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare right gastric (RGA) and segment 4 artery (A4) origin detection rates during radioembolisation workup between early and late arterial phase liver CT protocols. METHODS: 100 consecutive patients who underwent liver CT between May 2012-January 2015 with early or late arterial pha

  2. Child Developmental Impact of Pittsburgh's Early Childhood Initiative (ECI) in High-Risk Communities: First-Phase Authentic Evaluation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Stephen J.; Suen, Hoi K.; Brickley, Dale; Smith-Jones, Janell; Dettore, Ernie

    2002-01-01

    This study used an "enhanced constructed comparison group" statistical model to conduct longitudinal research on the child developmental impact of Pittsburgh's early childhood initiative (ECI), a partnership to provide high-quality early care and education for children in high-risk neighborhoods. First-phase findings indicate that…

  3. Liquid chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-oxazolidinones and their analogs on seven pirkle-type chiral stationary phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jeong Jae [Dept. of Chemistry, Graduate School, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Myung Ho [Dept. of Chemistry and Chemistry Institute for Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Amstrong, Daniel W.; Breitbach, Zachary S. [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Oxazolidinones are mainly used as antimicrobials and have an antibacterial effect due to their action as protein synthesis inhibitors, wherein they target an early step involving the binding of N-formylmethionyl-tRNA to the ribosome. Various oxazolidinones have been used as antibiotics with usually the (S)-form being active. 2–5 The chiral separation of nonoxazolidinone samples has been previously reported. Separation of DUP-105, ZTR-5, and 3-amino2-oxazolidinone derivatives was performed on polysaccharide columns. All the racemic and optically active samples were dissolved in methylene chloride or methanol (usually 2.5 mg/mL) and then used for resolution on CSPs. In most cases, an injection volume of 5 μL was used; however, it was varied slightly according to the size of the chromatographic peaks that corresponded to the two enantiomers.

  4. The early phase of /see symbol/ production development in adult Japanese learners of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Munro, Murray J

    2014-12-01

    Although previous research indicates that Japanese speakers' second language (L2) perception and production of English /see symbol/ may improve with increased L2 experience, relatively little is known about the fine phonetic details of their /see symbol/ productions, especially during the early phase of L2 speech learning. This cross-sectional study examined acoustic properties of word-initial /see symbol/ from 60 Japanese learners with a length of residence of between one month and one year in Canada. Their performance was compared to that of 15 native speakers of English and 15 low-proficiency Japanese learners of English. Formant frequencies (F2 and F3) and F1 transition durations were evaluated under three task conditions--word reading, sentence reading, and timed picture description. Learners with as little as two to three months of residence demonstrated target-like F2 frequencies. In addition, increased LOR was predictive of more target-like transition durations. Although the learners showed some improvement in F3 as a function of LOR, they did so mainly at a controlled level of speech production. The findings suggest that during the early phase of L2 segmental development, production accuracy is task-dependent and is influenced by the availability of L1 phonetic cues for redeployment in L2.

  5. The early phases of the type Iax supernova SN 2011ay

    CERN Document Server

    Szalai, Tamás; Sárneczky, Krisztián; Takáts, Katalin; Benkő, József M; Kelemen, János; Kuli, Zoltán; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Marion, G Howie; Wheeler, J Craig

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the early phases of the peculiar supernova 2011ay based on BVRI photometry obtained at Konkoly Observatory, Hungary, and optical spectra taken with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory, Texas. The spectral analysis carried out with SYN++ and SYNAPPS confirms that SN 2011ay belongs to the recently defined class of SNe Iax, which is also supported by the properties of its light and color curves. The estimated photospheric temperature around maximum light, T_{phot} ~8,000 K, is lower than in most Type Ia SNe, which results in the appearance of strong Fe II features in the spectra of SN 2011ay, even during the early phases. We also show that strong blending with metal features (those of Ti II, Fe II, Co II) makes the direct analysis of the broad spectral features very difficult, and this may be true for all SNe Iax. We find two alternative spectrum models that both describe the observed spectra adequately, but their photospheric velocities differ by at least 3,000 km/s...

  6. A Simplified Method for Evaluating Building Sustainability in the Early Design Phase for Architects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Markelj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With society turning increasingly to sustainable development, sharper demands are being made concerning energy efficiency and other properties that mean reductions in the negative effects of the building on the environment and people. This means that architects must have a suitably adapted solution already in the early design phase, as this has the greatest influence on the final result. Current tools and methods used for this are either focused only on individual topics or are too complex and not adapted for independent use by architects. The paper presents a simplified method for evaluating building sustainability (SMEBS which addresses these needs. It is intended as a tool to aid architects in the early project planning phases as it allows a quick evaluation of the extent to which the demands of sustainable building are fulfilled. The method was developed on the basis of a study of international building sustainability assessment methods (BSAM and standards in this field. Experts in sustainable construction were invited to determine weights for assessment parameters using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP. Their judgments reflect the specific characteristics of the local environment.

  7. Perceptions of control and unrealistic optimism in early-phase cancer trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S; Klein, William M P; Weinstein, Neil D; Mori, Motomi; Degnin, Catherine; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2017-08-03

    Recent research has found unrealistic optimism (UO) among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials. Our aim was to investigate the cognitive and motivational factors that evoke this bias in this context. We expected perceptions of control to be a strong correlate of unrealistic optimism. A study of patient-subjects enrolled in early-phase oncology trials was conducted at two sites in the USA. Respondents completed questionnaires designed to assess unrealistic optimism and several risk attribute variables that have been found to evoke the bias in other contexts. One hundred and seventy-one patient-subjects agreed to be interviewed for our study. Significant levels of perceived controllability were found with respect to all nine research-related questions. Perceptions of control were found to predict unrealistic optimism. Two other risk attribute variables, awareness of indicators (p=0.024) and mental image (p=0.022), were correlated with unrealistic optimism. However, in multivariate regression analysis, awareness and mental image dropped out of the model and perceived controllability was the only factor independently associated with unrealistic optimism (poptimism about benefiting personally from trial participation. Effective interventions to counteract unrealistic optimism may need to address the psychological factors that give rise to distorted risk/benefit processing. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Internal Dose from Food and Drink Ingestion in the Early Phase after the Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Masaki; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Takizawa, Mari; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Shunji; Miyatake, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Gen

    2017-09-01

    Activity concentrations in food and drink, represented by water and vegetables, have been monitored continuously since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, with a focus on radioactive cesium. On the other hand, iodine-131 was not measured systematically in the early phase after the accident. The activity concentrations of iodine-131 in food and drink are important to estimate internal exposure due to ingestion pathway. When the internal dose from ingestion in the evacuation areas is estimated, water is considered as the main ingestion pathway. In this study, we estimated the values of activity concentrations in water in the early phase after the accident, using a compartment model as an estimation method. The model uses measurement values of activity concentration and deposition rate of iodine-131 onto the ground, which is calculated from an atmospheric dispersion simulation. The model considers how drinking water would be affected by radionuclides deposited into water. We estimated the activity concentrations of water on Kawamata town and Minamisouma city during March of 2011 and the committed effective doses were 0.08 mSv and 0.06 mSv. We calculated the transfer parameters in the model for estimating the activity concentrations in the areas with a small amount of measurement data. In addition, we estimated the committed effective doses from vegetables using atmospheric dispersion simulation and FARMLAND model in case of eating certain vegetables as option information.

  9. Early luteal phase endocrine profile is affected by the mode of triggering final oocyte maturation and the luteal phase support used in recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone-gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist in vitro fertilization cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatemi, Human M; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; van Vaerenbergh, Inge

    2013-01-01

    To assess endocrine differences during early luteal phase according to mode of triggering final oocyte maturation with or without luteal phase support (LPS).......To assess endocrine differences during early luteal phase according to mode of triggering final oocyte maturation with or without luteal phase support (LPS)....

  10. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) during MRO's Primary Science Phase (PSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A.S.; Banks, M.E.; Baugh, N.; Becker, K.; Boyd, A.; Bergstrom, J.W.; Beyer, R.A.; Bortolini, E.; Bridges, N.T.; Byrne, S.; Castalia, B.; Chuang, F.C.; Crumpler, L.S.; Daubar, I.; Davatzes, A.K.; Deardorff, D.G.; DeJong, A.; Alan, Delamere W.; Dobrea, E.N.; Dundas, C.M.; Eliason, E.M.; Espinoza, Y.; Fennema, A.; Fishbaugh, K.E.; Forrester, T.; Geissler, P.E.; Grant, J. A.; Griffes, J.L.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Gulick, V.C.; Hansen, C.J.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Heyd, R.; Jaeger, W.L.; Jones, D.; Kanefsky, B.; Keszthelyi, L.; King, R.; Kirk, R.L.; Kolb, K.J.; Lasco, J.; Lefort, A.; Leis, R.; Lewis, K.W.; Martinez-Alonso, S.; Mattson, S.; McArthur, G.; Mellon, M.T.; Metz, J.M.; Milazzo, M.P.; Milliken, R.E.; Motazedian, T.; Okubo, C.H.; Ortiz, A.; Philippoff, A.J.; Plassmann, J.; Polit, A.; Russell, P.S.; Schaller, C.; Searls, M.L.; Spriggs, T.; Squyres, S. W.; Tarr, S.; Thomas, N.; Thomson, B.J.; Tornabene, L.L.; Van Houten, C.; Verba, C.; Weitz, C.M.; Wray, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) acquired 8 terapixels of data in 9137 images of Mars between October 2006 and December 2008, covering ???0.55% of the surface. Images are typically 5-6 km wide with 3-color coverage over the central 20% of the swath, and their scales usually range from 25 to 60 cm/pixel. Nine hundred and sixty stereo pairs were acquired and more than 50 digital terrain models (DTMs) completed; these data have led to some of the most significant science results. New methods to measure and correct distortions due to pointing jitter facilitate topographic and change-detection studies at sub-meter scales. Recent results address Noachian bedrock stratigraphy, fluvially deposited fans in craters and in or near Valles Marineris, groundwater flow in fractures and porous media, quasi-periodic layering in polar and non-polar deposits, tectonic history of west Candor Chasma, geometry of clay-rich deposits near and within Mawrth Vallis, dynamics of flood lavas in the Cerberus Palus region, evidence for pyroclastic deposits, columnar jointing in lava flows, recent collapse pits, evidence for water in well-preserved impact craters, newly discovered large rayed craters, and glacial and periglacial processes. Of particular interest are ongoing processes such as those driven by the wind, impact cratering, avalanches of dust and/or frost, relatively bright deposits on steep gullied slopes, and the dynamic seasonal processes over polar regions. HiRISE has acquired hundreds of large images of past, present and potential future landing sites and has contributed to scientific and engineering studies of those sites. Warming the focal-plane electronics prior to imaging has mitigated an instrument anomaly that produces bad data under cold operating conditions. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Enabling Parametric Optimal Ascent Trajectory Modeling During Early Phases of Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James B.; Dees, Patrick D.; Diaz, Manuel J.

    2015-01-01

    During the early phases of engineering design, the costs committed are high, costs incurred are low, and the design freedom is high. It is well documented that decisions made in these early design phases drive the entire design's life cycle. In a traditional paradigm, key design decisions are made when little is known about the design. As the design matures, design changes become more difficult -- in both cost and schedule -- to enact. Indeed, the current capability-based paradigm that has emerged because of the constrained economic environment calls for the infusion of knowledge acquired during later design phases into earlier design phases, i.e. bring knowledge acquired during preliminary and detailed design into pre-conceptual and conceptual design. An area of critical importance to launch vehicle design is the optimization of its ascent trajectory, as the optimal trajectory will be able to take full advantage of the launch vehicle's capability to deliver a maximum amount of payload into orbit. Hence, the optimal ascent trajectory plays an important role in the vehicle's affordability posture as the need for more economically viable access to space solutions are needed in today's constrained economic environment. The problem of ascent trajectory optimization is not a new one. There are several programs that are widely used in industry that allows trajectory analysts to, based on detailed vehicle and insertion orbit parameters, determine the optimal ascent trajectory. Yet, little information is known about the launch vehicle early in the design phase - information that is required of many different disciplines in order to successfully optimize the ascent trajectory. Thus, the current paradigm of optimizing ascent trajectories involves generating point solutions for every change in a vehicle's design parameters. This is often a very tedious, manual, and time-consuming task for the analysts. Moreover, the trajectory design space is highly non-linear and multi

  12. Multiphoton microscopic imaging of esophagus during the early phase of tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Kang, Deyong; Xu, Meifang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Chen, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancer and leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become a novel optical tool of choice for imaging tissue architecture and cellular morphology based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation. In this study, we used MPM to image microstructure of human normal esophagus, carcinoma in situ, and early invasive carcinoma in order to investigate the morphological change of tissue structure during the early phase of tumor progression. The diagnostic features such as the appearance of cancerous cells, the absence of the basement membrane were extracted to distinguish between normal and cancerous esophagus tissue. The infiltration depth during tumor progression was determined by the appearance of cancerous cells. The significant change of layer structure between cancerous tissue and normal esophagus was described. We also quantitatively described the differences of morphology between normal and cancerous cells. These results correlated well with the corresponding histological findings. With the advancement of clinically miniaturized MPM and the multi-photon probe, combining MPM with standard endoscopy will therefore allow us to make a real-time in vivo diagnosis of early esophageal cancer at the cellular level. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Analysis of Early Severe Accident Initiated by LBLOCA for Qinshan Phase II Nuclear Power Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xing-Wei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to simulate an early Severe Accident (SA scenario more detail through transferring the thermal-hydraulic status of the plant predicted by RELAP5 computer code to SA Program (SAP. Based on the criterion of date extract time, the RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic calculation data is extracted to form a file for SAP input card at 1477K of cladding surface. Relying on the thermal-hydraulic boundary parameters calculated by RELAP5 code, analysis of early SA initiated by the Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LBLOCA without mitigation measures for Qinshan Phase II Nuclear Power Plant (QSP-II performed by SAP through finding the key events of accident sequence, estimating the amount of hydrogen generation and oxidation behavior of the cladding and evaluating the relocation order of the materials collapsed in the central region of the core. The results of this study are expected to improve the SA analysis methodology more detail through analyzing early SA scenario.

  14. Individualized peri-operative fluid therapy facilitating early-phase recovery after liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Qing Jiang; Ping Chen; Dou-Sheng Bai; Jing-Wang Tan; Hao Su; Min-Hao Peng

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the correlation between peri-operative fluid therapy and early-phase recovery after liver transplantation (LT) by retrospectively reviewing 102 consecutive recipients.METHODS:Based on whether or not the patients had pulmonary complications,the patients were categorized into non-pulmonary and pulmonary groups.Twentyeight peri-operative variables were analyzed in both groups to screen for the factors related to the occurrence of early pulmonary complications.RESULTS:The starting hemoglobin (Hb) value,an intra-operative transfusion > 100 mL/kg,and a fluid balance ≤-14 mL/kg on the first day and the second or third day post-operatively were significant factors for early pulmonary complications.The extubation time,time to initial passage of flatus,or intensive care unit length of stay were significantly prolonged in patients who had not received an intra-operative transfusion ≤100 mL/kg or a fluid balance ≤-14 mL/kg on the first day and the second or the third day post-operatively.Moreover,these patients had poorer results in arterial blood gas analysis.CONCLUSION:It is important to offer a precise and individualized fluid therapy during the peri-operative period to the patients undergoing LT for cirrhosis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

  15. Methisoprinol for children with early phase dengue infection: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa G. Ompico

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Dengue fever is associated with many health complications and medical costs. Furthermore, there is currently no approved dengue antiviral medication or vaccine. Empiric evidence has suggested that patients who received supplemental methisoprinol therapy had faster recovery times and fewer complications. Objective To determine the effects of oral methisoprinol on the clinical course and laboratory findings of children with early phase dengue infection. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind study from June to September 2012 on 22 children aged 2.7-16.8 years with laboratory-confirmed early dengue infection. Subjects had not previously received antithrombotic agents, nor did they have bleeding disorders or immunodeficiency. We randomized the subjects to receive either oral methisoprinol (100 mg/kg BW/day, divided into four doses or placebo for 72 hours, with 11 subjects per group. The primary endpoint was fever clearance time (FCT, and secondary endpoints were platelet nadir, white blood cell (WBC nadir, maximum hemoconcentration, length of hospital stay, and development of complications. Results The mean decrease in WBC count was less with methisoprinol than with placebo [1.14 (SD 0.84 vs 2.60 (SD 3.12 x 109/L; P=0.004]. In addition, the mean decrease in platelet count was less in patients on methisoprinol [38.36 (SD 58.3 vs. 50.46 (SD 73.42 x 109/L; P=0.046]. No significant differences between the two groups were found for FCT (P=0.158, length of hospital stay (P=0.511, hemoconcentration, or dengue complications. Conclusion Methisoprinol initiated at an early phase in dengue infection reduced the anticipated leukopenia by 56% and thrombocytopenia by 24%. Hence it can be used along with standard approved fluid and antipyretic therapy. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:320-7.].

  16. Midkine-deficiency delays chondrogenesis during the early phase of fracture healing in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Haffner-Luntzer

    Full Text Available The growth and differentiation factor midkine (Mdk plays an important role in bone development and remodeling. Mdk-deficient mice display a high bone mass phenotype when aged 12 and 18 months. Furthermore, Mdk has been identified as a negative regulator of mechanically induced bone formation and it induces pro-chondrogenic, pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory effects. Together with the finding that Mdk is expressed in chondrocytes during fracture healing, we hypothesized that Mdk could play a complex role in endochondral ossification during the bone healing process. Femoral osteotomies stabilized using an external fixator were created in wildtype and Mdk-deficient mice. Fracture healing was evaluated 4, 10, 21 and 28 days after surgery using 3-point-bending, micro-computed tomography, histology and immunohistology. We demonstrated that Mdk-deficient mice displayed delayed chondrogenesis during the early phase of fracture healing as well as significantly decreased flexural rigidity and moment of inertia of the fracture callus 21 days after fracture. Mdk-deficiency diminished beta-catenin expression in chondrocytes and delayed presence of macrophages during early fracture healing. We also investigated the impact of Mdk knockdown using siRNA on ATDC5 chondroprogenitor cells in vitro. Knockdown of Mdk expression resulted in a decrease of beta-catenin and chondrogenic differentiation-related matrix proteins, suggesting that delayed chondrogenesis during fracture healing in Mdk-deficient mice may be due to a cell-autonomous mechanism involving reduced beta-catenin signaling. Our results demonstrated that Mdk plays a crucial role in the early inflammation phase and during the development of cartilaginous callus in the fracture healing process.

  17. Transference patterns and working alliance during the early phase of psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzić, Ljiljana; Nikolić, Gordana

    2014-02-01

    Working alliance, as a collaborative part of the therapeutic relationship has been proven to be one of the most powerful therapeutic factors in psychotherapy in general, regardless many technical differences between numerous psychotherapeutic modalities. On the other hand, transference is the basic concept of psychodynamic psychotherapy, and, according to the psychoanalytic theory and practice, it forms a major part of the therapeutic relationship. The aim of our paper was to determine the differences between the groups of patients with low, middle, and high working alliance scores and the dropout group in transference patterns, sociodemographic and clinical parameters, during the early phase of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Our sample consisted of 61 non-psychotic patients, randomly selected by the method of consecutive admissions and treated with psychoanalytic psychotherapy in the outpatient clinical setting. The patients were prospectively followed during 5 initial sessions of the therapeutic process. The working alliance inventory and Core conflictual relationship theme method were used for the estimation of working alliance and transference patterns, respectively. According to the Working Alliance Inventory scores, four groups of patients were formed and than compared. Our results show a significant difference between the groups of patients with low, middle, and high working alliance inventory scores and the dropout group on the variable--transference patterns in the therapeutic relationship. Disharmonious transference patterns are more frequent in patients who form poor quality working alliance in the early phase of psychotherapy, or early dropout psychotherapy. It is of great importance to recognize transference patterns of a patient at the beginning of the psychotherapeutic process, because of their potentially harmful influence on the quality of working alliance.

  18. Shallow Decay Phase of the Early X-Ray Afterglow from External Shock in a Wind Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷海东; 汪九洲; 吕静; 邹远川

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the shallow decay phase of an early x-ray afterglow in gamma-ray bursts discovered by Swift, and suggest that both the shallow decay phase and the normal phase are from external shock in a wind environment, while the transferring time is the deceleration time. We apply this model to GRBs 050319 and 081008, and find that they can be explained by choosing a proper set of parameters.%We investigate the shallow decay phase of an early x-ray afterglow in gamma-ray bursts discovered by Swift,and suggest that both the shallow decay phase and the normal phase are from external shock in a wind environment,while the transferring time is the deceleration time.We apply this model to GRBs 050319 and 081008,and find that they can be explained by choosing a proper set of parameters.

  19. Fault instability on a finite and planar fault related to early phase of nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Yuta; Hirahara, Kazuro

    2011-06-01

    We numerically investigate the early phase of nucleation on a planar fault with the rate- and state-dependent friction law, loaded externally by steady slip, to clarify its relation to fault instability. We define Rn as the invasion distance of the inward creep to characterize that phase. For a circular fault, the dependence of Rn on the dimensionless parameters lb, lb-a, and lRA (all of these are proportional to the rigidity and the characteristic distance of the state evolution L and inversely proportional to the normal stress and the fault radius) can be compiled. We found that Rn is proportional to lb (both aging law and slip law of the state evolution) and lb-a (aging law). In the case of the aging law only, there are two regimes (ordinary events and slow events) separated by the value of lRA. The regimes have different trend lines, although we could not measure Rn for the case of lRA < 0.35 because of breaking of the mirror symmetry of instability along the loading direction. Rn in the slow event regime is smaller. Moreover, we investigated the effect of fault shape and found that a model with a long radius along the mode 2 direction has similar parameter dependence to circular faults, but a model with a long radius along the mode 3 direction has different ones. Our results imply that we can qualitatively estimate the fault instability parameters from the early phase of nucleation, although further research is necessary to enable application to actual faults.

  20. Towards tender X-rays with Zernike phase-contrast imaging of biological samples at 50 nm resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Ismo; Warmer, Martin; Goeries, Dennis; Herker, Eva; Reimer, Rudolph; David, Christian; Meents, Alke

    2014-07-01

    X-ray microscopy is a commonly used method especially in material science application, where the large penetration depth of X-rays is necessary for three-dimensional structural studies of thick specimens with high-Z elements. In this paper it is shown that full-field X-ray microscopy at 6.2 keV can be utilized for imaging of biological specimens with high resolution. A full-field Zernike phase-contrast microscope based on diffractive optics is used to study lipid droplet formation in hepatoma cells. It is shown that the contrast of the images is comparable with that of electron microscopy, and even better contrast at tender X-ray energies between 2.5 keV and 4 keV is expected.

  1. Robust phase retrieval for high resolution edge illumination x-ray phase-contrast computed tomography in non-ideal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Anna; Endrizzi, Marco; Hagen, Charlotte K.; Vittoria, Fabio A.; Urbani, Luca; de Coppi, Paolo; Olivo, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Edge illumination x-ray phase contrast tomography is a recently developed imaging technique which enables three-dimensional visualisation of low-absorbing materials. Dedicated phase retrieval algorithms can provide separate computed tomography (CT) maps of sample absorption, refraction and scattering properties. In this paper we propose a novel “modified local retrieval” method which is capable of accurately retrieving sample properties in a range of realistic, non-ideal imaging environments. These include system misalignment, defects in the used optical elements and system geometry variations over time due to vibrations or temperature fluctuations. System instabilities were analysed, modelled and incorporated into a simulation study. As a result, an additional modification was introduced to the retrieval procedure to account for changes in the imaging system over time, as well as local variations over the field of view. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated in comparison to a previously used “global retrieval” method by applying both approaches to experimental CT data of a rat’s heart acquired in a non-ideal environment. The use of the proposed method resulted in the removal of major artefacts, leading to a significant improvement in image quality. This method will therefore enable acquiring high-resolution, reliable CT data of large samples in realistic settings.

  2. GPS code phase variations (CPV) for GNSS receiver antennas and their effect on geodetic parameters and ambiguity resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Tobias; Schön, Steffen

    2016-12-01

    Precise navigation and geodetic coordinate determination rely on accurate GNSS signal reception. Thus, the receiver antenna properties play a crucial role in the GNSS error budget. For carrier phase observations, a spherical radiation pattern represents an ideal receiver antenna behaviour. Deviations are known as phase centre corrections. Due to synergy of carrier and code phase, similar effects on the code exist named code phase variations (CPV). They are mainly attributed to electromagnetic interactions of several active and passive elements of the receiver antenna. Consequently, a calibration and estimation strategy is necessary to determine the shape and magnitudes of the CPV. Such a concept was proposed, implemented and tested at the Institut für Erdmessung. The applied methodology and the obtained results are reported and discussed in this paper. We show that the azimuthal and elevation-dependent CPV can reach maximum magnitudes of 0.2-0.3 m for geodetic antennas and up to maximum values of 1.8 m for small navigation antennas. The obtained values are validated by dedicated tests in the observation and coordinate domain. As a result, CPV are identified to be antenna- related properties that are independent from location and time of calibration. Even for geodetic antennas when forming linear combinations the CPV effect can be amplified to values of 0.4-0.6 m. Thus, a significant fractional of the Melbourne-Wübbena linear combination. A case study highlights that incorrect ambiguity resolution can occur due to neglecting CPV corrections. The impact on the coordinates which may reach up to the dm level is illustrated.

  3. GPS code phase variations (CPV) for GNSS receiver antennas and their effect on geodetic parameters and ambiguity resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Tobias; Schön, Steffen

    2017-06-01

    Precise navigation and geodetic coordinate determination rely on accurate GNSS signal reception. Thus, the receiver antenna properties play a crucial role in the GNSS error budget. For carrier phase observations, a spherical radiation pattern represents an ideal receiver antenna behaviour. Deviations are known as phase centre corrections. Due to synergy of carrier and code phase, similar effects on the code exist named code phase variations (CPV). They are mainly attributed to electromagnetic interactions of several active and passive elements of the receiver antenna. Consequently, a calibration and estimation strategy is necessary to determine the shape and magnitudes of the CPV. Such a concept was proposed, implemented and tested at the Institut für Erdmessung. The applied methodology and the obtained results are reported and discussed in this paper. We show that the azimuthal and elevation-dependent CPV can reach maximum magnitudes of 0.2-0.3 m for geodetic antennas and up to maximum values of 1.8 m for small navigation antennas. The obtained values are validated by dedicated tests in the observation and coordinate domain. As a result, CPV are identified to be antenna- related properties that are independent from location and time of calibration. Even for geodetic antennas when forming linear combinations the CPV effect can be amplified to values of 0.4-0.6 m. Thus, a significant fractional of the Melbourne-Wübbena linear combination. A case study highlights that incorrect ambiguity resolution can occur due to neglecting CPV corrections. The impact on the coordinates which may reach up to the dm level is illustrated.

  4. Early Holocene variability in the Arctic Gateway - High-resolution records reflecting Atlantic Water advection and ice coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielhagen, Robert F.; Bauch, Henning A.; Maudrich, Martin; Not, Christelle; Telesinski, Maciej M.; Werner, Kirstin

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic Gateway between Greenland and Svalbard is the main passage for the advection of Atlantic Water to the Arctic Ocean. Water temperature and intensity of this advection largely determine the degree of ice coverage which is fed by sea ice export from the north. Supported by a maximum in insolation, the Early Holocene was a period of extraordinarily strong advection and relatively high near-surface water temperatures in the eastern Nordic Seas (cf. Risebrobakken et al., 2011, Paleoceanography v. 26). Here we present a synthesis of radiocarbon-dated records from the northern and western part of this area, reaching from the SW Greenland Sea (73°N) to the Yermak Plateau (81°N) and revealing temporal and spatial differences in the development of the so-called Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM). In the northern part of this region, the HTM started ca. 11-10.5 ka as indicated by rapidly increasing amounts of subpolar planktic foraminifers in the sediments. In the eastern Fram Strait and on the Yermak Plateau, our records of (sub)millennial scale resolution show that the maximum influx terminated already 2,000 years later (9-8 ka). Most likely, this development went along with a N-S relocation of the sea ice margin. According to the current stratigraphic model for a core with submillennial-scale resolution from Vesterisbanken seamount (73°N) in the Greenland Sea, the timing was different there. Increasing total amounts of planktic foraminifers in the sediment indicate an early (11-10 ka) reduction in sea ice coverage also in this region. However, evidence from subpolar planktic foraminifers for maximum Atlantic Water advection is younger (9-6 ka) than in the north. Apparently, the site in the SW Greenland Sea was affected by Atlantic Water in the Greenland Gyre that decoupled from the northward flowing Norwegian Atlantic Current/Westspitsbergen Current south of the Fram Strait. Thus, in a suite of events, strong Atlantic Water advection first affected the

  5. Influence of Spatial Resolution in Three-dimensional Cine Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging on the Accuracy of Hemodynamic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Atsushi; Isoda, Haruo; Morita, Kento; Mori, Marika; Watanabe, Tomoya; Ishiguro, Kenta; Komori, Yoshiaki; Kosugi, Takafumi

    2017-10-10

    We aim to elucidate the effect of spatial resolution of three-dimensional cine phase contrast magnetic resonance (3D cine PC MR) imaging on the accuracy of the blood flow analysis, and examine the optimal setting for spatial resolution using flow phantoms. The flow phantom has five types of acrylic pipes that represent human blood vessels (inner diameters: 15, 12, 9, 6, and 3 mm). The pipes were fixed with 1% agarose containing 0.025 mol/L gadolinium contrast agent. A blood-mimicking fluid with human blood property values was circulated through the pipes at a steady flow. Magnetic resonance (MR) images (three-directional phase images with speed information and magnitude images for information of shape) were acquired using the 3-Tesla MR system and receiving coil. Temporal changes in spatially-averaged velocity and maximum velocity were calculated using hemodynamic analysis software. We calculated the error rates of the flow velocities based on the volume flow rates measured with a flowmeter and examined measurement accuracy. When the acrylic pipe was the size of the thoracicoabdominal or cervical artery and the ratio of pixel size for the pipe was set at 30% or lower, spatially-averaged velocity measurements were highly accurate. When the pixel size ratio was set at 10% or lower, maximum velocity could be measured with high accuracy. It was difficult to accurately measure maximum velocity of the 3-mm pipe, which was the size of an intracranial major artery, but the error for spatially-averaged velocity was 20% or less. Flow velocity measurement accuracy of 3D cine PC MR imaging for pipes with inner sizes equivalent to vessels in the cervical and thoracicoabdominal arteries is good. The flow velocity accuracy for the pipe with a 3-mm-diameter that is equivalent to major intracranial arteries is poor for maximum velocity, but it is relatively good for spatially-averaged velocity.

  6. Phase-field simulations of nuclei and early stage solidification microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, B.; Selzer, M.; Danilov, D.

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the local properties of heterogeneous nuclei on substrates, a phase-field model is extended to incorporate volume constraints and a third order line tension in the gradient free energy density formulation. The new model is applied to sessile drop simulations of Cu nuclei on Ni substrates to precisely analyse 3D equilibrium shapes and diffusion processes across the phase boundaries. In particular, the formalism with higher order potentials is used to investigate the length-scale dependent effect of the line tension on Young's force balance at triple lines in 3D. The employment of parallel and adaptive simulation techniques is essential for three-dimensional numerical computations. Early stage solidification microstructures of cubic Ni crystals are simulated by scale-bridging molecular dynamics (MD) and phase-field (PF) simulations. The domain of the PF computations is initialized by transferring MD data of the atomic positions and of the shape of the nuclei. The combined approach can be used to study the responses of microstructures upon nucleation.

  7. Phase-field simulations of nuclei and early stage solidification microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestler, B; Selzer, M; Danilov, D [Institute of Materials and Processes (IMP), Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Moltkestrasse 30, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-11-18

    To investigate the local properties of heterogeneous nuclei on substrates, a phase-field model is extended to incorporate volume constraints and a third order line tension in the gradient free energy density formulation. The new model is applied to sessile drop simulations of Cu nuclei on Ni substrates to precisely analyse 3D equilibrium shapes and diffusion processes across the phase boundaries. In particular, the formalism with higher order potentials is used to investigate the length-scale dependent effect of the line tension on Young's force balance at triple lines in 3D. The employment of parallel and adaptive simulation techniques is essential for three-dimensional numerical computations. Early stage solidification microstructures of cubic Ni crystals are simulated by scale-bridging molecular dynamics (MD) and phase-field (PF) simulations. The domain of the PF computations is initialized by transferring MD data of the atomic positions and of the shape of the nuclei. The combined approach can be used to study the responses of microstructures upon nucleation.

  8. SURVIVAL OF INTERSTELLAR MOLECULES TO PRESTELLAR DENSE CORE COLLAPSE AND EARLY PHASES OF DISK FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hincelin, U. [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Wakelam, V.; Hersant, F.; Guilloteau, S. [University of Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France); Commerçon, B., E-mail: ugo.hincelin@virginia.edu [Laboratoire de radioastronomie, LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Supérieure (UMR 8112 CNRS), 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-09-20

    An outstanding question of astrobiology is the link between the chemical composition of planets, comets, and other solar system bodies and the molecules formed in the interstellar medium. Understanding the chemical and physical evolution of the matter leading to the formation of protoplanetary disks is an important step for this. We provide some new clues to this long-standing problem using three-dimensional chemical simulations of the early phases of disk formation: we interfaced the full gas-grain chemical model Nautilus with the radiation-magnetohydrodynamic model RAMSES, for different configurations and intensities of the magnetic field. Our results show that the chemical content (gas and ices) is globally conserved during the collapsing process, from the parent molecular cloud to the young disk surrounding the first Larson core. A qualitative comparison with cometary composition suggests that comets are constituted of different phases, some molecules being direct tracers of interstellar chemistry, while others, including complex molecules, seem to have been formed in disks, where higher densities and temperatures allow for an active grain surface chemistry. The latter phase, and its connection with the formation of the first Larson core, remains to be modeled.

  9. High resolution of racemic phenylalanine with dication imidazolium-based chiral ionic liquids in a solid-liquid two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Wu, Haoran; Wang, Zhixia; Luo, Yingjie; Song, Hang

    2017-01-06

    A novel solid-liquid two-phase system was developed for the chiral separation of racemic phenylalanine with new dication imidazolium-based chiral ionic liquids. Preliminary experiments showed distinct enantioselectivity in amino acid extraction with the novel solid-liquid two-phase system, more L-enantiomer of amino acid cooperatively interacted with ionic liquids and copper ions to be the solid phase. Various factors, including the alkyl chain length of cations of ionic liquids, the amount of copper acetate, the ratio of n(ILs)/n(Cu(2+)), the amount of water and racemic phenylalanine, the resolution time together with the resolution temperature, were systematically investigated for their influence on resolution efficiency. The results showed that, under a certain condition, the enantiomeric excess value and the yield of phenylalanine in liquid phase (mainly containing D-enantiomer) were 67.8% and 96.5%, the enantiomeric excess value and the yield of phenylalanine in solid phase (mainly containing L-enantiomer) were 99.2% and 85.2%. Finally, 2D NMR technology, infrared spectroscopy and molecular simulation method were used to study the interaction mechanism. The results indicated that L-enantiomer of phenylalanine interacts more strongly with chiral ILs and Cu(2+). The novel system has characteristics of free-organic solvent, simple operation, fast separation process and very high resolution efficiency for racemic phenylalanine. This work could provide a new and alternative resolution approach for other chiral separations.

  10. The self-coherent camera-phasing sensor : from numerical simulations to early experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janin-Potiron, P.; Martinez, P.; Baudoz, P.; Carbillet, M.; Gouvret, C.; Spang, A.

    2016-07-01

    Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) are the next technological step when considering astrophysical observation. They will provide unprecedented angular resolution, thus improving the imaging capability and hopefully allow the imaging of the first Earth-like exoplanet. For technological and mechanical reasons, the primary mirror of these instruments will have to be segmented. To reach the image quality needed for the most demanding observational programs, the segments must be kept aligned below tens of nm RMS. The development of cophasing technics is of prime importance for the next generation of space- and ground-based segmented telescopes. We propose to describe in this paper a new focal plane cophasing sensor that exploits the scientific image of a coronagraphic instrument to retrieve simultaneously piston and tip-tilt misalignments. It is based on the self- coherent camera (SCC) principle and provides a non-invasive system and an efficient phasing sensor from the image domain. Numerical simulations have successfully demonstrated the proper functioning of this system and its algorithms. Along this, work to implement and test the self-coherent camera - phasing sensor (SCC-PS) is currently ongoing and a first look at the cophasing stage of the Segmented Pupil Experiment for Exoplanet Detection (SPEED) will be proposed.

  11. Early-Phase 11C-PiB PET in Amyloid Angiopathy-Related Symptomatic Cerebral Hemorrhage: Potential Diagnostic Value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Karim; Hong, Young T; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; Fryer, Tim D; Menon, David K; Warburton, Elizabeth A; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Although late-phase (>35min post-administration) 11C-PiB-PET has good sensitivity in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), its specificity is poor due to frequently high uptake in healthy aged subjects. By detecting perfusion-like abnormalities, early-phase 11C-PiB-PET might add diagnostic value. Early-frame (1-6min) 11C-PiB-PET was obtained in 11 non-demented patients with probable CAA-related symptomatic lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (70±7yrs), 9 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) and 10 HCs PiB data did not change the sensitivity and specificity of late-phase PiB, but combined early- and late-phase positivity entails a very high suspicion of underlying Aβ-related clinical disorder, i.e., CAA or Alzheimer disease (AD). In order to clarify this ambiguity, we then show that the occipital/posterior cingulate ratio is markedly lower in CAA than in AD (N = 7). These pilot data suggest that early-phase 11C-PiB-PET may not only add to late-phase PiB-PET with respect to the unclear situation of late-phase positivity, but also help differentiate CAA from AD.

  12. Phase noise reveals early category-specific modulation of the event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Kornél; Kovács, Petra; Vakli, Pál; Kovács, Gyula; Zimmer, Márta

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have found that the amplitude of the early event-related potential (ERP) components evoked by faces, such as N170 and P2, changes systematically as a function of noise added to the stimuli. This change has been linked to an increased perceptual processing demand and to enhanced difficulty in perceptual decision making about faces. However, to date it has not yet been tested whether noise manipulation affects the neural correlates of decisions about face and non-face stimuli similarly. To this end, we measured the ERPs for faces and cars at three different phase noise levels. Subjects performed the same two-alternative age-discrimination task on stimuli chosen from young-old morphing continua that were created from faces as well as cars and were calibrated to lead to similar performances at each noise-level. Adding phase noise to the stimuli reduced performance and enhanced response latency for the two categories to the same extent. Parallel to that, phase noise reduced the amplitude and prolonged the latency of the face-specific N170 component. The amplitude of the P1 showed category-specific noise dependence: it was enhanced over the right hemisphere for cars and over the left hemisphere for faces as a result of adding phase noise to the stimuli, but remained stable across noise levels for cars over the left and for faces over the right hemisphere. Moreover, noise modulation altered the category-selectivity of the N170, while the P2 ERP component, typically associated with task decision difficulty, was larger for the more noisy stimuli regardless of stimulus category. Our results suggest that the category-specificity of noise-induced modulations of ERP responses starts at around 100 ms post-stimulus.

  13. Low-Resolution Spectroscopy of the Recurrent Nova T Pyxidis at its Early Stage of 2011 Outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Imamura, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    We present our observational results of the recurrent nova T Pyxidis at its early stage of 2011 outburst, using a low-resolution spectrograph ($R\\approx400$) attached to a 28cm telescope. Total nights of our observation are 11, among which 9 nights are during the pre-maximum stage. As a result we have obtained a detailed evolutional feature of this recurrent nova on the way to its maximum light. At first, on the earliest three nights ($-25 \\sim -21$ days before maximum), broad and prominent emission lines such as Balmer series, He I, He II, N II, N III and O I together with P Cygni profile are seen on the spectra. The blueshifted absorption minima of H$\\alpha$ yields a maximum expansion velocity of approximately 2200 km s$^{-1}$, and the velocity gradually decreases. Then, Helium and Nitrogen lines are weakened day by day. After that (18 days before maximum light), Fe II (multiplets) lines emerge on the spectra. These lines are then strengthened day by day, and the P Cygni profiles also become more prominent....

  14. Enhanced resolution of Mentha piperita volatile fraction using a novel medium-polarity ionic liquid gas chromatography stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragonese, Carla; Sciarrone, Danilo; Grasso, Elisa; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    The evaluation of a novel medium-polarity ionic-liquid-based gas chromatography column, SLB-IL60, towards the analysis of a complex essential oil, namely, a peppermint essential oil sample, is reported. The SLB-IL60 30 m column was subjected to bleeding measurements, by means of conventional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. The SLB-IL60 column was then evaluated in the analysis of pure standard compounds, chosen as typical constituents of peppermint essential oil. Resolution and peak symmetry (expressed as tailing factors at 10% of peak height) were measured and the results were compared to those obtained on the most widely used columns in such an application, namely a medium-polarity [100% poly(ethyleneglycol)] stationary phase, and an apolar 5% diphenyl/95% dimethyl siloxane. The final part of the evaluation was dedicated to the gas chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis of a peppermint essential oil sample and again the data were compared to those obtained on the 100% poly(ethyleneglycol) and the 5% diphenyl/95% dimethyl siloxane phase. Linear retention indices were determined for all the identified components on the ionic liquid capillary. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. High-resolution profiling of stationary-phase survival reveals yeast longevity factors and their genetic interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Garay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lifespan is influenced by a large number of conserved proteins and gene-regulatory pathways. Here, we introduce a strategy for systematically finding such longevity factors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and scoring the genetic interactions (epistasis among these factors. Specifically, we developed an automated competition-based assay for chronological lifespan, defined as stationary-phase survival of yeast populations, and used it to phenotype over 5,600 single- or double-gene knockouts at unprecedented quantitative resolution. We found that 14% of the viable yeast mutant strains were affected in their stationary-phase survival; the extent of true-positive chronological lifespan factors was estimated by accounting for the effects of culture aeration and adaptive regrowth. We show that lifespan extension by dietary restriction depends on the Swr1 histone-exchange complex and that a functional link between autophagy and the lipid-homeostasis factor Arv1 has an impact on cellular lifespan. Importantly, we describe the first genetic interaction network based on aging phenotypes, which successfully recapitulated the core-autophagy machinery and confirmed a role of the human tumor suppressor PTEN homologue in yeast lifespan and phosphatidylinositol phosphate metabolism. Our quantitative analysis of longevity factors and their genetic interactions provides insights into the gene-network interactions of aging cells.

  16. High-resolution profiling of stationary-phase survival reveals yeast longevity factors and their genetic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, Erika; Campos, Sergio E; González de la Cruz, Jorge; Gaspar, Ana P; Jinich, Adrian; Deluna, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Lifespan is influenced by a large number of conserved proteins and gene-regulatory pathways. Here, we introduce a strategy for systematically finding such longevity factors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and scoring the genetic interactions (epistasis) among these factors. Specifically, we developed an automated competition-based assay for chronological lifespan, defined as stationary-phase survival of yeast populations, and used it to phenotype over 5,600 single- or double-gene knockouts at unprecedented quantitative resolution. We found that 14% of the viable yeast mutant strains were affected in their stationary-phase survival; the extent of true-positive chronological lifespan factors was estimated by accounting for the effects of culture aeration and adaptive regrowth. We show that lifespan extension by dietary restriction depends on the Swr1 histone-exchange complex and that a functional link between autophagy and the lipid-homeostasis factor Arv1 has an impact on cellular lifespan. Importantly, we describe the first genetic interaction network based on aging phenotypes, which successfully recapitulated the core-autophagy machinery and confirmed a role of the human tumor suppressor PTEN homologue in yeast lifespan and phosphatidylinositol phosphate metabolism. Our quantitative analysis of longevity factors and their genetic interactions provides insights into the gene-network interactions of aging cells.

  17. Correlation of delta high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score with delta clinical variables in early systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euathrongchit, Juntima; Wattanawittawas, Pittaporn; Kasitanon, Nuntana

    2016-01-01

    Background The correlation of changes (delta: Δ) of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score with the Δ of other clinical variables has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of Δ HRCT score with Δ percent predicted forced vital capacity (%pFVC), Δ modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS), Δ erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and Δ percent of oxygen saturation at room air (%SpO2) in patients with early systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods We used an inception cohort of early-SSc patients seen at the Rheumatology Clinic, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, between January 2010 and June 2014. All patients underwent HRCT at study entry and every 12 months thereafter. Thirty-one SSc patients who underwent pulmonary function test (PFT) within 12 weeks of their corresponding HRCT at baseline and last visit were identified. The extent of ground glass (GG), lung fibrosis (Fib), bronchiectasis (B), and honeycombing (HC) was scored, and then aggregated to produce a total (t) HRCT score. Results Mean ± SD age and disease duration from non-Raynaud’s phenomenon (NRP) to undergo HRCT at baseline were 52.2±8.8 years and 11.7±7.1 months, respectively. Seventeen (54.8%) patients were female and 20 (64.5%) were classified as dcSSc. The mean ± SD interval between the two HRCT tests was 16.0±7.2 months. The Δ HRCT scores [total fibrosis scores (t-Fib), total bronchiectasis scores (t-B), and total HRCT score (t-HRCT) scores] and Δ mRSS, but not Δ %pFVC, showed significant change over the observation period. We found significant correlation of Δ total honeycombing scores (t-HC) with Δ ESR (r=−0.44, P<0.05), and Δ t-Fib with Δ %SpO2 (r=−0.38, P<0.05). However, no significant correlation of any Δ HRCT scores with Δ %pFVC and Δ mRSS were observed. Conclusions In this study, the changes in the HRCT scores were greater than %pFVC; this, along with their correlations with the changes in ESR and %SpO2, suggest that HRCT

  18. High-resolution X-ray diffraction imaging of non-Bragg diffracting materials using phase retrieval X-ray diffractometry (PRXRD) technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikulin, A.Y.; Darahanau, A.V.; Horney, R.; Ishikawa, T

    2004-06-15

    An X-ray diffraction technique has recently been developed and successfully applied to comprehensively, including both phase and amplitude contrast, map the complex refractive index of non-crystalline materials with submicron spatial resolution. The methodology is based on the measurement of a high angular resolution X-ray Fraunhofer diffraction pattern with further application of the phase-retrieval formalism using a logarithmic dispersion relation. The technique is reviewed from the perspective of its ability to deliver ultra-high, order of several nanometres, spatial resolution and to uniquely determine both the real and imaginary components of the complex refractive index of the material under analysis. Potential niche of practical applications is discussed in terms of the spatial resolution and field of view achievable by the method.

  19. High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, Andrew F. T.; Islam, M. Sirajul; Kitchen, Marcus J. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Fouras, Andreas [Division of Biological Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Wallace, Megan J.; Hooper, Stuart B. [Ritchie Centre and Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Described herein is a new technique for measuring regional lung air volumes from two-dimensional propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBI) images at very high spatial and temporal resolution. Phase contrast dramatically increases lung visibility and the outlined volumetric reconstruction technique quantifies dynamic changes in respiratory function. These methods can be used for assessing pulmonary disease and injury and for optimizing mechanical ventilation techniques for preterm infants using animal models. Methods: The volumetric reconstruction combines the algorithms of temporal subtraction and single image phase retrieval (SIPR) to isolate the image of the lungs from the thoracic cage in order to measure regional lung air volumes. The SIPR algorithm was used to recover the change in projected thickness of the lungs on a pixel-by-pixel basis (pixel dimensions {approx}16.2 {mu}m). The technique has been validated using numerical simulation and compared results of measuring regional lung air volumes with and without the use of temporal subtraction for removing the thoracic cage. To test this approach, a series of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups mechanically ventilated at different frequencies was employed. Results: Regional lung air volumes measured from PBI images of newborn rabbit pups showed on average an improvement of at least 20% in 16% of pixels within the lungs in comparison to that measured without the use of temporal subtraction. The majority of pixels that showed an improvement was found to be in regions occupied by bone. Applying the volumetric technique to sequences of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups, it is shown that lung aeration at birth can be highly heterogeneous. Conclusions: This paper presents an image segmentation technique based on temporal subtraction that has successfully been used to isolate the lungs from PBI chest images, allowing the change in lung air volume to be measured over regions as small as the pixel size. Using

  20. Usage of four-phase high-resolution rhinomanometry and measurement of nasal resistance in sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Song-Tar; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Guilleminault, Christian

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the ease of use of four-phase high-resolution rhinomanometry (HRR), a new way of measuring nasal resistance, in measuring change in nasal resistance from supine to inclined position in a clinical sleep laboratory setting, and to correlate findings with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) tolerance. Retrospective review of clinical charts. Forty successively seen Caucasian subjects diagnosed with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) with complete charts were analyzed. Using four-phase HRR and acoustic rhinometry, nasal resistance and minimal cross-sectional area of the nasal cavity were objectively measured with the patient in the supine position and repeated in the inclined position (30° from the horizontal plane), respectively. From the supine to inclined position, reduction in total nasal resistance was observed in 87.5% (35 out of 40). There was a mean reduction of nasal resistance by 37.1 ± 21.6%. Five (12.5%) out of 40 subjects showed no change or mild increase in nasal resistance. Subjects with nasal resistance unresponsive to the inclined position change tended to have difficulty using nasal CPAP based on downloaded compliance card data. Four-phase HRR and acoustic rhinometry are tests that can be easily performed by sleep specialists to characterize nasal resistance in SDB patients and determine changes in resistance with positional changes. In this study, we found that patients who did not demonstrate a decrease in nasal resistance with inclined position were more likely to be noncompliant with nasal CPAP. These measurements may help us objectively identify patients who might have trouble tolerating nasal CPAP. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Prolonged Administration of Twice-Daily Bolus Intravenous Tacrolimus in the Early Phase After Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yutaka; Sugimoto, Seiichiro; Mano, Toshifumi; Kurosaki, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Kentaroh; Otani, Shinji; Yamane, Masaomi; Kobayashi, Motomu; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Oto, Takahiro

    2017-08-11

    BACKGROUND Although administration of tacrolimus, whether by the enteric, sublingual, or continuous intravenous routes, has some limitations, twice-daily bolus intravenous tacrolimus administration has been shown to be beneficial in optimizing efficacy and safety after lung transplantation. However, at present, the duration of bolus intravenous tacrolimus administration is limited, and the effects of prolonged bolus intravenous tacrolimus administration remain unknown. Our study was aimed at assessing the safety and efficacy of prolonged twice-daily bolus intravenous tacrolimus administration in the early phase after lung transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively investigated the data of 62 recipients of lung transplantation who had received twice-daily bolus intravenous administration of tacrolimus, followed by oral tacrolimus, after lung transplantation at our institution between January 2011 and October 2015. RESULTS The median duration of bolus intravenous tacrolimus administration was 19 days (4-72 days). The target trough level was achieved in 89% of the patients by day 3. Acute kidney injury occurred in 27% of the patients during bolus intravenous tacrolimus. Two patients (3%) had neurotoxicity, necessitating discontinuation of tacrolimus. Suspected acute rejection requiring steroid pulse therapy occurred in 21% of patients during the follow-up period. Eight patients (13%) developed chronic lung allograft dysfunction during the follow-up period. The 1-year and 5-year survival rates after lung transplantation were 95% and 76%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that prolonged bolus intravenous tacrolimus administration in the early phase after lung transplantation is a safe and effective alternative to enteric, sublingual, or continuous intravenous administration.

  2. Repeated allergen exposure reduce early phase airway response and leukotriene release despite upregulation of 5-lipoxygenase pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Zhi-Hua

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergen induced early phase airway response and airway plasma exudation are predominantly mediated by inflammatory mast cell mediators including histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs and thromboxane A2 (TXA2. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether repeated allergen exposure affects early phase airway response to allergen challenge. Methods A trimellitic anhydride (TMA sensitized guinea pig model was used to investigate the effects of low dose repeated allergen exposure on cholinergic airway responsiveness, early phase airway response and plasma exudation, as well as local airway production of mast cell derived cysteinyl leukotrienes and thromboxane B2 (TXB2 after allergen challenge. Results Repeated low dose allergen exposure increased cholinergic airway responsiveness. In contrast, early phase airway response and plasma exudation in response to a high-dose allergen challenge were strongly attenuated after repeated low dose allergen exposure. Inhibition of the airway response was unspecific to exposed allergen and independent of histamine receptor blocking. Furthermore, a significant reduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2 was found in the airways of animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen. However, in vitro stimulation of airway tissue from animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen with arachidonic acid and calcium ionophore (A23187 induced production of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2, suggesting enhanced activity of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways. Conclusions The inhibition of the early phase airway response, cysteinyl leukotriene and TXB2 production after repeated allergen exposure may result from unresponsive effector cells.

  3. Traumatic Brain Injury Pathophysiology and Treatments: Early, Intermediate, and Late Phases Post-Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Algattas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI affects a large proportion and extensive array of individuals in the population. While precise pathological mechanisms are lacking, the growing base of knowledge concerning TBI has put increased emphasis on its understanding and treatment. Most treatments of TBI are aimed at ameliorating secondary insults arising from the injury; these insults can be characterized with respect to time post-injury, including early, intermediate, and late pathological changes. Early pathological responses are due to energy depletion and cell death secondary to excitotoxicity, the intermediate phase is characterized by neuroinflammation and the late stage by increased susceptibility to seizures and epilepsy. Current treatments of TBI have been tailored to these distinct pathological stages with some overlap. Many prophylactic, pharmacologic, and surgical treatments are used post-TBI to halt the progression of these pathologic reactions. In the present review, we discuss the mechanisms of the pathological hallmarks of TBI and both current and novel treatments which target the respective pathways.

  4. REMIR: The REM infrared camera to follow up the early phases of GRBs afterglows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzoletti, L.; Melandri, A.; Testa, V.; Antonelli, L. A.; Vitali, F.; D'Alessio, F.; di Paola, A.; Zerbi, F. M.; Chincarini, G.; Cunniffe, R.; Jordan, B.; Rodonò, M.; Conconi, P.; Covino, S.; Cutispoto, G.; Molinari, E.; Tosti, G.; Ross/Rem Team

    2005-07-01

    REMIR is a near-infrared camera, covering the 0.95-2.3 μm range with 5 filters (z,J,H,Ks and H2), mounted at one of the Nasmyth foci of the REM (Rapid Eye Mount) telescope. REM is a fully robotic fast-slewing 60 cm telescope, primarily designed to follow-up the early phases of the afterglow of GRBs detected by dedicated instruments onboard satellites (like SWIFT, a satellite entirely dedicated to GRBs science launched the 12 November 2004). Moreover REM hosts a slitless spectrograph covering the range 0.45-0.95 μm, with 30 sample points and with the possibility to perform broad-band V,R,I photometry (ROSS, REM Optical Slitless Spectrograph). The main task of REMIR is to perform realtime NIR observations of GRBs detected by gamma-ray monitors onboard satellites, looking for any possible infrared transient source. As soon as a transient source is detected in the IR images, larger telescopes are promptly alerted to perform early spectroscopy of the afterglow. All the above operations are performed in a fully automatic way and without any human supervision. We present the results of on-site tests that have been done to characterize the REMIR camera and the performances of the dedicated reduction pipeline AQuA (Automatic Quick Analysis), suited for fast transients detection.

  5. Parabens inhibit the early phase of folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis in the ovaries of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyo-Jin; An, Beum-Soo; Jung, Eui-Man; Yang, Hyun; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2012-09-01

    Parabens are widely used as anti-microbial agents in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, parabens have been shown to act as xenoestrogens, a class of endocrine disruptors. In the present study, 55 female pups were given daily subcutaneous injections of methyl-, propyl-, and butyl-paraben or 17beta-estradiol (E2) during neonatal Day 1-7. The ovaries were excised on postnatal Day 8, then fixed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological analysis. The follicles were counted and classified as being in the primordial, early primary, or primary stages. The number of primordial follicles increased while early primary follicles decreased at the high doses of propyl- and butyl-paraben. The levels of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and Foxl2 mRNA increased by propyl- and butyl-parabens whereas kit ligand/stem cell factor (KITL) expression was up regulated only by butyl-paraben. The mRNA levels of StAR and Cyp11a1 were significantly decreased after treatment with methyl-, propyl-, and butyl-parabens. Consistent with its use as a positive control, E2 regulated the expression of KITL, StAR, and Cyp11a1 genes, but surprisingly did not affect AMH and Foxl2 levels. Thus, E2 and parabens had different effects on the regulation of folliculogenic and steroidogenic genes, demonstrating the estrogenic and nonestrogenic properties of parabens in the ovary. Taken together, our data show that parabens stimulated AMH mRNA expression and consequently inhibited the early phase of folliculogenesis in the ovaries of neonatal female rat. The levels of steroidogenic enzymes, indicators of follicle differentiation, appeared to be regulated by parabens through inhibition of their transcriptional repressor, Foxl2. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Teachers’ Beliefs on Foreign Language Teaching Practices in Early Phases of Primary Education: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Caner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine whether teacher beliefs would play a role in their actual practices while teaching target language in early phases of primary education, principally, in kindergarten and first grades in a state school. As it is a very broad research area, the researchers exclusively analyzed teaching practices and teaching activities of two teachers and their beliefs about teaching English to young children within the frame of early childhood education principles. One of the data gathering instruments in this case study was a questionnaire that inquires the participants beliefs related to the classroom practices and how these beliefs influence their classroom practices in early childhood education. In addition to the questionnaire, semi structured interviews with participants were held to examine their beliefs in detail. Finally, in order to see whether participants’ beliefs matched with their actual practices in their classrooms or not, the sample courses of the participants were observed and video-recorded for triangulation for the data. The classroom observations of the courses as well as video recordings of those courses were also examined by the researchers, and the findings were verified by another co-rater in order to increase the trustworthiness of the data. The analysis of responses of participants to the questionnaire, video-recorded classroom observations and interviews were presented qualitatively in the findings section. The results showed that both of the teachers took into account how their students could learn best with regards to their age, level and interest through using different activities and materials suitable for teaching English to young learners. It was also observed that teachers placed room for repetition, role-play, singing songs, picture drawings and coloring in their classes with young learners.

  7. The Transplant of Technology of Capacitive Displacement Transducer to Phase Modulation Grating-the Research of the Grating with nm Measuring Resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zengyao; Wang Wei; Jin Ning

    2003-01-01

    The method rising measuring resolution through reducing pitch of the transducer has brought forward from the basic structure, principle and the corresponding relationship among pitches of capacitive electrodes, period T and phase shift of o. But if the traditional technique of PCB made of the transducer is still used, it will meet with difficulties in lead wire. And so the technology transplant from the transducer to grating is presented, the basic principle of the phase modulation grating similar to the transducer is described and the experiments setup of transmitted and reflective grating are put out. Some practical schemes f the new grating with resolution to sub-micron, even nm is given.

  8. Very early multi-color observations of the plateau phase of GRB 041006 afterglow

    CERN Document Server

    Urata, Y; Qiu, Y L; Hu, J; Kuo, P H; Tamagawa, T; Ip, W H; Kinoshita, D; Fukushi, H; Isogai, M; Miyata, T; Nakada, Y; Aoki, T; Soyano, T; Tarusawa, K; Mito, H; Onda, K; Ibrahimov, M; Pozanenko, A; Makishima, K

    2006-01-01

    Observations of the optical afterglow of GRB 041006 with the Kiso Observatory 1.05 m Schmidt telescope, the Lulin Observatory 1.0 m telescope and the Xinglong Observatory 0.6 m telescope. Three-bands (B, V and R) of photometric data points were obtained on 2004 October 6, 0.025-0.329 days after the burst. These very early multi band light curves imply the existence of a color dependent plateau phase. The B-band light curve shows a clear plateau at around 0.03 days after the burst. The R band light curve shows the hint of a plateau, or a possible slope change, at around 0.1 days after the burst. The overall behavior of these multi-band light curves may be interpreted in terms of the sum of two separate components, one showing a monotonic decay the other exhibiting a rising and a falling phase, as described by the standard afterglow model.

  9. Association between GSTP1 CpG methylation and the early phase of lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunping; Yang, Xiaolin; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Jinlong; Sun, Na

    2014-02-01

    GSTP1 is induced by lead, and thus serves as a biomarker of lead exposure. Lead exposure changes DNA methylation status. We attempted to prove that the methylation of the GSTP1 promoter plays an important role in lead toxicity. We conducted a case-control study of 53 workers from a battery plant and 53 age and sex matched healthy volunteers to determine whether the methylation level of the GSTP1 promoter is associated with the risk of lead poisoning. We employed methylation-specific PCR (MSP) in cell models to determine the relationship between the GSTP1 methylation level and lead exposure. We found no association between GSTP1 methylation and lead exposure. The difference in methylation frequencies between the exposure group and the controls was not statistically significant (p = 0.401), and individuals with the methylated GSTP1 gene was not associated with the risk of lead poisoning (adjusted OR = 1.36, 95% CI, 0.22-8.24). This study suggests that GSTP1 methylation is not involved in the early phase of lead toxicity. Further studies should be performed to detect the association between GSTP1 methylation and the risk of lead poisoning in later phases.

  10. Flare Ribbons In The Early Phase Of An SDO Flare: Emission Measure And Energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Lyndsay; Hannah, I. G.; Hudson, H. S.; Innes, D. E.

    2012-05-01

    We report on the M1.0 flare of 7th August 2010, which displayed extended early phase chromospheric ribbons, well observed by SDO/AIA and RHESSI. Most large flares saturate rapidly in the high-temperature AIA channels, however this event could be followed in unsaturated AIA images for ten minutes in the build-up to and first few minutes of the impulsive phase. Analysis of GOES, RHESSI and SDO/AIA demonstrates the presence of high temperature ( 10MK), compact plasma volumes in the chromospheric flare ribbons, with a column emission measure of on average 3-7 x 1028 cm-5. We construct a time-resolved energy budget for the ribbon plasma, including also SDO/EVE data, and discuss the implications of the observed ribbon properties for flare energisation. This work was supported by the UK’s Science and Technology Facilities Council (ST/1001801), and by the European Commission through the FP7 HESPE project (FP7-2010-SPACE-263086).

  11. Two-Phase Flow Modelling Perspectives Based on Novel High-Resolution Acoustic Measurements of Uniform Steady Sheet-Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauchat, J.; Revil-Baudard, T.; Hurther, D.

    2014-12-01

    Sheet flow is believed to be a major process for morphological evolution of natural systems. An important research effort has been dedicated to laboratory and numerical studies of sheet flow regime that have allowed to make some progress in the understanding of the underlying physical processes. Recent advances made in high resolution measurement techniques allows to give new insights into the small scale physical processes. In this contribution, a novel uniform and steady sheet flow dataset based on an Acoustic Concentration and Velocity Profiler (ACVP) is presented. Profile of colocated velocities (streamwise and wall-normal) and sediment concentration has been measured at high-resolution (3 mm ; 78 Hz for the velocities and 4.9 Hz for the concentration). The measured profiles extend over the whole water column, from the free surface down to the fixed bed and an ensemble averaging over eleven realisations of the same experimental conditions has been used to obtain mean profiles of streamwise velocity, concentration, sediment flux and turbulent shear stress. The present experiment corresponds to a Shields number of θ=0.44 and a suspension number of ws/u*=1.1 corresponding to the lower limit of the no-suspension sheet flow regime. The analysis of the mixing length profile allows to identify two layers, a dilute suspension layer dominated by turbulence and a dense moving bed layer dominated by granular interactions. Our measurements show that the Von Karman parameter is reduced by a factor of more than two and that the Schmidt number is almost constant with a mean value of σs=0.44. Frictional and collisional interactions are encountered in the bed layer. Frictional interactions dominate close to the fixed bed interface whereas collisional interactions seems to control the flow at the transition between the dense and dilute layers. The relevancy of different constitutive laws for two-phase flow models are discussed.

  12. Late Pliensbachian-early Toarcian paleoenvironmental changes in the Cleveland Basin: new clues from high-resolution trace element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, N.; Ruhl, M.; Ullmann, C. V.; Korte, C.; Kemp, D. B.; Hesselbo, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The early Toarcian (~183 Ma ago) was characterized by massive carbon burial and a pronounced negative carbon-isotope excursion (CIE) in marine carbonate and marine and terrestrial organic matter. These features along with the high abundance of redox sensitive trace metals in that interval led to the recognition of a major oceanic anoxic event (OAE). More recently, an earlier companion of the early Toarcian CIE has been documented at the Pliensbachian/Toarcian (Pl/To) boundary in sections of NW Europe, but its expression in the sediment and possible causes are less constrained. One of the most studied areas for this interval is the Cleveland Basin, UK, which is well-studied for litho-, bio- and chemostratigraphy. Here, we present a new dataset of high-resolution element data produced by hand-held X-ray fluorescence analysis to test for the expression of redox-sensitive trace metals and detrital elements across the late Pliensbachian to middle Toarcian of the Cleveland Basin. The Pl/To boundary CIE is associated with low Total Organic Carbon (TOCoxygenation events that prevented massive deposition of organic matter. Trends from redox-sensitive elements such as Fe, V, Mo and U are in agreement with previous findings and scenarios of basin restriction across and after the early Toarcian OAE (McArthur et al., 2008). An interval of maximum enrichment in these elements immediately after the CIE is a feature very similar to the recent observations of Hermoso et al. (2013) in the Paris Basin. This suggests a similar tempo of regional anoxia and black shale deposition in NW Europe. These results also shed light on the behaviour of elements associated with organic matter and the sulphur cycle such as Ni, Cu, Zn and As. Cu is well-correlated to the TOC whereas As shows an enrichment in the interval of black shale deposition after the CIE and two distinct correlation lines with sulphur, one before and during the event, and one after the CIE. This suggests that more As could be

  13. The bivalve Glycymeris planicostalis as a high-resolution paleoclimate archive for Rupelian (Early Oligocene) of Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliser, E. O.; Schöne, B. R.; Tütken, T.; Zirkel, J.; Grimm, K. I.; Pross, J.

    2014-10-01

    Current global warming is likely to result in a unipolar glaciated world with unpredictable repercussions on atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. These changes are expected to affect seasonality as well as the frequency and intensity of decadal climate oscillations. To better constrain the mode and tempo of the anticipated changes, climatologists require high-resolution proxy data of time intervals in the past, e.g. the Early Oligocene during which boundary conditions were similar to those predicted for the near future. As demonstrated by the present study, pristinely preserved shells of the long-lived bivalve mollusk Glycymeris planicostalis from the late Rupelian of the Mainz Basin, Germany, provide an excellent archive to reconstruct changes of sea surface temperature on seasonal to inter-annual time scales. Their shells grew uninterruptedly during winter and summer and therefore recorded the full seasonal temperature amplitude that prevailed in the Mainz Basin 30 Ma ago. Absolute sea surface temperature data were faithfully reconstructed from δ18 Oshell values assuming a δ18Owater signature that was extrapolated from coeval sirenian tooth enamel. Extreme values ranged between 12.3 and 22.0°C and agree well with previous estimates based on planktonic foraminifera and shark teeth. However, summer and winter temperatures varied greatly on inter-annual time-scales. Winter and summer temperatures averaged over 40 annual increments of three specimens equaled 13.6 ± 0.8°C and 17.3 ± 1.2°C, respectively. Unless many samples are analyzed, this variability is hardly seen in foraminiferan tests. Our data also revealed decadal-scale oscillations of seasonal extremes which have - in the absence of appropriate climate archives - never been identified before for the Oligocene. This information can be highly relevant for numerical climate studies aiming to predict possible future climates in a unipolar glaciated or, ultimately, polar ice-free world.

  14. The Transplant of Technology of Capacitive Displacement Transducer to Phase Modulation Grating-the Research of the Grating with nm Measuring Resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The method rising measuring resolution through reducing pitch of the transducer has brought forward from the basic structure, principle and the corresponding relationship among pitches of capacitive electrodes, period T and phase shift of vv(x,t). But if the traditional technique of PCB made of the transducer is still used, it will meet with difficulties in lead wire. And so the technology transplant from the transducer to grating is presented, the basic principle of the phase modulation grating similar...

  15. Risk factors for and impact of respiratory failure on mortality in the early phase of acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Tilde; Kristensen, Marlene Østermark; Rysgaard, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    : Retrospective cohort study including 359 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis. Information was gathered from electronic patient records. We defined respiratory failure based on the modified Marshall scoring system in the revised Atlanta criteria. Predictors of respiratory failure were evaluated......, or pneumonia may develop respiratory failure, suggests that acute lung injury, possibly associated with systemic inflammation, may be important.......BACKGROUND: The incidence of respiratory failure and other respiratory complications in the early phase of acute pancreatitis (AP) is not well investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of respiratory failure, and its impact on mortality in the early phase AP. METHODS...

  16. Synthesis of fluorescent label, DBD-beta-proline, and the resolution efficiency for chiral amines by reversed-phase chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jun Zhe; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa; Kato, Masaru; Fukushima, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    DBD-d(and l)-beta-proline, new fluorescent chiral derivatization reagents, were synthesized from the reaction of 4-(N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-7- fl uoro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-F) with beta-proline. The racemic mixture synthesized was separated by a chiral stationary phase (CSP) column, Chiralpak AD-H, with n-hexane-EtOH-TFA-diethylamine (70:30:0.1:0.1) as the mobile phase. The dl-forms were decided according to the results obtained from a circular dichroism (CD) detector after separation by the CSP column. The fractionated enantiomers reacted with chiral amine to produce a couple of diastereomers. The labeling proceeded in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and pyridine as the activation reagents. The reaction conditions were mild and no racemization occurred during the diastereomer formation. The resulting diastereomers fluoresced at around 570 nm (excitation at around 460 nm). Good linearity of the calibration curves was obtained in the range 1-75 pmol and the detection limits on chromatogram were less than 1 pmol. The separability of the diastereomers was compared with the diastereomers derived from DBD-d(or l)-proline. The resolution values (Rs) obtained from the diastereomers of three chiral amines with DBD-d(or l)-beta-proline were higher than those derived from DBD-d(or l)-proline, e.g. dl-phenylalanine methylester (dl-PAME), 2.23 vs 1.37; (R)(S)-1-phenylethylamine [(R)(S)-PEA], 2.09 vs 1.13; and (R)(S)-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamines [(R)(S)-NEA], 5.19 vs 1.23. The results suggest that the position of COOH group on pyrrolidine moiety in the structures is one of the important factors for the efficient separation of a couple of the diastereomers.

  17. Identifying the crystallinity, phase, and arsenic uptake of the nanomineral schwertmannite using analytical high resolution transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. A.; Kim, B.; Murayama, M.; Hochella, M. F.

    2010-12-01

    Schwertmannite, an iron oxyhydroxide sulfate nanomineral, plays a significant role in the geochemistry of acid mine drainage (AMD) as a metastable phase with respect to goethite and by retaining toxic metals, e.g. arsenic [1]. Schwertmannite’s characteristic morphology is needles 100-300 nm long and only 5-10 nm in diameter extending from a dense aggregate. The poorly-and nano-crystalline nature of this mineral requires using high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) to be fully characterized. We used HRTEM to identify the polyphasic nature of natural samples of schwertmannite collected from the Iberian Pyrite Belt in Spain. In order to analyze the dense core, samples were prepared in thin section using an ultramicrotome. Data on a sample identified as pure schwertmannite through powder XRD shows the presence of 5-10 nm goethite nanocrystals making up a significant portion of one of the nanoneedle tips (Figure 1). These nanocrystals exhibit lattice fringes and faceted surfaces, both of which match that expected for goethite. The great majority of the nanoneedles are poorly-crystalline (no lattice fringes) with atomically rough surfaces which may be highly active in the uptake of As. The presence of a range of phases and crystallinities in this sample demonstrate incipient stages of the mechanism that results in transformation of schwertmannite to goethite. Further analytical TEM analyses will help us track sorption/desorption, as well as the specific locations of As within these materials upon initial formation, as well as during transformation. [1] Acero et al. (2006) GCA 70, 4130-4139. Figure 1. HRTEM image of 'schwertmannite' nanoneedle with FFT data (inset).

  18. Liver CT for vascular mapping during radioembolisation workup: comparison of an early and late arterial phase protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoven, Andor F. van den; Braat, Manon N.G.J.A.; Prince, Jip F.; Doormaal, Pieter J. van; Leeuwen, Maarten S. van; Lam, Marnix G.E.H.; Bosch, Maurice A.A.J. van den [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-01-15

    To compare right gastric (RGA) and segment 4 artery (A4) origin detection rates during radioembolisation workup between early and late arterial phase liver CT protocols. 100 consecutive patients who underwent liver CT between May 2012-January 2015 with early or late arterial phase protocol (n = 50 each, 10- vs. 20-s post-threshold delay) were included. RGA/A4 origin detection rates, assessed by two raters, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the hepatic artery relative to the portal vein were compared between the protocols. The first-second rater scored the RGA origin as visible in 58-65 % (specific proportion of agreement 82 %, κ = 0.62); A4 origin in 96-89 % (94 %, κ = 0.54). Thirty-six percent of RGA origins not detectable by DSA were identified on CT. Origin detection rates were not significantly different for early/late arterial phases. Mean CNR was higher in the early arterial phase protocol (1.7 vs. 1.2, p < 0.001). A 10-s delay arterial phase CT protocol does not significantly improve detection of small intra- and extrahepatic branches. RGA origin detection requires further optimization, whereas A4/MHA origin detection is adequate, with good inter-rater reproducibility. CT remains important for preprocedural planning, because it may reveal arterial anatomy not discernible on DSA. (orig.)

  19. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  20. High-Resolution Ultrasonic Imaging of Dento-Periodontal Tissues Using a Multi-Element Phased Array System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim-Cuong T; Le, Lawrence H; Kaipatur, Neelambar R; Zheng, Rui; Lou, Edmond H; Major, Paul W

    2016-10-01

    Intraoral ultrasonography uses high-frequency mechanical waves to study dento-periodontium. Besides the advantages of portability and cost-effectiveness, ultrasound technique has no ionizing radiation. Previous studies employed a single transducer or an array of transducer elements, and focused on enamel thickness and distance measurement. This study used a phased array system with a 128-element array transducer to image dento-periodontal tissues. We studied two porcine lower incisors from a 6-month-old piglet using 20-MHz ultrasound. The high-resolution ultrasonographs clearly showed the cross-sectional morphological images of the hard and soft tissues. The investigation used an integration of waveform analysis, travel-time calculation, and wavefield simulation to reveal the nature of the ultrasound data, which makes the study novel. With the assistance of time-distance radio-frequency records, we robustly justified the enamel-dentin interface, dentin-pulp interface, and the cemento-enamel junction. The alveolar crest level, the location of cemento-enamel junction, and the thickness of alveolar crest were measured from the images and compared favorably with those from the cone beam computed tomography with less than 10% difference. This preliminary and fundamental study has reinforced the conclusions from previous studies, that ultrasonography has great potential to become a non-invasive diagnostic imaging tool for quantitative assessment of periodontal structures and better delivery of oral care.

  1. High-resolution breast tomography at high energy: a feasibility study of phase contrast imaging on a whole breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztrókay, A.; Diemoz, P. C.; Schlossbauer, T.; Brun, E.; Bamberg, F.; Mayr, D.; Reiser, M. F.; Bravin, A.; Coan, P.

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies on phase contrast imaging (PCI) mammography have demonstrated an enhancement of breast morphology and cancerous tissue visualization compared to conventional imaging. We show here the first results of the PCI analyser-based imaging (ABI) in computed tomography (CT) mode on whole and large (>12 cm) tumour-bearing breast tissues. We demonstrate in this work the capability of the technique of working at high x-ray energies and producing high-contrast images of large and complex specimens. One entire breast of an 80-year-old woman with invasive ductal cancer was imaged using ABI-CT with monochromatic 70 keV x-rays and an area detector of 92×92 µm2 pixel size. Sagittal slices were reconstructed from the acquired data, and compared to corresponding histological sections. Comparison with conventional absorption-based CT was also performed. Five blinded radiologists quantitatively evaluated the visual aspects of the ABI-CT images with respect to sharpness, soft tissue contrast, tissue boundaries and the discrimination of different structures/tissues. ABI-CT excellently depicted the entire 3D architecture of the breast volume by providing high-resolution and high-contrast images of the normal and cancerous breast tissues. These results are an important step in the evolution of PCI-CT towards its clinical implementation.

  2. Super-Resolution Near-Field Disk with Phase-Change Sn-Doped GeSbTe Mask Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei Ling; Thong Yong, Kok; Lip Gan, Chee; Hou Ting, Lee; Shi, Lu Ping

    2009-03-01

    A new mask layer of Sn-doped (7 at. %) Ge2Sb2Te5 was developed and used on super-resolution near-field phase-change optical disks (super-RENS). Temperature-dependent reflectivity result showed a reflectivity change at 169 °C with Sn doping into Ge2Sb2Te5. The mask material also showed high thermal stability. Optical study indicated the suitability of the film for use in blue-laser recording and as a mask layer. Fast crystallization within 90 ns was achieved using a pulsed high-power laser beam of 405 nm wavelength. Dynamic recording performance of the new structure showed carrier-to-noise ratios (CNR) of 37 and 18 dB obtained for 80 and 50 nm mark sizes, respectively. Readout thermal stability of 12,000 cycles was realized for 80 nm mark sizes. The incorporation of Sn-doped GeSbTe (GST) as mask layer in the super-RENS structure significantly improved the CNR and thermal stability of the disk.

  3. Assessment of early radial injury after transradial coronary intervention by high-resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy:innovative technology application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hua; JIA De-an; HAN Hong-ya; YU Miao; MA Qian; XU Xiao-han; ZHOU Yu-jie; LIU Yu-yang; DU Jie; LIU Xiao-li; YAN Zhen-xian; WANG Zhi-jian; GAO Fei; YANG Shi-wei

    2012-01-01

    Background Transradial coronary intervention (TRI) introduces injury to the radial artery (RA) which will affect repeat transradial coronary procedure and the quality as a bypass conduit.We sought to compare the early radial injury after TRI between first-TRI and repeat-TRI by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM).Methods A total of 1116 patients who underwent the transradial coronary procedures were enrolled.The patients depending on whether for the first time to accept transradial coronary procedure were divided into first-TRI group and repeat-TRI group.The RA was examined by UBM before and one day after the procedure.Results Compared with first-TRI group,the mean RA diameter of repeat-TRI one day after the procedure decreased significantly (P <0.05).In first-TRI group,the mean RA diameter was (2.32±0.53) and (1.93±0.57) mm before procedure and one day after the procedure respectively (P <0.05).In repeat-TRI group,the mean RA diameter was (2.37±0.51) and (1.79±0.54) mm before procedure and one day after the procedure,respectively (P <0.01).Compared with first-TRI group,the mean RA diameter was reduced significantly in repeat-TRI group one day after the procedure (P<0.05).The early radial injuries and intimal thickening were compared between first-TRI and repeat-TRI.The mean intima-media thickness of RA was (0.24±0.13) mm and (0.59±0.28) mm before procedure and one day after the procedure in first-TRI group.The mean intima-media thickness of RA was (0.29±0.16) mm and (0.68±0.32) mm before procedure and one day after the procedure in repeat-TRI group.Compared with first-TRI group,the mean intimal thickening was increased significantly in repeat-TRI group one day after the procedure (P<0.05).Intimal dissection,stenosis and occlusion were all significantly greater in repeat-TRI RAs (P <0.05).Linear regression analysis revealed that diameter,repeated TRI procedure and PCI procedure were the independent predictors of intimal thickening.Conclusions RA early

  4. Psychosocial Interventions in Reducing Cannabis Use in Early Phase Psychosis: A Canadian Survey of Treatments Offered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cristina; Tibbo, Philip G; Ursuliak, Zenovia

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis use in people with early phase psychosis (EPP) can have a significant impact on long-term outcomes. The purpose of this investigation was to describe current cannabis use treatment practices in English-speaking early intervention services (EISs) in Canada and determine if their services are informed by available evidence. Thirty-five Canadian English-speaking EISs for psychosis were approached to complete a survey through email, facsimile, or online in order to collect information regarding their current cannabis use treatment practices. Data were acquired from 27 of the 35 (78%) programs approached. Only 12% of EISs offered formal services that targeted cannabis use, whereas the majority (63%) of EISs offered informal services for all substance use, not specifically cannabis. In programs with informal services, individual patient psychoeducation (86%) was slightly more common than individual motivational interviewing (MI) (76%) followed by group patient psychoeducation (52%) and information handouts (52%). Thirty-seven percent of EISs offered formal services for substance use, and compared to programs with informal services, more MI, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and family services were offered, with individual treatment modalities more common than groups. No EISs used contingency management, even though it has some preliminary evidence in chronic populations. Evidence-based service implementation barriers included appropriate training and administrative support. While most English-speaking Canadian EIS programs offer individual MI and psychoeducation, which is in line with the available literature, there is room for improvement in cannabis treatment services based on current evidence for both people with EPP and their families. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Nitric Oxide Chemical Donor Affects the Early Phases of In Vitro Wound Healing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Cristina; Cinque, Benedetta; Lombardi, Francesca; Miconi, Gianfranca; Palumbo, Paola; Evtoski, Zoran; Placidi, Giuseppe; Fanini, Donatella; Cimini, Anna Maria; Benedetti, Elisabetta; Giuliani, Maurizio; Cifone, Maria Grazia

    2016-10-01

    An artificial wound in a confluent monolayer of human keratinocyte HaCaT cells or mouse embryo fibroblast Swiss NIH 3T3 cells was used to analyze the effects of the nitric oxide (NO) chemical donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). SNAP exposure promoted an enhanced rate of wound closure and accelerated motility of both keratinocytes and fibroblasts compared to control cells. The wounded monolayer cultures of HaCaT and NIH 3T3 cells, treated with or without SNAP, were monitored under a phase contrast microscope. Structural and ultrastructural modifications were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images were captured by a digital camera at different time points (0-28 h) and the wound area was analyzed through software included in Matlab®. As early as 15 min, SNAP induced significant cytoskeletal remodeling, as shown by immunostaining (phalloidin-labelling), which in turn was associated with increased filopodium number and length rise. NO donor treatment also induced overexpression of Ki-67 protein, a typical marker of cell proliferation, as shown by immunostaining. Both SNAP-induced migration and proliferation were antagonized by the NO-sensitive GC inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[-4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), which suggests activation of the NO/cGMP signalling cascade in the observed SNAP-induced effects in the early stages of the healing process. Moreover, we provide evidence that PPAR-β antagonist (GSK0660) may interfere with NO-mediated wound healing process. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2185-2195, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Phase III randomized trial of toremifene versus tamoxifen for Japanese postmenopausal patients with early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Morihiko; Tominaga, Takeshi; Kimijima, Izo; Takatsuka, Yuichi; Takashima, Shigemitsu; Nomura, Yasuo; Kasumi, Fujio; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Masuda, Norikazu; Noguchi, Shinzaburo; Eshima, Nobuoki

    2014-05-01

    Toremifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, is used as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal patients with breast cancer in Japan. For Japanese patients, however, only limited data are available on the efficacy and safety profile of toremifene. To establish the long term efficacy and safety of toremifene for Japanese patients, we conducted a prospective, multicenter, randomized phase III trial comparing toremifene and tamoxifen. The subjects were postmenopausal Japanese patients who had undergone surgery for node-negative breast cancer. Toremifene or tamoxifen was administered for 2 years. The primary endpoint was demonstration of the non-inferiority of toremifene compared with tamoxifen in respect of 5-year survival. Secondary endpoints were cumulative overall survival, cumulative disease-free survival, effects on lipid profiles, and adverse events. A total of 253 patients were enrolled. The baseline characteristics of the two treatment groups were well-balanced. Median follow-up was 66.5 months. Five-year survival was similar for toremifene and tamoxifen (97.0 vs. 96.9 %; 90 % confidence interval -3.9 to 4.1), indicating that toremifene is not inferior to tamoxifen for postmenopausal Japanese patients with early breast cancer. Cumulative overall survival and cumulative disease-free survival were also very similar for toremifene and tamoxifen (97.5 vs. 97.3 %, log-rank test P = 0.9458; 88.4 vs. 90.6 %, log-rank test P = 0.3359, respectively). Adverse events in both groups were similar and mostly mild or moderate. Thus, both are equally effective and well tolerated. Our results suggest that the efficacy and safety of toremifene and tamoxifen are equivalent for postmenopausal Japanese patients with early breast cancer.

  7. Changes of inflammation-associated cytokine expressions during early phase of experimental endotoxic shock in macaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui Ji; Ke-Yi Sun; Yan-Hong Feng; Guo-Qing Yin

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study changes of inflammation-associated cytokine expressions during early phase of endotoxic shock in macague.METHODS: Experiments were performed in Macaque mulatta treated with LPS 2.8 mg/kg in shock model group or with normal saline in control group. Blood samples were collected before, or 60 min, or 120 min after LPS injection,respectively. Liver and spleen tissues were obtained at 120 min after LPS injection. The plasma levels of TNF-α,IL-1 β, IL-10 and IL-12P40 were determined by doubleantibody sandwich ELISA with antibodies against human cytokines. The mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1 β, and IL-18 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), liver and spleen were examined by real-time fluorescence semi-quantitative RT-PCR with the primers based on human genes.RESULTS: Mean systemic arterial pressure (MAP), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) and left ventricular work index (LVWI) of macaques were significant declined in shock model group on average 60 min after LPS injection. The plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were significantly increased 60 min after LPS injection and then decreased.The plasma levels of IL-1 β and IL-12P40 were significantly increased at 120 min after LPS injection. The mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-1 β were significantly increased 60 min after LPS stimulation in PBMCs and 120 min after LPS stimulation in livers. The mRNA level of IL-18 was significantly increased 120 min after LPS stimulation in PBMCs and livers. But in spleen, only TNF-α mRNA level in LPS group was significantly higher 120 min after LPS stimulation, compared with that in control group.CONCLUSION: An endotoxic shock model of Macaque mulatta was successfully established. Both antibodies for ELISA and PCR primers based on human cytokine assays were successfully applied to detect macaque cytokines. In the model, inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1 β,IL-12 and IL-18 as well as anti-inflammation cytokine IL-10,were released at very early phase of

  8. Protection of early phase hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury by cholinergic agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Robert

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytokine production is critical in ischemia/reperfusion (IR injury. Acetylcholine binds to macrophages and inhibits cytokine synthesis, through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. This study examined the role of the cholinergic pathway in cytokine production and hepatic IR- injury. Methods Adult male mice underwent 90-min of partial liver ischemia followed by reperfusion. The AChR agonists (1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-L-pioperazinium-iodide [DMPP], and nicotine or saline-vehicle were administered i.p. before ischemia. Plasma cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and Interleukin-6 were measured. Liver injury was assessed by plasma alanine transaminase (ALT and liver histopathology. Results A reperfusion time-dependent hepatocellular injury occurred as was indicated by increased plasma-ALT and histopathology. The injury was associated with marked elevation of plasma cytokines/chemokines. Pre-ischemic treatment of mice with DMPP or nicotine significantly decreased plasma-ALT and cytokines after 3 h of reperfusion. After 6 h of reperfusion, the protective effect of DMPP decreased and reached a negligible level by 24 h of reperfusion, despite significantly low levels of plasma cytokines. Histopathology showed markedly diminished hepatocellular injury in DMPP- and nicotine-pretreated mice during the early-phase of hepatic-IR, which reached a level comparable to saline-treated mice at late-phase of IR. Conclusion Pharmacological modulation of the cholinergic pathway provides a means to modulate cytokine production and to delay IR-induced heaptocellular injury.

  9. Conditionally unbiased estimation in phase II/III clinical trials with early stopping for futility

    OpenAIRE

    Kimani, Peter K.; Todd, Susan; Stallard, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Seamless phase II/III clinical trials combine traditional phases II and III into a single trial that is conducted in two stages, with stage 1 used to answer phase II objectives such as treatment selection and stage 2 used for the confirmatory analysis, which is a phase III objective. Although seamless phase II/III clinical trials are efficient because the confirmatory analysis includes phase II data from stage 1, inference can pose statistical challenges. In this paper, we consider point esti...

  10. Cryogenic phased-array for high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); assessment of clinical and research applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Flora S.

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging is one of the most powerful tools in diagnostic medicine for soft tissue imaging. Image acquisition techniques and hardware receivers are very important in achieving high contrast and high resolution MR images. An aim of this dissertation is to design single and multi-element room and cryogenic temperature arrays and make assessments of their signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and SNR gain. In this dissertation, four sets of MR receiver coils are built. They are the receiver-only cryo-coils that are not commercially available. A tuning and matching circuit is attached to each coil. The tuning and matching circuits are simple; however, each device component has to operate at a high magnetic field and cryogenic temperature environment. Remote DC bias of the varactor controls the tuning and matching outside the scanner room. Active detuning of the resonator is done by two p-i-n junction (PIN) diodes. Cooling of the receiver is done by a customized liquid nitrogen cryostat. The first application is to build a 3-Tesla 2x1 horseshoe counter-rotating current (CRC) cryogenic array to image the tibia in a human body. With significant increase in SNR, the surface coil should deliver high contrast and resolution images that can show the trabecular bone and bone marrow structure. This structural image will be used to model the mechanical strength of the bone as well as bone density and chance of fracture. The planar CRC is a unique design of this surface array. The second application is to modify the coil design to 7-Tesla to study the growth of infant rhesus monkey eyes. Fast scan MR images of the infant monkey heads are taken for monitoring shapes of their eyeballs. The monkeys are induced with shortsightedness by eye lenses, and they are scanned periodically to get images of their eyeballs. The field-of-view (FOV) of these images is about five centimeters and the area of interest is two centimeters deep from the surface. Because of these reasons

  11. Experimental infection with Toxocara cati in pigs: migratory pattern and pathological response in early phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfelt, Irma Estela; Duchene, Adriana; Daprato, Betina; Lopez, Clara María; Cardillo, Natalia; Franco, Aníbal Juan

    2014-01-01

    Experimental inoculations of approximately 100,000 infective Toxocara cati larval eggs were done in twelve pigs. The T. cati eggs used for inoculation were collected from cat's feces. Another group of three pigs served as an uninfected control. Groups of infected pigs were euthanized at seven, 14, 21, and 28 days post-inoculation (dpi). Tissue samples were taken for digestion and histopathology changes in early phase. The number of larvae recovered from the lungs peaked at seven and 14 dpi and were also present at 21, and 28 dpi. Larvae of T. cati were present in the lymph nodes of the small and large intestine at seven, 14, and 28 dpi and at seven, 14, 21, and 28 dpi respectively. In other studied tissues, no larvae or less than one larva per gram was detected. The pathological response observed in the liver and lungs at seven and 14 dpi, showed white spots on the liver surface and areas of consolidation were observed in the lungs. The lungs showed an inflammatory reaction with larvae in center at 28 dpi. In the liver we observed periportal and perilobular hepatitis. The lymph nodes of the intestines displayed eosinophil lymphadenitis with reactive centers containing parasitic forms in some of them. The granulomatous reaction was not observed in any tissues. The role of the other examined tissues had less significance. The relevance of this parasite as an etiological agent that leads to disease in paratenic hosts is evident.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH Toxocara cati IN PIGS: MIGRATORY PATTERN AND PATHOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN EARLY PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Estela Sommerfelt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental inoculations of approximately 100,000 infective Toxocara cati larval eggs were done in twelve pigs. The T. cati eggs used for inoculation were collected from cat's feces. Another group of three pigs served as an uninfected control. Groups of infected pigs were euthanized at seven, 14, 21, and 28 days post-inoculation (dpi. Tissue samples were taken for digestion and histopathology changes in early phase. The number of larvae recovered from the lungs peaked at seven and 14 dpi and were also present at 21, and 28 dpi. Larvae of T. cati were present in the lymph nodes of the small and large intestine at seven, 14, and 28 dpi and at seven, 14, 21, and 28 dpi respectively. In other studied tissues, no larvae or less than one larva per gram was detected. The pathological response observed in the liver and lungs at seven and 14 dpi, showed white spots on the liver surface and areas of consolidation were observed in the lungs. The lungs showed an inflammatory reaction with larvae in center at 28 dpi. In the liver we observed periportal and perilobular hepatitis. The lymph nodes of the intestines displayed eosinophil lymphadenitis with reactive centers containing parasitic forms in some of them. The granulomatous reaction was not observed in any tissues. The role of the other examined tissues had less significance. The relevance of this parasite as an etiological agent that leads to disease in paratenic hosts is evident.

  13. The Role of Galaxy Mergers and Molecular Gas in the Early Phase of Galaxy Cluster Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chao-Ling

    2017-08-01

    High-redshift protoclusters are ideal places to study the formation of the largest structures in the Universe and the early environmental influences on galaxy evolution. Recent discoveries of z>2 protoclusters with extremely rich populations of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs; SFR>100 Msun/yr) represent the most active assembly phases of massive galaxy clusters. Understanding the triggering mechanisms of these unusual concentrations of extreme star-forming galaxies can provide critical insights into the formation of most massive galaxies in these clusters and the assembly of massive clusters themselves. For example, an increased probability of galaxy interactions and/or enhanced gas supply may trigger an excess of DSFGs. Using the extensive ancillary data in the COSMOS field, we study the role of galaxy mergers through measuring the frequency of galaxy pairs in two such DSFG-rich protoclusters at z=2.10 and 2.47, respectively. We also investigate the mean molecular gas content of protocluster galaxies by stacking SCUBA-2 850 micron images. These independent investigations provide complementary views into the physical nature of these DSFG-rich protoclusters.

  14. 2015 Guidance on cancer immunotherapy development in early-phase clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The development of cancer immunotherapies is progressing rapidly with a variety of technological approaches. They consist of "cancer vaccines", which are based on the idea of vaccination, "effector cell therapy", classified as passive immunotherapy, and "inhibition of immunosuppression", which intends to break immunological tolerance to autoantigens or immunosuppressive environments characterizing antitumor immune responses. Recent reports showing clinical evidence of efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive immunotherapies with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and tumor-specific receptor gene-modified T cells indicate the beginning of a new era for cancer immunotherapy. This guidance summarizes ideas that will be helpful to those who plan to develop cancer immunotherapy. The aims of this guidance are to discuss and offer important points in early phase clinical studies of innovative cancer immunotherapy, with future progress in this field, and to contribute to the effective development of cancer immunotherapy aligned with the scope of regulatory science. This guidance covers cancer vaccines, effector cell therapy, and inhibition of immunosuppression, including immune checkpoint inhibitors.

  15. Effects of Ligustrazine on Hematopoiesis in the Early Phase of Bone Marrow Transplantation Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周银莉; 刘文励; 孙汉英; 徐惠珍; 路武; 孙岚; 孟凡凯

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To investigate the effects of Ligustrazine on histogenesis of bone marrow in the early phase of hematopoietic reconstruction in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) mice. The syngeneic BMT mice model was established. The syngeneic BMT mice were orally given 2 mg Ligustrazine twice a day. 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 21 day(s) after BMT, peripheral blood granulocytes and bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNC) were counted and the diameter of central vein and the area of micro-vessel in femur were measured. The effect of Ligustrazine on hematopoietic stem cells was observed by colony forming unit of spleen (CFU-S). The effect of Ligustrazine on hemopoietic progenitors was studied by observing the number of progenitors of Granulocytes/Macrophage on day 10 and day 20 after BMT. In Ligustrazine-treated group, the diameter of center veins and the area of micro-vessel of femur were all significantly less than the control group 7, 10, 15, 21 days after BMT (P<0. 01). In addition, Ligustrazine significantly increased the number of CFU-S on day 10and the number of CFU-GM on day 10, 20 after BMT. These results indicate that Ligustrazine can accelerate the histogenesis of hemopoietic bone marrow, which may be one mechanism by which Ligustrazine promotes hematopoietic reconstitution after BMT.

  16. Distribution of CCS and HC3N in L1147, an Early Phase Dark Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Taiki; Hirota, Tomoya

    2014-01-01

    We used the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope to reveal spatial distributions of CCS and HC$_3$N in L1147, one of carbon-chain producing regions (CCPRs) candidates, where carbon-chain molecules are dominant rather than NH$_3$. We found that three cores (two CCS cores and one HC$_3$N core) exist along the NE-SW filament traced by the 850 micron dust continuum, which are away from a Very Low Luminosity Object (VeLLO - a source that may turn into sub-stellar mass brown dwarf). The column densities of CCS are 3-7x10$^{12}$ cm$^{-2}$ and those of HC$_3$N are 2-6x10$^{12}$ cm$^{-2}$, respectively, much lower than those previously reported towards other CCPRs. We also found that two CCS peaks are displaced from that of HC$_3$N. In order to interpret such interleaved distributions, we conducted chemical reaction network simulations, and found that slightly different gas densities could lead to large variation of CCS-to-HC$_3$N ratio in the early phase of dark cloud evolution. Such a chemical "variation" may be seen in ot...

  17. A little inflation in the early universe at the QCD phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Boeckel, Tillmann

    2009-01-01

    We explore a scenario that allows for a strong first order phase-transition of QCD at non-negligible baryon number in the early universe and its possible cosmological observable consequences. The main assumption is a quasi-stable QCD-vacuum state that leads to a short period of inflation, consequently diluting the net baryon to photon ratio to it's today observed value. A strong mechanism for baryogenesis is needed to start out with a baryon asymmetry of order unity, e.g. as provided by Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. The cosmological implications are direct effects on primordial density fluctuations up to dark matter mass scales of 1 - 10 solar masses, change in the spectral slope up to mass scales of 10^6 - 10^7 solar masses, production of primordial magnetic fields with initial strength up to 10^12 Gauss and a gravitational wave spectrum with present day peak strain amplitude of at most h_c = 4.7 * 10^-15 around a frequency of 4*10^-8 Hz. The little QCD inflation scenario could be probed with the upcoming heavy...

  18. A little inflation in the early universe at the QCD phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckel, Tillmann; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen

    2010-07-23

    We explore a scenario that allows for a strong first order phase transition of QCD at a non-negligible baryon number in the early Universe and its possible observable consequences. The main assumption is a quasistable QCD-vacuum state that leads to a short period of inflation, consequently diluting the net baryon to photon ratio to today's observed value. A strong mechanism for baryogenesis is needed to start out with a baryon asymmetry of order unity, e.g., as provided by Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. The cosmological implications are direct effects on primordial density fluctuations up to dark matter mass scales of M{max}∼1-10M{⊙}, change in the spectral slope up to M{max}∼10{6}-10{8}M{⊙}, production of strong primordial magnetic fields and a gravitational wave spectrum with present day peak strain amplitude of up to h{c}(ν{peak})∼5×10{-15} around ν{peak}∼4×10{-8}  Hz.

  19. Media Messages and Perceptions of the Affordable Care Act during the Early Phase of Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Erika Franklin; Baum, Laura M; Barry, Colleen L; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Gollust, Sarah E

    2017-02-01

    Public opinion about the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has been polarized since the law's passage. Past research suggests these conditions would make any media influence on the public limited at best. However, during the early phase of implementation, locally broadcast ACA-related media messages-in the form of paid health insurance and political advertisements and news media stories-abounded as advocates, insurance marketers, and politicians sought to shape the public's perceptions of the law. To what extent did message exposure affect ACA perceptions during the first open enrollment period? We merge data on volumes of messaging at the media market level with nationally representative survey data to examine the relationship between estimated exposure to media messaging and the public's perceptions of how informed they were about and favorable toward the ACA in October 2013. We find that higher volumes of insurance advertising and local news coverage are associated with participants' perceptions of being informed about the law. Volumes of insurance advertising and of local news coverage are also associated with participants' favorability toward the law, but the relationship varies with partisanship, supporting the growing body of research describing partisan perceptual bias.

  20. In vivo measurement of dynamic rectus femoris function at postures representative of early swing phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Antonio; Dhaher, Yasin; Thelen, Darryl G

    2008-01-01

    Forward dynamic models suggest that muscle-induced joint motions depend on dynamic coupling between body segments. As a result, biarticular muscles may exhibit non-intuitive behavior in which the induced joint motion is opposite to that assumed based on anatomy. Empirical validation of such predictions is important for models to be relied upon to characterize muscle function. In this study, we measured, in vivo, the hip and knee accelerations induced by electrical stimulation of the rectus femoris (RF) and the vastus medialis (VM) at postures representatives of the toe-off and early swing phases of the gait cycle. Seven healthy young subjects were positioned side-lying with their lower limb supported on air bearings while a 90 ms pulse train stimulated each muscle separately or simultaneously. Lower limb kinematics were measured and compared to predictions from a similarly configured dynamic model of the lower limb. We found that both RF and VM, when stimulated independently, accelerated the hip and knee into extension at these postures, consistent with model predictions. Predicted ratios of hip acceleration to knee acceleration were generally within 1 s.d. of average values. In addition, measured responses to simultaneous RF and VM stimulation were within 13% of predictions based on the assumption that joint accelerations induced by activating two muscles simultaneously can be found by adding the joint accelerations induced by activating the same muscles independently. These results provide empirical evidence of the importance of considering dynamic effects when interpreting the role of muscles in generating movement.

  1. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory: Fast Response Space Missions for Early Time Phase of Gamma Ray Bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I.H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the unexplored domains in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the early time phase of the optical light curve. We have proposed Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) to address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of small space missions. The UFFO is eq...

  2. 78 FR 69690 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is extending the comment period for the draft guidance for industry entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of Cellular and Gene Therapy Products'' that appeared in the Federal Register of July 2, 2013 (78 FR 39736). The draft guidance document provides sponsors of Investigational New Drug......

  3. Bridging the gap between selection decisions of facade systems at the early design phase: Issues, challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Kassema

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Building facade has a significant impact on the environmental and economic performance of buildings and projects. The specification of their elements at the early design phase depends on numerous technical, environmental and economic factors and involves several stakeholders. The procurement and delivery of the facade work package from the early design phase, through detailed design and manufacture, to installation is a process with several inherent risk factors due to the involved cost, technical and engineering complexities and its position on the critical path in all projects. This research investigates the process of selection and specification of building facade elements at the early design phases with the overarching aim of identifying the issues affecting specification decisions, their root causes and impact on projects. The research utilizes a mixed research approach which combines a retrospective case study and an industry survey as two research methods that build on each other. The findings suggest that the complexity of specification at the early design phases is exacerbated by factors such as the inadequate technical knowledge of stakeholders involved in the decision making process, the non-involvement of building facade consultants, the late involvement of specialist facade subcontractors, and in a few cases by some commercial exclusivity agreements that restricts specification decisions. 

  4. Soleus stretch reflex inhibition in the early swing phase of gait using deep peroneal nerve stimulation in spastic stroke participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormolen, Marco M.; Ladouceur, Michel; Veltink, Petrus H.; Sinkjaer, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the feasibility of inhibiting the stretch reflex of the soleus muscle by a conditioning stimulus applied to the deep peroneal nerve in spastic stroke participants during the early swing phase of gait. - Materials and Methods: This study investigated the effect of an

  5. Effect of Repeated Stress Treatments During the Follicular Phase and Early Pregnancy on Reproductive Performance of Gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede, N.M.; Roelofs, J.B.; Verheijen, R.J.E.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Hazeleger, W.; Kemp, B.

    2007-01-01

    In pig husbandry, stress is being considered an important cause of impaired reproductive performance. Therefore, an experiment was performed to quantify effects of repeated stressors during the follicular phase and/or during early pregnancy on reproductive performance of gilts. Eighty-one cyclic

  6. Explorative immunohistochemical study to evaluate the addition of a topical corticosteroid in the early phase of alefacept treatment for psoriasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenschen, H.J.; Gerritsen, W.J.; Rens, D.W.A. van; Seyger, M.M.B.; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the additional effect of betamethasone dipropionate cream in the early phase of an intramuscular (IM) alefacept course, on plaque severity and on modulating T-cell subsets, cells expressing NK-receptors, epidermal proliferation and keratinocyte differentiation in

  7. The Effect of Spatial and Temporal Resolution of Cine Phase Contrast MRI on Wall Shear Stress and Oscillatory Shear Index Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijsen, Frank J.; Marquering, Henk; van Ooij, Pim; vanBavel, Ed; Wentzel, Jolanda J.; Nederveen, Aart J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI) are associated with atherosclerotic disease. Both parameters are derived from blood velocities, which can be measured with phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI). Limitations in spatiotemporal resolution of PC-MRI are known to affect these measurements. Our aim was to investigate the effect of spatiotemporal resolution using a carotid artery phantom. Methods A carotid artery phantom was connected to a flow set-up supplying pulsatile flow. MRI measurement planes were placed at the common carotid artery (CCA) and internal carotid artery (ICA). Two-dimensional PC-MRI measurements were performed with thirty different spatiotemporal resolution settings. The MRI flow measurement was validated with ultrasound probe measurements. Mean flow, peak flow, flow waveform, WSS and OSI were compared for these spatiotemporal resolutions using regression analysis. The slopes of the regression lines were reported in %/mm and %/100ms. The distribution of low and high WSS and OSI was compared between different spatiotemporal resolutions. Results The mean PC-MRI CCA flow (2.5±0.2mL/s) agreed with the ultrasound probe measurements (2.7±0.02mL/s). Mean flow (mL/s) depended only on spatial resolution (CCA:-13%/mm, ICA:-49%/mm). Peak flow (mL/s) depended on both spatial (CCA:-13%/mm, ICA:-17%/mm) and temporal resolution (CCA:-19%/100ms, ICA:-24%/100ms). Mean WSS (Pa) was in inverse relationship only with spatial resolution (CCA:-19%/mm, ICA:-33%/mm). OSI was dependent on spatial resolution for CCA (-26%/mm) and temporal resolution for ICA (-16%/100ms). The regions of low and high WSS and OSI matched for most of the spatiotemporal resolutions (CCA:30/30, ICA:28/30 cases for WSS; CCA:23/30, ICA:29/30 cases for OSI). Conclusion We show that both mean flow and mean WSS are independent of temporal resolution. Peak flow and OSI are dependent on both spatial and temporal resolution. However, the magnitude of mean and peak flow, WSS and

  8. Neddylation is required for herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1)-induced early phase interferon-beta production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Ye, Zhenjie; Pei, Yujun; Qiu, Guihua; Wang, Qingyang; Xu, Yunlu; Shen, Beifen; Zhang, Jiyan

    2016-09-01

    Type I interferons such as interferon-beta (IFN-β) play essential roles in the host innate immune response to herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) infection. The transcription of type I interferon genes is controlled by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family members including IRF3. NF-κB activation depends on the phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB (IκB), which triggers its ubiqitination and degradation. It has been reported that neddylation inhibition by a pharmacological agent MLN4924 potently suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proinflammatory cytokine production with the accumulation of phosphorylated IκBα. However, the role of neddylation in type I interferon expression remains unknown. Here, we report that neddylation inhibition with MLN4924 or upon UBA3 deficiency led to accumulation of phosphorylated IκBα, impaired IκBα degradation, and impaired NF-κB nuclear translocation in the early phase of HSV-1 infection even though phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 were not affected. The blockade of NF-κB nuclear translocation by neddylation inhibition becomes less efficient at the later time points of HSV-1 infection. Consequently, HSV-1-induced early phase IFN-β production significantly decreased upon MLN4924 treatment and UBA3 deficiency. NF-κB inhibitor JSH-23 mimicked the effects of neddylation inhibition in the early phase of HSV-1 infection. Moreover, the effects of neddylation inhibition on HSV-1-induced early phase IFN-β production diminished in the presence of NF-κB inhibitor JSH-23. Thus, neddylation contributes to HSV-1-induced early phase IFN-β production through, at least partially, promoting NF-κB activation.

  9. Documentation of normal and leukemic myelopoietic progenitor cells with high-resolution phase-contrast time-lapse cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, I T

    2001-08-01

    The high-resolution phase-contrast, time-lapse cinematography using oil immersion lenses and 16-mm film demonstrates the kinetic cell events as maturation, locomotion, mitosis, and apoptosis of cells cultivated at 37 degrees C for up to 10 days. 0.5 v/v frozen-thawed sera with presumably high cytokine concentrations were added to the plasma or agar clot. Vital progenitor cells from human bone marrow and blood have a large, bright, unstructured nucleus with a large nucleolus and a narrow rim of cytoplasm (nuclear/cytoplasmic volume ratio = 0.7). Their nuclei are 6-14 micrometer in diameter and double their volume within 8 h. Many (70%) move at a mean speed of 2 micrometer/min, and many (30%) multiply with alpha-2alpha mitoses, generating progenitor cell families. Various disturbances during the course of mitosis lead to the formation of polyploid cells, thereby yielding the megakaryocytic cell line. Some of the progenitor cells undergo asymmetric alpha-alphan mitoses: One of the two initially identical daughter cells remains a progenitor cell in the morphological sense, whereas the other daughter cell - depending on the size of its mother cell - matures in the same culture medium to form a granulocytopoietic, monocytopoietic or erythrocytopoietic cell line. - In acute myeloid leukemias (AML), the blasts and their nuclei are slightly larger than the corresponding progenitor cells and move faster (5 micrometer/min). Symmetric alpha-2alpha mitoses permit unlimited multiplication of the leukemic blasts if contact with cytotoxic lymphocytes does not render them apoptotic. This results in more stromal cells than normal. Granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and anemia occur due to the genetic impairment of signaling control for asymmetric alpha-alphan mitoses, and thrombocytopenia occurs due to the reduction in polyploidization.

  10. Two phases of the Holocene East African Humid Period: Inferred from a high-resolution geochemical record off Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiting; Rendle-Bühring, Rebecca; Kuhlmann, Holger; Li, Anchun

    2017-02-01

    During the Holocene, the most notably climatic change across the African continent is the African Humid Period (AHP), however the pace and primary forcing for this pluvial condition is still ambiguous, particularly in East Africa. We present a high-resolution marine sediment record off Tanzania to provide insights into the climatic conditions of inland East Africa during the Holocene. Major element ratios (i.e., log-ratios of Fe/Ca and Ti/Ca), derived from X-Ray Fluorescence scanning, have been employed to document variations in humidity in East Africa. Our results show that the AHP is represented by two humid phases: an intense humid period from the beginning of the Holocene to 8 ka (AHP I); and a moderate humid period spanning from 8 to 5.5 ka (AHP II). On the basis of our geochemical record and regime detection, the termination of the AHP initiated at 5.5 ka and ceased around 3.5 ka. Combined with other paleoclimatic records around East Africa, we suggest that the humid conditions in this region responded to Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer insolation. The AHP I and II might have been related to an eastward shift of the Congo Air Boundary and warmer conditions in the western Indian Ocean, which resulted in additional moisture being delivered from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans during the NH summer and autumn, respectively. We further note a drought event throughout East Africa north of 10°S around 8.2 ka, which may have been related to the southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in response to the NH cooling event.

  11. Evaluation of models to induce low progesterone during the early luteal phase in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, M E; Roche, J F; Lonergan, P; Forde, N; Crowe, M A

    2009-10-15

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate models for generation of low circulating progesterone concentrations during early pregnancy in cattle. In Experiment 1, 17 crossbred heifers (Bos taurus) were assigned to either prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) administration on Days 3, 3.5, and 4 (PG3; n=9) or to control (n=8). Blood samples were collected from heifers from Days 1 to 9 for progesterone assay. Progesterone concentrations were decreased (P<0.03) between 18 and 48h after first PGF(2alpha) treatment in heifers assigned to PG3 compared with that of controls. In Experiment 2, 39 crossbred heifers detected in estrus were inseminated (Day 0) and assigned to either (1) PGF(2alpha) administration on Days 3, 3.5, and 4 (PG3; n=10), (2) PGF(2alpha) administration on Days 3, 3.5, 4, and 4.5 (PG4; n=10), (3) Progesterone Releasing Intravaginal Device (PRID) insertion on Day 4.5 with PGF(2alpha) administration on Days 5 and 6 (PRID+PGF(2alpha); n=10), or (4) control (n=9). Blood samples were collected daily until Day 15, and conceptus survival rate was determined at slaughter on Day 16. Progesterone concentrations during the sampling period in the PG3 and PG4 groups did not differ but were less than that of controls (P<0.01). After an initial peak, progesterone concentrations in the PRID+PGF(2alpha) group were similar to that of controls. More heifers in the PG4 group (6 of 10) had complete luteal regression than did those in the PG3 group (3 of 10). Conceptus survival rate on Day 16 did not differ between groups. There was a significant correlation between progesterone concentration on Days 5 and 6 and conceptus size on Day 16. In summary, treatment with PGF(2alpha) on Days 3, 3.5, and 4 postestrus appeared to provide the best model to induce reduced circulating progesterone concentrations during the early luteal phase in cattle.

  12. Ultra-High Resolution Imaging of the Human Brain with Phase-Cycled Balanced Steady State Free Precession at 7.0T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeineh, Michael; Parekh, Mansi; Zaharchuk, Greg; Su, Jason; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Fischbein, Nancy; Rutt, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objective To acquire ultra-high resolution images of the brain using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) at 7.0T and to identify the potential utility of this sequence. Materials and Methods 8 subjects participated in this study after providing informed consent. Each subject was scanned with 8 phase-cycles of bSSFP at 0.4mm isotropic resolution using 0.5 NEX and two-dimensional parallel acceleration of 1.75 × 1.75. Each phase cycle required 5 minutes of scanning, with pauses between the phase cycles allowing short periods of rest. The individual phase cycles were aligned and then averaged. The same subjects underwent scanning using 3D multi-echo GRE at 0.8mm isotropic resolution, 3D CUBE T2 at 0.7mm isotropic resolution, and thin-section coronal oblique T2-weighted FSE at 0.22 × 0.22 × 2.0 mm resolution for comparison. Two neuroradiologists assessed image quality and potential research and clinical utility. Results Subjects generally tolerated the scan sessions well, and composite high-resolution bSSFP images were produced for each subject. Rater analysis demonstrated that bSSFP had superior 3D visualization of the microarchitecture of the hippocampus, very good contrast to delineate the borders of the subthalamic nucleus, and relatively good B1 homogeneity throughout. In addition to excellent visualization of the cerebellum, subtle details of brain and skull base anatomy were also easier to identify on the bSSFP images, including the line of Gennari, membrane of Lillequist, and cranial nerves. bSSFP had a strong iron contrast similar to or better than the comparison sequences. However, cortical gray-white contrast was significantly better with CUBE T2 and T2-weighted FSE. Conclusions bSSFP can facilitate ultra-high resolution imaging of the brain. While total imaging times are long, the individually short phase-cycles can be acquired separately, improving exam tolerability. These images may be beneficial for studies of the hippocampus, iron

  13. Application of sensitive, high-resolution imaging at a commercial lab-based X-ray micro-CT system using propagation-based phase retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidola, P; Morgan, K; Willner, M; Fehringer, A; Allner, S; Prade, F; Pfeiffer, F; Achterhold, K

    2017-02-09

    Several dedicated commercial lab-based micro-computed tomography (μCT) systems exist, which provide high-resolution images of samples, with the capability to also deliver in-line phase contrast. X-ray phase contrast is particularly beneficial when visualizing very small features and weakly absorbing samples. The raw measured projections will include both phase and absorption effects. Extending our previous work that addressed the optimization of experimental conditions at the commercial ZEISS Xradia 500 Versa system, single-distance phase-contrast imaging is demonstrated on complex biological and material samples. From data captured at this system, we demonstrate extraction of the phase signal or the correction of the mixed image for the phase shift, and show how this procedure increases the contrast and removes artefacts. These high-quality images, measured without the use of a synchrotron X-ray source, demonstrate that highly sensitive, micrometre-resolution imaging of 3D volumes is widely accessible using commercially advanced laboratory devices.

  14. Major role for cysteine proteases during the early phase of Acanthamoeba castellanii encystment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitsch, David; Köhsler, Martina; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Deutsch, Andrea; Allmaier, Günter; Duchêne, Michael; Walochnik, Julia

    2010-04-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii is a facultative pathogen that has a two-stage life cycle comprising the vegetatively growing trophozoite stage and the dormant cyst stage. Cysts are formed when the cell encounters unfavorable conditions, such as environmental stress or food deprivation. Due to their rigid double-layered wall, Acanthamoeba cysts are highly resistant to antiamoebic drugs. This is problematic as cysts can survive initially successful chemotherapeutic treatment and cause relapse of the disease. We studied the Acanthamoeba encystment process by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and found that most changes in the protein content occur early in the process. Truncated actin isoforms were found to abound in the encysting cell, and the levels of translation elongation factor 2 (EF2) were sharply decreased, indicating that the rate of protein synthesis must be low at this stage. In the advanced stage of encystment, however, EF2 levels and the trophozoite proteome were partly restored. The protease inhibitors PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride) and E64d [(2S,3S)-trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-3-methylbutane ethyl ester] inhibited the onset of encystment, whereas the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide was ineffective. Changes in the protein profile, similar to those of encysting cells, could be observed with trophozoite homogenates incubated at room temperature for several hours. Interestingly, these changes could be inhibited significantly by cysteine protease inhibitors but not by inhibitors against other proteases. Taken together, we conclude that the encystment process in A. castellanii is of a bipartite nature consisting of an initial phase of autolysis and protein degradation and an advanced stage of restoration accompanied by the expression of encystment-specific genes.

  15. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist modulates the early phase of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Sgroi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cytokine administration is a potential therapy for acute liver failure by reducing inflammatory responses and favour hepatocyte regeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra during liver regeneration and to study the effect of a recombinant human IL-1ra on liver regeneration. METHODS: We performed 70%-hepatectomy in wild type (WT mice, IL-1ra knock-out (KO mice and in WT mice treated by anakinra. We analyzed liver regeneration at regular intervals by measuring the blood levels of cytokines, the hepatocyte proliferation by bromodeoxyuridin (BrdU incorporation, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and Cyclin D1 expression. The effect of anakinra on hepatocyte proliferation was also tested in vitro using human hepatocytes. RESULTS: At 24h and at 48 h after hepatectomy, IL-1ra KO mice had significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β and MCP-1 and a reduced and delayed hepatocyte proliferation measured by BrdU incorporation, PCNA and Cyclin D1 protein levels, when compared to WT mice. IGFBP-1 and C/EBPβ expression was significantly decreased in IL-1ra KO compared to WT mice. WT mice treated with anakinra showed significantly decreased levels of IL-6 and significantly higher hepatocyte proliferation at 24h compared to untreated WT mice. In vitro, primary human hepatocytes treated with anakinra showed significantly higher proliferation at 24h compared to hepatocytes without treatment. CONCLUSION: IL1ra modulates the early phase of liver regeneration by decreasing the inflammatory stress and accelerating the entry of hepatocytes in proliferation. IL1ra might be a therapeutic target to improve hepatocyte proliferation.

  16. Cord Blood Acute Phase Reactants Predict Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palac, Hannah L.; Yogev, Ram; Ernst, Linda M.; Mestan, Karen K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Early onset sepsis (EOS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants, yet diagnosis remains inadequate resulting in missed cases or prolonged empiric antibiotics with adverse consequences. Evaluation of acute phase reactant (APR) biomarkers in umbilical cord blood at birth may improve EOS detection in preterm infants with intrauterine infection. Methods In this nested case-control study, infants (29.7 weeks gestation, IQR: 27.7–32.2) were identified from a longitudinal cohort with archived cord blood and placental histopathology. Patients were categorized using culture, laboratory, clinical, and antibiotic treatment data into sepsis groups: confirmed sepsis (cEOS, n = 12); presumed sepsis (PS, n = 30); and no sepsis (controls, n = 30). Nine APRs were measured in duplicate from cord blood using commercially available multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Plex Pro™). In addition, placental histopathologic data were linked to biomarker results. Results cEOS organisms were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae and Listeria monocytogenes. C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid P and ferritin were significantly elevated in cEOS compared to controls (p<0.01). SAA, CRP, and Hp were elevated in cEOS but not in PS (p<0.01) and had AUCs of 99%, 96%, and 95% respectively in predicting cEOS. Regression analysis revealed robust associations of SAA, CRP, and Hp with EOS after adjustment for covariates. Procalcitonin, fibrinogen, α-2-macroglobulin and tissue plasminogen activator were not significantly different across groups. Placental acute inflammation was associated with APR elevation and was present in all cEOS, 9 PS, and 17 control infants. Conclusion This study shows that certain APRs are elevated in cord blood of premature infants with EOS of intrauterine origin. SAA, CRP, and Hp at birth have potential diagnostic utility for risk stratification and

  17. Musculoskeletal Symptoms in Nurses in the Early Implementation Phase of California's Safe Patient Handling Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Joung Hee; Gershon, Robyn R M

    2015-06-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries and symptoms are prevalent in nurses and are largely associated with strenuous patient handling. In 2011, California enacted legislation that required acute-care hospitals to implement safe patient handling (SPH) policies and programs. To assess the early phase of this legislation, we conducted an epidemiological assessment of organizational SPH practices, musculoskeletal symptoms, and perceptions in a random sample of 396 registered nurses. Among those who worked in hospitals and had patient handling duties (n = 220), the 12 month prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal symptoms was 69% (lower back 54%, neck 41%, shoulders 34%, and hands/wrists 26%). Twenty-two percent of the nurses reported that their hospitals had a "no-lift" policy, 37% reported that their hospitals had lift teams, and 61% reported the availability of mechanical lift equipment such as floor or ceiling lifts. Nurses whose facilities employed lift teams were significantly less likely to report low back pain (OR = 0.54, 95% CI [0.30-0.97]). Nurses whose units had ceiling lifts were significantly less likely to report shoulder pain than nurses with no access to lifts (OR = 0.32, 95% CI [0.10-0.98]). Roughly 60% of respondents were aware of the SPH law, and 33% reported changes in their hospital's patient handling policies or programs since the law went into effect. Hospital SPH practices reported by the nurses in our sample were generally sub-optimal, but our findings suggest positive effects of elements required by SPH legislation. These data will serve as the baseline for future evaluation of the impact of this law in California.

  18. High-content analysis of sequential events during the early phase of influenza A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Indranil; Yamauchi, Yohei; Helenius, Ari; Horvath, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) represents a worldwide threat to public health by causing severe morbidity and mortality every year. Due to high mutation rate, new strains of IAV emerge frequently. These IAVs are often drug-resistant and require vaccine reformulation. A promising approach to circumvent this problem is to target host cell determinants crucial for IAV infection, but dispensable for the cell. Several RNAi-based screens have identified about one thousand cellular factors that promote IAV infection. However, systematic analyses to determine their specific functions are lacking. To address this issue, we developed quantitative, imaging-based assays to dissect seven consecutive steps in the early phases of IAV infection in tissue culture cells. The entry steps for which we developed the assays were: virus binding to the cell membrane, endocytosis, exposure to low pH in endocytic vacuoles, acid-activated fusion of viral envelope with the vacuolar membrane, nucleocapsid uncoating in the cytosol, nuclear import of viral ribonucleoproteins, and expression of the viral nucleoprotein. We adapted the assays to automated microscopy and optimized them for high-content screening. To quantify the image data, we performed both single and multi-parametric analyses, in combination with machine learning. By time-course experiments, we determined the optimal time points for each assay. Our quality control experiments showed that the assays were sufficiently robust for high-content analysis. The methods we describe in this study provide a powerful high-throughput platform to understand the host cell processes, which can eventually lead to the discovery of novel anti-pathogen strategies.

  19. Cord Blood Acute Phase Reactants Predict Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithal, Leena B; Palac, Hannah L; Yogev, Ram; Ernst, Linda M; Mestan, Karen K

    2017-01-01

    Early onset sepsis (EOS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants, yet diagnosis remains inadequate resulting in missed cases or prolonged empiric antibiotics with adverse consequences. Evaluation of acute phase reactant (APR) biomarkers in umbilical cord blood at birth may improve EOS detection in preterm infants with intrauterine infection. In this nested case-control study, infants (29.7 weeks gestation, IQR: 27.7-32.2) were identified from a longitudinal cohort with archived cord blood and placental histopathology. Patients were categorized using culture, laboratory, clinical, and antibiotic treatment data into sepsis groups: confirmed sepsis (cEOS, n = 12); presumed sepsis (PS, n = 30); and no sepsis (controls, n = 30). Nine APRs were measured in duplicate from cord blood using commercially available multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Plex Pro™). In addition, placental histopathologic data were linked to biomarker results. cEOS organisms were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae and Listeria monocytogenes. C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid P and ferritin were significantly elevated in cEOS compared to controls (p<0.01). SAA, CRP, and Hp were elevated in cEOS but not in PS (p<0.01) and had AUCs of 99%, 96%, and 95% respectively in predicting cEOS. Regression analysis revealed robust associations of SAA, CRP, and Hp with EOS after adjustment for covariates. Procalcitonin, fibrinogen, α-2-macroglobulin and tissue plasminogen activator were not significantly different across groups. Placental acute inflammation was associated with APR elevation and was present in all cEOS, 9 PS, and 17 control infants. This study shows that certain APRs are elevated in cord blood of premature infants with EOS of intrauterine origin. SAA, CRP, and Hp at birth have potential diagnostic utility for risk stratification and identification of infants with EOS.

  20. Early-time solution of the horizontal unconfined aquifer in the build-up phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravanis, Elias; Akylas, Evangelos

    2017-04-01

    goes away. Nonetheless, no analogue of the kinematic wave or the Boussinesq separable solution exists in this case. The late time state of the build-up phase under constant recharge rate is very simply the steady state solution. Our aim is to construct the early time asymptotic solution of this problem. The solution is expressed as a power series of a suitable similarity variable, which is constructed so that to satisfy the boundary conditions at both ends of the aquifer, that is, it is a polynomial approximation of the exact solution. The series turn out to be asymptotic and it is regularized by re-summation techniques which are used to define divergent series. The outflow rate in this regime is linear in time, and the (dimensionless) coefficient is calculated to eight significant figures. The local error of the series is quantified by its deviation from satisfying the self-similar Boussinesq equation at every point. The local error turns out to be everywhere positive, hence, so is the integrated error, which in turn quantifies the degree of convergence of the series to the exact solution.

  1. Stopping rules employing response rates, time to progression, and early progressive disease for phase II oncology trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goffin John R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Response rate (RR, the most common early means of assessing oncology drugs, is not suitable as the sole endpoint for phase II trials of drugs which induce disease stability but not regression. Time to progression (TTP may be more sensitive to such agents, but induces recruitment delays in multistage studies. Early progressive disease (EPD is the earliest signal of time to progression, but is less intuitive to investigators, To study drugs with unknown anti-tumour effect, we designed the Combination Stopping Rule (CSR, which allows investigators to establish a hypothesis using RR and TTP, while the program also employs early progressive disease (EPD to assess for drug inactivity during the first stage of study accrual. Methods A computer program was created to generate stopping rules based on specified error rates, trial size, and RR and median TTP of interest and disinterest for a two-stage phase II trial. Rules were generated for stage II such that the null hypothesis (Hnul was rejected if either RR or TTP met desired thresholds, and accepted if both did not. Assuming an exponential distribution for progression, EPD thresholds were determined based on specified TTP values. Stopping rules were generated for stage I such that Hnul was accepted and the study stopped if both RR and EPD were unacceptable. Results Patient thresholds were generated for RR, median TTP, and EPD which achieved specified error rates and which allowed early stopping based on RR and EPD. For smaller proportional differences between interesting and disinteresting values of RR or TTP, larger trials are required to maintain alpha error, and early stopping is more common with a larger first stage. Conclusion Stopping rules are provided for phase II trials for drugs which have either a desirable RR or TTP. In addition, early stopping can be achieved using RR and EPD.

  2. First application of liquid-metal-jet sources for small-animal imaging: High-resolution CT and phase-contrast tumor demarcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Daniel H.; Lundstroem, Ulf; Burvall, Anna; Hertz, Hans M. [Department of Applied Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology/Albanova, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Westermark, Ulrica K.; Arsenian Henriksson, Marie [Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology (MTC), Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Small-animal studies require images with high spatial resolution and high contrast due to the small scale of the structures. X-ray imaging systems for small animals are often limited by the microfocus source. Here, the authors investigate the applicability of liquid-metal-jet x-ray sources for such high-resolution small-animal imaging, both in tomography based on absorption and in soft-tissue tumor imaging based on in-line phase contrast. Methods: The experimental arrangement consists of a liquid-metal-jet x-ray source, the small-animal object on a rotating stage, and an imaging detector. The source-to-object and object-to-detector distances are adjusted for the preferred contrast mechanism. Two different liquid-metal-jet sources are used, one circulating a Ga/In/Sn alloy and the other an In/Ga alloy for higher penetration through thick tissue. Both sources are operated at 40-50 W electron-beam power with {approx}7 {mu}m x-ray spots, providing high spatial resolution in absorption imaging and high spatial coherence for the phase-contrast imaging. Results: High-resolution absorption imaging is demonstrated on mice with CT, showing 50 {mu}m bone details in the reconstructed slices. High-resolution phase-contrast soft-tissue imaging shows clear demarcation of mm-sized tumors at much lower dose than is required in absorption. Conclusions: This is the first application of liquid-metal-jet x-ray sources for whole-body small-animal x-ray imaging. In absorption, the method allows high-resolution tomographic skeletal imaging with potential for significantly shorter exposure times due to the power scalability of liquid-metal-jet sources. In phase contrast, the authors use a simple in-line arrangement to show distinct tumor demarcation of few-mm-sized tumors. This is, to their knowledge, the first small-animal tumor visualization with a laboratory phase-contrast system.

  3. Resolution enhancement by extrapolation of coherent diffraction images: a quantitative study about the limits and a numerical study of non-binary and phase objects

    CERN Document Server

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    In coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) the resolution with which the reconstructed object can be obtained is limited by the numerical aperture of the experimental setup. We present here a theoretical and numerical study for achieving super-resolution by post-extrapolation of coherent diffraction images, such as diffraction patterns or holograms. We proof that a diffraction pattern can unambiguously be extrapolated from just a fraction of the entire pattern and that the ratio of the extrapolated signal to the originally available signal, is linearly proportional to the oversampling ratio. While there could be in principle other methods to achieve extrapolation, we devote our discussion to employing phase retrieval methods and demonstrate their limits. We present two numerical studies; namely the extrapolation of diffraction patterns of non-binary and that of phase objects together with a discussion of the optimal extrapolation procedure.

  4. Some simple rules for contrast, signal-to-noise and resolution in in-line x-ray phase-contrast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gureyev, Timur E; Nesterets, Yakov I; Stevenson, Andrew W; Miller, Peter R; Pogany, Andrew; Wilkins, Stephen W

    2008-03-03

    Simple analytical expressions are derived for the spatial resolution, contrast and signal-to-noise in X-ray projection images of a generic phase edge. The obtained expressions take into account the maximum phase shift generated by the sample and the sharpness of the edge, as well as such parameters of the imaging set-up as the wavelength spectrum and the size of the incoherent source, the source-to-object and object-to-detector distances and the detector resolution. Different asymptotic behavior of the expressions in the cases of large and small Fresnel numbers is demonstrated. The analytical expressions are compared with the results of numerical simulations using Kirchhoff diffraction theory, as well as with experimental X-ray measurements.

  5. Systematic analysis of early phase clinical studies for patients with breast cancer: Inclusion of patients with brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R; Gill, N; Rademaker, A W; Carneiro, B A; Chae, Y K; Kumthekar, P; Gradishar, W J; Kurzrock, R; Giles, F J

    2017-04-01

    This systematic review aims to better define the limitations and patterns with which patients with MBC and CNS metastasis are enrolled into early phase developmental therapeutics trials. In June 2016, PubMed search was conducted using the following keywords: "Breast cancer". Drug-development phase 1, phase 2 or phase 1/2 trials for patients with MBC were included. Multiple-histology trials and trials without an efficacy endpoint were excluded. In total, 1474 studies were included; Inclusion criteria for 423 (29%) allowed for CNS metastasis, 770 (52%) either excluded or did not document eligibility of patients with CNS disease. Trials accruing patients with HER2-positive MBC and including targeted therapies had higher odds of allowing for patients with CNS disease (adjusted OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.08-2.2.6; p=0.019 and 1.49, 95% 1.08-2.06; p=0.014, respectively). There were also higher odds of accrual of patients with CNS involvement into clinical trials over time (odds ratio=1.10, 95% CI 1.07-1.12; pphase clinical trials either did not clearly document or did not allow for accrual of patients with CNS disease. Early phase trials with targeted agents or enrolling HER2+ MBC had higher odds of permitting CNS metastases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High-resolution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance evidence of phase transition of Rb,Cs-intercalated single-walled nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Bouhrara, M.

    2011-09-06

    We present 13 C high-resolution magic-angle-turning (MAT) and magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance data of Cs and Rb intercalated single walled carbon nanotubes. We find two distinct phases at different intercalation levels. A simple charge transfer is applicable at low intercalation level. The new phase at high intercalation level is accompanied by a hybridization of alkali (s) orbitals with the carbon (sp2) orbitals of the single walled nanotubes, which indicate bundle surface sites is the most probable alkali site.

  7. Molecular-level characterization of crude oil compounds combining reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with off-line high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Arum; Cho, Yunju; Kim, Daae; Witt, Matthias; Birdwell, Justin E.; Kim, Byung Ju; Kim, Sunghwan

    2014-01-01

    A reversed-phase separation technique was developed in a previous study (Loegel et al., 2012) and successfully applied to the de-asphalted fraction of crude oil. However, to the best of our knowledge, the molecular-level characterization of oil fractions obtained by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) has not yet been reported. A detailed characterization of the oil fractions prepared by reversed-phase HPLC was performed in this study. HPLC fractionation was carried out on conventional crude oil and an oil shale pyrolysate. The analyses of the fractions showed that the carbon number of alkyl chains and the double bond equivalent (DBE) value were the major factors determining elution order. The compounds with larger DBE (presumably more condensed aromatic structures) and smaller carbon number (presumably compounds with short side chains) were eluted earlier but those compounds with lower DBE values (presumably less aromatic structures) and higher carbon number (presumably compounds with longer alkyl chains) eluted later in the chromatograms. This separation behavior is in good agreement with that expected from the principles of reversed-phase separation. The data presented in this study show that reversed-phase chromatography is effective in separating crude oil compounds and can be combined with ultrahigh-resolution MS data to better understand natural oils and oil shale pyrolysates.

  8. The ACS LCID Project XI. On the early time resolution of LG dwarf galaxy SFHs: Comparing the effects of reionization in models with observations

    CERN Document Server

    Aparicio, Antonio; Skillman, Evan; Cassisi, Santi; Mayer, Lucio; Navarro, Julio; Cole, Andrew; Gallart, Carme; Monelli, Matteo; Weisz, Daniel; Bernard, Edouard; Dolphin, Andrew; Stetson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the early star formation history (SFH) of nearby galaxies, obtained from their resolved stellar populations is relevant as a test for cosmological models. However, the early time resolution of observationally derived SFHs is limited by several factors. Thus, direct comparison of observationally derived SFHs with those derived from theoretical models of galaxy formation is potentially biased. Here we investigate and quantify this effect. For this purpose, we analyze the duration of the early star formation activity in a sample of four Local Group dwarf galaxies and test whether they are consistent with being true fossils of the pre-reionization era; i.e., if the quenching of their star formation occurred before cosmic reionization by UV photons was completed. Two classical dSph (Cetus and Tucana) and two dTrans (LGS-3 and Phoenix) isolated galaxies with total stellar masses between $1.3\\times 10^6$ to $7.2\\times 10^6$ M$_\\odot$ have been studied. Accounting for time resolution effects, the SFHs...

  9. A Statistical Index for Early Diagnosis of Ventricular Arrhythmia from the Trend Analysis of ECG Phase-portraits

    CERN Document Server

    Cappiello, Grazia; Mazomenos, Evangelos B; Maharatna, Koushik; Koulaouzidis, George; Morgan, John; Puddu, Paolo Emilio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel statistical index for the early diagnosis of ventricular arrhythmia (VA) using the time delay phase-space reconstruction (PSR) technique, from the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. Patients with two classes of fatal VA - with preceding ventricular premature beats (VPBs) and with no VPBs have been analysed using extensive simulations. Three subclasses of VA with VPBs viz. ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF) and VT followed by VF are analyzed using the proposed technique. Measures of descriptive statistics like mean ({\\mu}), standard deviation ({\\sigma}), coefficient of variation (CV = {\\sigma}/{\\mu}), skewness ({\\gamma}) and kurtosis (\\{beta}) in phase-space diagrams are studied for a sliding window of 10 beats of ECG signal using the box-counting technique. Subsequently, a hybrid prediction index which is composed of a weighted sum of CV and kurtosis has been proposed for predicting the impending arrhythmia before its actual occurrence. The early diagnos...

  10. Hyperhomocysteinemia, a biochemical tool for differentiating ischemic and nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion during the early acute phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Kapil Deb; Mukherjee, Somnath; Ghosh, Sambuddha; Mukherjee, Suman; Dutta, Jayanta; Datta, Himadri; Das, Harendra Nath

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to differentiate ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) from nonischemic CRVO during the early acute phase using plasma homocysteine as a biochemical marker. Fasting plasma homocysteine, serum vitamin B12, and folate levels were measured in 108 consecutive unilateral elderly adult (age >50 years) ischemic CRVO patients in the absence of local and systemic disease and compared with a total of 144 age and sex matched nonischemic CRVO patients and 120 age and sex matched healthy control subjects. Homocysteine level was significantly increased in the patients with ischemic CRVO in comparison with nonischemic CRVO patients (p = 0.009) and also in comparison with control subjects (p 0.1). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be regarded as useful in differentiating nonischemic and ischemic CRVO during the early acute phase in absence of local and systemic disease in the elderly adult (age >50 years) population.

  11. The progress of early phase bone healing using porous granules produced from calcium phosphate cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbluth P

    2010-05-01

    phosphate self-setting cement powder after 6 weeks. In the early phase of bone-healing, the sole application of CPG appears to be inferior to the autologous cancellous grafts in an in vivo critical size defect on load-bearing long bones of mini-pigs.

  12. Transformation abrogates an early G1-phase arrest point required for specification of the Chinese hamster DHFR replication origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J R; Keezer, S M; Gilbert, D M

    1998-03-16

    The origin decision point (ODP) was originally identified as a distinct point during G1-phase when Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell nuclei experience a transition that is required for specific recognition of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) origin locus by Xenopus egg extracts. Passage of cells through the ODP requires a mitogen-independent protein kinase that is activated prior to restriction point control. Here we show that inhibition of an early G1-phase protein kinase pathway by the addition of 2-aminopurine (2-AP) prior to the ODP arrests CHO cells in G1-phase. Transformation with simian virus 40 (SV40) abrogated this arrest point, resulting in the entry of cultured cells into S-phase in the presence of 2-AP and a disruption of the normal pattern of initiation sites at the DHFR locus. Cells treated with 2-AP after the ODP initiated replication specifically within the DHFR origin locus. Transient exposure of transformed cells to 2-AP during the ODP transition also disrupted origin choice, whereas non-transformed cells arrested in G1-phase and then passed through a delayed ODP after removal of 2-AP from the medium. We conclude that mammalian cells have many potential sites at which they can initiate replication. Normally, events occurring during the early G1-phase ODP transition determine which of these sites will be the preferred initiation site. However, if chromatin is exposed to S-phase-promoting factors prior to this transition, mammalian cells, like Xenopus and Drosophila embryos, can initiate replication without origin specification.

  13. Representations of sensory experiences in the early phases of architectural design: there is more than meets the eye

    OpenAIRE

    Elsen, Catherine; Heylighen, Ann

    2014-01-01

    In response to questions about designers’ visual way of knowing and working, this article explores how sensory experience is conveyed during the early phases of architectural design. By processing 985 graphic components issued from a three-month ethnographic observation inside an architecture firm, and proposing an original methodology for their analysis, we identify and analyse graphic expressions of sensory-related design intentions. Multi-sensory dimensions of experiencing an architectural...

  14. Effects of Type I Collagen Degradation on the Durability of Three Adhesive Systems in the Early Phase of Dentin Bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Hu; Yu-hong Xiao; Ming Fang; Yu Gao; Li Huang; An-qi Jia; Ji-hua Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the effects of type I collagen degradation on the durability of three adhesive systems in the early phase of dentin bonding. Methods Bonded dentin specimens were prepared using three different types of adhesive systems. Micro-tensile bond strength and degradation of collagen were tested before, and after 1 month or 4 months of aging in artificial saliva. The relationship between micro-tensile bond strength and collagen degradation was analyzed by ...

  15. A very early rehabilitation trial for stroke (AVERT) phase II safety and feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardt, Julie; Dewey, Helen; Thrift, Amanda; Collier, Janice; Donnan, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Very early rehabilitation, with an emphasis on mobilization, may contribute to improved outcomes after stroke. We hypothesized that a very early rehabilitation protocol would be safe and feasible. Methods - We performed a randomized, controlled trial with blinded outcome ass

  16. Texture analyses show synergetic effects of biomechanical and biochemical stimulation on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into early phase osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Hee; Shin, Ji Won; Kang, Yun Gyeong; Hyun, Jin-Sook; Oh, Min Jae; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the structural complexity and texture of the cytoskeleton and nucleus in human mesenchymal stem cells during early phase differentiation into osteoblasts according to the differentiation-induction method: mechanical and/or chemical stimuli. For this, fractal dimension and a number of parameters utilizing the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were calculated based on single-cell images after confirmation of differentiation by immunofluorescence staining. The F-actin and nuclear fractal dimensions were greater in both stimulus groups compared with the control group. The GLCM values for energy and homogeneity were lower in fibers of the F-actin cytoskeleton, indicating a dispersed F-actin arrangement during differentiation. In the nuclei of both stimulus groups, higher values for energy and homogeneity were calculated, indicating that the chromatin arrangement was chaotic during the early phase of differentiation. It was shown and confirmed that combined stimulation with mechanical and chemical factors accelerated differentiation, even in the early phase. Fractal dimension analysis and GLCM methods have the potential to provide a framework for further investigation of stem cell differentiation.

  17. Treatment response in acute/early infection versus advanced AIDS: equivalent first and second phases of HIV RNA decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilby, J Michael; Lee, Ha Youn; Hazelwood, J Darren; Bansal, Anju; Bucy, R Patterson; Saag, Michael S; Shaw, George M; Acosta, Edward P; Johnson, Victoria A; Perelson, Alan S; Goepfert, Paul A

    2008-05-11

    Compare the initial phases of virologic decay when acute/early and advanced HIV-infected adults are administered the same treatment regimen. Mathematical modeling of a previously completed prospective treatment pilot study involving treatment-naive patients with early and advanced immunosuppression. We analyzed data from a treatment protocol in which 18 individuals with acute or recent HIV-1 seroconversion and six patients with advanced AIDS were administered the same four-drug antiretroviral regimen. Initial treatment responses were compared by fitting a mathematical model to frequent viral load measurements in order to calculate the first and second phase kinetics of viral clearance, and also by comparing viral load suppression over 24 weeks. Patients were also comprehensively compared in terms of protease inhibitor drug levels, HIV-specific immune responses at baseline, and the presence of drug resistance-conferring mutations. There was no statistically meaningful difference in first phase clearance of comparable high-level viremia in the two groups, whether protease inhibitor levels were inserted into the model or 100% antiviral drug effectiveness was assumed. In contrast, acute/early patients had inferior sustained responses than advanced patients, reflecting erratic adherence. Despite many years of intervening immune destruction, the initial virologic decay on therapy appears to be the same at the extremes of the HIV disease spectrum.

  18. Biochemical DSB-repair model for mammalian cells in G1 and early S phases of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleei, Reza; Nikjoo, Hooshang

    2013-08-30

    The paper presents a model of double strand breaks (DSB) repair in G1 and early S phases of the cell cycle. The model is based on a plethora of published information on biochemical modification of DSB induced by ionizing radiation. So far, three main DSB repair pathways have been identified, including nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination (HR), and microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ). During G1 and early S phases of the cell cycle, NHEJ and MMEJ repair pathways are activated dependent on the type of double strand breaks. Simple DSB are a substrate for NHEJ, while complex DSB and DSB in heterochromatin require further end processing. Repair of all DSB start with NHEJ presynaptic processes, and depending on the type of DSB pursue simple ligation, further end processing prior to ligation, or resection. Using law of mass action the model is translated into a mathematical formalism. The solution of the formalism provides the step by step and overall repair kinetics. The overall repair kinetics are compared with the published experimental measurements. Our calculations are in agreement with the experimental results and show that the complex types of DSBs are repaired with slow repair kinetics. The G1 and early S phase model could be employed to predict the kinetics of DSB repair for damage induced by high LET radiation.

  19. Utility of the inspiratory phase in high-resolution computed tomography evaluations of pediatric patients with bronchiolitis obliterans after allogeneic bone marrow transplant: reducing patient radiation exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Togni Filho

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the utility of the inspiratory phase in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT of the chest for the diagnosis of post-bone marrow transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study. We selected patients of either gender who underwent bone marrow transplantation and chest HRCT between March 1, 2002 and December 12, 2014. Ages ranged from 3 months to 20.7 years. We included all examinations in which the HRCT was performed appropriately. The examinations were read by two radiologists, one with extensive experience in pediatric radiology and another in the third year of residency, who determined the presence or absence of the following imaging features: air trapping, bronchiectasis, alveolar opacities, nodules, and atelectasis. Results: A total of 222 examinations were evaluated (mean, 5.4 ± 4.5 examinations per patient. The expiratory phase findings were comparable to those obtained in the inspiratory phase, except in one patient, in whom a small uncharacteristic nodule was identified only in the inspiratory phase. Air trapping was identified in a larger number of scans in the expiratory phase than in the inspiratory phase, as was atelectasis, although the difference was statistically significant only for air trapping. Conclusion: In children being evaluated for post-bone marrow transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans, the inspiratory phase can be excluded from the chest HRCT protocol, thus reducing by half the radiation exposure in this population.

  20. A high-resolution Early Holocene-late MIS 3 environmental rock- and palaeomagnetic record from Lake Sf. Ana, Carpathian Mts, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel VERES

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lacustrine sediments are excellent sources of palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic information because they usually provide continuous and high-resolution records. In centraleastern Europe however lacustrine records that extend beyond the Holocene are rather sparse.Palaeomagnetic records from this region are also insufficiently explored, and usually associated with terrestrial deposits such as loess. In this context, the lacustrine record of Lake Sf. Ana, a volcanic crater lake in the East Carpathians, Romania, provides an important archive for reconstructing past paleomagnetic secular variation in the region from early Holocene to late Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 3.

  1. Proactive Integration of Planetary Protection Needs Into Early Design Phases of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret; Conley, Catharine

    discussed by the study participants to date have set the agenda for additional work that will continue for at least another year, culminating in a final report that should be useful to current and new nations and partnerships in planning human missions beyond LEO. In addition, over the past two years, NASA has made progress in integrating planetary protection considerations into mission designs along with other important human, environmental and science needs. Details about planetary protection have also been incorporated into the latest Addendum of the Design Reference Architecture (DRA) for human missions to Mars. Other ongoing studies of Mars human mission architecture, technologies and operations have likewise been integrating PP requirements and guidelines into cross-cutting measures of various types. An important objective of all these studies is to proactively gather and communicate PP information to the broad community of planners, engineers and assorted partners who are facing the challenges of future human exploration missions. By analyzing ways to integrate PP provisions effectively into early mission phases in synergism with other needs, these projects and studies will help ensure that all institutions and organizations avoid releasing harmful contamination on bodies with biological potential, thereby ensuring protection of the Earth and astronauts throughout their missions and safeguarding the integrity of science exploration—all in compliance with the 1967 Outer Space Treaty.

  2. Implementation of “PLST” Assessment Model to Detect Development of Language Skill in Early Childhood (Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelva Rolina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research will be done for 3 years (3 phases. The first year had been done on 2013 ago. 2014 is the second year of research (phase II. Research phase of this study (second year, namely development phase: the prototype of model is developed to be a model. The activities carried out in phase II include: expert validation test, readability test, revision, kindergarten teacher training, limited trial, and the trial was extended to find models that fit between the theoretical concepts with empirical data in the field. And finally (second year, from all kindergarten which be the sample study, it was found that all kindergarten were using the general assessment without special assessment for development of children’s language, so it is necessary to create assessment “PLST” to detect the development of language skill for early childhood (kindergarten student. It has to continue in second to third year. The final research, which is at the end of the third year (phase III is expected to match model assessment “PLST” as well as the guidance in learning in kindergarten, which can be used by teachers to detect and monitor the development of language skills, identifying the amount of vocabulary and sentences are mastered children, and the stages of language development next. To achieve these objectives, the researcher adopted a model of research, development, and diffusion by Hopkins & Clark (Havelock, 1976

  3. Online User Feedback in Early Phases of the Design Process: Lessons Learnt from Four Design Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asbjørn Følstad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Online user feedback, collected by means of internet survey tools, is a promising approach to obtain early user feedback on concepts and early prototypes. In this study, the collection and utilization of online user feedback was investigated in four design cases: all master student projects for industry clients involving seven student designers. A total of 272 user participants provided quantitative feedback. Half of these also provided qualitative feedback. One third of the qualitative feedback was perceived as useful by the student designers. The main usefulness of the feedback was related to strategic concept decisions rather than the interaction design of the early prototype. Lessons learnt are provided.

  4. Millimeter-accuracy GPS landslide monitoring using Precise Point Positioning with Single Receiver Phase Ambiguity (PPP-SRPA) resolution: a case study in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G. Q.

    2013-03-01

    Continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) monitoring is essential for establishing the rate and pattern of superficial movements of landslides. This study demonstrates a technique which uses a stand-alone GPS station to conduct millimeter-accuracy landslide monitoring. The Precise Point Positioning with Single Receiver Phase Ambiguity (PPP-SRPA) resolution employed by the GIPSY/OASIS software package (V6.1.2) was applied in this study. Two-years of continuous GPS data collected at a creeping landslide were used to evaluate the accuracy of the PPP-SRPA solutions. The criterion for accuracy was the root-mean-square (RMS) of residuals of the PPP-SRPA solutions with respect to "true" landslide displacements over the two-year period. RMS is often regarded as repeatability or precision in GPS literature. However, when contrasted with a known "true" position or displacement it could be termed RMS accuracy or simply accuracy. This study indicated that the PPP-SRPA resolution can provide an accuracy of 2 to 3 mm horizontally and 8 mm vertically for 24-hour sessions with few outliers (extreme weather conditions. Vertical accuracy below 10 mm can be achieved with 8-hour or longer sessions. This study indicates that the PPP-SRPA resolution is competitive with the conventional carrier-phase double-difference network resolution for static (longer than 4 hours) landslide monitoring while maintaining many advantages. It is evident that the PPP-SRPA method would become an attractive alternative to the conventional carrier-phase double-difference method for landslide monitoring, notably in remote areas or developing countries.

  5. The Grism Lens-amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). X. Sub-kiloparsec Resolution Gas-phase Metallicity Maps at Cosmic Noon behind the Hubble Frontier Fields Cluster MACS1149.6+2223

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Jones, Tucker A.; Treu, Tommaso; Morishita, Takahiro; Abramson, Louis E.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Malkan, Matthew A.; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Fontana, Adriano; Grillo, Claudio; Henry, Alaina L.; Karman, Wouter; Kelly, Patrick L.; Mason, Charlotte A.; Mercurio, Amata; Rosati, Piero; Sharon, Keren; Trenti, Michele; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2017-03-01

    We combine deep Hubble Space Telescope grism spectroscopy with a new Bayesian method to derive maps of gas-phase metallicity for 10 star-forming galaxies at high redshift (1.2≲ z≲ 2.3). Exploiting lensing magnification by the foreground cluster MACS1149.6+2223, we reach sub-kiloparsec spatial resolution and push the limit of stellar mass associated with such high-z spatially resolved measurements below {10}8 {M}ȯ for the first time. Our maps exhibit diverse morphologies, indicative of various effects such as efficient radial mixing from tidal torques, rapid accretion of low-metallicity gas, and other physical processes that can affect the gas and metallicity distributions in individual galaxies. Based upon an exhaustive sample of all existing sub-kiloparesec resolution metallicity gradient measurements at high z, we find that predictions given by analytical chemical evolution models assuming a relatively extended star-formation profile in the early disk-formation phase can explain the majority of observed metallicity gradients, without involving galactic feedback or radial outflows. We observe a tentative correlation between stellar mass and metallicity gradients, consistent with the “downsizing” galaxy formation picture that more massive galaxies are more evolved into a later phase of disk growth, where they experience more coherent mass assembly at all radii and thus show shallower metallicity gradients. In addition to the spatially resolved analysis, we compile a sample of homogeneously cross-calibrated integrated metallicity measurements spanning three orders of magnitude in stellar mass at z ∼ 1.8. We use this sample to study the mass–metallicity relation (MZR) and find that the slope of the observed MZR can rule out the momentum-driven wind model at a 3σ confidence level.

  6. Early-stage Widmanstaetten growth of the {gamma} phase in a duplex steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shek, C.H.; Dong, C.; Lai, J.K.L.; Wong, K.W.

    2000-01-01

    The present work studies the Widmanstaetten {gamma}-phase morphology and crystallographic orientation relationships with ferrite during its initial-stage growth in a duplex steel. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) analyses have been applied to determine the orientation relationship with high precision. When the secondary {gamma} phase and the {alpha} phase have special orientation relationships close to the K-S (Kurdjumov-Sachs) relation, the preferential growth involves {gamma} phase, protruding into {alpha} phase and this leads, finally, to the formation of Widmanstatten needles. The needles grow nearly along the invariant-line direction, but they do not satisfy exactly the K-S relation, and a slight angular deviation ({theta}{sub [110]{alpha}}) is always present. This deviation is explained by a compromise between the well-known invariant-line condition, which offers the easiest way for directional growth of the {gamma} phase, and a good atomic matching of the close-packed (1{ovr 11}){gamma} and (110){sub {alpha}} planes of both phases. A matching minimum at {theta}{sub [110]{alpha}} = 2.3 deg is obtained when only three pairs of the nearest-neighbor atoms are considered in an atomic misfit calculation.

  7. Early and Delayed Myocardial Enhancement in Myocardial Infarction Using Two-Phase Contrast-Enhanced Multidetector-Row CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Whan; Han, Seong-Wook; Seo, Joon-Beom

    2007-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the myocardial enhancement patterns in patients with myocardial infarction using two-phase contrast-enhanced multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and Methods Twenty-three patients with clinically proven myocardial infarction (17 acute myocardial infarction [AMI] and 6 chronic myocardial infarction [CMI]) were examined with two-phase contrast-enhanced ECG-gated MDCT. The presence, location, and patterns of myocardial enhancement on two-phase MDCT images were compared with infarcted myocardial territories determined by using electrocardiogram, echocardiography, thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography, catheter and MDCT coronary angiography. Results After clinical assessment, the presence of myocardial infarctions were found in 27 territories (19 AMI and 8 CMI) of 23 patients. Early perfusion defects were observed in 30 territories of all 23 patients. Three territories not corresponding to a myocardial infarction were detected in three patients with AMI and were associated with artifacts. Fourteen of perfusion defects were in the left anterior descending artery territory, four in the left circumflex artery territory, and nine in the right coronary artery territory. Delayed enhancement was observed in 25 territories (17 AMI and 8 CMI) of 21 patients. Delayed enhancement patterns were variable. Transmural early perfusion defects (n =12) were closely associated with transmural late enhancement (n = 5) and subendocardial residual defect with subepicardial late enhancement (n = 5). Conclusion Myocardial infarction showed early perfusion defects and variable delayed enhancement patterns on two-phase contrast-enhanced MDCT. Delayed enhancement technique of MDCT could provide additional information of the location and extent of infarcted myocardium, and could be useful to plan appropriate therapeutic strategies in patients with AMI. PMID:17420626

  8. Early and Delayed Myocardial Enhancement in Myocardial Infarction Using Two-Phase Contrast-Enhanced Multidetector-Row CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Sung-Min; Kim, Young-Whan; Han, Seong-Wook [University of Keimyung College of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Joon-Beom [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe the myocardial enhancement patterns in patients with myocardial infarction using two-phase contrast enhanced multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). Twenty-three patients with clinically proven myocardial infarction (17 acute myocardial infarction [AMI] and 6 chronic myocardial infarction [CMI]) were examined with two-phase contrast-enhanced ECG-gated MDCT. The presence, location, and patterns of myocardial enhancement on two phase MDCT images were compared with infarcted myocardial territories determined by using electrocardiogram, echocardiography, thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography, catheter and MDCT coronary angiography. After clinical assessment, the presence of myocardial infarctions were found in 27 territories (19 AMI and 8 CMI) of 23 patients. Early perfusion defects were observed in 30 territories of all 23 patients. Three territories not corresponding to a myocardial infarction were detected in three patients with AMI and were associated with artifacts. Fourteen of perfusion defects were in the left anterior descending artery territory, four in the left circumflex artery territory, and nine in the right coronary artery territory. Delayed enhancement was observed in 25 territories (17 AMI and 8 CMI) of 21 patients. Delayed enhancement patterns were variable. Transmural early perfusion defects (n =12) were closely associated with transmural late enhancement (n = 5) and subendocardial residual defect with subepicardial late enhancement (n = 5). Myocardial infarction showed early perfusion defects and variable delayed enhancement patterns on two-phase contrast-enhanced MDCT. Delayed enhancement technique of MDCT could provide additional information of the location and extent of infarcted myocardium, and could be useful to plan appropriate therapeutic strategies in patients with AMI.

  9. High-resolution calcareous nannoplankton palaeoecology as a proxy for small-scale environmental changes in the Early Miocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Gerald; Piller, Werner E; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2014-09-01

    Within a 5.5-m-thick succession of upper Burdigalian (CNP-zone NN4) shallow neritic sediments from the North Alpine Foreland Basin in Lower Austria a high-resolution section of finely laminated sediment with a thickness of 940.5 mm was logged. The section was continuously sampled, resulting in 100 samples, covering a thickness of ~ 10 mm each. An integrated approach was applied to these samples in order to study proxy records including calcareous nannoplankton, geochemical and geophysical data. Multivariate statistics on the autochthonous assemblage were used to evaluate the ecological preferences of each taxon and to rule out possible contamination of the signal by taphonomic processes. In order to assess changes in the assemblage composition throughout the section, three taphogroups were defined using both the autochthonous and allochthonous nannofossils. Based on the distribution of these taphogroups five distinct intervals were defined that are indicative of centennial to decadal changes in palaeoenvironmental conditions. Combining these results with other proxies (geochemistry, geophysics) we were able to reconstruct short-term, small-scale variations in terms of temperature, primary productivity, bottom water oxygenation, organic matter flux, freshwater influx and changes in relative sea level in a highly dynamic shallow marine setting. This study represents the first such high-resolution analysis performed on a marine succession of late Burdigalian age. It is also a first attempt to analyse outcrop data on such a high-resolution, sub-Milankovitch scale, with respect to calcareous nannoplankton in conjunction with geochemical and sedimentological data.

  10. Pseudocirrhosis in a pancreatic cancer patient with liver metastases: a case report of complete resolution of pseudocirrhosis with an early recognition and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soonmo Peter; Taddei, Tamar; McLennan, Bruce; Lacy, Jill

    2008-03-14

    We report a case of pseudocirrhosis arising in the setting of regression of liver metastases from pancreatic cancer. A 55-year-old asymptomatic woman presented to our clinic with newly diagnosed metastatic pancreatic cancer with extensive liver metastases. She underwent systemic chemotherapy with gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX). After 8 cycles of therapy, she had a remarkable response to the therapy evidenced by decline of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA19 by > 50% and nearly complete resolution of hepatic metastases in computed tomography (CT) scan. Shortly after, she developed increasing bilateral ankle edema and ascites, associated with dyspnea, progressive weight gain, and declining performance status. Gemcitabine and oxaliplatin were discontinued as other causes of her symptoms such as congestive heart disease or venous thrombosis were ruled out. CT scan 6 mo after the initiation of GEMOX revealed worsening ascites with a stable pancreatic mass. However, it also revealed a lobular hepatic contour, segmental atrophy, and capsular retraction mimicking the appearance of cirrhosis. She was managed with aggressive diuresis and albumin infusions which eventually resulted in a resolution of the above-mentioned symptoms as well as complete resolution of pseudocirrhotic appearance of the liver and ascites in CT scan. This case demonstrates that pancreatic cancer patients can develop pseudocirrhosis. Clinicians and radiologist should be well aware of this entity as early recognition and management can lead to a near complete recovery of liver function and much improved quality of life as illustrated in this case.

  11. Species-driven phases and increasing structure in early-successional plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplata, Markus K; Winter, Susanne; Fischer, Anton; Kollmann, Johannes; Ulrich, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Successional phases describe changes in ecological communities that proceed in steps rather than continuously. Despite their importance for the understanding of ecosystem development, there still exists no reliable definition of phases and no quantitative measure of phase transitions. In order to obtain these data, we investigated primary succession in an artificial catchment (6 ha) in eastern Germany over a period of 6 years. The data set consists of records of plant species and their cover values, and initial substrate properties, both from plots in a regular grid (20 m × 20 m) suitable for spatial data analysis. Community assembly was studied by analyses of species co-occurrence and nestedness. Additionally, we correlated lognormal and log series distributions of species abundance to each community. We here introduce a new general method for detection of successional phases based on the degree of transient spatial homogeneity in the study system. Spatially coherent vegetation patterns revealed nonoverlapping partitions within this sequence of primary succession and were characterized as two distinct ecological phases. Patterns of species co-occurrence were increasingly less random, and hence the importance of demographic stochasticity and neutral community assembly decreased during the study period. Our findings highlight the spatial dimension of successional phases and quantify the degree of change between these steps. They are an element for advancing a more reliable terminology of ecological successions.

  12. Hybridization of phase retrieval and off-axis digital holography for high resolution imaging of complex shape objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengpeng; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a hybrid method of phase retrieval and off-axis digital holography is proposed for imaging of the complex shape objects. Off-axis digital hologram and in-line hologram are recorded. The approximate phase distributions in the recording plane and object plane are obtained by constrained optimization approach from the off-axis hologram, and they are used as the initial value and the constraints in the phase retrieval for eliminating the twin image of in-line holography. Numerical simulations and optical experiments were carried out to validate the proposed method.

  13. Cyclin CYB-3 controls both S-phase and mitosis and is asymmetrically distributed in the early C. elegans embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, W Matthew

    2016-09-01

    In early C. elegans embryos the timing of cell division is both invariant and developmentally regulated, yet how the cell cycle is controlled in the embryo and how cell cycle timing impacts early development remain important, unanswered questions. Here, I focus on the cyclin B3 ortholog CYB-3, and show that this cyclin has the unusual property of controlling both the timely progression through S-phase and mitotic entry, suggesting that CYB-3 is both an S-phase-promoting and mitosis-promoting factor. Furthermore, I find that CYB-3 is asymmetrically distributed in the two-cell embryo, such that the somatic precursor AB cell contains ∼2.5-fold more CYB-3 than its sister cell, the germline progenitor P1 CYB-3 is not only physically limited in P1 but also functionally limited, and this asymmetry is controlled by the par polarity network. These findings highlight the importance of the CYB-3 B3-type cyclin in cell cycle regulation in the early embryo and suggest that CYB-3 asymmetry helps establish the well-documented cell cycle asynchrony that occurs during cell division within the P-lineage.

  14. Mortality and dust expulsion in early phases of stellar clusters. Evidence from NIR photometry of nearby, spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Grosboel, P

    2013-01-01

    It is often argued that young stellar clusters suffer a significant infant mortality that is partly related to the expulsion of dust and gas in their early phases caused by radiation pressure from hot stars and supernovae. Near-infrared (J-K)-Mk diagrams of young stellar clusters in nearby spiral galaxies show a bi-modal distribution that is consistent with a fast decline of their intrinsic extinction at an early epoch. The distinct features in the color-magnitude diagrams (CMD) and the fast change of colors for the youngest clusters allow us to place constraints on their early evolutionary phases, including the time scale for the decreasing extinction caused for instance by gas and dust expulsion. Monte Carlo simulations of cluster populations were performed using the power-law distribution function g(M, t) ~ M^a t^gam. Integrated colors were computed from Starburst99 models. The simulated near-infrared CMD were compared with those observed for six grand-design, spiral galaxies using statistical goodness-of-...

  15. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems: spatial early warnings and management procedures (Inspired in the physics of phase transitions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, H [Complex Systems Group, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, 11400 Montevideo (Uruguay); Mazzeo, N [Depto. de EcologIa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, 11400 Montevideo (Uruguay); Scheffer, M; Nes, E van, E-mail: hugo@fisica.edu.u [Wageningen Agricultural University, Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-09-01

    Ecosystems are complex systems which can respond to gradual changes of their conditions by a sudden shift to a contrasting regime or alternative stable state (ASS). Predicting such critical points before they are reached is extremely difficult and providing early warnings is fundamental to design management protocols for ecosystems. Here we study different spatial versions of popular ecological models which are known to exhibit ASS. The spatial heterogeneity is introduced by a local parameter varying from cell to cell in a regular lattice. Transport of biomass among cells occurs by simple diffusion. We investigate whether different quantities from statistical mechanics -like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness-may serve as early warnings of catastrophic phase transitions between the ASS. In particular, we find that the patch-size distribution follows a power law when the system is close to the catastrophic transition. We also provide links between spatial and temporal indicators and analyze how the interplay between diffusion and spatial heterogeneity may affect the earliness of each of the observables. Finally, we comment on similarities and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid-vapor change of state for a fluid like water.

  16. Late Pliensbachian-early Toarcian paleoenvironmental changes in the Cleveland Basin: new clues from high-resolution trace element analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Ruhl, Micha; Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz

    The early Toarcian (~183 Ma ago) was characterized by massive carbon burial and a pronounced negative carbon-isotope excursion (CIE) in marine carbonate and marine and terrestrial organic matter. These features along with the high abundance of redox sensitive trace metals in that interval led...... to the recognition of a major oceanic anoxic event (OAE). More recently, an earlier companion of the early Toarcian CIE has been documented at the Pliensbachian/Toarcian (Pl/To) boundary in sections of NW Europe, but its expression in the sediment and possible causes are less constrained. One of the most studied...... elements across the late Pliensbachian to middle Toarcian of the Cleveland Basin. The Pl/To boundary CIE is associated with low Total Organic Carbon (TOC

  17. A dynamic model of the windlass mechanism of the foot: evidence for early stance phase preloading of the plantar aponeurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggi, Paolo; Pataky, Todd; Goulermas, John Y; Savage, Russel; Crompton, Robin

    2009-08-01

    In the present study we have estimated the temporal elongation of the plantar aponeurosis (PA) during normal walking using a subject-specific multi-segment rigid-body model of the foot. As previous studies have suggested that muscular forces at the ankle can pre-load the PA prior to heel-strike, the main purpose of the current study was to test, through modelling, whether there is any tension present in the PA during early stance phase. Reflective markers were attached to bony landmarks to track the kinematics of the calcaneus, metatarsus and toes during barefoot walking. Ultrasonography measurements were performed on three subjects to determine both the location of the origin of the PA on the plantar aspect of the calcaneus, and the radii of the metatarsal heads. Starting with the foot in a neutral, unloaded position, inverse kinematics allowed calculation of the tension in the five slips of the PA during the whole duration of the stance phase. The results show that the PA experienced tension significantly above rest during early stance phase in all subjects (P<0.01), thus providing support for the PA-preloading hypothesis. The amount of preloading and the maximum elongation of the slips of the PA decreased from medial to lateral. The mean maximum tension exerted by the PA was 1.5 BW (body weight) over the three subjects.

  18. Cosmological QCD phase transition in steady non-equilibrium dissipative Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Khodadi, M

    2014-01-01

    We study the phase transition from quark-gluon plasma to hadrons in the early universe in the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. According to the standard model of cosmology, a phase transition associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electro-weak transition has occurred when the universe was about $1-10\\mu s$ old. We focus attention on such a phase transition in the presence of a viscous relativistic cosmological background fluid in the framework of non-detailed balance Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz cosmology within an effective model of QCD. We consider a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe filled with a non-causal and causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid respectively and investigate the effects of the running coupling constants of Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity, $\\lambda$, on the evolution of the physical quantities relevant to a description of the early universe, namely, the temperature $T$, scale factor $a$, deceleration parameter $q$ and dimensionless ratio of the bulk viscosity coefficient ...

  19. Resolution of α-cyclohexyl-mandelic acid enantiomers by two-phase (O/W) recognition chiral extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; KeWen; ZHANG; GuoLi; HUANG; KeLong; LI; Yuanjian; YI; JianMin

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new chiral separation technology: two-phase (O/W) recognition chiral extraction. Distribution behavior of α-cyclohexyl-mandelic acid enantiomers was studied in the extraction system with D(L)-isobutyl tartrate in 1,2-dichloroethane organic phase and β-CD derivatives in aqueous phase, and the influence of the kind and concentration of extractant and pH on extraction performance was investigated. The experimental results indicate that two-phase (O/W) recognition chiral extraction is of strong chiral separation ability. HP-β-CD, HE-β-CD and Me-β-CD have higher recognition ability for S-CHMA than that for R-CHMA, among which HP-β-CD has the strongest ability; whereas, D-isobutyl tartrate has reversed recognition ability for them. In the extraction system containing HP-β-CD and D-isobutyl tartrate, e.e.% of S-CHMA in aqueous phase reached 27.6% by one stage extraction, and the distribution ratio for R-CHMA(kR) and for S-CHMA(kS) and separation factor (α) are 2.44, 0.89 and 2.49, respectively. Meanwhile, pH and concentration of extractant have great effects on chiral separation ability. Two-phase (O/W) recognition chiral extraction has great significance for preparative separation of racemic compounds.

  20. The ACS LCID Project. XI. On the Early Time Resolution of SFHs of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies: Comparing the Effects of Reionization in Models with Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Antonio; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Skillman, Evan; Cassisi, Santi; Mayer, Lucio; Navarro, Julio; Cole, Andrew; Gallart, Carme; Monelli, Matteo; Weisz, Daniel; Bernard, Edouard; Dolphin, Andrew; Stetson, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The analysis of the early star formation history (SFH) of nearby galaxies, obtained from their resolved stellar populations, is relevant as a test for cosmological models. However, the early time resolution of observationally derived SFHs is limited by several factors. Thus, direct comparison of observationally derived SFHs with those derived from theoretical models of galaxy formation is potentially biased. Here we investigate and quantify this effect. For this purpose, we analyze the duration of the early star formation activity in a sample of four Local Group dwarf galaxies and test whether they are consistent with being true fossils of the pre-reionization era; i.e., if the quenching of their star formation occurred before cosmic reionization by UV photons was completed. Two classical dSph (Cetus and Tucana) and two dTrans (LGS-3 and Phoenix) isolated galaxies with total stellar masses between 1.3× {10}6 and 7.2× {10}6 {M}⊙ have been studied. Accounting for time resolution effects, the SFHs peak as much as 1.25 Gyr earlier than the optimal solutions. Thus, this effect is important for a proper comparison of model and observed SFHs. It is also shown that none of the analyzed galaxies can be considered a true fossil of the pre-reionization era, although it is possible that the outer regions of Cetus and Tucana are consistent with quenching by reionization. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #10505.

  1. Early molecular changes in Alzheimer disease : can we catch the disease in its presymptomatic phase?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirz, Kerstin T S; Keitel, Stella; Swaab, Dick F; Verhaagen, J.; Bossers, K.

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and characterized by deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles consisting of hyperphosphorylated tau, atrophy, and progressive neurodegeneration. While the familial, early onset form of AD is known to be caused by specifi

  2. Systemic oxidative DNA and RNA damage are not increased during early phases of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Dorte; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Hjorthøj, Carsten;

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that patients with schizophrenia develop higher levels of oxidative stress, which may contribute to deteriorating mental illness. In order to examine oxidative stress in the early stages of severe mental illness, we examined the levels of systemic Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA...

  3. The Interplay between Inflammation, Coagulation and Endothelial Injury in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis: Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Dumnicka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis (AP is an inflammatory disease with varied severity, ranging from mild local inflammation to severe systemic involvement resulting in substantial mortality. Early pathologic events in AP, both local and systemic, are associated with vascular derangements, including endothelial activation and injury, dysregulation of vasomotor tone, increased vascular permeability, increased leukocyte migration to tissues, and activation of coagulation. The purpose of the review was to summarize current evidence regarding the interplay between inflammation, coagulation and endothelial dysfunction in the early phase of AP. Practical aspects were emphasized: (1 we summarized available data on diagnostic usefulness of the markers of endothelial dysfunction and activated coagulation in early prediction of severe AP; (2 we reviewed in detail the results of experimental studies and clinical trials targeting coagulation-inflammation interactions in severe AP. Among laboratory tests, d-dimer and angiopoietin-2 measurements seem the most useful in early prediction of severe AP. Although most clinical trials evaluating anticoagulants in treatment of severe AP did not show benefits, they also did not show significantly increased bleeding risk. Promising results of human trials were published for low molecular weight heparin treatment. Several anticoagulants that proved beneficial in animal experiments are thus worth testing in patients.

  4. Early Origins of Child Obesity: Bridging Disciplines and Phases of Development - September 30–October 1, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes a conference: “Early Origins of Child Obesity: Bridging Disciplines and Phases of Development”, held in Chicago on September 30–October 1, 2010. The conference was funded in part by the National Institutes of Health and the Williams Heart Foundation, to achieve the conference objective: forging a next-step research agenda related to the early origins of childhood obesity. This research agenda was to include working with an array of factors (from genetic determinants to societal ones along a continuum from prenatal life to age 7, with an emphasis on how the developing child deals with the challenges presented by his/her environment (prenatal, parental, nutritional, etc.. The conference offered a unique opportunity to facilitate communication and planning of future work among a variety of researchers whose work separately addresses different periods in early life. Over the span of two days, speakers addressed existing, critical research topics within each of the most-studied age ranges. On the final day, workshops fostered the discussion needed to identify the highest priority research topics related to linking varied early factor domains. These are presented for use in planning future research and research funding.

  5. The Interplay between Inflammation, Coagulation and Endothelial Injury in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis: Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumnicka, Paulina; Maduzia, Dawid; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Olszanecki, Rafał; Drożdż, Ryszard; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata

    2017-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease with varied severity, ranging from mild local inflammation to severe systemic involvement resulting in substantial mortality. Early pathologic events in AP, both local and systemic, are associated with vascular derangements, including endothelial activation and injury, dysregulation of vasomotor tone, increased vascular permeability, increased leukocyte migration to tissues, and activation of coagulation. The purpose of the review was to summarize current evidence regarding the interplay between inflammation, coagulation and endothelial dysfunction in the early phase of AP. Practical aspects were emphasized: (1) we summarized available data on diagnostic usefulness of the markers of endothelial dysfunction and activated coagulation in early prediction of severe AP; (2) we reviewed in detail the results of experimental studies and clinical trials targeting coagulation-inflammation interactions in severe AP. Among laboratory tests, d-dimer and angiopoietin-2 measurements seem the most useful in early prediction of severe AP. Although most clinical trials evaluating anticoagulants in treatment of severe AP did not show benefits, they also did not show significantly increased bleeding risk. Promising results of human trials were published for low molecular weight heparin treatment. Several anticoagulants that proved beneficial in animal experiments are thus worth testing in patients. PMID:28208708

  6. Phase sorting wave-particle correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletzing, C. A.; LaBelle, J.; Bounds, S. R.; Dolan, J.; Kaeppler, S. R.; Dombrowski, M.

    2017-02-01

    Wave-particle correlations, particularly of Langmuir waves and electrons, have been the subject of significant interest extending back to the 1970s. Often, these correlations have been simply observing modulation of the electrons at the plasma frequency with no phase resolution. The first phase-resolving correlators were developed at UC Berkeley in the late 1980s and reported by Ergun in the early 1990s. A design is presented which further improves on phase resolution in correlations of Langmuir waves and electrons with phase resolution of 22.5°. In this technique, a phase-locked loop (PLL) is used to lock onto the wave and subdivide the phase. Electrons are sorted on-the-fly as they arrive into the phase bins. Discussed are details of accurate timing, testing, and calibration of this system as well as results from rocket flights in which statistically significant phase correlations have been observed.

  7. Tracking the Distribution of 26Al and 60Fe during the Early Phases of Star and Disk Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küffmeier, Michael; Mogensen, Troels Frostholm; Haugbølle, Troels;

    2016-01-01

    that the 26Al/27Al and 60Fe/56Fe ratios of accreting gas within a vicinity of 1000 au of the stars follow the predicted decay curves of the initial abundances at the time of star formation without evidence of spatial or temporal heterogeneities for the first 100 kyr of star formation. Therefore, the observed...... the admixing of the 26Al nuclides during the early formative phase of the Sun. We use giant molecular cloud scale adaptive mesh-refinement numerical simulations to trace the abundance of 26Al and 60Fe in star-forming gas during the early stages of accretion of individual low-mass protostars. We find...... system formation....

  8. Reduced early and late phase insulin response to glucose in isolated spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) islets: a defective link between glycolysis and adenylate cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesher, R; Abramovitch, E; Cerasi, E

    1989-09-01

    The spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) exhibits low insulin responsiveness to glucose with a nearly absent early phase release. The alternative fuel-secretagogue glyceraldehyde (10 mmol/l) produced a maximal early insulin response in rat islets but failed to affect early response in Acomys; however, it potentiated the late insulin response in both species alike. Glucagon (1.5 mumol/l) potentiated the early insulin response to intermediate (8.3 mmol/l) glucose in rat and Acomys islets by two- and four-fold, respectively. Glucose doubled cyclic AMP levels in rat islets but no significant response was noted in Acomys islets. Isobutylmethylxanthine (0.1 mmol/l) and forskolin (25 mumol/l) caused a significant rise in islet cyclic AMP levels in both types of islets; however, neither agent restored the glucose stimulation of cyclic AMP in spiny mouse islets. Forskolin and isobutylmethylxanthine potentiated early and late phase insulin release in both species; however, neither augmented the early response in the Acomys to the degree observed in rat islets. Thus: (1) A deficient link exists in Acomys between glycolysis and subsequent signals. (2) These islets contain a glucose-insensitive adenylate cyclase. (3) The early insulin response may be potentiated by direct activation of adenylate cyclase. (4) The glucose effects on early and late phase insulin release are probably mediated by distinct pathways. (5) In the spiny mouse the signals mediating the early response are deranged to a greater extent than those activating the late phase insulin release.

  9. Which System Variables Carry Robust Early Signs of Upcoming Phase Transition? An Ecological Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahbani, Ehsan; Steyn-Ross, D. Alistair; Steyn-Ross, Moira L.; Aguirre, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of critical fluctuations prior to catastrophic state transition is generally regarded as a universal phenomenon, providing a valuable early warning signal in dynamical systems. Using an ecological fisheries model of three populations (juvenile prey J, adult prey A and predator P), a recent study has reported silent early warning signals obtained from P and A populations prior to saddle-node (SN) bifurcation, and thus concluded that early warning signals are not universal. By performing a full eigenvalue analysis of the same system we demonstrate that while J and P populations undergo SN bifurcation, A does not jump to a new state, so it is not expected to carry early warning signs. In contrast with the previous study, we capture a significant increase in the noise-induced fluctuations in the P population, but only on close approach to the bifurcation point; it is not clear why the P variance initially shows a decaying trend. Here we resolve this puzzle using observability measures from control theory. By computing the observability coefficient for the system from the recordings of each population considered one at a time, we are able to quantify their ability to describe changing internal dynamics. We demonstrate that precursor fluctuations are best observed using only the J variable, and also P variable if close to transition. Using observability analysis we are able to describe why a poorly observable variable (P) has poor forecasting capabilities although a full eigenvalue analysis shows that this variable undergoes a bifurcation. We conclude that observability analysis provides complementary information to identify the variables carrying early-warning signs about impending state transition. PMID:27631984

  10. Which System Variables Carry Robust Early Signs of Upcoming Phase Transition? An Ecological Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahbani, Ehsan; Steyn-Ross, D Alistair; Steyn-Ross, Moira L; Aguirre, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Growth of critical fluctuations prior to catastrophic state transition is generally regarded as a universal phenomenon, providing a valuable early warning signal in dynamical systems. Using an ecological fisheries model of three populations (juvenile prey J, adult prey A and predator P), a recent study has reported silent early warning signals obtained from P and A populations prior to saddle-node (SN) bifurcation, and thus concluded that early warning signals are not universal. By performing a full eigenvalue analysis of the same system we demonstrate that while J and P populations undergo SN bifurcation, A does not jump to a new state, so it is not expected to carry early warning signs. In contrast with the previous study, we capture a significant increase in the noise-induced fluctuations in the P population, but only on close approach to the bifurcation point; it is not clear why the P variance initially shows a decaying trend. Here we resolve this puzzle using observability measures from control theory. By computing the observability coefficient for the system from the recordings of each population considered one at a time, we are able to quantify their ability to describe changing internal dynamics. We demonstrate that precursor fluctuations are best observed using only the J variable, and also P variable if close to transition. Using observability analysis we are able to describe why a poorly observable variable (P) has poor forecasting capabilities although a full eigenvalue analysis shows that this variable undergoes a bifurcation. We conclude that observability analysis provides complementary information to identify the variables carrying early-warning signs about impending state transition.

  11. The bivalve Glycymeris planicostalis as a high-resolution paleoclimate archive for the Rupelian (Early Oligocene) of central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliser, E. O.; Schöne, B. R.; Tütken, T.; Zirkel, J.; Grimm, K. I.; Pross, J.

    2015-04-01

    Current global warming is likely to result in a unipolar glaciated world with unpredictable repercussions on atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. These changes are expected to affect seasonal extremes and the year-to-year variability of seasonality. To better constrain the mode and tempo of the anticipated changes, climatologists require ultra-high-resolution proxy data of time intervals in the past, e.g., the Oligocene, during which boundary conditions were similar to those predicted for the near future. In the present paper, we assess whether such information can be obtained from shells of the long-lived bivalve mollusk Glycymeris planicostalis from the late Rupelian of the Mainz Basin, Germany. Our results indicate that the studied shells are pristinely preserved and provide an excellent archive for reconstructing changes of sea surface temperature on seasonal to interannual timescales. Shells of G. planicostalis grew uninterruptedly during winter and summer and therefore recorded the full seasonal temperature amplitude that prevailed in the Mainz Basin ~ 30 Ma. Absolute sea surface temperature data were reconstructed from δ18Oshell values assuming a δ18Owater signature that was extrapolated from coeval sirenian tooth enamel. Reconstructed values range between 12.3 and 22.0 °C and agree well with previous estimates based on planktonic foraminifera and shark teeth. However, temperatures during seasonal extremes vary greatly on interannual timescales. Mathematically re-sampled (i.e., corrected for uneven number of samples per annual increment) winter and summer temperatures averaged over 40 annual increments of three specimens equal 13.6 ± 0.8 and 17.3 ± 1.2 °C, respectively. Such high-resolution paleoclimate information can be highly relevant for numerical climate studies aiming to predict possible future climates in a unipolar glaciated or, ultimately, polar-ice-free world.

  12. Serum Metabolomics Reveals Serotonin as a Predictor of Severe Dengue in the Early Phase of Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liang; Lee, Yie Hou; Thein, Tun Linn; Fang, Jinling; Pang, Junxiong; Ooi, Eng Eong; Leo, Yee Sin; Ong, Choon Nam; Tannenbaum, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    Effective triage of dengue patients early in the disease course for in- or out-patient management would be useful for optimal healthcare resource utilization while minimizing poor clinical outcome due to delayed intervention. Yet, early prognosis of severe dengue is hampered by the heterogeneity in clinical presentation and routine hematological and biochemical measurements in dengue patients that collectively correlates poorly with eventual clinical outcome. Herein, untargeted liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry metabolomics of serum from patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the febrile phase (1.5) in the serum, among which are two products of tryptophan metabolism-serotonin and kynurenine. Serotonin, involved in platelet aggregation and activation decreased significantly, whereas kynurenine, an immunomodulator, increased significantly in patients with DHF, consistent with thrombocytopenia and immunopathology in severe dengue. To sensitively and accurately evaluate serotonin levels as prognostic biomarkers, we implemented stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry and used convalescence samples as their own controls. DHF serotonin was significantly 1.98 fold lower in febrile compared to convalescence phase, and significantly 1.76 fold lower compared to DF in the febrile phase of illness. Thus, serotonin alone provided good prognostic utility (Area Under Curve, AUC of serotonin = 0.8). Additionally, immune mediators associated with DHF may further increase the predictive ability than just serotonin alone. Nine cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-8, G-CSF, MIP-1β, FGF basic, TNFα and RANTES were significantly different between DF and DHF, among which IFN-γ ranked top by multivariate statistics. Combining serotonin and IFN-γ improved the prognosis performance (AUC = 0.92, sensitivity = 77.8%, specificity = 95.8%), suggesting this duplex panel as accurate metrics for the early prognosis of DHF.

  13. The prototyping/early construction phase of the BAIKAL-GVD project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avrorin, A.D.; Avrorin, A.V.; Aynutdinov, V.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary pr. 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Bannasch, R. [EvoLogics GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Belolaptikov, I.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Bogorodsky, D.Yu. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Brudanin, V.B. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Budnev, N.M. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Danilchenko, I.A.; Domogatsky, G.V.; Doroshenko, A.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary pr. 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Dyachok, A.N. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Dzhilkibaev, Zh-A.M., E-mail: djilkib@yandex.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary pr. 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Fialkovsky, S.V. [Nizhni Novgorod State Technical University, Nizhni Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Gafarov, A.R. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Gaponenko, O.N.; Golubkov, K.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary pr. 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Gress, T.I. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Honz, Z. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Kebkal, K.G. [EvoLogics GmbH, Berlin (Germany); and others

    2014-04-01

    The prototyping phase of the BAIKAL-GVD project has been started in April 2011 with the deployment of a three string engineering array which comprises all basic elements and systems of the Gigaton Volume Detector (GVD) in Lake Baikal. In April 2012 the version of engineering array which comprises the first full-scale string of the GVD demonstration cluster had been deployed and operated during 2012. The first stage of the GVD-cluster which consists of three strings was deployed in April 2013. We review the prototyping phase of the BAIKAL-GVD project and describe the configuration and design of the 2013 engineering array.

  14. Pareto optimality between width of central lobe and peak sidelobe intensity in the far-field pattern of lossless phase-only filters for enhancement of transverse resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Somparna; Hazra, Lakshminarayan

    2015-11-01

    Resolution capability of an optical imaging system can be enhanced by reducing the width of the central lobe of the point spread function. Attempts to achieve the same by pupil plane filtering give rise to a concomitant increase in sidelobe intensity. The mutual exclusivity between these two objectives may be considered as a multiobjective optimization problem that does not have a unique solution; rather, a class of trade-off solutions called Pareto optimal solutions may be generated. Pareto fronts in the synthesis of lossless phase-only pupil plane filters to achieve superresolution with prespecified lower limits for the Strehl ratio are explored by using the particle swarm optimization technique.

  15. 6S RNA regulation of relA alters ppGpp levels in early stationary phase

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanagh, Amy T.; Chandrangsu, Pete; Wassarman, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    6S RNA is a small, non-coding RNA that interacts directly with ? 70-RNA polymerase and regulates transcription at many ? 70-dependent promoters. Here, we demonstrate that 6S RNA regulates transcription of relA, which encodes a ppGpp synthase. The 6S RNA-dependent regulation of relA expression results in increased ppGpp levels during early stationary phase in cells lacking 6S RNA. These changes in ppGpp levels, although modest, are sufficient to result in altered regulation of transcription fr...

  16. A Bayesian three-parameter logistic model for early- and late-onset DLTs in oncology Phase I studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Yang; Lu, Yuefeng; Miao, Harry; Liu, Hengchang

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a three-parameter logistic model to analyze the dose limiting toxicity (DLT) as a time-to-event endpoint in oncology Phase I trials. In the proposed model, patients are allowed to stay on trial without the constraint of a maximum follow-up time. Our model accommodates late-onset DLT as well as early-onset DLT, by both of which the dose recommendation is informed. A Bayesian approach is used to incorporate prior knowledge of the test treatment into dose recommendation. Simulation examples show that our proposed model has good operating characteristics in assessing the maximum tolerated dose (MTD).

  17. A digital framework to build, visualize and analyze a gene expression atlas with cellular resolution in zebrafish early embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Castro-González

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A gene expression atlas is an essential resource to quantify and understand the multiscale processes of embryogenesis in time and space. The automated reconstruction of a prototypic 4D atlas for vertebrate early embryos, using multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with nuclear counterstain, requires dedicated computational strategies. To this goal, we designed an original methodological framework implemented in a software tool called Match-IT. With only minimal human supervision, our system is able to gather gene expression patterns observed in different analyzed embryos with phenotypic variability and map them onto a series of common 3D templates over time, creating a 4D atlas. This framework was used to construct an atlas composed of 6 gene expression templates from a cohort of zebrafish early embryos spanning 6 developmental stages from 4 to 6.3 hpf (hours post fertilization. They included 53 specimens, 181,415 detected cell nuclei and the segmentation of 98 gene expression patterns observed in 3D for 9 different genes. In addition, an interactive visualization software, Atlas-IT, was developed to inspect, supervise and analyze the atlas. Match-IT and Atlas-IT, including user manuals, representative datasets and video tutorials, are publicly and freely available online. We also propose computational methods and tools for the quantitative assessment of the gene expression templates at the cellular scale, with the identification, visualization and analysis of coexpression patterns, synexpression groups and their dynamics through developmental stages.

  18. A digital framework to build, visualize and analyze a gene expression atlas with cellular resolution in zebrafish early embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-González, Carlos; Luengo-Oroz, Miguel A; Duloquin, Louise; Savy, Thierry; Rizzi, Barbara; Desnoulez, Sophie; Doursat, René; Kergosien, Yannick L; Ledesma-Carbayo, María J; Bourgine, Paul; Peyriéras, Nadine; Santos, Andrés

    2014-06-01

    A gene expression atlas is an essential resource to quantify and understand the multiscale processes of embryogenesis in time and space. The automated reconstruction of a prototypic 4D atlas for vertebrate early embryos, using multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with nuclear counterstain, requires dedicated computational strategies. To this goal, we designed an original methodological framework implemented in a software tool called Match-IT. With only minimal human supervision, our system is able to gather gene expression patterns observed in different analyzed embryos with phenotypic variability and map them onto a series of common 3D templates over time, creating a 4D atlas. This framework was used to construct an atlas composed of 6 gene expression templates from a cohort of zebrafish early embryos spanning 6 developmental stages from 4 to 6.3 hpf (hours post fertilization). They included 53 specimens, 181,415 detected cell nuclei and the segmentation of 98 gene expression patterns observed in 3D for 9 different genes. In addition, an interactive visualization software, Atlas-IT, was developed to inspect, supervise and analyze the atlas. Match-IT and Atlas-IT, including user manuals, representative datasets and video tutorials, are publicly and freely available online. We also propose computational methods and tools for the quantitative assessment of the gene expression templates at the cellular scale, with the identification, visualization and analysis of coexpression patterns, synexpression groups and their dynamics through developmental stages.

  19. Factors associated with reduced early survival in the Oxford phase III medial unicompartment knee replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Bart M.; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Bots, Peter C. Kaijser; Burger, Bart J.; van Raay, Jos J. A. M.; Tulp, Niek J. A.; Verheyen, Cees C. P. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of preoperative patellofemoral osteoarthritis, BMI and age for implant Survival of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) performed in patients meeting strict admission criteria. The data and radiographs of 437 unilateral Oxford phase III

  20. Phase-based x-ray scattering—A possible method to detect cancer cells in a very early stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feye-Treimer, U., E-mail: feye-treimer@helmholtz-berlin.de; Treimer, W. [Department of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, University of Applied Sciences, D-13353 Berlin, Germany and Joint Department G-GTOMO, Helmholtz Zentrum fuer Materialien und Energie Berlin, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: This theoretical work contains a detailed investigation of the potential and sensitivity of phase-based x-ray scattering for cancer detection in biopsies if cancer is in a very early stage of development. Methods: Cancer cells in their early stage of development differ from healthy ones mainly due to their faster growing cell nuclei and the enlargement of their densities. This growth is accompanied by an altered nucleus–plasma relation for the benefit of the cell nuclei, that changes the physical properties especially the index of refraction of the cell and the one of the cell nuclei. Interaction of radiation with matter is known to be highly sensitive to small changes of the index of refraction of matter; therefore a detection of such changes of volume and density of cell nuclei by means of high angular resolved phase-based scattering of x rays might provide a technique to distinguish malignant cells from healthy ones ifthe cell–cell nucleus system is considered as a coherent phase shifting object. Then one can observe from a thin biopsy which represents a monolayer of cells (no multiple scattering) that phase-based x-ray scattering curves from healthy cells differ from those of cancer cells in their early stage of development. Results: Detailed calculations of x-ray scattering patterns from healthy and cancer cell nuclei yield graphs and numbers with which one can distinguish healthy cells from cancer ones, taking into account that both kinds of cells occur in a tissue within a range of size and density. One important result is the role and the influence of the (lateral) coherence width of the radiation on the scattering curves and the sensitivity of phase-based scattering for cancer detection. A major result is that a larger coherence width yields a larger sensitivity for cancer detection. Further import results are calculated limits for critical sizes and densities of cell nuclei in order to attribute the investigated tissue to be healthy or

  1. Phase-modulated electronic wave-packet interferometry reveals high resolution vibronic spectra of free Rb atoms and Rb*He molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Bruder, Lukas; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Phase-modulated wave-packet interferometry is combined with mass-resolved photoion detection to investigate rubidium atoms attached to helium nanodroplets in a molecular beam experiment. The spectra of atomic Rb electronic states show a vastly enhanced sensitivity and spectral resolution when compared to conventional pump-probe wave-packet interferometry. Furthermore, the formation of Rb*He exciplex molecules is probed and for the first time a fully resolved vibrational spectrum for transitions between the lowest excited $5\\Pi_{3/2}$ and the high-lying electronic states $2^2\\Pi$, $4^2\\Delta$, $6^2\\Sigma$ is obtained and compared to theory. The feasibility of applying coherent multidimensional spectroscopy to dilute cold gas phase samples is demonstrated in these experiments.

  2. Recommendations for measurement of tumour vascularity with positron emission tomography in early phase clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboagye, Eric O.; Kenny, Laura M.; Myers, Melvyn [Imperial College London, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Fiona J. [University of Cambridge, Radiology Department, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Fleming, Ian N. [University of Aberdeen, NCRI PET Research Network, Aberdeen Bioimaging Centre, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Beer, Ambros J. [Technische Universitaet Munchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Cunningham, Vincent J. [University of Aberdeen, Institute of Medical Sciences, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Marsden, Paul K. [St. Thomas' Hospital, Division of Imaging Sciences, PET Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom); Visvikis, Dimitris [INSERM National Institute of Health and Clinical Sciences LaTIM, CHU Morvan, Brest (France); Gee, Antony D. [St. Thomas' Hospital, Division of Imaging Sciences, The Rayne Institute, London (United Kingdom); Groves, Ashley M. [University College London, University College Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Cook, Gary J. [St. Thomas' Hospital, KCL Division of Imaging, Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, PET Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom); Kinahan, Paul E. [University of Washington, 222 Old Fisheries Center (FIS), Box 357987, Seattle, WA (United States); Clarke, Larry [Cancer Imaging Program, Imaging Technology Development Branch, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The evaluation of drug pharmacodynamics and early tumour response are integral to current clinical trials of novel cancer therapeutics to explain or predict long term clinical benefit or to confirm dose selection. Tumour vascularity assessment by positron emission tomography could be viewed as a generic pharmacodynamic endpoint or tool for monitoring response to treatment. This review discusses methods for semi-quantitative and quantitative assessment of tumour vascularity. The radioligands and radiotracers range from direct physiological functional tracers like [{sup 15}O]-water to macromolecular probes targeting integrin receptors expressed on neovasculature. Finally we make recommendations on ways to incorporate such measurements of tumour vascularity into early clinical trials of novel therapeutics. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of early warning system performance and improvements since it is in operational phase in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Ortansa Cioflan, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake represents a major natural disaster for Romanian territory. The main goal following the occurrence of a strong earthquake is to minimize the total number of fatalities. A rapid early warning system (REWS) was developed in Romania in order to provide 25-35 seconds warning time to Bucharest facilities for the earthquakes with M>5.0. The system consists of four components: a network of strong motion sensors installed in the epicentral area, a redundant communication network, an automatic analyzing system located in the Romanian Data Centre and an alert distribution system. The detection algorithm is based on the magnitude computation using strong motion data and rapid evaluation and scaling relation between the maximum P-wave acceleration measured in the epicentral area and the higher ground motion amplitude recorded in Bucharest. In order to reduce the damages caused by earthquakes, the exploitation of the up to date technology is very important. The information is the key point in the disaster management, and the internet is one of the most used instrument, implying also low costs. The Rapid Early Warning System was expanded to cover all countries affected by major earthquakes originating in the Vrancea seismic area and reduce their impact on existing installations of national interest in neighbouring Romania and elsewhere. REWS provides an efficient instrument for prevention and reaction based on the integrated system for seismic detection in South-Eastern Europe. REWS has been operational since 2013 and sends alert the authorities, hazardous facilities in Romania and Bulgaria (NPP, emergency response agencies etc.) and to public via twitter and some smartphone applications developed in the house. Also, NIEP is part of the UNESCO initiative case on developing a platform on earthquake early warning systems (IP-MEP) that aims to promote and strengthen the development of earthquake early warning systems in earthquake-prone regions of the world by sharing

  4. A high-resolution benthic stable-isotope record for the South Atlantic: Implications for orbital-scale changes in Late Paleocene-Early Eocene climate and carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littler, Kate; Röhl, Ursula; Westerhold, Thomas; Zachos, James C.

    2014-09-01

    The Late Paleocene and Early Eocene were characterized by warm greenhouse climates, punctuated by a series of rapid warming and ocean acidification events known as “hyperthermals”, thought to have been paced or triggered by orbital cycles. While these hyperthermals, such as the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), have been studied in great detail, the background low-amplitude cycles seen in carbon and oxygen-isotope records throughout the Paleocene-Eocene have hitherto not been resolved. Here we present a 7.7 million year (myr) long, high-resolution, orbitally-tuned, benthic foraminiferal stable-isotope record spanning the late Paleocene and early Eocene interval (∼52.5-60.5 Ma) from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1262, South Atlantic. This high resolution (∼2-4 kyr) record allows the changing character and phasing of orbitally-modulated cycles to be studied in unprecedented detail as it reflects the long-term trend in carbon cycle and climate over this interval. The main pacemaker in the benthic oxygen-isotope (δ18O) and carbon-isotope (δ13C) records from ODP Site 1262, are the long (405 kyr) and short (100 kyr) eccentricity cycles, and precession (21 kyr). Obliquity (41 kyr) is almost absent throughout the section except for a few brief intervals where it has a relatively weak influence. During the course of the Early Paleogene record, and particularly in the latest Paleocene, eccentricity-paced negative carbon-isotope excursions (δ13C, CIEs) and coeval negative oxygen-isotope (δ18O) excursions correspond to low carbonate (CaCO3) and coarse fraction (%CF) values due to increased carbonate dissolution, suggesting shoaling of the lysocline and accompanied changes in the global exogenic carbon cycle. These negative CIEs and δ18O events coincide with maxima in eccentricity, with changes in δ18O leading changes in δ13C by ∼6 (±5) kyr in the 405-kyr band and by ∼3 (±1) kyr in the higher frequency 100-kyr band on average. However, these

  5. One more chiral drug prone to spontaneous resolution: Binary phase diagram, absolute configuration, and crystal packing of bevantolol hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredikhina, Zemfira A.; Zakharychev, Dmitry V.; Gubaidullin, Aidar T.; Bredikhin, Alexander A.

    2009-11-01

    Spontaneous resolution of cardioselective β1-adrenergic blocker bevantolol hydrochloride1·HCl was established by IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and by single crystal X-ray analysis both for enantiopure and racemic samples. The absolute configuration of 1·HCl was evaluated through Flack parameter method. The molecular structure and crystal packing details were evaluated; the symmetry independent fragment of the P1 unit cell consists of two molecules which have almost identical spatial arrangement, but differ sufficiently in the nature of nitrogen atoms: quaternary form in one case and free amine form in the other.

  6. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) X. Sub-kpc resolution gas-phase metallicity maps at cosmic noon behind the Hubble Frontier Fields cluster MACS1149.6+2223

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xin; Treu, Tommaso; Morishita, Takahiro; Abramson, Louis E; Brammer, Gabriel B; Huang, Kuang-Han; Malkan, Matthew A; Schmidt, Kasper B; Fontana, Adriano; Grillo, Claudio; Henry, Alaina L; Karman, Wouter; Kelly, Patrick L; Mason, Charlotte A; Mercurio, Amata; Rosati, Piero; Sharon, Keren; Trenti, Michele; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2016-01-01

    (Abridged) We combine deep HST grism spectroscopy with a new Bayesian method to derive maps of gas-phase metallicity, nebular dust extinction, and star-formation rate for 10 star-forming galaxies at high redshift ($1.2resolution and push the stellar mass limit associated with such high-z spatially resolved measurements below $10^8M_\\odot$ for the first time. Our maps exhibit diverse morphologies, indicative of various effects such as efficient radial mixing from tidal torques, rapid accretion of low-metallicity gas, etc., which can affect the gas and metallicity distributions in individual galaxies. Based upon an exhaustive sample of all existing sub-kpc metallicity gradients at high-z, we find that predictions given by analytical chemical evolution models assuming a relatively extended star-formation profile in the early disk formation phase can explain the majority of observed gradients, with...

  7. A High-Resolution S-band Down-Converting Digital Phase Detector for SASE FEL Use

    CERN Document Server

    Grelick, A E

    2004-01-01

    Each of the rf phase detectors in the Advanced Photon Source linac consists of a module that down converts from S-band to 20 MHz followed by an analog I/Q detector. Phase is calculated from one digitized sample per pulse each of I and Q. The resulting data has excellent long-term stability but is noisy enough so that a number of samples must be averaged to get a usable reading. The more recent requirement to support a SASE FEL has presented the need to accurately resolve the relative phase of a single pulse. Replacing analog detection with digital sampling and replacing internal intermediate frequency reference oscillators with a lower noise external oscillator were used to control the two largest components of noise. The implementation of a central, ultralow noise reference oscillator and a distribution system capable of maintaining the low phase noise is described, together with the results obtained to date. The principal remaining technical issue is determining the processing power required as a function o...

  8. Administration of Zinc plus Cyclo-(His-Pro) Increases Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Rats during the Early Phase of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bo Young; Kim, In Yeol; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Bo Eun; Lee, Song Hee; Kho, A Ra; Sohn, Min; Suh, Sang Won

    2017-01-01

    The effects of zinc supplementation on hippocampal neurogenesis in diabetes mellitus have not been studied. Herein, we investigated the effects of zinc plus cyclo-(His-Pro) (ZC) on neurogenesis occurring in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus after streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. ZC (27 mg/kg) was administered by gavage once daily for one or six weeks from the third day after the STZ injection, and histological evaluation was performed at 10 (early phase) or 45 (late phase) days after STZ injection. We found that the proliferation of progenitor cells in STZ-induced diabetic rats showed an increase in the early phase. Additionally, ZC treatment remarkably increased the number of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and immature neurons in the early phase of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, ZC treatment showed increased survival rate of newly generated cells but no difference in the level of neurogenesis in the late phase of STZ-induced diabetic rats. The present study demonstrates that zinc supplementation by ZC increases both NPCs proliferation and neuroblast production at the early phase of diabetes. Thus, this study suggests that zinc supplemented with a histidine/proline complex may have beneficial effects on neurogenesis in patients experiencing the early phase of Type 1 diabetes. PMID:28045430

  9. Administration of Zinc plus Cyclo-(His-Pro Increases Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Rats during the Early Phase of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Young Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of zinc supplementation on hippocampal neurogenesis in diabetes mellitus have not been studied. Herein, we investigated the effects of zinc plus cyclo-(His-Pro (ZC on neurogenesis occurring in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus after streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes. ZC (27 mg/kg was administered by gavage once daily for one or six weeks from the third day after the STZ injection, and histological evaluation was performed at 10 (early phase or 45 (late phase days after STZ injection. We found that the proliferation of progenitor cells in STZ-induced diabetic rats showed an increase in the early phase. Additionally, ZC treatment remarkably increased the number of neural progenitor cells (NPCs and immature neurons in the early phase of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, ZC treatment showed increased survival rate of newly generated cells but no difference in the level of neurogenesis in the late phase of STZ-induced diabetic rats. The present study demonstrates that zinc supplementation by ZC increases both NPCs proliferation and neuroblast production at the early phase of diabetes. Thus, this study suggests that zinc supplemented with a histidine/proline complex may have beneficial effects on neurogenesis in patients experiencing the early phase of Type 1 diabetes.

  10. Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease Via X-ray Phase CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    to two reasons – (i) the fabrication/optimization of x-ray gratings were much more complicated and challenging than we initially anticipated and ( ii...Primarily due to two reasons – (i) the fabrication/optimization of x-ray gratings were much more complicated and challenging than we initially...re-optimization – Phase de-wrapping: Since x-ray grating fabrication is a complicated process, there inevitably exists imperfection in either grating

  11. Atmospheric Phase Correction using CARMA-PACS: High Angular Resolution Observations of the FU-Orionis star PP 13S*

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Laura M; Woody, David P; Carpenter, John M; Zauderer, B Ashley; Isella, Andrea; Bock, Douglas C; Bolatto, Alberto D; Carlstrom, John; Culverhouse, Thomas L; Joy, Marshall; Kwon, Woojin; Leitch, Erik M; Marrone, Daniel P; Muchovej, Stephen J; Plambeck, Richard L; Scott, Stephen L; Teuben, Peter J; Wright, Melvyn C H

    2010-01-01

    We present 0.15" resolution observations of the 227 GHz continuum emission from the circumstellar disk around the FU-Orionis star PP 13S*. The data were obtained with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) Paired Antenna Calibration System (C-PACS), which measures and corrects the atmospheric delay fluctuations on the longest baselines of the array in order to improve the sensitivity and angular resolution of the observations. A description of the C-PACS technique and the data reduction procedures are presented. C-PACS was applied to CARMA observations of PP 13S*, which led to a factor of 1.6 increase in the observed peak flux of the source, a 36% reduction in the noise of the image, and a 52% decrease in the measured size of the source major axis. The calibrated complex visibilities were fitted with a theoretical disk model to constrain the disk surface density. The total disk mass from the best fit model corresponds to 0.06 \\msun, which is larger than the median mass of a disk ...

  12. A First-Level Muon Trigger Based on the ATLAS Muon Drift Tube Chambers With High Momentum Resolution for LHC Phase II

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Ott, S; Kortner, O; Fras, M; Gabrielyan, V; Danielyan, V; Fink, D; Nowak, S; Schwegler, P; Abovyan, S

    2014-01-01

    The Level-1 (L1) trigger for muons with high transverse momentum (pT) in ATLAS is based on chambers with excellent time resolution, able to identify muons coming from a particular beam crossing. These trigger chambers also provide a fast pT-measurement of the muons, the accuracy of the measurement being limited by the moderate spatial resolution of the chambers along the deflecting direction of the magnetic field (eta-coordinate). The higher luminosity foreseen for Phase-II puts stringent limits on the L1 trigger rates, and a way to control these rates would be to improve the spatial resolution of the triggering system, drastically sharpening the turn-on curve of the L1 trigger. To do this, the precision tracking chambers (MDT) can be used in the L1 trigger, provided the corresponding trigger latency is increased as foreseen. The trigger rate reduction is accomplished by strongly decreasing the rate of triggers from muons with pT lower than a predefined threshold (typically 20 GeV), which would otherwise trig...

  13. [Increased urinary sodium excretion in the early phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage as a predictor of cerebral salt wasting syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Ichiro; Kurokawa, Shinichiro; Takayama, Katsutoshi; Wada, Takeshi; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is considered to correlate with delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) induced by cerebral vasospasm; however, its exact mechanism is still not well-known. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between hyponatremia caused by CSWS and the increase of the urinary sodium excretion in early phase following SAH. Fifty-four patients with SAH were divided into 2 groups, normonatremia group and hyponatremia group which suffered hyponatremia after SAH. The hyponatremia group comprise 14 patients (26%) in whom the hyponatremia developed of the SAH. In this group, the serum level of sodium significantly decreased 7 days after SAH and then gradually normalised. Further, excretion of sodium in the urine tended to increase 3 days after SAH and significantly increased 7 days after SAH. In conclusion, the increased urinary sodium excretion in the early phase of SAH would serve as a predictive factor for CSWS after SAH. We consider that it is important to start sodium and fluid supplementation and inhibit natriuresis by fludrocortisone acetate administration before hyponatremia occurs in order to prevention delayed ischemic neurological deficits in SAH patients.

  14. Early-phase transmission of Yersinia pestis by unblocked fleas as a mechanism explaining rapidly spreading plague epizootics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Rebecca J.; Bearden, Scott W.; Wilder, Aryn P.; Montenieri, John A.; Antolin, Michael F.; Gage, Kenneth L.

    2006-01-01

    Plague is a highly virulent disease believed to have killed millions during three historic human pandemics. Worldwide, it remains a threat to humans and is a potential agent of bioterrorism. Dissemination of Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, by blocked fleas has been the accepted paradigm for flea-borne transmission. However, this mechanism, which requires a lengthy extrinsic incubation period before a short infectious window often followed by death of the flea, cannot sufficiently explain the rapid rate of spread that typifies plague epidemics and epizootics. Inconsistencies between the expected rate of spread by blocked rat fleas and that observed during the Black Death has even caused speculation that plague was not the cause of this medieval pandemic. We used the primary vector to humans in North America, Oropsylla montana, which rarely becomes blocked, as a model for studying alternative flea-borne transmission mechanisms. Our data revealed that, in contrast to the classical blocked flea model, O. montana is immediately infectious, transmits efficiently for at least 4 d postinfection (early phase) and may remain infectious for a long time because the fleas do not suffer block-induced mortality. These factors match the criteria required to drive plague epizootics as defined by recently published mathematical models. The scenario of efficient early-phase transmission by unblocked fleas described in our study calls for a paradigm shift in concepts of how Y. pestis is transmitted during rapidly spreading epizootics and epidemics, including, perhaps, the Black Death. PMID:17032761

  15. Early-phase transmission of Yersinia pestis by unblocked fleas as a mechanism explaining rapidly spreading plague epizootics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Bearden, Scott W; Wilder, Aryn P; Montenieri, John A; Antolin, Michael F; Gage, Kenneth L

    2006-10-17

    Plague is a highly virulent disease believed to have killed millions during three historic human pandemics. Worldwide, it remains a threat to humans and is a potential agent of bioterrorism. Dissemination of Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, by blocked fleas has been the accepted paradigm for flea-borne transmission. However, this mechanism, which requires a lengthy extrinsic incubation period before a short infectious window often followed by death of the flea, cannot sufficiently explain the rapid rate of spread that typifies plague epidemics and epizootics. Inconsistencies between the expected rate of spread by blocked rat fleas and that observed during the Black Death has even caused speculation that plague was not the cause of this medieval pandemic. We used the primary vector to humans in North America, Oropsylla montana, which rarely becomes blocked, as a model for studying alternative flea-borne transmission mechanisms. Our data revealed that, in contrast to the classical blocked flea model, O. montana is immediately infectious, transmits efficiently for at least 4 d postinfection (early phase) and may remain infectious for a long time because the fleas do not suffer block-induced mortality. These factors match the criteria required to drive plague epizootics as defined by recently published mathematical models. The scenario of efficient early-phase transmission by unblocked fleas described in our study calls for a paradigm shift in concepts of how Y. pestis is transmitted during rapidly spreading epizootics and epidemics, including, perhaps, the Black Death.

  16. Enhanced GPS-based GRACE baseline determination by using a new strategy for ambiguity resolution and relative phase center variation corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Defeng; Ju, Bing; Liu, Junhong; Tu, Jia

    2017-09-01

    Precise relative position determination is a prerequisite for radar interferometry by formation flying satellites. It has been shown that this can be achieved by high-quality, dual-frequency GPS receivers that provide precise carrier-phase observations. The precise baseline determination between satellites flying in formation can significantly improve the accuracy of interferometric products, and has become a research interest. The key technologies of baseline determination using spaceborne dual-frequency GPS for gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) formation are presented, including zero-difference (ZD) reduced dynamic orbit determination, double-difference (DD) reduced dynamic relative orbit determination, integer ambiguity resolution and relative receiver antenna phase center variation (PCV) estimation. We propose an independent baseline determination method based on a new strategy of integer ambiguity resolution and correction of relative receiver antenna PCVs, and implement the method in the NUDTTK software package. The algorithms have been tested using flight data over a period of 120 days from GRACE. With the original strategy of integer ambiguity resolution based on Melbourne-Wübbena (M-W) combinations, the average success rate is 85.6%, and the baseline precision is 1.13 mm. With the new strategy of integer ambiguity resolution based on a priori relative orbit, the average success rate and baseline precision are improved by 5.8% and 0.11 mm respectively. A relative ionosphere-free phase pattern estimation result is given in this study, and with correction of relative receiver antenna PCVs, the baseline precision is further significantly improved by 0.34 mm. For ZD reduced dynamic orbit determination, the orbit precision for each GRACE satellite A or B in three dimensions (3D) is about 2.5 cm compared to Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) post science orbits. For DD reduced dynamic relative orbit determination, the final baseline precision for two

  17. High-resolution numerical methods for compressible multi-phase flow in hierarchical porous media. Progress report, September 1993--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trangenstein, J.A.

    1994-03-15

    This is the second year in the proposed three-year effort to develop high-resolution numerical methods for multi-phase flow in hierarchical porous media. The issues being addressed in this research are: Computational efficiency: Field-scale simulation of enhanced oil recovery, whether for energy production or aquifer remediation, is typically highly under-resolved. This is because rock transport properties vary on many scales, and because current numerical methods have low resolution. Effective media properties: Since porous media are formed through complex geologic processes, they involve significant uncertainty and scale-dependence. Given this uncertainty, knowledge of ensemble averages of flow in porous media can be preferable to knowledge of flow in specific realizations of the reservoir. However, current models of effective properties do not represent the observed behavior very well. Relative permeability models present a good example of this problem. In practice, these models seldom provide realistic representations of hysteresis, interfacial tension effects or three-phase flow; there are no models that represent well all three effects simultaneously.

  18. Up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor superfamily genes in early phases of photoreceptor degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sem Genini

    Full Text Available We used quantitative real-time PCR to examine the expression of 112 genes related to retinal function and/or belonging to known pro-apoptotic, cell survival, and autophagy pathways during photoreceptor degeneration in three early-onset canine models of human photoreceptor degeneration, rod cone dysplasia 1 (rcd1, X-linked progressive retinal atrophy 2 (xlpra2, and early retinal degeneration (erd, caused respectively, by mutations in PDE6B, RPGRORF15, and STK38L. Notably, we found that expression and timing of differentially expressed (DE genes correlated with the cell death kinetics. Gene expression profiles of rcd1 and xlpra2 were similar; however rcd1 was more severe as demonstrated by the results of the TUNEL and ONL thickness analyses, a greater number of genes that were DE, and the identification of altered expression that occurred at earlier time points. Both diseases differed from erd, where a smaller number of genes were DE. Our studies did not highlight the potential involvement of mitochondrial or autophagy pathways, but all three diseases were accompanied by the down-regulation of photoreceptor genes, and up-regulation of several genes that belong to the TNF superfamily, the extrinsic apoptotic pathway, and pro-survival pathways. These proteins were expressed by different retinal cells, including horizontal, amacrine, ON bipolar, and Müller cells, and suggest an interplay between the dying photoreceptors and inner retinal cells. Western blot and immunohistochemistry results supported the transcriptional regulation for selected proteins. This study highlights a potential role for signaling through the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in early cell death events and suggests that retinal cells other than photoreceptors might play a primary or bystander role in the degenerative process.

  19. Implant Stability Changes during Early Phase of Healing:A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mesgarzadeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the stability changes as a reflection of early healing around roughened-surface implants in human by resonance frequency analysis (RFA.Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty one ITI SLA implants were placed in either maxilla or mandible of 68 patients. Bone type was classified into 4 groups according to Lekholm and Zarb index. RFA was used for direct implant stability measurement on theday of implant placement, and at 14, 30 and 60 days after placement. Student t-test and ANOVA served for statistical analysis.Results: No early failure occurred. The highest and lowest primary stability was measured in type 1 and type 4 bone, respectively. Implant stability increased over time in types 3 and 4 bone but continuously decreased in type 1 bone during the first 60 days of healing.In type 2 a small decrease in stability was observed until 30 days, and after that the stability increased. The difference between implant stability in type 2 and type 4 bone at eachtime point was highly significant (P0.05. The effect of implant length and diameter on stability at different times was tested with mixed model ANOVA, and no significant difference among groups was observed (P>0.05Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the pattern of stability changes was different among various bone types. With regard to primary stability and pattern of stability changes in types 2 and 3 bone, immediate and early loading protocols can be recommended in these two bone types, respectively.

  20. Phase Transitions in the Early Universe with Negatively Induced Supergravity Cosmological Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EL-NABULSI Ahmad Rami

    2006-01-01

    @@ We consider that the observable cosmological constant is the sum of the vacuum (Avac) and the induced term (Aind - 3m2/4) with m being the ultra-light masses (≈ Hubble parameter) implemented in the theory from supergravities arguments and non-minimal coupling. In the absence of a scalar buildup of matter fields, we study its effects on spontaneous symmetry breaking with a Higgs potential and show how the presence of the ultra-light masses yields some important consequences for the early universe and new constraints on the Higgs and electroweak gauge bosons masses.

  1. Ultra-Structural Changes of the Early Childhood Caries Starting Phases of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokoceva-Ivanovska Olga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent 20 years, besides dramatic reduction of caries in many countries where complex programme of prevention is carried out, prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC has expressed continual growth trend. The aim of our research was to determine precisely ultra-structural changes in the enamel substance at the initial lesion of the ECC (white spot lesion, as initial change of great importance for its preventive aspect. Therefore, we directed our experiment to evaluate ultra-structural changes of the teeth enamel in primary teeth with circular caries in its opening stages of development: initial caries lesion and superficial form.

  2. Control of Early Age Cracking in Concrete. Phase 4 and 5: Material Modelling, Continuum Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe; Damkilde, Lars; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with numerical modelling of early age concrete. The hydration process giving the strength and stiffness development after casting is discussed. Several factors influence the progress of hydration such as the temperature level and the moisture activity. The factors are coupled...... and a material model is proposed which includes some of the couplings. It is shown how more factors may be incorporated. The model is illustrated through analysis of measured creep response both at a varying load history and at a varying temperature history....

  3. Review of hardware cost estimation methods, models and tools applied to early phases of space mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivailo, O.; Sippel, M.; Şekercioğlu, Y. A.

    2012-08-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to review currently existing cost estimation methods, models, tools and resources applicable to the space sector. While key space sector methods are outlined, a specific focus is placed on hardware cost estimation on a system level, particularly for early mission phases during which specifications and requirements are not yet crystallised, and information is limited. For the space industry, cost engineering within the systems engineering framework is an integral discipline. The cost of any space program now constitutes a stringent design criterion, which must be considered and carefully controlled during the entire program life cycle. A first step to any program budget is a representative cost estimate which usually hinges on a particular estimation approach, or methodology. Therefore appropriate selection of specific cost models, methods and tools is paramount, a difficult task given the highly variable nature, scope as well as scientific and technical requirements applicable to each program. Numerous methods, models and tools exist. However new ways are needed to address very early, pre-Phase 0 cost estimation during the initial program research and establishment phase when system specifications are limited, but the available research budget needs to be established and defined. Due to their specificity, for vehicles such as reusable launchers with a manned capability, a lack of historical data implies that using either the classic heuristic approach such as parametric cost estimation based on underlying CERs, or the analogy approach, is therefore, by definition, limited. This review identifies prominent cost estimation models applied to the space sector, and their underlying cost driving parameters and factors. Strengths, weaknesses, and suitability to specific mission types and classes are also highlighted. Current approaches which strategically amalgamate various cost estimation strategies both for formulation and validation

  4. High resolution measurements of methane and carbon dioxide in surface waters over a natural seep reveal dynamics of dissolved phase air-sea flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mengran; Yvon-Lewis, Shari; Garcia-Tigreros, Fenix; Valentine, David L; Mendes, Stephanie D; Kessler, John D

    2014-09-01

    Marine hydrocarbon seeps are sources of methane and carbon dioxide to the ocean, and potentially to the atmosphere, though the magnitude of the fluxes and dynamics of these systems are poorly defined. To better constrain these variables in natural environments, we conducted the first high-resolution measurements of sea surface methane and carbon dioxide concentrations in the massive natural seep field near Coal Oil Point (COP), California. The corresponding high resolution fluxes were calculated, and the total dissolved phase air-sea fluxes over the surveyed plume area (∼363 km(2)) were 6.66 × 10(4) to 6.71 × 10(4) mol day(-1) with respect to CH4 and -6.01 × 10(5) to -5.99 × 10(5) mol day(-1) with respect to CO2. The mean and standard deviation of the dissolved phase air-sea fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide from the contour gridding analysis were estimated to be 0.18 ± 0.19 and -1.65 ± 1.23 mmol m(-2) day(-1), respectively. This methane flux is consistent with previous, lower-resolution estimates and was used, in part, to conservatively estimate the total area of the dissolved methane plume at 8400 km(2). The influx of carbon dioxide to the surface water refutes the hypothesis that COP seep methane appreciably influences carbon dioxide dynamics. Seeing that the COP seep field is one of the biggest natural seeps, a logical conclusion could be drawn that microbial oxidation of methane from natural seeps is of insufficient magnitude to change the resulting plume area from a sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide to a source.

  5. Pseudocirrhosis in a pancreatic cancer patient with liver metastases:A case report of complete resolution of pseudocirrhosis with an early recognition and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soonmo Peter Kang; Tamar Taddei; Bruce McLennan; Jill Lacy

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of pseudocirrhosis arising in the setting of regression of liver metastases from pancreatic cancer.A 55-year-old asymptomatic woman presented to ourclinic with newly diagnosed metastatic pancreatic cancer with extensive liver metastases.She underwent systemic chemotherapy with gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEHOX).After 8 cycles of therapy,she had a remarkable response to the therapy evidenced by decline of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA19 by>50% and nearlycomplete resolution of hepatic metastases in computed tomography (CT) scan.Shortly after,she developed increasing bilateral ankle edema and ascites,associated with dyspnea,progressive weight gain,and declining performance status.Gemcitabine and oxaliplatin were discontinued as other causes of her symptoms such as congestive heart disease or venous thrombosis were ruled out.CT scan 6 mo after the initiation of GEHOX revealed worsening ascites with a stable pancreatic mass.However,it also revealed a Iobular hepatic contour,segmental atrophy,and capsular retraction mimicking the appearance of cirrhosis.She was managed with aggressive diuresis and albumin infusions which eventually resulted in a resolution of the abovementioned symptoms as well as complete resolution of pseudocirrhotic appearance of the liver and ascites in CT scan.This case demonstrates that pancreatic cancer patients can develop pseudocirrhosis.Clinicians and radiologist should be well aware of this entity as early recognition and management can lead to a near complete recovery of liver function and much improved quality of life as illustrated in this case.

  6. Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Kelly A.; Mahon, Sari B.; Mukai, David S.; Su, Jianping; Jung, Woong-Gyu; Narula, Navneet; Guo, Shuguang; Wakida, Nicole; Raub, Chris; Berns, Michael W.; George, Steven C.; Chen, Zhongping; Brenner, Matthew

    2009-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, high-resolution imaging technology capable of delivering real-time, near-histologic images of tissues. Mustard gas is a vesicant-blistering agent that can cause severe and lethal damage to airway and lungs. The ability to detect and assess airway injury in the clinical setting of mustard exposure is currently limited. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability to detect and monitor progression of half-mustard [2-chloroethylethylsulfide (CEES)] airway injuries with OCT techniques. A ventilated rabbit mustard exposure airway injury model is developed. A flexible fiber optic OCT probe is introduced into the distal trachea to image airway epithelium and mucosa in vivo. Progression of airway injury is observed over eight hours with OCT using a prototype time-domain superluminescent diode OCT system. OCT tracheal images from CEES exposed animals are compared to control rabbits for airway mucosal thickening and other changes. OCT detects the early occurrence and progression of dramatic changes in the experimental group after exposure to CEES. Histology and immunofluorescence staining confirms this finding. OCT has the potential to be a high resolution imaging modality capable of detecting, assessing, and monitoring treatment for airway injury following mustard vesicant agent exposures.

  7. Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Kelly A; Mahon, Sari B; Mukai, David S; Su, Jianping; Jung, Woong-Gyu; Narula, Navneet; Guo, Shuguang; Wakida, Nicole; Raub, Chris; Berns, Michael W; George, Steven C; Chen, Zhongping; Brenner, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, high-resolution imaging technology capable of delivering real-time, near-histologic images of tissues. Mustard gas is a vesicant-blistering agent that can cause severe and lethal damage to airway and lungs. The ability to detect and assess airway injury in the clinical setting of mustard exposure is currently limited. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability to detect and monitor progression of half-mustard [2-chloroethylethylsulfide (CEES)] airway injuries with OCT techniques. A ventilated rabbit mustard exposure airway injury model is developed. A flexible fiber optic OCT probe is introduced into the distal trachea to image airway epithelium and mucosa in vivo. Progression of airway injury is observed over eight hours with OCT using a prototype time-domain superluminescent diode OCT system. OCT tracheal images from CEES exposed animals are compared to control rabbits for airway mucosal thickening and other changes. OCT detects the early occurrence and progression of dramatic changes in the experimental group after exposure to CEES. Histology and immunofluorescence staining confirms this finding. OCT has the potential to be a high resolution imaging modality capable of detecting, assessing, and monitoring treatment for airway injury following mustard vesicant agent exposures.

  8. Chiral resolution of derivatized amino acids using uniformly sized molecularly imprinted polymers in hydro-organic mobile phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haginaka, Jun; Kagawa, Chino

    2004-04-01

    Uniformly sized molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for Boc-L-Trp were prepared using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as the cross-linker, and methacylic acid (MAA) and/or 4-vinylpyridine (4-VPY) as the functional monomers or without use of a functional monomer. The MIPs prepared were evaluated using acetonitrile or a mixture of phosphate buffer and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The Boc-L-Trp-imprinted EDMA polymers can recognize Boc-L-Trp by its molecular shape, and can thus afford the enantioseparation of Boc-Trp. Besides the molecular shape recognition, the hydrophobic interactions with the polymer backbones as well as the hydrogen-bonding interactions of Boc-L-Trp with carboxyl and pyridyl groups in the polymers should work for the retention and recognition of Boc-L-Trp on the imprinted MAA- co-EDMA and 4-VPY- co-EDMA polymers, respectively, in the hydro-organic mobile phase. The hydrogen-bonding interactions seem to become dominant when only acetonitrile is used as the mobile phase. The Boc-L-Trp-imprinted 4-VPY- co-EDMA polymers gave the highest retentivity and enantioselectivity for Boc-Trp among the MIPs prepared. However, the simultaneous use of MAA and 4-VPY was not effective for the enantioseparation of Boc-Trp in a hydro-organic mobile phase. Furthermore, the baseline separation of Boc-Trp enantiomers was attained within 10 min on the Boc-L-Trp-imprinted 4-VPY- co-EDMA polymers under the optimized HPLC conditions.

  9. Neurocognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia and during the Early Phases of Psychosis: Targeting Cognitive Remediation Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Zaytseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in the early course of schizophrenia accentuated altered cognition prior to the onset. Ultrahigh risk (UHR individuals with attenuated positive symptoms and transient psychotic episodes demonstrate neurocognitive deficits across multiple domains such as memory, executive functioning, and processing speed which are consistent with similar disturbances identified in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation (CR approaches representing a broad set of activities are aimed to restore or improve cognitive functioning. CR proved to be effective in modulating the cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia but is rarely used in ultrahigh risk individuals. From the clinical prospective, a better understanding of cognitive functioning in at-risk states is essential for the development of optimal early intervention models. In the review, we highlight the intervention targets, notably the specific cognitive deficits in at risk individuals which preceed the transition to psychosis and emphasize the need of the additional studies using CR approaches in UHR group aiming to enhance cognition and therefore mediate functional improvement.

  10. Hypokalemia during the early phase of refeeding in patients with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Simona; Ferro, Yvelise; Migliaccio, Valeria; Mazza, Elisa; Rotundo, Stefania; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Refeeding syndrome occurs in patients with severe malnutrition when refeeding begins after a long period of starvation. This syndrome increases the risk of clinical complications and mortality. Hypophosphatemia is considered the primary characteristic of the syndrome. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of other electrolyte alterations in patients with cancer during the early stage of refeeding. METHODS: In this observational study, we enrolled 34 patients with cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract receiving upfront radiotherapy who were also enrolled in a nutrition program. A caloric intake assessment, anthropometric measurements and biochemical laboratory tests were performed. RESULTS: Significant weight loss (∼20%) was found in these patients. In the patients receiving artificial nutrition, we found lower levels of potassium and total protein compared with those who were fed orally (p = 0.03 for potassium and 0.02 for protein, respectively). Patients on enteral tube feeding had a higher caloric intake compared with those who were fed orally (25±5 kcal/kg/day vs. 10±2 kcal/kg/day). CONCLUSION: Hypokalemia, like hypophosphatemia, could be a complication associated with refeeding in patients with cancer. Hypokalemia was present in the early stages of high-calorie refeeding. PMID:24270952

  11. Hypokalemia during the early phase of refeeding in patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Grasso

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Refeeding syndrome occurs in patients with severe malnutrition when refeeding begins after a long period of starvation. This syndrome increases the risk of clinical complications and mortality. Hypophosphatemia is considered the primary characteristic of the syndrome. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of other electrolyte alterations in patients with cancer during the early stage of refeeding. METHODS: In this observational study, we enrolled 34 patients with cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract receiving upfront radiotherapy who were also enrolled in a nutrition program. A caloric intake assessment, anthropometric measurements and biochemical laboratory tests were performed. RESULTS: Significant weight loss (∼20% was found in these patients. In the patients receiving artificial nutrition, we found lower levels of potassium and total protein compared with those who were fed orally (p = 0.03 for potassium and 0.02 for protein, respectively. Patients on enteral tube feeding had a higher caloric intake compared with those who were fed orally (25±5 kcal/kg/day vs. 10±2 kcal/kg/day. CONCLUSION: Hypokalemia, like hypophosphatemia, could be a complication associated with refeeding in patients with cancer. Hypokalemia was present in the early stages of high-calorie refeeding.

  12. High-resolution phase-contrast MRI of aortic and pulmonary blood flow during rest and physical exercise using a MRI compatible bicycle ergometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Tim Frederik, E-mail: tim.weber@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Heidelberg, INF 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, INF 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von, E-mail: hendrik.tengg-kobligk@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Heidelberg, INF 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, INF 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kopp-Schneider, Annette, E-mail: kopp@dkfz-heidelberg.de [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, INF 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia, E-mail: julia.ley-zaporozhan@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Pediatric Radiology, University Medical Center Heidelberg, INF 430, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich, E-mail: hans-ulrich.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Heidelberg, INF 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ley, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.ley@med.uni.heidelberg.de [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, INF 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Pediatric Radiology, University Medical Center Heidelberg, INF 430, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To establish high-resolution phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) using a MRI compatible bicycle ergometer to quantify aortic and pulmonary blood flow during resting conditions and exercise. Materials and methods: In 20 healthy volunteers (mean age, 26.8 {+-} 5.0 years) high-resolution PC-MRI (mean temporal resolution, 7.4 {+-} 3.2 ms) was performed in the ascending aorta (AA) and main pulmonary artery (PA) during physical rest and three exercise stages: stage 1, no-load operation; stage 2, heart rate increase 40% compared to rest; stage 3, heart rate increase 80% compared to rest. Flow quantification in AA and PA included flow volume (FV), average velocity (AV), peak velocity (PV) and time to PV (TP). Results: In stage 1 only TP demonstrated a significant change. With progression to stage 2, all parameters altered significantly. Flow measurements during stage 3 evidenced further alterations only of AV and TP regarding both AA and PA. The deviation of the heart rate from the desired target value was significantly higher for stage 3 compared to stage 2, and 15% of the subjects did not reach the desired target heart rate of stage 3 at all. Conclusion: Flow quantification by high-resolution PC-MRI during exercise using a MRI compatible bicycle ergometer is feasible. Medium exercise stages are necessary and sufficient to demonstrate flow alterations in healthy volunteers. PC-MRI ergometry may give insights into aberrant hemodynamic conditions in patients with cardiovascular and pulmonary disease.

  13. High Spatial Resolution Spectroscopy of W51 IRS2E and IRS2W: Two Very Massive Young Stars in Early Formation Stages

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, C L; Conti, P S; Damineli, A; Figueredo, E

    2008-01-01

    We present $K$-band spectra of the near infrared counterparts to IRS2E and IRS2W which is associated with the ultracompact HII region W51d, both of them embedded sources in the Galactic compact HII region W51 IRS2. The high spatial resolution observations were obtained with the laser guide star facility and Near infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) mounted at the Gemini North observatory. The spectrum of the ionizing source of W51d shows the photospheric features NIII (21155 \\AA) in emission and HeII (21897 \\AA) in absorption which lead us to classify it as an young O3 type star. We detected CO overtone in emission at 23000 \\AA in the spectrum of IRS2E, suggesting that it is a massive young object still surrounded by an accretion disc, probably transitioning from the hot core phase to an ultracompact HII region.

  14. Studies of high temperature ternary phases in mixed-metal-rich early transition metal sulfide and phosphide systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marking, G.A.

    1994-01-04

    Investigations of ternary mixed early transition metal-rich sulfide and phosphide systems resulted in the discovery of new structures and new phases. A new series of Zr and Hf - group V transition metal - sulfur K-phases was synthesized and crystallographically characterized. When the group V transition metal was Nb or Ta, the unit cell volume was larger than any previously reported K-phase. The presence of adventitious oxygen was determined in two K-phases through a combination of neutron scattering and X-ray diffraction experiments. A compound Hf{sub 10}Ta{sub 3}S{sub 3} was found to crystallize in a new-structure type similar to the known gamma brasses. This structure is unique in that it is the only reported {open_quotes}stuffed{close_quotes} gamma-brass type structure. The metal components, Hf and Ta, are larger in size and more electropositive than the metals found in normal gamma brasses (e.g. Cu and Zn) and because of the larger metallic radii, sulfur can be incorporated into the structure where it plays an integral role in stabilizing this phase relative to others. X-ray single-crystal, X-ray powder and neutron powder refinements were performed on this structure. A new structure was found in the ternary Nb-Zr-P system which has characteristics in common with many known early transition metal-rich sulfides, selenides, and phosphides. This structure has the simplest known interconnection of the basic building blocks known for this structural class. Anomalous scattering was a powerful tool for differentiating between Zr and Nb when using Mo K{alpha} X-radiation. The compounds ZrNbP and HfNbP formed in the space group Prima with the simple Co{sub 2}Si structure which is among the most common structures found for crystalline solid materials. Solid solution compounds in the Ta-Nb-P, Ta-Zr-P, Nb-Zr-P, Hf-Nb-P, and Hf-Zr-S systems were crystallographically characterized. The structural information corroborated ideas about bonding in metal-rich compounds.

  15. 6S RNA regulation of relA alters ppGpp levels in early stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Amy T; Chandrangsu, Pete; Wassarman, Karen M

    2010-12-01

    6S RNA is a small, non-coding RNA that interacts directly with σ(70)-RNA polymerase and regulates transcription at many σ(70)-dependent promoters. Here, we demonstrate that 6S RNA regulates transcription of relA, which encodes a ppGpp synthase. The 6S RNA-dependent regulation of relA expression results in increased ppGpp levels during early stationary phase in cells lacking 6S RNA. These changes in ppGpp levels, although modest, are sufficient to result in altered regulation of transcription from σ(70)-dependent promoters sensitive to ppGpp, including those promoting expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and rRNA. These data place 6S RNA as another player in maintaining appropriate gene expression as cells transition into stationary phase. Independent of this ppGpp-mediated 6S RNA-dependent regulation, we also demonstrate that in later stationary phase, 6S RNA continues to downregulate transcription in general, and specifically at a subset of the amino acid promoters, but through a mechanism that is independent of ppGpp and which we hypothesize is through direct regulation. In addition, 6S RNA-dependent regulation of σ(S) activity is not mediated through observed changes in ppGpp levels. We suggest a role for 6S RNA in modulating transcription of several global regulators directly, including relA, to downregulate expression of key pathways in response to changing environmental conditions.

  16. 帕金森病运动前期研究进展%Premotor Phase of Early Parkinson Disease (review)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦淑军; 袁红

    2011-01-01

    Clinical, neuroimaging, and pathologic studies suggested that a variety of nonmotor symptoms, such as olfactory dysfunction, dysautonomia, and mood and sleep disorders, can precede the typic motor features of Parkinson disease (PD) by years and, perhaps, even decades.The period when these symptoms arise can be referred as the premotor phase of the disease.This paper reviewed the conception, clinical manifestation, pathology, diogose of the premotor phase of early Parkinson disease.%临床症状学及神经影像学、病理学的资料均提示各种帕金森病(PD)非运动症状(NMS),如嗅觉障碍、自主神经机能异常、情感障碍、睡眠紊乱等,先于运动症状出现数年至十数年,这段时期称为运动前期(premotor phase).本文对帕金森病运动前期概念、临床表现、病理基础、诊断的研究进展做一综述.

  17. MRI techniques and cognitive impairment in the early phase of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zivadinov, R.; De Masi, R.; Nasuelli, D.; Monti Bragadin, L.; Cazzato, G.; Zorzon, M. [Neurological Clinic, Cattinara Hospital, Trieste (Italy); Ukmar, M.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Trieste (Italy); Grop, A. [Dept. of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Science, University of Trieste (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    Correlation studies between various conventional and non-conventional MRI parameters and cognitive impairment in the early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) are lacking, although it is known that a number of patients with early MS have mild cognitive impairment. Our aim was to explore whether this cognitive impairment is dependent on the extent and severity of the burden of disease, diffuse microscopic brain damage or both. We studied 63 patients with clinically definite relapsing-remitting (RR) MS, duration of disease 1-10 years and Expanded disability status scale scores {<=} 5.0. Mean age was 35.4 years, mean duration of disease 5.8 years and median EDSS score 1.5. Neuropsychological performance, psychological function, neurological impairment and disability were assessed. The patients also underwent MRI, including magnetisation-transfer (MT) studies. We quantified the lesion load on T2- and T1-weighted images, the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) of normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT) and the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF). No significant difference was found between lesion loads in patients with and without cognitive impairment. In 15 patients (23.8 %) with overall cognitive impairment, median BPF and average NABT MTR were significantly lower than those in patients without cognitive impairment (0.868 vs 0.892, P = 0.02 and 28.3 vs 29.7 P = 0.046, respectively). Multiple regression analysis models demonstrated that the only variables independently correlated with cognitive impairment were: BPF (R = 0.89, P = 0.001) and average NABT MTR (R = 0.76, P = 0.012). Our findings support the hypothesis that, cognitive decline in patients with MS, a low disability score and short duration of disease is directly associated with the extent and severity of diffuse brain damage. The loss of brain parenchyma did not correlate with the severity of microscopic damage in the NABT, indicating that the two processes could be distinct in the early stages of the disease. (orig.)

  18. C-reactive protein, an early marker of community-acquired sepsis resolution: a multi-center prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Póvoa, Pedro; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando M; Carneiro, António H

    2011-07-15

    C-reactive protein (CRP) has been shown to be a valuable marker in the diagnosis of infection and in monitoring its response to antibiotics. Our objective was to evaluate serial CRP measurements after prescription of antibiotics to describe the clinical course of Community-Acquired Sepsis admitted to intensive care units (ICU). During a 12-month period a multi-center, prospective, observational study was conducted, segregating adults with Community-Acquired Sepsis. Patients were followed-up during the first five ICU days, day of ICU discharge or death and hospital outcome. CRP-ratio was calculated in relation to Day 1 CRP concentration. Patients were classified according to the pattern of CRP-ratio response to antibiotics: fast response if Day 5 CRP-ratio was 0.8. Comparison between survivors and non-survivors was performed. A total of 891 patients (age 60 ± 17 yrs, hospital mortality 38%) were studied. There were no significant differences between the CRP of survivors and non-survivors until Day 2 of antibiotic therapy. On the following three days, CRP of survivors was significantly lower (P patterns was 23%, 30% and 41%, respectively (P = 0.001). No responders had a significant increase on the odds of death (OR = 2.5, CI95% = (1.6, 4.0), P prescription were useful as early as Day 3 in identification of Community-Acquired Sepsis patients with poor outcome. The rate of CRP decline during the first five ICU days was markedly associated with prognosis. The identification of the pattern of CRP-ratio response was useful in the recognition of the individual clinical course.

  19. Toxicities and early outcomes in a phase 1 trial of photodynamic therapy for premalignant and early stage head and neck tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Peter H; Quon, Harry; O'Malley, Bert W; Weinstein, Gregory; Chalian, Ara; Malloy, Kelly; Atkins, Joshua H; Sollecito, Thomas; Greenberg, Martin; McNulty, Sally; Lin, Alexander; Zhu, Timothy C; Finlay, Jarod C; Cengel, Keith; Livolsi, Virginia; Feldman, Michael; Mick, Rosemarie; Busch, Theresa M

    2016-04-01

    Management of early superficial lesions in the head and neck remains complex. We performed a phase 1 trial for high-grade premalignant and early superficial lesions of the head and neck using photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Levulan (ALA). Thirty-five subjects with high grade dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or microinvasive (⩽1.5mm depth) squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled. Cohorts of 3-6 patients were given escalating intraoperative light doses of 50-200J/cm(2) 4-6h after oral administration of 60mg/kg ALA. Light at 629-635nm was delivered in a continuous (unfractionated) or fractionated (two-part) schema. PDT was delivered to 30/35 subjects, with 29 evaluable. There was one death possibly due to the treatment. The regimen was otherwise tolerable, with a 52% rate of grade 3 mucositis which healed within several weeks. Other toxicities were generally grade 1 or 2, including odynophagia (one grade 4), voice alteration (one grade 3), and photosensitivity reactions. One patient developed grade 5 sepsis. With a median follow-up of 42months, 10 patients (34%) developed local recurrence; 4 of these received 50J/cm(2) and two each received 100, 150, and 200J/cm(2). Ten (34%) patients developed recurrence adjacent to the treated field. There was a 69% complete response rate at 3months. ALA-PDT is well tolerated. Maximum Tolerated Dose appears to be higher than the highest dose used in this study. Longer followup is required to analyze effect of light dose on local recurrence. High marginal recurrence rates suggest use of larger treatment fields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxicities and early outcomes in a phase 1 trial of photodynamic therapy for premalignant and early stage head and neck tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Peter H.; Quon, Harry; O'Malley, Bert W.; Weinstein, Gregory; Chalian, Ara; Malloy, Kelly; Atkins, Joshua H.; Sollecito, Thomas; Greenberg, Martin; McNulty, Sally; Lin, Alexander; Zhu, Timothy C.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Cengel, Keith; Livolsi, Virginia; Feldman, Michael; Mick, Rosemarie; Busch, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives Management of early superficial lesions in the head and neck remains complex. We performed a phase 1 trial for high-grade premalignant and early superficial lesions of the head and neck using photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Levulan (ALA). Materials and methods Thirty-five subjects with high grade dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or microinvasive (≤1.5 mm depth) squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled. Cohorts of 3–6 patients were given escalating intraoperative light doses of 50–200 J/cm2 4–6 h after oral administration of 60 mg/kg ALA. Light at 629–635 nm was delivered in a continuous (unfractionated) or fractionated (two-part) schema. Results PDT was delivered to 30/35 subjects, with 29 evaluable. There was one death possibly due to the treatment. The regimen was otherwise tolerable, with a 52% rate of grade 3 mucositis which healed within several weeks. Other toxicities were generally grade 1 or 2, including odynophagia (one grade 4), voice alteration (one grade 3), and photosensitivity reactions. One patient developed grade 5 sepsis. With a median follow-up of 42 months, 10 patients (34%) developed local recurrence; 4 of these received 50 J/cm2 and two each received 100, 150, and 200 J/cm2. Ten (34%) patients developed recurrence adjacent to the treated field. There was a 69% complete response rate at 3 months. Conclusions ALA-PDT is well tolerated. Maximum Tolerated Dose appears to be higher than the highest dose used in this study. Longer followup is required to analyze effect of light dose on local recurrence. High marginal recurrence rates suggest use of larger treatment fields. PMID:26865261

  1. Glucose balance and muscle glycogen during TPN in the early post-operative phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Stjernström, H; Essén-Gustavsson, B

    1985-01-01

    In order to study how muscle glycogen is influenced by different nutritional regimens in the early post-operative period we took muscle biopsies from 20 patients preoperatively and on the fourth post-operative day after abdominal aortic surgery. Ten patients received 93% of non-protein energy......-production) were performed and from these data glucose balance was calculated as the difference between glucose intake and glucose expenditure. Muscle biopsies were analysed for glycogen, adenosine triphosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, lactate and citrate. We found that it was possible to maintain muscle...... glycogen stores at pre-operative levels with a glucose-insulin regimen. With the fat regimen there was a 31% decrease in muscle glycogen and two patients had a negative glucose balance despite the fact that 150 g of glucose were given. Average glucose balance throughout the study correlated positively...

  2. [Use of pronouns: formal and functional aspects in the early phases of language development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, B; Budwig, N

    1992-01-01

    This article presents findings from empirical studies of the development of the use of pronouns in early child language. This presentation includes discussion of 1) when personal, reflexive, possessive, and indefinite pronominal forms appear in child-initiated contexts, 2) which errors emerge, and 3) which communicative functions utterances with pronouns have in dialogue. A first comparison of German-speaking and (American-)English-speaking children's usage is offered, focussing in particular on the use of the pronominal forms I/ich, you/du, and my/mein. This crosslinguistic comparison reveals differences in the age of first use, but simultaneously suggests similarities in functional characteristics of such usage. The findings are discussed in connection with the question of the development of children's communicative competence.

  3. Glucose balance and muscle glycogen during TPN in the early post-operative phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Stjernström, H; Essén-Gustavsson, B;

    1985-01-01

    In order to study how muscle glycogen is influenced by different nutritional regimens in the early post-operative period we took muscle biopsies from 20 patients preoperatively and on the fourth post-operative day after abdominal aortic surgery. Ten patients received 93% of non-protein energy...... as glucose, 7% as fat (Intralipid) and insulin was given to keep the blood glucose below 10 mmol/l. The remaining patients had 80% of non-protein energy as fat (Intralipid). Amino acids constituting 12 g of nitrogen daily were given to both groups. Daily measurements of gas exchange (oxygen uptake, CO2...... glycogen stores at pre-operative levels with a glucose-insulin regimen. With the fat regimen there was a 31% decrease in muscle glycogen and two patients had a negative glucose balance despite the fact that 150 g of glucose were given. Average glucose balance throughout the study correlated positively...

  4. Improvement of Three-Dimensional Resolution in Optical Data Storage by Combination of Two Annular Binary Phase Filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiao-Feng; LI Cheng-Fang; RUAN Hao

    2004-01-01

    @@ We present an improved confocal readout system to achieve three-dimensional superresolution. This improved system is based on a combination of two different annular binary phase filters, the one designed for increasing the transverse superresolution and the other for achieving axial superresolution. By adjusting the pupil parameters,each pupil can be well designed. The simulation results show that with this improved system, the area of the central lobe of the three-dimensional point spread function of the read optics is greatly reduced. Moreover, the side-lobes are extinguished.

  5. EF-hands at atomic resolution: The structure of human psoriasin (S100A7) solved by MAD phasing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Ditlev Egeskov; Etzerodt, Michael; Madsen, Peder Søndergaard

    1998-01-01

    The S100 family consists of small acidic proteins, belonging to the EF-hand class of calcium-binding proteins. They are primarily regulatory proteins, involved in cell growth, cell structure regulation and signal transduction. Psoriasin (S100A7) is an 11.7 kDa protein that is highly upregulated i...... structures of apo forms of S100 proteins. The substitution of Ca2+ ions in EF-hands by lanthanide ions may provide a general vehicle for structure determination of S100 proteins by means of MAD phasing....

  6. Measuring the hydrogen/deuterium exchange of proteins at high spatial resolution by mass spectrometry: overcoming gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium scrambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Kasper D; Zehl, Martin; Jørgensen, Thomas J D

    2014-10-21

    acidic conditions where the amide hydrogen exchange rate is slowed by many orders of magnitude). The ability to localize the individual deuterated residues (the spatial resolution) is determined by the size (typically ∼7-15 residues) and the number of peptic peptides. These peptides provide a relatively coarse-grained picture of the protein dynamics. A fundamental understanding of the relationship between protein function/dysfunction and conformational dynamics requires in many cases higher resolution and ultimately single-residue resolution. In this Account, we summarize our efforts to achieve single-residue deuterium levels in proteins by electron-based or laser-induced gas-phase fragmentation methods. A crucial analytical requirement for this approach is that the pattern of deuterium labeling from solution is retained in the gas-phase fragment ions. It is therefore essential to control and minimize any occurrence of gas-phase randomization of the solution deuterium label (H/D scrambling) during the MS experiment. For this purpose, we have developed model peptide probes to accurately measure the onset and extent of H/D scrambling. Our analytical procedures to control the occurrence of H/D scrambling are detailed along with the physical parameters that induce it during MS analysis. In light of the growing use of gas-phase dissociation experiments to measure the HDX of proteins in order to obtain a detailed characterization and understanding of the dynamic conformations and interactions of proteins at the molecular level, we discuss the perspectives and challenges of future high-resolution HDX-MS methodology.

  7. Electron-phonon coupling and structural phase transitions in early transition metal oxides and chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Katie Elizabeth

    Pronounced nonlinear variation of electrical transport characteristics as a function of applied voltage, temperature, magnetic field, strain, or photo-excitation is usually underpinned by electronic instabilities that originate from the complex interplay of spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom. This dissertation focuses on two canonical materials that show pronounced discontinuities in their temperature-dependent resistivity as a result of electron---phonon and electron---electron correlations: orthorhombic TaS3 and monoclinic VO2. Strong electron-phonon interactions in transition metal oxides and chalcogenides results in interesting structural and electronic phase transitions. The properties of the material can be changed drastically in response to external stimuli such as temperature, voltage, or light. Understanding the influence these interactions have on the electronic structure and ultimately transport characteristics is of utmost importance in order to take these materials from a fundamental aspect to prospective applications such as low-energy interconnects, steep-slope transistors, and synaptic neural networks. This dissertation describes synthetic routes to nanoscale TaS3 and VO2, develops mechanistic understanding of their electronic instabilities, and in the case of the latter system explores modulation of the electronic and structural phase transition via the incorporation of substitutional dopant atoms. We start in chapter 2 with a detailed study of the synthesis and electronic transport properties of TaS3, which undergoes a Peierls' distortion to form a charge density wave. Scaling this material down to the nanometer-sized regime allows for interrogation of single or discrete phase coherent domains. Using electrical transport and broad band noise measurements, the dynamics of pinning/depinning of the charge density wave is investigated. Chapter 3 provides a novel synthetic approach to produce high-edge-density MoS2 nanorods. MoS2 is a

  8. High resolution computed tomography findings on the lung of early breast-cancer patients treated by postoperative breast irradiation with a hypofractionated radiotherapy schedule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plataniotis G

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hypofractionated breast radiotherapy (RT, although convenient for patients and health care systems, could have a negative impact on normal tissues such as lung. Aims: To evaluate radiation-induced lung toxicity in early breast-cancer patients treated by hypofractionated RT. Settings and Design: We have been using the 42.5 Gy/16 fractions RT schedule since May 2003. As large fraction size is related to increased normal tissue toxicity we intended to investigate the possible radiation-induced lung toxicity to these patients, by performing high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT 6 months after the completion of the treatment. Methods and Material: A group of 30 consecutive early breast cancer patients (T1-2N0M0 have been treated by the above-mentioned RT schedule, using a pair of opposing tangential fields. The impact of chemotherapy and hormonotherapy and various breast size-related parameters on HRCT lung changes were investigated. Acute skin and breast tissue reactions were also recorded. Statistical analysis: used Correlation of numerical variables was investigated by Pearson correlation coefficient. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate correlation between HRCT findings (present vs absent with other variables. Results: Minimal HRCT findings were evident in 15/30 patients. These included small septal lines, linear and subpleural opacities and to a lesser extend, focal-ground glass opacification. The HRCT findings were positively correlated only to field separation (distance between the entrance points of the tangential beams on the breast (H.R.=1.33, 95% CI: 1.013-1.75. Conclusions: The short 16-fraction RT schedule for early breast-cancer patients appears to have a minor effect on the underlying lung parenchyma.

  9. Functional limitations in the phase of clinically suspect arthralgia are as serious as in early clinical arthritis; a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brinck, Robin M; van Steenbergen, Hanna W; Mangnus, Lukas; Burgers, Leonie E; Reijnierse, Monique; Huizinga, Tom Wj; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette Hm

    2017-01-01

    A phase of arthralgia may precede the emergence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although several studies have focused on biomarkers, the relevance of this phase for patients is less studied. It is unknown if patients already have functional limitations and if this is correlated to the extent of subclinical inflammation. Therefore, we assessed functional disability in patients with clinically suspect arthralgia (CSA), its association with MRI-detected subclinical inflammation and its course during progression to clinical arthritis. From April 2012 to March 2015, 241 patients had arthralgia for <1 year and were, based on clinical presentation, considered at risk for RA by their rheumatologists. At baseline, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores were determined and unilateral 1.5 T MRI of metacarpophalangeal, wrist and metatarsophalangeal joints were made. Presence of MRI-detected subclinical inflammation was assessed by summing synovitis, tenosynovitis and bone marrow oedema scores (range 0-189). Patients were followed on arthritis development and HAQ scores were repeated when clinical arthritis had developed. The median HAQ score at presentation with CSA was 0.50. Higher MRI-inflammation scores were associated with higher HAQ scores (β=0.017, 95% CI=0.004 to 0.030). During median 103 weeks follow-up, 44 patients progressed to clinical arthritis. HAQ scores ≥1.0 were associated with arthritis development (HR=2.50, 95% CI=1.03 to 6.10). Within converters, median HAQ scores did not increase from presentation with CSA to arthritis development (0.88 and 0.75, p=0.36). HAQ scores ≥1.0 at presentation were associated with the development of clinical arthritis. Functional limitations in the prearthritis phase of CSA were as serious as in the early clinical phase, demonstrating the relevance of CSA from patients' perspectives.

  10. High-resolution excitation and absorption spectroscopy of gas-phase p-coumaric acid: unveiling an elusive chromophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, Szymon; Vdovin, Alexander; Perrier, Dayinta L; Smit, Jorrit P; Drabbels, Marcel; Buma, Wybren J

    2010-05-12

    We report on the first successful high-resolution spectroscopic studies on isolated para-coumaric acid, the chromophore of the photoactive yellow protein which has become a model system for studying biological light-induced signal transduction. Employing various double-resonance multiphoton ionization techniques in combination with mass-resolved ion detection and the results of quantum chemical calculations, we identify three conformations the molecule can adopt under our experimental conditions. The vibrational activity in the excitation spectra allows us to conclude that in the Franck-Condon region accessed from the ground state S(1) is the V'(pipi*) state. Interestingly, we find considerable out-of-plane vibrational activity, indicating that the molecule adopts a nonplanar geometry in S(1). The ionization requirements show that after excitation rapid internal conversion takes place to a lower-lying npi* state. Such a state has been postulated by ab initio calculations on para-coumaric acid and derivatives, but until the present study no direct evidence had been found for its presence.

  11. Early treatment with intravenous metoprolol for suspected acute myocardial infarction: a phase IV United States trial. Phase IV Metoprolol in Myocardial Infarction Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, E M; Dupont, W D; Bonalsky, J; Califf, R M; Corwin, S; Fink, L; Hansen, D E; Kawanishi, D T; Kronenberg, M W; McKay, C R

    1989-05-01

    Recent randomized clinical trials have shown that total mortality and cardiovascular mortality are reduced by the early intravenous administration of beta-blockers to patients suspected of suffering from acute myocardial infarction. These trials were conducted on patients meeting strict entry criteria. In order to assess this therapy when applied to a broader range of myocardial infarction patients, we performed a Phase IV study of metoprolol in acute myocardial infarction. The study was designed to test whether early (less than 8 hours from onset of chest pain) intervention by practicing physicians with open label intravenous metoprolol for cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction achieved mortality results similar to those obtained in large randomized clinical trials. We studied 3824 patients treated by 741 physicians representing a broad spectrum of clinical practice in the United States. Seventy-two percent of the patients entered into the study had confirmed myocardial infarction (39% anterior, 39% inferior, 22% other locations) and 85% of all individuals treated tolerated the full intravenous dose of 15 mg of metoprolol. The 15 day total mortality and cardiovascular mortality rates were 4.9% and 4.5%; 90 day mortality rates were 6.9 and 5.9%. Patients with anterior infarctions had a significantly greater cumulative mortality rate than patients with other types of infarctions. Marked bradycardia (heart rate less than 45 beats per minute) in the first 8 hours post treatment occurred in 4.7% cases and hypotension (systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg) occurred in 9.8% of cases. When compared with the results of the Göteborg and MIAMI trials of metoprolol, it appears that there is no appreciable increase in mortality or morbidity when metoprolol is used in the community practice of acute coronary care.

  12. High resolution ultrasound-guided microinjection for interventional studies of early embryonic and placental development in vivo in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunn Nana

    2006-02-01

    survival rate was similar in sham experiments, 54% (33/61, for which procedures were identical but no microinjection was performed, suggesting that surgery and manipulation of the uterus were the main causes of embryonic death. Conclusion Ultrasound-guided microinjection into the ectoplacental cone region at E6.5 or E7.5 and the amniotic cavity at E7.5 was achieved with a 7 day postnatal survival of ≥60%. Target accuracy of these sites and of the exocoelomic cavity at E7.5 was ≥51%. We suggest that this approach may be useful for exploring gene function during early placental and embryonic development.

  13. Anesthesia-Induced Hypothermia Attenuates Early-Phase Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption but Not Infarct Volume following Cerebral Ischemia.