Sample records for early oxygen recovery

  1. Effect of Cytoflavin on Early Postanesthetic Recovery of Cancer Patients

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    K. F. Fatullayeva


    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effect of the metabolic antihypoxant cytoflavin on the course of early postanesthetic recovery in patients operated on for various cancers. Subjects and methods: Fifty-seven patients aged 30 to 65 years, operated on for gynecological cancer, were examined. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 28 patients who took cytoflavin and 2 29 who did not. At the end of an operation, the agent was intravenously injected in a dose of 10 ml in a mixture with an equal volume of 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Thiopental sodium was used for initial anesthesia; arduan was employed to maintain muscle relaxation. Neuroleptic analgesia with fentanyl and droperidol or ataralgesia (fentanyl + relanium was applied in both groups. The levels of hemoglobin, glucose, sodium, potassium, calcium, malonic dialdehyde (MDA (Andreyev’s test, antioxidative activity (AOA (Semenov’s test were measured to evaluate the functional state of patients. The rating system for determining the recovery of consciousness, respiration, and motor activity, proposed by Aldret and Kroulik [8], and Bidway’s psychological testing, blood oxygen saturation and cardiac performance monitoring (TRITON, Russia and some others were used to evaluate the efficacy of the drug in the early postanesthetic period. The results were statistically processed using Microsoft Excel and a package of Biostatistics 6.0. Results. The use of cytoflavin at the end of surgery has been established to have a beneficial effect on the early recovery period. This is manifested as shorter recovery of consciousness and respiration mainly in the ataralgesia group; fair oxygen saturation, lower MDA concentrations and higher AOA are revealed. Conclusion. Cytoflavin significantly reduces the recovery of consciousness and adequate respiration and the incidence of the fever, muscle tremor syndrome and fails to favor the occurrence of hypoglycemia. Inclusion of cytoflavin into a complex of

  2. Life Support Systems: Oxygen Generation and Recovery (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Oxygen Generation and Recovery technology development area encompasses several sub-tasks in an...

  3. Space Technology Game Changing Development- Next Generation Life Support: Spacecraft Oxygen Recovery (SCOR) (United States)

    Abney, Morgan; Barta, Daniel


    The Next Generation Life Support Spacecraft Oxygen Recovery (SCOR) project element is dedicated to developing technology that enables oxygen recovery from metabolically produced carbon dioxide in space habitats. The state-of-the-art system on the International Space Station uses Sabatier technology to recover (is) approximately 50% oxygen from carbon dioxide. The remaining oxygen required for crew respiration is supplied from Earth. For long duration manned missions beyond low-Earth orbit, resupply of oxygen becomes economically and logistically prohibitive. To mitigate these challenges, the SCOR project element is targeting development of technology to increase the recovery of oxygen to 75% or more, thereby reducing the total oxygen resupply required for future missions.

  4. Bosch Reactor Development for High Percentage Oxygen Recovery from Carbon Dioxide (United States)

    Howard, David; Abney, Morgan


    This next Generation Life Support Project entails the development and demonstration of Bosch reaction technologies to improve oxygen recovery from metabolically generated oxygen and/or space environments. A primary focus was placed on alternate carbon formation reactor concepts to improve useful catalyst life for space vehicle applications, and make use of in situ catalyst resources for non-terrestrial surface missions. Current state-of-the-art oxygen recovery systems onboard the International Space Station are able to effectively recover approximately 45 percent of the oxygen consumed by humans and exhausted in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). Excess CO2 is vented overboard and the oxygen contained in the molecules is lost. For long-duration missions beyond the reaches of Earth for resupply, it will be necessary to recover greater amounts of constituents such as oxygen that are necessary for sustaining life. Bosch technologies theoretically recover 100 percent of the oxygen from CO2, producing pure carbon as the sole waste product. Challenges with this technology revolve around the carbon product fouling catalyst materials, drastically limiting catalyst life. This project successfully demonstrated techniques to extend catalyst surface area exposure times to improve catalyst life for vehicle applications, and demonstrated the use of Martian and lunar regolith as viable catalyst Bosch Reactor Development for High Percentage Oxygen Recovery From Carbon Dioxide materials for surface missions. The Bosch process generates carbon nanotube formation within the regolith, which has been shown to improve mechanical properties of building materials. Production of bricks from post reaction regolith for building and radiation shielding applications were also explored.

  5. Self-Cleaning Boudouard Reactor for Full Oxygen Recovery from CO2 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Oxygen recovery from respiratory CO2 is an important aspect of human spaceflight. Methods exist to sequester the CO2­, but production of oxygen needs further...

  6. Do psychological variables affect early surgical recovery?

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    Michael N Mavros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined the effect of psychological variables on surgical recovery, but no definite conclusion has been reached yet. We sought to examine whether psychological factors influence early surgical recovery. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO databases to identify studies examining the association of preoperative psychological variables or interventions with objectively measured, early surgical outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 16 eligible studies, 15 of which reported a significant association between at least one psychological variable or intervention and an early postoperative outcome. However, most studies also reported psychological factors not influencing surgical recovery and there was significant heterogeneity across the studies. Overall, trait and state anxiety, state anger, active coping, subclinical depression, and intramarital hostility appeared to complicate recovery, while dispositional optimism, religiousness, anger control, low pain expectations, and external locus of control seemed to promote healing. Psychological interventions (guided relaxation, couple support visit, and psychiatric interview also appeared to favor recovery. Psychological factors unrelated to surgical outcomes included loneliness, perceived social support, anger expression, and trait anger. CONCLUSION: Although the heterogeneity of the available evidence precludes any safe conclusions, psychological variables appear to be associated with early surgical recovery; this association could bear important implications for clinical practice. Large clinical trials and further analyses are needed to precisely evaluate the contribution of psychology in surgical recovery.

  7. Self-Cleaning Boudouard Reactor for Full Oxygen Recovery from Carbon Dioxide (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle; Hintze, Paul E.; Muscatello, Anthony C.; Gibson, Tracy L.; Captain, James G.; Lunn, Griffin M.; Devor, Robert W.; Bauer, Brint; Parks, Steve


    Oxygen recovery from respiratory carbon dioxide is an important aspect of human spaceflight. Methods exist to sequester the carbon dioxide, but production of oxygen needs further development. The current International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Reduction System (CRS) uses the Sabatier reaction to produce water (and ultimately breathing air). Oxygen recovery is limited to 50 because half of the hydrogen used in the Sabatier reactor is lost as methane, which is vented overboard. The Bosch reaction, which converts carbon dioxide to oxygen and solid carbon is capable of recovering all the oxygen from carbon dioxide, and is the only real alternative to the Sabatier reaction. However, the last reaction in the cycle, the Boudouard reaction, produces solid carbon and the resulting carbon buildup will eventually foul the nickel or iron catalyst, reducing reactor life and increasing consumables. To minimize this fouling and increase efficiency, a number of self-cleaning catalyst designs have been created. This paper will describe recent results evaluating one of the designs.

  8. Hydrogen Purification and Recycling for an Integrated Oxygen Recovery System Architecture (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Wall, Terry; Miller, Lee; Wheeler, Ray


    The United States Atmosphere Revitalization life support system on the International Space Station (ISS) performs several services for the crew including oxygen generation, trace contaminant control, carbon dioxide (CO2) removal, and oxygen recovery. Oxygen recovery is performed using a Sabatier reactor developed by Hamilton Sundstrand, wherein CO2 is reduced with hydrogen in a catalytic reactor to produce methane and water. The water product is purified in the Water Purification Assembly and recycled to the Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) to provide O2 to the crew. This architecture results in a theoretical maximum oxygen recovery from CO2 of approximately 54% due to the loss of reactant hydrogen in Sabatier-produced methane that is currently vented outside of ISS. Plasma Methane Pyrolysis technology (PPA), developed by Umpqua Research Company, provides the capability to further close the Atmosphere Revitalization oxygen loop by recovering hydrogen from Sabatier-produced methane. A key aspect of this technology approach is to purify the hydrogen from the PPA product stream which includes acetylene, unreacted methane and byproduct water and carbon monoxide. In 2015, four sub-scale hydrogen separation systems were delivered to NASA for evaluation. These included two electrolysis single-cell hydrogen purification cell stacks developed by Sustainable Innovations, LLC, a sorbent-based hydrogen purification unit using microwave power for sorbent regeneration developed by Umpqua Research Company, and a LaNi4.6Sn0.4 metal hydride produced by Hydrogen Consultants, Inc. Here we report the results of these evaluations, discuss potential architecture options, and propose future work.

  9. The SOS pilot study: a RCT of routine oxygen supplementation early after acute stroke--effect on recovery of neurological function at one week.

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    Christine Roffe

    Full Text Available Mild hypoxia is common after stroke and associated with poor long-term outcome. Oxygen supplementation could prevent hypoxia and improve recovery. A previous study of routine oxygen supplementation showed no significant benefit at 7 and 12 months. This pilot study reports the effects of routine oxygen supplementation for 72 hours on oxygen saturation and neurological outcomes at 1 week after a stroke.Patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke were recruited within 24 h of hospital admission between October 2004 and April 2008. Participants were randomized to oxygen via nasal cannulae (72 h or control (room air, oxygen given only if clinically indicated. Clinical outcomes were assessed by research team members at 1 week. Baseline data for oxygen (n = 148 and control (n = 141 did not differ between groups.The median (interquartile range National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score for the groups at baseline was 6 (7 and 5 (7 respectively. The median Nocturnal Oxygen Saturation during treatment was 1.4% (0.3 higher in the oxygen than in the control group (p<0.001 during the intervention. At 1 week, the median NIHSS score had reduced by 2 (3 in the oxygen and by 1 (2 in the control group. 31% of participants in the oxygen group and 14% in the control group had an improvement of ≥4 NIHSS points at 1 week doubling the odds of improvement in the oxygen group (OR: 2.9.Our data show that routine oxygen supplementation started within 24 hours of hospital admission with acute stroke led to a small, but statistically significant, improvement in neurological recovery at 1 week. However, the difference in NIHSS improvement may be due to baseline imbalance in stroke severity between the two groups and needs to be confirmed in a larger study and linked to longer-term clinical ISRCTN12362720; European Clinical Trials Database 2004-001866-41.

  10. Heart Rate and Oxygen Uptake Recovery and the Level of Aerobic Capacity in Mountain Bikers

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    Michalik Kamil


    Full Text Available Introduction. Since mountain biking involves exercise of varying intensity, competitive performance may be affected by the rate of recovery. The aim of the current study was to determine whether maximal oxygen uptake is associated with the rate of heart rate and oxygen uptake recovery in mountain bike athletes.

  11. Effect of Early Intensive Care on Recovery from Whiplash-Associated Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skillgate, Eva; Côté, Pierre; Cassidy, J. David


    Objective To determine whether the results from previous research suggesting that early intensive health care delays recovery from whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) were confounded by expectations of recovery and whether the association between early health care intensity and time to recovery......; 95% CI,.68-.90) had significantly slower recovery. Conclusions Our study adds to the existing evidence that early intensive care is associated with slower recovery from WAD, independent of expectation of recovery. The results have policy implications and suggest that the optimal management of WADs...

  12. Early Cambrian oxygen minimum zone-like conditions at Chengjiang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammarlund, Emma U.; Gaines, Robert R.; Prokopenko, Maria G.


    in early Cambrian marine settings and the relationship of those conditions to early metazoan ecosystems is still emerging. Here, we report multi-proxy geochemical data from two drill cores through the early Cambrian (Series 2) Yu’anshan Formation of Yunnan, China. Results reveal dynamic water...... oxygen-minimum zones. The oxygenated benthic environments in which the Chengjiang biota thrived were proximal to, but sharply separated from, the open ocean by a persistent anoxic water mass that occupied a portion of the outer shelf. Oxygen depletion in the lower water column developed dynamically...

  13. Removing oxygen from a solvent extractant in an uranium recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.; Brown, G.M.; Posey, F.A.


    An improvement in effecting uranium recovery from phosphoric acid solutions is provided by sparging dissolved oxygen contained in solutions and solvents used in a reductive stripping stage with an effective volume of a nonoxidizing gas before the introduction of the solutions and solvents into the stage. Effective volumes of nonoxidizing gases, selected from the group consisting of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and mixtures thereof, displace oxygen from the solutions and solvents thereby reduce deleterious effects of oxygen such as excessive consumption of elemental or ferrous and accumulation of complex iron phosphates or cruds


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    V. A. Perepechay


    Full Text Available The paper presents the technical characteristics of radical prostatectomy (RPE for early continence recovery in patients with prostate cancer. Restoration of the fascial structures of the small pelvis after RPE has been found to promote early urinary continence recovery. A method for total restoration of the fascial structures of the small pelvis (an operation after A. Tewari and a procedure for performing posterior suspension of urethrocystic neoanastomosis in Denonvilliers’ fascia length deficit are considered, which show the similar results in the time of continence recovery.

  15. Differences in Muscle Oxygenation, Perceived Fatigue and Recovery between Long-Track and Short-Track Speed Skating. (United States)

    Hettinga, Florentina J; Konings, Marco J; Cooper, Chris E


    Due to the technical nature of speed skating, that is affecting physiological mechanisms such as oxygenation and blood flow, this sport provides a unique setting allowing us to uncover novel mechanistic insights of the physiological response to exercise in elite middle-distance and endurance sports. The present study aimed to examine the influence of skating mode (short-track vs. long-track) on muscle oxygenation, perceived fatigue, and recovery in elite speed skating. Muscle oxygenation of 12 talented short-track speed skaters was continuously monitored during a long-track (LT) and a short-track (ST) skating time-trial of maximal effort using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) on the m. vastus lateralis for both legs. Video captures were made of each testing session for further interpretation of the muscle oxygenation. To determine recovery, perceived exertion was measured 2 and 4 h after each testing sessions. Repeated measures ANOVA's were used for statistical analysis ( p skating (TSI%-slope: left = 0.050 ± 0.052, right = 0.001 ± 0.053, p skating modes in muscle oxygenation. Respectively, two ( ST = 5.8 ± 2.0; LT = 4.2 ± 1.5) and 4 h ( ST = 4.6 ± 1.9; LT = 3.1 ± 1.6) after the time-trials, a higher rate of perceived exertion was found for ST. Based on our results, ST seems more physiologically demanding, and longer periods of recovery are needed after training compared to LT. Technical aspects unique to the exercise mode seem to impact on oxygenation, affecting processes related to the regulation of exercise intensity such as fatigue and recovery.

  16. Early Triassic marine biotic recovery: the predators' perspective. (United States)

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Romano, Carlo; Jenks, Jim; Bucher, Hugo


    Examining the geological past of our planet allows us to study periods of severe climatic and biological crises and recoveries, biotic and abiotic ecosystem fluctuations, and faunal and floral turnovers through time. Furthermore, the recovery dynamics of large predators provide a key for evaluation of the pattern and tempo of ecosystem recovery because predators are interpreted to react most sensitively to environmental turbulences. The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe crisis experienced by life on Earth, and the common paradigm persists that the biotic recovery from the extinction event was unusually slow and occurred in a step-wise manner, lasting up to eight to nine million years well into the early Middle Triassic (Anisian) in the oceans, and even longer in the terrestrial realm. Here we survey the global distribution and size spectra of Early Triassic and Anisian marine predatory vertebrates (fishes, amphibians and reptiles) to elucidate the height of trophic pyramids in the aftermath of the end-Permian event. The survey of body size was done by compiling maximum standard lengths for the bony fishes and some cartilaginous fishes, and total size (estimates) for the tetrapods. The distribution and size spectra of the latter are difficult to assess because of preservation artifacts and are thus mostly discussed qualitatively. The data nevertheless demonstrate that no significant size increase of predators is observable from the Early Triassic to the Anisian, as would be expected from the prolonged and stepwise trophic recovery model. The data further indicate that marine ecosystems characterized by multiple trophic levels existed from the earliest Early Triassic onwards. However, a major change in the taxonomic composition of predatory guilds occurred less than two million years after the end-Permian extinction event, in which a transition from fish/amphibian to fish/reptile-dominated higher trophic levels within ecosystems became apparent.

  17. Early Triassic marine biotic recovery: the predators' perspective.

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    Torsten M Scheyer

    Full Text Available Examining the geological past of our planet allows us to study periods of severe climatic and biological crises and recoveries, biotic and abiotic ecosystem fluctuations, and faunal and floral turnovers through time. Furthermore, the recovery dynamics of large predators provide a key for evaluation of the pattern and tempo of ecosystem recovery because predators are interpreted to react most sensitively to environmental turbulences. The end-Permian mass extinction was the most severe crisis experienced by life on Earth, and the common paradigm persists that the biotic recovery from the extinction event was unusually slow and occurred in a step-wise manner, lasting up to eight to nine million years well into the early Middle Triassic (Anisian in the oceans, and even longer in the terrestrial realm. Here we survey the global distribution and size spectra of Early Triassic and Anisian marine predatory vertebrates (fishes, amphibians and reptiles to elucidate the height of trophic pyramids in the aftermath of the end-Permian event. The survey of body size was done by compiling maximum standard lengths for the bony fishes and some cartilaginous fishes, and total size (estimates for the tetrapods. The distribution and size spectra of the latter are difficult to assess because of preservation artifacts and are thus mostly discussed qualitatively. The data nevertheless demonstrate that no significant size increase of predators is observable from the Early Triassic to the Anisian, as would be expected from the prolonged and stepwise trophic recovery model. The data further indicate that marine ecosystems characterized by multiple trophic levels existed from the earliest Early Triassic onwards. However, a major change in the taxonomic composition of predatory guilds occurred less than two million years after the end-Permian extinction event, in which a transition from fish/amphibian to fish/reptile-dominated higher trophic levels within ecosystems became

  18. Cold-water immersion decreases cerebral oxygenation but improves recovery after intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat. (United States)

    Minett, G M; Duffield, R; Billaut, F; Cannon, J; Portus, M R; Marino, F E


    This study examined the effects of post-exercise cooling on recovery of neuromuscular, physiological, and cerebral hemodynamic responses after intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat. Nine participants underwent three post-exercise recovery trials, including a control (CONT), mixed-method cooling (MIX), and cold-water immersion (10 °C; CWI). Voluntary force and activation were assessed simultaneously with cerebral oxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy) pre- and post-exercise, post-intervention, and 1-h and 24-h post-exercise. Measures of heart rate, core temperature, skin temperature, muscle damage, and inflammation were also collected. Both cooling interventions reduced heart rate, core, and skin temperature post-intervention (P recovery of voluntary force by 12.7 ± 11.7% (mean ± SD) and 16.3 ± 10.5% 1-h post-exercise compared to MIX and CONT, respectively (P  0.05). CWI reduced cerebral oxygenation compared to MIX and CONT post-intervention (P recovery after post-exercise cooling appear to be disassociated with cerebral oxygenation, rather reflecting reductions in thermoregulatory demands to sustain force production. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Differences in muscle oxygenation, perceived fatigue and recovery between long-track and short-track speed skating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Johanna Hettinga


    Full Text Available Due to the technical nature of speed skating, that is affecting physiological mechanisms such as oxygenation and blood flow, this sport provides a unique setting allowing us to uncover novel mechanistic insights of the physiological response to exercise in elite middle-distance and endurance sports. The present study aimed to examine the influence of skating mode (short-track vs. long-track on muscle oxygenation, perceived fatigue, and recovery in elite speed skating. Muscle oxygenation of twelve talented short-track speed skaters was continuously monitored during a long-track (LT and a short-track (ST skating time-trials of maximal effort using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS on the m. vastus lateralis for both legs. Video captures were made of each testing session for further interpretation of the muscle oxygenation. To determine recovery, perceived exertion was measured two and four hours after each testing sessions. Repeated measures ANOVA’s were used for statistical analysis (p<.05. After a rapid desaturation in both legs directly after the start, an asymmetry in muscle oxygenation between both legs was found during LT (tissue saturation-index (TSI%-slope: left=0.053±0.032; right=0.023±0.020, p<.05 and ST speed skating (TSI%-slope: left=0.050±0,052, right=0.001 ±0.053, p<.05. Re-Resaturation of the right leg was relatively lower in ST compared to LT. For the left leg, no difference was found between skating modes in muscle oxygenation. Respectively, two (ST=5.8±2.0; LT=4.2±1.5 and four hours (ST=4.6±1.9; LT=3.1±1.6 after the time-trials, a higher rate of perceived exertion was found for ST. Based on our results, ST seems more physiologically demanding, and longer periods of recovery are needed after training compared to LT. Technical aspects unique to the exercise mode seem to impact on oxygenation, affecting processes related to the regulation of exercise intensity such as fatigue and recovery.


    O, Odette; Churgin, Sarah M; Sladky, Kurt K; Smith, Lesley J


    Inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps, n=6) were anesthetized for 1 hr using isoflurane in either 100% oxygen or 21% oxygen (FI 21; medical-grade room air). Parameters of anesthetic depth were recorded throughout both induction and recovery by an observer blinded to the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), including the loss and return of withdrawal and righting reflexes, muscle tone, ability to intubate or extubate, and return to spontaneous respiration. Physiologic data were recorded every 5 min throughout the anesthetic procedures, including heart rate, body temperature, end-tidal CO2, hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2), and percent expired isoflurane. Lizards were subjected to application of a noxious stimulus (needle stick) at 0, 30, and 60 min, and responses recorded. Following a minimum 7-day washout period, the experiment was repeated with each lizard subjected to the other protocol in a randomized, complete crossover design. The only statistically significant difference was a lower mean SpO2 in the group inspiring 21% oxygen (P<0.0020). No statistically significant differences were detected in any parameters during induction or recovery; however, all values were uniformly shorter for the FI 21 group, indicating a possible clinically significant difference. A larger sample size may have detected statistically significant differences. Further studies are needed to evaluate these effects in other reptile species and with the concurrent use of injectable anesthetic and analgesic drugs.

  1. The impact of sleep-disordered breathing on early functional recovery in ischemic stroke

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    G. M. Lutokhin


    Full Text Available The rehabilitation potential in ischemic stroke depends both on the localization and size of cerebral infarction and on many other factors ensuring the restoration of neuron function in the ischemic penumbra. Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB appears as intermittent episodes of apnea and hypopnea, which are accompanied by hypoxemia and tissue hypoxia, and may slow early functional recovery in patients.Objective: to evaluate the impact of SDB on early neurological recovery in patients with ischemic stroke and to identify predictors of unfavorable functional outcome.Patients and methods. A total of 56 patients (24 men, 32 women; mean age 62±15 years with ischemic stroke were examined. All the patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging. Neurological deficit was assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, modified Rankin Scale (mRS on admission and at 3 weeks. To identify SDB, cardiorespiratory monitoring was performed on 2–5 days after the onset of the disease. The total number of episodes of SDB, apnea, hypopnea, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, hypoxemia index, and the total time with arterial oxygen saturation < 90% (desaturation time < 90% were recorded. Results and discussion. At baseline, the median NIHSS score was 6 (range 4–10 and the median mRS score was 3 (range 2–5. After 3 weeks, the median NIHSS score was 3 (range 1.5–5 and the median mRS score was 1 (range 0–3. According to the degree of achieved functional independence, the patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 40 functionally independent patients (a mRS score of ≤2; 2 16 patients in need of assistance/care (a mRS score of ≥3. The groups were matched for age, sex, localization of cerebral infarction, degree of cerebral atherosclerosis, and incidence of cardiac pathology. At the same time, at baseline Group 2 had a more severity of neurological deficit (p=0.001 and respiratory disorders (p<0.04 and more frequently large and

  2. Method for oxygen reduction in a uranium-recovery process. [US DOE patent application (United States)

    Hurst, F.J.; Brown, G.M.; Posey, F.A.


    An improvement in effecting uranium recovery from phosphoric acid solutions is provided by sparging dissolved oxygen contained in solutions and solvents used in a reductive stripping stage with an effective volume of a nonoxidizing gas before the introduction of the solutions and solvents into the stage. Effective volumes of nonoxidizing gases, selected from the group consisting of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and mixtures thereof, displace oxygen from the solutions and solvents thereby reduce deleterious effects of oxygen such as excessive consumption of elemental or ferrous iron and accumulation of complex iron phosphates or cruds.

  3. Evolving Oxygen Landscape of the Early Atmosphere and Oceans (United States)

    Lyons, T. W.; Reinhard, C. T.; Planavsky, N. J.


    The past decade has witnessed remarkable advances in our understanding of oxygen on the early Earth, and a new framework, the topic of this presentation, is now in place to address the controls on spatiotemporal distributions of oxygen and their potential relationships to deep-Earth processes. Recent challenges to the Archean biomarker record have put an added burden on inorganic geochemistry to fingerprint and quantify the early production, accumulation, and variation of biospheric oxygen. Fortunately, a wide variety of techniques now point convincingly to photosynthetic oxygen production and dynamic accumulation well before the canonical Great Oxidation Event (GOE). Recent modeling of sulfur recycling over this interval allows for transient oxygen accumulation in the atmosphere without the disappearance of non-mass-dependent (NMD) sulfur isotope anomalies from the stratigraphic record and further allows for persistent accumulation in the atmosphere well before the permanent disappearance of NMD signals. This recent work suggests that the initial rise of oxygen may have occurred in fits and starts rather than a single step, and that once permanently present in the atmosphere, oxygen likely rose to high levels and then plummeted, in phase with the Paleoproterozoic Lomagundi positive carbon isotope excursion. More than a billion years of oxygen-free conditions in the deep ocean followed and set a challenging course for life, including limited abundances and diversity of eukaryotic organisms. Despite this widespread anoxia, sulfidic (euxinic) conditions were likely limited to productive ocean margins. Nevertheless, euxinia was sufficiently widespread to impact redox-dependent nutrient relationships, particularly the availability of bioessential trace metals critical in the nitrogen cycle, which spawned feedbacks that likely maintained oxygen at very low levels in the ocean and atmosphere and delayed the arrival of animals. Then, in the mid, pre-glacial Neoproterozoic

  4. A Discussion of Oxygen Recovery Definitions and Key Performance Parameters for Closed-Loop Atmosphere Revitalization Life Support Technology Development (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Perry, Jay L.


    Over the last 55 years, NASA has evolved life support for crewed space exploration vehicles from simple resupply during Project Mercury to the complex and highly integrated system of systems aboard the International Space Station. As NASA targets exploration destinations farther from low Earth orbit and mission durations of 500 to 1000 days, life support systems must evolve to meet new requirements. In addition to having more robust, reliable, and maintainable hardware, limiting resupply becomes critical for managing mission logistics and cost. Supplying a crew with the basics of food, water, and oxygen become more challenging as the destination ventures further from Earth. Aboard ISS the Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) supplies the crew's oxygen demand by electrolyzing water. This approach makes water a primary logistics commodity that must be managed carefully. Chemical reduction of metabolic carbon dioxide (CO2) provides a method of recycling oxygen thereby reducing the net ARS water demand and therefore minimizing logistics needs. Multiple methods have been proposed to achieve this recovery and have been reported in the literature. However, depending on the architecture and the technology approach, "oxygen recovery" can be defined in various ways. This discontinuity makes it difficult to compare technologies directly. In an effort to clarify community discussions of Oxygen Recovery, we propose specific definitions and describe the methodology used to arrive at those definitions. Additionally, we discuss key performance parameters for Oxygen Recovery technology development including challenges with comparisons to state-of-the-art.

  5. Strong Start Wraparound: Addressing the Complex Needs of Mothers in Early Recovery (United States)

    Teel, M. Kay


    The Strong Start Study tested an innovative, High-Fidelity Wraparound intervention with families in early recovery from substance use. The Strong Start Wraparound model addressed the complex needs of pregnant and parenting women who were in early recovery to increase the protective factors of parental resilience, social connections, concrete…

  6. Reactive Oxygen Species on the Early Earth and Survival of Bacteria (United States)

    Balk, Melikea; Mason, Paul; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Smidt, Hauke; Freund, Friedemann; Rothschild, Lynn


    An oxygen-rich atmosphere appears to have been a prerequisite for complex, multicellular life to evolve on Earth and possibly elsewhere in the Universe. However it remains unclear how free oxygen first became available on the early Earth. A potentially important, and as yet poorly constrained pathway, is the production of oxygen through the weathering of rocks and release into the near-surface environment. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), as precursors to molecular oxygen, are a key step in this process, and may have had a decisive impact on the evolution of life, present and past. ROS are generated from minerals in igneous rocks during hydrolysis of peroxy defects, which consist of pairs of oxygen anions oxidized to the valence state -1 and during (bio) transformations of iron sulphide minerals. ROS are produced and consumed by intracellular and extracellular reactions of Fe, Mn, C, N, and S species. We propose that, despite an overall reducing or neutral oxidation state of the macroenvironment and the absence of free O2 in the atmosphere, organisms on the early Earth had to cope with ROS in their microenvironments. They were thus under evolutionary pressure to develop enzymatic and other defences against the potentially dangerous, even lethal effects of oxygen and its derived ROS. Conversely it appears that microorganisms learned to take advantage of the enormous reactive potential and energy gain provided by nascent oxygen. We investigate how oxygen might be released through weathering. We test microorganisms in contact with rock surfaces and iron sulphides. We model bacteria such as Deionococcus radiodurans and Desulfotomaculum, Moorella and Bacillus species for their ability to grow or survive in the presence of ROS. We examine how early Life might have adapted to oxygen.

  7. Recovery of neurofilament following early monocular deprivation

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    Timothy P O'Leary


    Full Text Available A brief period of monocular deprivation in early postnatal life can alter the structure of neurons within deprived-eye-receiving layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The modification of structure is accompanied by a marked reduction in labeling for neurofilament, a protein that composes the stable cytoskeleton and that supports neuron structure. This study examined the extent of neurofilament recovery in monocularly deprived cats that either had their deprived eye opened (binocular recovery, or had the deprivation reversed to the fellow eye (reverse occlusion. The degree to which recovery was dependent on visually-driven activity was examined by placing monocularly deprived animals in complete darkness (dark rearing. The loss of neurofilament and the reduction of soma size caused by monocular deprivation were both ameliorated equally following either binocular recovery or reverse occlusion for 8 days. Though monocularly deprived animals placed in complete darkness showed recovery of soma size, there was a generalized loss of neurofilament labeling that extended to originally non-deprived layers. Overall, these results indicate that recovery of soma size is achieved by removal of the competitive disadvantage of the deprived eye, and occurred even in the absence of visually-driven activity. Recovery of neurofilament occurred when the competitive disadvantage of the deprived eye was removed, but unlike the recovery of soma size, was dependent upon visually-driven activity. The role of neurofilament in providing stable neural structure raises the intriguing possibility that dark rearing, which reduced overall neurofilament levels, could be used to reset the deprived visual system so as to make it more ameliorable with treatment by experiential manipulations.

  8. Methane Post-Processor Development to Increase Oxygen Recovery beyond State-of-the-Art Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee A.; Alvarez, Giraldo; Iannantuono, Michelle; Jones, Kenny


    State-of-the-art life support carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology, based on the Sabatier reaction, is theoretically capable of 50% recovery of oxygen from metabolic CO2. This recovery is constrained by the limited availability of reactant hydrogen. Post-processing of the methane byproduct from the Sabatier reactor results in hydrogen recycle and a subsequent increase in oxygen recovery. For this purpose, a Methane Post-Processor Assembly containing three sub-systems has been developed and tested. The assembly includes a Methane Purification Assembly (MePA) to remove residual CO2 and water vapor from the Sabatier product stream, a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to partially pyrolyze methane into hydrogen and acetylene, and an Acetylene Separation Assembly (ASepA) to purify the hydrogen product for recycle. The results of partially integrated testing of the sub-systems are reported

  9. Influence of Hypoxic Interval Training and Hyperoxic Recovery on Muscle Activation and Oxygenation in Connection with Double-Poling Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Zinner

    Full Text Available Here, we evaluated the influence of breathing oxygen at different partial pressures during recovery from exercise on performance at sea-level and a simulated altitude of 1800 m, as reflected in activation of different upper body muscles, and oxygenation of the m. triceps brachii. Ten well-trained, male endurance athletes (25.3±4.1 yrs; 179.2±4.5 cm; 74.2±3.4 kg performed four test trials, each involving three 3-min sessions on a double-poling ergometer with 3-min intervals of recovery. One trial was conducted entirely under normoxic (No and another under hypoxic conditions (Ho; FiO2 = 0.165. In the third and fourth trials, the exercise was performed in normoxia and hypoxia, respectively, with hyperoxic recovery (HOX; FiO2 = 1.00 in both cases. Arterial hemoglobin saturation was higher under the two HOX conditions than without HOX (p<0.05. Integrated muscle electrical activity was not influenced by the oxygen content (best d = 0.51. Furthermore, the only difference in tissue saturation index measured via near-infrared spectroscopy observed was between the recovery periods during the NoNo and HoHOX interventions (P<0.05, d = 0.93. In the case of HoHo the athletes' Pmean declined from the first to the third interval (P < 0.05, whereas Pmean was unaltered under the HoHOX, NoHOX and NoNo conditions. We conclude that the less pronounced decline in Pmean during 3 x 3-min double-poling sprints in normoxia and hypoxia with hyperoxic recovery is not related to changes in muscle activity or oxygenation. Moreover, we conclude that hyperoxia (FiO2 = 1.00 used in conjunction with hypoxic or normoxic work intervals may serve as an effective aid when inhaled during the subsequent recovery intervals.

  10. Environmental oxygen conditions during the origin and early evolution of life (United States)

    Towe, Kenneth M.

    The well-known sensitivity of proteins and nucleic acids to UV-radiation requires that some internally consistent protection scenario be envisioned for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth. Although a variety of ozone-surrogates has been proposed, the available biochemical, geochemical and geological evidence best supports the conclusion that free oxygen was available at levels capable of providing at least a moderate ozone screen. Levels of oxygen near 1-2% of the present atmospheric level are consistent with such a screen, and with: (1) the biochemical needs of early procaryotes considered phylogenetically more primitive than the oxygen-producing Cyanobacteria; (2) the rare-earth element data from the oxide facies of the 3.8 Byr-old Isua banded-iron formations; (3) the nature and phylogenetic distribution of superoxide dismutases; (4) the need for aerobic recycling of early photosynthetic productivity dictated by the distribution of ancient sedimentary iron and organic carbon; (5) the incompatibility of dissolved reduced sulfur (to support anoxygenic photosynthesis) and ferrous iron (to support banded iron-formations) in the surface waters of the world oceans; and (6) the comparative oxygen and UV-sensitivities of modern procaryotes.

  11. Early MR abnormality indicating functional recovery from spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumeya, Hiroshi; Hideshima, Hiroshi [Hideshima Hospital, Musashino, Tokyo (Japan)


    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as an indicator of recovery from hemiparesis was evaluated in 60 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. T{sub 2}-weighted MR images revealed early MR abnormality (EMA) of the corticospinal tract within 1 week of ictus. Most patients without EMA recovered beyond Brunnstrom's Recovery Stage 3 while only a few patients with EMA did so. Patients with EMA cannot regain motor function because EMA is almost always followed by complete tract degeneration. EMA in the brainstem and poor motor function recovery are closely correlated. (author).

  12. Early MR abnormality indicating functional recovery from spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumeya, Hiroshi; Hideshima, Hiroshi (Hideshima Hospital, Musashino, Tokyo (Japan))


    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as an indicator of recovery from hemiparesis was evaluated in 60 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. T{sub 2}-weighted MR images revealed early MR abnormality (EMA) of the corticospinal tract within 1 week of ictus. Most patients without EMA recovered beyond Brunnstrom's Recovery Stage 3 while only a few patients with EMA did so. Patients with EMA cannot regain motor function because EMA is almost always followed by complete tract degeneration. EMA in the brainstem and poor motor function recovery are closely correlated. (author).

  13. Renal Blood Flow, Glomerular Filtration Rate, and Renal Oxygenation in Early Clinical Septic Shock. (United States)

    Skytte Larsson, Jenny; Krumbholz, Vitus; Enskog, Anders; Bragadottir, Gudrun; Redfors, Bengt; Ricksten, Sven-Erik


    Data on renal hemodynamics, function, and oxygenation in early clinical septic shock are lacking. We therefore measured renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, renal oxygen consumption, and oxygenation in patients with early septic shock. Prospective comparative study. General and cardiothoracic ICUs. Patients with norepinephrine-dependent early septic shock (n = 8) were studied within 24 hours after arrival in the ICU and compared with postcardiac surgery patients without acute kidney injury (comparator group, n = 58). None. Data on systemic hemodynamics and renal variables were obtained during two 30-minute periods. Renal blood flow was measured by the infusion clearance of para-aminohippuric acid, corrected for renal extraction of para-aminohippuric acid. Renal filtration fraction was measured by renal extraction of chromium-51 labeled EDTA. Renal oxygenation was estimated from renal oxygen extraction. Renal oxygen delivery (-24%; p = 0.037) and the renal blood flow-to-cardiac index ratio (-21%; p = 0.018) were lower, renal vascular resistance was higher (26%; p = 0.027), whereas renal blood flow tended to be lower (-19%; p = 0.068) in the septic group. Glomerular filtration rate (-32%; p = 0.006) and renal sodium reabsorption (-29%; p = 0.014) were both lower in the septic group. Neither renal filtration fraction nor renal oxygen consumption differed significantly between groups. Renal oxygen extraction was significantly higher in the septic group (28%; p = 0.022). In the septic group, markers of tubular injury were elevated. In early clinical septic shock, renal function was lower, which was accompanied by renal vasoconstriction, a lower renal oxygen delivery, impaired renal oxygenation, and tubular sodium reabsorption at a high oxygen cost compared with controls.

  14. Lower early postnatal oxygen saturation target and risk of ductus arteriosus closure failure. (United States)

    Inomata, Kei; Taniguchi, Shinji; Yonemoto, Hiroki; Inoue, Takeshi; Kawase, Akihiko; Kondo, Yuichi


    Early postnatal hyperoxia is a major risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely premature infants. To reduce the occurrence of ROP, we adopted a lower early postnatal oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) target range (85-92%) from April 2011. Lower SpO 2 target range, however, may lead to hypoxemia and an increase in the risk of ductus arteriosus (DA) closure failure. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether a lower SpO 2 target range, during the early postnatal stage, increases the risk of DA closure failure. Infants born at closure failure in period 2 (21%) was significantly higher than that in period 1 (1%). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the lower oxygen saturation target range was an independent risk factor for DA closure failure. Lower early postnatal oxygen saturation target range increases the risk of DA closure failure. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. Multimodel inference applied to oxygen recovery kinetics after 6-min walk tests in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baty, Florent; Ritz, Christian; Jensen, Signe Marie


    6-min walk tests (6MWT) are routinely performed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) kinetics during 6MWT can be modeled and derived parameters provide indicators of patients' exercise capacity. Post-exercise [Formula: see text] recovery...... also provides important parameters of patients' fitness which has not been extensively investigated in COPD. Several nonlinear regression models with different underlying biological assumptions may be suitable for describing recovery kinetics. Multimodel inference (model averaging) can then be used...... to capture the uncertainty in considering several models. Our aim was to apply multimodel inference in order to better understand the physiological underpinnings of [Formula: see text] recovery after 6MWT in patients with COPD. 61 patients with COPD (stages 2 to 4) were included in this study. Oxygen...

  16. Humidification of Blow-By Oxygen During Recovery of Postoperative Pediatric Patients: One Unit's Journey. (United States)

    Donahue, Suzanne; DiBlasi, Robert M; Thomas, Karen


    To examine the practice of nebulizer cool mist blow-by oxygen administered to spontaneously breathing postanesthesia care unit (PACU) pediatric patients during Phase one recovery. Existing evidence was evaluated. Informal benchmarking documented practices in peer organizations. An in vitro study was then conducted to simulate clinical practice and determine depth and amount of airway humidity delivery with blow-by oxygen. Informal benchmarking information was obtained by telephone interview. Using a three-dimensional printed simulation model of the head connected to a breathing lung simulator, depth and amount of moisture delivery in the respiratory tree were measured. Evidence specific to PACU administration of cool mist blow-by oxygen was limited. Informal benchmarking revealed that routine cool mist oxygenated blow-by administration was not widely practiced. The laboratory experiment revealed minimal moisture reaching the mid-tracheal area of the simulated airway model. Routine use of oxygenated cool mist in spontaneously breathing pediatric PACU patients is not supported. Copyright © 2017 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Early postradiation recovery of precursor cells of hemopoietic stroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todriya, T.V.


    Ability of stroma precursor cells to early postradiation recovery was studied in male mices using the method of fraction irradiation of bone marrow. Donor mices of bone marrow were irradiated in vivo once by the total dose (nonfraction irradiation) and fractionally with 6 h interval between two irradiation doses. The cumulative irradiation doses equal to 10, 12, 14, 16 Gr were investigated. Irradiation was carried out using gamma facility. Bone marrow of the femur was implanted immediately after irradiation under kidney capsule of nonirradiated syngeneic recipient. The ability of stroma precursor cells to intracellular repair (repair index) was evaluated according to the ratio of the number of hemopoietic cells formed in heterotropic transplants in groups with fraction irradiation to the same one in groups with nonfraction irradiation. The obtained results testify to the fact that slowly regenerated highly radioresistant population of precursor cells of hemopoietic stroma is capable to early postradiation recovery

  18. Social recovery therapy in combination with early intervention services for enhancement of social recovery in patients with first-episode psychosis (SUPEREDEN3): a single-blind, randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Fowler, David; Hodgekins, Jo; French, Paul; Marshall, Max; Freemantle, Nick; McCrone, Paul; Everard, Linda; Lavis, Anna; Jones, Peter B; Amos, Tim; Singh, Swaran; Sharma, Vimal; Birchwood, Max


    Provision of early intervention services has increased the rate of social recovery in patients with first-episode psychosis; however, many individuals have continuing severe and persistent problems with social functioning. We aimed to assess the efficacy of early intervention services augmented with social recovery therapy in patients with first-episode psychosis. The primary hypothesis was that social recovery therapy plus early intervention services would lead to improvements in social recovery. We did this single-blind, phase 2, randomised controlled trial (SUPEREDEN3) at four specialist early intervention services in the UK. We included participants who were aged 16-35 years, had non-affective psychosis, had been clients of early intervention services for 12-30 months, and had persistent and severe social disability, defined as engagement in less than 30 h per week of structured activity. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), via computer-generated randomisation with permuted blocks (sizes of four to six), to receive social recovery therapy plus early intervention services or early intervention services alone. Randomisation was stratified by sex and recruitment centre (Norfolk, Birmingham, Lancashire, and Sussex). By necessity, participants were not masked to group allocation, but allocation was concealed from outcome assessors. The primary outcome was time spent in structured activity at 9 months, as measured by the Time Use Survey. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN61621571. Between Oct 1, 2012, and June 20, 2014, we randomly assigned 155 participants to receive social recovery therapy plus early intervention services (n=76) or early intervention services alone (n=79); the intention-to-treat population comprised 154 patients. At 9 months, 143 (93%) participants had data for the primary outcome. Social recovery therapy plus early intervention services was associated with an increase in structured

  19. New Views on the Early Evolution of Oxygen in the Galaxy (United States)

    Rebolo, R.; Israelian, G.; García López, R. J.

    We have performed a detailed oxygen abundance analysis of 23 metal-poor (-3.0 Abia & Rebolo 1989; Tomkin et al. 1992; Cavallo, Pilachowski, & Rebolo 1997). Contrary to the previously accepted picture, our oxygen abundances, derived from low-excitation OH lines, agree well with those derived from high-excitation lines of the triplet. For nine stars in common with Tomkin et al. we obtain a mean difference of 0.00 plus or minus 0.11dex with respect to the abundances determined from the triplet using the same stellar parameters and model photospheres. Our new results show a smooth extension of the Edvardsson et al.'s (1993) [O/Fe] versus metallicity curve to much lower abundances. The oxygen abundances of unevolved stars when compared with values in the literature for giants of similar metallicity imply that the latter may have suffered a process of oxygen depletion. It appears that unevolved metal-poor stars are better tracers of the early chemical evolution of the Galaxy. The extrapolation of our results to very low metallicities indicates that the ratio of oxygen to iron emerging from the first Type II SNe in the early Galaxy was indeed close to unity. The higher [O/Fe] ratios we find in dwarfs has an impact on the age determination of globular clusters, and suggest that current age estimates have to be reduced by about 1-2 Gyr.

  20. Modeling of recovery mechanism of ozone zero phenomenaby adding small amount of nitrogen in atmospheric pressure oxygen dielectric barrier discharges (United States)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu


    Ozone zero phenomena in an atmospheric pressure oxygen dielectric barrier discharges have been one of the major problems during a long time operation of ozone generators. But it is also known that the adding a small amount of nitrogen makes the recover from the ozone zero phenomena. To make clear the mechanism of recovery, authors have been simulated the discharges with using the results of Ref. 3. As a result, the recovery process can be seen and ozone density increased. It is found that the most important species would be nitrogen atoms. The reaction of nitrogen atoms and oxygen molecules makes oxygen atoms which is main precursor species of ozone. This generation of oxygen atoms is effective to increase ozone. The dependence of oxygen atom density (nO) and nitrogen atom density (nN) ratio was examined in this paper. In the condition of low nN/nO ratio case, generation of nitrogen oxide is low, and the quenching of ozone by the nitrogen oxide would be low. But in the high ratio condition, the quenching of ozone by nitrogen oxide would significant. This work was supported by KAKENHI(23560352).

  1. Oxygen-tension measurements - The first step towards prevention and early detection of anastomotic leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanase, D.; French, P.J.; Komen, N.; Kleinrensink, G.J.; Jeekel, J.; Lange, J.F.; Draaijer, A.


    Many patients still die every year as a result of anastomotic leakage after surgery. The medical world needs an objective aid to detect leakage during surgery and during the critical recovery period. We propose a miniature measurement system to detect adequate tissue oxygenation pre- and

  2. A novel approach to the management of critically ill neonatal Ebstein's anomaly: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to promote right ventricular recovery. (United States)

    Bauser-Heaton, Holly; Nguyen, Charles; Tacy, Theresa; Axelrod, David


    This is the first report of the use of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a neonate with severe Ebstein's anomaly. The report suggests the use of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the immediate neonatal period may be a useful therapy in severe Ebstein's anomaly. By providing adequate oxygenation independent of the patient's native pulmonary blood flow, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation allows the pulmonary vascular resistance to decrease and may promote right ventricular recovery.

  3. Centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo sequence: improvement of the image quality of oxygen-enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Hatabu, Hiroto; Higashino, Takanori; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Watanabe, Hirokazu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Cauteren, Marc van; Sugimura, Kazuro


    Purpose: The purpose of the study presented here was to determine the improvement in image quality of oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) subtraction imaging obtained with a centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (c-IR-HASTE) sequence compared with that obtained with a conventional sequentially reordered inversion recovery single-shot HASTE (s-IR-HASTE) sequence for pulmonary imaging. Materials and methods: Oxygen-enhanced MR imaging using a 1.5 T whole body scanner was performed on 12 healthy, non-smoking volunteers. Oxygen-enhanced MR images were obtained with the coronal two-dimensional (2D) c-IR-HASTE sequence and 2D s-IR-HASTE sequence combined with respiratory triggering. For a 256x256 matrix, 132 phase-encoding steps were acquired including four steps for phase correction. Inter-echo spacing for each sequence was 4.0 ms. The effective echo time (TE) for c-IR-HASTE was 4.0 ms, and 16 ms for s-IR-HASTE. The inversion time (TI) was 900 ms. To determine the improvement in oxygen-enhanced MR subtraction imaging by c-IR-HASTE, CNRs of subtraction image, overall image quality, and image degradation of the c-IR-HASTE and s-IR-HASTE techniques were statistically compared. Results: CNR, overall image quality, and image degradation of c-IR-HASTE images showed significant improvement compared to those s-IR-HASTE images (P<0.05). Conclusion: Centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (c-IR-HASTE) sequence enhanced the signal from the lung and improved the image quality of oxygen-enhanced MR subtraction imaging

  4. Oxygen--a limiting factor for brain recovery. (United States)

    Hadanny, Amir; Efrati, Shai


    Effective brain metabolism is highly dependent on a narrow therapeutic window of oxygen. In major insults to the brain (e.g., intracerebral hemorrhage), a slight decrease in oxygen supply, as occurs in a hypobaric environment at high altitude, has devastating effects on the injured brain tissue. Conversely, increasing brain oxygenation, by the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, can improve brain metabolism and its dependent regenerative processes.

  5. Oxygen - a limiting factor for brain recovery


    Hadanny, Amir; Efrati, Shai


    Effective brain metabolism is highly dependent on a narrow therapeutic window of oxygen. In major insults to the brain (e.g., intracerebral hemorrhage), a slight decrease in oxygen supply, as occurs in a hypobaric environment at high altitude, has devastating effects on the injured brain tissue. Conversely, increasing brain oxygenation, by the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, can improve brain metabolism and its dependent regenerative processes.

  6. FGF-2 induces behavioral recovery after early adolescent injury to the motor cortex of rats. (United States)

    Nemati, Farshad; Kolb, Bryan


    Motor cortex injuries in adulthood lead to poor performance in behavioral tasks sensitive to limb movements in the rat. We have shown previously that motor cortex injury on day 10 or day 55 allow significant spontaneous recovery but not injury in early adolescence (postnatal day 35 "P35"). Previous studies have indicated that injection of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) enhances behavioral recovery after neonatal cortical injury but such effect has not been studied following motor cortex lesions in early adolescence. The present study undertook to investigate the possibility of such behavioral recovery. Rats with unilateral motor cortex lesions were assigned to two groups in which they received FGF-2 or bovine serum albumin (BSA) and were tested in a number of behavioral tests (postural asymmetry, skilled reaching, sunflower seed manipulation, forepaw inhibition in swimming). Golgi-Cox analysis was used to examine the dendritic structure of pyramidal cells in the animals' parietal (layer III) and forelimb (layer V) area of the cortex. The results indicated that rats injected with FGF-2 (but not BSA) showed significant behavioral recovery that was associated with increased dendritic length and spine density. The present study suggests a role for FGF-2 in the recovery of function following injury during early adolescence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel approach to the management of critically ill neonatal Ebstein′s anomaly: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to promote right ventricular recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Bauser-Heaton


    Full Text Available This is the first report of the use of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a neonate with severe Ebstein′s anomaly. The report suggests the use of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the immediate neonatal period may be a useful therapy in severe Ebstein′s anomaly. By providing adequate oxygenation independent of the patient′s native pulmonary blood flow, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation allows the pulmonary vascular resistance to decrease and may promote right ventricular recovery.

  8. Novel Combination of Impella and Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation as a Bridge to Full Recovery in Fulminant Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Narain


    Full Text Available A 31-year-old male was transferred to our hospital with severe heart failure due to viral myocarditis. He progressed to multiorgan failure requiring intubation and maximal doses of multiple vasopressors. Circulatory support was provided with an Impella device as a bridge to an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO system. On full mechanical cardiovascular support, the patient's hemodynamic status improved and ECMO and Impella were explanted after 48 hours. Three days later, he was extubated and continued on to a full recovery. There are no specific therapies for fulminant myocarditis but first-line treatment is supportive care. ECMO is commonly used in patients with severe heart failure. In severe systolic dysfunction, left ventricular decompression is required to reduce myocardial wall stress, decrease myocardial oxygen requirements, and enhance the chances of recovery. The Impella, an active support system, is less invasive than classical decompressive techniques and is associated with lower requirements for blood products with fewer thromboembolic complications. This is the only case reported of the contemporary use of Impella and ECMO as a bridge to full recovery in an adult with myocarditis. It also presents a novel use of the Impella device in decompressing the left ventricle of an adult patient on ECMO.

  9. Correction of Pulmonary Oxygenizing Dysfunction in the Early Activation of Cardiosurgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kozlov


    ventilation/perfusion ratio may be ensured via preoperative stimulating spirometry and an alveolar opening maneuver early after extracorporeal circulation if indicated. The comprehensive approach allows a reduction in the incidence of pulmonary oxygenizing dysfunction that prevents early activation in the operating suite from 40 to 5—7%. Key words: early activation, pulmonary oxygenizing function, myocardial revascularization, surgery under extracorporeal circulation, tracheal extubation in the operating-room.

  10. Growth recovery and faltering through early adolescence in low- and middle-income countries: Determinants and implications for cognitive development. (United States)

    Georgiadis, Andreas; Benny, Liza; Duc, Le Thuc; Galab, Sheikh; Reddy, Prudhvikar; Woldehanna, Tassew


    Child chronic undernutrition, as measured by stunting, is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries and is among the major threats to child development. While stunting and its implications for cognitive development have been considered irreversible beyond early childhood there is a lack of consensus in the literature on this, as there is some evidence of recovery from stunting and that this recovery may be associated with improvements in cognition. Less is known however, about the drivers of growth recovery and the aspects of recovery linked to cognitive development. In this paper we investigate the factors associated with growth recovery and faltering through age 12 years and the implications of the incidence, timing, and persistence of post-infancy recovery from stunting for cognitive development using longitudinal data from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. We find that the factors most systematically associated with accelerated growth both before and after early childhood and across countries include mother's height, household living standards and shocks, community wages, food prices, and garbage collection. Our results suggest that post-infancy recovery from stunting is more likely to be systematically associated with higher achievement scores across countries when it is persistent and that associations between growth trajectories and cognitive achievement in middle childhood do not persist through early adolescence across countries. Overall, our findings indicate that growth after early childhood is responsive to changes in the household and community environments and that growth promotion after early childhood may yield improvements in child cognitive development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Active versus Passive Recovery Periods during High Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Local Tissue Oxygenation in 18 - 30 Year Old Sedentary Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kriel

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT has been proposed as a time-efficient format of exercise to reduce the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Changes in oxygen utilisation at the local tissue level during an acute session of HIIT could be the primary stimulus for the health benefits associated with this format of exercise. The recovery periods of HIIT effect the physiological responses that occur during the session. It was hypothesised that in sedentary individuals, local and systemic oxygen utilisation would be higher during HIIT interspersed with active recovery periods, when compared to passive recovery periods.Twelve sedentary males (mean ± SD; age 23 ± 3 yr completed three conditions on a cycle ergometer: 1 HIIT with passive recovery periods between four bouts (HIITPASS 2 HIIT with active recovery periods between four bouts (HIITACT 3 HIITACT with four HIIT bouts replaced with passive periods (REC. Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb in the vastus lateralis (VL and gastrocnemius (GN muscles and the pre-frontal cortex (FH, oxygen consumption (VO2, power output and heart rate (HR were measured continuously during the three conditions.There was a significant increase in HHb at VL during bouts 2 (p = 0.017, 3 (p = 0.035 and 4 (p = 0.035 in HIITACT, compared to HIITPASS. Mean power output was significantly lower in HIITACT, compared to HIITPASS (p < 0.001. There was a significant main effect for site in both HIITPASS (p = 0.029 and HIITACT (p = 0.005. There were no significant differences in VO2 and HR between HIITPASS and HIITACT.The increase in HHb at VL and the lower mean power output during HIITACT could indicate that a higher level of deoxygenation contributes to decreased mechanical power in sedentary participants. The significant differences in HHb between sites indicates the specificity of oxygen utilisation.

  12. The problem of early continence recovery after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kachmazov


    Full Text Available Background. The highest rate of incontinence after radical prostatectomy (RP is observed in the first 2–6 months after surgery. In order  to decrease the period of incontinence, virous surgical methods aimed at preservation and reconstruction of structures participating  in the mechanism of urine retention has been developed and improved.The study objective is to evaluate effectiveness of an original method of formation of an urethral anastomosis in the early continence recovery.Materials and methods. Data on 126 patients who underwent retropubic RP were analyzed. Depending on the method of urethral anastomosis formation, patients were divided into 2 groups: in the 1st group (n = 52 the patients underwent PR with urethra suspension m. levator ani, in the 2nd (n = 74 – standard RP. In the 1st group, 6 ligatures were applied to the anterior and posterior urethra walls: at the 12 and 6 hour projections through the mucosa, submucosa, and smooth muscle; at the 10, 2, 4, and 8 hour projections – more laterally with capture of the m. levator ani medial margins. Continence recovery was evaluated on days 1, 7, and 14 after urinary catheter removal and then at days 30, 90, 180, and 365 after RP. The criteria of continence were absence of urine leakage at rest and during physical activity and a necessity of using a safety liner.Results. There weren’t any significant differences at day 1 after urinary catheter removal between the two groups (р > 0.05. In the 1st group, continence values at days 30, 90, and 180 after RP were significantly higher (57.7, 69.2, and 71.1 %, respectively compared to the 2nd group (35.1, 41.9, and 51.3 %, respectively (р <0.05.Conclusion. Results of this work show significant benefits of RP with urethra suspension m. levator ani compared to standard RP per continence recovery criteria at days 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 after the surgery. The technique of urethra suspension m. levator ani is easy to perform and ensures

  13. Effect of Early Intensive Care on Recovery From Whiplash-Associated Disorders: Results of a Population-Based Cohort Study. (United States)

    Skillgate, Eva; Côté, Pierre; Cassidy, J David; Boyle, Eleanor; Carroll, Linda; Holm, Lena W


    To determine whether the results from previous research suggesting that early intensive health care delays recovery from whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) were confounded by expectations of recovery and whether the association between early health care intensity and time to recovery varies across patterns of health care. Population-based inception cohort. All adults (≥18y) injured in motor vehicle collisions who received treatment from a regulated health professional or reported their injuries to the single provincially administered motor vehicle insurer. Participants with WAD (N=5204). Self-report visits to physicians, chiropractors, physiotherapists, massage therapists, and other professionals during the first 42 days postcollision were used to define health care intensity. Not applicable. Self-perceived recovery. Individuals with high utilization health care had slower recovery independent of expectation of recovery and other confounders. Compared with individuals who reported low utilization of physician services, recovery was slower for those with high health care utilization, regardless of the type of profession. For instance, those with high physician (hazard rate ratio [HRR]=.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], .42-.75), physician and high physiotherapy utilization (HRR=.68; 95% CI, .61-.77), physician and high chiropractor utilization (HRR=.74; 95% CI, .64-.85), and physician and high massage therapy utilization (HRR=.78; 95% CI, .68-.90) had significantly slower recovery. Our study adds to the existing evidence that early intensive care is associated with slower recovery from WAD, independent of expectation of recovery. The results have policy implications and suggest that the optimal management of WADs focuses on reassurance and education instead of intensive care. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tracking Early Jurassic marine (de)oxygenation (United States)

    Them, T. R., II; Caruthers, A. H.; Gill, B. C.; Gröcke, D. R.; Marroquín, S. M.; Owens, J. D.


    It has been suggested that the carbon cycle was perturbed during the Toarcian OAE (T-OAE) as observed in the carbon isotope record, and more recently other elemental cycles (e.g., Hg, Mo, Os, S). The most widely accepted hypothesis focuses on the emplacement of the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province, outgassing of greenhouse gases, and subsequent feedbacks in the Earth system, which caused severe environmental change and biological turnover. Feedbacks to elevated atmospheric pCO2 include enhanced weathering rates, dissociation of methane clathrates, increased terrestrial methanogenesis, and widespread marine anoxia. The sequence of events related to the development and duration of marine anoxia are not well constrained for this time interval due to a lack of open-ocean geochemical records. In order to reconstruct the timing of marine deoxygenation during the Early Jurassic T-OAE, we have utilized thallium isotopes, a novel geochemical proxy from multiple anoxic basins in North America and Germany. Three sites representing a basin transect from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, and one site from the South German Basin, were chosen to reconstruct the thallium isotopic composition (ɛ205Tl) of the ocean. The ɛ205Tl composition of sediments deposited under anoxic and euxinic water columns records the global seawater ɛ205Tl composition, a function of the amount of manganese oxides that are precipitated. Increased geographic extent of marine anoxia will cause a decrease in manganese oxide precipitation and perturb the thallium system. Importantly, the inputs of thallium are nearly identical, thus changes in these fluxes cannot drive the observed perturbation. Our new Early Jurassic ɛ205Tl records suggest that the onset of marine deoxygenation occurred concurrently with Karoo-Ferrar magmatism in the late Pliensbachian and continued until after the T-OAE. These new data support a Karoo-Ferrar trigger of the T-OAE. However, thallium isotopes also suggest that

  15. Early adaptation to oxygen is key to the industrially important traits of Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris during milk fermentation. (United States)

    Cretenet, Marina; Le Gall, Gwenaëlle; Wegmann, Udo; Even, Sergine; Shearman, Claire; Stentz, Régis; Jeanson, Sophie


    Lactococcus lactis is the most used species in the dairy industry. Its ability to adapt to technological stresses, such as oxidative stress encountered during stirring in the first stages of the cheese-making process, is a key factor to measure its technological performance. This study aimed to understand the response to oxidative stress of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 at the transcriptional and metabolic levels in relation to acidification kinetics and growth conditions, especially at an early stage of growth. For those purposes, conditions of hyper-oxygenation were initially fixed for the fermentation. Kinetics of growth and acidification were not affected by the presence of oxygen, indicating a high resistance to oxygen of the L. lactis MG1363 strain. Its resistance was explained by an efficient consumption of oxygen within the first 4 hours of culture, leading to a drop of the redox potential. The efficient consumption of oxygen by the L. lactis MG1363 strain was supported by a coherent and early adaptation to oxygen after 1 hour of culture at both gene expression and metabolic levels. In oxygen metabolism, the over-expression of all the genes of the nrd (ribonucleotide reductases) operon or fhu (ferrichrome ABC transports) genes was particularly significant. In carbon metabolism, the presence of oxygen led to an early shift at the gene level in the pyruvate pathway towards the acetate/2,3-butanediol pathway confirmed by the kinetics of metabolite production. Finally, the MG1363 strain was no longer able to consume oxygen in the stationary growth phase, leading to a drastic loss of culturability as a consequence of cumulative stresses and the absence of gene adaptation at this stage. Combining metabolic and transcriptomic profiling, together with oxygen consumption kinetics, yielded new insights into the whole genome adaptation of L. lactis to initial oxidative stress. An early and transitional adaptation to oxidative stress was revealed for L

  16. Hepatic mitochondrial and microsomal recovery of rats intoxicated with CCl/sub 4/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, T.; Hirai, Y.; Koga, N.; Tomokuni, K.


    The hepatic mitochondrial and microsomal recovery of rats intoxicated with CCl/sub 4/ was investigated with specific reference to the oxygen utilization of liver slices. In control rats, the major oxygen utilization of the liver slices was attributed to mitochondrial particles. Since the mitochondrial oxygen utilization was inhibited by cyanide, the microsomal oxygen utilization was induced by NADPH and phenobarbital (a substrate for microsomal mixed function oxidase). Changes in oxygen utilization were observed in the recovery course of rats intoxicated with CCl/sub 4/, and the recovery of mitochondria was found to be faster than that of microsomes. A sex difference was present in the recovery mechanism of the microsomes.

  17. Facilitation of recovery after ischaemic stroke : Early dexamphetamine and physiotherapy treatment


    Martinsson, Louise


    Purpose: The overall aims of the thesis were to investigate the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of dexamphetamine (d-amph) after cerebral infarct, and the effects of different amounts of physiotherapy in combination with d-amph on recovery, early after cerebral infarct in patients with severe stroke. Patients and methods: The thesis is based on three studies on patients in the department of Neurology, Karolinska Hospital, Sweden, and on one meta-analysis based on ...

  18. An Approach for Hydrogen Recycling in a Closed-loop Life Support Architecture to Increase Oxygen Recovery Beyond State-of-the-Art (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee; Greenwood, Zachary; Alvarez, Giraldo


    State-of-the-art atmosphere revitalization life support technology on the International Space Station is theoretically capable of recovering 50% of the oxygen from metabolic carbon dioxide via the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA). When coupled with a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA), oxygen recovery increases dramatically, thus drastically reducing the logistical challenges associated with oxygen resupply. The PPA decomposes methane to predominantly form hydrogen and acetylene. Because of the unstable nature of acetylene, a down-stream separation system is required to remove acetylene from the hydrogen stream before it is recycled to the CRA. A new closed-loop architecture that includes a PPA and downstream Hydrogen Purification Assembly (HyPA) is proposed and discussed. Additionally, initial results of separation material testing are reported.

  19. Effect of early rehabilitation training on oxygen free radical generation and nerve injury in patients with cerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Shu Liu


    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of early rehabilitation training combined with edaravone on oxygen free radical generation and nerve injury in patients with cerebral hemorrhage. Methods: A total of 56 patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage who were treated in Zigong Third People’s Hospital between July 2014 and March 2017 were selected and randomly divided into early rehabilitation group and routine rehabilitation group, the early rehabilitation group began the rehabilitation training 2 d after cerebral hemorrhage condition was stabilized, and routine rehabilitation group began the rehabilitation training 14 d after cerebral hemorrhage. Serum contents of oxygen free radicals, nerve injury markers and neurotrophic molecules were detected 28 d and 56 d after cerebral hemorrhage. Results: 28 d and 56 d after cerebral hemorrhage, serum MDA, AOPP, 8-OHdG, GFAP, NSE, Tf, Ft and S100B levels of early rehabilitation group were significantly lower than those of routine rehabilitation group while BDNF, NGF, NTF-α and IGF-I levels were significantly higher than those of routine rehabilitation group. Conclusion: Early rehabilitation training combined with edaravone for cerebral hemorrhage can inhibit the oxygen free radical generation, reduce the degree of nerve injury and improve the neurotrophic state.

  20. Early lymphocyte recovery as a predictor of outcome, including relapse, after hematopoieticstem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Morando


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite advances in the treatment of acute leukemia, many patients need to undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Recent studies show that early lymphocyte recovery may be a predictor of relapse and survival in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of lymphocyte recovery on Days +30 and +100 post-transplant on the occurrence of relapse and survival. METHODS: A descriptive, retrospective study was performed of 137 under 21-year-old patients who were submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia between 1995 and 2008. A lymphocyte count 0.3 x 10(9/L were considered adequate. Lymphocyte recovery was also analyzed on Day +100 with < 0.75 x 10(9/Land < 0.75 x 10(9/L being considered inadequate and adequate lymphocyte recovery, respectively. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the occurrence of relapse between patients with inadequate and adequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 post-transplant. However, the transplant-related mortality was significantly higher in patients with inadequate recovery on Day +30. Patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival than patients with adequate recovery. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of infections and acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease. Patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +100 had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival and a higher cumulative incidence of relapse. CONCLUSION: The evaluation of lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 is not a good predictor of relapse after transplant however patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival. Inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +100 is correlated with higher cumulative relapse as well as lower overall survival and relapse-free survival.

  1. Job demands and resources and their associations with early retirement intentions through recovery need and work enjoyment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Schreurs


    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to examine the mechanisms through which job characteristics associate with early retirement intention, using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model as a theoretical framework. Motivation of the study: Early retirement presents a threat to existing health and pension systems, and to organisational functioning. Therefore, it is important to examine how workrelated factors contribute to early retirement decisions. Research design, approach and method: Two parallel processes were theorised to shape early retirement intention: a health impairment process (i.e. job demands → recovery need → early retirement intention and a motivational process (i.e. job resources → work enjoyment → early retirement intention. Survey data were collected from a heterogeneous sample of 1812 older workers (age > 45. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses. Main findings: Job demands and job resources were both associated with work enjoyment, which was associated with early retirement intention. Recovery need did not add to the prediction of early retirement intention. Practical/managerial implications: To retain older workers, companies should promote work conditions and practices that keep older workers motivated. Good health may be a necessary condition for retaining older workers, but it does not appear to be a sufficient one. Contribution/value-add: The results suggest that – for early retirement intention – the motivational process is more prominent than the health impairment process.

  2. Early non-destructive biofouling detection and spatial distribution: Application of oxygen sensing optodes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Nadia


    Biofouling is a serious problem in reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF) applications, reducing membrane performance. Early detection of biofouling plays an essential role in an adequate anti-biofouling strategy. Presently, fouling of membrane filtration systems is mainly determined by measuring changes in pressure drop, which is not exclusively linked to biofouling. Non-destructive imaging of oxygen concentrations (i) is specific for biological activity of biofilms and (ii) may enable earlier detection of biofilm accumulation than pressure drop. The objective of this study was to test whether transparent luminescent planar O2 optodes, in combination with a simple imaging system, can be used for early non-destructive biofouling detection. This biofouling detection is done by mapping the two-dimensional distribution of O2 concentrations and O2 decrease rates inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS). Results show that at an early stage, biofouling development was detected by the oxygen sensing optodes while no significant increase in pressure drop was yet observed. Additionally, optodes could detect spatial heterogeneities in biofouling distribution at a micro scale. Biofilm development started mainly at the feed spacer crossings. The spatial and quantitative information on biological activity will lead to better understanding of the biofouling processes, contributing to the development of more effective biofouling control strategies.

  3. Effect of esmolol infusion on myocardial oxygen consumption during extubation and quality of recovery in elderly patients undergoing general anesthesia: randomized, double blinded, clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif A. ELokda


    Conclusions: Esmolol is a safe, effective and well-tolerated drug that can be used in elderly patients undergoing general anesthesia to reduce the myocardial oxygen consumption and improve the quality of recovery.

  4. Photoluminescence due to early stage of oxygen precipitation in multicrystalline Si for solar cells (United States)

    Higuchi, Fumito; Tajima, Michio; Ogura, Atsushi


    To analyze the early stage of oxygen precipitation in n-type multicrytalline Si, the spectral change of photoluminescence (PL) induced by thermal treatment at 450-650 °C was investigated in relation to the changes in excess donor and interstitial oxygen concentrations. We observed the characteristic PL bands in the near-band-edge region and sharp lines in the deep-level region in correspondence with the generation of thermal donors and new donors. The observed PL spectral variation is essentially the same as that in Czochralski-grown Si annealed at 450-650 °C.

  5. Fault Detection, Isolation and Recovery (FDIR) Portable Liquid Oxygen Hardware Demonstrator (United States)

    Oostdyk, Rebecca L.; Perotti, Jose M.


    The Fault Detection, Isolation and Recovery (FDIR) hardware demonstration will highlight the effort being conducted by Constellation's Ground Operations (GO) to provide the Launch Control System (LCS) with system-level health management during vehicle processing and countdown activities. A proof-of-concept demonstration of the FDIR prototype established the capability of the software to provide real-time fault detection and isolation using generated Liquid Hydrogen data. The FDIR portable testbed unit (presented here) aims to enhance FDIR by providing a dynamic simulation of Constellation subsystems that feed the FDIR software live data based on Liquid Oxygen system properties. The LO2 cryogenic ground system has key properties that are analogous to the properties of an electronic circuit. The LO2 system is modeled using electrical components and an equivalent circuit is designed on a printed circuit board to simulate the live data. The portable testbed is also be equipped with data acquisition and communication hardware to relay the measurements to the FDIR application running on a PC. This portable testbed is an ideal capability to perform FDIR software testing, troubleshooting, training among others.

  6. Simultaneous sampling of tissue oxygenation and oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Nugent, William H; Song, Bjorn K; Pittman, Roland N; Golub, Aleksander S


    Under physiologic conditions, microvascular oxygen delivery appears to be well matched to oxygen consumption in respiring tissues. We present a technique to measure interstitial oxygen tension (PISFO2) and oxygen consumption (VO2) under steady-state conditions, as well as during the transitions from rest to activity and back. Phosphorescence Quenching Microscopy (PQM) was employed with pneumatic compression cycling to achieve 1 to 10 Hz sampling rates of interstitial PO2 and simultaneous recurrent sampling of VO2 (3/min) in the exteriorized rat spinotrapezius muscle. The compression pressure was optimized to 120-130 mmHg without adverse effect on the tissue preparation. A cycle of 5s compression followed by 15s recovery yielded a resting VO2 of 0.98 ± 0.03 ml O2/100 cm(3)min while preserving microvascular oxygen delivery. The measurement system was then used to assess VO2 dependence on PISFO2 at rest and further tested under conditions of isometric muscle contraction to demonstrate a robust ability to monitor the on-kinetics of tissue respiration and the compensatory changes in PISFO2 during contraction and recovery. The temporal and spatial resolution of this approach is well suited to studies seeking to characterize microvascular oxygen supply and demand in thin tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Early lymphocyte recovery after intensive timed sequential chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia: peripheral oligoclonal expansion of regulatory T cells. (United States)

    Kanakry, Christopher G; Hess, Allan D; Gocke, Christopher D; Thoburn, Christopher; Kos, Ferdynand; Meyer, Christian; Briel, Janet; Luznik, Leo; Smith, B Douglas; Levitsky, Hyam; Karp, Judith E


    Few published studies characterize early lymphocyte recovery after intensive chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). To test the hypothesis that lymphocyte recovery mirrors ontogeny, we characterized early lymphocyte recovery in 20 consecutive patients undergoing induction timed sequential chemotherapy for newly diagnosed AML. Recovering T lymphocytes were predominantly CD4(+) and included a greatly expanded population of CD3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells. Recovering CD3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells were phenotypically activated regulatory T cells and showed suppressive activity on cytokine production in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. Despite an initial burst of thymopoiesis, most recovering regulatory T cells were peripherally derived. Furthermore, regulatory T cells showed marked oligoclonal skewing, suggesting that their peripheral expansion was antigen-driven. Overall, lymphocyte recovery after chemotherapy differs from ontogeny, specifically identifying a peripherally expanded oligoclonal population of activated regulatory T lymphocytes. These differences suggest a stereotyped immunologic recovery shared by patients with newly diagnosed AML after induction timed sequential chemotherapy. Further insight into this oligoclonal regulatory T-cell population will be fundamental toward developing effective immunomodulatory techniques to improve survival for patients with AML.

  8. Recovery of vanadium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, C.P.; Clark, N.E.


    This invention relates to the recovery of vanadium oxide from molten metal. The invention provides a method for recovering vanadium oxide from molten metal, which includes passing oxygen and at least one coolant gas or shroud into the molten metal by way of at least one elongate lance. The invention also provides an arrangement for the recovery of vanadium oxide from molten metal, which includes at least one elongate lance extending into the molten metal. The lance is provided with at least one elongate bore extending therethrough. Means are provided to allow at least oxygen and at least one coolant gas to pass through the lance and into the molten metal

  9. Understanding time use, stress and recovery practices among early career physicians: an exploratory study. (United States)

    Cranley, Nicole M; Cunningham, Christopher J L; Panda, Mukta


    Early career physicians (ECPs) work an average of 80 h per week, and at times may approach 24 continuous hours working. These hours, combined with a stressful work environment, and an inability to physically and psychologically detach from work make ECPs likely to experience burnout and other negative health-related consequences. This study provides insight into the stress and recovery challenges faced by ECPs in a typical hospital environment. Rich qualitative and quantitative data were gathered from participants regarding daily time usage, and recovery practices and needs. ECPs report longer working hours, less leisure time and shorter amounts of sleep than average working adults. ECPs do not participate in many resource-replenishing activities while at work, and when out of work, they tend to participate in more passive than active forms of recovery. Resource-draining activities were identified as requiring much of ECP's nonwork time, further limiting recovery. The prevention of burnout and other negative health consequences among ECPs requires the building of a workplace and educational culture that supports regular resource replenishment. This includes the need for a curriculum of medical education that teaches ECPs to identify the signs of stress and recovery needs, and how to effectively address these needs.

  10. Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan


    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) could totally negate the necessity of pure oxygen by using oxygen carriers for purification of CO{sub 2} stream during combustion. It splits the single fuel combustion reaction into two linked reactions using oxygen carriers. The two linked reactions are the oxidation of oxygen carriers in the air reactor using air, and the reduction of oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor using fuels (i.e. coal). Generally metal/metal oxides are used as oxygen carriers and operated in a cyclic mode. Chemical looping combustion significantly improves the energy conversion efficiency, in terms of the electricity generation, because it improves the reversibility of the fuel combustion process through two linked parallel processes, compared to the conventional combustion process, which is operated far away from its thermo-equilibrium. Under the current carbon-constraint environment, it has been a promising carbon capture technology in terms of fuel combustion for power generation. Its disadvantage is that it is less mature in terms of technological commercialization. In this DOE-funded project, accomplishment is made by developing a series of advanced copper-based oxygen carriers, with properties of the higher oxygen-transfer capability, a favorable thermodynamics to generate high purity of CO{sub 2}, the higher reactivity, the attrition-resistance, the thermal stability in red-ox cycles and the achievement of the auto-thermal heat balance. This will be achieved into three phases in three consecutive years. The selected oxygen carriers with final-determined formula were tested in a scaled-up 10kW coal-fueled chemical looping combustion facility. This scaled-up evaluation tests (2-day, 8-hour per day) indicated that, there was no tendency of agglomeration of copper-based oxygen carriers. Only trace-amount of coke or carbon deposits on the copper-based oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor. There was also no evidence to show the sulphidization of oxygen

  11. Implications of tissue target-cell survival-curve shape for values of split-dose recovery doses: late versus early effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redpath, J.L.; Peel, D.M.; Hopewell, J.W.


    Recent data from this laboratory on split-dose recovery for early and late effects in pig skin are consistent with the linear-quadratic model for cell survival, and with relative cell survival-curve shapes for early- and late-effect target cells where the early-effect cells have an intially steeper and straighter survival-curve than the late-effect cells. (author)

  12. Cerebral circulation and metabolism with recovery of chronic poststroke aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tomoyuki; Kabasawa, Hidehiro; Matsubara, Michitaka; Hibino, Hiroaki; Kamimoto, Kaoru; Fukagawa, Kazutoshi


    The recruitment of cerebral circulation and oxygen metabolism in the particular brain areas responsible for poststroke aphasia are necessary for recovery. This study was undertaken to investigate changes in cerebral circulation and oxygen metabolism corresponding to improvement of aphasia. Twenty-nine right-handed chronic aphasic patients with left hemispheric stroke were studied. Aphasia was evaluated as the score of fluency, comprehension, repetition and naming by the Western Aphasia Battery (Japanese version). Concurrent with the evaluation of aphasia, positron emission tomography (PET) scans were performed. After several months of speech therapy, PET scans and evaluation of aphasia were reperformed. Both regional cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen significantly increased in the left upper superior and middle temporal gyri, and in the left upper inferior frontal gyrus in the fair recovery group for comprehension, repetition and naming. In the fair recovery group for fluency, the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen significantly increased in the left upper superior and middle temporal gyri, but regional cerebral blood flow increased insignificantly in these areas. In the lower white matter of the right parietal lobe, both the regional cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen were significantly increased in the fair recovery group for all aphasic features. The recruitment of cerebral circulation and oxygen metabolism in the left temporo-parietal area, in the left inferior frontal area, and in the right deep parietal area are essentially responsible for the recovery of aphasia. (author)

  13. Oxygen consumption rate and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in early developmental stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus Lam. (United States)

    Tomšić, Sanja; Stanković, Suzana; Lucu, Čedomil


    Changes in oxygen consumption rate and Na+/K+-ATPase activity during early development were studied in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus Lam. The oxygen consumption rate increased from 0.12 μmol O2 mg protein-1 h-1 in unfertilized eggs to 0.38 μmol O2 mg protein-1 h-1 25 min after fertilization. Specific activity of the Na+/K+-ATPase was significantly stimulated after fertilization, ranging up to 1.07 μmol Pi h-1 mg protein-1 in the late blastula stage and slightly lower values in the early and late pluteus stages.

  14. Magma Ocean Depth and Oxygen Fugacity in the Early Earth--Implications for Biochemistry. (United States)

    Righter, Kevin


    A large class of elements, referred to as the siderophile (iron-loving) elements, in the Earth's mantle can be explained by an early deep magma ocean on the early Earth in which the mantle equilibrated with metallic liquid (core liquid). This stage would have affected the distribution of some of the classic volatile elements that are also essential ingredients for life and biochemistry - H, C, S, and N. Estimates are made of the H, C, S, and N contents of Earth's early mantle after core formation, considering the effects of variable temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and composition on their partitioning. Assessment is made of whether additional, exogenous, sources are required to explain the observed mantle concentrations, and areas are identified where additional data and experimentation would lead to an improved understanding of this phase of Earth's history.

  15. Methane Post-Processing for Oxygen Loop Closure (United States)

    Greenwood, Zachary W.; Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee


    State-of-the-art United States Atmospheric Revitalization carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction is based on the Sabatier reaction process, which recovers approximately 50% of the oxygen (O2) from crew metabolic CO2. Oxygen recovery from carbon dioxide is constrained by the limited availability of reactant hydrogen. Post-processing of methane to recover hydrogen with the Umpqua Research Company Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) has the potential to further close the Atmospheric Revitalization oxygen loop. The PPA decomposes methane into hydrogen and hydrocarbons, predominantly acetylene, and a small amount of solid carbon. The hydrogen must then be purified before it can be recycled for additional oxygen recovery. Long duration testing and evaluation of a four crew-member sized PPA and a discussion of hydrogen recycling system architectures are presented.

  16. Stages of recovery in early psychosis: Associations with symptoms, function, and narrative development. (United States)

    Bourdeau, Geneviève; Lecomte, Tania; Lysaker, Paul H


    This study sought to explore the links between recovery stages, symptoms, function, and narrative development among individuals with a recent onset of psychosis. A qualitative longitudinal study was conducted including quantitative data at baseline. Forty-seven participants were administered the Indiana Psychiatric Illness Interview three times over 9 months and content analysis was performed. Participants also completed the Social Functioning Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale--Expanded, the California Verbal Learning Test, and the Trailing Making Test at baseline. Descriptive discriminant analysis was performed. Results suggested that participants were mostly in the first two stages of recovery (moratorium, awareness) and that being in the awareness, rather than moratorium, stage was associated, to a different extent, with richer narrative development, better levels of psychosocial function, less negative and positive symptoms, and more years of education. Furthermore, recovery appeared to be a stable process over the assessment period. Recovery is a complex concept including objective and subjective aspects. In the recovery path of persons recently diagnosed with psychosis, social engagement, narrative development, and occupational functioning seem to be particularly important aspects. This study is a first step, and future research is needed with larger and more diverse participant pools, and assessments conducted over longer periods of time. As greater level of social engagement was the most robust predictor of membership in the awareness versus moratorium stage, treatment of early psychosis should include interventions targeting social relations and social skills. As greater narrative development was the second most robust predictor, enhancing it via psychotherapy could be a pertinent clinical goal. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Oxygenated thawing and rewarming alleviate rewarming injury of cryopreserved pancreatic islets. (United States)

    Komatsu, Hirotake; Barriga, Alyssa; Medrano, Leonard; Omori, Keiko; Kandeel, Fouad; Mullen, Yoko


    Pancreatic islet transplantation is an effective treatment for Type 1 diabetic patients to eliminate insulin injections; however, a shortage of donor organs hinders the widespread use. Although long-term islet storage, such as cryopreservation, is considered one of the key solutions, transplantation of cryopreserved islets is still not practical due to the extensive loss during the cryopreservation-rewarming process. We have previously reported that culturing islets in a hyperoxic environment is an effective treatment to prevent islet death from the hypoxic injury during culture. In this study, we explored the effectiveness of thawing and rewarming cryopreserved islets in a hyperoxic environment. Following cryopreservation of isolated human islets, the thawing solution and culture media were prepared with or without pre-equilibration to 50% oxygen. Thawing/rewarming and the pursuant two-day culture were performed with or without oxygenation. Short-term recovery rate, defined as the volume change during cryopreservation and thawing/rewarming, was assessed. Ischemia-associated and inflammation-associated gene expressions were examined using qPCR after the initial rewarming period. Long-term recovery rate, defined as the volume change during the two-day culture after the thawing/rewarming, was also examined. Islet metabolism and function were assessed by basal oxygen consumption rate and glucose stimulated insulin secretion after long-term recovery. Oxygenated thawing/rewarming did not alter the short-term recovery rate. Inflammation-associated gene expressions were elevated by the conventional thawing/rewarming method and suppressed by the oxygenated thawing/rewarming, whereas ischemia-associated gene expressions did not change between the thawing/rewarming methods. Long-term recovery rate experiments revealed that only the combination therapy of oxygenated thawing/rewarming and oxygenated culture alleviated islet volume loss. These islets showed higher metabolism

  18. Understanding predictors of functional recovery and outcome 30 months following early childhood head injury. (United States)

    Anderson, Vicki A; Catroppa, Cathy; Dudgeon, Paul; Morse, Sue A; Haritou, Flora; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V


    Much is known about outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in school-age children; however, recovery in early childhood is less well understood. Some argue that such injuries should lead to good outcome, because of the plasticity of the developing brain. Other purport that the young brain is vulnerable, with injury likely to result in a substantial impairment (H. G. Taylor & J. Alden, 1997). The aim of this study was to examine outcomes following TBI during early childhood, to plot recovery over the 30 months postinjury, and to identify predictors of outcome. The study compared 3 groups of children sustaining mild, moderate, and severe TBI, ages 2.0 to 6.11 years at injury, with healthy controls. Groups were comparable for preinjury adaptive and behavioral function, psychosocial characteristics, age, and gender. Results suggested a strong association between injury severity and outcomes across all domains. Further, 30-month outcome was predicted by injury severity, family factors, and preinjury levels of child function. In conclusion, children with more severe injuries and lower preinjury adaptive abilities, and whose families are coping poorly, are at greatest risk of long-term impairment in day-to-day skills, even several years postinjury.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athey, Alex E.; Bregman, Joel N.


    We measured the oxygen abundances of the warm (T ∼ 10 4 K) phase of gas in seven early-type galaxies through long-slit observations. A template spectra was constructed from galaxies void of warm gas and subtracted from the emission-line galaxies, allowing for a clean measurement of the nebular lines. The ratios of the emission lines are consistent with photoionization, which likely originates from the ultraviolet flux of postasymototic giant branch stars. We employ H II region photoionization models to determine a mean oxygen metallicity of 1.01 ± 0.50 solar for the warm interstellar medium (ISM) in this sample. This warm ISM 0.5-1.5 solar metallicity is consistent with modern determinations of the metallicity in the hot (T ∼ 10 6 -10 7 K) ISM and the upper range of this warm ISM metallicity is consistent with stellar population metallicity determinations. A solar metallicity of the warm ISM favors an internal origin for the warm ISM such as asymptotic giant branch mass loss within the galaxy.

  20. The experimental study of oxygen contrast MR ventilation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jian; Guo Youmin; Wu Xiaoming; Xi Nong; Wang Jianguo; Zhu Li; Lei Xiaoyan; Xie Enyi


    Objective: To study the feasibility and basic technology of the oxygen contrast MR ventilation imaging in lung. Methods: Six canine lungs were scanned by using inversion recovery pulse sequence with turbo spin echo acquisition before and after inhalation of the 100% oxygen as T 1 contrast agent, and the T 1 values were measured. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for each inversion recovery time was compared and the relationship between arterial blood oxygen pressure (PaO 2 ) and T 1 relaxation rate was observed. Subtraction technique was employed in the postprocessing of pre- and post-oxygen conditions. Results: Molecular oxygen could shorten the pulmonary T 1 value (average 13.37%, t=2.683, P 1 value of pre- and post-oxygen conditions. The relaxtivity of T 1 resulted in excellent linear correlation (r 2 =0.9974) with PaO 2 . Through the subtraction of pre- and post-oxygen image, the oxygen contrast MR ventilation -image was obtained. Conclusion: The oxygen contrast MR ventilation imaging has the feasibility and clinical potential for the assessment of regional pulmonary function

  1. PTT functional recovery in early stage II PTTD after tendon balancing and calcaneal lengthening osteotomy. (United States)

    Brilhault, Jean; Noël, Vincent


    The decision to offer surgery for Stage II posterior tibial tendon deficiency (PTTD) is a difficult one since orthotic treatment has been documented to be a viable alternative to surgery at this stage. Taking this into consideration we limited our treatment to bony realignment by a lengthening calcaneus Evans osteotomy and tendon balancing. The goal of the study was to clinically evaluate PTT functional recovery with this procedure. The patient population included 17 feet in 13 patients. Inclusion was limited to early Stage II PTTD flatfeet with grossly intact but deficient PTT. Deficiency was assessed by the lack of hindfoot inversion during single heel rise test. The surgical procedure included an Evans calcaneal opening wedge osteotomy with triceps surae and peroneus brevis tendon lengthening. PTT function at follow up was evaluated by an independent examiner. Evaluation was performed at an average of 4 (range, 2 to 6.3) years. One case presented postoperative subtalar pain that required subtalar fusion. Every foot could perform a single heel rise with 13 feet having active inversion of the hindfoot during elevation. The results of this study provide evidence of PTT functional recovery without augmentation in early Stage II. It challenges our understanding of early Stage II PTTD as well as the surgical guidelines recommending PTT augmentation at this specific stage.

  2. l-Carnitine Supplementation in Recovery after Exercise. (United States)

    Fielding, Roger; Riede, Linda; Lugo, James P; Bellamine, Aouatef


    Given its pivotal role in fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism, l-carnitine has been investigated as ergogenic aid for enhancing exercise capacity in the healthy athletic population. Early research indicates its beneficial effects on acute physical performance, such as increased maximum oxygen consumption and higher power output. Later studies point to the positive impact of dietary supplementation with l-carnitine on the recovery process after exercise. It is demonstrated that l-carnitine alleviates muscle injury and reduces markers of cellular damage and free radical formation accompanied by attenuation of muscle soreness. The supplementation-based increase in serum and muscle l-carnitine contents is suggested to enhance blood flow and oxygen supply to the muscle tissue via improved endothelial function thereby reducing hypoxia-induced cellular and biochemical disruptions. Studies in older adults further showed that l-carnitine intake can lead to increased muscle mass accompanied by a decrease in body weight and reduced physical and mental fatigue. Based on current animal studies, a role of l-carnitine in the prevention of age-associated muscle protein degradation and regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis is suggested.

  3. Enhanced Glycogen Storage of a Subcellular Hot Spot in Human Skeletal Muscle during Early Recovery from Eccentric Contractions (United States)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo; Vissing, Kristian


    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise is accompanied by muscle damage and impaired glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis during subsequent recovery. Recently, it was shown that the role and regulation of glycogen in skeletal muscle are dependent on its subcellular localization, and that glycogen synthesis, as described by the product of glycogen particle size and number, is dependent on the time course of recovery after exercise and carbohydrate availability. In the present study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of glycogen in fibers with high (type I) and low (type II) mitochondrial content during post-exercise recovery from eccentric contractions. Analysis was completed on five male subjects performing an exercise bout consisting of 15 x 10 maximal eccentric contractions. Carbohydrate-rich drinks were subsequently ingested throughout a 48 h recovery period and muscle biopsies for analysis included time points 3, 24 and 48 h post exercise from the exercising leg, whereas biopsies corresponding to prior to and at 48 h after the exercise bout were collected from the non-exercising, control leg. Quantitative imaging by transmission electron microscopy revealed an early (post 3 and 24 h) enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen (defined as glycogen particles located within the myofibrils) of type I fibers, which was associated with an increase in the number of particles. In contrast, late in recovery (post 48 h), intermyofibrillar, intramyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal glycogen in both type I and II fibers were lower in the exercise leg compared with the control leg, and this was associated with a smaller size of the glycogen particles. We conclude that in the carbohydrate-supplemented state, the effect of eccentric contractions on glycogen metabolism depends on the subcellular localization, muscle fiber’s oxidative capacity, and the time course of recovery. The early enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen after the eccentric contractions may

  4. The kinetics of early T and B cell immune recovery after bone marrow transplantation in RAG-2-deficient SCID patients.

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    Atar Lev

    Full Text Available The kinetics of T and B cell immune recovery after bone marrow transplantation (BMT is affected by many pre- and post-transplant factors. Because of the profoundly depleted baseline T and B cell immunity in recombination activating gene 2 (RAG-2-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID patients, some of these factors are eliminated, and the immune recovery after BMT can then be clearly assessed. This process was followed in ten SCID patients in parallel to their associated transplant-related complications. Early peripheral presence of T and B cells was observed in 8 and 4 patients, respectively. The latter correlated with pre-transplant conditioning therapy. Cells from these patients carried mainly signal joint DNA episomes, indicative of newly derived B and T cells. They were present before the normalization of the T cell receptor (TCR and the B cell receptor (BCR repertoire. Early presentation of the ordered TCR gene rearrangements after BMT occurred simultaneously, but this pattern was heterogeneous over time, suggesting different and individual thymic recovery processes. Our findings early after transplant could suggest the long-term patients' clinical outcome. Early peripheral presence of newly produced B and T lymphocytes from their production and maturation sites after BMT suggests donor stem cell origin rather than peripheral expansion, and is indicative of successful outcome. Peripheral detection of TCR excision circles and kappa-deleting recombination excision circles in RAG-2-deficient SCID post-BMT are early markers of T and B cell reconstitution, and can be used to monitor outcome and tailor specific therapy for patients undergoing BMT.

  5. Colorimetric Detection of Caspase 3 Activity and Reactive Oxygen Derivatives: Potential Early Indicators of Thermal Stress in Corals

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    Mickael Ros


    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to develop and implement rapid assessments of coral health to allow effective adaptive management in response to coastal development and global change. There is now increasing evidence that activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis plays a key role during coral bleaching and subsequent mortality. In this study, a “clinical” approach was used to assess coral health by measuring the activity of caspase 3 using a commercial kit. This method was first applied while inducing thermal bleaching in two coral species, Acropora millepora and Pocillopora damicornis. The latter species was then chosen to undergo further studies combining the detection of oxidative stress-related compounds (catalase activity and glutathione concentrations as well as caspase activity during both stress and recovery phases. Zooxanthellae photosystem II (PSII efficiency and cell density were measured in parallel to assess symbiont health. Our results demonstrate that the increased caspase 3 activity in the coral host could be detected before observing any significant decrease in the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the algal symbionts and/or their expulsion from the host. This study highlights the potential of host caspase 3 and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities as early indicators of stress in individual coral colonies.

  6. The effect of early physiotherapy on the recovery of mandibular function after orthognathic surgery for class III correction. Part II: electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles. (United States)

    Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching; Teng, Terry Te-Yi; Huang, Chiung Shing; Chen, Yu-Ray


    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of early physical rehabilitation by comparing the differences of surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity in the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles after surgical correction of skeletal class III malocclusion. The prospective study included 63 patients; the experimental groups contained 31 patients who received early systematic physical rehabilitation; the control group (32 patients) did not receive physiotherapy. The amplitude of sEMG in the masticatory muscles reached 72.6-121.3% and 37.5-64.6% of pre-surgical values in the experimental and control groups respectively at 6 weeks after orthognathic surgery (OGS). At 6 months after OGS, the sEMG reached 135.1-233.4% and 89.6-122.5% of pre-surgical values in the experimental and control groups respectively. Most variables in the sEMG examination indicated that recovery of the masticatory muscles in the experimental group was better than the control group as estimated in the early phase (T1 to T2) and the total phase (T1 to T3); there were no significant differences between the mean recovery percentages in the later phase (T2 to T3). Early physical rehabilitative therapy is helpful for early recovery of muscle activity in masticatory muscles after OGS. After termination of physical therapy, no significant difference in recovery was indicated in patients with or without early physiotherapy. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Retinal Vessel Oxygen Saturation during 100% Oxygen Breathing in Healthy Individuals.

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    Olof Birna Olafsdottir

    Full Text Available To detect how systemic hyperoxia affects oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and venules in healthy individuals.Retinal vessel oxygen saturation was measured in 30 healthy individuals with a spectrophotometric retinal oximeter (Oxymap T1. Oximetry was performed during breathing of room air, 100% oxygen (10 minutes, 6L/min and then again room air (10 minutes recovery.Mean oxygen saturation rises modestly in retinal arterioles during 100% oxygen breathing (94.5%±3.8 vs. 92.0%±3.7% at baseline, p<0.0001 and dramatically in retinal venules (76.2%±8.0% vs. 51.3%±5.6%, p<0.0001. The arteriovenous difference decreased during 100% oxygen breathing (18.3%±9.0% vs. 40.7%±5.7%, p<0.0001. The mean diameter of arterioles decreased during 100% oxygen breathing compared to baseline (9.7±1.4 pixels vs. 10.3±1.3 pixels, p<0.0001 and the same applies to the mean venular diameter (11.4±1.2 pixels vs. 13.3±1.5 pixels, p<0.0001.Breathing 100% oxygen increases oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and more so in venules and constricts them compared to baseline levels. The dramatic increase in oxygen saturation in venules reflects oxygen flow from the choroid and the unusual vascular anatomy and oxygen physiology of the eye.

  8. Residual oxygen time model for oxygen partial pressure near 130 kPa (1.3 atm). (United States)

    Shykoff, Barbara E


    A two-part residual oxygen time model predicts the probability of detectible pulmonary oxygen toxicity P(P[O2tox]) after dives with oxygen partial pressure (PO2) approximately 130 kPa, and provides a tool to plan dive series with selected risk of P[O2tox]. Data suggest that pulmonary oxygen injury at this PO2 is additive between dives. Recovery begins after a delay and continues during any following dive. A logistic relation expresses P(P[O2tox]) as a function of dive duration (T(dur)) [hours]: P(P[O2tox]) = 100/[1+exp (3.586-0.49 x T(dur))] This expression maps T(dur) to P(P[O2tox]) or, in the linear mid-portion of the curve, P(P[O2tox]) usefully to T(dur). For multiple dives or during recovery, it maps to an equivalent dive duration, T(eq). T(eq) was found after second dives of duration T(dur 2). Residual time from the first dive t(r) = T(eq) - T(dur2). With known t(r), t and T(dur) a recovery model was fitted. t(r) = T(dur) x exp [-k x((t-5)/T(dur)2], where t = t - 5 hours, k = 0.149 for resting, and 0.047 for exercising divers, and t represents time after surfacing. The fits were assessed for 1,352 man-dives. Standard deviations of the residuals were 8.5% and 18.3% probability for resting or exercise dives, respectively.

  9. Ecosystem impacts of hypoxia: thresholds of hypoxia and pathways to recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steckbauer, A; Duarte, C M; Vaquer-Sunyer, R; Carstensen, J; Conley, D J


    Coastal hypoxia is increasing in the global coastal zone, where it is recognized as a major threat to biota. Managerial efforts to prevent hypoxia and achieve recovery of ecosystems already affected by hypoxia are largely based on nutrient reduction plans. However, these managerial efforts need to be informed by predictions on the thresholds of hypoxia (i.e. the oxygen levels required to conserve biodiversity) as well as the timescales for the recovery of ecosystems already affected by hypoxia. The thresholds for hypoxia in coastal ecosystems are higher than previously thought and are not static, but regulated by local and global processes, being particularly sensitive to warming. The examination of recovery processes in a number of coastal areas managed for reducing nutrient inputs and, thus, hypoxia (Northern Adriatic; Black Sea; Baltic Sea; Delaware Bay; and Danish Coastal Areas) reveals that recovery timescales following the return to normal oxygen conditions are much longer than those of loss following the onset of hypoxia, and typically involve decadal timescales. The extended lag time for ecosystem recovery from hypoxia results in non-linear pathways of recovery due to hysteresis and the shift in baselines, affecting the oxygen thresholds for hypoxia through time.

  10. Oxygen restriction as challenge test reveals early high-fat-diet-induced changes in glucose and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorde, L.P.M.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Derous, D.; Stelt, van der I.; Masania, J.; Rabbani, N.; Thornalley, P.J.; Keijer, J.


    Challenge tests stress homeostasis and may reveal deviations in health that remain masked under unchallenged conditions. Ideally, challenge tests are non-invasive and applicable in an early phase of an animal experiment. Oxygen restriction (OxR; based on ambient, mild normobaric hypoxia) is a

  11. Early Phase Contingency Trajectory Design for the Failure of the First Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver: Direct Recovery Options (United States)

    Song, Young-Joo; Bae, Jonghee; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Bang-Yeop


    To ensure the successful launch of the Korea pathfinder lunar orbiter (KPLO) mission, the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) is now performing extensive trajectory design and analysis studies. From the trajectory design perspective, it is crucial to prepare contingency trajectory options for the failure of the first lunar brake or the failure of the first lunar orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver. As part of the early phase trajectory design and analysis activities, the required time of flight (TOF) and associated delta-V magnitudes for each recovery maneuver (RM) to recover the KPLO mission trajectory are analyzed. There are two typical trajectory recovery options, direct recovery and low energy recovery. The current work is focused on the direct recovery option. Results indicate that a quicker execution of the first RM after the failure of the first LOI plays a significant role in saving the magnitudes of the RMs. Under the conditions of the extremely tight delta-V budget that is currently allocated for the KPLO mission, it is found that the recovery of the KPLO without altering the originally planned mission orbit (a 100 km circular orbit) cannot be achieved via direct recovery options. However, feasible recovery options are suggested within the boundaries of the currently planned delta-V budget. By changing the shape and orientation of the recovered final mission orbit, it is expected that the KPLO mission may partially pursue its scientific mission after successful recovery, though it will be limited.

  12. Marine anoxia and delayed Earth system recovery after the end-Permian extinction. (United States)

    Lau, Kimberly V; Maher, Kate; Altiner, Demir; Kelley, Brian M; Kump, Lee R; Lehrmann, Daniel J; Silva-Tamayo, Juan Carlos; Weaver, Karrie L; Yu, Meiyi; Payne, Jonathan L


    Delayed Earth system recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction is often attributed to severe ocean anoxia. However, the extent and duration of Early Triassic anoxia remains poorly constrained. Here we use paired records of uranium concentrations ([U]) and (238)U/(235)U isotopic compositions (δ(238)U) of Upper Permian-Upper Triassic marine limestones from China and Turkey to quantify variations in global seafloor redox conditions. We observe abrupt decreases in [U] and δ(238)U across the end-Permian extinction horizon, from ∼3 ppm and -0.15‰ to ∼0.3 ppm and -0.77‰, followed by a gradual return to preextinction values over the subsequent 5 million years. These trends imply a factor of 100 increase in the extent of seafloor anoxia and suggest the presence of a shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that inhibited the recovery of benthic animal diversity and marine ecosystem function. We hypothesize that in the Early Triassic oceans-characterized by prolonged shallow anoxia that may have impinged onto continental shelves-global biogeochemical cycles and marine ecosystem structure became more sensitive to variation in the position of the OMZ. Under this hypothesis, the Middle Triassic decline in bottom water anoxia, stabilization of biogeochemical cycles, and diversification of marine animals together reflect the development of a deeper and less extensive OMZ, which regulated Earth system recovery following the end-Permian catastrophe.

  13. The effect of inhaling concentrated oxygen on performance during repeated anaerobic exercise

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    J Heller


    Full Text Available The objective of the pilot study was to test the effect of inhaling 99.5% oxygen on recovery. The source of concentrated oxygen was O-PUR (Oxyfit. Research subjects completed two thirty-second Wingate tests at an interval of ten minutes, and in the interval between the tests the subjects inhaled either oxygen or a placebo in random order. This procedure was then repeated. The pilot study revealed a significantly (p<0.03 smaller performance drop in the second Wingate test following the inhalation of 99.5% oxygen when compared with the placebo. The results of the study indicate that inhaling concentrated oxygen may have a positive effect on short-term recovery processes.

  14. Functional MRI activation of somatosensory and motor cortices in a hand-grafted patient with early clinical sensorimotor recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugroschl, C.; Denolin, V.; Schuind, F.; Holder, C. van; David, P.; Baleriaux, D.; Metens, T.


    The aim of this study was to investigate somatosensory and motor cortical activity with functional MRI (fMRI) in a hand-grafted patient with early clinical recovery. The patient had motor fMRI examinations before transplantation, and motor and passive tactile stimulations after surgery. His normal hand and a normal group were studied for comparison. A patient with complete brachial plexus palsy was studied to assess the lack of a fMRI signal in somatosensory areas in the case of total axonal disconnection. Stimulating the grafted hand revealed significant activation in the contralateral somatosensory cortical areas in all fMRI examinations. The activation was seen as early as 10 days after surgery; this effect cannot be explained by the known physiological mechanisms of nerve regeneration. Although an imagination effect cannot be excluded, the objective clinical recovery of sensory function led us to formulate the hypothesis that a connection to the somatosensory cortex was rapidly established. Additional cases and fundamental studies are needed to assess this hypothesis, but several observations were compatible with this explanation. Before surgery, imaginary motion of the amputated hand produced less intense responses than executed movements of the intact hand, whereas the normal activation pattern for right-handed subjects was found after surgery, in agreement with the good clinical motor recovery. (orig.)

  15. Relationship Between Cerebral Oxygenation and Hemodynamic and Oxygen Transport Parameters in Surgery for Acquired Heart Diseases

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    A. I. Lenkin


    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamic and oxygen transport parameters in surgical correction of concomitant acquired heart diseases. Subjects and methods. Informed consent was received from 40 patients who required surgery because of concomitant (two or more acquired heart defects. During procedure, perioperative monitoring of oxygen transport and cerebral oxygenation was performed with the aid of PiCCO2 monitor (Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany and a Fore-Sight cerebral oximeter (CASMED, USA. Anesthesia was maintained with propofol and fen-tanyl, by monitoring the depth of anesthesia. Early postoperative intensive therapy was based on the protocol for early targeted correction of hemodynamic disorders. Oxygen transport and cerebral oxygenation parameters were estimated intraopera-tively and within 24 postoperative hours. A statistical analysis including evaluation of Spearman correlations was performed with the aid of SPSS 15.0. Results. During perfusion, there was a relationship between cerebral oximetry values and hemat-ocrit levels, and oxygen partial pressure in the venous blood. Furthermore, a negative correlation between cerebral oximetry values and blood lactate levels was found 30 minutes after initiation of extracorporeal circulation (EC. During the study, there was a positive correlation between cerebral oxygenation and values of cardiac index, central venous saturation, and oxygen delivery index. There was a negative relationship between cerebral oxygenation and extravascular lung water at the beginning of surgery and a correlation between cerebral oximetry values and oxygenation index by the end of the first 24 postoperative hours. Conclusion. The cerebral oxygenation values correlate -with the main determinants of oxygen transport during EC and after cardiac surgical procedures. Cerebral oximetry may be used in early targeted therapy for the surgical correction of acquired combined

  16. l-Carnitine Supplementation in Recovery after Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Fielding


    Full Text Available Given its pivotal role in fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism, l-carnitine has been investigated as ergogenic aid for enhancing exercise capacity in the healthy athletic population. Early research indicates its beneficial effects on acute physical performance, such as increased maximum oxygen consumption and higher power output. Later studies point to the positive impact of dietary supplementation with l-carnitine on the recovery process after exercise. It is demonstrated that l-carnitine alleviates muscle injury and reduces markers of cellular damage and free radical formation accompanied by attenuation of muscle soreness. The supplementation-based increase in serum and muscle l-carnitine contents is suggested to enhance blood flow and oxygen supply to the muscle tissue via improved endothelial function thereby reducing hypoxia-induced cellular and biochemical disruptions. Studies in older adults further showed that l-carnitine intake can lead to increased muscle mass accompanied by a decrease in body weight and reduced physical and mental fatigue. Based on current animal studies, a role of l-carnitine in the prevention of age-associated muscle protein degradation and regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis is suggested.

  17. Functional Recovery in Major Depressive Disorder: Providing Early Optimal Treatment for the Individual Patient (United States)

    Katzman, Martin A; Habert, Jeffrey; McIntosh, Diane; MacQueen, Glenda M; Milev, Roumen V; McIntyre, Roger S; Blier, Pierre


    Abstract Major depressive disorder is an often chronic and recurring illness. Left untreated, major depressive disorder may result in progressive alterations in brain morphometry and circuit function. Recent findings, however, suggest that pharmacotherapy may halt and possibly reverse those effects. These findings, together with evidence that a delay in treatment is associated with poorer clinical outcomes, underscore the urgency of rapidly treating depression to full recovery. Early optimized treatment, using measurement-based care and customizing treatment to the individual patient, may afford the best possible outcomes for each patient. The aim of this article is to present recommendations for using a patient-centered approach to rapidly provide optimal pharmacological treatment to patients with major depressive disorder. Offering major depressive disorder treatment determined by individual patient characteristics (e.g., predominant symptoms, medical history, comorbidities), patient preferences and expectations, and, critically, their own definition of wellness provides the best opportunity for full functional recovery. PMID:29024974

  18. Modeling long recovery early events (LOREs) produced by lightning-induced ionization of the nighttime upper mesosphere (United States)

    Kotovsky, D. A.; Moore, R. C.


    We present results of a cylindrically symmetric, coupled electrodynamic, and photochemical model which simulates diffuse ionization of the middle atmosphere induced by strong lightning discharges (peak currents >150 kA). Scattering of subionospherically propagating, very low frequency radio waves is then evaluated using the Long-Wave Propagation Capability code. Some modeled sprite halos exhibit continued electron density growth up to timescales of seconds due to O- detachment, though it is not yet clear how this might relate to the slower onset durations (>20 ms) of some early VLF events. Modeled electron density enhancements in sprite halos, capable of strong VLF scattering, can persist for long periods of time (greater than hundreds of seconds) even at lower altitudes where their recovery is initially controlled by fast attachment processes. Consequently, our modeling results indicate that both typical recovery (20 to 240 s) and long recovery (LOREs, >300 s) VLF scattering events can be explained by scattering from conductivity changes associated with sprite halos. In contrast, modeled scattered fields resulting from elve-associated conductivity changes, though exhibiting long recovery times, are too weak to sufficiently explain typical LORE observations. Theoretical scattering from structured ionization events (e.g., sprites columns and gigantic jets) is not considered in this work.

  19. Music and speech listening enhance the recovery of early sensory processing after stroke. (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Pihko, Elina; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Mikkonen, Mikko; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Erkkilä, Jaakko; Laine, Matti; Peretz, Isabelle; Hietanen, Marja; Tervaniemi, Mari


    Our surrounding auditory environment has a dramatic influence on the development of basic auditory and cognitive skills, but little is known about how it influences the recovery of these skills after neural damage. Here, we studied the long-term effects of daily music and speech listening on auditory sensory memory after middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke. In the acute recovery phase, 60 patients who had middle cerebral artery stroke were randomly assigned to a music listening group, an audio book listening group, or a control group. Auditory sensory memory, as indexed by the magnetic MMN (MMNm) response to changes in sound frequency and duration, was measured 1 week (baseline), 3 months, and 6 months after the stroke with whole-head magnetoencephalography recordings. Fifty-four patients completed the study. Results showed that the amplitude of the frequency MMNm increased significantly more in both music and audio book groups than in the control group during the 6-month poststroke period. In contrast, the duration MMNm amplitude increased more in the audio book group than in the other groups. Moreover, changes in the frequency MMNm amplitude correlated significantly with the behavioral improvement of verbal memory and focused attention induced by music listening. These findings demonstrate that merely listening to music and speech after neural damage can induce long-term plastic changes in early sensory processing, which, in turn, may facilitate the recovery of higher cognitive functions. The neural mechanisms potentially underlying this effect are discussed.

  20. Fabrication of Super-Hydrophobic Microchannels via Strain-Recovery Deformations of Polystyrene and Oxygen Reactive Ion Etch. (United States)

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Xiang, Mingming; Luo, Cheng


    In this article, we report a simple approach to generate micropillars (whose top portions are covered by sub-micron wrinkles) on the inner surfaces of polystyrene (PS) microchannels, as well as on the top surface of the PS substrate, based on strain-recovery deformations of the PS and oxygen reactive ion etch (ORIE). Using this approach, two types of micropillar-covered microchannels are fabricated. Their widths range from 118 μm to 132 μm, depths vary from 40 μm to 44 μm, and the inclined angles of their sidewalls are from 53° to 64°. The micropillars enable these microchannels to have super-hydrophobic properties. The contact angles observed on the channel-structured surfaces are above 162°, and the tilt angles to make water drops roll off from these channel-structured substrates can be as small as 1°.

  1. Fabrication of Super-Hydrophobic Microchannels via Strain-Recovery Deformations of Polystyrene and Oxygen Reactive Ion Etch

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    Anirban Chakraborty


    Full Text Available In this article, we report a simple approach to generate micropillars (whose top portions are covered by sub-micron wrinkles on the inner surfaces of polystyrene (PS microchannels, as well as on the top surface of the PS substrate, based on strain-recovery deformations of the PS and oxygen reactive ion etch (ORIE. Using this approach, two types of micropillar-covered microchannels are fabricated. Their widths range from 118 μm to 132 μm, depths vary from 40 μm to 44 μm, and the inclined angles of their sidewalls are from 53° to 64°. The micropillars enable these microchannels to have super-hydrophobic properties. The contact angles observed on the channel-structured surfaces are above 162°, and the tilt angles to make water drops roll off from these channel-structured substrates can be as small as 1°.

  2. Oxygen Isotopes in Early Solar System Materials: A Perspective Based on Microbeam Analyses of Chondrules from CV Carbonaceous Chondrites (United States)

    Jones, R. H.; Leshin, L. A.; Guan, Y.


    Some of the biggest challenges to understanding the early history of the solar system include determining the distribution of oxygen isotopes amongst materials that existed in the solar nebula, and interpreting the processes that might have resulted in the observed isotopic distributions. Oxygen isotope ratios in any individual mineral grain from a chondritic meteorite may be the cumulative product of a variety of processes, including stellar nucleosynthetic events, gas/solid interactions in the molecular cloud, mixing of independent isotopic reservoirs in the nebula, mass-independent processing in the nebula, and mass-dependent fractionation effects in various environments. It is not possible to unravel this complex isotopic record unless the distribution of oxygen isotope ratios in chondritic materials is fully understood.

  3. Neuroprotection of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in sub-acute traumatic brain injury: not by immediately improving cerebral oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure. (United States)

    Zhou, Bao-Chun; Liu, Li-Jun; Liu, Bing


    Although hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy can promote the recovery of neural function in patients who have suffered traumatic brain injury (TBI), the underlying mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that hyperbaric oxygen treatment plays a neuroprotective role in TBI by increasing regional transcranial oxygen saturation (rSO 2 ) and oxygen partial pressure (PaO 2 ). To test this idea, we compared two groups: a control group with 20 healthy people and a treatment group with 40 TBI patients. The 40 patients were given 100% oxygen of HBO for 90 minutes. Changes in rSO 2 were measured. The controls were also examined for rSO 2 and PaO 2 , but received no treatment. rSO 2 levels in the patients did not differ significantly after treatment, but levels before and after treatment were significantly lower than those in the control group. PaO 2 levels were significantly decreased after the 30-minute HBO treatment. Our findings suggest that there is a disorder of oxygen metabolism in patients with sub-acute TBI. HBO does not immediately affect cerebral oxygen metabolism, and the underlying mechanism still needs to be studied in depth.

  4. Promoting recovery: service user and staff perceptions of resilience provided by a new Early Intervention in Psychosis service. (United States)

    Morton, Adrian; Fairhurst, Alicia; Ryan, Rebecca


    The principles and practice of recovery are guiding many changes in mental health service provision. As a new Early Intervention in Psychosis (EIP) service, we were interested in finding out if both staff and users perceive the service as promoting resilience and in turn, recovery. A naturalistic sample of service users and staff completed the Organizational Climate questionnaire to assess the degree to which the service promotes resilience in overcoming a first episode psychosis. The results indicated that both staff and service users similarly perceive the service as positively supporting resilience. The one exception was the staff rated the 'available resources to meet people's needs' as less than service users. The positive rating of resilience indicated that the service is working in a manner consistent with a recovery orientation. The results will act as a benchmark to compare with both other EIP services and future performance.

  5. Influence of Dopamine-Related Genes on Neurobehavioral Recovery after Traumatic Brain Injury during Early Childhood. (United States)

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Wade, Shari L; Martin, Lisa J; Pilipenko, Valentina; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Kurowski, Brad G


    The present study examined the association of dopamine-related genes with short- and long-term neurobehavioral recovery, as well as neurobehavioral recovery trajectories over time, in children who had sustained early childhood traumatic brain injuries (TBI) relative to children who had sustained orthopedic injuries (OI). Participants were recruited from a prospective, longitudinal study evaluating outcomes of children who sustained a TBI (n = 68) or OI (n = 72) between the ages of 3 and 7 years. Parents completed ratings of child executive function and behavior at the immediate post-acute period (0-3 months after injury); 6, 12, and 18 months after injury; and an average of 3.5 and 7 years after injury. Thirty-two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in dopamine-related genes (dopamine receptor D2 [DRD2], solute carrier family 6 member 3 [SLC6A3], solute carrier family 18 member A2 [SLC18A2], catechol-o-methyltransferase [COMT], and ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 [ANKK1]) were examined in association with short- and long-term executive function and behavioral adjustment, as well as their trajectories over time. After controlling for premorbid child functioning, genetic variation within the SLC6A3 (rs464049 and rs460000) gene was differentially associated with neurobehavioral recovery trajectories over time following TBI relative to OI, with rs464049 surviving multiple testing corrections. In addition, genetic variation within the ANKK1 (rs1800497 and rs2734849) and SLC6A3 (rs464049, rs460000, and rs1042098) genes was differentially associated with short- and long-term neurobehavioral recovery following TBI, with rs460000 and rs464049 surviving multiple testing corrections. The findings provide preliminary evidence that genetic variation in genes involved in DRD2 expression and density (ANKK1) and dopamine transport (SLC6A3) plays a role in neurobehavioral recovery following pediatric TBI.

  6. Can targeted early intervention improve functional recovery in psychosis? A historical control evaluation of the effectiveness of different models of early intervention service provision in Norfolk 1998-2007. (United States)

    Fowler, David; Hodgekins, Jo; Howells, Lawrence; Millward, Melanie; Ivins, Annabel; Taylor, Gavin; Hackmann, Corinna; Hill, Katherine; Bishop, Nick; Macmillan, Iain


    This paper assesses the impact of different models of early intervention (EI) service provision on functional recovery and inpatient hospital admission. The study compares the outcome of a comprehensive EI team with a partial model (community mental health team (CMHT) plus specialist support) and traditional care (generic CMHT) over a 10-year period. The design is in comparison with historical control. The study compares the functional recovery outcomes of three cohorts from the same geographical area over the period 1998-2007. The primary outcomes were partial and full functional recovery defined with respect to readily identifiable UK benefit system thresholds and psychiatric inpatient admission days at 1 and 2 years post-referral. Only 15% of individuals made a full or partial functional recovery at 2 years under the care of a traditional generic CMHT in 1998. In 2007, 52% of the cases were making a full or partial functional recovery under the care of the comprehensive EI team. A large reduction in inpatient admissions was associated with the EI strategy. The implementation of comprehensive EI teams can have a major impact in improving functional recovery outcomes in psychosis and reducing inpatient admissions. Partial implementation using limited funding of specialist workers in collaboration with traditional care appeared to have a more limited effect on these recovery dimensions. The implementation of targeted EI in psychosis strategies can result in substantive functional benefits. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.


    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  8. Investigation of the colour recovery processes in irradiated 'red acrylic' dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patko, J.; Beke, D.L.


    The kinetics of the colour recovery processes in irradiated 'Red Acrylic' dosimeters was studied. It was found that the decay is due to diffusion of oxygen into the matrix and a thermal decay takes place, too. The diffusion processes result in the appearance of a clear surface layer which becomes thicker and thicker. This layer is separated by a sharp boundary surface from the dark region. The activation energy of the oxygen diffusion was determined from the kinetics. In samples irradiated and heat-treated in noble gas this process does not take place but it was observed that in pure oxygen, chlorine and in air the colour recovery was similar. (author) 8 refs.; 3 figs

  9. Functional recovery in rat spinal cord injury induced by hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning. (United States)

    Lu, Pei-Gang; Hu, Sheng-Li; Hu, Rong; Wu, Nan; Chen, Zhi; Meng, Hui; Lin, Jiang-Kai; Feng, Hua


    It is a common belief that neurosurgical interventions can cause inevitable damage resulting from the procedure itself in surgery especially for intramedullary spinal cord tumors. The present study was designed to examine if hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO-PC) was neuroprotective against surgical injuries using a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: HBO-PC group, hypobaric hypoxic preconditioning (HH-PC) control group, and normobaric control group. All groups were subjected to SCI by weight drop device. Rats from each group were examined for neurological behavior and electrophysiological function. Tissue sections were analyzed by using immunohistochemistry, TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling, and axonal tract tracing. Significant neurological deficits were observed after SCI and HBO-PC and HH-PC improved neurological deficits 1 week post-injury. The latencies of motor-evoked potential and somatosensory-evoked potential were significantly delayed after SCI, which was attenuated by HBO-PC and HH-PC. Compared with normobaric control group, pretreatment with HBO and hypobaric hypoxia significantly reduced the number of TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling-positive cells, and increased nestin-positive cells. HBO-PC and HH-PC enhanced axonal growth after SCI. In conclusion, preconditioning with HBO and hypobaric hypoxia can facilitate functional recovery and suppress cell apoptosis after SCI and may prove to be a useful preventive strategy to neurosurgical SCI.

  10. Recovery strategies for tackling the impact of phenolic compounds in a UASB reactor treating coal gasification wastewater. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Han, Hongjun


    The impact of phenolic compounds (around 3.2 g/L) resulted in a completely failed performance in a mesophilic UASB reactor treating coal gasification wastewater. The recovery strategies, including extension of HRT, dilution, oxygen-limited aeration, and addition of powdered activated carbon were evaluated in batch tests, in order to obtain the most appropriate way for the quick recovery of the failed reactor performance. Results indicated that addition of powdered activated carbon and oxygen-limited aeration were the best recovery strategies in the batch tests. In the UASB reactor, addition of powdered activated carbon of 1 g/L shortened the recovery time from 25 to 9 days and oxygen-limited aeration of 0-0.5 mgO2/L reduced the recovery time to 17 days. Reduction of bioavailable concentration of phenolic compounds and recovery of sludge activity were the decisive factors for the recovery strategies to tackle the impact of phenolic compounds in anaerobic treatment of coal gasification wastewater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long recovery VLF perturbations associated with lightning discharges (United States)

    Salut, M. M.; Abdullah, M.; Graf, K. L.; Cohen, M. B.; Cotts, B. R. T.; Kumar, Sushil


    Long D-region ionospheric recovery perturbations are a recently discovered and poorly understood subcategory of early VLF events, distinguished by exceptionally long ionospheric recovery times of up to 20 min (compared to more typical ˜1 min recovery times). Characteristics and occurrence rates of long ionospheric recovery events on the NWC transmitter signal recorded at Malaysia are presented. 48 long recovery events were observed. The location of the causative lightning discharge for each event is determined from GLD360 and WWLLN data, and each discharge is categorized as being over land or sea. Results provide strong evidence that long recovery events are attributed predominately to lightning discharges occurring over the sea, despite the fact that lightning activity in the region is more prevalent over land. Of the 48 long recovery events, 42 were attributed to lightning activity over water. Analysis of the causative lightning of long recovery events in comparison to all early VLF events reveals that these long recovery events are detectable for lighting discharges at larger distances from the signal path, indicating a different scattering pattern for long recovery events.

  12. The investigation of the colour recovery processes in irradiated 'Red Acrylic' dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patko, J.; Beke, D.L.; Herbak, J.


    The kinetics of the colour recovery processes in irradiated 'Red Acrylic' dosemeters was studied. It was found that the decay is due to diffusion of oxygen into the matrix and there is also a thermal decay. The diffusion process results in the appearance of a clear surface layer which becomes more and more thick. This layer is separated with a sharp boundary surface from the dark region. The activation energy of the oxygen diffusion was determined from the kinetics. With samples irradiated and heat-treated in noble gas, the process does not take place, but in pure oxygen, chlorine, and in air the colour recovery was similar. (author)

  13. Oxygen and animal evolution: Did a rise of atmospheric oxygen trigger the origin of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, Daniel Brady; Canfield, Donald Eugene


    Recent studies challenge the classical view that the origin of animal life was primarily controlled by atmospheric oxygen levels. For example, some modern sponges, representing early-branching animals, can live under 200 times less oxygen than currently present in the atmosphere - levels commonly...... thought to have been maintained prior to their origination. Furthermore, it is increasingly argued that the earliest animals, which likely lived in low oxygen environments, played an active role in constructing the well-oxygenated conditions typical of the modern oceans. Therefore, while oxygen is still...

  14. Prediction of functional recovery after primary PCI using the estimate of myocardial salvage in gated SPECT early after acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabretta, Raffaella; Castello, Angelo; Linguanti, Flavia; Tutino, Francesca; Ciaccio, Alfonso; Sciagra, Roberto [University of Florence, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences ' ' Mario Serio' ' , Florence (Italy); Giglioli, Cristina [Careggi University Hospital, Cardiothoracovascular Department, Florence (Italy)


    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) aims to achieve myocardial salvage (MS). Because the reference method for measuring MS requires myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) after tracer injection before PCI, alternative approaches have been proposed, but none has gained wide acceptance. Gated SPECT MPI can assess infarct size (IS), but can also show myocardial stunning. Thus, we compared functional and perfusion abnormalities early after AMI to estimate MS, and to predict left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) recovery at follow-up. We studied 120 patients with AMI. Gated SPECT MPI was performed early (before hospital discharge) and at 6 months after AMI to measure IS, MS and functional outcome. MS was defined as the difference between the number of segments with abnormal thickening (i.e. the stunned area or area at risk) and the number of segments with abnormal perfusion (i.e. the final IS), expressed as a percentage of the total number of segments in the AHA model. LVEF was calculated using quantitative gated SPECT. The area at risk was 40 ± 25%, IS was 17.3 ± 16% and MS was 22 ± 19%. Early LVEF was 46.6 ± 11.6% and late LVEF was 51.4 ± 11.6%, with 54 patients showing at least an increase in LVEF of more than 5 units. ROC analysis showed that MS was able to predict LVEF recovery with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.79 (p < 0.0001), and using a cut off >23% detected LVEF recovery with 74% sensitivity and 71% specificity. Conversely, IS was associated with an AUC 0.53 (not significant). MS assessed by a single early gated SPECT MPI study can accurately predict LVEF evolution after primary PCI for AMI. (orig.)

  15. Early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation-induced walking training promotes locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Zhang, S-X; Huang, F; Gates, M; Shen, X; Holmberg, E G


    This is a randomized controlled prospective trial with two parallel groups. The objective of this study was to determine whether early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES)-induced walking training can improve the locomotor function. This study was conducted in SCS Research Center in Colorado, USA. A contusion injury to spinal cord T10 was produced using the New York University impactor device with a 25 -mm height setting in female, adult Long-Evans rats. Injured rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=12 per group). One group was subjected to TANES-induced walking training 2 weeks post injury, and the other group, as control, received no TANES-induced walking training. Restorations of behavior and conduction were assessed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan open-field rating scale, horizontal ladder rung walking test and electrophysiological test (Hoffmann reflex). Early application of TANES-induced walking training significantly improved the recovery of locomotor function and benefited the restoration of Hoffmann reflex. TANES-induced walking training is a useful method to promote locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

  16. Impact of metabolic syndrome on early recovery of continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. (United States)

    Nishikawa, Masatomo; Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Kurahashi, Toshifumi


    To evaluate the impact of metabolic syndrome on the early recovery of urinary continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. The present study included a total of 302 consecutive Japanese patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. In this study, postoperative urinary continence was defined as no leak or the use of a security pad. The continence status was assessed by interviews before and 1 and 3 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Metabolic syndrome was defined as follows: body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 and two or more of the following: hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. The effect of the presence of metabolic syndrome on the continence status of these patients was retrospectively examined. A total of 116 (38.4%) and 203 (67.2%) of the 302 patients were continent at 1 and 3 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, respectively. A total of 31 (10.3%) patients were judged to have metabolic syndrome. Despite the operative time being longer in patients with metabolic syndrome, no significant differences were observed in the remaining preoperative, intraoperative or postoperative variables between patients with or without metabolic syndrome. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, metabolic syndrome and the duration of hospitalization were significantly correlated with the 1-month continence status. Similarly, metabolic syndrome and estimated blood loss during surgery were independent predictors of continence rates at 3 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. These findings suggest that the presence of metabolic syndrome could have a significant impact on the early recovery of urinary continence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  17. Orthostatic intolerance during early mobilization after fast-track hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, O; Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Solgaard, S


    has not been established after THA. This study evaluated the cardiovascular response and tissue oxygenation to mobilization before and after surgery in relation to OI in fast-track THA patients. METHODS: /st>OI and the cardiovascular response to standing were evaluated with a standardized mobilization......BACKGROUND: /st>Early postoperative mobilization is a cornerstone in fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA), but postoperative orthostatic intolerance (OI) may delay early recovery or lead to fainting, falls, and prosthesis dislocation or fracture. However, the prevalence and pathophysiology of OI...... protocol, before, 6, and 24 h after surgery in 26 patients undergoing THA with spinal anaesthesia and an opioid-sparing analgesic regime. Haemoglobin, fluid balance, and opioid use were recorded. Systolic (SAP) and diastolic (DAP) arterial pressure, heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO...

  18. Early enteral immune nutrition support after radical operation for gastric cancer on promoting the recovery of gastrointestinal function and immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Li


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of early enteral immune nutrition support after radical operation for gastric cancer on the recovery of gastrointestinal function and immune function. Methods: A total of 106 cases of patients received radical operation for gastric cancer in our hospital were selected as research subjects, and according to different ways of postoperative nutrition intervention, all patients were divided into observation group (n=50 and control group (n=56. Control group received conventional enteral nutrition intervention, observation group received postoperative early enteral immune nutrition support, and then differences in postoperative intestinal mucosa barrier function, gastrointestinal hormone levels, immune function levels and nutrition-related indicator values were compared between two groups. Results: After observation group received enteral immune nutrition intervention, serum DAO, PS and D-lactate levels as well as urine L/M ratio were lower than those of control group; serum GAS, CCK, MTL and SP values of observation group after intervention were higher than those of control group, and GLU, VIP, GIP and SS values were lower than those of control group; CD4, IgG, NK cell, C3, C4, CH50 and S-IgA levels of observation group after intervention were higher than those of control group; serum ALB, PRE, TRF and RBP levels of observation group after intervention were higher than those of control group. Conclusion: Early enteral immune nutrition support after radical operation for gastric cancer is conducive to the recovery of gastrointestinal function and the promotion of immune state, eventually promotes patients’ postoperative overall recovery and has active clinical significance.

  19. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy investigation of the early stages of the oxygen aided Cr growth on Fe(0 0 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, A., E-mail: [CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Calloni, A.; Picone, A.; Finazzi, M.; Duò, L.; Ciccacci, F. [CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)


    We report on an X-ray photoemission spectroscopy investigation of the early stages of growth of ultra-thin Cr films on the oxygen-passivated Fe(0 0 1)–p(1 × 1)O surface. The Cr coverages ranged from sub-monolayer up to a few atomic layers. Cr has been grown either at 380 K or at 570 K. Our investigation reveals that during the Cr film growth oxygen floats toward the free surface. The presence of a metallic Cr signal from the very beginning of film growth is discussed in relation to Cr–Fe intermixing and alloy formation at the interface. Our findings are independent from the growth temperature, indicating that it has a very little influence on the chemical interactions at the interface, at variance with the oxygen-free Cr/Fe interface.

  20. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy investigation of the early stages of the oxygen aided Cr growth on Fe(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, A.; Calloni, A.; Picone, A.; Finazzi, M.; Duò, L.; Ciccacci, F.


    We report on an X-ray photoemission spectroscopy investigation of the early stages of growth of ultra-thin Cr films on the oxygen-passivated Fe(0 0 1)–p(1 × 1)O surface. The Cr coverages ranged from sub-monolayer up to a few atomic layers. Cr has been grown either at 380 K or at 570 K. Our investigation reveals that during the Cr film growth oxygen floats toward the free surface. The presence of a metallic Cr signal from the very beginning of film growth is discussed in relation to Cr–Fe intermixing and alloy formation at the interface. Our findings are independent from the growth temperature, indicating that it has a very little influence on the chemical interactions at the interface, at variance with the oxygen-free Cr/Fe interface.

  1. Recovery Responses to Maximal Exercise in Healthy-Weight Children and Children with Obesity (United States)

    Easley, Elizabeth A.; Black, W. Scott; Bailey, Alison L.; Lennie, Terry A.; Sims, Wilma J.; Clasey, Jody L.


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in heart rate recovery (HRRec) and oxygen consumption recovery (VO2 recovery) between young healthy-weight children and children with obesity following a maximal volitional graded exercise test (GXTmax). Method: Twenty healthy-weight children and 13 children with obesity completed body…

  2. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles (United States)

    Cassano, Anthony A.


    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs.

  3. VLF Observation of Long Ionospheric Recovery Events (United States)

    Cotts, B. R.; Inan, U. S.


    On the evening of 20 November 1992, three early/fast events were observed on the great circle path (GCP) from the NAU transmitter in Puerto Rico to Gander (GA), Newfoundland. These events were found to have significantly longer recovery times (up to 20 minutes) than any previously documented events. Typical early/fast events and Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) events affect the D-region ionosphere near the night-time VLF-reflection height of ~85 km and exhibit recovery to pre-event levels of gigantic jets. In this context, preliminary results indicate that the lightning-associated VLF long recovery events appear to be more common in oceanic thunderstorms. In this paper, we present occurrence statistics and other measured properties of VLF long recovery events, observed on all-sea based and land based VLF great circle paths.

  4. Oxygen delivery and the restoration of the muscle energetic balance following exercise: implications for delayed muscle recovery in patients with COPD. (United States)

    Layec, Gwenael; Hart, Corey R; Trinity, Joel D; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Rossman, Matthew J; Broxterman, Ryan M; Le Fur, Yann; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S


    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience a delayed recovery from skeletal muscle fatigue following exhaustive exercise that likely contributes to their progressive loss of mobility. As this phenomenon is not well understood, this study sought to examine postexercise peripheral oxygen (O 2 ) transport and muscle metabolism dynamics in patients with COPD, two important determinants of muscle recovery. Twenty-four subjects, 12 nonhypoxemic patients with COPD and 12 healthy subjects with a sedentary lifestyle, performed dynamic plantar flexion exercise at 40% of the maximal work rate (WR max ) with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRS), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and vascular Doppler ultrasound assessments. The mean response time of limb blood flow at the offset of exercise was significantly prolonged in patients with COPD (controls: 56 ± 27 s; COPD: 120 ± 87 s; P 0.05). The initial postexercise convective O 2 delivery (controls: 0.15 ± 0.06 l/min; COPD: 0.15 ± 0.06 l/min) and the corresponding oxidative adenosine triphosphate (ATP) demand (controls: 14 ± 6 mM/min; COPD: 14 ± 6 mM/min) in the calf were not significantly different between controls and patients with COPD ( P > 0.05). The phosphocreatine resynthesis time constant (controls: 46 ± 20 s; COPD: 49 ± 21 s), peak mitochondrial phosphorylation rate, and initial proton efflux were also not significantly different between groups ( P > 0.05). Therefore, despite perturbed peripheral hemodynamics, intracellular O 2 availability, proton efflux, and aerobic metabolism recovery in the skeletal muscle of nonhypoxemic patients with COPD are preserved following plantar flexion exercise and thus are unlikely to contribute to the delayed recovery from exercise in this population.

  5. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna A. Mahale


    Full Text Available Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO 2 has been successfully used in several medical fields. The therapeutic effect is related to elevated partial oxygen pressure in the tissues. The pressure itself enhances oxygen solubility in the tissue fluids. HBO 2 has shown to affect angiogenesis, bone metabolism and bone turnover. Studies have been conducted to analyze the effects of HBO 2 therapy on periodontal disease. HBO 2 increases local oxygen distribution, especially at the base of the periodontal pocket, which inhibits the growth of anaerobic bacteria and allows the ischemic tissues to receive an adequate intake of oxygen sufficient for a rapid recovery of cell metabolism. It is increasingly being accepted as a beneficial adjunct to diverse clinical conditions. Nonhealing ulcers, chronic wounds and refractory osteomyelitis are a few conditions for which HBO therapy (HBOT has been extensively tried out. The dental surgeons have found a good ally in HBOT in managing dental condition.

  6. Diagram of the Water Recovery and Management for the International Space Station (United States)


    This diagram shows the flow of water recovery and management in the International Space Station (ISS). The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the regenerative ECLSS hardware, as well as providing technical support for the rest of the system. The regenerative ECLSS, whose main components are the Water Recovery System (WRS), and the Oxygen Generation System (OGS), reclaims and recycles water oxygen. The ECLSS maintains a pressurized habitation environment, provides water recovery and storage, maintains and provides fire detection/ suppression, and provides breathable air and a comfortable atmosphere in which to live and work within the ISS. The ECLSS hardware will be located in the Node 3 module of the ISS.

  7. Lactate, Glucose and Oxygen Uptake in Human Brain During Recovery from Maximal Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kojiro, I.; Schmalbruch, I.K.; Quistorff, B.


    Skeletal muscle, brain lactate uptake, brain oxygen uptake, energy metabolism, brain glucose uptake......Skeletal muscle, brain lactate uptake, brain oxygen uptake, energy metabolism, brain glucose uptake...

  8. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles (United States)

    Cassano, A.A.


    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs. 3 figs.

  9. Experimental study on ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Dongsheng


    Full Text Available The ceramic membrane oxygen generation technology has advantages of high concentration of produced oxygen and potential nuclear and biochemical protection capability. The present paper studies the ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation. Comparisons are made to have knowledge of the effects of two kinds of ceramic membrane separation technologies on oxygen generation, namely electricity driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (EDCMSOGT and pressure driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (PDCMSOGT. Experiments were conducted under different temperatures, pressures of feed air and produced oxygen flow rates. On the basis of these experiments, the flow rate of feed air, electric power provided, oxygen recovery rate and concentration of produced oxygen are compared under each working condition. It is concluded that the EDCMSOGT is the oxygen generation means more suitable for onboard conditions.

  10. A Compact, Efficient Pyrolysis/Oxidation System for Solid Waste Resource Recovery in Space, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pyrolysis processing can be used in near term missions for volume reduction, water recovery (drying), stabilization, and enhanced water and oxygen recovery through...

  11. The Impact of Global Warming and Anoxia on Marine Benthic Community Dynamics: an Example from the Toarcian (Early Jurassic) (United States)

    Danise, Silvia; Twitchett, Richard J.; Little, Crispin T. S.; Clémence, Marie-Emilie


    The Pliensbachian-Toarcian (Early Jurassic) fossil record is an archive of natural data of benthic community response to global warming and marine long-term hypoxia and anoxia. In the early Toarcian mean temperatures increased by the same order of magnitude as that predicted for the near future; laminated, organic-rich, black shales were deposited in many shallow water epicontinental basins; and a biotic crisis occurred in the marine realm, with the extinction of approximately 5% of families and 26% of genera. High-resolution quantitative abundance data of benthic invertebrates were collected from the Cleveland Basin (North Yorkshire, UK), and analysed with multivariate statistical methods to detect how the fauna responded to environmental changes during the early Toarcian. Twelve biofacies were identified. Their changes through time closely resemble the pattern of faunal degradation and recovery observed in modern habitats affected by anoxia. All four successional stages of community structure recorded in modern studies are recognised in the fossil data (i.e. Stage III: climax; II: transitional; I: pioneer; 0: highly disturbed). Two main faunal turnover events occurred: (i) at the onset of anoxia, with the extinction of most benthic species and the survival of a few adapted to thrive in low-oxygen conditions (Stages I to 0) and (ii) in the recovery, when newly evolved species colonized the re-oxygenated soft sediments and the path of recovery did not retrace of pattern of ecological degradation (Stages I to II). The ordination of samples coupled with sedimentological and palaeotemperature proxy data indicate that the onset of anoxia and the extinction horizon coincide with both a rise in temperature and sea level. Our study of how faunal associations co-vary with long and short term sea level and temperature changes has implications for predicting the long-term effects of “dead zones” in modern oceans. PMID:23457537

  12. Nanophase Iron Oxides as an Ultraviolet Sunscreen for Ancient Photosynthetic Microbes: A Possible Link Between Early Organisms, Banded-Iron Formations, and the Oxygenation of the Atmosphere (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Rogoff, Dana A.


    We propose that nanophase iron oxide-bearing materials provided important niches for ancient photosynthetic microbes on the early Earth that ultimately led to the oxygenation of the Earth s atmosphere and the formation of iron oxide deposits. Atmospheric oxygen and ozone attenuate UV radiation on the Earth today providing substantial protection for photosynthetic organisms. With ultraviolet radiation fluxes likely to have been even higher on the early Earth than today, accessing solar radiation was particularly risky for early organisms. Yet, we know that photosynthesis arose then and played a critical role in subsequent evolution. Of primary importance was protection at approx.250-290 nm, where peak nucleic acid (approx.260 nm) and protein (approx.280 nm) absorptions occur. Nanophase ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide minerals absorb, and thus block, the lethal UV radiation, while transmitting light through much of the visible and near-infrared regions of interest to photosynthesis (400 to 1100 nm). Further, they were available in early environments, and are synthesized by many organisms. Based on ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide spectral properties, likely geologic processes, and the results of experiments with the photosynthetic organisms, Euglena sp. and Chlumydomonus reinhardtii, we propose a scenario where photosynthesis, and ultimately the oxygenation of the atmosphere, depended on the protection of early microbes by nanophase ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides. The results of this study are also applicable to other potentially habitable iron-bearing planetary bodies because of the evolutionary pressure to utilize solar radiation when available as an energy source.

  13. Long-term divergent tidal flat benthic community recovery following hypoxia-induced mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colen, van C.; Montserrat, F.; Vincx, M.; Herman, P.M.J.; Ysebaert, T.; Degraer, S.


    Macrobenthos recovery after hypoxia-induced mass mortality was assessed in an estuarine tidal mudflat during 3 years. During the first 2 years, a Pearson-Rosenberg type of community recovery took place along with the improving bottom water oxygen conditions. After 3 months, spionid polychaetes

  14. Excess posthypoxic oxygen consumption in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): recovery in normoxia and hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Steffensen, John Fleng; Aarestrup, Kim


    at which the standard metabolic rate becomes dependent upon the ambient oxygen content. Using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792), this study quantified the excess posthypoxic oxygen consumption (EPHOC) occurring after exposure to oxygen availability below S(crit). Tests showed that S...

  15. Annealing of neutron-irradiated vanadium containing oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, R.E.


    A study to clarify the role of interstitial oxygen in irradiated vanadium by measuring the activation energy of the 0.2 T/sub m/ recovery stage in well-characterized samples, where T/sub m/ is the melting temperature in degrees Kelvin, is described

  16. Relationship between perceived exertion during exercise and subsequent recovery measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TN Mann


    Full Text Available The return towards resting homeostasis in the post-exercise period has the potential to represent the internal training load of the preceding exercise bout. However, the relative potential of metabolic and autonomic recovery measurements in this role has not previously been established. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate which of 4 recovery measurements was most closely associated with Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE, a measurement widely acknowledged as an integrated measurement of the homeostatic stress of an exercise bout. A heterogeneous group of trained and untrained participants (n = 36 completed a bout of exercise on the treadmill (3 km at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by 1 hour of controlled recovery. Expired respiratory gases and heart rate (HR were measured throughout the exercise and recovery phases of the trial with recovery measurements used to calculate the magnitude of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOCMAG, the time constant of the EPOC curve (EPOCτ, 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR60s and the time constant of the HR recovery curve (HRRτ for each participant. RPE taken in the last minute of exercise was significantly associated with HRR60s (r=-0.69, EPOCτ (r=0.52 and HRRτ (r=0.43 but not with EPOCMAG. This finding suggests that, of the 4 recovery measurements under investigation, HRR60s shows modest potential to represent inter-individual variation in the homeostatic stress of a standardized exercise bout, in a group with a range of fitness levels.

  17. Human neural stem cells differentiate and promote locomotor recovery in an early chronic spinal cord injury NOD-scid mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirée L Salazar


    Full Text Available Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI results in partial or complete paralysis and is characterized by a loss of neurons and oligodendrocytes, axonal injury, and demyelination/dysmyelination of spared axons. Approximately 1,250,000 individuals have chronic SCI in the U.S.; therefore treatment in the chronic stages is highly clinically relevant. Human neural stem cells (hCNS-SCns were prospectively isolated based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting for a CD133(+ and CD24(-/lo population from fetal brain, grown as neurospheres, and lineage restricted to generate neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. hCNS-SCns have recently been transplanted sub-acutely following spinal cord injury and found to promote improved locomotor recovery. We tested the ability of hCNS-SCns transplanted 30 days post SCI to survive, differentiate, migrate, and promote improved locomotor recovery.hCNS-SCns were transplanted into immunodeficient NOD-scid mice 30 days post spinal cord contusion injury. hCNS-SCns transplanted mice demonstrated significantly improved locomotor recovery compared to vehicle controls using open field locomotor testing and CatWalk gait analysis. Transplanted hCNS-SCns exhibited long-term engraftment, migration, limited proliferation, and differentiation predominantly to oligodendrocytes and neurons. Astrocytic differentiation was rare and mice did not exhibit mechanical allodynia. Furthermore, differentiated hCNS-SCns integrated with the host as demonstrated by co-localization of human cytoplasm with discrete staining for the paranodal marker contactin-associated protein.The results suggest that hCNS-SCns are capable of surviving, differentiating, and promoting improved locomotor recovery when transplanted into an early chronic injury microenvironment. These data suggest that hCNS-SCns transplantation has efficacy in an early chronic SCI setting and thus expands the "window of opportunity" for intervention.

  18. Yellowcake processing in uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.M.


    This information relates to the recovery of uranium from uranium peroxide yellowcake produced by precipitation with hydrogen peroxide. The yellowcake is calcined at an elevated temperature to effect decomposition of the yellowcake to uranium oxide with the attendant evolution of free oxygen. The calcination step is carried out in the presence of a reducing agent which reacts with the free oxygen, thus retarding the evolution of chlorine gas from sodium chloride in the yellowcake. Suitable reducing agents include ammonia producing compounds such as ammonium carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate. Ammonium carbonate and/or ammonium bicarbonate may be provided in the eluant used to desorb the uranium from an ion exchange column

  19. Yellowcake processing in uranium recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, J.M.


    This information relates to the recovery of uranium from uranium peroxide yellowcake produced by precipitation with hydrogen peroxide. The yellowcake is calcined at an elevated temperature to effect decomposition of the yellowcake to uranium oxide with the attendant evolution of free oxygen. The calcination step is carried out in the presence of a reducing agent which reacts with the free oxygen, thus retarding the evolution of chlorine gas from sodium chloride in the yellowcake. Suitable reducing agents include ammonia producing compounds such as ammonium carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate. Ammonium carbonate and/or ammonium bicarbonate may be provided in the eluant used to desorb the uranium from an ion exchange column.

  20. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.


    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment...... in the second half of the 2000s, new analyses of stomach content of sprat and herring were conducted, to elucidate the contribution of changes in predation pressure on cod recruitment. Comparison of stomach contents of sprat and herring in 2004–2008 with data from the 1990s showed a similar diet composition...

  1. Influence of taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery. (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do; Choi, Pan-Am


    [Purpose] This study was conducted to determine the influence of Taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen healthy university students were recruited and divided into an exercise group and a control group (n = 7 in each group). The subjects who participated in the experiment were subjected to an exercise loading test in which anaerobic threshold, value of ventilation, oxygen uptake, maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate were measured during the exercise, immediately after maximum exercise loading, and at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 min of recovery. [Results] At the anaerobic threshold time point, the exercise group showed a significantly longer time to reach anaerobic threshold. The exercise group showed significantly higher values for the time to reach VO2max, maximal values of ventilation, maximal oxygen uptake and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate. Significant changes were observed in the value of ventilation volumes at the 1- and 5-min recovery time points within the exercise group; oxygen uptake and maximal oxygen uptake were significantly different at the 5- and 10-min time points; heart rate was significantly different at the 1- and 3-min time points; and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate was significantly different at the 5-min time point. The exercise group showed significant decreases in blood lactate levels at the 15- and 30-min recovery time points. [Conclusion] The study results revealed that Taekwondo as a security martial arts training increases the maximal oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold and accelerates an individual's recovery to the normal state of cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate level. These results are expected to contribute to the execution of more effective security services in emergencies in which violence can occur.

  2. Building addiction recovery capital through online participation in a recovery community. (United States)

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Best, David; Iqbal, Muhammad; Upton, Katie


    This study examines how online participation in a community of recovery contributes to personal journeys of recovery. It investigates whether recovery capital building - as indicated by increased levels and quality of online social interactions - and markers of positive identity development predict retention in a recovery program designed around fostering community involvement for early stage recovery addicts. It was predicted that online participation on the group's Facebook page and positive identity development are associated to retention in the program. To map how participants interact online, social network analysis (SNA) based on naturally occurring online data (N = 609) on the Facebook page of a recovery community was conducted. Computerised linguistic analyses evaluated sentiment of the textual data (capturing social identity markers). Linear regression analyses evaluated whether indicators of recovery capital predict program retention. To illustrate the findings in the context of the specific recovery community, presented are two case studies of key participants who moved from the periphery to the centre of the social network. By conducting in-depth interviews with these participants, personal experiences of engagement in the online community of group members who have undergone the most significant changes since joining the community are explored. Retention in the program was determined by a) the number of comment 'likes' and all 'likes' received on the Facebook page; b) position in the social network (degree of centrality); and c) linguistic content around group identity and achievement. Positive online interactions between members of recovery communities support the recovery process through helping participants to develop recovery capital that binds them to groups supportive of positive change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Spontaneous Recovery from Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome to a Minimally Conscious State: Early Structural Changes Revealed by 7-T Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufei Tan


    Full Text Available BackgroundDetermining the early changes of brain structure that occur from vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS to a minimally conscious state (MCS is important for developing our understanding of the processes underlying disorders of consciousness (DOC, particularly during spontaneous recovery from severe brain damage.ObjectiveThis study used a multi-modal neuroimaging approach to investigate early structural changes during spontaneous recovery from VS/UWS to MCS.MethodsThe Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R score, 24-h electroencephalography (EEG, and ultra-high field 7-T magnetic resonance imaging were used to investigate a male patient with severe brain injury when he was in VS/UWS compared to MCS. Using white matter connectometry analysis, fibers in MCS were compared with the same fibers in VS/UWS. Whole-brain analysis was used to compare all fibers showing a 10% increase in density with each other as a population.ResultsBased on connectometry analysis, the number of fibers with increased density, and the magnitude of increase in MCS compared to VS/UWS, was greatest in the area of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ, and was mostly located in the right hemisphere. These results are in accordance with the active areas observed on 24-h EEG recordings. Moreover, analysis of different fibers across the brain, showing at least a 10% increase in density, revealed that altered white matter connections with higher discriminative weights were located within or across visual-related areas, including the cuneus_R, calcarine_R, occipital_sup_R, and occipital_mid_R. Furthermore, the temporal_mid_R, which is related to the auditory cortex, showed the highest increase in connectivity to other areas. This was consistent with improvements in the visual and auditory components of the CRS-R, which were greater than other improvements.ConclusionThese results provide evidence to support the important roles for the TPJ and the visual and

  4. Assessment of Arterial Oxygen Saturation by Pulse Oximetry Before, During and After Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Tarig


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is used widely in psychiatric practice. The goal of anesthesia for ECT is the prevention of complications such as discomfort, fractures, aspiration of gastric contents and hypoxia. However, general anesthesia can cause some adverse effects as hypoxia. Prevention and treatment of hypoxia is important due to its undesirable effects on seizure duration and cardiovascular system. This study was designed to detect the incidence and probable times of desaturation in patients receiving ECT. Materials & Methods: This prospective randomized clinical trial was carried out on 100 patients (18-50 y/o with ASA I or II who were scheduled for ECT. After pre-oxygenation and similar anesthesia induction the patients received ECT. The patients were ventilated by oxygen and face masked until the return of their spontaneous respiration with adequate tidal volume and respiratory rate. Then they were transferred to recovery room where there was no oxygen supplementation. Oxygen saturation was measured by a Nell core pulse oximeter and was recorded at six stages: before and after anesthesia induction, during ECT, after ECT, 5 minutes after entering recovery room and before leaving there. The data were analyzed by standard statistical tests using SPSS software Results: Data analysis revealed that desaturation was not noticed at any stage except for the 5th stage (5 minutes after entering recovery room, when 13% of patients developed Sao2% less than 90%. Also there was a significant difference between Sao2% of patients between this stage (5th and other stages (p<0.001. Conclusion: According to our findings, appropriate oxygen supplementation and pulse oximetry monitoring during recovery period after ECT can be recommend

  5. Which fast track elements predict early recovery after colon cancer surgery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlug, M. S.; Bartels, S. A. L.; Wind, J.; Ubbink, D. T.; Hollmann, M. W.; Bemelman, W. A.; Sprangers, Mirjam; Preckel, Benedikt; Bossuyt, Patrick; Gouma, Dirk; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark; Fuhring, Jan; Lenthe, Ineke Picard-van; Bakker, Chris; King-Kalimanis, Bellinda; Hofland, Jan; Dejong, Cornelis; van Dam, Ronald; Cuesta, Miguel; van der Peet, Donald; van Zalingen, Edith; Noordhuis, Astrid; de Jong, Dick; Engel, Alexander; Goei, T. Hauwy; de Stoppelaar, Erica; van den Dongen, Marjon; van Wagensveld, Bart; van Tets, Willem; van den Elsen, Maarten; Swart, Annemiek; Gerhards, Michael; de Wit, Laurens; Siepel, Muriel; Molly, Glaresa; Gasthuis, Onze Lieve Vrouwe; van Geloven, Anna; Juttmann, Jan; Clevers, Wilfred; Bieleman, Andrea; van der Zaag, Edwin; Coenen, Ludo; Bonekamp, Elly; Cense, Huib; van Abeelen, Jacobus; van Iterson-de Jong, Diana; Krombeen, Margriet


    Aim It is questioned whether all separate fast track elements are essential for enhanced postoperative recovery. We aimed to determine which baseline characteristics and which fast track elements are independent predictors of faster postoperative recovery in patients undergoing resection for colon

  6. Carbon 13 and oxygen 18 isotope record of the early eocene nammal formation, salt range, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazi, S.; Sajid, Z.


    The Nammal Formation is the lowermost unit of the Early Eocene succession in the Salt Range, Pakistan. It is well exposed throughout the Salt Range. The Nammal Formation having 30 to 35 meters thickness is predominantly composed of nodular limestone interbedded with marl and shale. The present study was focussed on stable carbon 13 and oxygen 18 isotopic analysis based on data from two stratigraphically important sections. The samples from the Nilawahan section provided with the delta 13C values varied between 1.34 to -1.56 (VPDB) and values of delta 18O fluctuated between -4.47 to -6.59 (VPDB). Likewise the sample analysis of BadshahPur section exhibited that the delta 13C values changes from 1.09 to -1.65 (VPDB) and delta 18O values range from -4.17 to -6.85 (VPDB). The isotopic records of carbon 13 and oxygen 18 indicated the shallow marine deposition of the Nammal Formation under tropical conditions. It highlighted the palaeo climatic and diagenetic conditions of the Nammal Formation at the time of deposition in the Salt Range region. (author)

  7. Impact of Chronic Neonatal Intermittent Hypoxia on Severity of Retinal Damage in a Rat Model of Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy. (United States)

    Beharry, Kay D; Cai, Charles L; Ahmad, Taimur; Guzel, Sibel; Valencia, Gloria B; Aranda, Jacob V


    Neonatal intermittent hypoxia (IH) followed by re-oxygenation in normoxia or supplemental oxygen (IHR) increases the risk for severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The exact timing for the onset of retinal damage which may guide strategic interventions during retinal development, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that chronic exposure of the immature retina to neonatal IH induces early manifestations of retinal damage that can be utilized as key time points for strategic pharmacologic intervention. Newborn rats were exposed to IH within 2 hours of birth (P0) until P14, or allowed to recover in room air (RA) from P14 to P21 (IHR). Retinal integrity and angiogenesis biomarkers were progressively assessed before (P0), during IH, and post IH (recovery in RA), or IHR, and compared to normoxic age-matched controls. Retinal damage occurred as early as day 3 of neonatal IH, consistent with vascular abnormalities and disturbances in the astrocytic template. These abnormalities worsened during IHR. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions to identify, prevent, or minimize neonatal IH should be implemented shortly after birth in high risk preterm newborns. This strategy may lead to a reduction in the outcome of severe ROP requiring later invasive treatments.

  8. Traumatic Stress: New Roads to Recovery | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine (United States)

    ... Roads to Recovery Follow us Traumatic Stress: New Roads to Recovery NIH research looks for more individualized ... for people and treat them early and effectively. Road to recovery If you or a loved one ...

  9. One year of Seaglider dissolved oxygen concentration profiles at the PAP site (United States)

    Binetti, Umberto; Kaiser, Jan; Heywood, Karen; Damerell, Gillian; Rumyantseva, Anna


    Oxygen is one of the most important variables measured in oceanography, influenced both by physical and biological factors. During the OSMOSIS project, 7 Seagliders were used in 3 subsequent missions to measure a multidisciplinary suite of parameters at high frequency in the top 1000 m of the water column for one year, from September 2012 to September 2013. The gliders were deployed at the PAP time series station (nominally at 49° N 16.5° W) and surveyed the area following a butterfly-shaped path. Oxygen concentration was measured by Aanderaa optodes and calibrated using ship CTD O2 profiles during 5 deployment and recovery cruises, which were in turn calibrated by Winkler titration of discrete samples. The oxygen-rich mixed layer deepens in fall and winter and gets richer in oxygen when the temperature decreases. The spring bloom did not happen as expected, but instead the presence of a series of small blooms was measured throughout spring and early summer. During the summer the mixed layer become very shallow and oxygen concentrations decreased. A Deep Oxygen Maximum (DOM) developed along with a deep chlorophyll maximum during the summer and was located just below the mixed layer . At this depth, phytoplankton had favourable light and nutrient conditions to grow and produce oxygen, which was not subject to immediate outgassing. The oxygen concentration in the DOM was not constant, but decreased, then increased again until the end of the mission. Intrusions of oxygen rich water are also visible throughout the mission. These are probably due to mesoscale events through the horizontal transport of oxygen and/or nutrients that can enhance productivity, particularly at the edge of the fronts. We calculate net community production (NCP) by analysing the variation in oxygen with time. Two methods have been proposed. The classical oxygen budget method assumes that changes in oxygen are due to the sum of air-sea flux, isopycnal advection, diapycnal mixing and NCP. ERA

  10. Assessment of early renal allograft dysfunction with blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Yoon [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Kyo, E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung Kwan [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ju; Lee, Sanghoon [Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Wooseong [Department of Nephrology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • R2* and ADC in renal allografts are moderately correlated with eGFR. • R2* and ADC are lower in early allograft dysfunction than normal allograft function. • No significant difference between AR and ATN was found in both R2* and ADC. - Abstract: Purpose: To investigate blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 T for assessment of early renal allograft dysfunction. Materials and methods: 34 patients with a renal allograft (early dysfunction, 24; normal, 10) were prospectively enrolled. BOLD MRI and DWI were performed at 3 T. R2* and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured in cortex and medulla of the allografts. Correlation between R2* or ADC values and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was investigated. R2* or ADC values were compared among acute rejection (AR), acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and normal function. Results: In all renal allografts, cortical or medullary R2* and ADC values were moderately correlated with eGFR (P < 0.05). Early dysfunction group showed lower R2* and ADC values than normal function group (P < 0.05). AR or ATN had lower R2* values than normal allografts (P < 0.05), and ARs had lower cortical ADC values than normal allografts (P < 0.05). No significant difference of R2* or ADC values was found between AR and ATN (P > 0.05). Conclusion: BOLD MRI and DWI at 3 T may demonstrate early functional state of renal allografts, but may be limited in characterizing a cause of early renal allograft dysfunction. Further studies are needed.

  11. Oxygen Recovery via Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis with Microtubular Solid Oxide Cells (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon dioxide reduction is considered a major shortcoming for the current Atmosphere Revitalization System. Novel technologies are desired so that the oxygen...

  12. Moderate Recovery Unnecessary to Sustain High Stroke Volume during Interval Training. A Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Stanley


    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the time spent at a high stroke volume (SV is important for improving maximal cardiac function. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of recovery intensity on cardiovascular parameters during a typical high-intensity interval training (HIIT session in fourteen well-trained cyclists. Oxygen consumption (VO2, heart rate (HR, SV, cardiac output (Qc, and oxygenation of vastus lateralis (TSI were measured during a HIIT (3×3-min work period, 2 min of recovery session on two occasions. VO2, HR and Qc were largely higher during moderate-intensity (60% compared with low-intensity (30% (VO2, effect size; ES = +2.6; HR, ES = +2.8; Qc, ES = +2.2 and passive (HR, ES = +2.2; Qc, ES = +1.7 recovery. By contrast, there was no clear difference in SV between the three recovery conditions, with the SV during the two active recovery periods not being substantially different than during exercise (60%, ES = −0.1; 30%, ES = −0.2. To conclude, moderate-intensity recovery may not be required to maintain a high SV during HIIT.

  13. Oxygen as a driver of early arthropod micro-benthos evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Williams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We examine the physiological and lifestyle adaptations which facilitated the emergence of ostracods as the numerically dominant Phanerozoic bivalve arthropod micro-benthos. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The PO(2 of modern normoxic seawater is 21 kPa (air-equilibrated water, a level that would cause cellular damage if found in the tissues of ostracods and much other marine fauna. The PO(2 of most aquatic breathers at the cellular level is much lower, between 1 and 3 kPa. Ostracods avoid oxygen toxicity by migrating to waters which are hypoxic, or by developing metabolisms which generate high consumption of O(2. Interrogation of the Cambrian record of bivalve arthropod micro-benthos suggests a strong control on ecosystem evolution exerted by changing seawater O(2 levels. The PO(2 of air-equilibrated Cambrian-seawater is predicted to have varied between 10 and 30 kPa. Three groups of marine shelf-dwelling bivalve arthropods adopted different responses to Cambrian seawater O(2. Bradoriida evolved cardiovascular systems that favoured colonization of oxygenated marine waters. Their biodiversity declined during intervals associated with black shale deposition and marine shelf anoxia and their diversity may also have been curtailed by elevated late Cambrian (Furongian oxygen-levels that increased the PO(2 gradient between seawater and bradoriid tissues. Phosphatocopida responded to Cambrian anoxia differently, reaching their peak during widespread seabed dysoxia of the SPICE event. They lacked a cardiovascular system and appear to have been adapted to seawater hypoxia. As latest Cambrian marine shelf waters became well oxygenated, phosphatocopids went extinct. Changing seawater oxygen-levels and the demise of much of the seabed bradoriid micro-benthos favoured a third group of arthropod micro-benthos, the ostracods. These animals adopted lifestyles that made them tolerant of changes in seawater O(2. Ostracods became the numerically

  14. Air injection low temperature oxidation process for enhanced oil recovery from light oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunio, A.H.; Harijan, K.


    This paper represents EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) methods to recover unswept oil from depleted light oil reservoirs. The essential theme here is the removal of oxygen at LTO (Low Temperature Oxidation) from the injected air for a light oil reservoir by means of some chemical reactions occurring between oil and oxygen. In-situ combustion process, HTO (High Temperature Oxidation) is not suitable for deep light oil reservoirs. In case of light oil reservoirs LTO is more suitable to prevail as comparative to HTO. Few laboratory experimental results were obtained from air injection process, to study the LTO reactions. LTO process is suitable for air injection rate in which reservoir has sufficiently high temperature and spontaneous reaction takes place. Out comes of this study are the effect of LTO reactions in oxygen consumption and the recovery of oil. This air injection method is economic compared to other EOR methods i.e. miscible hydrocarbon gas, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide flooding etc. This LTO air injection process is suitable for secondary recovery methods where water flooding is not feasible due to technical problems. (author)

  15. Hyperbaric oxygen and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.; Hamilton-Farrell, M.R.; Kleij, A.J. van der


    Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is the inhalation of 100% oxygen at a pressure of at least 1.5 atmospheres absolute (150 kPa). It uses oxygen as a drug by dissolving it in the plasma and delivering it to the tissues independent of hemoglobin. For a variety of organ systems, HBO is known to promote new vessel growth into areas with reduced oxygen tension due to poor vascularity, and therewith promotes wound healing and recovery of radiation-injured tissue. Furthermore, tumors may be sensitized to irradiation by raising intratumoral oxygen tensions. Methods: A network of hyperbaric facilities exists in Europe, and a number of clinical studies are ongoing. The intergovernmental framework COST B14 action 'Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy' started in 1999. The main goal of the Working Group Oncology is preparation and actual implementation of prospective study protocols in the field of HBO and radiation oncology in Europe. Results: In this paper a short overview on HBO is given and the following randomized clinical studies are presented: (a) reirradiation of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck after HBO sensitization; (b) role of HBO in enhancing radiosensitivity on glioblastoma multiforme; (c) osseointegration in irradiated patients; adjunctive HBO to prevent implant failures; (d) the role of HBO in the treatment of late irradiation sequelae in the pelvic region. The two radiosensitization protocols (a, b) allow a time interval between HBO and subsequent irradiation of 10-20 min. Conclusion: Recruitment of centers and patients is being strongly encouraged, detailed information is given on (orig.)

  16. Integrating water flow, locomotor performance and respiration of Chinese sturgeon during multiple fatigue-recovery cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cai

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to provide information on metabolic changes occurring in Chinese sturgeon (an ecologically important endangered fish subjected to repeated cycles of fatigue and recovery and the effect on swimming capability. Fatigue-recovery cycles likely occur when fish are moving through the fishways of large dams and the results of this investigation are important for fishway design and conservation of wild Chinese sturgeon populations. A series of four stepped velocity tests were carried out successively in a Steffensen-type swimming respirometer and the effects of repeated fatigue-recovery on swimming capability and metabolism were measured. Significant results include: (1 critical swimming speed decreased from 4.34 bl/s to 2.98 bl/s; (2 active oxygen consumption (i.e. the difference between total oxygen consumption and routine oxygen consumption decreased from 1175 mgO2/kg to 341 mgO2/kg and was the primary reason for the decrease in Ucrit; (3 excess post-exercise oxygen consumption decreased from 36 mgO2/kg to 22 mgO2/kg; (4 with repeated step tests, white muscle (anaerobic metabolism began contributing to propulsion at lower swimming speeds. Therefore, Chinese sturgeon conserve energy by swimming efficiently and have high fatigue recovery capability. These results contribute to our understanding of the physiology of the Chinese sturgeon and support the conservation efforts of wild populations of this important species.

  17. Short-term molecular acclimation processes of legume nodules to increased external oxygen concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eAvenhaus


    Full Text Available Nitrogenase is an oxygen labile enzyme. Microaerobic conditions within the infected zone of nodules are maintained primarily by an oxygen diffusion barrier located in the nodule cortex. Flexibility of the oxygen diffusion barrier is important for the acclimation processes of nodules in response to changes in external oxygen concentration. The hypothesis of the present study was that there are additional molecular mechanisms involved. Nodule activity of Medicago truncatula plants were continuously monitored during a change from 21 to 25 or 30 % oxygen around root nodules by measuring nodule H2 evolution. Within about two minutes of the increase in oxygen concentration, a steep decline in nitrogenase activity occurred. A quick recovery commenced about eight minutes later. A qPCR-based analysis of the expression of genes for nitrogenase components showed a tendency towards upregulation during the recovery. The recovery resulted in a new constant activity after about 30 minutes, corresponding to approximately 90 % of the pre-treatment level. An RNAseq-based comparative transcriptome profiling of nodules at that point in time revealed that genes for nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR peptides, defensins, leghaemoglobin and chalcone and stilbene synthase were significantly upregulated when considered as a gene family. A gene for a nicotianamine synthase-like protein (Medtr1g084050 showed a strong increase in count number. The gene appears to be of importance for nodule functioning, as evidenced by its consistently high expression in nodules and a strong reaction to various environmental cues that influence nodule activity. A Tnt1-mutant that carries an insert in the coding sequence (cds of that gene showed reduced nitrogen fixation and less efficient acclimation to an increased external oxygen concentration. It was concluded that sudden increases in oxygen concentration around nodules destroy nitrogenase, which is quickly counteracted by an increased

  18. Laser Doppler imaging, thermographic imaging, and tissue oxygen saturation measurements detect early skin reactions during breast radiotherapy (United States)

    Harrison, David K.; Harrison, Eileen M.; Newton, David J.; Windsor, Phyllis M.


    A range of acute skin reactions, ranging from mild erythema to moist desquamation, can be seen in patients receiving standard fractionated radiotherapy to the breast for conservation therapy of breast carcinoma. In a number of cases these reactions can cause considerable discomfort and seriously affect the patient's quality of life. In previous studies we have used the techniques of laser Doppler imaging, digital thermographic imaging and lightguide spectrophotometry to study oxygen supply and blood flow in inflammatory reactions induced experimentally in forearm skin. The present study is an attempt to use the same techniques to investigate whether any or all of them can detect changes in breast skin very early on in the course of radiotherapy treatment. A further aim of the longer term study is to investigate to what extent these early changes may be able to predict the occurrence later of severe acute or delayed reactions.

  19. Coping with cyclic oxygen availability: evolutionary aspects. (United States)

    Flück, Martin; Webster, Keith A; Graham, Jeffrey; Giomi, Folco; Gerlach, Frank; Schmitz, Anke


    Both the gradual rise in atmospheric oxygen over the Proterozoic Eon as well as episodic fluctuations in oxygen over several million-year time spans during the Phanerozoic Era, have arguably exerted strong selective forces on cellular and organismic respiratory specialization and evolution. The rise in atmospheric oxygen, some 2 billion years after the origin of life, dramatically altered cell biology and set the stage for the appearance of multicelluar life forms in the Vendian (Ediacaran) Period of the Neoproterozoic Era. Over much of the Paleozoic, the level of oxygen in the atmosphere was near the present atmospheric level (21%). In the Late Paleozoic, however, there were extended times during which the level of atmospheric oxygen was either markedly lower or markedly higher than 21%. That these Paleozoic shifts in atmospheric oxygen affected the biota is suggested by the correlations between: (1) Reduced oxygen and the occurrences of extinctions, a lowered biodiversity and shifts in phyletic succession, and (2) During hyperoxia, the corresponding occurrence of phenomena such as arthropod gigantism, the origin of insect flight, and the evolution of vertebrate terrestriality. Basic similarities in features of adaptation to hyopoxia, manifest in living organisms at levels ranging from genetic and cellular to physiological and behavioral, suggest the common and early origin of a suite of adaptive mechanisms responsive to fluctuations in ambient oxygen. Comparative integrative approaches addressing the molecular bases of phenotypic adjustments to cyclic oxygen fluctuation provide broad insight into the incremental steps leading to the early evolution of homeostatic respiratory mechanisms and to the specialization of organismic respiratory function.

  20. PET imaging of cerebral perfusion and oxygen consumption in acute ischemic stroke: Relation to outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, G.; Serrati, C.; Rioux, P.; Petit-Taboue, M.C.; Viader, F.; Sayette, V. de la; Doze, F. le; Lonchon, P; Derlon, J.M.; Orgogozo, J.M.; Baron, J.C.


    The authors used positron emission tomography (PET) to assess the relation between combined imaging of cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption 5-18 h after first middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke and neurological outcome at 2 months. All 18 patients could be classified into three visually defined PET patterns of perfusion and oxygen consumption changes. Pattern 1 suggested extensive irreversible damage and was consistently associated with poor outcome. Pattern 2 suggested continuing ischemia and was associated with variable outcome. Pattern 3 with hyperperfusion and little or no metabolic alteration, was associated with excellent recovery, which suggests that early reperfusion is beneficial. This relation between PET and outcome was highly significant. The results suggest that within 5-18 h of stroke onset, PET is a good predictor of outcome in patterns 1 and 3, for which therapy seems limited. The absence of predictive value for pattern 2 suggests that it is due to a reversible ischemic state that is possibly amenable to therapy. These findings may have important implications for acute MCA stroke management and for patients' selection for therapeutic trials

  1. Physical health problems experienced in the early postoperative recovery period following total knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szötz, Kirsten; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Hørdam, Britta


    of exercising in the early recovery period after discharge from hospital following total knee replacement. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a questionnaire. A total of 86 patients were included following first-time elective total knee replacement. Descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS......: The majority of the patients experienced leg oedema (90.7%). Secondary to this were pain (81.4%), sleeping disorders (47.7%) problems with appetite (38.4%) and bowel function (34.9%) were the most frequently identified physical health problems. In total, 69.8% of the patients indicated that they did...... not exercise or only partly exercise as recommended, but without associated experience of pain. CONCLUSION: Patients experienced a wide range of physical health problems following total knee replacement and deviation from recommended self-training was identified. These findings are valuable for health...

  2. Difference in human cardiovascular response between upright and supine recovery from upright cycle exercise. (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Okada, A; Saitoh, T; Hayano, J; Miyamoto, Y


    Cardiovascular responses were examined in seven healthy male subjects during 10 min of recovery in the upright or supine position following 5 min of upright cycle exercise at 80% peak oxygen uptake. An initial rapid decrease in heart rate (fc) during the early phase of recovery followed by much slower decrease was observed for both the upright and supine positions. The average fc at the 10th min of recovery was significantly lower (P position than in the upright position, while they were both significantly greater than the corresponding pre-exercise levels (each P positions was reduced with a decrease in mean R-R interval, the relationship being expressed by a regression line--mean R-R interval = 0.006 x HF amplitude + 0.570 (r = 0.905, n = 28, P positions is partly attributable to a retardation in the restoration of the activity of the cardiac parasympathetic nervous system. Post-exercise upright stroke volume (SV, by impedance cardiography) decreased gradually to just below the pre-exercise level, whereas post-exercise supine SV increased markedly to a level similar to that at rest before exercise. The resultant cardiac output (Qc) and the total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR) in the upright and supine positions returned gradually to their respective pre-exercise levels in the corresponding positions. At the 10th min of recovery, both average SV and Qc were significantly greater (each P position, while average TPR was significantly lower (P position. In contrast, immediately after exercise, mean blood pressure dropped markedly in both the supine and upright positions, and their levels at the 10th min of recovery were similar. Therefore we concluded that arterial blood pressure is maintained relatively constant through various compensatory mechanisms associated with fc, SV, Qc, and TPR during rest and recovery in different body positions.

  3. The significance of early post-exercise ST segment normalization. (United States)

    Chow, Rudy; Fordyce, Christopher B; Gao, Min; Chan, Sammy; Gin, Kenneth; Bennett, Matthew


    The persistence of ST segment depression in recovery signifies a strongly positive exercise treadmill test (ETT). However, it is unclear if early recovery of ST segments portends a similar prognosis. We sought to determine if persistence of ST depression into recovery correlates with ischemic burden based on myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). This was a retrospective analysis of 853 consecutive patients referred for exercise MPI at a tertiary academic center over a 24-month period. Patients were stratified into three groups based on the results of the ETT: normal (negative ETT), persistence (positive ETT with >1mm ST segment depression at 1minute in recovery) and early normalization (positive ETT with normalization, while 105 patients met criteria for persistence. The persistence group had a significantly greater SSS (8.48±7.77) than both the early normalization (4.34±4.98, pnormal (4.47±5.31, pnormalization and normal groups were not statistically different and met the prespecified non-inferiority margin (mean difference 0.12, -0.66=lower 95% CI, pnormal and 7.4% of early normalization groups. Among patients with an electrically positive ETT, recovery of ST segment depression within 1minute was associated with a lower SSS than patients with persistence of ST depression beyond 1minute. Furthermore, early ST segment recovery conferred a similar SSS to patients with a negative ETT. These results suggest that among patients evaluated for chest pain with a positive ETT, early recovery of the ST segment during recovery is associated with a significantly less ischemic burden on subsequent MPI and thus may represent a false positive finding in exercise treadmill testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A clinical pathway to accelerate recovery after colonic resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, L; Hjort Jakobsen, D; Billesbølle, P


    -induced organ dysfunction, paralytic ileus, pain, and fatigue. It has been hypothesized that an accelerated multimodal rehabilitation program with optimal pain relief, stress reduction with regional anesthesia, early enteral nutrition, and early mobilization may enhance recovery and reduce the complication rate......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of a 48-hour postoperative stay program after colonic resection. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Postoperative hospital stay after colonic resection is usually 6 to 12 days, with a complication rate of 10% to 20%. Limiting factors for early recovery include stress....... METHODS: Sixty consecutive patients undergoing elective colonic resection were prospectively studied using a well-defined postoperative care program including continuous thoracic epidural analgesia and enforced early mobilization and enteral nutrition, and a planned 48-hour postoperative hospital stay...

  5. Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (United States)

    Roman, Monsi; Howard, David


    Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) is a project focused on evolving existing and maturing emerging 'closed loop' atmosphere revitalization (AR) life support systems that produce clean, breathable air for crewmembers, and developing a suite of low mass, low power environmental monitors to detect and measure air- and waterborne constituents and contaminants. The objective is to improve reliability and efficiency, reduce mass and volume, and increase recovery of oxygen from carbon dioxide created by human metabolism from 43% to greater than 90%. The technology developments under ARREM are vital to extending human space missions from low-Earth orbit like the International Space Station to destinations deeper into space such as Mars where dependency on Earth for resupply of maintenance items and critical life support elements such as water and oxygen is not possible. The primary goal of the ARREM project is to demonstrate that systems meet the more stringent performance parameters for deep space exploration and are compatible with other systems within closed loop life support through a series of integrated tests performed in an environmental test chamber capable of simulating human metabolic activities and measuring systems outputs.

  6. Recovery in whiplash-associated disorders: do you get what you expect? (United States)

    Carroll, Linda J; Holm, Lena W; Ferrari, Robert; Ozegovic, Dejan; Cassidy, J David


    Positive expectations predict better outcome in a number of health conditions, but the role of expectations in predicting health recovery after injury is not well understood. We investigated whether early expectations of recovery in whiplash associated disorders (WAD) predict subsequent recovery, and studied the role of "expectations" to predict recovery as determined by pain cessation and resolution of pain-related limitations in daily activities. A cohort of 6,015 adults with traffic-related whiplash injuries was assessed, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis, for association between these expectations and self-perceived recovery over a 1-year period following the injury. Recovery was assessed using 3 indices: self-perceived global recovery (primary outcome); resolution of neck pain severity; and resolution of pain-related limitations in daily activities. After adjusting for the effect of sociodemographic characteristics, post-crash symptoms and pain, prior health status and collision-related factors, those who expected to get better soon recovered over 3 times as quickly (hazard rate ratio = 3.62, 95% confidence interval 2.55-5.13) as those who expected that they would never get better. Findings were similar for resolution of pain-related limitations and resolution of neck pain intensity, although the effect sizes for the latter outcome were smaller. Patients' early expectations for recovery are an important prognostic factor in recovery after whiplash injury, and are potentially modifiable. Clinicians should assess these expectations in order to identify those patients at risk of chronic whiplash, and future studies should focus on the effect of changing these early expectations.

  7. Intraportal islet oxygenation. (United States)

    Suszynski, Thomas M; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Papas, Klearchos K


    Islet transplantation (IT) is a promising therapy for the treatment of diabetes. The large number of islets required to achieve insulin independence limit its cost-effectiveness and the number of patients who can be treated. It is believed that >50% of islets are lost in the immediate post-IT period. Poor oxygenation in the early post-IT period is recognized as a possible reason for islet loss and dysfunction but has not been extensively studied. Several key variables affect oxygenation in this setting, including (1) local oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)), (2) islet oxygen consumption, (3) islet size (diameter, D), and (4) presence or absence of thrombosis on the islet surface. We discuss implications of oxygen-limiting conditions on intraportal islet viability and function. Of the 4 key variables, the islet size appears to be the most important determinant of the anoxic and nonfunctional islet volume fractions. Similarly, the effect of thrombus formation on the islet surface may be substantial. At the University of Minnesota, average size distribution data from clinical alloislet preparations (n = 10) indicate that >150-µm D islets account for only ~30% of the total islet number, but >85% of the total islet volume. This suggests that improved oxygen supply to the islets may have a profound impact on islet survivability and function since most of the β-cell volume is within large islets which are most susceptible to oxygen-limiting conditions. The assumption that the liver is a suitable islet transplant site from the standpoint of oxygenation should be reconsidered. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  8. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    The air we breathe is twenty-one percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? Oxygen is the most current account of the history of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. Donald...... Canfield--one of the world's leading authorities on geochemistry, earth history, and the early oceans--covers this vast history, emphasizing its relationship to the evolution of life and the evolving chemistry of the Earth. With an accessible and colorful first-person narrative, he draws from a variety...... of fields, including geology, paleontology, geochemistry, biochemistry, animal physiology, and microbiology, to explain why our oxygenated Earth became the ideal place for life. Describing which processes, both biological and geological, act to control oxygen levels in the atmosphere, Canfield traces...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov


    Full Text Available Aim: of our clinical study was to present own experience of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO for the treatment of an adult patient (female, 28 yrs, 150 cm, 35 kg with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in the early period after liver transplantation against satisfactory liver graft function. Materials and methods. Double-lumen cannula 22 F was placed percutaneously in the right internal jugular vein. The ext- racorporeal contour reduced in length and the polymethylpeptene oxygenator (priming volume 175 ml were also. Results. In 1 hour after the beginning of VV ECMO, we registered the noted improvement of arterial blood gas and acid-base balance (regress of respiratory acidosis, improvement of arterial oxygenation which allowed us to use the «protective» mode of mechanical ventilation. Improvement of gas exchange and regress of clinical and radiological manifestations of ARDS allowed for VV ECMO weaning and decannulation on day 7. The patient was discharged from ICU and then from our Centre to a homestay respectively on the 9th and 16th day after VV ECMO weaning with the satisfactory liver graft and lungs function. Conclusion. VV ECMO can be successfully applied to correct the life-threatening acute respiratory failure in the early period after liver transplantation. 

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Special Session: Oxygen in the Solar System, I (United States)


    The Special Session: Oxygen in the Solar System, I, included the following reports:Oxygen in the Solar System: Origins of Isotopic and Redox Complexity; The Origin of Oxygen Isotope Variations in the Early Solar System; Solar and Solar-Wind Oxygen Isotopes and the Genesis Mission; Solar 18O/17O and the Setting for Solar Birth; Oxygen Isotopes in Early Solar System Materials: A Perspective Based on Microbeam Analyses of Chondrules from CV Carbonaceous Chondrites; Insight into Primordial Solar System Oxygen Reservoirs from Returned Cometary Samples; Tracing Meteorites to Their Sources Through Asteroid Spectroscopy; Redox Conditions Among the Terrestrial Planets; Redox Complexity in Martian Meteorites: Implications for Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets; Implications of Sulfur Isotopes for the Evolution of Atmospheric Oxygen; Oxygen in the Outer Solar System; and On the Oxidation States of the Galilean Satellites: Implications for Internal Structures.

  11. Natural light-micro aerobic condition for PSB wastewater treatment: a flexible, simple, and effective resource recovery wastewater treatment process. (United States)

    Lu, Haifeng; Han, Ting; Zhang, Guangming; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei


    Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) have two sets of metabolic pathways. They can degrade pollutants through light metabolic under light-anaerobic or oxygen metabolic pathways under dark-aerobic conditions. Both metabolisms function under natural light-microaerobic condition, which demands less energy input. This work investigated the characteristics of PSB wastewater treatment process under that condition. Results showed that PSB had very strong adaptability to chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration; with F/M of 5.2-248.5 mg-COD/mg-biomass, the biomass increased three times and COD removal reached above 91.5%. PSB had both advantages of oxygen metabolism in COD removal and light metabolism in resource recovery under natural light-microaerobic condition. For pollutants' degradation, COD, total organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal reached 96.2%, 91.0%, 70.5%, and 92.7%, respectively. For resource recovery, 74.2% of C in wastewater was transformed into biomass. Especially, coexistence of light and oxygen promote N recovery ratio to 70.9%, higher than with the other two conditions. Further, 93.7% of N-removed was synthesized into biomass. Finally, CO 2 emission reduced by 62.6% compared with the traditional process. PSB wastewater treatment under this condition is energy-saving, highly effective, and environment friendly, and can achieve pollution control and resource recovery.

  12. Design of Hybrid Steam-In Situ Combustion Bitumen Recovery Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaomeng; Gates, Ian D.


    Given enormous capital costs, operating expenses, flue gas emissions, water treatment and handling costs of thermal in situ bitumen recovery processes, improving the overall efficiency by lowering energy requirements, environmental impact, and costs of these production techniques is a priority. Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is the most widely used in situ recovery technique in Athabasca reservoirs. Steam generation is done on surface and consequently, because of heat losses, the energy efficiency of SAGD can never be ideal with respect to the energy delivered to the sandface. An alternative to surface steam generation is in situ combustion (ISC) where heat is generated within the formation through injection of oxygen at a sufficiently high pressure to initiate combustion of bitumen. In this manner, the heat from the combustion reactions can be used directly to mobilize the bitumen. As an alternative, the heat can be used to generate steam within the formation which then is the agent to move heat in the reservoir. In this research, alternative hybrid techniques with simultaneous and sequential steam-oxygen injection processes are examined to maximize the thermal efficiency of the recovery process. These hybrid processes have the advantage that during ISC, steam is generated within the reservoir from injected and formation water and as a product of oxidation. This implies that ex situ steam generation requirements are reduced and if there is in situ storage of combustion gases, that overall gas emissions are reduced. In this research, detailed reservoir simulations are done to examine the dynamics of hybrid processes to enable design of these processes. The results reveal that hybrid processes can lower emitted carbon dioxide-to-oil ratio by about 46%, decrease the consumed natural gas-to-oil ratio by about 73%, reduce the cumulative energy-to-oil ratio by between 40% and 70% compared to conventional SAGD, and drop water consumption per unit oil produced

  13. Trends in brain oxygenation during mental and physical exercise measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): potential for early detection of Alzheimer's disease (United States)

    Allen, Monica S.; Allen, Jeffery W.; Mikkilineni, Shweta; Liu, Hanli


    Motivation: Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is crucial because symptoms respond best to available treatments in the initial stages of the disease. Recent studies have shown that marked changes in brain oxygenation during mental and physical tasks can be used for noninvasive functional brain imaging to detect Alzheimer"s disease. The goal of our study is to explore the possibility of using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and mapping (NIRM) as a diagnostic tool for AD before the onset of significant morphological changes in the brain. Methods: A 16-channel NIRS brain imager was used to noninvasively measure spatial and temporal changes in cerebral hemodynamics induced during verbal fluency task and physical activity. The experiments involved healthy subjects (n = 10) in the age range of 25+/-5 years. The NIRS signals were taken from the subjects' prefrontal cortex during the activities. Results and Conclusion: Trends of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex of the brain were observed. During the mental stimulation, the subjects showed significant increase in oxygenated hemoglobin [HbO2] with a simultaneous decrease in deoxygenated hemoglobin [Hb]. However, physical exercise caused a rise in levels of HbO2 with small variations in Hb. This study basically demonstrates that NIRM taken from the prefrontal cortex of the human brain is sensitive to both mental and physical tasks and holds potential to serve as a diagnostic means for early detection of Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Visualizing the blind brain: brain imaging of visual field defects from early recovery to rehabilitation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika eUrbanski


    Full Text Available Visual field defects (VFDs are one of the most common consequences observed after brain injury, especially after a stroke in the posterior cerebral artery territory. Less frequently, tumours, traumatic brain injury, brain surgery or demyelination can also determine various visual disabilities, from a decrease in visual acuity to cerebral blindness. VFD is a factor of bad functional prognosis as it compromises many daily life activities (e.g., obstacle avoidance, driving, and reading and therefore the patient’s quality of life. Spontaneous recovery seems to be limited and restricted to the first six months, with the best chance of improvement at one month. The possible mechanisms at work could be partly due to cortical reorganization in the visual areas (plasticity and/or partly to the use of intact alternative visual routes, first identified in animal studies and possibly underlying the phenomenon of blindsight. Despite processes of early recovery, which is rarely complete, and learning of compensatory strategies, the patient’s autonomy may still be compromised at more chronic stages. Therefore, various rehabilitation therapies based on neuroanatomical knowledge have been developed to improve VFDs. These use eye-movement training techniques (e.g., visual search, saccadic eye movements, reading training, visual field restitution (the Vision Restoration Therapy, VRT, or perceptual learning. In this review, we will focus on studies of human adults with acquired VFDs, which have used different imaging techniques (Positron Emission Tomography: PET, Diffusion Tensor Imaging: DTI, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: fMRI, MagnetoEncephalography: MEG or neurostimulation techniques (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: TMS; transcranial Direct Current Stimulation, tDCS to show brain activations in the course of spontaneous recovery or after specific rehabilitation techniques.

  15. Early benthic successional processes at implanted substrates in Barkley Submarine Canyon affected by a permanent oxygen minimum zone (United States)

    Cabrera De Leo, F.; Smith, C. R.; Levin, L. A.; Fleury, A.; Aguzzi, J.


    With the advent of cabled observatories scientists are now able to have a permanent presence in the deep-seafloor, being able to reveal previously unseen faunal behavior as well as to track long-term changes in biodiversity and ecosystem function. The Ocean Networks Canada 800-km loop seafloor observatory array (NEPTUNE) located in the NE Pacific has instruments measuring a variety of environmental variables ranging from temperature, salinity, oxygen, currents, turbidity, fluorescence, etc, at multiple and very high temporal resolution scales. High-definition video cameras also monitor benthic communities in multiple deep-sea habitats, all at some extent influenced by an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). In the present study, whale-bone and wood substrates are being used to evaluate bathymetric, regional and inter-basin variations in benthic biodiversity and connectivity, as well as interactions between biodiversity and ecosystem function. In May of 2014 three humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) rib sections, one 20x20x10 cm block of Douglas Fir (Pseudotsunga meniziesii), and a 30x30x30 block of authigenic carbonate were placed with the use of an ROV at 890 m depth inside Barkley Canyon. The substrate packages were placed concentrically, 45-cm away from a HD video camera. Five-minute videos were captured at 2-hr intervals. Preliminary data analysis from 8 months of deployment showed very distinct early community succession patterns between the two organic substrates (bones and wood) and the authigenic carbonate. Whalebones and wood showed amphipod (Orchomene obtusa) abundance peaks mostly contained during the first 60 days after deployment; Amphipod peak abundance rapid decline coincides with rapid growth of bacterial mat on whalebone and wood surfaces. Low abundance, species richness and substrate degradation rates are in agreement with a low oxygen environment of the OMZ in the canyon. Despite the early stages of data analysis, this experiment demonstrates how

  16. Repetitive long-term hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT administered after experimental traumatic brain injury in rats induces significant remyelination and a recovery of sensorimotor function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Kraitsy

    Full Text Available Cells in the central nervous system rely almost exclusively on aerobic metabolism. Oxygen deprivation, such as injury-associated ischemia, results in detrimental apoptotic and necrotic cell loss. There is evidence that repetitive hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT improves outcomes in traumatic brain-injured patients. However, there are no experimental studies investigating the mechanism of repetitive long-term HBOT treatment-associated protective effects. We have therefore analysed the effect of long-term repetitive HBOT treatment on brain trauma-associated cerebral modulations using the lateral fluid percussion model for rats. Trauma-associated neurological impairment regressed significantly in the group of HBO-treated animals within three weeks post trauma. Evaluation of somatosensory-evoked potentials indicated a possible remyelination of neurons in the injured hemisphere following HBOT. This presumption was confirmed by a pronounced increase in myelin basic protein isoforms, PLP expression as well as an increase in myelin following three weeks of repetitive HBO treatment. Our results indicate that protective long-term HBOT effects following brain injury is mediated by a pronounced remyelination in the ipsilateral injured cortex as substantiated by the associated recovery of sensorimotor function.

  17. Temperature and oxygenation during organ preservation: friends or foes? (United States)

    Gilbo, Nicholas; Monbaliu, Diethard


    The liberalization of donor selection criteria in organ transplantation, with the increased use of suboptimal grafts, has stimulated interest in ischemia-reperfusion injury prevention and graft reconditioning. Organ preservation technologies are changing considerably, mostly through the reintroduction of dynamic machine preservation. Here, we review the current evidence on the role of temperature and oxygenation during dynamic machine preservation. A large but complex body of evidence exists and comparative studies are few. Oxygenation seems to support an advantageous effect in hypothermic machine preservation and is mandatory in normothermic machine preservation, although in the latter, supraphysiological oxygen tensions should be avoided. High-risk grafts, such as suboptimal organs, may optimally benefit from oxygenated perfusion conditions that support metabolism and activate mechanisms of repair such as subnormothermic machine preservation, controlled oxygenated rewarming, and normothermic machine preservation. For lower risk grafts, oxygenation during hypothermic machine preservation may sufficiently reduce injuries and recharge the cellular energy to secure functional recovery after transplantation. The relationship between temperature and oxygenation in organ preservation is more complex than physiological laws would suggest. Rather than one default perfusion temperature/oxygenation standard, perfusion protocols should be tailored for specific needs of grafts of different quality.

  18. Novel integrated gasification combined cycles with a carbon dioxide recovery option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, J.


    Two novel combined cycle configurations offering potential to reduce the cost of electricity from coal-fired IGCCs were investigated - one based on the use of flue gas recycling with heat recovery to the recycled stream, the other, aimed at removing carbon dioxide, using flue gas recycle and heat recovery but with oxygen as the oxidant in the gas turbine. The investigation included the use of fuels other than coal. It was found that gasification efficiency was increased by use of a coal/Orimulsion slurry. Flue gas recycling at 1 bar for the industrial gas turbine offered a gain of about 0.4 percentage points. In a standard IGCC the industrial gas turbine showed an advantage of 1.5 percentage points over the aero-derived machine. The least cost electricity with CO{sub 2} removal was achieved using an oxygen-fed industrial gas turbine with flue gas recycling and recovery. Several recommendations are made for further studies to reduce costs of electricity production. 11 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs., 1 app.

  19. Can MR appearance performed a few days after injury predict the morphological recovery of the anterior cruciate ligament treated by early protective motion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Hidetoshi; Kawano, Tsutomu


    The aim of this study was to determine whether early MRI after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury can predict the morphological recovery of the torn ACL treated by early protective motion. Consecutive acute ruptures of the ACL in 35 patients (mean age; 27.2 years) who were allowed to be healed without surgery were evaluated by repeated MRI. MR images were compared for a few days after injury (initial MRI), approximately one month after treatment (second MRI), and at an average follow-up of 8.5 months (follow-up MRI). The average time from injury to the initial MRI was 7.3 days. The initial MR appearance of the torn ligament was classified into five types of visualized ligament contours. The emergence of restoration signs such as straight band and/or verticalization was examined in the second MRI. The follow-up MR appearance of the treated ACL was categorized into four grades depending on homogeneity, straight band, and size. Relationships between the initial MRI and the follow-up MRI, the restoration signs on the second MRI and the follow-up MRI were analyzed using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. As a result, the contour of the initial MRI was found to correlate with morphological recovery on the follow-up MRI (r s =0.565, p<0.001). There was no correlation between the emergence of restoration signs on the second MRI and morphological recovery on the follow-up MRI. (author)

  20. Symbolic healing of early psychosis: psychoeducation and sociocultural processes of recovery. (United States)

    Larsen, John Aggergaard


    This article analyzes sociocultural processes of recovery in a Danish mental health service providing two years of integrated biopsychosocial treatment following first-episode psychosis. The study is based on ethnographic research in the service and person-centered involvement with 15 clients. The analysis applies Dow's [1986 American Anthropologist 88:56-69] model of universal components of symbolic healing to elucidate sociocultural aspects of therapeutic efficacy that are alternatively disregarded as placebo or nonspecific effects. It is demonstrated how staff engaged with clients to deliver "psychoeducation" that provided scientific and biomedical theories about mental illness, constituting a shared "mythic world" that was accepted as an experiential truth and used to explain clients' illness experiences. The analysis highlights the need to supplement attention in Dow's model to the healing procedure with consideration of variability in the healing process. Depending on individual responses to the intervention, the staff's professional backgrounds and staff-client relationships different recovery models were applied. One suggested "episodic psychosis" and full recovery, and the other suggested "chronic schizophrenia" and the necessity of comprehensive life adjustments to the mental illness. The recovery models influenced clients' perspectives on illness and self as they engaged in identity work, negotiating future plans and individual life projects by including also alternative systems of explanation from the wider cultural repertoire.

  1. Effects of prior short multiple-sprint exercises with different intersprint recoveries on the slow component of oxygen uptake during high-intensity exercise. (United States)

    Lanzi, Stefano; Borrani, Fabio; Wolf, Martin; Gojanovic, Boris; Malatesta, Davide


    This study compares the effects of two short multiple-sprint exercise (MSE) (6 × 6 s) sessions with two different recovery durations (30 s or 180 s) on the slow component of oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O(2)) during subsequent high-intensity exercise. Ten male subjects performed a 6-min cycling test at 50% of the difference between the gas exchange threshold and [Formula: see text]O(2peak) (Δ50). Then, the subjects performed two MSEs of 6 × 6 s separated by two intersprint recoveries of 30 s (MSE(30)) and 180 s (MSE(180)), followed 10 min later by the Δ50 (Δ50(30) and Δ50(180), respectively). Electromyography (EMG) activities of the vastus medialis and lateralis were measured throughout each exercise bout. During MSE(30), muscle activity (root mean square) increased significantly (p ≤ 0.04), with a significant leftward-shifted median frequency of the power density spectrum (MDF; p ≤ 0.01), whereas MDF was significantly rightward-shifted during MSE(180) (p = 0.02). The mean [Formula: see text]O(2) value was significantly higher in MSE(30) than in MSE(180) (p motor units recruitment profile (i.e., change in the type of muscle fibers recruited) and (or) an improved muscle O(2) delivery during subsequent exercise.

  2. Development of an e-supported illness management and recovery programme for consumers with severe mental illness using intervention mapping, and design of an early cluster randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Beentjes, Titus A A; van Gaal, Betsie G I; Goossens, Peter J J; Schoonhoven, Lisette


    E-mental health is a promising medium to keep mental health affordable and accessible. For consumers with severe mental illness the evidence of the effectiveness of e-health is limited. A number of difficulties and barriers have to be addressed concerning e-health for consumers with severe mental illness. One possible solution might be to blend e-health with face-to-face delivery of a recovery-oriented treatment, like the Illness Management & Recovery (IMR) programme. This paper describes the development of an e-health application for the IMR programme and the design of an early clustered randomized controlled trial. We developed the e-IMR intervention according to the six-step protocol of Intervention Mapping. Consumers joined the development group to address important and relevant issues for the target group. Decisions during the six-step development process were based on qualitative evaluations of the Illness Management & Recovery programme, structured interviews, discussion in the development group, and literature reviews on qualitative papers concerning consumers with severe mental illness, theoretical models, behavioural change techniques, and telemedicine for consumers with severe mental illness. The aim of the e-IMR intervention is to help consumers with severe mental illness to involve others, manage achieving goals, and prevent relapse. The e-IMR intervention consists of face-to-face delivery of the Illness Management & Recovery programme and an e-health application containing peer-testimonials on videos, follow up on goals and coping strategies, monitoring symptoms, solving problems, and communication opportunities. We designed an early cluster randomized controlled trial that will evaluate the e-IMR intervention. In the control condition the Illness Management & Recovery programme is provided. The main effect-study parameters are: illness management, recovery, psychiatric symptoms severity, self-management, quality of life, and general health. The

  3. Dynamic oxygen-enhanced MRI of cerebrospinal fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha M Mehemed

    Full Text Available Oxygen causes an increase in the longitudinal relaxation rate of tissues through its T1-shortening effect owing to its paramagnetic properties. Due to such effects, MRI has been used to study oxygen-related signal intensity changes in various body parts including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF space. Oxygen enhancement of CSF has been mainly studied using MRI sequences with relatively longer time resolution such as FLAIR, and T1 value calculation. In this study, fifteen healthy volunteers were scanned using fast advanced spin echo MRI sequence with and without inversion recovery pulse in order to dynamically track oxygen enhancement of CSF. We also focused on the differences of oxygen enhancement at sulcal and ventricular CSF. Our results revealed that CSF signal after administration of oxygen shows rapid signal increase in both sulcal CSF and ventricular CSF on both sequences, with statistically significant predominant increase in sulcal CSF compared with ventricular CSF. CSF is traditionally thought to mainly form from the choroid plexus in the ventricles and is absorbed at the arachnoid villi, however, it is also believed that cerebral arterioles contribute to the production and absorption of CSF, and controversy remains in terms of the precise mechanism. Our results demonstrated rapid oxygen enhancement in sulcal CSF, which may suggest inhaled oxygen may diffuse into sulcal CSF space rapidly probably due to the abundance of pial arterioles on the brain sulci.

  4. Early corneal nerve damage and recovery following small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). (United States)

    Mohamed-Noriega, Karim; Riau, Andri K; Lwin, Nyein C; Chaurasia, Shyam S; Tan, Donald T; Mehta, Jodhbir S


    We compared early corneal nerve changes after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). A total of 12 rabbits underwent LASIK in one eye and SMILE in the fellow eye. Baseline and follow-up evaluations at 1, 2, and 4 weeks postoperatively were performed with in vivo confocal microscopy to evaluate 5 different areas within the treated zone: center, superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal. Cryosections of the corneas and whole mount of the extracted SMILE lenticules were analyzed with immunostaining of βIII-tubulin. One week after SMILE and LASIK, a decrease in nerve length and density was observed in all evaluated areas. A trend toward greater subbasal nerve length and density (SLD), more eyes with subbasal nerves (ESN), more eyes with subbasal nerves longer than 200 μm (SNL), and higher mean number of subbasal nerves by frame (NSN) in SMILE than in LASIK groups was observed at subsequent follow-up time points. Only the SMILE group showed a recovery of SLD, ESN, and NSN by week 4 (P > 0.05). A trend toward more eyes with sprouting subbasal nerves and greater mean number of sprouting nerves was observed in LASIK than in SMILE, indicating that more subbasal nerves were disrupted and undergoing regeneration after LASIK. Immunostaining at postoperative week 4 revealed a faster stromal nerve recovery in post-SMILE eyes compared to post-LASIK eyes. Our findings suggest that SMILE results in less nerve damage and faster nerve recovery than LASIK.

  5. Selective T-cell depletion targeting CD45RA reduces viremia and enhances early T-cell recovery compared with CD3-targeted T-cell depletion. (United States)

    Triplett, Brandon M; Muller, Brad; Kang, Guolian; Li, Ying; Cross, Shane J; Moen, Joseph; Cunningham, Lea; Janssen, William; Mamcarz, Ewelina; Shook, David R; Srinivasan, Ashok; Choi, John; Hayden, Randall T; Leung, Wing


    T-cell depletion (TCD) effectively reduces severe graft-versus-host disease in recipients of HLA-mismatched allografts. However, TCD is associated with delayed immune recovery and increased infections. We hypothesized that specific depletion of CD45RA+ naive T cells, rather than broad depletion of CD3+ T cells, can preserve memory-immunity in the allografts and confer protection against important viral infections in the early post-transplant period. Sixty-seven patients who received TCD haploidentical donor transplantation for hematologic malignancy on 3 consecutive trials were analyzed. Patients receiving CD45RA-depleted donor grafts had 2000-fold more donor T cells infused, significantly higher T-cell counts at Day +30 post transplant (550/μL vs 10/μL; P depleted grafts were more likely to experience adenovirus viremia (27% vs 4%, P = .02). CD45RA-depletion provided a large number of donor memory T cells to the recipients and was associated with enhanced early T-cell recovery and protection against viremia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. High oxygen levels promote peel spotting in banana fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maneenuam, T.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.


    We studied the effect of high oxygen on early peel spotting in `Sucrier¿ bananas held at 25 °C and 90% RH. Fruit first ripened to colour index 3¿4 (about as yellow as green) and were then held in containers with a continuous gas flow of 18 ± 2 kPa (control) or 90 ± 2 kPa oxygen. High oxygen promoted

  7. Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew Seltzer


    The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Supercritical Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE, Siemens, and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by forced circulation to the waterwalls at the periphery and divisional wall panels within the furnace. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) with cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) and (2) with oxygen ion transport membrane (OITM). The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H 2 O and CO 2 concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O 2 . Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from T2 to T92. Compared to the air-fired heat recovery area (HRA), the oxygen-fired HRA total heat transfer surface is 35% less for the cryogenic design and 13% less for the OITM design due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are nearly the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are similar

  8. Plasma lactate and stress hormones in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during stepwise decreasing oxygen levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vianen, GJ; Van den Thillart, GEEJM; Van Kampen, M; Van Heel, TI; Steffens, AB

    By measuring the lactate response it is possible to determine whether a teleost is able to adapt to a certain oxygen level. It is hypothesized that recovery will occur at oxygen levels above the critical oxygen level (PO2)(crit) reflected by a transient lactate increase. In contrast, continuous

  9. Effect of PKCbeta on retinal oxygenation response in experimental diabetes.


    Luan, H.; Leitges, M.; Gupta, R.; Pacheco, D.; Seidner, A.; Liggett, J.; Ito, Y.; Kowluru, R.; Berkowitz, B.


    PURPOSE: To test the hypotheses that, in mice, breathing carbogen (95% O(2)-5% CO(2)) oxygenates the retina better than breathing 100% oxygen, the superior hemiretinal oxygenation response to carbogen inhalation is subnormal early in diabetes, and diabetes-induced elevation of retinal protein kinase C (PKC)-beta contributes to this pathophysiology. METHODS: Retinal oxygenation response (DeltaPO(2)) was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and either carbogen or 100% oxyg...

  10. [Present situation and prospect of enhanced recovery after surgery in pancreatic surgery]. (United States)

    Feng, Mengyu; Zhang, Taiping; Zhao, Yupei


    Enhanced recovery after surgery is a multimodal perioperative strategy according to the evidence-based medicine and multidisciplinary collaboration, aiming to improve the restoration of functional capacity after surgery by reducing surgical stress, optimal control of pain, early oral diet and early mobilization. Compared with other sub-specialty in general surgery, pancreatic surgery is characterized by complex disease, highly difficult procedure and more postoperative complications. Accordingly, pancreatic surgery shares a slow development in enhanced recovery after surgery. In this review, the feasibility, safety, application progress, prospect and controversy of enhanced recovery after surgery in pancreatic surgery are discussed.

  11. The automated recovery of [18O] water by a simple modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinming; Tian Jiahe; Chen Yinmao


    A diagram is presented of the scheme for recovery of oxygen 18 water. There is a 5-8% decrease in the total activity produced using the recovered water, and the recovered water can be reused for production of fluorine 18

  12. Results of Steam-Water-Oxygen Treatment of the Inside of Heating Surfaces in Heat-Recovery Steam Generators of the PGU-800 Power Unit at the Perm' District Thermal Power Station (United States)

    Ovechkina, O. V.; Zhuravlev, L. S.; Drozdov, A. A.; Solomeina, S. V.


    Prestarting, postinstallation steam-water-oxygen treatment (SWOT) of the natural circulation/steam reheat heat-recovery steam generators (HRSG) manufactured by OAO Krasny Kotelshchik was performed at the PGU-800 power unit of the Perm District Thermal Power Station (GRES). Prior to SWOT, steam-oxygen cleaning, passivation, and preservation of gas condensate heaters (GCH) of HRSGs were performed for 10 h using 1.3MPa/260°C/70 t/h external steam. After that, test specimens were cut out that demonstrated high strength of the passivating film. SWOT of the inside of the heating surfaces was carried out during no-load operation of the gas turbine unit with an exhaust temperature of 280-300°C at the HRSG inlet. The steam turbine was shutdown, and the generated steam was discharged into the atmosphere. Oxygen was metered into the discharge pipeline of the electricity-driven feed pumps and downcomers of the evaporators. The behavior of the concentration by weight of iron compounds and the results of investigation of cutout specimens by the drop or potentiometric method indicate that the steam-water-oxygen process makes it possible to remove corrosion products and reduce the time required to put a boiler into operation. Unlike other processes, SWOT does not require metal-intensive cleaning systems, temporary metering stations, and structures for collection of the waste solution.

  13. Tailoring nutrition therapy to illness and recovery. (United States)

    Wischmeyer, Paul E


    Without doubt, in medicine as in life, one size does not fit all. We do not administer the same drug or dose to every patient at all times, so why then would we live under the illusion that we should give the same nutrition at all times in the continuum of critical illness? We have long lived under the assumption that critical illness and trauma lead to a consistent early increase in metabolic/caloric need, the so-called "hypermetabolism" of critical illness. What if this is incorrect? Recent data indicate that early underfeeding of calories (trophic feeding) may have benefits and may require consideration in well-nourished patients. However, we must confront the reality that currently ICU nutrition delivery worldwide is actually leading to "starvation" of our patients and is likely a major contributor to poor long-term quality of life outcomes. To begin to ascertain the actual calorie and protein delivery required for optimal ICU recovery, an understanding of "starvation" and recovery from starvation and lean body mass (LBM) loss is needed. To begin to answer this question, we must look to the landmark Minnesota Starvation Study from 1945. This trial defines much of the world's knowledge about starvation, and most importantly what is required for recovery from starvation and massive LBM loss as occurs in the ICU. Recent and historic data indicate that critical illness is characterized by early massive catabolism, LBM loss, and escalating hypermetabolism that can persist for months or years. Early enteral nutrition during the acute phase should attempt to correct micronutrient/vitamin deficiencies, deliver adequate protein, and moderate nonprotein calories in well-nourished patients, as in the acute phase they are capable of generating significant endogenous energy. Post resuscitation, increasing protein (1.5-2.0 g/kg/day) and calories are needed to attenuate LBM loss and promote recovery. Malnutrition screening is essential and parenteral nutrition can be safely

  14. The terrestrial hydro-climate of the Early Eocene: insights from the oxygen and clumped isotope composition of pedogenic siderite (United States)

    van Dijk, J.; Fernandez, A.; Müller, I.; White, T. S.; Bernasconi, S. M.


    The Early Eocene (56 Ma) is the youngest period of Earth's history when CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere (600-1500 ppm) reached levels close to those predicted for future emission scenarios. Proxy-based climate reconstructions from this interval can therefore be used to gain insights on effects that anthropogenic emissions might have on the climate system. So far, Early Eocene climatic data is limited to the oceans, where proxies for temperature are abundant and relatively well understood. However, in order to get a complete picture of the Early Eocene climate, temperature and rainfall reconstructions on the continental paleo-surface are needed. Here, we present clumped and stable oxygen isotope measurements of siderite samples collected along a North-South transect in the North American Continent. These siderites formed in kaolinitic soils that developed globally under the extremely wet and warm conditions of the Early Eocene. They provide a record of both soil temperature and the δ18O composition of meteoric water, which can be used to unravel the regional paleo-precipitation rate. Both parameters were estimated using an elaborate in-house calibration constructed with synthetic siderite precipitated in the presence or absence of iron reducing bacteria. Measurements of δD on plant-derived N-alkanes present within the same soils align well with our δ18Owater data, confirming an Early Eocene meteoric water line similar to the present day. We provide an estimate of the meridional temperature gradient during the Early Eocene and offer constraints on the boundary conditions of the Earth's hydrologic cycle under high pCO2.

  15. The nucleic acids as early indicators of the recovery of patients subjected to total body irradiation for bone marrow transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morera Carrillo, L.M.; Garcia Lima, O.; Carnot, J.; Cardenas, J.


    The possibility to use the concentration of nucleic acids as an early indicator for the recovery of individuals exposed to high radiation was valued in 30 patients subjected to a dose of 10 Gy (cobalt 60) in two or three sessions of total body irradiation for bone marrow transplants. The determination of the concentration of the nucleic acids was carried out prior to the irradiation, and later in different periods until the patients discharge. The behaviour of indicate such as alpha amylase serics transaminases, glicemics, alkaline phosphatase and others was also studied

  16. Sensing performances of ZnO nanostructures grown under different oxygen pressures to hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Jin; Peng, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhenbo; Feng, Peter


    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Surface morphology depends on the oxygen pressure. ► Structural degradation was observed for the ZnO samples when oxygen pressure was overhigh. ► The sensitivity of the ZnO-based sensors increase with grown oxygen pressure. -- Abstract: For extensive use in an industrialized process of individual ZnO nanostructures applied in gas sensors, a simple, inexpensive, and safe synthesis process is required. Here, nanostructured ZnO films were grown by a pulsed laser deposition technique under different oxygen pressures. Scanning electron microscopy images show nanopores, nanotips, and nanoparticles are obtained and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data indicate oxygen concentration of the synthesized samples increases monotonously with oxygen pressure. The sensor based on ZnO with high oxygen concentration has high sensitivity, rapid response (9 s) and recovery (80 s) behavior to 500 ppm hydrogen below 150 °C. Experimental data indicate that high oxygen concentration effectively improves the sensing properties of nanostructured ZnO.

  17. Late-onset Epstein-Barr virus-related disease in acute leukemia patients after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is associated with impaired early recovery of T and B lymphocytes. (United States)

    Liu, Jiangying; Yan, Chenhua; Zhang, Chunli; Xu, Lanping; Liu, Yanrong; Huang, Xiaojun


    Epstein-Barr virus-related disease (EBVD) is a serious clinical complication in patients who have undergone haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haploHSCT). Some recipients develop EBVD relatively late after haploHSCT, and most of these patients suffer a poor outcome. This retrospective cohort study characterized the early adaptive immune recovery of patients with acute leukemia presenting with EBVD more than 100 d after haploHSCT. Patients with acute leukemia who received haploHSCT and developed EBVD 100 d later (n = 8) were compared with a matched control group without EBVD (n = 24) with regard to peripheral WBC, lymphocytes, and neutrophils (at 30, 60, and 90 d) and recoveries of B and T lymphocytes (at 30 and 90 d, via immunophenotyping/flow cytometry). Ninety days after haploHSCT, the median values of WBCs and lymphocytes, and the recoveries of CD19(+) B cells and CD4(+) , CD8(+) , and CD4(+) CD45RO(+) T cells, were significantly lower in patients who developed EBVD, relative to the control group. These results suggest a significant association between deficient early recovery of B and T lymphocytes and the development of late-onset EBVD after haploHSCT. Our observation could facilitate clinical intervention and the improvement of overall survival of patients undergoing haploHSCT. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Recovery of 15N-labelled fertilizers applied to bromegrass on a thin black chernozem soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhi, S.S.


    The availability of N fertilizers on established grass stands is a function of such processes as immobilization, gaseous loss, leaching and position of applied N. A field experiment was conducted on a Thin Black Chernozem soil at Crossfield, Alberta to determine the effect of source, time and method of application on the recovery of 15 N-labelled fertilizers applied to smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.). The treatments included two sources of N [urea and ammonium nitrate (AN)], four application times (early autumn, late autumn, early spring and late spring) and two methods of placement (surface-broadcast and subsurface banding). In most cases the 15 N recovery in soil did not differ much between urea and AN. However, when urea was surface-broadcast, there was, on average, 10.2% less 15 N recovery in plants than AN. The N recovery for late spring > early spring > late autumn = early autumn. When urea was banded 4 cm deep into the soil, N recovery in plants increased significantly compared with its surface-broadcast application. However, this was not observed when the source of N was AN. Banding generally increased the amount of immobilized N present in the soil and N recovery. We concluded that the N recovery in plants and in plants plus soil was less for urea than for AN and was less with autumn broadcast N application than with spring broadcast application. (author). 23 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Post-Flight Microbial Analysis of Samples from the International Space Station Water Recovery System and Oxygen Generation System (United States)

    Birmele, Michele N.


    The Regenerative, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on the International Space Station (ISS) includes the the Water Recovery System (WRS) and the Oxygen Generation System (OGS). The WRS consists of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and Water Processor Assembly (WPA). This report describes microbial characterization of wastewater and surface samples collected from the WRS and OGS subsystems, returned to KSC, JSC, and MSFC on consecutive shuttle flights (STS-129 and STS-130) in 2009-10. STS-129 returned two filters that contained fluid samples from the WPA Waste Tank Orbital Recovery Unit (ORU), one from the waste tank and the other from the ISS humidity condensate. Direct count by microscopic enumeration revealed 8.38 x 104 cells per mL in the humidity condensate sample, but none of those cells were recoverable on solid agar media. In contrast, 3.32 x lOs cells per mL were measured from a surface swab of the WRS waste tank, including viable bacteria and fungi recovered after S12 days of incubation on solid agar media. Based on rDNA sequencing and phenotypic characterization, a fungus recovered from the filter was determined to be Lecythophora mutabilis. The bacterial isolate was identified by rDNA sequence data to be Methylobacterium radiotolerans. Additional UPA subsystem samples were returned on STS-130 for analysis. Both liquid and solid samples were collected from the Russian urine container (EDV), Distillation Assembly (DA) and Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) for post-flight analysis. The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungus Chaetomium brasiliense were isolated from the EDV samples. No viable bacteria or fungi were recovered from RFTA brine samples (N= 6), but multiple samples (N = 11) from the DA and RFTA were found to contain fungal and bacterial cells. Many recovered cells have been identified to genus by rDNA sequencing and carbon source utilization profiling (BiOLOG Gen III). The presence of viable bacteria and fungi from WRS

  20. In situ dc oxygen-discharge cleaning system for optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, T.; Shidara, T.; Tanaka, K.; Yagishita, A.; Sato, S.


    In situ dc oxygen-discharge cleaning arrangements have been developed at the Photon Factory for the removal of carbon contamination from optical surfaces. A high cleaning rate could be achieved by producing an oxygen plasma close to the optical elements with special care taken to avoid any harmful effects from the discharge; contaminant carbon was completely removed within a few hours, at most. This short exposure time and the use of dry oxygen gas resulted in a restoration of the original ultrahigh vacuum without a bakeout. Results with a Seya-Namioka beamline for gas-phase experiments showed a flux enhancement amounting to a factor of 50, and results with a grasshopper beamline showed a nearly complete recovery of the light intensity, even at the carbon K edge

  1. The effects of high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction for adult surgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, Jørn; Meyhoff, Christian S; Jørgensen, Lars N


    BACKGROUND: Available evidence on the effects of a high fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) of 60% to 90% compared with a routine fraction of inspired oxygen of 30% to 40%, during anaesthesia and surgery, on mortality and surgical site infection has been inconclusive. Previous trials and meta......-analyses have led to different conclusions on whether a high fraction of supplemental inspired oxygen during anaesthesia may decrease or increase mortality and surgical site infections in surgical patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of an FIO2 equal to or greater than 60% compared...... and reran the searches in March 2015. We will consider two studies of interest when we update the review. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized clinical trials that compared a high fraction of inspired oxygen with a routine fraction of inspired oxygen during anaesthesia, surgery and recovery...

  2. Oxygen: the two-faced elixir of life. (United States)

    Biddle, Chuck


    Take a moment and consider our planet without oxygen. Imagine the earth some 2.5 billion years ago when oxygen first appeared as a waste product of early anaerobes. Oxygen, as we know it today, is essential for life. Abundant and relatively inexpensive to manufacture, oxygen has widespread use in industry and healthcare. Anesthesia providers routinely administer oxygen in concentrations exceeding that in ambient air to ensure clinical safety and to offset the predictable sequelae associated with patient, drug-related, and procedural factors. Understanding the history of this unique element is critical in evaluating the often contentious body of contemporary research that has illuminated its efficacy (as elixir) and its attendant complications (its "two-faced" nature). Of particular interest is its role in free radical formation as etiogenic in developing complications. Oxygen is a mainstay in the perioperative management of patients, but its administration should be guided by thoughtful and rational goal-directed outcomes to maximize efficacy and minimize complications associated with its use.

  3. Reduced Social Network Drinking is Associated with Improved Response Inhibition in Women During Early Recovery from Alcohol Use Disorders: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    McCutcheon, Vivia V; Luke, Douglas A; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N


    Social support for recovery from alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is associated with improvements in self-reported impulsive behavior in individuals treated for AUDs. We build on these findings using a behavioral task-based measure of response inhibition, a well-defined component of impulsivity, to examine the association of disinhibition with alcohol-specific social network characteristics during early recovery. Women (n = 28) were recruited from treatment for AUD within 3 to 4 weeks of their last drink and were assessed at baseline and again 3 months later. Outcome measures were level of disinhibition at baseline and change in disinhibition from baseline to follow-up, measured using a computer-based continuous performance test. The primary independent variables were level of drinking in the social network at baseline and change in network drinking from baseline to follow-up. The sample [50% black, age M (SD) = 42.3 (9.5)] reported high rates of physical and sexual abuse before age 13 (43%), psychiatric disorder (71%), drug use disorder (78%), and previous treatment (71%). More drinking in participants' social networks was associated with greater disinhibition at baseline (β = 12.5, 95% CI = 6.3, 18.7). A reduction in network drinking from baseline to follow-up was associated with reduced disinhibition (β = -6.0, 95% CI = -11.3, -0.78) independent of IQ, recent alcohol consumption, and self-reported negative urgency. This study extends previous findings of an association between social networks and self-reported impulsivity to a neurobehavioral phenotype, response inhibition, suggesting that abstinence-supporting social networks may play a role in cognitive change during early recovery from AUDs. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with early Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Cumming, Paul; Østergaard, Karen


    ) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) PET scans from PD patients and healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine early-stage PD patients and 15 healthy age-matched controls underwent PET scans for quantitative mapping of CMRO(2) and CBF. Between-group differences were evaluated for absolute data and intensity...... in spatially contiguous cortical regions in early PD, and support the hypothesis that ETC dysfunction could be a primary pathogenic mechanism in early PD....

  5. Oxygen consumption by sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L. ) exposed to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brafield, A.E.; Matthiessen, P.


    The rate of oxygen consumption by sticklebacks has been studied by long-term continuous-flow respirometry. Exposure to 1 ppM zinc in calcium-free water causes wide variations in individual responses, but oxygen uptake tends to rise and then become extremely erratic, before declining as death approaches. Behavioural abnormalities such as increased ventilation rate, loss of balance, and long periods of inactivity alternating with spasmodic swimming also occur. Exposure to 6.5 ppM zinc in high-calcium water generally causes a rise in oxygen consumption, followed by fluctuations in the rate of uptake, but no behavioural abnormalities occur and deaths are rare even after exposure for 400 h. If restored to zinc-free water after 40 h exposure to zinc, recovery is generally complete, although fluctuating rates of oxygen uptake persist. These results are discussed in relation to previous work on the effects of heavy metals on fish respiration.

  6. Cerebral Hemodynamics and Executive Function During Exercise and Recovery in Normobaric Hypoxia. (United States)

    Stavres, Jon; Gerhart, Hayden D; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Glickman, Ellen L; Seo, Yongsuk


    Hypoxia and exercise each exhibit opposing effects on executive function, and the mechanisms for this are not entirely clear. This study examined the influence of cerebral oxygenation and perfusion on executive function during exercise and recovery in normobaric hypoxia (NH) and normoxia (N). There were 18 subjects who completed cycling trials in NH (12.5% FIo2) and N (20.93% FIo2). Right prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAbv) were collected during executive function challenges [mathematical processing and running memory continuous performance task (RMCPT)] at baseline, following 30 min of acclimation, during 20 min of cycling (60% Vo2max), and at 1, 15, 30, and 45 min following exercise. Results indicated effects of time for Math, RMCPT, and O2Hb; but not for MCAbv. Results also indicated effects of condition for O2Hb. Math scores were improved by 8.0% during exercise and remained elevated at 30 min of recovery (12.5%), RMCPT scores significantly improved at all time points (7.5-11.9%), and O2Hb increased by 662.2% and 440.9% during exercise in N and NH, respectively, and remained elevated through 15 min of recovery in both conditions. These results support the influence of PFC oxygenation and perfusion on executive function during exercise and recovery in N and NH.Stavres J, Gerhart HD, Kim J-H, Glickman EL, Seo Y. Cerebral hemodynamics and executive function during exercise and recovery in normobaric hypoxia. Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2017; 88(10):911-917.

  7. The influence of systemic hemodynamics and oxygen transport on cerebral oxygen saturation in neonates after the Norwood procedure. (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Gencheng; Holtby, Helen; Guerguerian, Anne-Marie; Cai, Sally; Humpl, Tilman; Caldarone, Christopher A; Redington, Andrew N; Van Arsdell, Glen S


    Ischemic brain injury is an important morbidity in neonates after the Norwood procedure. Its relationship to systemic hemodynamic oxygen transport is poorly understood. Sixteen neonates undergoing the Norwood procedure were studied. Continuous cerebral oxygen saturation was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. Continuous oxygen consumption was measured by respiratory mass spectrometry. Pulmonary and systemic blood flow, systemic vascular resistance, oxygen delivery, and oxygen extraction ratio were derived with measurements of arterial, and superior vena cava and pulmonary venous gases and pressures at 2- to 4-hour intervals during the first 72 hours in the intensive care unit. Mean cerebral oxygen saturation was 66% +/- 12% before the operation, reduced to 51% +/- 13% on arrival in the intensive care unit, and remained low during the first 8 hours; it increased to 56% +/- 9% at 72 hours, still significantly lower than the preoperative level (P blood flow and oxygen delivery (P blood flow (P = .001) and hemoglobin (P = .02) and negatively correlated with systemic vascular resistance (P = .003). It was not correlated with oxygen consumption (P > .05). Cerebral oxygen saturation decreased significantly in neonates during the early postoperative period after the Norwood procedure and was significantly influenced by systemic hemodynamic and metabolic events. As such, hemodynamic interventions to modify systemic oxygen transport may provide further opportunities to reduce the risk of cerebral ischemia and improve neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  8. Recovery vs. Restructuring: Establishing Ecologic Patterns in Early and Middle Triassic Paleocommunities (Invited) (United States)

    Fraiser, M.; Dineen, A.; Sheehan, P.


    Published data has been interpreted as indicating that marine ecological devastation following the end-Permian mass extinction was protracted and may have lasted 5 million years into the Middle Triassic (Anisian). However, a review of previous literature shows that understanding of biotic recovery is typically based on only a few components of the ecosystem, such as on taxonomic diversity, a single genus/phylum, or facies. Typically, paleocommunities are considered fully recovered when dominance and diversity are regained and normal ecosystem functioning has resumed. However, in addition to the biodiversity crash at the end of the Permian, taxonomic and ecologic structure also changed,with the extinction marking the faunal shift from brachiopod-rich Paleozoic Evolutionary Fauna (EF) to the mollusc-rich Modern EF. This suggests that the extreme reorganizational nature of the Triassic does not adhere to the standard definition of recovery, which is a return to previous conditions. Thus, we propose the term 'restructuring' to describe this interval, as Early and Middle Triassic communities might not exhibit the typical characteristics of a 'normal' Permian one. To more fully characterize Triassic ecologic restructuring, paleoecologists should take into account functional diversity and redundancy. We quantified functional richness and regularity in four different paleocommunities from classic Permian and Triassic sections. Functional richness was low in paleocommunities after the end-Permian mass extinction, but increased to high levels by the Middle Triassic. In contrast, functional regularity was low in the Middle Permian, but high in all the Triassic paleocommunities. The change from low to high functional regularity/redundancy at the P/T boundary may be a factor of the highly stressful Triassic environmental conditions (i.e. anoxia, hypercapnia), as high regularity in a community can boost survival in harsh environments. Parameters such as these will more

  9. Dual effect of fetal bovine serum on early development depends on stage-specific reactive oxygen species demands in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Eun Mun

    Full Text Available Despite the application of numerous supplements to improve in vitro culture (IVC conditions of mammalian cells, studies regarding the effect of fetal bovine serum (FBS on mammalian early embryogenesis, particularly in relation to redox homeostasis, are lacking. Herein, we demonstrated that early development of in vitro-produced (IVP porcine embryos highly depends on the combination of FBS supplementation timing and embryonic reactive oxygen species (ROS requirements. Interestingly, FBS significantly reduced intracellular ROS levels in parthenogenetically activated (PA embryos regardless of the developmental stage. However, the beneficial effect of FBS on early embryogenesis was found only during the late phase (IVC 4-6 days treatment group. In particular, developmental competence parameters, such as blastocyst formation rate, cellular survival, total cell number and trophectoderm proportion, were markedly increased by FBS supplementation during the late IVC phase. In addition, treatment with FBS elevated antioxidant transcript levels during the late IVC phase. In contrast, supplementation with FBS during the entire period (1-6 days or during the early IVC phase (1-2 days greatly impaired the developmental parameters. Consistent with the results from PA embryos, the developmental competence of in vitro fertilization (IVF or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT embryos were markedly improved by treatment with FBS during the late IVC phase. Moreover, the embryonic stage-specific effects of FBS were reversed by the addition of an oxidant and were mimicked by treatment with an antioxidant. These findings may increase our understanding of redox-dependent early embryogenesis and contribute to the large-scale production of high-quality IVP embryos.

  10. ASP project. Dissolved oxygen issues in ASP project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Y. Bondar


    Full Text Available The article presents the latest results of studies about the effect of dissolved oxygen on the efficiency of the ASP flooding project implemented by Salym Petroleum Development N.V.. Pilot project on experimental injection of anionic surfactant solutions, soda and polymer into the reservoir for enhanced oil recovery (ASP project has been implemented since 2016. The stability of one of the components of the ASP polymer is strongly dependent on the presence of iron, stiffness cations and dissolved oxygen in the water. Since the polymer is used for injection at two stages of the project, which are essential and the longest, at the design stage of ASP project a whole complex of polymer protection had been established against negative factors, in particular from the influence of oxygen, which causes not only oxygen corrosion but also irreversible destruction polymer chains. In the paper, studies on the stability of polymer solutions are described, an analysis of viscosity loss with time in the presence of iron and oxygen for polymer solutions is carried out. The choice of chemical deoxygenation method for the control of dissolved oxygen is substantiated. The program of laboratory studies of the ASP project and the analytical instruments used are described. The technological scheme of the ASP process is presented, and recommendations for the implementation of the technology are given.

  11. Cardiac and respiratory responses of rainbow trout, bluegills and brown bullhead catfish during rapid hypoxia and recovery under normoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvin, Jr, D E; Burton, D T


    Heart rate, ventilation rate and routine oxygen consumption were measured in Salmo gairdneri, Lepomis macrochirus and Ictalurus nebulosus during rapid hypoxic stress and recovery under normoxic conditions. Cardiac and respiratory responses during hypoxia were similar to those reported in the literature for teleost fish. Immediate increases in heart rate and ventilation rate occurred in all three species after stress. When the mean heart rate for each species at 1 hr post-stress was compared with its pre-stress rate, differences in recovery patterns were found in all species. During recovery from hypoxia, rapid increases in oxygen consumption, above pre-stress levels, occurred in S. gairdneri and L. macrochirus. No significant differences between pre-stress and post-stress values were found in I. nebulosus.

  12. Oxygen relieves the CO2 and acetate dependency of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertzberger, R.Y.; Pridmore, R.D.; Gysler, C.; Kleerebezem, M.; Teixeira de Mattos, M.J.


    Oxygen relieves the CO2 and acetate dependency of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533. The probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 is relatively sensitive to oxidative stress; the presence of oxygen causes a lower biomass yield due to early growth stagnation. We show however that oxygen can also be


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl


    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US

  14. Fluid diversion in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimir, Hassan B.


    In any oil recovery process, large scale heterogeneities, such as fractures, channels, or high-permeability streaks, can cause early break through of injected fluid which will reduce oil recovery efficiency. In waterflooding, enhanced oil recovery, and acidizing operations, this problem is particularly acute because of the cost of the injected fluid. On the other hand coping with excess water production is always a challenging task for field operators. The cost of handling and disposing produced water can significantly shorten the economic production life of an oil well. The hydrostatic pressure created by high fluid levels in a well (water coning) is also detrimental to oil production. In this paper, the concept of fluid diversion is explained. Different methods that are suggested to divert the fluid into the oil-bearing-zones are briefly discussed, to show their advantages and disadvantages. Methods of reducing water production in production well are also discussed. (Author)

  15. Daily MODIS Data Trends of Hurricane-Induced Forest Impact and Early Recovery (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah, III; Spruce, Joseph; Rangoonwala, Amina; Suzuoki, Yukihiro; Smoot, James; Gasser, Jerry; Bannister, Terri


    We studied the use of daily satellite data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors to assess wetland forest damage and recovery from Hurricane Katrina (29 August 2005 landfall). Processed MODIS daily vegetation index (VI) trends were consistent with previously determined impact and recovery patterns provided by the "snapshot" 25 m Landsat Thematic Mapper optical and RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar satellite data. Phenological trends showed high 2004 and 2005 pre-hurricane temporal correspondence within bottomland hardwood forest communities, except during spring green-up, and temporal dissimilarity between these hardwoods and nearby cypress-tupelo swamp forests (Taxodium distichum [baldcypress] and Nyssa aquatica [water tupelo]). MODIS VI trend analyses established that one year after impact, cypress-tupelo and lightly impacted hardwood forests had recovered to near prehurricane conditions. In contrast, canopy recovery lagged in the moderately and severely damaged hardwood forests, possibly reflecting regeneration of pre-hurricane species and stand-level replacement by invasive trees.

  16. Cognitive performance and aphasia recovery. (United States)

    Fonseca, José; Raposo, Ana; Martins, Isabel Pavão


    Objectives This study assessed cognitive performance of subjects with aphasia during the acute stage of stroke and evaluated how such performance relates to recovery at 3 months. Materials & methods Patients with aphasia following a left hemisphere stroke were evaluated during the first (baseline) and the fourth-month post onset. Assessment comprised non-verbal tests of attention/processing speed (Symbol Search, Cancelation Task), executive functioning (Matrix Reasoning, Tower of Hanoi, Clock Drawing, Motor Initiative), semantic (Camel and Cactus Test), episodic and immediate memory (Memory for Faces Test, 5 Objects Memory Test, and Spatial Span. Recovery was measured by the Token Test score at 3 months. The impact of baseline performance on recovery was evaluated by logistic regression adjusting for age, education, severity of aphasia and the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT (ASPECT) score. Results Thirty-nine subjects (with a mean of 66.5 ± 10.6 years of age, 17 men) were included. Average baseline cognitive performance was within normal range in all tests except in memory tests (semantic, episodic and immediate memory) for which scores were ≤-1.5sd. Subjects with poor aphasia recovery (N = 27) were older and had fewer years of formal education but had identical ASPECT score compared to those with favorable recovery. Considering each test individually, the score obtained on the Matrix Reasoning test was the only one to predict aphasia recovery (Exp(B)=24.085 p = 0.038). Conclusions The Matrix Reasoning Test may contribute to predict aphasia recovery. Cognitive performance is a measure of network disruption but may also indicate the availability of recovery strategies.

  17. Ongoing Oxidative Stress Causes Subclinical Neuronal Dysfunction in the Recovery Phase of EAE (United States)

    Radbruch, Helena; Bremer, Daniel; Guenther, Robert; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Lindquist, Randall; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca


    Most multiple sclerosis (MS) patients develop over time a secondary progressive disease course, characterized histologically by axonal loss and atrophy. In early phases of the disease, focal inflammatory demyelination leads to functional impairment, but the mechanism of chronic progression in MS is still under debate. Reactive oxygen species generated by invading and resident central nervous system (CNS) macrophages have been implicated in mediating demyelination and axonal damage, but demyelination and neurodegeneration proceed even in the absence of obvious immune cell infiltration, during clinical recovery in chronic MS. Here, we employ intravital NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime imaging to detect functional NADPH oxidases (NOX1–4, DUOX1, 2) and, thus, to identify the cellular source of oxidative stress in the CNS of mice affected by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the remission phase of the disease. This directly affects neuronal function in vivo, as monitored by cellular calcium levels using intravital FRET–FLIM, providing a possible mechanism of disease progression in MS. PMID:27014271

  18. Postoperative pain and gastro-intestinal recovery after colonic resection with epidural analgesia and multimodal rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Basse, L


    The aim of the study was to evaluate initial postoperative pain intensity and the association with recovery of gastrointestinal function and length of stay (LOS) in a multimodal programme with epidural analgesia, early oral nutrition and mobilisation with a 48 h planned hospital stay. One hundred......, respectively. Gastrointestinal recovery and LOS did not differ between patients with high (3-6) versus low (0-2) dynamic pain scores (P > 0.4 and P > 0.1, respectively). It is concluded that a multimodal rehabilitation program including continuous thoracic epidural analgesia leads to early recovery...

  19. Combined oxygen- and carbon-isotope records through the Early Jurassic: multiple global events and two modes of carbon-cycle/temperature coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Korte, Christoph


    , to the extent that meaningful comparisons between these events can begin to be made. Here we present new carbon and oxygen isotope data from mollusks (bivalves and belemnites) and brachiopods collected through the marine Early Jurassic succession of NE England, including the Sinemurian-Plienbachian boundary...... GSSP. All materials have been screened by chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy to check for diagenetic alteration. Analysis of carbon isotopes from marine calcite is supplemented by analysis of carbon-isotope values from fossil wood collected through the same section. It is demonstrated...... that both long-term and short-term carbon-isotope shifts from the UK Early Jurassic represent global changes in carbon cycle balances. The Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary event is an event of global significance and shows several similarities to the Toarcian OAE (relative sea-level change, carbon-isotope...

  20. Enhanced Recovery Pathways for Improving Outcomes After Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Oncology Surgery. (United States)

    Chapman, Jocelyn S; Roddy, Erika; Ueda, Stefanie; Brooks, Rebecca; Chen, Lee-Lynn; Chen, Lee-May


    To estimate whether an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway facilitates early recovery and discharge in gynecologic oncology patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery. This was a retrospective case-control study. Consecutive gynecologic oncology patients undergoing laparoscopic or robotic surgery between July 1 and November 5, 2014, were treated on an enhanced recovery pathway. Enhanced recovery pathway components included patient education, multimodal analgesia, opioid minimization, nausea prophylaxis as well as early catheter removal, ambulation, and feeding. Cases were matched in a one-to-two ratio with historical control patients on the basis of surgery type and age. Primary endpoints were length of hospital stay, rates of discharge by noon, 30-day hospital readmission rates, and hospital costs. There were 165 patients included in the final cohort, 55 of whom were enhanced recovery pathway patients. Enhanced recovery patients were more likely to be discharged on postoperative day 1 compared with patients in the control group (91% compared with 60%, Pcontrol patients (P=.03). Postoperative pain scores decreased (2.6 compared with 3.12, P=.03) despite a 30% reduction in opioid use. Average total hospital costs were decreased by 12% in the enhanced recovery group ($13,771 compared with $15,649, P=.01). Readmission rates, mortality, and reoperation rates did not differ between the two groups. An enhanced recovery pathway in patients undergoing gynecologic oncology minimally invasive surgery is associated with significant improvements in recovery time, decreased pain despite reduced opioid use, and overall lower hospital costs.

  1. Influence of mental workload on muscle endurance, fatigue, and recovery during intermittent static work. (United States)

    Mehta, Ranjana K; Agnew, Michael J


    Most occupational tasks involve some level of mental/cognitive processing in addition to physical work; however, the etiology of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) due to these demands remains unclear. The aim of this study was to quantify the interactive effects of physical and mental workload on muscle endurance, fatigue, and recovery during intermittent work. Twelve participants, balanced by gender, performed intermittent static shoulder abductions to exhaustion at 15, 35, and 55% of individual maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), in the absence (control) and presence (concurrent) of a mental arithmetic task. Changes in muscular capacity were determined using endurance time, strength decline, electromyographic (EMG) fatigue indicators, muscle oxygenation, and heart rate measures. Muscular recovery was quantified through changes in strength and physiological responses. Mental workload was associated with shorter endurance times, specifically at 35% MVC, and greater strength decline. EMG and oxygenation measures showed similar changes during fatigue manifestation during concurrent conditions compared to the control, despite shorter endurance times. Moreover, decreased heart rate variability during concurrent demand conditions indicated increased mental stress. Although strength recovery was not influenced by mental workload, a slower heart rate recovery was observed after concurrent demand conditions. The findings from this study provide fundamental evidence that physical capacity (fatigability and recovery) is adversely affected by mental workload. Thus, it is critical to determine or evaluate occupational demands based on modified muscular capacity (due to mental workload) to reduce risk of WMSD development.

  2. Accelerated recovery after cardiac operations. (United States)

    Kaplan, Mehmet; Kut, Mustafa Sinan; Yurtseven, Nurgul; Cimen, Serdar; Demirtas, Mahmut Murat


    The accelerated-recovery approach, involving early extubation, early mobility, decreased duration of intensive care unit stay, and decreased duration of hospitalization has recently become a controversial issue in cardiac surgery. We investigated timing of extubation, length of intensive care unit stay, and duration of hospitalization in 225 consecutive cardiac surgery patients. Of the 225 patients, 139 were male and 86 were female; average age was 49.73 +/- 16.95 years. Coronary artery bypass grafting was performed in 127 patients; 65 patients underwent aortic and/or mitral or pulmonary valvular operations; 5 patients underwent valvular plus coronary artery operations; and in 28 patients surgical interventions for congenital anomalies were carried out. The accelerated-recovery approach could be applied in 169 of the 225 cases (75.11%). Accelerated-recovery patients were extubated after an average of 3.97 +/- 1.59 hours, and the average duration of stay in the intensive care unit was 20.93 +/- 2.44 hours for these patients. Patients were discharged if they met all of the following criteria: hemodynamic stability, cooperativeness, ability to initiate walking exercises within wards, lack of pathology in laboratory investigations, and psychological readiness for discharge. Mean duration of hospitalization for accelerated-recovery patients was 4.24 +/- 0.75 days. Two patients (1.18%) who were extubated within the first 6 hours required reintubation. Four patients (2.36%) who were sent to the wards returned to intensive care unit due to various reasons and 6 (3.55%) of the discharged patients were rehospitalized. Approaches for decreasing duration of intubation, intensive care unit stay and hospitalization may be applied in elective and uncomplicated cardiac surgical interventions with short duration of aortic cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass, without risking patients. Frequencies of reintubation, return to intensive care unit, and rehospitalization are quite

  3. Effects of a constant rate infusion of detomidine on cardiovascular function, isoflurane requirements and recovery quality in horses. (United States)

    Schauvliege, Stijn; Marcilla, Miguel Gozalo; Verryken, Kirsten; Duchateau, Luc; Devisscher, Lindsey; Gasthuys, Frank


    To examine the influence of a detomidine constant rate infusion (CRI) on cardiovascular function, isoflurane requirements and recovery quality in horses undergoing elective surgery. Prospective, randomized, blinded, clinical trial. Twenty adult healthy horses. After sedation (detomidine, 10 μg kg(-1) intravenously [IV]) and induction of anaesthesia (midazolam 0.06 mg kg(-1) , ketamine 2.2 mg kg(-1) IV), anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen/air (inspiratory oxygen fraction 55%). When indicated, the lungs were mechanically ventilated. Dobutamine was administered when MAPdetomidine (5 μg kg(-1)  hour(-1) ) (D) or saline (S) CRI, with the anaesthetist unaware of the treatment. Monitoring included end-tidal isoflurane concentration, arterial pH, PaCO(2) , PaO(2) , dobutamine administration rate, heart rate (HR), arterial pressure, cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), stroke index and oxygen delivery index (ḊO(2) I). For recovery from anaesthesia, all horses received 2.5 μg kg(-1) detomidine IV. Recovery quality and duration were recorded in each horse. For statistical analysis, anova, Pearson chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used as relevant. Heart rate (p=0.0176) and ḊO(2) I (p= 0.0084) were lower and SVR higher (p=0.0126) in group D, compared to group S. Heart rate (p=0.0011) and pH (p=0.0187) increased over time. Significant differences in isoflurane requirements were not detected. Recovery quality and duration were comparable between treatments. A detomidine CRI produced cardiovascular effects typical for α(2) -agonists, without affecting isoflurane requirements, recovery duration or recovery quality. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2011 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  4. Early sepsis does not stimulate reactive oxygen species production and does not reduce cardiac function despite an increased inflammation status. (United States)

    Léger, Thibault; Charrier, Alice; Moreau, Clarisse; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Mourmoura, Evangelia; Rigaudière, Jean-Paul; Pitois, Elodie; Bouvier, Damien; Sapin, Vincent; Pereira, Bruno; Azarnoush, Kasra; Demaison, Luc


    If it is sustained for several days, sepsis can trigger severe abnormalities of cardiac function which leads to death in 50% of cases. This probably occurs through activation of toll-like receptor-9 by bacterial lipopolysaccharides and overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF- α and IL-1 β In contrast, early sepsis is characterized by the development of tachycardia. This study aimed at determining the early changes in the cardiac function during sepsis and at finding the mechanism responsible for the observed changes. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups, the first one being made septic by cecal ligation and puncture (sepsis group) and the second one being subjected to the same surgery without cecal ligation and puncture (sham-operated group). The cardiac function was assessed in vivo and ex vivo in standard conditions. Several parameters involved in the oxidative stress and inflammation were determined in the plasma and heart. As evidenced by the plasma level of TNF- α and gene expression of IL-1 β and TNF- α in the heart, inflammation was developed in the sepsis group. The cardiac function was also slightly stimulated by sepsis in the in vivo and ex vivo situations. This was associated with unchanged levels of oxidative stress, but several parameters indicated a lower cardiac production of reactive oxygen species in the septic group. In conclusion, despite the development of inflammation, early sepsis did not increase reactive oxygen species production and did not reduce myocardial function. The depressant effect of TNF- α and IL-1 β on the cardiac function is known to occur at very high concentrations. The influence of low- to moderate-grade inflammation on the myocardial mechanical behavior must thus be revisited. © 2017 French National Institute of Agronomical Research (INRA). Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  5. Enhanced deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation with global warming (United States)

    Froelicher, T. L.; Jaccard, S.; Dunne, J. P.; Paynter, D.; Gruber, N.


    Twenty-first century coupled climate model simulations, observations from the recent past, and theoretical arguments suggest a consistent trend towards warmer ocean temperatures and fresher polar surface oceans in response to increased radiative forcing resulting in increased upper ocean stratification and reduced ventilation and oxygenation of the deep ocean. Paleo-proxy records of the warming at the end of the last ice age, however, suggests a different outcome, namely a better ventilated and oxygenated deep ocean with global warming. Here we use a four thousand year global warming simulation from a comprehensive Earth System Model (GFDL ESM2M) to show that this conundrum is a consequence of different rates of warming and that the deep ocean is actually better ventilated and oxygenated in a future warmer equilibrated climate consistent with paleo-proxy records. The enhanced deep ocean ventilation in the Southern Ocean occurs in spite of increased positive surface buoyancy fluxes and a constancy of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds - circumstances that would otherwise be expected to lead to a reduction in deep ocean ventilation. This ventilation recovery occurs through a global scale interaction of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation undergoing a multi-centennial recovery after an initial century of transient decrease and transports salinity-rich waters inform the subtropical surface ocean to the Southern Ocean interior on multi-century timescales. The subsequent upwelling of salinity-rich waters in the Southern Ocean strips away the freshwater cap that maintains vertical stability and increases open ocean convection and the formation of Antarctic Bottom Waters. As a result, the global ocean oxygen content and the nutrient supply from the deep ocean to the surface are higher in a warmer ocean. The implications for past and future changes in ocean heat and carbon storage will be discussed.

  6. Rapid recovery from aphasia after infarction of Wernicke’s area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melodie Yen


    Quantitative analysis of connected speech samples and language testing following infarction of Wernicke’s area revealed rapid improvements in almost all speech/language measures, spanning phonological, syntactic and semantic domains. The greatest changes occurred early, with recovery slowing over time, and the data were well fit by logarithmic recovery curves. Despite the importance of Wernicke’s area, the rapidity and extent of recovery observed suggest that other brain regions can be rapidly recruited to support many of the functions of Wernicke’s area (Weiller et al., 1995.

  7. Nutrition for recovery in aquatic sports. (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Mujika, Iñigo


    Postexercise recovery is an important topic among aquatic athletes and involves interest in the quality, quantity, and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimize processes such as refueling, rehydration, repair, and adaptation. Recovery processes that help to minimize the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: (a) restoration of body losses and changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next and (b) maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance. In some cases, effective recovery occurs only when nutrients are supplied, and an early supply of nutrients may also be valuable in situations in which the period immediately after exercise provides an enhanced stimulus for recovery. This review summarizes contemporary knowledge of nutritional strategies to promote glycogen resynthesis, restoration of fluid balance, and protein synthesis after different types of exercise stimuli. It notes that some scenarios benefit from a proactive approach to recovery eating, whereas others may not need such attention. In fact, in some situations it may actually be beneficial to withhold nutritional support immediately after exercise. Each athlete should use a cost-benefit analysis of the approaches to recovery after different types of workouts or competitive events and then periodize different recovery strategies into their training or competition programs.

  8. Genealogies of recovery: The framing of therapeutic ambitions. (United States)

    Brown, Brian; Manning, Nick


    The notion of recovery has become prominent in mental healthcare discourse in the UK, but it is often considered as if it were a relatively novel notion, and as if it represented an alternative to conventional treatment and intervention. In this paper, we explore some of the origins of the notion of recovery in the early 20th century in movements such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Recovery Inc. Whilst these phenomena are not entirely continuous with recovery in the present day, some important antecedents of the contemporary notion can be detected. These include the focus on the sufferers' interior space as a key theatre of operations and the reinforcement and consolidation of medical ways of seeing the condition without any immediate medical supervision of the actors being necessary. This has resonance with many contemporary examples of recovery in practice where the art of living with a mental health condition is emphasised without the nature of the psychopathological condition itself being challenged. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of a dual-pump crude-oil recovery system, Bemidji, Minnesota, USA (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Herkelrath, William N.


    A crude-oil spill occurred in 1979 when a pipeline burst near Bemidji, MN. In 1998, the pipeline company installed a dual-pump recovery system designed to remove crude oil remaining in the subsurface at the site. The remediation from 1999 to 2003 resulted in removal of about 115,000 L of crude oil, representing between 36% and 41% of the volume of oil (280,000 to 316,000 L) estimated to be present in 1998. Effects of the 1999 to 2003 remediation on the dissolved plume were evaluated using measurements of oil thicknesses in wells plus measurements of dissolved oxygen in groundwater. Although the recovery system decreased oil thicknesses in the immediate vicinity of the remediation wells, average oil thicknesses measured in wells were largely unaffected. Dissolved-oxygen measurements indicate that a secondary plume was caused by disposal of the pumped water in an upgradient infiltration gallery; this plume expanded rapidly immediately following the start of the remediation in 1999. The result was expansion of the anoxic zone of groundwater upgradient and beneath the existing natural attenuation plume. Oil-phase recovery at this site was shown to be challenging, and considerable volumes of mobile and entrapped oil remain in the subsurface despite remediation efforts.

  10. Radiation effect on conductivity of oxygen-containing crystals of lithium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchepina, L.I.; Alekseeva, L.I.; Lobanov, B.D.; Kostyukov, V.M. (Irkutskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Prikladnoj Fiziki)


    The data are presented on an anomalous behaviour of the conductivity, sigma of oxygen-enriched LiF crystals irradiated by approximately 10/sup 5/ J/kg doses. The ultraviolet absorption spectra were used to measure the oxygen content. The samples were exposed to ..gamma..-radiation of a /sup 60/Co source. The anomalous behaviour of tau is manifested by deviation of the sigma temperature dependence from the exponential law and occurrence of the minimum on the curve. The anomalous behaviour covers the range of 580-660 K and terminates by the tau recovery up to the values of an intact samples.

  11. Parenteral and Early Enteral Feeding in Patients with Colonic Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Malkov


    Full Text Available Objective: to provide evidence whether it is expedient to use an early enteral feeding protocol in patients with colonic malignancies in the postoperative period to prevent and to correct hemodynamic disorders, oxygen imbalance, and malnutrition. Subjects and methods. A hundred patients (61 males and 39 females aged 66.2±5.0 years, who had Stages 2—3 colonic malignancies, were examined. Two algorithms of postoperative management were analyzed using the traditional diet and early enteral feeding. Results. The early enteral feeding protocol improves central hemodynamics and oxygen and nutritional status, prevents moderate protein-energy deficiency in the early postoperative period and reduces the number of complications and fatal outcomes in patients with colonic malignancies. Key words: malignancies, malnutrition, hemo-dynamics, oxygen status, enteral feeding.

  12. Cleaning of Fire Damaged Watercolor and Textiles Using Atomic Oxygen (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Chichernea, Virgil A.; Haytas, Christy A.


    A noncontact technique is described that uses atomic oxygen generated under low pressure in the presence of nitrogen to remove soot from the surface of a test watercolor panel and strips of cotton, wool and silk. The process, which involves surface oxidation, permits control of the amount of surface material removed. The effectiveness of soot removal from test panels of six basic watercolors (alizarin crimson, burnt sienna, lemon yellow, yellow ochre, cerulean blue and ultramarine blue) and strips of colored cotton, wool and silk was measured using reflectance spectroscopy. The atomic oxygen removed soot effectively from the treated areas and enabled partial recovery of charred watercolors. However, overexposure can result in removal of sizing, bleaching, and weakening of the structure. With the proper precautions, atomic oxygen treatment appears to have great potential to salvage heavily smoke damaged artworks which were previously considered unrestorable.

  13. vmPFC activation during a stressor predicts positive emotions during stress recovery (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Garcia, Katelyn M; Jung, Youngkyoo; Whitlow, Christopher T; McRae, Kateri; Waugh, Christian E


    Abstract Despite accruing evidence showing that positive emotions facilitate stress recovery, the neural basis for this effect remains unclear. To identify the underlying mechanism, we compared stress recovery for people reflecting on a stressor while in a positive emotional context with that for people in a neutral context. While blood–oxygen-level dependent data were being collected, participants (N = 43) performed a stressful anagram task, which was followed by a recovery period during which they reflected on the stressor while watching a positive or neutral video. Participants also reported positive and negative emotions throughout the task as well as retrospective thoughts about the task. Although there was no effect of experimental context on emotional recovery, we found that ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activation during the stressor predicted more positive emotions during recovery, which in turn predicted less negative emotions during recovery. In addition, the relationship between vmPFC activation and positive emotions during recovery was mediated by decentering—the meta-cognitive detachment of oneself from one’s feelings. In sum, successful recovery from a stressor seems to be due to activation of positive emotion-related regions during the stressor itself as well as to their downstream effects on certain cognitive forms of emotion regulation. PMID:29462404

  14. Non-intubated recovery from refractory cardiogenic shock on percutaneous VA-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houte, J; Donker, D W; Wagenaar, L J; Slootweg, A P; Kirkels, J H; van Dijk, D

    We report on the use of percutaneous femoral veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) in a fully awake, non-intubated and spontaneously breathing patient suffering from acute, severe and refractory cardiogenic shock due to a (sub)acute anterior myocardial infarction. Intensified

  15. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Complicated Scrub Typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Sun Kim

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a mite-borne infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi . Although early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy improve the prognosis for the majority of patients, life-threatening complications are not uncommon. Here, we present a case of successful veno-veno-type extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for scrub typhus-induced complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocarditis and multi-organ dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in complicated scrub typhus in Korea.

  16. Cerebral arterial gas embolism from attempted mechanical thrombectomy: recovery following hyperbaric oxygen therapy. (United States)

    Segan, Louise; Permezel, Fiona; Ch'ng, Wei; Millar, Ian; Brooks, Mark; Lee-Archer, Matt; Cloud, Geoffrey


    Cerebral arterial gas embolism is a recognised complication of endovascular intervention with an estimated incidence of 0.08%. Its diagnosis is predominantly clinical, supported by neuroimaging. The treatment relies on alleviating mechanical obstruction and reversing the proinflammatory processes that contribute to tissue ischaemia. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is an effective treatment and has multiple mechanisms to reverse the pathological processes involved in cerebral arterial gas embolism. Symptomatic cerebral arterial gas embolism is a rare complication of endovascular intervention for acute ischaemic stroke. Although there are no previous descriptions of its successful treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy following mechanical thrombectomy, this is likely to become more common as mechanical thrombectomy is increasingly used worldwide to treat acute ischaemic stroke. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Radiation accelerated formation of oxygen and carbon related complexes in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazrak, A.; Magnea, N.; Pautrat, J.L.


    During the pulling of silicon monocrystals by the Czochralsky method, oxygen is incorporated into the lattice. It is known from early works that low temperature annealings (400-1000 0 C) make this oxygen to precipitate and a number of different defects to be generated. In order to check whether the fast diffusivity of an oxygen silicon interstitial complex has to be taken in consideration it was interesting to examinate the possible role of radiation damage on the formation of oxygen related defects. Experimental results of an experiment are presented and discussed

  18. Gradually Increased Oxygen Administration Improved Oxygenation and Mitigated Oxidative Stress after Resuscitation from Severe Hemorrhagic Shock. (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Yin, Yujing; You, Guoxing; Chen, Gan; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Jingxiang; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Lian; Zhou, Hong


    The optimal oxygen administration strategy during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock (HS) is still controversial. Improving oxygenation and mitigating oxidative stress simultaneously seem to be contradictory goals. To maximize oxygen delivery while minimizing oxidative damage, the authors proposed the notion of gradually increased oxygen administration (GIOA), which entails making the arterial blood hypoxemic early in resuscitation and subsequently gradually increasing to hyperoxic, and compared its effects with normoxic resuscitation, hyperoxic resuscitation, and hypoxemic resuscitation in severe HS. Rats were subjected to HS, and on resuscitation, the rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8): the normoxic, the hyperoxic, the hypoxemic, and the GIOA groups. Rats were observed for an additional 1 h. Hemodynamics, acid-base status, oxygenation, and oxidative injury were observed and evaluated. Central venous oxygen saturation promptly recovered only in the hyperoxic and the GIOA groups, and the liver tissue partial pressure of oxygen was highest in the GIOA group after resuscitation. Oxidative stress in GIOA group was significantly reduced compared with the hyperoxic group as indicated by the reduced malondialdehyde content, increased catalase activity, and the lower histologic injury scores in the liver. In addition, the tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 expressions in the liver were markedly decreased in the GIOA group than in the hyperoxic and normoxic groups as shown by the immunohistochemical staining. GIOA improved systemic/tissue oxygenation and mitigated oxidative stress simultaneously after resuscitation from severe HS. GIOA may be a promising strategy to improve resuscitation from HS and deserves further investigation.

  19. Recovery in involuntary psychiatric care: is there a gender difference? (United States)

    Schön, Ulla-Karin


    Research on recovery from mental illness and the influence of compulsory psychiatric institutional care has revealed the complexity of this concept. There is also limited knowledge regarding the impact of gender-role expectations in these contexts, and how such expectations may influence both the care and individuals' recovery processes. To explore women's and men's perceptions of the impact of compulsory inpatient care on recovery from severe mental illness. Grounded theory was used to analyse 30 first-person accounts of recovery from mental illness, elicited via interviews with individuals who had been compulsorily treated in hospital and diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Inpatient care at an early stage was crucial for the informants' recovery. However, there was ambivalence in their perceptions of the impact of compulsory inpatient care. The narratives confirmed gender differences as well as gender stereotypes. The results have implications for recovery research, in that they emphasise the importance of understanding recovery as a gender-influenced process.

  20. Oxygen delivery in irradiated normal tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani, M.F.; Ansari, R. [Univ. of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN (United States). School of Biomedical Engineering; Gaber, M.W. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)


    Ionizing radiation exposure significantly alters the structure and function of microvascular networks, which regulate delivery of oxygen to tissue. In this study we use a hamster cremaster muscle model to study changes in microvascular network parameters and use a mathematical model to study the effects of these observed structural and microhemodynamic changes in microvascular networks on oxygen delivery to the tissue. Our experimental observations indicate that in microvascular networks while some parameters are significantly affected by irradiation (e.g. red blood cell (RBC) transit time), others remain at the control level (e.g. RBC path length) up to 180 days post-irradiation. The results from our mathematical model indicate that tissue oxygenation patterns are significantly different in irradiated normal tissue as compared to age-matched controls and the differences are apparent as early as 3 days post irradiation. However, oxygen delivery to irradiated tissue was not found to be significantly different from age matched controls at any time between 7 days to 6 months post-irradiation. These findings indicate that microvascular late effects in irradiated normal tissue may be due to factors other than compromised tissue oxygenation. (author)

  1. Early recovery following lower limb arthroplasty: Qualitative interviews with patients undergoing elective hip and knee replacement surgery. Initial phase in the development of a patient-reported outcome measure. (United States)

    Strickland, Louise H; Kelly, Laura; Hamilton, Thomas W; Murray, David W; Pandit, Hemant G; Jenkinson, Crispin


    To explore the patients' perspective of surgery and early recovery when undergoing lower limb (hip or knee) arthroplasty. Lower limb arthroplasty is a commonly performed procedure for symptomatic arthritis, which has not responded to conservative medical treatment. Each patient's perspective of the surgical process and early recovery period impacts on their quality of life. Open, semistructured qualitative interviews were used to allow for a deeper understanding of the patient perspective when undergoing a hip or knee arthroplasty. Following ethical approval, 30 patients were interviewed between August and November 2016 during the perioperative period while undergoing an elective hip or knee arthroplasty (n = 30). The interviews were performed between the day of surgery and a nine-week postoperative clinic appointment. Data were analysed using an in-depth narrative thematic analysis method. NVivo qualitative data analysis software was used. Seven main themes evolved from the interviews: "improving function and mobility", "pain", "experiences of health care", "support from others", "involvement and understanding of care decisions", "behaviour and coping" and "fatigue and sleeping". The early postoperative recovery period is of vital importance to all surgical patients. This is no different for the orthopaedic patient. However, identifying key self-reported areas of importance from patients can guide clinical focus for healthcare professionals. To have specific patient-reported information regarding key areas of importance during the perioperative phase is invaluable when caring for the orthopaedic surgical patient. It gives insight and understanding in to this increasing population group. This study has also served as a starting point in the development of a questionnaire which could be used to assess interventions in the lower limb arthroplasty population. These results will influence both items and content of the questionnaire. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Direct tissue oxygen monitoring by in vivo photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI) (United States)

    Shao, Qi; Morgounova, Ekaterina; Ashkenazi, Shai


    Tissue oxygen plays a critical role in maintaining tissue viability and in various diseases, including response to therapy. Images of oxygen distribution provide the history of tissue hypoxia and evidence of oxygen availability in the circulatory system. Currently available methods of direct measuring or imaging tissue oxygen all have significant limitations. Previously, we have reported a non-invasive in vivo imaging modality based on photoacoustic lifetime. The technique maps the excited triplet state of oxygen-sensitive dye, thus reflects the spatial and temporal distribution of tissue oxygen. We have applied PALI on tumor hypoxia in small animals, and the hypoxic region imaged by PALI is consistent with the site of the tumor imaged by ultrasound. Here, we present two studies of applying PALI to monitor changes of tissue oxygen by modulations. The first study involves an acute ischemia model using a thin thread tied around the hind limb of a normal mouse to reduce the blood flow. PALI images were acquired before, during, and after the restriction. The drop of muscle pO2 and recovery from hypoxia due to reperfusion were observed by PALI tracking the same region. The second study modulates tissue oxygen by controlling the percentage of oxygen the mouse inhales. We demonstrate that PALI is able to reflect the change of oxygen level with respect to both hyperbaric and hypobaric conditions. We expect this technique to be very attractive for a range of clinical applications in which tissue oxygen mapping would improve therapy decision making and treatment planning.

  3. The VLF fingerprint of elves: Step-like and long-recovery early VLF perturbations caused by powerful ±CG lightning EM pulses (United States)

    Haldoupis, Christos; Cohen, Morris; Arnone, Enrico; Cotts, Benjamin; Dietrich, Stefano


    Subionospheric VLF recordings are investigated in relation with intense cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data. Lightning impacts the lower ionosphere via heating and ionization changes which produce VLF signal perturbations known as early VLF events. Typically, early events recover in about 100 s, but a small subclass does not recover for many minutes, known as long-recovery early events (LORE). In this study, we identify LORE as a distinct category of early VLF events, whose signature may occur either on its own or alongside the short-lived typical early VLF event. Since LORE onsets coincide with powerful lightning strokes of either polarity (±), we infer that they are due to long-lasting ionization changes in the uppermost D region ionosphere caused by electromagnetic pulses emitted by strong ± CG lightning peak currents of typically > 250 kA, which are also known to generate elves. The LORE perturbations are detected when the discharge is located within ~250 km from the great circle path of a VLF transmitter-receiver link. The probability of occurrence increases with stroke intensity and approaches unity for discharges with peak currents ≥ ~300 kA. LOREs are nighttime phenomena that occur preferentially, at least in the present regional data set, during winter when strong ± CG discharges are more frequent and intense. The evidence suggests LORE as a distinct signature representing the VLF fingerprint of elves, a fact which, although was predicted by theory, it escaped identification in the long-going VLF research of lightning effects in the lower ionosphere.

  4. Neurotoxic effects of oxygen in hyperbaric environment: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabrenović Milorad


    Full Text Available Introduction. Oxygen is an essential element of life in aerobic organisms. However, if not controlled, inhalation of oxygen under increased pressure in conditions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy can lead to serious damage and even death. Case report. We presented a 20-year-old male who had begun exhibiting symptoms of epilepsy during diving test in a hyperbaric chamber while inhaling 100% oxygen. He was immediately taken off oxygen mask and started breathing air and began rapid decompression. He lost consciousness, began foaming at the mouth, and had a series of tonic spasms. The patient was previously completely healthy and not on any medications. He was admitted for emergency treatment in our hospital, where he was treated for epilepsy. On admission, he complained of muscle and joint pain, and had erythematous changes on the forehead, neck and chest. All these changes occurred after leaving the hyperbaric chamber. Bloodwork revealed leukocytosis with neutrophil (Leukocytosis 16.0 ´ 109/L (reference values 4.00-11.00 ´ 109/L, Neutrophili 13 ´ 109/L (reference values 1.9-8.0 ´ 109/L, with elevated enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST 56 U/L (reference values 0-37 U/L, alanin aminotransferase (ALT 59 U /L, (reference values 25-65 U/L, creatine kinase (CK 649 U/L, (reference values 32-300 U /L, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH 398 U/L (reference values 85- 227 U/L. Because of pain and his condition we began treatment in a hyperbaric chamber at a pressure of 2.0 ATA for 70 minutes, resulting in a reduction of symptoms and objective recovery of the patient. Within 24 h, repeated laboratory tests showed a reduction of leukocytosis (13 ´ 109/L and neutrophils (7.81 ´ 109/L, and the gradual reduction of the enzymes AST (47 U/L, ALT (50 U/L, CK (409 U/L, LDH (325 U/L. Since head CT and EEG were normal, epilepsy diagnosis was ruled out. This fact, along with medical tests, facilitated the differential diagnosis and confirmed that this was a case of

  5. Long-Term Outcomes of Early Reading Intervention (United States)

    Hurry, Jane; Sylva, Kathy


    This study explores the long-term effectiveness of two differing models of early intervention for children with reading difficulties: Reading Recovery and a specific phonological training. Approximately 400 children were pre-tested, 95 were assigned to Reading Recovery, 97 to Phonological Training and the remainder acted as controls. In the short…

  6. Cutaneous Mitochondrial PO2, but Not Tissue Oxygen Saturation, Is an Early Indicator of the Physiologic Limit of Hemodilution in the Pig. (United States)

    Römers, Luuk H L; Bakker, Charlotte; Dollée, Nathalie; Hoeks, Sanne E; Lima, Alexandre; Raat, Nicolaas J H; Johannes, Tanja; Stolker, Robert J; Mik, Egbert G


    Hemodilution is a consequence of fluid replacement during blood loss and is limited by the individual ability to compensate for decreasing hemoglobin level. We tested the ability of a novel noninvasive method for measuring cutaneous mitochondrial PO2 (mitoPO2) to detect this threshold early. Anesthetized and ventilated pigs were hemodynamically monitored and randomized into a hemodilution (n = 12) or a time control (TC) group (n = 14). MitoPO2 measurements were done by oxygen-dependent delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX after preparation of the skin with 20% 5-aminolevulinic acid cream. Tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) was measured with near infrared spectroscopy on the thoracic wall. After baseline measurements, progressive normovolemic hemodilution was performed in the hemodilution group in equal steps (500 ml blood replaced by 500 ml Voluven; Fresenius Kabi AG, Germany). Consecutive measurements were performed after 20-min stabilization periods and repeated 8 times or until the animal died. The TC animals remained stable with regard to hemodynamics and mitoPO2. In the hemodilution group, mitoPO2 became hemoglobin-dependent after reaching a threshold of 2.6 ± 0.2 g/dl. During hemodilution, hemoglobin and mitoPO2 decreased (7.9 ± 0.2 to 2.1 ± 0.2 g/dl; 23.6 ± 2 to 9.9 ± 0.8 mmHg), but StO2 did not. Notably, mitoPO2 dropped quite abruptly (about 39%) at the individual threshold. We observed that this decrease in mitoPO2 occurred at least one hemodilution step before changes in other conventional parameters. Cutaneous mitoPO2 decreased typically one hemodilution step before occurrence of significant alterations in systemic oxygen consumption and lactate levels. This makes mitoPO2 a potential early indicator of the physiologic limit of hemodilution and possibly a physiologic trigger for blood transfusion.

  7. The Effect of early physiotherapy on the recovery of mandibular function after orthognathic surgery for Class III correction: part I--jaw-motion analysis. (United States)

    Teng, Terry Te-Yi; Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching; Huang, Chiung Shing; Chen, Yu-Ray


    The aim of this prospective study was to compare the mandibular range of motion in Class III patients with and without early physiotherapy after orthognathic surgery (OGS). This study consisted of 63 Class III patients who underwent 2-jaw OGS. The experimental group comprised 31 patients who received early systematic physical rehabilitation. The control group consisted of 32 patients who did not have physical rehabilitation. Twelve variables of 3-dimensional (3D) jaw-motion analysis (JMA) were recorded before surgery (T1) and 6 weeks (T2) and 6 months (T3) after surgery. A 2-sample t test was conducted to compare the JMA results between the two groups at different time points. At T2, the JMA data were measured to be 77.5%-145.7% of presurgical values in the experimental group, and 60.3%-90.6% in the control group. At T3, the measurements were 112.2%-179.2% of presurgical values in the experimental group, and 77.6%-157.2% in the control group. The patients in the experimental group exhibited more favorable recovery than did those in the control group, from T1 to T2 and T1 to T3. However, after termination of physiotherapy, no significant difference in the extent of recovery was observed between groups up to 6 months after OGS. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxygen ingress : a practical look at typical ingress mechanisms and the consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerbscher, J. [Baker Hughes Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Marlowe, D. [ChevronTexaco, Kenai, AK (United States); Thomas, J. [Baker Hughes, Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    This paper discussed methods of identifying and treating oxygen corrosion in hydrocarbon processing facilities. Oxygen corrosion is often misdiagnosed during the course of corrosion failure analyses. Measures to find the source of ingress are only typically initiated when test results demonstrate significant sources of oxygen within processing systems. The iron oxides produced as byproducts from oxygen reactions increase pitting and corrosion rates, and most of the chemical inhibitors used in oil and gas processing are not designed to work in the presence of oxygen. Oxygen reacts with hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) to form elemental sulfur. The high pressures used in processing facilities enhance the thermodynamic and kinetic tendencies of the chemical reactions with oxygen. Sulfur particles are known to enhance corrosion rates by an order of magnitude, and can also cause fouling and flow restrictions. Oxygen ingress can occur via vapor recovery unit, vacuum excursions, and liquid storage tanks. Symptoms that indicate oxygen ingress can include the presence of iron compounds in solid samples; the presence of sulfur; fouling of wet gas transmission lines; the presence of ionic polysulfides in the aqueous phase; higher corrosion rates than predicted; and the degradation of glycols in dehydration units. Portable gas chromatography, oxygen detection vials, and X-ray diffraction analysis techniques are used to detect oxygen ingress. Real time oxygen monitors are also connected to SCADA systems. It was concluded that oxygen testing should be conducted periodically in order to identify and eliminate its source of entry. A technical summary of corrosive species was included. 1 tab., 15 figs.

  9. Devonian rise in atmospheric oxygen correlated to the radiations of terrestrial plants and large predatory fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Hammarlund, Emma; Anbar, Ariel D.


    after the initial rise of animals and, therefore, suggesting that early metazoans evolved in a relatively low oxygen environment. This later oxygenation correlates with the diversification of vascular plants, which likely contributed to increased oxygenation through the enhanced burial of organic carbon...

  10. Oxygenation of the Mesoproterozoic ocean and the evolution of complex eukaryotes (United States)

    Zhang, Kan; Zhu, Xiangkun; Wood, Rachel A.; Shi, Yao; Gao, Zhaofu; Poulton, Simon W.


    The Mesoproterozoic era (1,600-1,000 million years ago (Ma)) has long been considered a period of relative environmental stasis, with persistently low levels of atmospheric oxygen. There remains much uncertainty, however, over the evolution of ocean chemistry during this period, which may have been of profound significance for the early evolution of eukaryotic life. Here we present rare earth element, iron-speciation and inorganic carbon isotope data to investigate the redox evolution of the 1,600-1,550 Ma Yanliao Basin, North China Craton. These data confirm that the ocean at the start of the Mesoproterozoic was dominantly anoxic and ferruginous. Significantly, however, we find evidence for a progressive oxygenation event starting at 1,570 Ma, immediately prior to the occurrence of complex multicellular eukaryotes in shelf areas of the Yanliao Basin. Our study thus demonstrates that oxygenation of the Mesoproterozoic environment was far more dynamic and intense than previously envisaged, and establishes an important link between rising oxygen and the emerging record of diverse, multicellular eukaryotic life in the early Mesoproterozoic.

  11. Role of fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling pathway in the recovery of neurological function after early ischemic stroke in a rat model. (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Zhi; Wang, Chun; Wang, Qian; Lin, Yong-Zhong; Ge, Yu-Song; Li, Dong-Mei; Mao, Geng-Sheng


    This study aims to explore the role of fractalkine/CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) signaling pathway in the recovery of neurological functioning after an early ischemic stroke in rats. After establishment of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) models, 50 rats were divided into blank, sham, model, positive control and CX3CR1 inhibitor groups. Neurological impairment, walking and grip abilities, and cortical and hippocampal infarctions were evaluated by Zea Longa scoring criterion, beam-walking assay and grip strength test, and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to detect mRNA and protein expressions. ELISA was conducted to measure concentration of sFractalkine (sFkn), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and TNF-α. The recovery rate of neurological functioning impairment and reduced walking and grip abilities was faster in the positive control and CX3CR1 inhibitor groups than the model group. The model, positive control and CX3CR1 inhibitor groups showed increased mRNA and protein expression of chemokine C-X3-C motif ligand 1 (CX3CL1) and CX3CR1, concentration of sFkn, IL-1β and TNF-α, and size of cortical and cerebral infarctions while decreased expression of NGF and BDNF compared with the blank and sham groups. Compared with the model group, the mRNA and protein expression of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1, concentration of sFkn, IL-1β and TNF-α, and size of cortical and cerebral infarctions decreased while expression of NGF and BDNF increased in the positive control and CX3CR1 inhibitor groups. Thus, the study suggests that inhibition of fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling pathway promotes the recovery of neurological functioning after the occurrence of an early ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of oxygen content during an initial sustained inflation on heart rate in asphyxiated near-term lambs. (United States)

    Sobotka, K S; Ong, T; Polglase, G R; Crossley, K J; Moss, T J M; Hooper, S B


    At birth, an initial sustained inflation (SI) uniformly aerates the lungs, increases arterial oxygenation and rapidly improves circulatory recovery in asphyxiated newborns. We hypothesised that lung aeration, in the absence of an increase in arterial oxygenation, can increase heart rate (HR) in asphyxiated near-term lambs. Lambs were delivered and instrumented at 139±2 days of gestation. Asphyxia was induced by umbilical cord clamping and then delaying the onset of ventilation until mean carotid arterial pressures (CAPs) had decreased <20 mm Hg. Lambs then received a single 30-s SI using nitrogen (N2; n=6), 5% oxygen (O2; n=6), 21% O2 (n=6) or 100% O2 (n=6) followed by ventilation in air for 30 min. HR, CAP and pulmonary blood flow (PBF) were continuously recorded. HR and PBF increased more quickly in lambs resuscitated with 100% and 21% O2 than with 5% O2 or N2. HR and PBF recovery in the 5% O2 group was delayed relative to all other oxygen SI groups. HR in 5%, 21% and 100% O2 groups reached 100 bpm before the SI was complete. HR and PBF in the N2 group did not increase until 10 s after the SI was completed and ventilation was initiated with air. CAP tended to increase quicker in all O2 groups than in N2 group. Oxygen content during an SI is important for circulatory recovery in asphyxiated lambs. This increase in HR is likely driven by the increase in PBF and venous return to the heart. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  13. The repeated-bout effect: influence on biceps brachii oxygenation and myoelectrical activity. (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Lee, Hoseong; Millet, Guillaume Y; Ferrari, Marco; Nosaka, Kazunori


    This study investigated biceps brachii oxygenation and myoelectrical activity during and following maximal eccentric exercise to better understand the repeated-bout effect. Ten men performed two bouts of eccentric exercise (ECC1, ECC2), consisting of 10 sets of 6 maximal lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors separated by 4 wk. Tissue oxygenation index minimum amplitude (TOI(min)), mean and maximum total hemoglobin volume by near-infrared spectroscopy, torque, and surface electromyography root mean square (EMG(RMS)) during exercise were compared between ECC1 and ECC2. Changes in maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque, range of motion, plasma creatine kinase activity, muscle soreness, TOI(min), and EMG(RMS) during sustained (10-s) and 30-repeated isometric contraction tasks at 30% (same absolute force) and 100% MVC (same relative force) for 4 days postexercise were compared between ECC1 and ECC2. No significant differences between ECC1 and ECC2 were evident for changes in torque, TOI(min), mean total hemoglobin volume, maximum total hemoglobin volume, and EMG(RMS) during exercise. Smaller (P < 0.05) changes and faster recovery of muscle damage markers were evident following ECC2 than ECC1. During 30% MVC tasks, TOI(min) did not change, but EMG(RMS) increased 1-4 days following ECC1 and ECC2. During 100% MVC tasks, EMG(RMS) did not change, but torque and TOI(min) decreased 1-4 days following ECC1 and ECC2. TOI(min) during 100% MVC tasks and EMG(RMS) during 30% MVC tasks recovered faster (P < 0.05) following ECC2 than ECC1. We conclude that the repeated-bout effect cannot be explained by altered muscle activation or metabolic/hemodynamic changes, and the faster recovery in muscle oxygenation and activation was mainly due to faster recovery of force.

  14. Enhanced recovery after elective colorectal surgery: now the standard of care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Andrews, E J


    Enhanced recovery programmes have been studied in randomised trials with evidence of quicker recovery of gut function, reduced morbidity, mortality and hospital stay and improved physiological and nutritional outcomes. They aim to reduce the physiological and psychological stress of surgery and consequently the uncontrolled stress response. The key elements, reduced pre-operative fasting, intravenous fluid restriction and early feeding after surgery, are in conflict with traditional management plans but are supported by strong clinical evidence. Given the strength of the current data enhanced recovery should now be the standard of care.

  15. Delayed recovery of non-marine tetrapods after the end-Permian mass extinction tracks global carbon cycle


    Irmis, Randall B.; Whiteside, Jessica H.


    During the end-Permian mass extinction, marine ecosystems suffered a major drop in diversity, which was maintained throughout the Early Triassic until delayed recovery during the Middle Triassic. This depressed diversity in the Early Triassic correlates with multiple major perturbations to the global carbon cycle, interpreted as either intrinsic ecosystem or external palaeoenvironmental effects. In contrast, the terrestrial record of extinction and recovery is less clear; the effects and magn...

  16. Recovery profile-e comparison of isoflurane and propofol anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A.; Siddiqui, S.Z.; Aftab, S.; Sabbar, S.


    To compare the recovery profile in terms of time of extubation, eye opening, orientation and mobility and frequency of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) between propofol and isoflurane based anesthesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy with prophylactic antiemetic. After informed consent, a total of 60 ASA I-II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were divided in two equal groups I and P. Anesthesia in all patients were induced by Nalbuphine 0.15 mg/kg, Midazolam 0.03 mg/kg, Propofol 1.5 mg/kg and Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. Anesthesia was maintained with Isoflurane in group I and propofol infusion in group P, while ventilation was maintained with 50% N/sub 2/O/sub 2/ mixture in both the groups. All patients were given antiemetic prophylaxis. Hemodynamics were recorded throughout anesthesia and recovery period. At the end of surgery, times of extubation, eye opening, orientation (by modified Aldrete score) and mobility (recovery profile) were assessed. PONV was observed and recorded immediately after extubation, during early postoperative period (0-4 hours) and late period (4-24 hours). Antiemetic requirements were also recorded for the same periods in both the groups. Propofol provided faster recovery (extubation and eye opening times) and orientation in immediate postoperative period with statistically significant differences between the groups (p<0.0001). Recovery characteristics were comparably lower in group I. More patients achieved full points (8) on modified Aldrete score at different time until 30 minutes in group P. Postoperative nausea and vomiting in early and late periods were significantly reduced in group P. Moreover, requirement of rescue antiemetic doses were significantly lower in group P in 24 hours (p<0.0001). In this series, recovery was much faster with earlier gain of orientation with propofol anesthesia compared to isoflurane in the early recovery periods. Propofol is likely to be a better choice of

  17. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.


    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena eRadbruch


    Full Text Available Most multiple sclerosis patients develop over time a secondary progressive disease course, characterized histologically by axonal loss and atrophy. In early phases of the disease, focal inflammatory demyelination leads to functional impairment, but the mechanism of chronic progression in multiple sclerosis is still under debate. Reactive oxygen species generated by invading and resident central nervous system (CNS macrophages have been implicated in mediating demyelination and axonal damage, but demyelination and neurodegeneration proceed even in the absence of obvious immune cell infiltration, during clinical recovery in chronic multiple sclerosis. Here, we employ intravital NAD(PH fluorescence lifetime imaging to detect functional NADPH oxidases (NOX1-4, DUOX1,2 and, thus, to identify the cellular source of oxidative stress in the central nervous system of mice affected by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in the remission phase of the disease. This directly affects neuronal function in vivo, as monitored by cellular calcium levels using intravital FRET-FLIM, providing a possible mechanism of disease progression in multiple sclerosis.

  19. Silicon Micropore-Based Parallel Plate Membrane Oxygenator. (United States)

    Dharia, Ajay; Abada, Emily; Feinberg, Benjamin; Yeager, Torin; Moses, Willieford; Park, Jaehyun; Blaha, Charles; Wright, Nathan; Padilla, Benjamin; Roy, Shuvo


    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system to temporarily (days to months) support heart or lung function during cardiopulmonary failure until organ recovery or replacement. Currently, the need for high levels of systemic anticoagulation and the risk for bleeding are main drawbacks of ECMO that can be addressed with a redesigned ECMO system. Our lab has developed an approach using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques to create novel gas exchange membranes consisting of a rigid silicon micropore membrane (SμM) support structure bonded to a thin film of gas-permeable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This study details the fabrication process to create silicon membranes with highly uniform micropores that have a high level of pattern fidelity. The oxygen transport across these membranes was tested in a simple water-based bench-top set-up as well in a porcine in vivo model. It was determined that the mass transfer coefficient for the system using SµM-PDMS membranes was 3.03 ± 0.42 mL O 2 min -1 m -2 cm Hg -1 with pure water and 1.71 ± 1.03 mL O 2 min -1 m -2 cm Hg -1 with blood. An analytic model to predict gas transport was developed using data from the bench-top experiments and validated with in vivo testing. This was a proof of concept study showing adequate oxygen transport across a parallel plate SµM-PDMS membrane when used as a membrane oxygenator. This work establishes the tools and the equipoise to develop future generations of silicon micropore membrane oxygenators. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. SIRT3 Expression Decreases with Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Rat Cortical Neurons during Early Brain Injury Induced by Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang


    Full Text Available Sirtuin3 (SIRT3 is an important protein deacetylase which predominantly presents in mitochondria and exhibits broad bioactivities including regulating energy metabolism and counteracting inflammatory effect. Since inflammatory cascade was proved to be critical for pathological damage following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, we investigated the overall expression and cell-specific distribution of SIRT3 in the cerebral cortex of Sprague-Dawley rats with experimental SAH induced by internal carotid perforation. Results suggested that SIRT3 was expressed abundantly in neurons and endothelia but rarely in gliocytes in normal cerebral cortex. After experimental SAH, mRNA and protein expressions of SIRT3 decreased significantly as early as 8 hours and dropped to the minimum value at 24 h after SAH. By contrast, SOD2 expression increased slowly as early as 12 hours after experimental SAH, rose up sharply at the following 12 hours, and then was maintained at a higher level. In conclusion, attenuated SIRT3 expression in cortical neurons was associated closely with enhanced reactive oxygen species generation and cellular apoptosis, implying that SIRT3 might play an important neuroprotective role during early brain injury following SAH.

  1. Early infection and prognosis after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J


    Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome....... In addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....

  2. Evaluating an early intervention in psychosis service for 'high-risk' adolescents: symptomatic and social recovery outcomes. (United States)

    Lower, Rebecca; Wilson, Jonathan; Medin, Evelina; Corlett, Emma; Turner, Ruth; Wheeler, Karen; Fowler, David


    This study presents client characteristics and treatment outcomes for a group of young people seen by Central Norfolk Early Intervention Team (CNEIT). The team offers an intensive outreach model of treatment to young people with complex co-morbid emotional, behavioural and social problems, as well as the presence of psychotic symptoms. Outcomes include both client self-report and clinician-rated measures. Data are routinely collected at acceptance into service, after 12 months of service and at point of discharge. Data show that clients seen by the CNEIT youth team are a group of young people at high risk of developing long-term mental illness and social disability. Outcomes show significant reductions in not only psychotic symptomatology, but also co-morbid anxiety and depression, as well as improvements in social recovery. At the end of their time with the service, the majority of clients are discharged back to the care of their general practitioner, which indicates that the team successfully managed to reduce the complexity of needs and difficulties associated with this client group. Outcomes support the use of an intensive outreach approach for young people at high risk of developing psychotic disorders. It has been suggested that this model may be successfully broadened to young people with other emerging, potentially severe or complex mental disorders. Norfolk and Suffolk NHS Foundation Trust has built on the success of its youth early intervention team and innovatively redesigned its services in line with this model by developing a specific youth mental health service. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Inverse Regulation of Early and Late Chondrogenic Differentiation by Oxygen Tension Provides Cues for Stem Cell-Based Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Portron


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Multipotent stem/stromal cells (MSC are considered promising for cartilage tissue engineering. However, chondrogenic differentiation of MSC can ultimately lead to the formation of hypertrophic chondrocytes responsible for the calcification of cartilage. To prevent the production of this calcified matrix at the articular site, the late hypertrophic differentiation of MSCs must be carefully controlled. Given that articular cartilage is avascular, we hypothesized that in addition to its stimulatory role in the early differentiation of chondrogenic cells, hypoxia may prevent their late hypertrophic conversion. Methods: Early and late chondrogenic differentiation were evaluated using human adipose MSC and murine ATDC5 cells cultured under either normoxic (21%O2 or hypoxic (5%O2 conditions. To investigate the effect of hypoxia on late chondrogenic differentiation, the transcriptional activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α and HIF-2α were evaluated using the NoShift DNA-binding assay and through modulation of their activity (chemical inhibitor, RNA interference. Results: Our data demonstrate that low oxygen tension not only stimulates the early chondrogenic commitment of two complementary models of chondrogenic cells, but also inhibits their hypertrophic differentiation. Conclusion: These results suggest that hypoxia can be used as an instrumental tool to prevent the formation of a calcified matrix in MSC-based cartilage tissue engineering.

  4. Early resuscitation with polymerized bovine hemoglobin reverses acidosis, but not peripheral tissue oxygenation, in a severe hamster shock model. (United States)

    Wettstein, Reto; Tsai, Amy G; Harder, Yves; Erni, Dominique; Intaglietta, Marcos


    Awake hamsters equipped with the dorsal window chamber preparation were subjected to hemorrhage of 50% of the estimated blood volume. Initial resuscitation (25% of estimated blood volume) with polymerized bovine hemoglobin (PBH) or 10% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) occurred in concert with an equivolumetric bleeding to simulate the early, prehospital setting (exchange transfusion). Resuscitation (25% of estimated blood volume) without bleeding was performed with PBH, HES, or autologous red blood cells (HES-RBCs). Peripheral microcirculation, tissue oxygenation, and systemic hemodynamic and blood gas parameters were assessed. After exchange transfusion, base deficit was -8.6 +/- 3.7 mmol/L (PBH) and -5.1 +/- 5.3 mmol/L (HES) (not significant). Functional capillary density was 17% +/- 6% of baseline (PBH) and 31% +/- 11% (HES) (P < 0.05) and arteriolar diameter 73% +/- 3% of baseline (PBH) and 90% + 5% (HES) (P < 0.01). At the end, hemoglobin levels were 3.7 +/- 0.3 g/dL with HES, 8.2 +/- 0.6 g/dL with PBH, and 10.4 +/- 0.8 g/dL with HES-RBCs (P < 0.01 HES vs. PBH and HES-RBCs, P < 0.05 PBH vs. HES-RBCs). Base excess was restored to baseline with PBH and HES-RBCs, but not with HES (P < 0.05). Functional capillary density was 46% +/- 5% of baseline (PBH), 62% + 20% (HES-RBCs), and 36% +/- 19% (HES) (P < 0.01 HES-RBCs vs. HES). Peripheral oxygen delivery and consumption was highest with HES-RBCs, followed by PBH (P < 0.05 HES-RBCs vs. PBH, P < 0.01 HES-RBCs and PBH vs. HES). In conclusion, the PBH led to a correction of base deficit comparable to blood transfusion. However, oxygenation of the peripheral tissue was inferior with PBH. This was attributed to its negative impact on the peripheral microcirculation caused by arteriolar vasoconstriction.

  5. Oxygen profile and clogging in vertical flow sand filters for on-site wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Petitjean, A; Forquet, N; Boutin, C


    13 million people (about 20% of the population) use on-site wastewater treatment in France. Buried vertical sand filters are often built, especially when the soil permeability is not sufficient for septic tank effluent infiltration in undisturbed soil. Clogging is one of the main problems deteriorating the operation of vertical flow filters for wastewater treatment. The extent of clogging is not easily assessed, especially in buried vertical flow sand filters. We suggest examining two possible ways of detecting early clogging: (1) NH4-N/NO3-N outlet concentration ratio, and (2) oxygen measurement within the porous media. Two pilot-scale filters were equipped with probes for oxygen concentration measurements and samples were taken at different depths for pollutant characterization. Influent and effluent grab-samples were taken three times a week. The systems were operated using batch-feeding of septic tank effluent. Qualitative description of oxygen transfer processes under unclogged and clogged conditions is presented. NH4-N outlet concentration appears to be useless for early clogging detection. However, NO3-N outlet concentration and oxygen content allows us to diagnose the early clogging of the system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of sugammadex on postoperative cognitive function and recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Pişkin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent. When compared with neostigmine, following sugammadex administration patients wake earlier and have shorter recovery times. In this study, we hypothesized that fast and clear awakening in patients undergoing general anesthesia has positive effects on cognitive functions in the early period after operation. Methods: Approved by the local ethical committee, 128 patients were enrolled in this randomized, prospective, controlled, double-blind study. Patients were allocated to either Sugammadex group (Group S or the Neostigmine group (Group N. The primary outcome of the study was early postoperative cognitive recovery as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. After baseline assessment 12-24 h before the operation. After the operation, when the Modified Aldrete Recovery Score was ≥9 the MMSE and 1 h later the MoCA tests were repeated. Results: Although there was a reduction in MoCA and MMSE scores in both Group S and Group N between preoperative and postoperative scores, there was no statistically significant difference in the slopes (p > 0.05. The time to reach TOF 0.9 was 2.19 min in Group S and 6.47 min in Group N (p < 0.0001. Recovery time was 8.26 min in Group S and 16.93 min in Group N (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: We showed that the surgical procedure and/or accompanying anesthetic procedure may cause a temporary or permanent regression in cognitive function in the early postoperative period. However, better cognitive performance could not be proved in the Sugammadex compared to the Neostigmine.

  7. Experience with early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic surgery. (United States)

    Ko, Po-Jen; Hsieh, Hung-Chang; Liu, Yun-Hen; Liu, Hui-Ping


    Abdominal aortic surgery is a form of major vascular surgery, which traditionally involves long hospital stays and significant postoperative morbidity. Experiences with transit ileus are often encountered after the aortic surgery. Thus traditional postoperative care involves delayed oral feeding until the patients regain their normal bowel activities. This report examines the feasibility of early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) open-repair. From May 2002 through May 2003, 10 consecutive patients with infrarenal AAA who underwent elective surgical open-repair by the same surgeon in our department were reviewed. All of them had been operated upon and cared for according to the early feeding postoperative care protocol, which comprised of adjuvant epidural anesthesia, postoperative patient controlled analgesia, early postoperative feeding and early rehabilitation. The postoperative recovery and length of hospital stay were reviewed and analyzed. All patients were able to sip water within 1 day postoperatively without trouble (Average; 12.4 hours postoperatively). All but one patient was put on regular diet within 3 days postoperatively (Average; 2.2 days postoperatively). The average postoperative length of stay in hospital was 5.8 days. No patient died or had major morbidity. Early postoperative feeding after open repair of abdominal aorta is safe and feasible. The postoperative recovery could be improved and the length of stay reduced by simply using adjuvant epidural anesthesia during surgery, postoperative epidural patient-controlled analgesia, early feeding, early ambulation, and early rehabilitation. The initial success of our postoperative recovery program of aortic repair was demonstrated.

  8. Oxygen Compatibility of Brass-Filled PTFE Compared to Commonly Used Fluorinated Polymers for Oxygen Systems (United States)

    Herald, Stephen D.; Frisby, Paul M.; Davis, Samuel Eddie


    Safe and reliable seal materials for high-pressure oxygen systems sometimes appear to be extinct species when sought out by oxygen systems designers. Materials that seal well are easy to find, but these materials are typically incompatible with oxygen, especially in cryogenic liquid form. This incompatibility can result in seals that leak, or much worse, seals that easily ignite and burn during use. Materials that are compatible with oxygen are easy to find, such as the long list of compatible metals, but these metallic materials are limiting as seal materials. A material that seals well and is oxygen compatible has been the big game in the designer's safari. Scientists at the Materials Combustion Research Facility (MCRF), part of NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), are constantly searching for better materials and processes to improve the safety of oxygen systems. One focus of this effort is improving the characteristics of polymers used in the presence of an oxygen enriched environment. Very few systems can be built which contain no polymeric materials; therefore, materials which have good impact resistance, low heat of combustion, high auto-ignition temperature and that maintain good mechanical properties are essential. The scientists and engineers at the Materials Combustion Research Facility, in cooperation with seal suppliers, are currently testing a new formulation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with Brass filler. This Brass-filled PTFE is showing great promise as a seal and seat material for high pressure oxygen systems. Early research has demonstrated very encouraging results, which could rank this material as one of the best fluorinated polymers ever tested. This paper will compare the data obtained for Brass-filled PTFE with other fluorinated polymers, such as TFE-Teflon (PTFE) , Kel-F 81, Viton A, Viton A-500, Fluorel , and Algoflon . A similar metal filled fluorinated polymer, Salox-M , was tested in comparison to Brass-filled PTFE to

  9. Early recovery after abdominal rectopexy with multimodal rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Linda; Billesbølle, Per; Kehlet, Henrik


    status III to IV, were scheduled for abdominal rectopexy with a multimodal rehabilitation program including 48 hours thoracic epidural analgesia or patient-controlled anesthesia (3 patients), early oral nutrition and mobilization, and a planned two-day postoperative hospital stay. Follow-up was done...

  10. Quasi-distributed sol-gel coated fiber optic oxygen sensing probe (United States)

    Zolkapli, Maizatul; Saharudin, Suhairi; Herman, Sukreen Hana; Abdullah, Wan Fazlida Hanim


    In the field of aquaculture, optical sensor technology is beginning to provide alternatives to the conventional electrical sensor. Hence, the development and characterization of a multipoint quasi-distributed optical fiber sensor for oxygen measurement is reported. The system is based on 1 mm core diameter plastic optical fiber where sections of cladding have been removed and replaced with three metal complexes sol-gel films to form sensing points. The sensing locations utilize luminophores that have emission peaks at 385 nm, 405 nm and 465 nm which associated with each of the sensing points. Interrogation of the optical sensor system is through a fiber optic spectrometer incorporating narrow bandpass emission optical filter. The sensors showed comparable sensitivity and repeatability, as well as fast response and recovery towards oxygen.

  11. No effect of fibrin sealant on drain output or functional recovery following simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Christian; Holm, Bente; Troelsen, Anders


    Background and purpose Blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may lead to anemia, blood transfusions, and increased total costs. Also, bleeding into the periarticular tissue may cause swelling and a reduction in quadriceps strength, thus impairing early functional recovery. In this random...... in TKA showed no benefit in reducing drain output or in facilitating early functional recovery when used with a tourniquet, tranexamic acid, and a femoral bone plug....

  12. Working group written presentation: Atomic oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, L.J.; Visentine, J.T.


    Earlier Shuttle flight experiments have shown NASA and SDIO spacecraft designed for operation in low-Earth orbit (LEO) must take into consideration the highly oxidative characteristics of the ambient flight environment. Materials most adversely affected by atomic oxygen interactions include organic films, advanced (carbon-based) composites, thermal control coatings, organic-based paints, optical coatings, and thermal control blankets commonly used in spacecraft applications. Earlier results of NASA flight experiments have shown prolonged exposure of sensitive spacecraft materials to the LEO environment will result in degraded systems performance or, more importantly, lead to requirements for excessive on-orbit maintenance, with both conditions contributing significantly to increased mission costs and reduced mission objectives. Flight data obtained from previous Space Shuttle missions and results of the Solar Max recovery mission are limited in terms of atomic oxygen exposure and accuracy of fluence estimates. The results of laboratory studies to investigate the long-term (15 to 30 yrs) effects of AO exposure on spacecraft surfaces are only recently available, and qualitative correlations of laboratory results with flight results have been obtained for only a limited number of materials. The working group recommended the most promising ground-based laboratories now under development be made operational as soon as possible to study the full-life effects of atomic oxygen exposure on spacecraft systems

  13. Effect of oxygen on the properties of Y-Ba-CuO ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoshkalenko, V.V.; Ivanov, M.A.; Klimenko, G.A.


    The samples of Y-Ba-CuO ceramics 60x60x60 mm 3 in size were synthesized and investigated with provision for their impurity content, crystallography, superconductive and magnetic properties. The conditions of low temperature thermal treatments, as compared to the sintering ones, are offered that result in degradation of superconductive properties due to partial oxygen removal and their subsequent recovery. The mechanism of copper spin-paramagnetism growth in oxygen-deficient samples is discussed. The intensity of narrow (∼ 3 mrad half-width) component observed in the angular distribution of annihilation photons of partially de-oxygenized sample is found to increase in a constant magnetic field, suggesting the formation of positronium-like states. The intense CuOEH + 2 emission line is shown to be present in the spectra of superconductive samples, while it is absent in the non-superconductive state

  14. δ 13C evidence that high primary productivity delayed recovery from end-Permian mass extinction (United States)

    Meyer, K. M.; Yu, M.; Jost, A. B.; Kelley, B. M.; Payne, J. L.


    Euxinia was widespread during and after the end-Permian mass extinction and is commonly cited as an explanation for delayed biotic recovery during Early Triassic time. This anoxic, sulfidic episode has been ascribed to both low- and high-productivity states in the marine water column, leaving the causes of euxinia and the mechanisms underlying delayed recovery poorly understood. Here we use isotopic analysis to examine the changing chemical structure of the water column through the recovery interval and thereby better constrain paleoproductivity. The δ 13C of limestones from 5 stratigraphic sections in south China displays a negative gradient of approximately 4‰ from shallow-to-deep water facies within the Lower Triassic. This intense gradient declines within Spathian and lowermost Middle Triassic strata, coincident with accelerated biotic recovery and carbon cycle stabilization. Model simulations show that high nutrient levels and a vigorous biological pump are required to sustain such a large gradient in δ 13C, indicating that Early Triassic ocean anoxia and delayed recovery of benthic animal ecosystems resulted from too much productivity rather than too little.

  15. Incineration method for plutonium recovery from alpha contaminated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahata, Taneaki; Abe, Jiro; Kato, Michiharu; Kurihara, Masayoshi


    An incineration method for plutonium recovery from α contaminated organic compounds in a flow of controlled oxygen gas is stated. The species of such thermal decomposition products as hydrocarbons, free carbon, carbon monoxide and hydrogen were determined by mass spectrography. The mixture of the products which are the source of tar or soot was converted to CO 2 and H 2 O in contact with copper oxide catalyst without flaming. This incineration method is composed of two stages. The first stage is the decomposition of organic compounds in the streams of gas mixtures containing oxygen in low ratios. The second stage is the incineration of the decomposition products by catalytic reaction in the streams of gas with higher oxygen ratios. Plutonium was recovered as the form of plutonium dioxide from the incineration residues of the first stage. The behavior of oil was examined as a representative of liquid organic compounds. It was found to evaporate below ca. 500 0 C, but was completely incinerated by the catalytic reaction with copper oxide catalyst in the flow of gas with controlled oxygen amount and was changed to CO 2 and H 2 O. (author)

  16. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery (United States)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.


    The potential is examined for waste heat recovery and reuse through thermal energy storage in five specific industrial categories: (1) primary aluminum, (2) cement, (3) food processing, (4) paper and pulp, and (5) iron and steel. Preliminary results from Phase 1 feasibility studies suggest energy savings through fossil fuel displacement approaching 0.1 quad/yr in the 1985 period. Early implementation of recovery technologies with minimal development appears likely in the food processing and paper and pulp industries; development of the other three categories, though equally desirable, will probably require a greater investment in time and dollars.

  17. Recovery post treatment: plans, barriers and motivators. (United States)

    Duffy, Paul; Baldwin, Helen


    The increasing focus on achieving a sustained recovery from substance use brings with it a need to better understand the factors (recovery capital) that contribute to recovery following treatment. This work examined the factors those in recovery perceive to be barriers to (lack of capital) or facilitators of (presence of capital) sustained recovery post treatment. A purposive sample of 45 participants was recruited from 11 drug treatment services in northern England. Semi-structured qualitative interviews lasting between 30 and 90 minutes were conducted one to three months after participants completed treatment. Interviews examined key themes identified through previous literature but focused on allowing participants to explore their unique recovery journey. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches. Participants generally reported high levels of confidence in maintaining their recovery with most planning to remain abstinent. There were indications of high levels of recovery capital. Aftercare engagement was high, often through self referral, with non substance use related activity felt to be particularly positive. Supported housing was critical and concerns were raised about the ability to afford to live independently with financial stability and welfare availability a key concern in general. Employment, often in the substance use treatment field, was a desire. However, it was a long term goal, with substantial risks associated with pursuing this too early. Positive social support was almost exclusively from within the recovery community although the re-building of relationships with family (children in particular) was a key motivator post treatment. Addressing internal factors and underlying issues i.e. 'human capital', provided confidence for continued recovery whilst motivators focused on external factors such as family and maintaining aspects of a 'normal' life i.e. 'social and physical

  18. Recovery post treatment: plans, barriers and motivators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Paul


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing focus on achieving a sustained recovery from substance use brings with it a need to better understand the factors (recovery capital that contribute to recovery following treatment. This work examined the factors those in recovery perceive to be barriers to (lack of capital or facilitators of (presence of capital sustained recovery post treatment. Methods A purposive sample of 45 participants was recruited from 11 drug treatment services in northern England. Semi-structured qualitative interviews lasting between 30 and 90 minutes were conducted one to three months after participants completed treatment. Interviews examined key themes identified through previous literature but focused on allowing participants to explore their unique recovery journey. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches. Results Participants generally reported high levels of confidence in maintaining their recovery with most planning to remain abstinent. There were indications of high levels of recovery capital. Aftercare engagement was high, often through self referral, with non substance use related activity felt to be particularly positive. Supported housing was critical and concerns were raised about the ability to afford to live independently with financial stability and welfare availability a key concern in general. Employment, often in the substance use treatment field, was a desire. However, it was a long term goal, with substantial risks associated with pursuing this too early. Positive social support was almost exclusively from within the recovery community although the re-building of relationships with family (children in particular was a key motivator post treatment. Conclusions Addressing internal factors and underlying issues i.e. ‘human capital’, provided confidence for continued recovery whilst motivators focused on external factors such as family and

  19. Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets (United States)


    Lunar Metal Grains: Solar, Lunar or Terrestrial Origin? 22) Isotopic Zoning in the Inner Solar System; 23) Redox Conditions on Small Bodies; 24) Determining the Oxygen Fugacity of Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses Using Vanadium Valence - An Update; 25) Mantle Redox Evolution and the Rise of Atmospheric O2; 26) Variation of Kd for Fe-Mg Exchange Between Olivine and Melt for Compositions Ranging from Alkaline Basalt to Rhyolite; 27) Determining the Partial Pressure of Oxygen (PO,) in Solutions on Mars; 28) The Influence of Oxygen Environment on Kinetic Properties of Silicate Rocks and Minerals; 29) Redox Evolution of Magmatic Systems; 30) The Constancy of Upper Mantlefo, Through Time Inferred from V/Sc Ratios in Basalts: Implications for the Rise in Atmospheric 0 2; 31) Nitrogen Solubility in Basaltic Melt. Effects of Oxygen Fugacity, Melt Composition and Gas Speciation; 32) Oxygen Isotope Anomalies in the Atmospheres of Earth and Mars; 33) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Interdiffusion of Iron and Magnesium in Magnesiowiistite 34) The Calibration of the Pyroxene Eu-Oxybarometer for the Martian Meteorites; 35) The Europium Oxybarometer: Power and Pitfalls; 36) Oxygen Fugacity of the Martian Mantle from PigeoniteMelt Partitioning of Samarium, Europium and Gadolinium; 37) Oxidation-Reduction Processes on the Moon: Experimental Verification of Graphite Oxidation in the Apollo 17 Orange Glasses; 38) Oxygen and Core Formation in the Earth; 39) Geologic Record of the Atmospheric Sulfur Chemistry Before the Oxygenation of the Early Earth s Atmosphere; 40) Comparative Planetary Mineralogy: V/(CrCAl) Systematics in Chromite as an Indicator of Relative Oxygen Fugacity; 41) How Well do Sulfur Isotopes Constrain Oxygen Abundance in the Ancient Atmospheres? 42) Experimental Constraints on the Oxygen Isotope (O-18/ O-16) Fractionation in the Ice vapor and Adsorbant vapor Systems of CO2 at Conditions Relevant to the Surface of Mars; 43) Micro-XANES Measurements on Experimental Spinels andhe

  20. Recovery in the 21st Century: From Shame to Strength. (United States)

    Gumbley, Stephen J


    Through the "war on drugs," the just-say-no campaign, and into the early years of this century, the overarching approach to substance use disorders (SUDs) called for a single outcome (abstinence) and a single methodology (spiritual connection with a higher power) as the remedy for SUDs. Those who did not become permanently abstinent or rejected the spiritual approach were seen as "not ready" or "in denial."A seismic shift in thinking about "addiction" and "recovery" began in earnest in the 1990s. In 2005, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration brought together leaders of the treatment and recovery field for the historic National Summit on Recovery to develop broad-based consensus on guiding principles for recovery and elements of recovery-oriented systems of care.Major changes associated with the recovery-oriented approach include viewing SUDs as chronic, rather than acute, problems that require long-term support and focusing on recovery management rather than disease management. Complete abstinence is not an absolute requirement for wellness for all persons with SUDs. There are "many pathways to recovery," not only the 12-Step approach (White & Kurtz, 2006). Sustained recovery is self-directed and requires personal choices, the support of peers and allies, and community reinforcement as well as a strength-based approach and the use of research-based interventions. This Perspectives column addresses the historical context for the transformation toward a recovery-oriented system of care, highlights federal efforts to promote recovery-oriented approaches, and describes recovery-oriented terminology to reduce misconceptions, labeling, and stigmatization and promote recovery for individuals, families, and communities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Zdorovennova


    Full Text Available The year-round measurement data of water temperature and dissolved oxygen content in a small boreal Lake Vendyurskoe in 2007–2013 were used to explore the hydrophysical prerequisits of anoxia and accumulation and emission of greenhouse gases. Typically, anoxia appears in the bottom layers of lakes in mid-winter and during the summer  stagnation. The thickness of the benthic anaerobic zone (dissolved oxygen concentration <2 mg·l–1 reached one meter in the end of the winter and at the peak of the summer stratification, except for the extremely hot summer of 2010, when it reached five meters. Synoptic conditions had a crucial influence on the formation and destruction of the benthic anaerobic zones in summer. The most favorable oxygen dynamics was observed during the cold summers of 2008, 2009, and 2012, when the repeated full mixings of the water column occurred under conditions of the cyclonic weather. In the winter periods, the early dates of ice season resulted in the most pronounced deficiency of oxygen.

  2. Hydrogen sulfide can inhibit and enhance oxygenic photosynthesis in a cyanobacterium from sulfidic springs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klatt, Judith M.; Haas, Sebastian; Yilmaz, Pelin; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    We used microsensors to investigate the combinatory effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and light on oxygenic photosynthesis in biofilms formed by a cyanobacterium from sulfidic springs. We found that photosynthesis was both positively and negatively affected by H2S: (i) H2S accelerated the recovery of

  3. The Recovery Framework in the BRRD and its Effectiveness, NORDIC & EUROPEAN COMPANY LAW Working Paper Series No. 15‐04

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Chenchen


    The EU has made great endeavors in establishing a bank resolution procedure after the global financial crisis (GFC). In April 2014 the directive on establishing a framework for the recovery and resolution of credit institutions and investment firms (referred to as The Bank Recovery and Resolution...... recovery framework, including the intra-group support, recovery and resolution planning, and the early intervention in the wake of bank failures, such as Lehman Brothers fall. It aims at assessing to which extent the new recovery framework enhances the resilience of banks and facilitates orderly resolution...... Directive, the BRRD) was finally adopted, which set up the basic framework for the resolution regime in the EU. The BRRD includes a three-step resolution framework: recovery and resolution planning, the early intervention, and the resolution. This article analyses the effectiveness of the pre-resolution...

  4. Decision Point 3 of Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) “Recovery Act: Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Integration with Advanced Industrial Systems”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Phillip


    Air Products is carrying out a scope of work under Phase 5 of the ITM Oxygen Cooperative Agreement to design, build, and operate a ceramic membrane fabrication facility (the -CerFabII) to enable production of membrane modules to supply a conceptual 2000 ton per day (TPD) ITM Oxygen facility (the -ITM Oxygen Development FacilityII), and to perform supporting development tasks in materials development and engineering development toward industrial, carbon capture and sequestration applications. Air Products is executing this project under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) with the objective to accelerate the adoption of ITM Oxygen technology to help meet the country’s goals for deploying clean power plants. The objective of this Topical Report is to address the requirements of Decision Point 3 (DP3), which pertains to the status of all Tasks within Phase 5 and most notably the project status of the CerFab (Task 30) prior to authorization of funds for equipment purchase and construction of the facility. The intent of the DP3 is to provide the opportunity for DOE-NETL to review the status of these tasks and to make recommendations on forward project direction, including a recommendation to pass into Budget Period 8. In the area of Materials Development, Air Products has specified a high pressure dilatometer system which will enable measurements of material expansion of ITM ceramic compounds at very high oxygen partial pressures consistent with CCS applications. Under Task 28.2, subcontractor Ceramatec has made significant progress since DP2 in materials selection and process development and improvement for advanced architecture module fabrication. Ceramatec has determined a materials specification, and has selected a process for making the material. Ceramatec has further developed and selected the process for applying the membrane to unsintered advanced architecture wafers with a Two Step process. Ceramatec has built submodules meeting leak rate

  5. Phospho-Rb mediating cell cycle reentry induces early apoptosis following oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat cortical neurons. (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Ren, Qing-Guo; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Zhou, Ke; Yu, Zhi-Yuan; Luo, Xiang; Wang, Wei


    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cell cycle reentry and apoptosis in cultured cortical neurons following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). We found that the percentage of neurons with BrdU uptake, TUNEL staining, and colocalized BrdU uptake and TUNEL staining was increased relative to control 6, 12 and 24 h after 1 h of OGD. The number of neurons with colocalized BrdU and TUNEL staining was decreased relative to the number of TUNEL-positive neurons at 24 h. The expression of phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (phospho-Rb) was significantly increased 6, 12 and 24 h after OGD, parallel with the changes in BrdU uptake. Phospho-Rb and TUNEL staining were colocalized in neurons 6 and 12 h after OGD. This colocalization was strikingly decreased 24 h after OGD. Treatment with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor roscovitine (100 μM) decreased the expression of phospho-Rb and reduced neuronal apoptosis in vitro. These results demonstrated that attempted cell cycle reentry with phosphorylation of Rb induce early apoptosis in neurons after OGD and there must be other mechanisms involved in the later stages of neuronal apoptosis besides cell cycle reentry. Phosphoralated Rb may be an important factor which closely associates aberrant cell cycle reentry with the early stages of neuronal apoptosis following ischemia/hypoxia in vitro, and pharmacological interventions for neuroprotection may be useful directed at this keypoint.

  6. Mechanisms of recovery from aphasia: evidence from serial xenon 133 cerebral blood flow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopman, D.S.; Rubens, A.B.; Selnes, O.A.; Klassen, A.C.; Meyer, M.W.


    In 21 patients who suffered aphasia resulting from left hemisphere ischemic infarction, the xenon 133 inhalation cerebral blood flow technique was used to measure cerebral blood flow within 3 months and 5 to 12 months after stroke. In addition to baseline measurements, cerebral blood flow measurements were also carried out while the patients were performing purposeful listening. In patients with incomplete recovery of comprehension and left posterior temporal-inferior parietal lesions, greater cerebral blood flow occurred with listening in the right inferior frontal region in the late studies than in the early studies. In patients with nearly complete recovery of comprehension and without left posterior temporal-inferior parietal lesions, early listening studies showed diffuse right hemisphere increases in cerebral blood flow. Later listening studies in this latter patient group showed greater cerebral blood flow in the left posterior temporal-inferior parietal region. The study provides evidence for participation of the right hemisphere in language comprehension in recovering aphasics, and for later return of function in left hemisphere regions that may have been functionally impaired early during recovery

  7. Escape of high-energy oxygen ions through magnetopause reconnection under northward IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kasahara


    Full Text Available During a storm recovery phase on 15 May 2005, the Geotail spacecraft repeatedly observed high-energy (>180 keV oxygen ions in the dayside magnetosheath near the equatorial plane. We focused on the time period from 11:20 UT to 13:00 UT, when Geotail observed the oxygen ions and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF was constantly northward. The magnetic reconnection occurrence northward and duskward of Geotail is indicated by the Walén analysis and convective flows in the magnetopause boundary layer. Anisotropic pitch angle distributions of ions suggest that high-energy oxygen ions escaped from the northward of Geotail along the reconnected magnetic field lines. From the low-energy particle precipitation in the polar cap observed by DMSP, which is consistent with magnetic reconnection occurring between the magnetosheath field lines and the magnetospheric closed field lines, we conclude that these oxygen ions are of ring current origin. Our results thus suggest a new escape route of oxygen ions during northward IMF. In the present event, this escape mechanism is more dominant than the leakage via the finite Larmor radius effect across the dayside equatorial magnetopause.

  8. Complete maternal and fetal recovery after prolonged cardiac arrest. (United States)

    Selden, B S; Burke, T J


    A case of complete maternal and fetal recovery after prolonged cardiac arrest from massive lidocaine overdose is presented. A 27-year-old woman at 15 weeks gestation had a complete neurologic recovery after 22 minutes of CPR, including 19 minutes of electromechanical dissociation and asystole, with normal fetal heart function and fetal motion confirmed by ultrasound immediately after resuscitation. The patient delivered a healthy and neurologically normal infant at 40 weeks gestation. This is the longest cardiac arrest in early pregnancy reported in the medical literature with normal maternal and fetal outcome.

  9. Positioning and early mobilisation in stroke. (United States)

    Keating, Moira; Penney, Maree; Russell, Petra; Bailey, Emma

    Stroke unit care, providing early rehabilitation, improves long-term outcomes for patients following a stroke. Early mobilisation and good positioning are recognised as key aspects of care in stroke units. Nurses working on stroke units have an important role because they are able to implement positioning and early mobilisation strategies 24 hours a day, reducing the risk of complications and improving functional recovery. Patients benefit if nurses work effectively with the therapy team in positioning and early mobilisation. Nurses also need appropriate training and expertise to make best use of specialist equipment.

  10. Threshold-dependent climate effects and high mortality limit recruitment and recovery of the Kattegat cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Eero, Margit


    Cod in the Kattegat is one of the most dramatic examples of stock collapse, where despite large management efforts, almost no signs of recovery have been observed. We investigate how multiple physical and biological factors could potentially influence recruitment and recovery of Kattegat cod, using...... non-additive threshold models. In contrast to previous studies on recruitment dynamics of Kattegat cod Gadus morhua, we found that recruitment variability may be explained by a combination of the size of the spawning stock and external conditions (i.e. sea surface temperature and oxygen concentrations...

  11. Central Hemodynamics and Oxygen Transport in Various Activation of Patients Operated On Under Extracorporeal Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Dzybinskaya


    Full Text Available Objective: to study central hemodynamics, the determinants of myocardial oxygen balance, and the parameters of oxygen transport in various activation of patients after surgery under extracorporeal circulation. Subjects and methods. Thirty-four patients aged 57.8±2.5 years who had coronary heart disease were divided into 2 groups: 1 those with late activation (artificial ventilation time 157±9 min and 2 those with immediate activation (artificial ventilation time 33±6 min. Group 2 patients were, if required, given fentanyl, midazolam, or myorelaxants. Results. During activation, there were no intergroup differences in the mean levels of the major parameters of cardiac pump function, in the determinants of coronary blood flow (coronary perfusion gradients and myocardial oxygen demand (the product of heart rate by systolic blood pressure, and in the parameters of oxygen transport, including arterial lactatemia. After tracheal extubation, the left ventricular pump coefficient was increased considerably (up to 3.8±0.2 and 4.4±0.2 gm/mm Hg/m2 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively; p<0.05 with minimum inotropic support (dopamine and/or dobutamine being used at 2.7±0.3 and 2.4±0.3 mg/kg/min, respectively. In both groups, there were no close correlations between the indices of oxygen delivery and consumption at all stages of the study, which was indicative of no transport-dependent oxygen uptake. Conclusion. When the early activation protocol was followed up, the maximum acceleration of early activation, including that using specific antagonists of anesthetics, has no negative impact on central hemodynamics, the determinants of myocardial oxygen balance and transport in patients operated on under extracorporeal circulation. Key words: early activation, surgery under extracorporeal circulation, tracheal extubation in the operating-room, central hemodynamics, oxygen transport.

  12. Early physiological flood tolerance is followed by slow post-flooding root recovery in the dryland riparian tree Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. refulgens. (United States)

    Argus, R E; Colmer, T D; Grierson, P F


    We investigated physiological and morphological responses to flooding and recovery in Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. refulgens, a riparian tree species from a dryland region prone to intense episodic floods. Seedlings in soil flooded for 88 d produced extensive adventitious roots, displayed stem hypertrophy (stem diameter increased by 93%) and increased root porosity owing to aerenchyma formation. Net photosynthesis (Pn) and stomatal conductance (gs) were maintained for at least 2 weeks of soil flooding, contrasting with previous studies of other subspecies of E. camaldulensis. Gradual declines followed in both gs (30% less than controls) and Pn (19% less). Total leaf soluble sugars did not differ between flooded and control plants. Root mass did not recover 32 d after flooding ceased, but gs was not lower than controls, suggesting the root system was able to functionally compensate. However, the limited root growth during recovery after flooding was surprising given the importance of extensive root systems in dryland environments. We conclude that early flood tolerance could be an adaptation to capitalize on scarce water resources in a water-limited environment. Overall, our findings highlight the need to assess flooding responses in relation to a species' fitness for particular flood regimes or ecological niches. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Predicting recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke: differential modeling of logarithmic and linear regression. (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Sugimura, Yuko; Yamada, Sumio; Omori, Yoshitsugu; Miyamoto, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi


    Cognitive disorders in the acute stage of stroke are common and are important independent predictors of adverse outcome in the long term. Despite the impact of cognitive disorders on both patients and their families, it is still difficult to predict the extent or duration of cognitive impairments. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to provide data on predicting the recovery of cognitive function soon after stroke by differential modeling with logarithmic and linear regression. This study included two rounds of data collection comprising 57 stroke patients enrolled in the first round for the purpose of identifying the time course of cognitive recovery in the early-phase group data, and 43 stroke patients in the second round for the purpose of ensuring that the correlation of the early-phase group data applied to the prediction of each individual's degree of cognitive recovery. In the first round, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were assessed 3 times during hospitalization, and the scores were regressed on the logarithm and linear of time. In the second round, calculations of MMSE scores were made for the first two scoring times after admission to tailor the structures of logarithmic and linear regression formulae to fit an individual's degree of functional recovery. The time course of early-phase recovery for cognitive functions resembled both logarithmic and linear functions. However, MMSE scores sampled at two baseline points based on logarithmic regression modeling could estimate prediction of cognitive recovery more accurately than could linear regression modeling (logarithmic modeling, R(2) = 0.676, PLogarithmic modeling based on MMSE scores could accurately predict the recovery of cognitive function soon after the occurrence of stroke. This logarithmic modeling with mathematical procedures is simple enough to be adopted in daily clinical practice.

  14. Segregation of Spontaneous and Training Induced Recovery from Visual Field Defects in Subacute Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douwe P. Bergsma


    Full Text Available Whether rehabilitation after stroke profits from an early start is difficult to establish as the contributions of spontaneous recovery and treatment are difficult to tease apart. Here, we use a novel training design to dissociate these components for visual rehabilitation of subacute stroke patients with visual field defects such as hemianopia. Visual discrimination training was started within 6 weeks after stroke in 17 patients. Spontaneous and training-induced recoveries were distinguished by training one-half of the defect for 8 weeks, while monitoring spontaneous recovery in the other (control half of the defect. Next, trained and control regions were swapped, and training continued for another 8 weeks. The same paradigm was also applied to seven chronic patients for whom spontaneous recovery can be excluded and changes in the control half of the defect point to a spillover effect of training. In both groups, field stability was assessed during a no-intervention period. Defect reduction was significantly greater in the trained part of the defect than in the simultaneously untrained part of the defect irrespective of training onset (p = 0.001. In subacute patients, training contributed about twice as much to their defect reduction as the spontaneous recovery. Goal Attainment Scores were significantly and positively correlated with the total defect reduction (p = 0.01, percentage increase reading speed was significantly and positively correlated with the defect reduction induced by training (epoch 1: p = 0.0044; epoch 2: p = 0.023. Visual training adds significantly to the spontaneous recovery of visual field defects, both during training in the early and the chronic stroke phase. However, field recovery as a result of training in this subacute phase was as large as in the chronic phase. This suggests that patients benefited primarily of early onset training by gaining access to a larger visual field sooner.

  15. Optimized chondrogenesis of ATCD5 cells through sequential regulation of oxygen conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Fink, Trine; Ebbesen, Peter


    , chondrocyte-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) production was monitored. Furthermore, the transcription of collagen II, an early-phase marker, and collagen X, a marker of hypertrophic conversion, was followed by real-time RT-PCR. Low oxygen concentrations between 1 and 9% inhibited chondrogenic conversion......, as evidenced by reduced glycosaminoglycan deposition in the ECM in a manner proportional to the degree of hypoxia. Cells cultured at oxygen concentrations of 12 and 15% underwent a faster and higher degree of early-phase chondrogenesis when compared to control cells cultured at ambient air (21% O2......). For the hypertrophic conversion of the ATDC5 cells, all degrees of hypoxia inhibited collagen X expression in a dose-dependent manner. Short-term culturing of the ATDC5 cells for 6 to 8 days at 12% oxygen with subsequent culturing at 21% for the remainder of the experiment resulted in maximal production of major ECM...

  16. Peroxy defects in Rocks and H2O2 formation on the early Earth (United States)

    Gray, A.; Balk, M.; Mason, P.; Freund, F.; Rothschild, L.


    An oxygen-rich atmosphere appears to have been a prerequisite for complex life to evolve on Earth and possibly elsewhere in the Universe. The question is still shrouded in uncertainty how free oxygen became available on the early Earth. Here we study processes of peroxy defects in silicate minerals which, upon weathering, generate mobilized electronic charge carriers resulting in oxygen formation in an initially anoxic subsurface environment. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are precursors to molecular oxygen during this process. Due to their toxicity they may have strongly influenced the evolution of life. ROS are generated during hydrolysis of peroxy defects, which consist of pairs of oxygen anions. A second pathway for formation occurs during (bio) transformations of iron sulphide minerals. ROS are produced and consumed by intracellular and extracellular reactions of Fe, Mn, C, N, and S species. We propose that despite an overall reducing or neutral oxidation state of the macroenvironment and the absence of free O2 in the atmosphere, microorganisms on the early Earth had to cope with ROS in their microenvironments. They were thus under evolutionary pressure to develop enzymatic and other defenses against the potentially dangerous, even lethal effects of ROS and oxygen. We have investigated how oxygen might be released through weathering and test microorganisms in contact with rock surfaces. Our results show how early Life might have adapted to oxygen. Early microorganisms must have "trained" to detoxify ROS prior to the evolution of aerobic metabolism and oxygenic photosynthesis. A possible way out of this dilemma comes from a study of igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks, whose minerals contain a small but significant fraction of oxygen anions in the valence state 1- , forming peroxy links of the type O3Si-OO-SiO3 [1, 2]. As water hydrolyzes the peroxy links hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, forms. Continued experimental discovery of H2O2 formation at rock

  17. The effects of swimming exercise and dissolved oxygen on growth performance, fin condition and precocious maturation of early-rearing Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (United States)

    Waldrop, Thomas; Summerfelt, Steven T.; Mazik, Patricia M.; Good, Christopher


    Swimming exercise, typically measured in body-lengths per second (BL/s), and dissolved oxygen (DO), are important environmental variables in fish culture. While there is an obvious physiological association between these two parameters, their interaction has not been adequately studied in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Because exercise and DO are variables that can be easily manipulated in modern aquaculture systems, we sought to assess the impact of these parameters, alone and in combination, on the performance, health and welfare of juvenile Atlantic salmon. In our study, Atlantic salmon fry were stocked into 12 circular 0.5 m3 tanks in a flow-through system and exposed to either high (1.5–2 BL/s) or low (exercise and DO concentration on growth, feed conversion, survival and fin condition. By study's end, both increased swimming speed and higher DO were independently associated with a statistically significant increase in growth performance (p exercise and dissolved oxygen at saturation during Atlantic salmon early rearing can result in improved growth performance and a lower incidence of precocious parr.

  18. Functional recovery of denervated skeletal muscle with sensory or mixed nerve protection: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Tian Li

    Full Text Available Functional recovery is usually poor following peripheral nerve injury when reinnervation is delayed. Early innervation by sensory nerve has been indicated to prevent atrophy of the denervated muscle. It is hypothesized that early protection with sensory axons is adequate to improve functional recovery of skeletal muscle following prolonged denervation of mixed nerve injury. In this study, four groups of rats received surgical denervation of the tibial nerve. The proximal and distal stumps of the tibial nerve were ligated in all animals except for those in the immediate repair group. The experimental groups underwent denervation with nerve protection of peroneal nerve (mixed protection or sural nerve (sensory protection. The experimental and unprotected groups had a stage II surgery in which the trimmed proximal and distal tibial nerve stumps were sutured together. After 3 months of recovery, electrophysiological, histological and morphometric parameters were assessed. It was detected that the significant muscle atrophy and a good preserved structure of the muscle were observed in the unprotected and protective experimental groups, respectively. Significantly fewer numbers of regenerated myelinated axons were observed in the sensory-protected group. Enhanced recovery in the mixed protection group was indicated by the results of the muscle contraction force tests, regenerated myelinated fiber, and the results of the histological analysis. Our results suggest that early axons protection by mixed nerve may complement sensory axons which are required for promoting functional recovery of the denervated muscle natively innervated by mixed nerve.

  19. Climate, catchment runoff and limnological drivers of carbon and oxygen isotope composition of diatom frustules from the central andean altiplano during the Lateglacial and Early Holocene


    Hernández, Armand; Bao, Roberto; Giralt, Santiago; Sáez, Alberto; Leng, Melanie J.; Barker, Philips A.; Kendrick, C.P.; Sloane, Hilary J.


    Diatom-based carbon and oxygen isotope analyses (δ13Cdiatom and δ18Odiatom) were performed on diatomrich laminated sediments of Lake Chungará (Andean Altiplano, northern Chile) deposited during the Lateglacial and Early Holocene (12,400e8300 cal years BP) to reconstruct climate change and environmental response across this major climate transition. The δ13Cdiatom data show both centennial-tomillennial scale changes related to fluctuations in lake productivity and CO2 concentration in the lake...

  20. Solar fuel processing efficiency for ceria redox cycling using alternative oxygen partial pressure reduction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Meng; Haussener, Sophia


    Solar-driven non-stoichiometric thermochemical redox cycling of ceria for the conversion of solar energy into fuels shows promise in achieving high solar-to-fuel efficiency. This efficiency is significantly affected by the operating conditions, e.g. redox temperatures, reduction and oxidation pressures, solar irradiation concentration, or heat recovery effectiveness. We present a thermodynamic analysis of five redox cycle designs to investigate the effects of working conditions on the fuel production. We focused on the influence of approaches to reduce the partial pressure of oxygen in the reduction step, namely by mechanical approaches (sweep gassing or vacuum pumping), chemical approaches (chemical scavenger), and combinations thereof. The results indicated that the sweep gas schemes work more efficient at non-isothermal than isothermal conditions, and efficient gas phase heat recovery and sweep gas recycling was important to ensure efficient fuel processing. The vacuum pump scheme achieved best efficiencies at isothermal conditions, and at non-isothermal conditions heat recovery was less essential. The use of oxygen scavengers combined with sweep gas and vacuum pump schemes further increased the system efficiency. The present work can be used to predict the performance of solar-driven non-stoichiometric redox cycles and further offers quantifiable guidelines for system design and operation. - Highlights: • A thermodynamic analysis was conducted for ceria-based thermochemical cycles. • Five novel cycle designs and various operating conditions were proposed and investigated. • Pressure reduction method affects optimal operating conditions for maximized efficiency. • Chemical oxygen scavenger proves to be promising in further increasing efficiency. • Formulation of quantifiable design guidelines for economical competitive solar fuel processing

  1. Earth's early biosphere (United States)

    Des Marais, D. J.


    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  2. Imaging resilience and recovery in alcohol dependence. (United States)

    Charlet, Katrin; Rosenthal, Annika; Lohoff, Falk W; Heinz, Andreas; Beck, Anne


    Resilience and recovery are of increasing importance in the field of alcohol dependence (AD). This paper describes how imaging studies in man can be used to assess the neurobiological correlates of resilience and, if longitudinal, of disease trajectories, progression rates and markers for recovery to inform treatment and prevention options. Original articles on recovery and resilience in alcohol addiction and its neurobiological correlates were identified from 'PubMed' and have been analyzed and condensed within a systematic literature review. Findings deriving from (f)MRI and PET studies have identified links between increased resilience and less task-elicited neural activation within the basal ganglia, and benefits of heightened neural prefrontal cortex (PFC) engagement regarding resilience in a broader sense, namely resilience against relapse in early abstinence of AD. Furthermore, findings consistently propose at least partial recovery of brain glucose metabolism and executive and general cognitive functioning, as well as structural plasticity effects throughout the brain of alcohol-dependent patients during the course of short, medium and long-term abstinence, even when patients only lowered their alcohol consumption to a moderate level. Additionally, specific factors were found that appear to influence these observed brain recovery processes in AD, e.g. genotype-dependent neuronal (re)growth, gender-specific neural recovery effects, critical interfering effects of psychiatric comorbidities, additional smoking or marijuana influences, or adolescent alcohol abuse. Neuroimaging research has uncovered neurobiological markers that appear to be linked to resilience and improved recovery capacities that are furthermore influenced by various factors such as gender or genetics. Consequently, future system-oriented approaches may help to establish a broad neuroscience-based research framework for alcohol dependence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  3. Drop and recovery of thermal conductivity of AlN upon UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlShaikhi, A; Srivastava, G P


    We have performed calculations of the room-temperature thermal conductivity of oxygen contaminated aluminium nitride (AlN) by employing the Callaway model with a detailed account of three-phonon scattering processes. The role of Al vacancy and O substitution of N has been examined in the form of extended defects (clusters) and point defects. Our work provides support for the theoretical model proposed by Harris et al. [Phys. Rev. B. 47, 5428 (1993)] to explain the experimentally observed drop in the conductivity upon UV irradiation and its recovery upon UV removal and subsequent illumination of the sample with visible light at room temperature. With the reported oxygen concentration in the sample, the scattering of phonons from oxygen-related extended defects is found to be ineffective. Within the picture presented by Harris et al., the point impurity scattering parameter increases by around 17% upon UV irradiation of the sample at room temperature

  4. Recovery From Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa at 22-Year Follow-Up. (United States)

    Eddy, Kamryn T; Tabri, Nassim; Thomas, Jennifer J; Murray, Helen B; Keshaviah, Aparna; Hastings, Elizabeth; Edkins, Katherine; Krishna, Meera; Herzog, David B; Keel, Pamela K; Franko, Debra L


    The course of eating disorders is often protracted, with fewer than half of adults achieving recovery from anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. Some argue for palliative management when duration exceeds a decade, yet outcomes beyond 20 years are rarely described. This study investigates early and long-term recovery in the Massachusetts General Hospital Longitudinal Study of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa. Females with DSM-III-R/DSM-IV anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa were assessed at 9 and at 20 to 25 years of follow-up (mean [SD] = 22.10 [1.10] years; study initiated in 1987, last follow-up conducted in 2013) via structured clinical interview (Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation of Eating Disorders [LIFE-EAT-II]). Seventy-seven percent of the original cohort was re-interviewed, and multiple imputation was used to include all surviving participants from the original cohort (N = 228). Kaplan-Meier curves estimated recovery by 9-year follow-up, and McNemar test examined concordance between recovery at 9-year and 22-year follow-up. At 22-year follow-up, 62.8% of participants with anorexia nervosa and 68.2% of participants with bulimia nervosa recovered, compared to 31.4% of participants with anorexia nervosa and 68.2% of participants with bulimia nervosa by 9-year follow-up. Approximately half of those with anorexia nervosa who had not recovered by 9 years progressed to recovery at 22 years. Early recovery was associated with increased likelihood of long-term recovery in anorexia nervosa (odds ratio [OR] = 10.5; 95% CI, 3.77-29.28; McNemar χ²₁ = 31.39; P bulimia nervosa (OR = 1.0; 95% CI, 0.49-2.05; McNemar χ²₁ = 0; P = 1.0). At 22 years, approximately two-thirds of females with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were recovered. Recovery from bulimia nervosa happened earlier, but recovery from anorexia nervosa continued over the long term, arguing against the implementation of palliative care for most individuals with eating disorders. © Copyright

  5. Risk factors for postpartum ovarian cysts and their spontaneous recovery or persistence in lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    López-Gatius, F; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J; Fenech, M; López-Béjar, M


    Cystic ovarian disease is a major cause of reproductive failure and economic loss for the dairy industry. Many cysts that develop during the early postpartum period regress spontaneously. However, it is difficult to decide at what point it would be more cost effective to treat ovarian cysts than to wait for spontaneous recovery. The objective of this study was to analyze risk factors for the development of the ovarian cystic condition during early and late postpartum, and for its persistence or recovery during the pre-service period in lactating dairy cows. Using multiple logistic regression, we analyzed data derived from 873 lactating dairy cows from a single herd. An ovarian cyst was diagnosed if it was possible to observe a single follicular structure with an antrum diameter > or = 25 mm in the absence of a corpus luteum in three sonograms performed at 7-day intervals. The cystic condition was denoted as early if the cyst was diagnosed 43-49 days postpartum, and late if detected 57-63-day postpartum. Spontaneous cyst regression before 60-day postpartum was regarded as early cystic recovery. For the early cystic group, there were no significant effects of lactation number, body condition score on prepartum Day 60, at parturition or on postpartum Day 30, or of body condition loss from parturition to 30-day postpartum. Cows calving in summer were 2.6 times more likely to develop ovarian cysts than those giving birth in winter. The risk of having a cyst was 1.9 times higher in cows with an abnormal puerperium. A 1-kg increase in milk yield raised the risk of cysts by a factor of 1.05. A 1-unit increase in body condition score (scale from 1 to 5) from prepartum Day 60 to parturition increased the risk of cyst development 8.4 times. Milk production and lactation number were negatively correlated with spontaneous early cyst recovery. A 1-kg decrease in milk production increased the probability of cyst recovery by a factor of 1.06, and a 1-unit drop in lactation number

  6. Gas recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.B.; Lewis, W.W.; Edmiston, A.; Klauser, G.


    In order to decontaminate a gas stream containing radioactive krypton, a preliminary step of removing oxygen and oxides of nitrogen by catalytic reaction with hydrogen is performed. The gas stream is then passed serially through a drier, a carbon dioxide adsorber and a xenon adsorber to remove sequentially water, CO 2 and xenon therefrom. The gas exiting the xenon adsorber is passed to a krypton recovery plant wherein krypton is concentrated to a first level in a primary distillation column by contact with a reflux liquid in a packed section of the column. The liquid and vapour collecting at the bottom of the column is passed to a separator in which the liquid is separated from the vapour. The liquid is partially evaporated in a vessel to increase concentration thereof and is brought to a concentration of approximately 90 mole % or greater in a second distillation column thereby enabling efficient storage of a radioactive krypton product. (author)

  7. Growing experience with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge to lung transplantation. (United States)

    Shafii, Alexis E; Mason, David P; Brown, Chase R; Vakil, Nakul; Johnston, Douglas R; McCurry, Kenneth R; Pettersson, Gosta B; Murthy, Sudish C


    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is rarely used as a bridge to lung transplantation (BTT) because of its associated morbidity and mortality. However, recent advancements in perfusion technology and critical care have revived interest in this application of ECMO. We retrospectively reviewed our utilization of ECMO as BTT and evaluated our early and midterm results. Nineteen patients were placed on ECMO with the intent to transplant of which 14 (74%) were successfully transplanted. Early and midterm survival of transplanted patients was 75% (1 year) and 63% (3 years), respectively, with the most favorable results observed in interstitial lung disease patients supported in the venovenous configuration. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-bridged transplant survival rates were equivalent to nonbridged recipients, but early morbidity and mortality are high and the failure to bridge to transplant is significant. Overall, successfully bridged patients can derive a tangible benefit, albeit with considerable consumption of resources.

  8. Improved heavy oil recovery by low rate waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, A. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Kantzas, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory


    Waterflooding techniques are frequently used to recover oil in low viscosity or marginal heavy oil reservoirs. This paper described a low-rate waterflooding oil recovery mechanism. The mechanism was determined by examining the effect of sand permeability on the impact of viscous force contributions. Changes in permeability and injection rates parameters were studied in order to evaluate the significance of imbibition, and a method of quantifying the effect of capillary forces was presented. The mechanism was demonstrated in an experimental study that used sand packs of varying permeabilities wet-packed into cores with overburden pressures. A fixed injection rate was used to investigate waterflooding in the different permeability systems with 2 different oils. Overall recovery rates were examined as a function of injection velocity. An analysis of normalized oil production rates demonstrated that viscous forces are more important during the early phases of waterflooding. The study showed that breakthrough oil recovery values increased with higher permeability values. However, when injection rates were reduced to low frontal velocity values, the correlation between sand permeability and breakthrough oil recovery resulted in low permeability rates. Lower permeability porous media resulted in more restrictive flow conditions. However, the capillary force components increased as a result of the smaller pore sizes, which in turn led to enhanced water imbibition and higher oil recovery values after water breakthrough. It was concluded that waterflooding rates can be modified later in the recovery process in order to improve final oil recovery values. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  9. Peak oxygen uptake in a sprint interval testing protocol vs. maximal oxygen uptake in an incremental testing protocol and their relationship with cross-country mountain biking performance. (United States)

    Hebisz, Rafał; Hebisz, Paulina; Zatoń, Marek; Michalik, Kamil


    In the literature, the exercise capacity of cyclists is typically assessed using incremental and endurance exercise tests. The aim of the present study was to confirm whether peak oxygen uptake (V̇O 2peak ) attained in a sprint interval testing protocol correlates with cycling performance, and whether it corresponds to maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O 2max ) determined by an incremental testing protocol. A sample of 28 trained mountain bike cyclists executed 3 performance tests: (i) incremental testing protocol (ITP) in which the participant cycled to volitional exhaustion, (ii) sprint interval testing protocol (SITP) composed of four 30 s maximal intensity cycling bouts interspersed with 90 s recovery periods, (iii) competition in a simulated mountain biking race. Oxygen uptake, pulmonary ventilation, work, and power output were measured during the ITP and SITP with postexercise blood lactate and hydrogen ion concentrations collected. Race times were recorded. No significant inter-individual differences were observed in regards to any of the ITP-associated variables. However, 9 individuals presented significantly increased oxygen uptake, pulmonary ventilation, and work output in the SITP compared with the remaining cyclists. In addition, in this group of 9 cyclists, oxygen uptake in SITP was significantly higher than in ITP. After the simulated race, this group of 9 cyclists achieved significantly better competition times (99.5 ± 5.2 min) than the other cyclists (110.5 ± 6.7 min). We conclude that mountain bike cyclists who demonstrate higher peak oxygen uptake in a sprint interval testing protocol than maximal oxygen uptake attained in an incremental testing protocol demonstrate superior competitive performance.

  10. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taina Tervahauta


    Full Text Available This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP, UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased the energy recovery by 23% in the UASB reactor compared to black water treatment. The increase in the energy recovery can cover the increased heat demand of the UASB reactor and the electricity demand of the grey water bioflocculation system with a surplus of 0.7 kWh/cap/y electricity and 14 MJ/cap/y heat. However, grey water sludge introduced more heavy metals in the excess sludge of the UASB reactor and might therefore hinder its soil application.

  11. Game Changing Development Program - Next Generation Life Support Project: Oxygen Recovery From Carbon Dioxide Using Ion Exchange Membrane Electrolysis Technology (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jiao, Feng


    This report summarizes the Phase I research and development work performed during the March 13, 2015 to July 13, 2016 period. The proposal for this work was submitted in response to NASA Research Announcement NNH14ZOA001N, "Space Technology Research, Development, Demonstration, and Infusion 2014 (SpaceTech-REDDI-2014)," Appendix 14GCD-C2 "Game Changing Development Program, Advanced Oxygen Recovery for Spacecraft Life Support Systems Appendix" The Task Agreement for this Phase I work is Document Control Number: GCDP-02-TA-15015. The objective of the Phase I project was to demonstrate in laboratories two Engineering Development Units (EDU) that perform critical functions of the low temperature carbon dioxide electrolysis and the catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide into carbon and carbon dioxide. The low temperature carbon dioxide electrolysis EDU was built by the University of Delaware with Dr. Feng Jiao as the principal investigator in charge of this EDU development (under NASA Contract NNC15CA04C). The carbon monoxide catalytic conversion EDU was built by the NASA Glenn Research Center with Kenneth Burke as the principal investigator and overall project leader for the development of both EDUs. Both EDUs were successfully developed and demonstrated the critical functions for each process. The carbon dioxide electrolysis EDU was delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center and the carbon monoxide catalytic conversion EDU was delivered to the NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center.

  12. On clinics and therapy of acute radiation disease at the recovery period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.I.; Ivanov, I.A.; Nikiforov, A.M.


    Main features of clinics and therapy of acute radiation disease at the recovery period are described. Search for ways of activization of recovery to improve the efficiency of treatments and to accelerate patients rehabilitation is of great interest for clinical medicine. It is outlined that correction of post-irradiation disorders of energy and plastic metabolism by means of influence on cell metabolism must begin as early as possible already at the initial period of disease

  13. Smoking before isometric exercise amplifies myocardial stress and dysregulates baroreceptor sensitivity and cerebral oxygenation. (United States)

    Anyfanti, Panagiota; Triantafyllidou, Eleftheria; Papadopoulos, Stavros; Triantafyllou, Areti; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Kyparos, Antonios; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Douma, Stella; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina


    This crossover study examined whether acute cardiovascular responses, baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS), and brain oxygenation during isometric exercise are altered after cigarette smoking. Twelve young, habitual smokers randomly performed a smoking and a control protocol, during which participants smoked one cigarette (0.9 mg nicotine) or a sham cigarette, before exercise. Testing involved baseline, a 5-minute smoking, a 10-minute post-smoking rest, 3-minute handgrip exercise (30% maximum voluntary contraction), and recovery. Beat-to-beat blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and cerebral oxygenation (near infrared spectroscopy) were continuously monitored. Double-product, stroke volume (SV), cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance and BRS were assessed. During post-smoking rest, systolic or diastolic blood pressure (140.8 ± 12.1/87.0 ± 6.9 vs. 125.9 ± 7.1/77.3 ± 5.5 mm Hg), HR, and double product were higher in the smoking versus the control protocol, whereas BRS was lower (P exercise, smoking resulted in greater HR and double product (17,240 ± 3893 vs. 15,424 ± 3173 mm Hg·bpm) and lower BRS versus the control protocol (P smoking elicited a delayed return of brain oxygenation indices, lower BRS, and higher double product. Smoking a cigarette shortly before the exercise session amplifies myocardial stress and dysregulates autonomic function and cerebral oxygenation during exercise and recovery, even in young habitual smokers, perceived as free from long-term cardiovascular effects of smoking. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  15. Krypton recovery from reprocessing off-gases by cryogenic distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geens, L.P.; Goossens, W.R.A.; Marien, J.


    With the financial support of the C.E.C., krypton recovery by cryogenic distillation in presence of oxygen was investigated. Both oxygen and ozone behavior in the cryodistillation unit were observed. The ozone decay in the rectification column was studied in absence and in presence of a radiation source. Additionally a demonstration run with krypton-85 was performed. Experiments with different oxygen concentrations up to 21% volume in the feed gas were carried out. The oxygen was enriched up to 85% volume in a zone between the krypton layer and the entrance of the rectification column. No oxygen was found in the bottom product. On the other hand, the ozone accumulated in that bottom product. The decay of ozone in the bottom liquid was measured in absence and in presence of a 500 Ci thulium-170 source. Without the radiation source, it took almost 30 days to observe a decay from 0.90% volume to 0.45% volume. The decay rate decreased with decreasing ozone concentration. In presence of the 500 Ci thulium-170, a constant decay rate of 0.24% volume per day was measured. Finally, a demonstration run with 100 Ci krypton-85 was performed in the cryodistillation unit, with air as feed gas. The krypton-85 was fed at a concentration of 30 mCih -1 until the total krypton inventory of the rectification column amounted to 40-45 Ci. The active run had a duration of 900 hours, during which no operational problems occurred. (orig.)

  16. Recovery in soccer : part ii-recovery strategies. (United States)

    Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory


    In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue, and then to regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. Fatigue following competition is multifactorial and mainly related to dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. Recovery strategies should consequently be targeted against the major causes of fatigue. Strategies reviewed in part II of this article were nutritional intake, cold water immersion, sleeping, active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. Some strategies such as hydration, diet and sleep are effective in their ability to counteract the fatigue mechanisms. Providing milk drinks to players at the end of competition and a meal containing high-glycaemic index carbohydrate and protein within the hour following the match are effective in replenishing substrate stores and optimizing muscle-damage repair. Sleep is an essential part of recovery management. Sleep disturbance after a match is common and can negatively impact on the recovery process. Cold water immersion is effective during acute periods of match congestion in order to regain performance levels faster and repress the acute inflammatory process. Scientific evidence for other strategies reviewed in their ability to accelerate the return to the initial level of performance is still lacking. These include active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. While this does not mean that these strategies do not aid the recovery process, the protocols implemented up until

  17. Rapid recovery from aphasia after infarction of Wernicke's area. (United States)

    Yagata, Stephanie A; Yen, Melodie; McCarron, Angelica; Bautista, Alexa; Lamair-Orosco, Genevieve; Wilson, Stephen M


    Aphasia following infarction of Wernicke's area typically resolves to some extent over time. The nature of this recovery process and its time course have not been characterized in detail, especially in the acute/subacute period. The goal of this study was to document recovery after infarction of Wernicke's area in detail in the first 3 months after stroke. Specifically, we aimed to address two questions about language recovery. First, which impaired language domains improve over time, and which do not? Second, what is the time course of recovery? We used quantitative analysis of connected speech and a brief aphasia battery to document language recovery in two individuals with aphasia following infarction of the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Speech samples were acquired daily between 2 and 16 days post stroke, and also at 1 month and 3 months. Speech samples were transcribed and coded using the CHAT system, in order to quantify multiple language domains. A brief aphasia battery was also administered at a subset of five time points during the 3 months. Both patients showed substantial recovery of language function over this time period. Most, but not all, language domains showed improvements, including fluency, lexical access, phonological retrieval and encoding, and syntactic complexity. The time course of recovery was logarithmic, with the greatest gains taking place early in the course of recovery. There is considerable potential for amelioration of language deficits when damage is relatively circumscribed to the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Quantitative analysis of connected speech samples proved to be an effective, albeit time-consuming, approach to tracking day-by-day recovery in the acute/subacute post-stroke period.

  18. Singlet oxygen quenching by oxygen in tetraphenyl-porphyrin solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedic, Roman; Korinek, Miloslav; Molnar, Alexander; Svoboda, Antonin; Hala, Jan


    Time-resolved measurement of singlet oxygen infrared phosphorescence is a powerful tool for determination of quantum yields and kinetics of its photosensitization. This technique was employed to investigate in detail the previously observed effect of singlet oxygen quenching by oxygen. The question whether the singlet oxygen is quenched by oxygen in ground or in excited state was addressed by study of two complementary dependencies of singlet oxygen lifetimes: on dissolved oxygen concentration and on excitation intensity. Oxygen concentration dependence study of meso-tetra(4-sulphonato)phenylporphyrin (TPPS 4 ) phosphorescence kinetics showed linearity of the dependence of TPPS 4 triplet state rate-constant. Corresponding bimolecular quenching constant of (1.5±0.1)x10 9 l/mol s was obtained. On the other hand, rate constants of singlet oxygen depopulation exhibit nonlinear dependence on oxygen concentration. Comparison of zero oxygen concentration-extrapolated value of singlet oxygen lifetime of (6.5±0.4) μs to (3.7±0.1) μs observed under air-saturated conditions indicates importance of the effect of quenching of singlet oxygen by oxygen. Upward-sloping dependencies of singlet oxygen depopulation rate-constant on excitation intensity evidence that singlet oxygen is predominantly quenched by oxygen in excited singlet state

  19. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in patients over 59 years: early recovery and 12-month follow-up. (United States)

    Leivonen, Marja Kaarina; Juuti, Anne; Jaser, Nabil; Mustonen, Harri


    Bariatric surgery has shown to be safe for patients over 60 years with good results especially considering resolving of comorbidities. Sleeve gastrectomy is considered to be safer than gastric bypass (GBP) and more effective than gastric banding with less adverse symptoms. Weight loss may be more modest than after GBP, but the effect on vitamins may also be milder. Since 2007, we collected prospectively 12-month follow-up data from 55 sleeve gastrectomy patients of whom 12 were over 59 years of age. Vitamin and calcium supplements were used postoperatively. The recovery from the operation was recorded during hospital stay, at 1- and 12-month follow-up visits using a standard protocol including laboratory tests. The results between patients over and under 59 years were compared. The preoperative weight and weight loss were comparable between the groups. Operation time was shorter and hospital stay was longer for older patients, p = ns. There was no operative mortality. Early major complications were seen more often in the older age group, 42% vs 9% (p = 0.02), but late complications were more common in younger patients, 17% vs 44%, p = ns. Early complications were mostly bleedings, which did not lengthen the hospital stay, neither were re-operations nor endoscopic procedures needed. Excess weight loss and resolving of comorbidities after 12 months was comparable between the groups. However, vitamin deficiencies and hypoalbuminemia were more common in the older age group, 42% and 23% for vitamins and 44% and 29% for proteins, p = ns. The older patients had more adverse effects related to surgery, 25% vs 9%, and younger had more adverse psychiatric effects, p = ns. Sleeve gastrectomy is effective and safe for older bariatric patients. Weight loss is comparable to younger patients and enough to resolve the comorbidities in most of the patients. With standardized nutritional supplementation, the older patients had more often vitamin deficiencies and

  20. Early prediction of adverse events in enhanced recovery based upon the host systemic inflammatory response. (United States)

    Lane, J C; Wright, S; Burch, J; Kennedy, R H; Jenkins, J T


    Early identification of patients experiencing postoperative complications is imperative for successful management. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a nonspecific marker of inflammation used in many specialties to monitor patient condition. The role of CRP measurement early in the elective postoperative colorectal patient is unclear, particularly in the context of enhanced recovery (ERAS). Five hundred and thirty-three consecutive patients who underwent elective colorectal surgery between October 2008 and October 2010 within an established ERAS programme were studied. Patients were separated into a development group of 265 patients and a validation group of 268 patients by chronological order. CRP and white cell count were added to a prospectively maintained ERAS database. The primary outcome of the study was all adverse events (including infective complications, postoperative organ dysfunction and prolonged length of stay) during the initial hospital admission. Significant predictors for adverse events on univariate analysis were submitted to multivariate regression analysis and the resulting model applied to the validation group. The validity and predictive accuracy of the regression model was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curve/area under the curve (AUC) analysis. CRP levels >150 mg/l on postoperative day 2 and a rising CRP on day 3 were independently associated with all adverse events during the hospital admission. A weighted model was applied to the validation group yielding an AUC of 0.65 (95% CI 0.58-0.73) indicating, at best, modest discrimination and predictive accuracy for adverse events. Measurement of CRP in patients after elective colorectal surgery in the first few days after surgery within ERAS can assist in identifying those at risk of adverse events and a prolonged hospital stay. A CRP value of >150 mg/l on day 2 and a rising CRP on day 3 should alert the surgeon to an increased likelihood of such events. © 2012 The Authors

  1. Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure at a higher rate improve oxygenation in the early period after cardiac surgery--a randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Urell, Charlotte; Emtner, Margareta; Hedenström, Hans; Tenling, Arne; Breidenskog, Marie; Westerdahl, Elisabeth


    In addition to early mobilisation, a variety of breathing exercises are used to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery. The optimal duration of the treatment is not well evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 30 versus 10 deep breaths hourly, while awake, with positive expiratory pressure on oxygenation and pulmonary function the first days after cardiac surgery. A total of 181 patients, undergoing cardiac surgery, were randomised into a treatment group, performing 30 deep breaths hourly the first postoperative days, or into a control group performing 10 deep breaths hourly. The main outcome measurement arterial blood gases and the secondary outcome pulmonary function, evaluated with spirometry, were determined on the second postoperative day. Preoperatively, both study groups were similar in terms of age, SpO(2), forced expiratory volume in 1s and New York Heart Association classification. On the second postoperative day, arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) was 8.9 ± 1.7 kPa in the treatment group and 8.1 ± 1.4 kPa in the control group (p = 0.004). Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) was 92.7 ± 3.7% in the treatment group and 91.1 ± 3.8% in the control group (p = 0.016). There were no differences in measured lung function between the groups or in compliance to the breathing exercises. Compliance was 65% of possible breathing sessions. A significantly increased oxygenation was found in patients performing 30 deep breaths the first two postoperative days compared with control patients performing 10 deep breaths hourly. These results support the implementation of a higher rate of deep breathing exercises in the initial phase after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Near-infrared spectroscopy in sepsis therapy : predictor of a low central venous oxygen saturation]. (United States)

    Lichtenstern, C; Koch, C; Röhrig, R; Rosengarten, B; Henrich, M; Weigand, M A


    Early goal-directed hemodynamic optimization has become a cornerstone of sepsis therapy. One major defined goal is to achieve adequate central venous oxygen saturation (SO(2)). This study aimed to investigate the correlation between central venous SO(2) and frontal cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurement in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. The NIRS method provides non-invasive measurement of regional oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) in tissues approximately 2 cm below the optical NIRS sensors which depends on arterial, capillary and venous blood. Thus this system gives site-specific real-time data about the balance of oxygen supply and demand. This was a secondary analysis from a prospective study of surgical intensive care (ICU) patients in the early phase of severe sepsis or septic shock. Bilateral cerebral rSO(2), central venous SO(2), arterial oxygen saturation (S(a)O(2)) and other surrogate parameters of oxygen supply, such as hemoglobin, partial pressure of oxygen and oxygen content in arterial blood were recorded. A total of 16 ICU patients (4 women, median age 65.5 years) were included in the study. As sepsis focus an intra-abdominal infection was detected in 62.5 % of patients, severe pneumonia was determined in 31.3 % and skin and soft tissue infections were recognized in 12.5 %. At study inclusion 50 % of patients had septic shock, the median sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was 10.2 (interquartile range 5.25-8.75) and the median acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score was 26 (range 23.25-29.75). Mortality at day 28 was 37.5 %. Minimum rSO(2) (median 58) and right-sided rSO(2) (median 58) values showed a significant correlation in the analysis of receiver operating characteristics (area under the curve 0.844, p= 0.045). A central venous SO(2)< 70 % was indicated by rSO(2)< 56.5 with sensitivity and specificity of 75 % and 100 %, respectively. Cerebral NIRS could provide a fast and easily

  3. Patient-specific prediction of functional recovery after stroke. (United States)

    Douiri, Abdel; Grace, Justin; Sarker, Shah-Jalal; Tilling, Kate; McKevitt, Christopher; Wolfe, Charles DA; Rudd, Anthony G


    Background and aims Clinical predictive models for stroke recovery could offer the opportunity of targeted early intervention and more specific information for patients and carers. In this study, we developed and validated a patient-specific prognostic model for monitoring recovery after stroke and assessed its clinical utility. Methods Four hundred and ninety-five patients from the population-based South London Stroke Register were included in a substudy between 2002 and 2004. Activities of daily living were assessed using Barthel Index) at one, two, three, four, six, eight, 12, 26, and 52 weeks after stroke. Penalized linear mixed models were developed to predict patients' functional recovery trajectories. An external validation cohort included 1049 newly registered stroke patients between 2005 and 2011. Prediction errors on discrimination and calibration were assessed. The potential clinical utility was evaluated using prognostic accuracy measurements and decision curve analysis. Results Predictive recovery curves showed good accuracy, with root mean squared deviation of 3 Barthel Index points and a R 2 of 83% up to one year after stroke in the external cohort. The negative predictive values of the risk of poor recovery (Barthel Index <8) at three and 12 months were also excellent, 96% (95% CI [93.6-97.4]) and 93% [90.8-95.3], respectively, with a potential clinical utility measured by likelihood ratios (LR+:17 [10.8-26.8] at three months and LR+:11 [6.5-17.2] at 12 months). Decision curve analysis showed an increased clinical benefit, particularly at threshold probabilities of above 5% for predictive risk of poor outcomes. Conclusions A recovery curves tool seems to accurately predict progression of functional recovery in poststroke patients.

  4. Cerebral interstitial tissue oxygen tension, pH, HCO3, CO2. (United States)

    Charbel, F T; Hoffman, W E; Misra, M; Hannigan, K; Ausman, J I


    There are many techniques for monitoring the injured brain following trauma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or surgery. It is thought that the major determinants for recovery of injured cerebral tissue are oxygen, glucose delivery, and the clearance of metabolites. These factors, at optimal levels, are probably responsible for the regaining of neuronal functions. These parameters are in turn dependent on the tissue's blood flow and metabolism. We have been using a single, compact, polyethylene sensor, the Paratrend 7 for the measurement of cerebral oxygen tension, CO2, pH, and temperature. This sensor is designed for continuous blood gas analysis to aid in monitoring neurosurgical patients, both during surgery and in the intensive care unit. Using the Paratrend 7 sensor, we found the normal range of values to be: PO2 33 +/- 11 mm Hg; PCO2 48 +/- 7 mm Hg; pH 7.19 +/- 0.11. Critical measurements are considered to be tissue PO2 60 mm Hg, and pH effective method of measuring tissue cerebral oxygen tension, along with carbon dioxide levels, pH, and temperature.

  5. Carbon dioxide narcosis due to inappropriate oxygen delivery: a case report. (United States)

    Herren, Thomas; Achermann, Eva; Hegi, Thomas; Reber, Adrian; Stäubli, Max


    Oxygen delivery to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be challenging because of their potential hypoxic ventilatory drive. However, some oxygen delivery systems such as non-rebreathing face masks with an oxygen reservoir bag require high oxygen flow for adequate oxygenation and to avoid carbon dioxide rebreathing. A 72-year-old Caucasian man with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was admitted to the emergency department because of worsening dyspnea and an oxygen saturation of 81% measured by pulse oximetry. Oxygen was administered using a non-rebreathing mask with an oxygen reservoir bag attached. For fear of removing the hypoxic stimulus to respiration the oxygen flow was inappropriately limited to 4L/minute. The patient developed carbon dioxide narcosis and had to be intubated and mechanically ventilated. Non-rebreathing masks with oxygen reservoir bags must be fed with an oxygen flow exceeding the patient's minute ventilation (>6-10 L/minute.). If not, the amount of oxygen delivered will be too small to effectively increase the arterial oxygen saturation. Moreover, the risk of carbon dioxide rebreathing dramatically increases if the flow of oxygen to a non-rebreathing mask is lower than the minute ventilation, especially in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and low tidal volumes. Non-rebreathing masks (with oxygen reservoir bags) must be used cautiously by experienced medical staff and with an appropriately high oxygen flow of 10-15 L/minute. Nevertheless, arterial blood gases must be analyzed regularly for early detection of a rise in partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a hypoxic ventilatory drive. These patients are more safely managed using a nasal cannula with an oxygen flow of 1-2L/minute or a simple face mask with an oxygen flow of 5L/minute.

  6. Acute cardiac support with intravenous milrinone promotes recovery from early brain injury in a murine model of severe subarachnoid haemorrhage. (United States)

    Mutoh, Tomoko; Mutoh, Tatsushi; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yukiko; Tsuru, Yoshiharu; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Taki, Yasuyuki


    Early brain injury/ischaemia (EBI) is a serious complication early after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) that contributes to development of delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI). This study aimed to determine the role of inotropic cardiac support using milrinone (MIL) on restoring acute cerebral hypoperfusion attributable to EBI and improving outcomes after experimental SAH. Forty-three male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to either sham surgery (SAH-sham), SAH induced by endovascular perforation plus postconditioning with 2% isoflurane (Control), or SAH plus isoflurane combined with MIL with and without hypoxia-inducible factor inhibitor (HIF-I) pretreatment. Cardiac output (CO) during intravenous MIL infusion (0.25-0.75 μg/kg/min) between 1.5 and 2.5 hours after SAH induction was monitored with Doppler echocardiography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-continuous arterial spin labelling was used for quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements. Neurobehavioral function was assessed daily by neurological score and open field test. DCI was analyzed 3 days later by determining infarction on MRI. Mild reduction of cardiac output (CO) and global cerebral blood flow (CBF) depression were notable early after SAH. MIL increased CO in a dose-dependent manner (P<.001), which was accompanied by improved hypoperfusion, incidence of DCI and functional recovery than Control (P<.05). The neuroprotective effects afforded by MIL or Control were attenuated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) inhibition (P<.05). These results suggest that MIL improves acute hypoperfusion by its inotropic effect, leading to neurobehavioral improvement in mice after severe SAH, in which HIF may be acting as a critical mediator. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Method for thermal recovery of hydrocarbons from an underground formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In a thermal recovery procedure for hydrocarbons from an underground formation, an oxygen-containing gas is injected through at least one input well into the formation. A part of the hydrocarbons in the formation is then ignited and an oxidation front is created. This front moves under the influence of the injected gas to at least one production well in the formation. The temperature in the burning front is higher than approximately 200/sup 0/C but lower than approximately 350/sup 0/C. (4 claims)

  8. Postoperative pain and gastro-intestinal recovery after colonic resection with epidural analgesia and multimodal rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Basse, L


    The aim of the study was to evaluate initial postoperative pain intensity and the association with recovery of gastrointestinal function and length of stay (LOS) in a multimodal programme with epidural analgesia, early oral nutrition and mobilisation with a 48 h planned hospital stay. One hundred...... of change in the surgical procedures (2), surgical morbidity (6), medical factors (4) and psychosocial or other factors (5) all independent of pain. Pain data were incomplete in two patients and therefore excluded. In the remaining 91 patients, median time to defaecation and LOS were 24 and 48 h......, respectively. Gastrointestinal recovery and LOS did not differ between patients with high (3-6) versus low (0-2) dynamic pain scores (P > 0.4 and P > 0.1, respectively). It is concluded that a multimodal rehabilitation program including continuous thoracic epidural analgesia leads to early recovery...

  9. Regional uptake an variations in orthopaedic enhanced recovery pathways in knee and hip total arthroplasty. (United States)

    Mawdsley, M J; Baker, P N; Desai, A; Green, R N; Jevons, L


    The use of enhanced recovery (ER) pathways for hip and knee arthroplasty has increased over the last decade, and the adoption within orthopaedics is becoming more common. We have demonstrated a regional variation and institutional inconsistency of uptake and delivery of ER pathways in our region. Units that have a unified pathway were more likely to have consistency in treatment and early analgesia for patients. We would advocate that units use an agreed enhanced recovery pathway to optimise patient recovery from hip and knee arthroplasties.

  10. Earth’s oxygen cycle and the evolution of animal life (United States)

    Reinhard, Christopher T.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Olson, Stephanie L.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Erwin, Douglas H.


    The emergence and expansion of complex eukaryotic life on Earth is linked at a basic level to the secular evolution of surface oxygen levels. However, the role that planetary redox evolution has played in controlling the timing of metazoan (animal) emergence and diversification, if any, has been intensely debated. Discussion has gravitated toward threshold levels of environmental free oxygen (O2) necessary for early evolving animals to survive under controlled conditions. However, defining such thresholds in practice is not straightforward, and environmental O2 levels can potentially constrain animal life in ways distinct from threshold O2 tolerance. Herein, we quantitatively explore one aspect of the evolutionary coupling between animal life and Earth’s oxygen cycle—the influence of spatial and temporal variability in surface ocean O2 levels on the ecology of early metazoan organisms. Through the application of a series of quantitative biogeochemical models, we find that large spatiotemporal variations in surface ocean O2 levels and pervasive benthic anoxia are expected in a world with much lower atmospheric pO2 than at present, resulting in severe ecological constraints and a challenging evolutionary landscape for early metazoan life. We argue that these effects, when considered in the light of synergistic interactions with other environmental parameters and variable O2 demand throughout an organism’s life history, would have resulted in long-term evolutionary and ecological inhibition of animal life on Earth for much of Middle Proterozoic time (∼1.8–0.8 billion years ago). PMID:27457943

  11. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water


    Tervahauta, Taina; Bryant, Isaac; Leal, Lucía; Buisman, Cees; Zeeman, Grietje


    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP), UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD) mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased...

  12. Subpicosecond oxygen trapping in the heme pocket of the oxygen sensor FixL observed by time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Kruglik, Sergei G; Jasaitis, Audrius; Hola, Klara; Yamashita, Taku; Liebl, Ursula; Martin, Jean-Louis; Vos, Marten H


    Dissociation of oxygen from the heme domain of the bacterial oxygen sensor protein FixL constitutes the first step in hypoxia-induced signaling. In the present study, the photodissociation of the heme-O2 bond was used to synchronize this event, and time-resolved resonance Raman (TR(3)) spectroscopy with subpicosecond time resolution was implemented to characterize the heme configuration of the primary photoproduct. TR(3) measurements on heme-oxycomplexes are highly challenging and have not yet been reported. Whereas in all other known six-coordinated heme protein complexes with diatomic ligands, including the oxymyoglobin reported here, heme iron out-of-plane motion (doming) occurs faster than 1 ps after iron-ligand bond breaking; surprisingly, no sizeable doming is observed in the oxycomplex of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum FixL sensor domain (FixLH). This assessment is deduced from the absence of the iron-histidine band around 217 cm(-1) as early as 0.5 ps. We suggest that efficient ultrafast oxygen rebinding to the heme occurs on the femtosecond time scale, thus hindering heme doming. Comparing WT oxy-FixLH, mutant proteins FixLH-R220H and FixLH-R220Q, the respective carbonmonoxy-complexes, and oxymyoglobin, we show that a hydrogen bond of the terminal oxygen atom with the residue in position 220 is responsible for the observed behavior; in WT FixL this residue is arginine, crucially implicated in signal transmission. We propose that the rigid O2 configuration imposed by this residue, in combination with the hydrophobic and constrained properties of the distal cavity, keep dissociated oxygen in place. These results uncover the origin of the "oxygen cage" properties of this oxygen sensor protein.

  13. Survivability Assessment: Modeling A Recovery Process


    Paputungan, Irving Vitra; Abdullah, Azween


    Survivability is the ability of a system to continue operating, in a timely manner, in the presence ofattacks, failures, or accidents. Recovery in survivability is a process of a system to heal or recover from damageas early as possible to fulfill its mission as condition permit. In this paper, we show a preliminary recoverymodel to enhance the system survivability. The model focuses on how we preserve the system and resumes itscritical service under attacks as soon as possible.Keywords: surv...

  14. Growth and development in internationally adopted children: extent and timing of recovery after early adversity. (United States)

    Palacios, Jesús; Román, Maite; Camacho, Carlos


    Following initial adversity, internationally adopted children arrive with significant growth and developmental delays. Post-placement recovery has been widely documented, but little has been known about its extent and timing several years after placement and in children with diverse pre-adoptive experiences. A total of 289 children adopted from six countries into Spanish families were studied. Growth and psychological development were considered on arrival and after an average of over 3 years. Growth and developmental initial delays affected a substantial percentage of the children. Post-adoption recovery seemed quicker and more complete in weight and height than in head circumference and psychological development. Initial and later values were correlated, but growth-development relation on arrival subsequently lost significance. Most of the catch-up happened in the first three post-adoption years. Adoption offers an impressive opportunity for recovery after previous adversity, although continuity between past and present persists. The improvement is more marked in some areas than in others and more substantial in the first post-adoption years. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Early-phase dynamics in coral recovery following cyclone disturbance on the inshore Great Barrier Reef, Australia (United States)

    Sato, Yui; Bell, Sara C.; Nichols, Cassandra; Fry, Kent; Menéndez, Patricia; Bourne, David G.


    Coral recovery (the restoration of abundance and composition of coral communities) after disturbance is a key process that determines the resilience of reef ecosystems. To understand the mechanisms underlying the recovery process of coral communities, colony abundance and size distribution were followed on reefs around Pelorus Island, located in the inshore central region of the Great Barrier Reef, following a severe tropical cyclone in 2011 that caused dramatic loss of coral communities. Permanent quadrats (600 m2) were monitored biannually between 2012 and 2016, and individual coral colonies were counted, sized and categorized into morphological types. The abundance of coral recruits and coral cover were also examined using permanent quadrats and random line intercept transects, respectively. The number of colonies in the smallest size class (4-10 cm) increased substantially during the study period, driving the recovery of coral populations. The total number of coral colonies 5 yr post-cyclone reached between 73 and 122% of pre-cyclone levels though coral cover remained between 16 and 31% of pre-cyclone levels, due to the dominance of small coral colonies in the recovering communities. Temporal transitions of coral demography (i.e., colony-size distributions) illustrated that the number of recently established coral populations overtook communities of surviving colonies. Coral recruits (coral recovery. A shift in morphological composition of coral communities was also observed, with the relative abundance of encrusting corals reduced post-cyclone in contrast to their dominance prior to the disturbance. This study identifies the fine-scale processes involved in the initial recovery of coral reefs, providing insights into the dynamics of coral demography that are essential for determining coral reef resilience following major disturbance.

  16. Sex differences in perceived stress and early recovery in young and middle-aged patients with acute myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Bao, Haikun; Strait, Kelly; Spertus, John A; Lichtman, Judith H; D'Onofrio, Gail; Spatz, Erica; Bucholz, Emily M; Geda, Mary; Lorenze, Nancy P; Bueno, Héctor; Beltrame, John F; Krumholz, Harlan M


    Younger age and female sex are both associated with greater mental stress in the general population, but limited data exist on the status of perceived stress in young and middle-aged patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction. We examined sex difference in stress, contributing factors to this difference, and whether this difference helps explain sex-based disparities in 1-month recovery using data from 3572 patients with acute myocardial infarction (2397 women and 1175 men) 18 to 55 years of age. The average score of the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale at baseline was 23.4 for men and 27.0 for women (Pstress in women was explained largely by sex differences in comorbidities, physical and mental health status, intrafamily conflict, caregiving demands, and financial hardship. After adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics, women had worse recovery than men at 1 month after acute myocardial infarction, with mean differences in improvement score between women and men ranging from -0.04 for EuroQol utility index to -3.96 for angina-related quality of life (Pstress reduced these sex-based differences in recovery to -0.03 to -3.63, which, however, remained statistically significant (Pstress at baseline was associated with significantly worse recovery in angina-specific and overall quality of life, as well as mental health status. The effect of baseline stress on recovery did not vary between men and women. Among young and middle-aged patients, higher stress at baseline is associated with worse recovery in multiple health outcomes after acute myocardial infarction. Women perceive greater psychological stress than men at baseline, which partially explains women's worse recovery. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Enhanced recovery after surgery in gastric resections. (United States)

    Bruna Esteban, Marcos; Vorwald, Peter; Ortega Lucea, Sonia; Ramírez Rodríguez, Jose Manuel


    Enhanced recovery after surgery is a modality of perioperative management with the purpose of improving results and providing a faster recovery of patients. This kind of protocol has been applied frequently in colorectal surgery, presenting less available experience and evidence in gastric surgery. According to the RICA guidelines published in 2015, a review of the bibliography and the consensus established in a multidisciplinary meeting in Zaragoza on the 9th of October 2015, we present a protocol that contains the basic procedures of fast-track for resective gastric surgery. The measures to be applied are divided in a preoperative, perioperative and postoperative stage. This document provides recommendations concerning the appropriate information, limited fasting and administration of carbohydrate drinks 2hours before surgery, specialized anesthetic strategies, minimal invasive surgery, no routine use of drainages and tubes, mobilization and early oral tolerance during the immediate postoperative period, as well as criteria for discharge. The application of a protocol of enhanced recovery after surgery in resective gastric surgery can improve and accelerate the functional recovery of our patients, requiring an appropriate multidisciplinary coordination, the evaluation of obtained results with the application of these measures and the investigation of controversial topics about which we currently have limited evidence. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. A complex interplay between PGC-1 co-activators and mTORC1 regulates hematopoietic recovery following 5-fluorouracil treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda Basu


    Full Text Available In vitro stimulation of HSCs with growth factors generally leads to their depletion. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying expansion of HSCs in vivo following myeloablation could lead to successful expansion of HSCs ex vivo for therapeutic purposes. Current findings show that mTORC1 is activated in HSPCs following 5-fluorouracil treatment and that mTORC1 activation is dependent on mitochondrial ETC capacity of HSPCs. Moreover, expression of PGC-1 family members, proteins that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, in HSPCs following 5-fluorouracil treatment changes; also, these proteins play a stage specific role in hematopoietic recovery. While PRC regulates HSCs' expansion during early recovery phase, PGC-1α regulates progenitor cell proliferation and recovery of hematopoiesis during later phase. During early recovery phase, PRC expression, mitochondrial activity and mTORC1 activation are relatively higher in PGC-1α−/− HSCs compared to WT HSCs, and PGC-1α−/− HSCs show greater expansion. Administration of rapamycin, but not NAC, during early recovery phase improves WT HSC numbers but decreases PGC-1α−/− HSC numbers. The current findings demonstrate that mTOR activation can increase HSC numbers provided that the energy demand created by mTOR activation is successfully met. Thus, critical tuning between mTORC1 activation and mitochondrial ETC capacity is crucial for HSC maintenance/expansion in response to mitogenic stimulation.

  19. A Loss in the Plasma Membrane ATPase Activity and Its Recovery Coincides with Incipient Freeze-Thaw Injury and Postthaw Recovery in Onion Bulb Scale Tissue 1 (United States)

    Arora, Rajeev; Palta, Jiwan P.


    Plasma membrane ATPase has been proposed to be functionally altered during early stages of injury caused by a freeze-thaw stress. Complete recovery from freezing injury in onion cells during the postthaw period provided evidence in support of this proposal. During recovery, a simultaneous decrease in ion leakage and disappearance of water soaking (symptoms of freeze-thaw injury) has been noted. Since reabsorption of ions during recovery must be an active process, recovery of plasma membrane ATPase (active transport system) functions has been implicated. In the present study, onion (Allium cepa L. cv Downing Yellow Globe) bulbs were subjected to a freeze-thaw stress which resulted in a reversible (recoverable) injury. Plasma membrane ATPase activity in the microsomes (isolated from the bulb scales) and ion leakage rate (efflux/hour) from the same scale tissue were measured immediately following thawing and after complete recovery. In injured tissue (30-40% water soaking), plasma membrane ATPase activity was reduced by about 30% and this was paralleled by about 25% higher ion leakage rate. As water soaking disappeared during recovery, the plasma membrane ATPase activity and the ion leakage rate returned to about the same level as the respective controls. Treatment of freeze-thaw injured tissue with vanadate, a specific inhibitor of plasma membrane ATPase, during postthaw prevented the recovery process. These results indicate that recovery of freeze-injured tissue depends on the functional activity of plasma membrane ATPase. PMID:16668063

  20. Post-partum recovery course in patients with gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. (United States)

    Mikami, Yukiko; Takagi, Kenjiro; Itaya, Yukiko; Ono, Yoshihisa; Matsumura, Hideyoshi; Takai, Yasushi; Seki, Hiroyuki


    We examined the post-partum recovery course in patients with pre-eclampsia (PE) and gestational hypertension (GH) and evaluated the associated factors. In a retrospective review of 145 patients with GH or PE who gave birth between 1 January 2008 and 30 October 2011 at our institution, there were 125 PE and 20 GH cases. Data collected included the gestational age at initial examination and delivery, delivery mode, time for normalization of blood pressure (BP), and time until resolution of proteinuria in PE patients. Comparisons were made between singleton and multiple pregnancies, onset (early, hypertension and proteinuria, respectively. The time for BP normalization was longer in the early-onset group. The time for resolution of proteinuria was not affected by any factor examined. A post-partum observation period of 12 weeks is acceptable for differentiating PE and GH from chronic hypertension or renal disease. GH severity did not affect the recovery period, but proteinuria severity did. Onset time was a factor influencing the recovery from PE and GH. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Heat stress and recovery of photosystem II efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars acclimated to different growth temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Sabibul; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Rosenqvist, Eva


    The effect of heat stress on photosystem II (PS II) efficiency and post-stress recovery was studied in four wheat cultivars using chlorophyll fluorescence. The main aim was to examine the cultivar differences in relation to inhibition and recovery of PSII functionality after heat stress...... and 25 °C) and subjected to heat stress (40 °C) for two days at early tillering and three days at anthesis and early grain development stages. The plants were returned to their original growth conditions after heat stress and recovery was observed for three days. The maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv...... heat tolerance characteristics as compared to the other three cultivars. The largest decrease in Fv/Fm and F′q/F′m after heat stress occurred in the cultivar PWS7, which did not recover completely after 72 h. All cultivars grown at 25 °C had a slightly increased heat tolerance and better recovery...

  2. Early postoperative physical therapy for improving short-term gross motor outcome in infants with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease. (United States)

    Haseba, Sumihito; Sakakima, Harutoshi; Nakao, Syuhei; Ohira, Misaki; Yanagi, Shigefumi; Imoto, Yutaka; Yoshida, Akira; Shimodozono, Megumi


    We analysed the gross motor recovery of infants and toddlers with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) who received early postoperative physical therapy to see whether there was any difference in the duration to recovery. This study retrospectively evaluated the influence of early physical therapy on postoperative gross motor outcomes of patients with CHD. The gross motor ability of patients with cyanotic (n = 25, average age: 376.4 days) and acyanotic (n = 26, average age: 164.5 days) CHD was evaluated using our newly developed nine-grade mobility assessment scale. Physical therapy was started at an average of five days after surgery, during which each patient's gross motor ability was significantly decreased compared with the preoperative level. Patients (who received early postoperative physical therapy) with cyanotic (88.0%) and acyanotic CHD (96.2%) showed improved preoperative mobility grades by the time of hospital discharge. However, patients with cyanotic CHD had a significantly prolonged recovery period compared to those with acyanotic CHD (p congenital heart disease are likely at greater risk of gross motor delays and have a prolonged recovery period of gross motor ability compared to those with acyanotic congenital heart disease. Early postoperative physical therapy for patients with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery promoted gross motor recovery. The postoperative recovery period to preoperative mobility grade was affected by pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors. Rehabilitation experts should consider the risk of gross motor delays of patients with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery and the early postoperative physical therapy to promote their gross motor recovery.

  3. Intervention of oxygen-control ability to radiation sensitivity, cell aging and cell transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Hanako; Watanabe, Masami


    Oxygen is essential for life, and cells have therefore developed numerous adaptive responses to oxygen change. Here, we examined the difference in oxygen-control functions of human (HE), mouse (ME), and Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells cultured under different oxygen conditions (0.5%, 2% and 20%), and also examined whether oxygen tensions contributed to cellular lifespan and transformation. HE cells had their replicative lifespan slightly extended under hypoxic (0.5% and 2% oxygen) conditions, but were not immortalized under any of the oxygen concentrations. On the other hand, although ME cells cultured under 20% oxygen tension decreased their proliferation potency temporarily at early stage, all rodent cells were immortalized and acquired anchorage-independency, regardless of oxygen tension. These results suggest that cellular oxygen control function is related to sensitivities cellular immortalization and transformation. To understand intervention of oxygen control ability on cellular immortalization and transformation, we examined the intracellular oxidative level, mitochondria functions and radiation sensitivity. Intracellular oxidative levels of hypoxically cultured rodent cells were significantly enhanced. Mitochondrial membrane potential was altered depend on oxygen tensions, but the change was not parallel to mitochondria number in rodent cells. ME cells were particularly sensitive to oxygen change, and showed a clear oxygen effect on the X-ray survival. However, there was no difference in frequency of radiation-induced micronuclei between HE and ME cells. These results suggest that the response to oxygen change differs markedly in HE and rodent cells. (author)

  4. Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model. (United States)

    Warner, Richard


    The recovery model refers to subjective experiences of optimism, empowerment and interpersonal support, and to a focus on collaborative treatment approaches, finding productive roles for user/consumers, peer support and reducing stigma. The model is influencing service development around the world. This review will assess whether optimism about outcome from serious mental illness and other tenets of the recovery model are borne out by recent research. Remission of symptoms has been precisely defined, but the definition of 'recovery' is a more diffuse concept that includes such factors as being productive and functioning independently. Recent research and a large, earlier body of data suggest that optimism about outcome from schizophrenia is justified. A substantial proportion of people with the illness will recover completely and many more will regain good social functioning. Outcome is better for people in the developing world. Mortality for people with schizophrenia is increasing but is lower in the developing world. Working appears to help people recover from schizophrenia, and recent advances in vocational rehabilitation have been shown to be effective in countries with differing economies and labor markets. A growing body of research supports the concept that empowerment is an important component of the recovery process. Key tenets of the recovery model - optimism about recovery from schizophrenia, the importance of access to employment and the value of empowerment of user/consumers in the recovery process - are supported by the scientific research. Attempts to reduce the internalized stigma of mental illness should enhance the recovery process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vila,


    Full Text Available To assess the feasibility of implementing hemicellulose recovery stages in kraft mills, Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were subjected to aqueous treatments with hot, compressed water (autohydrolysis processing to achieve partial dissolution of xylan. Autohydrolyzed solids were subjected to kraft pulping under selected conditions to yield a pulp of low kappa number, and to an optimized TCF bleaching sequence made up of three stages (alkaline oxygen delignification, chelating, and pressurized hydrogen peroxide, with minimized additions of pulping and bleaching chemicals. The final product had a relatively low kappa number (1.4, 641 mL/g ISO intrinsic viscosity, and 86.4% brightness.

  6. Oxygen in the Martian atmosphere: Regulation of PO2 by the deposition of iron formations on Mars (United States)

    Burns, Roger G.


    During Earth's early history, and prior to the evolution of its present day oxygenated atmosphere, extensive iron rich siliceous sedimentary rocks were deposited, consisting of alternating layers of silica (chert) and iron oxide minerals (hematite and magnetite). The banding in iron formations recorded changes of atmosphere-hydrosphere interactions near sea level in the ancient ocean, which induced the oxidation of dissolved ferrous iron, precipitation of insoluble ferric oxides and silica, and regulation of oxygen in Earth's early atmosphere. Similarities between the Archean Earth and the composition of the present day atmosphere on Mars, together with the pervasive presence of ferric oxides in the Martian regolith suggest that iron formation might also have been deposited on Mars and influenced the oxygen content of the Martian atmosphere. Such a possibility is discussed here with a view to assessing whether the oxygen content of the Martian atmosphere has been regulated by the chemical precipitation of iron formations on Mars.

  7. The effect of sugammadex on postoperative cognitive function and recovery. (United States)

    Pişkin, Özcan; Küçükosman, Gamze; Altun, Deniz Utku; Çimencan, Murat; Özen, Banu; Aydın, Bengü Gülhan; Okyay, Rahşan Dilek; Ayoğlu, Hilal; Turan, Işıl Özkoçak


    Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent. When compared with neostigmine, following sugammadex administration patients wake earlier and have shorter recovery times. In this study, we hypothesized that fast and clear awakening in patients undergoing general anesthesia has positive effects on cognitive functions in the early period after operation. Approved by the local ethical committee, 128 patients were enrolled in this randomized, prospective, controlled, double-blind study. Patients were allocated to either Sugammadex group (Group S) or the Neostigmine group (Group N). The primary outcome of the study was early postoperative cognitive recovery as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). After baseline assessment 12-24h before the operation. After the operation, when the Modified Aldrete Recovery Score was ≥9 the MMSE and 1h later the MoCA tests were repeated. Although there was a reduction in MoCA and MMSE scores in both Group S and Group N between preoperative and postoperative scores, there was no statistically significant difference in the slopes (p>0.05). The time to reach TOF 0.9 was 2.19min in Group S and 6.47min in Group N (pSugammadex compared to the Neostigmine. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Increasing oil recovery from heavy oil waterfloods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, B.W. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[BP Exploration, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    In an effort to optimize waterflood strategies in Alaska, the authors examined the results of up to 50 years of waterflooding on 166 western Canadian waterfloods recovering oil of less than 30 degrees API. The study determined the best operating practices for heavy oil waterflooding by investigating the difference between waterflooding of heavy oil and lighter oil counterparts. Operators of light oil waterflooding are advised to begin waterflooding early and maintain the voidage replacement ratio (VRR) at 1. However, this study showed that it is beneficial to delay the start of waterflooding until a certain fraction of the original oil in place was recovered. Varying the VRR was also shown to correlate with increased ultimate recovery. This statistical study of 166 western Canadian waterfloods also examined the effect of injection strategy and the effect of primary production before waterflooding. Some pre-waterflood production and under injection time is advantageous for ultimate recovery by waterfloods. Specific recommendations were presented for waterfloods in reservoirs with both high and low API gravity ranges. Each range showed a narrow sweet spot window where improved recovery occurred. 27 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Carboxylated nanodiamond and re-oxygenation process of gamma irradiated red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta-Elias, M.; Sarabia-Sainz, A.; Silva-Campa, E.; Angulo-Molina, A.; Soto-Puebla, D.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Melendrez, R.; Alvarez-Garcia, S.; Pedroza-Montero, M.; Pedroso-Santana, S.; Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Castaneda, B.


    Nanodiamonds (NDs) possess exceptional physical, chemical, and biological properties, which make them suitable for potential biomedical applications. They are biocompatible and their usefulness as effective Raman/fluorescence probes for labeling as well as for drug delivery has been demonstrated. Related to their biocompatibility, the interaction between NDs and red blood cells (RBCs) is of great interest. In this work, the influence of carboxylated NDs (cNDs) in the re-oxygenation capability of both γ-irradiated and stored RBCs was studied. The standard 25 Gy γ dose recommended to prevent transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease was used. A 5-day maximum storage time was used to evaluate the ''storage lesion''. The hemoglobin (Hb) oxygenation state was assessed by Raman microspectroscopy and the morphologic changes on cells were tracked by optical imaging. Our results show that irradiated RBCs have a better re-oxygenation capability and morphological recovery when they are in presence of cNDs. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Carboxylated nanodiamond and re-oxygenation process of gamma irradiated red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta-Elias, M. [Doctorado en Nanotecnologia, Universidad de Sonora (Mexico); Sarabia-Sainz, A.; Silva-Campa, E.; Angulo-Molina, A.; Soto-Puebla, D.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Melendrez, R.; Alvarez-Garcia, S.; Pedroza-Montero, M. [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Pedroso-Santana, S. [Doctorado en Ciencias (Fisica), Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Castaneda, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico)


    Nanodiamonds (NDs) possess exceptional physical, chemical, and biological properties, which make them suitable for potential biomedical applications. They are biocompatible and their usefulness as effective Raman/fluorescence probes for labeling as well as for drug delivery has been demonstrated. Related to their biocompatibility, the interaction between NDs and red blood cells (RBCs) is of great interest. In this work, the influence of carboxylated NDs (cNDs) in the re-oxygenation capability of both γ-irradiated and stored RBCs was studied. The standard 25 Gy γ dose recommended to prevent transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease was used. A 5-day maximum storage time was used to evaluate the ''storage lesion''. The hemoglobin (Hb) oxygenation state was assessed by Raman microspectroscopy and the morphologic changes on cells were tracked by optical imaging. Our results show that irradiated RBCs have a better re-oxygenation capability and morphological recovery when they are in presence of cNDs. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Dutchess County Resource Recovery Task Force report: Dutchess County Pyrolysis Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Dutchess County initiated development of a long-range master plan for Solid Waste Management in 1971. The plan included development of a resource recovery facility to service the municipalities in the County population center. Based on early recommendations, a pyrolysis facility employing Purox technology was to be implemented. A feasibility study, paid for by County funds was completed in 1975. The study provided siting recommendations, estimation of available waste, and preliminary facility design. Because of various considerations, the project was not developed. Under the Department of Energy grant, the County reassessed the feasibility of a resource recovery facility, with emphasis on confirming previous conclusions supporting the Purox technology, waste availability, energy recovery and sale and siting of the plant. The conclusions reached in the new study were: a resource recovery facility is feasible for the County; sufficient waste for such a facility is available and subject to control; While Purox technology was feasible it is not the most appropriate available technoloy for the County; that mass burning with steam recovery is the most appropriate technology; and that resource recovery while presently more expensive than landfilling, represents the only cost effective, energy efficient, and environmentally sound way to handle the solid waste problem in the County.

  12. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian


    probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity......Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were...... of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent...

  13. Heterologous production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa rhamnolipid under anaerobic conditions for microbial enhanced oil recovery. (United States)

    Zhao, F; Shi, R; Zhao, J; Li, G; Bai, X; Han, S; Zhang, Y


    The ex situ application of rhamnolipid to enhance oil recovery is costly and complex in terms of rhamnolipid production and transportation, while in situ production of rhamnolipid is restricted by the oxygen-deficient environments of oil reservoirs. To overcome the oxygen-limiting conditions and to circumvent the complex regulation of rhamnolipid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an engineered strain Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl was constructed for heterologous production of rhamnolipid under anaerobic conditions. The rhlABRI genes for rhamnolipid biosynthesis were cloned into a facultative anaerobic strain Ps. stutzeri DQ1 to construct the engineered strain Rhl. Anaerobic production of rhamnolipid was confirmed by thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared analysis. Rhamnolipid product reduced the air-water surface tension to 30.3 mN m(-1) and the oil-water interfacial tension to 0.169 mN m(-1). Rhl produced rhamnolipid of 1.61 g l(-1) using glycerol as the carbon source. Rhl anaerobic culture emulsified crude oil up to EI24 ≈ 74. An extra 9.8% of original crude oil was displaced by Rhl in the core flooding test. Strain Rhl achieved anaerobic production of rhamnolipid and worked well for enhanced oil recovery in the core flooding model. The rhamnolipid produced by Rhl was similar to that of the donor strain SQ6. This is the first study to achieve anaerobic and heterologous production of rhamnolipid. Results demonstrated the potential feasibility of Rhl as a promising strain to enhance oil recovery through anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Treatment of portal venous gas embolism with hyperbaric oxygen after accidental ingestion of hydrogen peroxide: a case report and review of the literature. (United States)

    Papafragkou, Sotirios; Gasparyan, Anna; Batista, Richard; Scott, Paul


    It is well known that hydrogen peroxide ingestion can cause gas embolism. To report a case illustrating that the definitive, most effective treatment for gas embolism is hyperbaric oxygen therapy. We present a case of a woman who presented to the Emergency Department with acute abdominal pain after an accidental ingestion of concentrated hydrogen peroxide. Complete recovery from her symptoms occurred quickly with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. This is a case report of the successful use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy to treat portal venous gas embolism caused by hydrogen peroxide ingestion. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can be considered for the treatment of symptomatic hydrogen peroxide ingestion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary fish oil delays hypoxic skeletal muscle fatigue and enhances caffeine-stimulated contractile recovery in the rat in vivo hindlimb. (United States)

    Peoples, Gregory E; McLennan, Peter L


    Oxygen efficiency influences skeletal muscle contractile function during physiological hypoxia. Dietary fish oil, providing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), reduces the oxygen cost of muscle contraction. This study used an autologous perfused rat hindlimb model to examine the effects of a fish oil diet on skeletal muscle fatigue during an acute hypoxic challenge. Male Wistar rats were fed a diet rich in saturated fat (SF), long-chain (LC) n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA), or LC n-3 PUFA DHA from fish oil (FO) (8 weeks). During anaesthetised and ventilated conditions (normoxia 21% O 2 (SaO 2 -98%) and hypoxia 14% O 2 (SaO 2 -89%)) the hindlimb was perfused at a constant flow and the gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus muscle bundle was stimulated via sciatic nerve (2 Hz, 6-12V, 0.05 ms) to established fatigue. Caffeine (2.5, 5, 10 mM) was supplied to the contracting muscle bundle via the arterial cannula to assess force recovery. Hypoxia, independent of diet, attenuated maximal twitch tension (normoxia: 82 ± 8; hypoxia: 41 ± 2 g·g -1 tissue w.w.). However, rats fed FO sustained higher peak twitch tension compared with the SF and n-6 PUFA groups (P recovery was enhanced in the FO-fed animals (SF: 41 ± 3; n-6 PUFA: 40 ± 4; FO: 52 ± 7% recovery; P < 0.05). These results support a physiological role of DHA in skeletal muscle membranes when exposed to low-oxygen stress that is consistent with the attenuation of muscle fatigue under physiologically normoxic conditions.

  16. Social identity, social networks and recovery capital in emerging adulthood: A pilot study. (United States)

    Mawson, E; Best, D; Beckwith, M; Dingle, G A; Lubman, D I


    It has been argued that recovery from substance dependence relies on a change in identity, with past research focused on 'personal identity'. This study assessed support for a social identity model of recovery in emerging adults through examining associations between social identity, social networks, recovery capital, and quality of life. Twenty participants aged 18-21 in residential treatment for substance misuse were recruited from four specialist youth drug treatment services - three detoxification facilities and one psychosocial rehabilitation facility in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed a detailed social network interview exploring the substance use of groups in their social networks and measures of quality of life, recovery capital, and social identity. Lower group substance use was associated with higher recovery capital, stronger identification with non-using groups, and greater importance of non-using groups in the social network. Additionally, greater identification with and importance of non-using groups were associated with better environmental quality of life, whereas greater importance conferred on using groups was associated with reduced environmental quality of life. Support was found for the role of social identity processes in reported recovery capital and quality of life. Future research in larger, longitudinal samples is required to improve understanding of social identity processes during treatment and early recovery and its relationship to recovery stability.

  17. Duration of effects of acute environmental changes on food anticipatory behaviour, feed intake, oxygen consumption, and cortisol release in Atlantic salmon parr. (United States)

    Folkedal, Ole; Torgersen, Thomas; Olsen, Rolf Erik; Fernö, Anders; Nilsson, Jonatan; Oppedal, Frode; Stien, Lars H; Kristiansen, Tore S


    We compared behavioural and physiological responses and recovery time after different acute environmental challenges in groups of salmon parr. The fish were prior to the study conditioned to a flashing light signalling arrival of food 30 s later to study if the strength of Pavlovian conditioned food anticipatory behaviour can be used to assess how salmon parr cope with various challenges. The effect on anticipatory behaviour was compared to the effect on feed intake and physiological responses of oxygen hyper-consumption and cortisol excretion. The challenges were temperature fluctuation (6.5C° over 4 h), hyperoxia (up to 380% O(2) saturation over 4 h), and intense chasing for 10 min. Cortisol excretion was only elevated after hyperoxia and chasing, and returned to baseline levels after around 3 h or less. Oxygen hyper-consumption persisted for even shorter periods. Feed intake was reduced the first feeding after all challenges and recovered within 3 h after temperature and hyperoxia, but was reduced for days after chasing. Food anticipatory behaviour was reduced for a longer period than feed intake after hyperoxia and was low at least 6 h after chasing. Our findings suggest that a recovery of challenged Atlantic salmon parr to baseline levels of cortisol excretion and oxygen consumption does not mean full recovery of all psychological and physiological effects of environmental challenges, and emphasise the need for measuring several factors including behavioural parameters when assessing fish welfare. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Zooplankton Responses to Low-Oxygen Condition upon a Shallow Oxygen Minimum Zone in the Upwelling Region off Chile (United States)

    Hidalgo, P.; Escribano, R.


    A shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) is a critical component in the coastal upwelling ecosystem off Chile. This OMZ causes oxygen-deficient water entering the photic layer and affecting plankton communities having low tolerance to hypoxia. Variable, and usually species-dependent, responses of zooplankton to hypoxia condition can be found. Most dominant species avoid hypoxia by restricting their vertical distribution, while others can temporarily enter and even spent part of their life cycle within the OMZ. Whatever the case, low-oxygen conditions appear to affect virtually all vital rates of zooplankton, such as mortality, fecundity, development and growth and metabolism, and early developmental stages seem more sensitive, with significant consequences for population and community dynamics. For most study cases, these effects are negative at individual and population levels. Observations and predictions upon increasing upwelling intensity over the last 20-30 years indicate a gradual shoaling of the OMZ, and so that an expected enhancement of these negative effects of hypoxia on the zooplankton community. Unknown processes of adaptation and community-structure adjustments are expected to take place with uncertain consequences for the food web of this highly productive eastern boundary current ecosystem.

  19. Oxygen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. van der Westhuizen


    Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biologi­cal processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.

  20. An Early Permian epithermal gold system in the Tulasu Basin in North Xinjiang, NW China: Constraints from in situ oxygen-sulfur isotopes and geochronology (United States)

    Dong, Leilei; Wan, Bo; Deng, Chen; Cai, Keda; Xiao, Wenjiao


    The Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand gold deposits, being the largest gold deposits in the Chinese North Tianshan, NW China, are located ca. l0 km apart in the Tulasu Basin, and are hosted by the Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous Dahalajunshan Formation. In situ LA-ICP-MS titanium analyses on quartz from the Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand deposits are broadly identical. Accordingly, the calculated ore-forming temperatures by Ti-in-quartz thermometer give average temperatures of 279 °C and 294 °C, respectively. Results of in situ SIMS analyses of oxygen and sulfur isotopes on quartz and pyrite from these two deposits are similar. Temperature-corrected fluids of the Axi deposit have δ18O values of 2.6-8.1‰ and δ34S values of 0.8-2.4‰, whereas the fluids of the Jingxi-Yelmand deposit have δ18O of 6.4-8.9‰ and δ34S of -0.4 to 4.0‰. The oxygen and sulfur isotopes from the two deposits indicate a magmatic origin. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of Aqialehe Formation sandstone provided a lower limit for the mineralization timing of the Axi deposit (288 Ma). In situ SIMS U-Pb analyses on entrapped zircon (297 Ma) and newly recognized 284.5 Ma columnar rhyolite implies that the Jingxi-Yelmand deposit formed in the Early Permian. Based on the magmatic affinity of the ore fluids, similar age and ore-formation temperatures, we propose that the Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand deposits comprise an epithermal gold system, which was driven by the same Permian magma in the Tulasu Basin. The ore geological features together with our new results indicate that the Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand deposits are intermediate and high sulfidation type epithermal deposits, respectively.

  1. Early Gelatinase Activity Is Not a Determinant of Long-Term Recovery after Traumatic Brain Injury in the Immature Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridgette D Semple

    Full Text Available The gelatinases, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9, are thought to be key mediators of secondary damage in adult animal models of brain injury. Moreover, an acute increase in these proteases in plasma and brain extracellular fluid of adult patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs is associated with poorer clinical outcomes and mortality. Nonetheless, their involvement after TBI in the pediatric brain remains understudied. Using a murine model of TBI at postnatal day 21 (p21, approximating a toddler-aged child, we saw upregulation of active and pro-MMP-9 and MMP-2 by gelatin zymography at 48 h post-injury. We therefore investigated the role of gelatinases on long-term structural and behavioral outcomes after injury after acute inhibition with a selective gelatinase inhibitor, p-OH SB-3CT. After systemic administration, p-OH SB-3CT crossed the blood-brain barrier at therapeutically-relevant concentrations. TBI at p21 induced hyperactivity, deficits in spatial learning and memory, and reduced sociability when mice were assessed at adulthood, alongside pronounced tissue loss in key neuroanatomical regions. Acute and short-term post-injury treatment with p-OH SB-3CT did not ameliorate these long-term behavioral, cognitive, or neuropathological deficits as compared to vehicle-treated controls, suggesting that these deficits were independent of MMP-9 and MMP-2 upregulation. These findings emphasize the vulnerability of the immature brain to the consequences of traumatic injuries. However, early upregulation of gelatinases do not appear to be key determinants of long-term recovery after an early-life injury.

  2. Early Gelatinase Activity Is Not a Determinant of Long-Term Recovery after Traumatic Brain Injury in the Immature Mouse (United States)

    Semple, Bridgette D.; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.; Gooyit, Major; Tercovich, Kayleen G.; Peng, Zhihong; Nguyen, Trung T.; Schroeder, Valerie A.; Suckow, Mark A.; Chang, Mayland; Raber, Jacob; Trivedi, Alpa


    The gelatinases, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, are thought to be key mediators of secondary damage in adult animal models of brain injury. Moreover, an acute increase in these proteases in plasma and brain extracellular fluid of adult patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) is associated with poorer clinical outcomes and mortality. Nonetheless, their involvement after TBI in the pediatric brain remains understudied. Using a murine model of TBI at postnatal day 21 (p21), approximating a toddler-aged child, we saw upregulation of active and pro-MMP-9 and MMP-2 by gelatin zymography at 48 h post-injury. We therefore investigated the role of gelatinases on long-term structural and behavioral outcomes after injury after acute inhibition with a selective gelatinase inhibitor, p-OH SB-3CT. After systemic administration, p-OH SB-3CT crossed the blood-brain barrier at therapeutically-relevant concentrations. TBI at p21 induced hyperactivity, deficits in spatial learning and memory, and reduced sociability when mice were assessed at adulthood, alongside pronounced tissue loss in key neuroanatomical regions. Acute and short-term post-injury treatment with p-OH SB-3CT did not ameliorate these long-term behavioral, cognitive, or neuropathological deficits as compared to vehicle-treated controls, suggesting that these deficits were independent of MMP-9 and MMP-2 upregulation. These findings emphasize the vulnerability of the immature brain to the consequences of traumatic injuries. However, early upregulation of gelatinases do not appear to be key determinants of long-term recovery after an early-life injury. PMID:26588471

  3. Recovery and permanent radiation damage of plastic scintillators at different dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicken, B.; Holm, U.; Marckmann, T.; Wick, K.; Rhode, M.


    This paper reports on the radiation stability of plastic scintillators and wavelength shifters for the calorimeter of the ZEUS detector by irradiating them with protons, a 60 Co-source, and depleted uranium. Changes in light yield, absorption length and absorption coefficient have been measured for storage in inert and oxygen atmospheres during and after irradiation. Radiation doses up to 40 kGy with dose rates of 30 up to 2000 Gy/h have been applied. The polystyrene based scintillator SCSN-38 and the wavelength shifters Y-7 and K-27 in PMMA show an additional absorption but a recovery in air to a low permanent damage (at 10 kGy) which is proportional to the applied dose. Series investigations on samples of all production cycles of the ZEUS scintillators with high dose rates show only minor differences in radiation hardness. The recovery is described by a simple oxygen diffusion model for high and medium dose rates down to 30 Gy/h. During long term irradiations at low dose rates (<100 Gy/h) of 3 mm thick SCSN-38 in air the radiation damage recovers to a permanent damage which does not depend on the dose rate. On the other hand the radiation damage at very low dose rates (17 Gy/a) seems to be higher than expected for the accumulated dose

  4. Polarization recovery in lead zirconate titanate thin films deposited on nanosheets-buffered Si (001) (United States)

    Chopra, Anuj; Bayraktar, Muharrem; Nijland, Maarten; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Bijkerk, Fred; Rijnders, Guus


    Fatigue behavior of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) films is one of the deterrent factors that limits the use of these films in technological applications. Thus, understanding and minimization of the fatigue behavior is highly beneficial for fabricating reliable devices using PZT films. We have investigated the fatigue behavior of preferentially oriented PZT films deposited on nanosheets-buffered Si substrates using LaNiO3 bottom and top electrodes. The films show fatigue of up to 10% at 100 kHz, whereas no fatigue has been observed at 1 MHz. This frequency dependence of the fatigue behavior is found to be in accordance with Dawber-Scott fatigue model that explains the origin of the fatigue as migration of oxygen vacancies. Interestingly, a partial recovery of remnant polarization up to ˜97% of the maximum value is observed after 4×109 cycles which can be further extended to full recovery by increasing the applied electric field. This full recovery is qualitatively explained using kinetic approach as a manifestation of depinning of domains walls. The understanding of the fatigue behavior and polarization recovery that is explained in this paper can be highly useful in developing more reliable PZT devices.

  5. Recovery in SoccerPart II—Recovery Strategies


    Nedelec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Grégory


    International audience; In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue...

  6. The Carmat Bioprosthetic Total Artificial Heart Is Associated With Early Hemostatic Recovery and no Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome in Calves. (United States)

    Smadja, David M; Susen, Sophie; Rauch, Antoine; Cholley, Bernard; Latrémouille, Christian; Duveau, Daniel; Zilberstein, Luca; Méléard, Denis; Boughenou, Marie-Fazia; Belle, Eric Van; Gaussem, Pascale; Capel, Antoine; Jansen, Piet; Carpentier, Alain


    To determine hemostasis perturbations, including von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers, after implantation of a new bioprosthetic and pulsatile total artificial heart (TAH). Preclinical study SETTING: Single-center biosurgical research laboratory. Female Charolais calves, 2-to-6 months old, weighing 102-to-122 kg. Surgical implantation of TAH through a mid-sternotomy approach. Four of 12 calves had a support duration of several days (4, 4, 8, and 10 days), allowing for the exploration of early steps of hemostasis parameters, including prothrombin time; coagulation factor levels (II, V, VII+X, and fibrinogen); and platelet count. Multimeric analysis of VWF was performed to detect a potential loss of high-molecular weight (HMW) multimers, as previously described for continuous flow rotary blood pumps. Despite the absence of anticoagulant treatment administered in the postoperative phase, no signs of coagulation activation were detected. Indeed, after an immediate postsurgery decrease of prothrombin time, platelet count, and coagulation factor levels, most parameters returned to baseline values. HMW multimers of VWF remained stable either after initiation or during days of support. Coagulation parameters and platelet count recovery in the postoperative phase of the Carmat TAH (Camat SA, Velizy Villacoublay Cedex, France) implantation in calves, in the absence of anticoagulant treatment and associated with the absence of decrease in HMW multimers of VWF, is in line with early hemocompatibility that is currently being validated in human clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Armstrong, B.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    Mixed oxygen ion and electron-conducting ceramics are unique materials that can passively separate high purity oxygen from air. Oxygen ions move through a fully dense ceramic in response to an oxygen concentration gradient, charge-compensated by an electron flux in the opposite direction. Compositions in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, perovskites where M=Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N=Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, have been prepared and their electrical, oxygen permeation, oxygen vacancy equilibria, and catalytic properties evaluated. Tubular forms, disks, and asymmetric membrane structures, a thin dense layer on a porous support of the same composition, have been fabricated for testing purposes. In an oxygen partial gradient, the passive oxygen flux through fully dense structures was highly dependent on composition. An increase in oxygen permeation with increased temperature is attributed to both enhanced oxygen vacancy mobility and higher vacancy populations. Highly acceptor-doped compositions resulted in oxygen ion mobilities more than an order of magnitude higher than yttria-stabilized zirconia. The mixed conducting ceramics have been utilized in a membrane reactor configuration to upgrade methane to ethane and ethylene. Conditions were established to balance selectivity and throughput in a catalytic membrane reactor constructed from mixed conducting ceramics.

  8. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: subchronic inhalation toxicity. (United States)

    Clark, Charles R; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Parker, Craig M; Gray, Thomas M; Hoffman, Gary M


    Sprague Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess whether their use in gasoline influences the hazard of evaporative emissions. Test substances included vapor condensates prepared from an EPA described "baseline gasoline" (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrations were 0, 2000, 10,000 or 20,000mg/m(3) and exposures were for 6h/day, 5days/week for 13weeks. A portion of the animals were maintained for a four week recovery period to determine the reversibility of potential adverse effects. Increased kidney weight and light hydrocarbon nephropathy (LHN) were observed in treated male rats in all studies which were reversible or nearly reversible after 4weeks recovery. LHN is unique to male rats and is not relevant to human toxicity. The no observed effect level (NOAEL) in all studies was 10,000mg/m(3), except for G/MTBE (<2000) and G/TBA (2000). The results provide evidence that use of the studied oxygenates are unlikely to increase the hazard of evaporative emissions during refueling, compared to those from gasoline alone. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of primary sedimentation on plant-wide energy recovery and carbon footprint. (United States)

    Gori, Riccardo; Giaccherini, Francesca; Jiang, Lu-Man; Sobhani, Reza; Rosso, Diego


    The goal of this paper is to show the effect of primary sedimentation on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and solids fractionation and consequently on the carbonaceous and energy footprints of wastewater treatment processes. Using a simple rational procedure for COD and solids fraction quantification, we quantify the effects of varying fractions on CO2 and CO2-equivalent mass flows, process energy demand and energy recovery. Then we analysed two treatment plants with similar biological nutrient removal processes in two different climatic regions and quantified the net benefit of gravity separation before biological treatment. In the cases analysed, primary settling increases the solid fraction of COD that is processed in anaerobic digestion, with an associated increase in biogas production and energy recovery, and a reduction in overall emissions of CO2 and CO2-equivalent from power importation.

  10. Sources and Contributions of Oxygen During Microbial Pyrite Oxidation: the Triple Oxygen Isotopes of Sulfate (United States)

    Ziegler, K.; Coleman, M. L.; Mielke, R. E.; Young, E. D.


    expected based on published equilibrium values [2,3,4]. Our inferred ɛ18OSO4-H2O of at least ~+10‰ is similar to some reported values. These new insights into the close links between microbial life cycle and sources of sulfate oxygen during sulfide oxidation, and their oxygen isotopic expressions, will help elucidate the role of microbial oxidation in natural systems. If microbial populations in natural systems remain in a perpetual lag-phase due to constrains of chemistry, atmospheric oxygen will imprint its isotopic signature onto sulfate deposits. Ultimately, such data could be used as biosignatures on Early Earth or Mars. [1] Brunner and Coleman (2008) EPSL 270, 63-72. [2] Balci et al. (2007) GCA 71, 3796-3811. [3] Pisapia et al. (2007) GCA 71, 2474-2490. [4] Taylor et al. (1984) GCA 48, 2669-2678.

  11. Recovery from cannabis use disorders: Abstinence versus moderation and treatment-assisted recovery versus natural recovery. (United States)

    Stea, Jonathan N; Yakovenko, Igor; Hodgins, David C


    The present study of recovery from cannabis use disorders was undertaken with 2 primary objectives that address gaps in the literature. The first objective was to provide an exploratory portrait of the recovery process from cannabis use disorders, comparing individuals who recovered naturally with those who were involved in treatment. The second objective was to explore systematically the similarities and differences between abstinence and moderation recoveries. Adults who have recovered from a cannabis use disorder were recruited in the community (N = 119). The abstinence and treatment-assisted participants exhibited higher levels of lifetime cannabis problem severity than the moderation and natural recovery participants, respectively. As well, cognitive factors were identified as the most useful strategies for recovery (e.g., thinking about benefits and negative consequences of cannabis), followed by behavioral factors (e.g., avoidance of triggers for use and high-risk situations). Findings lend further support to the effectiveness of cognitive, motivational, and behavioral strategies as helpful actions and maintenance factors involved in the recovery process. The findings also generally support the idea that cannabis use disorders lie on a continuum of problem severity, with moderation and natural recoveries more likely to occur at the lower end of the continuum and abstinence and treatment-assisted recoveries more likely to occur at the upper end. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Oxygen, the lung and the diver: friends and foes? (United States)

    van Ooij, Pieter-Jan A M; Sterk, Peter J; van Hulst, Robert A


    Worldwide, the number of professional and sports divers is increasing. Most of them breathe diving gases with a raised partial pressure of oxygen (P O 2 ). However, if the P O 2 is between 50 and 300 kPa (375-2250 mmHg) (hyperoxia), pathological pulmonary changes can develop, known as pulmonary oxygen toxicity (POT). Although in its acute phase, POT is reversible, it can ultimately lead to non-reversible pathological changes. Therefore, it is important to monitor these divers to prevent them from sustaining irreversible lesions.This review summarises the pulmonary pathophysiological effects when breathing oxygen with a P O 2 of 50-300 kPa (375-2250 mmHg). We describe the role and the limitations of lung function testing in monitoring the onset and development of POT, and discuss new techniques in respiratory medicine as potential markers in the early development of POT in divers. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  13. Investigating the complexity of respiratory patterns during recovery from severe hypoxia (United States)

    Akay, Metin; Sekine, Noriko


    Progressive hypoxemia in anesthetized, peripherally chemodenervated piglets results in initial depression of the phrenic neurogram (PN) culminating in phrenic silence and, eventually, gasping. These changes reverse after the 30 min reoxygenation (recovery) period. To determine if changes in the PN patterns correspond to changes in temporal patterning, we have used the approximate entropy (ApEn) method to examine the effects of maturation on the complexity of breathing patterns in chemodenervated, vagotomized and decerebrated piglets during severe hypoxia and reoxygenation. The phrenic neurogram in piglets was recorded during eupnea (normal breathing), severe hypoxia (gasping) and recovery from severe hypoxia in 31 piglets (2 35 days). Nonlinear dynamical analysis of the phrenic neurogram was performed using the ApEn method. The mean ApEn values for a recording of five consecutive breaths during eupnea, a few phrenic neurogram signals during gasping, the beginning of the recovery period, and five consecutive breaths at every 5 min interval for the 30 min recovery period were calculated. Our data suggest that gasping resulted in reduced duration of the phrenic neurogram, and the gasp-like patterns exist at the beginning of the recovery. But, the durations of phrenic neurograms during recovery were increased after 10 min postreoxygenation, but were restored 30 min post recovery. The ApEn (complexity) values of the phrenic neurogram during eupnea were higher than those of gasping and the early (the onset of) recovery from severe hypoxia (p < 0.01), but were not statistically different than 5 min post recovery regardless of the maturation stages. These results suggest that hypoxia results in a reversible reconfiguration of the central respiratory pattern generator.

  14. Formation of reactive oxygen species in rat epithelial cells upon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In our study, we investigated the influence of fly ash on the promotion of early inflammatory reactions like the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rat lung epithelial cells (RLE-6TN). Furthermore, we determined the formation of nitric oxide (NO). The cells show a clear dose-response relationship concerning the ...

  15. Universal access, cost recovery, and payment services


    Sujit Chakravorti; Jeffery W. Gunther; Robert R. Moore


    We suggest a subtle, yet far- reaching, tension in the objectives specified by the Monetary Control Act of 1980 (MCA) for the Federal Reserve’s role in providing retail payment services, such as check processing. Specifically, we argue that the requirement of an overall cost-revenue match, coupled with the goal of ensuring equitable access on a universal basis, partially shifted the burden of cost recovery from high-cost to low-cost service points during the MCA’s early years, thereby allowin...

  16. Digital innovations and emerging technologies for enhanced recovery programmes. (United States)

    Michard, F; Gan, T J; Kehlet, H


    Enhanced recovery programmes (ERPs) are increasingly used to improve post-surgical recovery. However, compliance to various components of ERPs-a key determinant of success-remains sub-optimal. Emerging technologies have the potential to help patients and caregivers to improve compliance with ERPs.Preoperative physical condition, a major determinant of postoperative outcome, could be optimized with the use of text messages (SMS) or digital applications (Apps) designed to facilitate smoking cessation, modify physical activity, and better manage hypertension and diabetes. Several non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring techniques and decision support tools are now available to individualize perioperative fluid management, a key component of ERPs. Objective nociceptive assessment may help to rationalize the use of pain medications, including opioids. Wearable sensors designed to monitor cardio-respiratory function may help in the early detection of clinical deterioration during the postoperative recovery and to address 'failure to rescue'. Activity trackers may be useful to monitor early mobilization, another major element of ERPs. Finally, electronic checklists have been developed to ensure that none of the above-mentioned ERP elements is omitted during the surgical journey.By optimizing compliance to the multiple components of ERPs, digital innovations, non-invasive techniques and wearable sensors have the potential to magnify the clinical and economic benefits of ERPs. Among the growing number of technical innovations, studies are needed to clarify which tools and solutions have real clinical value and are cost-effective. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  17. Closed Loop Control of Oxygen Delivery and Oxygen Generation (United States)


    were used for this study and were connected via a USB cable to allow communication. The ventilator was modified to allow closed loop control of oxygen...connected via a USB cable to allow communication. The ventilator was modified to allow closed loop control of oxygen based on the oxygen saturation...2017-4119, 28 Aug 2017. oximetry (SpO2) and intermittent arterial blood sampling for arterial oxygen tension (partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2]) and

  18. From recovery values to recovery-oriented practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Helle; Pedersen, Inge Kryger; Cunningham, Harry


    Introduction: The recovery model has influenced mental health services and fostered new standards for best practice. However, knowledge about how mental health care professionals (HCPs) experience recoveryoriented programs is sparse. Aim/Question: This paper explores HCPs' experiences when...... facilitating a recovery-oriented rehabilitation program. The research question is howdo HCPs experience a change in their attitude and practicewhen applying recovery-oriented programs? Methods: This paper draws on semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with 16 HCPs experienced...... in facilitating a recovery-oriented rehabilitation program in either the USA or Denmark. Results: Three themes emerged from the HCPs' reflections on changes in attitudes and practices: “Hopeful Attitude” captures a change in the HCPs' attitude toward a more positive view on the future for clients' living...

  19. High-Energy-Density Metal-Oxygen Batteries: Lithium-Oxygen Batteries vs Sodium-Oxygen Batteries. (United States)

    Song, Kyeongse; Agyeman, Daniel Adjei; Park, Mihui; Yang, Junghoon; Kang, Yong-Mook


    The development of next-generation energy-storage devices with high power, high energy density, and safety is critical for the success of large-scale energy-storage systems (ESSs), such as electric vehicles. Rechargeable sodium-oxygen (Na-O 2 ) batteries offer a new and promising opportunity for low-cost, high-energy-density, and relatively efficient electrochemical systems. Although the specific energy density of the Na-O 2 battery is lower than that of the lithium-oxygen (Li-O 2 ) battery, the abundance and low cost of sodium resources offer major advantages for its practical application in the near future. However, little has so far been reported regarding the cell chemistry, to explain the rate-limiting parameters and the corresponding low round-trip efficiency and cycle degradation. Consequently, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism is needed for both lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen cells. An in-depth understanding of the differences and similarities between Li-O 2 and Na-O 2 battery systems, in terms of thermodynamics and a structural viewpoint, will be meaningful to promote the development of advanced metal-oxygen batteries. State-of-the-art battery design principles for high-energy-density lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen batteries are thus reviewed in depth here. Major drawbacks, reaction mechanisms, and recent strategies to improve performance are also summarized. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Oxygen Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Solmes


    Full Text Available LTOT is prescribed for people with chronic lung disease in whom there is a decrease in the ability of the lungs to supply enough oxygen to the body. The heart is obliged to pump faster to meet the body's oxygen requirements. This may place undue stress on the heart, resulting in palpitations, dizziness and fatigue. A low oxygen level in arterial blood is also harmful to the heart, the brain and the pulmonary blood vessels. Oxygen therapy is used to break this cycle. A person with low blood oxygen will often be able to accomplish more with less fatigue with the help of supplemental oxygen therapy. Shortness of breath is a mechanical problem resulting from the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxygen therapy may or may not reduce shortness of breath, but it will help the lungs and heart to function with less stress.

  1. Oxygen-enhanced MRI of the lungs. Intraindividual comparison between 1.5 and 3 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, Olaf; Thieme, S.F.; Maxien, D.; Nikolaou, K.; Reiser, M.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Fink, C.


    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of oxygen-enhanced MRI of the lung at 3 Tesla and to compare signal characteristics with 1.5 Tesla. Materials and Methods: 13 volunteers underwent oxygen-enhanced lung MRI at 1.5 and 3 T with a T 1-weighted single-slice non-selective inversion-recovery single-shot half-Fourier fast-spin-echo sequence with simultaneous respiratory and cardiac triggering in coronal orientation. 40 measurements were acquired during room air breathing and subsequently during oxygen breathing (15 L/min, close-fitting face-mask). The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the lung tissue was determined with a difference image method. The image quality of all acquisitions was visually assessed. The mean values of the oxygen-induced relative signal enhancement and its regional coefficient of variation were calculated and the signal enhancement was displayed as color-coded parameter maps. Oxygen-enhancement maps were visually assessed with respect to the distribution and heterogeneity of the oxygen-related signal enhancement at both field strengths. Results: The mean relative signal enhancement due to oxygen breathing was 13 % (± 5.6 %) at 1.5 T and of 9.0 % (± 8.0 %) at 3 T. The regional coefficient of variation was significantly higher at 3 T. Visual and quantitative assessment of the enhancement maps showed considerably less homogeneous distribution of the signal enhancement at 3 T. The SNR was not significantly different but showed a trend to slightly higher values (increase of about 10 %) at 3 T. Conclusion: Oxygen-enhanced pulmonary MRI is feasible at 3 Tesla. However, signal enhancement is currently more heterogeneous and slightly lower at 3 T. (orig.)

  2. The A-test: Assessment of functional recovery during early rehabilitation of patients in an orthopedic ward - content, criterion and construct validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukomanović Aleksandra


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The A-test was designed for assessment of functional recovery during early rehabilitation of patients in an orthopedic ward. This performance-based test consists of 10 items for assessing basic activities by a six level ordinal scale (0-5. Total scores can range from 0 to 50, i.e. from inability to perform any activity despite the help of therapists to complete independence and safety in performing all activities. The aim of this study was to examine the A-test validity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in an orthopedic ward and included 120 patients [60 patients with hip osteoarthritis that underwent arthroplasty and 60 surgically treated patients with hip fracture (HF] during early inpatient rehabilitation (1st-5th day. Validity was examined through 3 aspects: content validity - floor and ceiling effect, range, skewness; criterion validity - concurrent validity [correlation with the University of Iowa Level of Assistance Scale (ILAS for patients with hip osteoarthritis, and with the Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS for patients with HF, Spearman rank correlation] and predictive validity [the New Mobility Score (NMS 4 weeks after surgery, Mann-Whitney U test]; construct validity - 4 hypotheses: 1 on the fifth day of rehabilitation in patients underwent arthroplasty due to hip osteoarthritis, the A-test results will strongly correlate with those of ILAS, while the correlation with the Harris hip score will be less strong; 2 in patients with HF, the A-test results will be significantly better in those with allowed weight bearing as compared to patients whom weight bearing is not allowed while walking; 3 results of the A-test will be significantly better in patients with hip osetoarthritis than in those with HF; 4 the A-test results will be significantly better in patients younger than 65 years than in those aged 65 years and older. Results. The obtained results were: low floor (1% and ceiling (2% effect, range 0

  3. Biogeochemical Modeling of the Second Rise of Oxygen (United States)

    Smith, M. L.; Catling, D.; Claire, M.; Zahnle, K.


    The rise of atmospheric oxygen set the tempo for the evolution of complex life on Earth. Oxygen levels are thought to have increased in two broad steps: one step occurred in the Archean ~ 2.45 Ga (the Great Oxidation Event or GOE), and another step occured in the Neoproterozoic ~750-580 Ma (the Neoprotoerozoic Oxygenation Event or NOE). During the NOE, oxygen levels increased from ~1-10% of the present atmospheric level (PAL) (Holland, 2006), to ~15% PAL in the late Neoproterozoic, to ~100% PAL later in the Phanerozoic. Complex life requires O2, so this transition allowed complex life to evolve. We seek to understand what caused the NOE. To explore causes for the NOE, we build upon the biogeochemical model of Claire et al. (2006), which calculates the redox evolution of the atmosphere, ocean, biosphere, and crust in the Archean through to the early Proterozoic. In this model, the balance between oxygenconsuming and oyxgen-producing fluxes evolves over time such that at ~2.4 Ga, the rapidly acting sources of oxygen outweigh the rapidly-acting sinks. Or, in other words, at ~2.4 Ga, the flux of oxygen from organic carbon burial exceeds the sinks of oxygen from reaction with reduced volcanic and metamoprphic gases. The model is able to drive oxygen levels to 1-10% PAL in the Proterozoic; however, the evolving redox fluxes in the model cannot explain how oxygen levels pushed above 1-10% in the late Proterozoic. The authors suggest that perhaps another buffer, such as sulfur, is needed to describe Proterozoic and Phanerozoic redox evolution. Geologic proxies show that in the Proterozoic, up to 10% of the deep ocean may have been sulfidic. With this ocean chemistry, the global sulfur cycle would have worked differently than it does today. Because the sulfur and oxygen cycles interact, the oxygen concentration could have permanently changed due to an evolving sulfur cycle (in combination with evolving redox fluxes associated with other parts of the oxygen cycle and carbon

  4. Recovery of motor deficit accompanying sciatica--subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Overdevest, Gijsbert M; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L A M; Jacobs, Wilco C H; Brand, Ronald; Koes, Bart W; Peul, Wilco C


    In patients with sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation, it is generally recommended to reserve surgical treatment for those who suffer from intolerable pain or those who demonstrate persistent symptoms after conservative management. Controversy exists about the necessity of early surgical intervention for those patients that have an additional motor deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the recovery of motor deficit among patients receiving early surgery to those receiving prolonged conservative treatment. Subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial. This subgroup analysis focuses on 150 (53%) of 283 patients with sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation and whose symptoms at baseline (before randomization) were accompanied by a motor deficit. Motor deficit was assessed through manual muscle testing and graded according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. In total, 150 patients with 6 to 12 weeks of sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation and whose symptoms were accompanied by a moderate (MRC Grade 4) or severe (MRC Grade 3) motor deficit were randomly allocated to early surgery or prolonged conservative treatment. Repeated standardized neurologic examinations were performed at baseline and at 8, 26, and 52 weeks after randomization. This study was supported by a grant from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMW) and the Hoelen Foundation The Hague. Sciatica recovered among seven (10%) of the 70 patients assigned to early surgery before surgery could be performed, and of the 80 patients assigned to conservative treatment, 32 patients (40%) were treated surgically because of intolerable pain. Baseline severity of motor deficit was graded moderate in 84% of patients and severe in 16% of patients. Motor deficit recovered significantly faster among patients allocated to early surgery (p=.01), but the difference was no longer significant at 26 (p=.21) or 52 weeks (p=.92). At 1 year, complete recovery of motor

  5. [Domiciliary oxygen therapy]. (United States)

    Abdel Kafi, S


    In Belgium, oxygen therapy is becoming more and more accessible. When oxygen is needed for short periods or for special indications as palliative care, an agreement between mutual insurance companies and pharmacists allows the practitioner the home installation of gazeous oxygen cylinder or of oxygen concentrator. When long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is indicated for patients with respiratory insufficiency, the pneumologist must first ask the INAMI the authorization to install one of the following modalities: oxygen concentrator with or without demand oxygen delivery cylinder and liquid oxygen. The goal of LTOT is to increase survival and quality of life. The principal and well accepted indication for LTOT is severe hypoxemia. The beneficial effects of oxygen therapy limited at night or on exertion are controversial. In order to increase patient's autonomy, oxygen can be prescribed for ambulation, respecting prescription's rules. At each step of oxygen therapy implementing (indication, choice of the device and follow-up) the patient under oxygen may benefit from a joint approach between the general practitioner and the chest specialist.

  6. Experimental investigation of molten salt droplet quenching and solidification processes of heat recovery in thermochemical hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghandehariun, S.; Wang, Z.; Naterer, G.F.; Rosen, M.A.


    Highlights: • Thermal efficiency of a thermochemical cycle of hydrogen production is improved. • Direct contact heat recovery from molten salt is analyzed. • Falling droplets quenched into water are investigated experimentally. - Abstract: This paper investigates the heat transfer and X-ray diffraction patterns of solidified molten salt droplets in heat recovery processes of a thermochemical Cu–Cl cycle of hydrogen production. It is essential to recover the heat of the molten salt to enhance the overall thermal efficiency of the copper–chlorine cycle. A major portion of heat recovery within the cycle can be achieved by cooling and solidifying the molten salt exiting an oxygen reactor. Heat recovery from the molten salt is achieved by dispersing the molten stream into droplets. In this paper, an analytical study and experimental investigation of the thermal phenomena of a falling droplet quenched into water is presented, involving the droplet surface temperature during descent and resulting composition change in the quench process. The results show that it is feasible to quench the molten salt droplets for an efficient heat recovery process without introducing any material imbalance for the overall cycle integration.

  7. Neonatal and pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in developing Latin American countries. (United States)

    Kattan, Javier; González, Álvaro; Castillo, Andrés; Caneo, Luiz Fernando

    To review the principles of neonatal-pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy, prognosis, and its establishment in limited resource-limited countries in Latino America. The PubMed database was explored from 1985 up to the present, selecting from highly-indexed and leading Latin American journals, and Extracorporeal Life Support Organization reports. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides "time" for pulmonary and cardiac rest and for recovery. It is used in the neonatal-pediatric field as a rescue therapy for more than 1300 patients with respiratory failure and around 1000 patients with cardiac diseases per year. The best results in short- and long-term survival are among patients with isolated respiratory diseases, currently established as a standard therapy in referral centers for high-risk patients. The first neonatal/pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Program in Latin America was established in Chile in 2003, which was also the first program in Latin America to affiliate with the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. New extracorporeal membrane oxygenation programs have been developed in recent years in referral centers in Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Mexico, Perú, Costa Rica, and Chile, which are currently funding the Latin American Extracorporeal Life Support Organization chapter. The best results in short- and long-term survival are in patients with isolated respiratory diseases. Today extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy is a standard therapy in some Latin American referral centers. It is hoped that these new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers will have a positive impact on the survival of newborns and children with respiratory or cardiac failure, and that they will be available for an increasing number of patients from this region in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Neonatal and pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in developing Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Kattan

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To review the principles of neonatal-pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy, prognosis, and its establishment in limited resource-limited countries in Latino America. Sources: The PubMed database was explored from 1985 up to the present, selecting from highly-indexed and leading Latin American journals, and Extracorporeal Life Support Organization reports. Summary of the findings: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides “time” for pulmonary and cardiac rest and for recovery. It is used in the neonatal-pediatric field as a rescue therapy for more than 1300 patients with respiratory failure and around 1000 patients with cardiac diseases per year. The best results in short- and long-term survival are among patients with isolated respiratory diseases, currently established as a standard therapy in referral centers for high-risk patients. The first neonatal/pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Program in Latin America was established in Chile in 2003, which was also the first program in Latin America to affiliate with the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. New extracorporeal membrane oxygenation programs have been developed in recent years in referral centers in Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Mexico, Perú, Costa Rica, and Chile, which are currently funding the Latin American Extracorporeal Life Support Organization chapter. Conclusions: The best results in short- and long-term survival are in patients with isolated respiratory diseases. Today extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy is a standard therapy in some Latin American referral centers. It is hoped that these new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers will have a positive impact on the survival of newborns and children with respiratory or cardiac failure, and that they will be available for an increasing number of patients from this region in the near future.

  9. Data warehousing methods and processing infrastructure for brain recovery research. (United States)

    Gee, T; Kenny, S; Price, C J; Seghier, M L; Small, S L; Leff, A P; Pacurar, A; Strother, S C


    In order to accelerate translational neuroscience with the goal of improving clinical care it has become important to support rapid accumulation and analysis of large, heterogeneous neuroimaging samples and their metadata from both normal control and patient groups. We propose a multi-centre, multinational approach to accelerate the data mining of large samples and facilitate data-led clinical translation of neuroimaging results in stroke. Such data-driven approaches are likely to have an early impact on clinically relevant brain recovery while we simultaneously pursue the much more challenging model-based approaches that depend on a deep understanding of the complex neural circuitry and physiological processes that support brain function and recovery. We present a brief overview of three (potentially converging) approaches to neuroimaging data warehousing and processing that aim to support these diverse methods for facilitating prediction of cognitive and behavioral recovery after stroke, or other types of brain injury or disease.

  10. Oxygen therapy - infants (United States)

    ... breathe increased amounts of oxygen to get normal levels of oxygen in their blood. Oxygen therapy provides babies with the extra oxygen. Information Oxygen is a gas that the cells in your body need to work properly. The ...

  11. Evidence for oxygenic photosynthesis half a billion years before the Great Oxidation Event (United States)

    Planavsky, Noah J.; Asael, Dan; Hofmann, Axel; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Knudsen, Andrew; Wang, Xiangli; Ossa Ossa, Frantz; Pecoits, Ernesto; Smith, Albertus J. B.; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Bekker, Andrey; Johnson, Thomas M.; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Rouxel, Olivier J.


    The early Earth was characterized by the absence of oxygen in the ocean-atmosphere system, in contrast to the well-oxygenated conditions that prevail today. Atmospheric concentrations first rose to appreciable levels during the Great Oxidation Event, roughly 2.5-2.3 Gyr ago. The evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis is generally accepted to have been the ultimate cause of this rise, but it has proved difficult to constrain the timing of this evolutionary innovation. The oxidation of manganese in the water column requires substantial free oxygen concentrations, and thus any indication that Mn oxides were present in ancient environments would imply that oxygenic photosynthesis was ongoing. Mn oxides are not commonly preserved in ancient rocks, but there is a large fractionation of molybdenum isotopes associated with the sorption of Mo onto the Mn oxides that would be retained. Here we report Mo isotopes from rocks of the Sinqeni Formation, Pongola Supergroup, South Africa. These rocks formed no less than 2.95 Gyr ago in a nearshore setting. The Mo isotopic signature is consistent with interaction with Mn oxides. We therefore infer that oxygen produced through oxygenic photosynthesis began to accumulate in shallow marine settings at least half a billion years before the accumulation of significant levels of atmospheric oxygen.

  12. Early oral feeding after pancreatoduodenectomy enhances recovery without increasing morbidity (United States)

    Gerritsen, Arja; Wennink, Roos A W; Besselink, Marc G H; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Tseng, Dorine S J; Steenhagen, Elles; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Molenaar, I Quintus


    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a change in the routine feeding strategy applied after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) from nasojejunal tube (NJT) feeding to early oral feeding improved clinical outcomes. Methods An observational cohort study was performed in 102 consecutive patients undergoing PD. In period 1 (n = 51, historical controls), the routine postoperative feeding strategy was NJT feeding. This was changed to a protocol of early oral feeding with on-demand NJT feeding in period 2 (n = 51, consecutive prospective cohort). The primary outcome was time to resumption of adequate oral intake. Results The baseline characteristics of study subjects in both periods were comparable. In period 1, 98% (n = 50) of patients received NJT feeding, whereas in period 2, 53% (n = 27) of patients did so [for delayed gastric empting (DGE) (n = 20) or preoperative malnutrition (n = 7)]. The time to resumption of adequate oral intake significantly decreased from 12 days in period 1 to 9 days in period 2 (P = 0.015), and the length of hospital stay shortened from 18 days in period 1 to 13 days in period 2 (P = 0.015). Overall, there were no differences in the incidences of complications of Clavien–Dindo Grade III or higher, DGE, pancreatic fistula, postoperative haemorrhage and mortality between the two periods. Conclusions The introduction of an early oral feeding strategy after PD reduced the time to resumption of adequate oral intake and length of hospital stay without negatively impacting postoperative morbidity. PMID:24308458

  13. Habitat recovery in a crude oil-contaminated saltmarsh following biorestoration treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.; Cobanli, S.; Wohlgeschaffen, G.; Venosa, A.D.; Suidan, M.T.; Gauthier, J.; Tremblay, G.H.; Doe, K.


    A controlled experiment was performed in a Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marsh in Atlantic Canada in which crude oil was intentionally released. The objective was to assess the feasibility of in situ biostimulation strategies to enhance habitat recovery and to determine the nutrient enrichment in enhancing wetland restoration in the presence and absence of wetland plants. The following four experimental treatments were evaluated: (1) natural attenuation, (2) ammonium nitrate addition with intact plants, (3) ammonium nitrate addition with plants cut back to suppress plant activity, and (4) ammonium nitrate addition with intact plants and with tilling to enrich oxygen penetration. In addition, two unoiled treatments were performed, with and without nutrients. The success of the remedial actions was quantified by determining the rates of oil loss, the recovery of wetland plants and the reduction in interstitial water and sediment toxicity. Results indicated that biodegradation of alkanes and PAHs occurred, but the rates were not greatly enhanced by any of the evaluated treatments. There were other measures of habitat recovery besides the level of residual oil loss. These included alternative methods such as plant recovery, amphipod survival and growth, bacterial activity and physiology. The results were used to determine the total benefit of nutrient enrichment, till and phytoremediation as biorestoration strategies for wetlands impacted by an oil spill. It was concluded that natural attenuation is a feasible spill response option in north-temperate salt marsh environments. 22 refs., 7 figs

  14. Early rehabilitation after elective total knee arthroplasty. (United States)

    Lisi, Claudio; Caspani, Patrick; Bruggi, Marco; Carlisi, Ettore; Scolè, Donatella; Benazzo, Francesco; Dalla Toffola, Elena


    Outcomes after TKA surgery are supposed to be related to the intensity and type of post-operative rehabilitation. Aim of this paper is to describe our early rehabilitation protocol following TKA with mini-invasive surgery in the immediate post-operative period and analyze functional recovery and changes in pain scores in these patients. in this observational study, data were collected on 215 total knee arthroplasty patients referred to Orthopedics and Traumatology inpatient ward from July 2012 to January 2014, treated with the same early start rehabilitation protocol. We recorded times to reach functional goals (sitting, standing and assisted ambulation) and pain after the treatment. length of hospital stay in TKA was 4.6±1.8 days, with a rehabilitation treatment lenght of 3.3±1.3 days. The mean time needed to achieve the sitting position was 2.3±0.7 days, to reach the standing position was 2.6±1.0 days to reach the walking functional goal was 2.9±1.0 days.  Pain NRS scores remained below 4 in the first and second post-operative day and below 3 from the third post-operative day. Our study confirms that rehabilitation started as soon as 24 hours after surgery with mini-invasive approach, enables early verticalization of patients and early recovery of walking with a good control of pain.

  15. Brain Oxygen Optimization in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Phase-II: A Phase II Randomized Trial. (United States)

    Okonkwo, David O; Shutter, Lori A; Moore, Carol; Temkin, Nancy R; Puccio, Ava M; Madden, Christopher J; Andaluz, Norberto; Chesnut, Randall M; Bullock, M Ross; Grant, Gerald A; McGregor, John; Weaver, Michael; Jallo, Jack; LeRoux, Peter D; Moberg, Dick; Barber, Jason; Lazaridis, Christos; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon R


    A relationship between reduced brain tissue oxygenation and poor outcome following severe traumatic brain injury has been reported in observational studies. We designed a Phase II trial to assess whether a neurocritical care management protocol could improve brain tissue oxygenation levels in patients with severe traumatic brain injury and the feasibility of a Phase III efficacy study. Randomized prospective clinical trial. Ten ICUs in the United States. One hundred nineteen severe traumatic brain injury patients. Patients were randomized to treatment protocol based on intracranial pressure plus brain tissue oxygenation monitoring versus intracranial pressure monitoring alone. Brain tissue oxygenation data were recorded in the intracranial pressure -only group in blinded fashion. Tiered interventions in each arm were specified and impact on intracranial pressure and brain tissue oxygenation measured. Monitors were removed if values were normal for 48 hours consecutively, or after 5 days. Outcome was measured at 6 months using the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended. A management protocol based on brain tissue oxygenation and intracranial pressure monitoring reduced the proportion of time with brain tissue hypoxia after severe traumatic brain injury (0.45 in intracranial pressure-only group and 0.16 in intracranial pressure plus brain tissue oxygenation group; p injury after severe traumatic brain injury based on brain tissue oxygenation and intracranial pressure values was consistent with reduced mortality and increased proportions of patients with good recovery compared with intracranial pressure-only management; however, the study was not powered for clinical efficacy. Management of severe traumatic brain injury informed by multimodal intracranial pressure and brain tissue oxygenation monitoring reduced brain tissue hypoxia with a trend toward lower mortality and more favorable outcomes than intracranial pressure-only treatment. A Phase III randomized trial to assess

  16. Recovery of Meteorological Data for the Observatory of A Guarda, Spain (United States)

    Añel, Juan A.; Blanco-Durán, Marcos; Gimeno, Luis; de la Torre, Laura


    We herein describe the recovery of a series of data on temperature, humidity, precipitation, evaporation, wind, and local weather conditions from documentary sources obtained from the Jesuit observatory of A Guarda (Galicia, Spain) for the period 1881–1896. The data were digitized and made available in accessible electronic formats. Comparisons were made with present-day meteorological data obtained from two nearby stations. We further believe that the discovery of some new complementary documentary sources made during the present research could be a basis for future data recovery efforts. Among these new results, early ozone data from the period are of outstanding importance to meteorologists. PMID:22768069

  17. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems (United States)

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob


    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses (“abuses”) of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to “my” patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

  18. Mitigating an increase of specific power consumption in a cryogenic air separation unit at reduced oxygen production (United States)

    Singla, Rohit; Chowdhury, Kanchan


    Specific power consumed in a Linde double column air separation unit (ASU) increases as the quantity of oxygen produced at a given purity is decreased due to the changes of system requirement or market demand. As the plant operates in part load condition, the specific power consumption (SPC) increases as the total power consumption remains the same. In order to mitigate the increase of SPC at lower oxygen production, the operating pressure of high pressure column (HPC) can be lowered by extending the low pressure column (LPC) by a few trays and adding a second reboiler. As the duty of second reboiler in LPC is increased, the recovery of oxygen decreases with a lowering of the HPC pressure. This results in mitigation of the increase of SPC of the plant. A Medium pressure ASU with dual reboiler that produces pressurised gaseous and liquid products of oxygen and nitrogen is simulated in Aspen Hysys 8.6®, a commercial process simulator to determine SPC at varying oxygen production. The effects of reduced pressure of air feed into the cold box on the size of heat exchangers (HX) are analysed. Operation strategy to obtain various oxygen production rates at varying demand is also proposed.

  19. Early prediction of coma recovery after cardiac arrest with blinded pupillometry. (United States)

    Solari, Daria; Rossetti, Andrea O; Carteron, Laurent; Miroz, John-Paul; Novy, Jan; Eckert, Philippe; Oddo, Mauro


    Prognostication studies on comatose cardiac arrest (CA) patients are limited by lack of blinding, potentially causing overestimation of outcome predictors and self-fulfilling prophecy. Using a blinded approach, we analyzed the value of quantitative automated pupillometry to predict neurological recovery after CA. We examined a prospective cohort of 103 comatose adult patients who were unconscious 48 hours after CA and underwent repeated measurements of quantitative pupillary light reflex (PLR) using the Neurolight-Algiscan device. Clinical examination, electroencephalography (EEG), somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), and serum neuron-specific enolase were performed in parallel, as part of standard multimodal assessment. Automated pupillometry results were blinded to clinicians involved in patient care. Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC) at 1 year was the outcome endpoint. Survivors (n = 50 patients; 32 CPC 1, 16 CPC 2, 2 CPC 3) had higher quantitative PLR (median = 20 [range = 13-41] vs 11 [0-55] %, p < 0.0001) and constriction velocity (1.46 [0.85-4.63] vs 0.94 [0.16-4.97] mm/s, p < 0.0001) than nonsurvivors. At 48 hours, a quantitative PLR < 13% had 100% specificity and positive predictive value to predict poor recovery (0% false-positive rate), and provided equal performance to that of EEG and SSEP. Reduced quantitative PLR correlated with higher serum neuron-specific enolase (Spearman r = -0.52, p < 0.0001). Reduced quantitative PLR correlates with postanoxic brain injury and, when compared to standard multimodal assessment, is highly accurate in predicting long-term prognosis after CA. This is the first prognostication study to show the value of automated pupillometry using a blinded approach to minimize self-fulfilling prophecy. Ann Neurol 2017;81:804-810. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  20. Long-term follow-up of the TIPS early detection in psychosis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Hegelstad, Wenche ten Welden; Larsen, Tor Ketil


    ill patients dropping out of the study in the usual-detection area. Except for higher levels of excitative symptoms in the early-detection area, there were no symptom differences between the groups. Early-detection recovery rates were higher largely because of higher employment rates for patients...

  1. Determination of relative CMRO2 from CBF and BOLD changes: significant increase of oxygen consumption rate during visual stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.


    signal changes were measured simultaneously using the flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) technique. During hypercapnia established by an end-tidal CO2 increase of 1.46 kPa, CBF in the visual cortex increased by 47.3 +/- 17.3% (mean +/- SD; n = 9), and deltaR2* was -0.478 +/- 0.147 sec......The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can...

  2. Impact of oxygen precursor flow on the forward bias behavior of MOCVD-Al2O3 dielectrics grown on GaN (United States)

    Chan, Silvia H.; Bisi, Davide; Liu, Xiang; Yeluri, Ramya; Tahhan, Maher; Keller, Stacia; DenBaars, Steven P.; Meneghini, Matteo; Mishra, Umesh K.


    This paper investigates the effects of the oxygen precursor flow supplied during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of Al2O3 films on the forward bias behavior of Al2O3/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors. The low oxygen flow (100 sccm) delivered during the in situ growth of Al2O3 on GaN resulted in films that exhibited a stable capacitance under forward stress, a lower density of stress-generated negative fixed charges, and a higher dielectric breakdown strength compared to Al2O3 films grown under high oxygen flow (480 sccm). The low oxygen grown Al2O3 dielectrics exhibited lower gate current transients in stress/recovery measurements, providing evidence of a reduced density of trap states near the GaN conduction band and an enhanced robustness under accumulated gate stress. This work reveals oxygen flow variance in MOCVD to be a strategy for controlling the dielectric properties and performance.

  3. Influence of cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis on cerebral oxygenation during exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Osamu; Koike, Akira; Hoshimoto, Masayo; Yamaguchi, Kaori; Tajima, Akihiko; Goda, Ayumi; Uejima, Tokuhisa; Aizawa, Tadanori; Itoh, Haruki


    Although it is assumed that cerebral oxygenation during exercise is influenced by both cardiopulmonary function and cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis, the latter factor has not been fully clarified. In the present study the relationship between the degree of cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis and cerebral oxygenation during exercise was investigated. A total of 109 patients (69 patients with coronary artery disease, 40 patients with hypertensive heart disease) (61.7±9.7 years) performed a symptom-limited exercise test with respiratory gas measurements (CPX). From the respiratory gas analysis, peak O 2 uptake (VO 2 ), the slope of the increase in VO 2 to the increase in work rate (ΔVO 2 /ΔWR), and the slope of the increase in ventilation to the increase in CO 2 output (VE/VCO 2 slope) were calculated. Oxyhemoglobin (O 2 Hb) at the forehead was monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy. The brain ischemic score was counted based upon fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images of magnetic resonance imaging and expressed from 0 to 4. When compared with patients with a lower ischemic score ( 2 Hb during exercise (-1.08±2.7 vs 0.77±4.1 μmol/L, p=0.011). Of brain ischemic score, left ventricular ejection fraction, peak VO 2 , ΔVO 2 /ΔWR, and the VE/VCO 2 slope, ΔVO 2 /ΔWR was found to be the sole independent index determining cerebral O 2 Hb during exercise. The CPX parameters were also significantly related to the degree of cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis. Although cerebral oxygenation during exercise is mainly related to cardiopulmonary function, the degree of cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis partly influences cerebral oxygenation in patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis. (author)

  4. Modeling Variable Phanerozoic Oxygen Effects on Physiology and Evolution. (United States)

    Graham, Jeffrey B; Jew, Corey J; Wegner, Nicholas C


    Geochemical approximation of Earth's atmospheric O2 level over geologic time prompts hypotheses linking hyper- and hypoxic atmospheres to transformative events in the evolutionary history of the biosphere. Such correlations, however, remain problematic due to the relative imprecision of the timing and scope of oxygen change and the looseness of its overlay on the chronology of key biotic events such as radiations, evolutionary innovation, and extinctions. There are nevertheless general attributions of atmospheric oxygen concentration to key evolutionary changes among groups having a primary dependence upon oxygen diffusion for respiration. These include the occurrence of Devonian hypoxia and the accentuation of air-breathing dependence leading to the origin of vertebrate terrestriality, the occurrence of Carboniferous-Permian hyperoxia and the major radiation of early tetrapods and the origins of insect flight and gigantism, and the Mid-Late Permian oxygen decline accompanying the Permian extinction. However, because of variability between and error within different atmospheric models, there is little basis for postulating correlations outside the Late Paleozoic. Other problems arising in the correlation of paleo-oxygen with significant biological events include tendencies to ignore the role of blood pigment affinity modulation in maintaining homeostasis, the slow rates of O2 change that would have allowed for adaptation, and significant respiratory and circulatory modifications that can and do occur without changes in atmospheric oxygen. The purpose of this paper is thus to refocus thinking about basic questions central to the biological and physiological implications of O2 change over geological time.

  5. Oxygen diffusion and oxygen effect in tumor tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, H.M.; Hehn, G.


    The diffusion of oxygen in tumor cords of bronchus carcinoma of the lung have been studied with refined computer methods for solving the diffusion equation in axis symmetric tumor structures. In this tumor configuration we may find three different regions consisting of euoxic cells, hypoxic tumor cells and necrotic parts. In the case of oxygen supply from a capillary inside a cylinder of tumor tissue with radius 200 μm or in a tumor cord of radius 300 μm with oxygen supply by capillaries outside, we get a relation of well oxygenated cells to hypoxic cells approximately as 1:8 or as 1:1.1 respectively. Of course most of the tumor cords observed in histological slices have smaller diameters, so that an average of approximately 20% hypoxic cells can be assumed. Based on the work of Ardenne, the diffusion of oxygen and glucose in a tumor of type DS-carcinosarcom has been investigated in both intact tumor and tumor treated with ionizing radiation. We can show that a strong reoxygenation effect takes place in that the well supplied regions may increase in some tumor configurations up to a factor of four by volume. The biological consequences of the oxygen pressure determined in tumor cells are discussed in detail. The investigation of oxygen diffusion in the intercapillary tumor region should give a quantitative physical basis for considering the oxygen effect with the aim to explain the advantages of neutron therapy against conventional radiotherapy. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Early Triassic alternative ecological states driven by anoxia, hyperthermals, and erosional pulses following the end-Permian mass extinction (United States)

    Pietsch, C.; Petsios, E.; Bottjer, D. J.


    The end-Permian mass extinction, 252 million years ago, was the most devastating loss of biodiversity in Earth's history. Massive volcanic eruptions of the Siberian Traps and the concurrent burning of coal, carbonate, and evaporite deposits emplaced greenhouse and toxic gasses. Hyperthermal events of the surface ocean, up to 40°C, led to reduced gradient-driven ocean circulation which yielded extensive equatorial oxygen minimum zones. Today, anthropogenic greenhouse gas production is outpacing carbon input modeled for the end-Permian mass extinction, which suggests that modern ecosystems may yet experience a severe biotic crisis. The Early Triassic records the 5 million year aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction and is often perceived as an interval of delayed recovery. We combined a new, high resolution carbon isotope record, sedimentological analysis, and paleoecological collections from the Italian Werfen Formation to fully integrate paleoenvironmental change with the benthic ecological response. We find that the marine ecosystem experienced additional community restructuring events due to subsequent hyperthermal events and pulses of erosion. The benthic microfauna and macrofauna both contributed to disaster communities that initially rebounded in the earliest Triassic. 'Disaster fauna' including microbialites, microconchids, foraminifera, and "flat clams" took advantage of anoxic conditions in the first ~500,000 years, dominating the benthic fauna. Later, in the re-oxygenated water column, opportunistic disaster groups were supplanted by a more diverse, mollusc-dominated benthic fauna and a complex ichnofauna. An extreme temperature run-up beginning in the Late Dienerian led to an additional hyperthermal event in the Late-Smithian which co-occurred with increased humidity and terrestrial run-off. Massive siliciclastic deposits replaced carbonate deposition which corresponds to the infaunalization of the benthic fauna. The disaster taxa dominated

  7. CESAR: conventional ventilatory support vs extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe adult respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugford Miranda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 350 adults develop severe, but potentially reversible respiratory failure in the UK annually. Current management uses intermittent positive pressure ventilation, but barotrauma, volutrauma and oxygen toxicity can prevent lung recovery. An alternative treatment, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, uses cardio-pulmonary bypass technology to temporarily provide gas exchange, allowing ventilator settings to be reduced. While extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is proven to result in improved outcome when compared to conventional ventilation in neonates with severe respiratory failure, there is currently no good evidence from randomised controlled trials to compare these managements for important clinical outcomes in adults, although evidence from case series is promising. Methods/Design The aim of the randomised controlled trial of Conventional ventilatory support vs extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe adult respiratory failure (CESAR is to assess whether, for patients with severe, but potentially reversible, respiratory failure, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation will increase the rate of survival without severe disability ('confined to bed' and 'unable to wash or dress' by six months post-randomisation, and be cost effective from the viewpoints of the NHS and society, compared to conventional ventilatory support. Following assent from a relative, adults (18–65 years with severe, but potentially reversible, respiratory failure (Murray score ≥ 3.0 or hypercapnea with pH Discussion Analysis will be based on intention to treat. A concurrent economic evaluation will also be performed to compare the costs and outcomes of both treatments.

  8. Effects of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration and Iron Addition on Immediate-early Gene Expression of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Kasama, Takeshi


    in cultures at 0.5% O2 compared to those at higher oxygen tensions. Moreover, expression of katG (catalase-peroxidase gene) and feoB2 (ferrous transport protein B2 gene) was reduced markedly by iron addition, regardless of oxygen conditions. The data provides a greater understanding of molecular response...

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of fluorine-substituted phenyl acetate derivatives as ultra-short recovery sedative/hypnotic agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soft drugs are molecules that are purposefully designed to be rapidly metabolized (metabolically labile. In anesthesia, the soft drug is useful because it enables precise titration to effect and rapid recovery, which might allow swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness and early home readiness. Propofol may cause delayed awakening after prolonged infusion. Propanidid and AZD3043 have a different metabolic pathway compared to propofol, resulting in a short-acting clinical profile. Fluorine imparts a variety of properties to certain medicines, including an enhanced absorption rate and improved drug transport across the blood-brain barrier. We hypothesized that the introduction of fluorine to the frame structure of propanidid and AZD3043 would further accelerate the swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness. To test this hypothesis, we developed a series of fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives were synthesized, and their hypnotic potencies and durations of LORR following bolus or infusion administration were determined in mice, rats and rabbits. The metabolic half-lives in the blood of various species were determined chromatographically. In vitro radioligand binding and γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA receptor electrophysiology studies were performed. Among the 12 synthesized fluorine-containing phenyl acetate derivatives, compound 5j induced comparable duration of LORR with AZD3043, but more rapid recovery than AZD3043, propanidid and propofol. The time of compound 5j to return to walk and behavioral recovery are approximately reduced by more than 50% compared to AZD3043 in mice and rats and rabbits. The HD50 of compound 5j decreased with increasing animal size. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rapid recovery might make compound 5j suitable for precise titration and allow swift and clear-headed recovery of consciousness and early home

  10. Recovery of rescuers from a 24-h shift and its association with aerobic fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katariina Lyytikäinen


    Full Text Available Objectives: Rescuers work in 24-h shifts and the demanding nature of the occupation requires adequate recovery between work shifts. The purpose of this study has been to find out what kind of changes in autonomic control may be seen during work shift and its recovery period in the case of rescuers. An additional interest has been to see if aerobic fitness is associated with recovery from work shifts. Material and Methods: Fourteen male rescuers (aged 34±9 years old volunteered to participate in the study. Heart rate variability (HRV was recorded for 96 h to study stress and recovery, from the beginning of a 24-h work shift to the beginning of the next shift. Aerobic fitness assessment included maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max estimation with a submaximal bicycle ergometer test. Salivary cortisol samples were collected 0 min, 15 min, and 30 min after awakening on the 3 resting days. Results: Some HRV parameters showed enhanced autonomic control after the work shift. Stress percentage decreased from the working day to the 2nd rest day (p 0.05. Cortisol awakening response was attenuated right after the work shift. Conclusions: The HRV findings show that recovery after a long work shift takes several days. Thus, rescuers should pay attention to sufficient recovery before the next work shift, and an integrated model of perceived and physiological measurements could be beneficial to assess cardiovascular strain among rescuers with long work shifts. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(3:433–444

  11. Screening of NiFe2O4 Nanoparticles as Oxygen Carrier in Chemical Looping Hydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Shuai; He, Fang; Huang, Zhen


    ) methods were used to prepare NiFe2O4 oxygen carriers. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement, as well as Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH......The objective of this paper is to systematically investigate the influences of different preparation methods on the properties of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles as oxygen carrier in chemical looping hydrogen production (CLH). The solid state (SS), coprecipitation (CP), hydrothermal (HT), and sol-gel (SG...... gas (24% H2 + 24% CO + 12% CO2 + N2 balance), then reacted with steam to produce H2, and finally fully oxidized by air. The NiFe2O4 oxygen carrier prepared by the sol gel method showed the best capacity for hydrogen production and the highest recovery degree of lattice oxygen, in agreement...

  12. Radial nerve palsy in mid/distal humeral fractures: is early exploration effective? (United States)

    Keighley, Geffrey; Hermans, Deborah; Lawton, Vidya; Duckworth, David


    Radial nerve palsies are a common complication with displaced distal humeral fractures. This case series examines the outcomes of early operative exploration and decompression of the nerve with fracture fixation with the view that this provides a solid construct for optimisation of nerve recovery. A total of 10 consecutive patients with a displaced distal humeral fracture and an acute radial nerve palsy were treated by the senior author by open reduction and internal fixation of the distal humerus and exploration and decompression of the radial nerve. Motor function and sensation of the radial nerve was assessed in the post-operative period every 2 months or until full recovery of the radial nerve function had occurred. All patients (100%) had recovery of motor and sensation function of their upper limb in the radial nerve distribution over a 12-month period. Recovery times ranged between 4 and 32 weeks, with the median time to recovery occurring at 26 weeks and the average time to full recovery being 22.9 weeks. Wrist extension recovered by an average of 3 months (range 2-26 weeks) and then finger extension started to recover 2-6 weeks after this. Disability of the arm, shoulder and hand scores ranged from 0 to 11.8 at greater than 1 year post-operatively. Our study demonstrated that early operative exploration of the radial nerve when performing an open stabilization of displaced distal humeral fractures resulted in a 100% recovery of the radial nerve. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  13. Polarization recovery in lead zirconate titanate thin films deposited on nanosheets-buffered Si (001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Chopra


    Full Text Available Fatigue behavior of Pb(Zr,TiO3 (PZT films is one of the deterrent factors that limits the use of these films in technological applications. Thus, understanding and minimization of the fatigue behavior is highly beneficial for fabricating reliable devices using PZT films. We have investigated the fatigue behavior of preferentially oriented PZT films deposited on nanosheets-buffered Si substrates using LaNiO3 bottom and top electrodes. The films show fatigue of up to 10% at 100 kHz, whereas no fatigue has been observed at 1 MHz. This frequency dependence of the fatigue behavior is found to be in accordance with Dawber–Scott fatigue model that explains the origin of the fatigue as migration of oxygen vacancies. Interestingly, a partial recovery of remnant polarization up to ∼97% of the maximum value is observed after 4×109 cycles which can be further extended to full recovery by increasing the applied electric field. This full recovery is qualitatively explained using kinetic approach as a manifestation of depinning of domains walls. The understanding of the fatigue behavior and polarization recovery that is explained in this paper can be highly useful in developing more reliable PZT devices.

  14. Oxygen uptake kinetics during and after exercise are useful markers of coronary artery disease in patients with exercise electrocardiography suggesting myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Akihiko; Ohkoshi, Nobuyuki; Kawara, Tokuhiro; Aizawa, Tadanori; Itoh, Haruki; Maeda, Tomoko; Osada, Naohiko; Omiya, Kazuto; Wasserman, K.


    The aim of the current study was to determine if the slowed exercise oxygen uptake (VO 2 ) kinetics, which is developed by myocardial ischemia, would be accompanied by delayed recovery VO 2 kinetics in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Thirty-seven patients with significant ST depression during treadmill exercise underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing with cycle ergometer. Measurements performed are the ratios of change in increase in oxygen (O 2 ) uptake relative to increase in work rate (ΔVO 2 /ΔWR) across anaerobic threshold (AT) and 1 mm ST depression point (ST-dep), the time constants of VO 2 during recovery (T 1/2 VO 2 ), stress radio-isotope scintigraphy and coronary angiography. Patients were divided into CAD positive (CAD+) and CAD negative (CAD-) groups, based on coronary angiography. In CAD+, ΔVO 2 /ΔWR decreased above AT and ST-dep, in contrast to CAD- patients. The T 1/2 VO 2 in CAD+ (103.1±13.0 s) was greater than that of CAD- (76.5±8.7 s) and showed negative correlations to the ratios of ΔVO 2 /ΔWR across AT and ST-dep. These parameters improved in the patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery. Exercise and recovery VO 2 kinetics were slowed when myocardial ischemia was provoked by exercise. Measurement of exercise and recovery VO 2 kinetics improve the accuracy of the exercise electrocardiogram diagnosis of CAD. (author)

  15. Perioperative solutions for rapid recovery joint arthroplasty: get ahead and stay ahead. (United States)

    Sculco, Peter K; Pagnano, Mark W


    Rapid recovery after total joint arthroplasty requires patients to get ahead and stay ahead or the four impediments to early rehabilitation and discharge: volume depletion, blood loss, pain, and nausea. Adequate volume resuscitation starts before entering the operating room and focuses on intravenous fluids rather than red blood cell transfusion. Tranexamic acid limits blood loss and reduces the need for most other blood management systems. Rapid recovery pain management focuses on minimizing parenteral opioids. A short-acting spinal with a peri-articular local anesthetic injection is reliable, reproducible, and safe. Patients at risk for post-operative nausea are treated with anti-emetic medications and perioperative dexamethasone. These interventions reflect a transition from the sick-patient model to the well-patient model and make rapid recovery joint arthroplasty a reality in 2015. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Oxygen effect and intracellular oxygen content (adaptation hypothesis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmonenko, S P; Ehpshtejn, I M [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Onkologicheskij Tsentr


    Experimental data indicating that a radiomodifying action of hypoxia is dependent on the ''prehistory'' of the irradiated object are considered. This dependence manifests itself in a decreased protective action of acute hypoxia on the hypoxia-adapted objects. To explain this a hypothesis is proposed connecting a degree of cell radiosensitivity modification, determined by the oxygen effect, with the intracellular oxygen content. The latter, in accord with current ideas, is regulated by variations in the diffusion resistance to oxygen shown by the cytoplasmic membranes depending on the energy level of the cell and the degree of its oxygenation.

  17. Oxygen effect and intracellular oxygen content (adaptation hypothesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmonenko, S.P.; Ehpshtejn, I.M.


    Experimental data indicating that a radiomodifying action of hypoxia is dependent on the ''prehistory'' of the irradiated object are considered. This dependence manifests itself in a decreased protective action of acute hypoxia on the hypoxia-adapted objects. To explain this a hypothesis is proposed connecting a degree of cell radiosensitivity modification, determined by the oxygen effect, with the intracellular oxygen content. The latter, in accord with current ideas, is regulated by variations in the diffusion resistance to oxygen shown by the cytoplasmic membranes depending on the energy level of the cell and the degree of its oxygenation

  18. Hypospadias surgery in children: improved service model of enhanced recovery pathway and dedicated surgical team. (United States)

    Wong, Y S; Pang, K K; Tam, Y H


    Children in Hong Kong are generally hospitalised for 1 to 2 weeks after hypospadias repairs. In July 2013, we introduced a new service model that featured an enhanced recovery pathway and a dedicated surgical team responsible for all perioperative services. In this study, we investigated the outcomes of hypospadias repair after the introduction of the new service model. We conducted a retrospective study on consecutive children who underwent primary hypospadias repair from January 2006 to August 2016, comparing patients under the old service with those under the new service. Outcome measures included early morbidity, operative success, and completion of enhanced recovery pathway. The old service and new service cohorts comprised 176 and 126 cases, respectively. There was no difference between the two cohorts in types of hypospadias and surgical procedures performed. The median hospital stay was 2 days in the new service cohort compared with 10 days in the old service cohort (Pservice than the old service. Multivariable analysis revealed that the new service significantly reduced the odds of early morbidity (odds ratio=0.35, 95% confidence interval=0.15-0.85; P=0.02) and operative failure (odds ratio=0.32, 95% confidence interval=0.17-0.59; Pservice. Of the new service cohort, 111(88.1%) patients successfully completed the enhanced recovery pathway. The enhanced recovery pathway can be implemented safely and effectively to primary hypospadias repair. A dedicated surgical team may play an important role in successful implementation of the enhanced recovery pathway and optimisation of surgical outcomes.

  19. Pulmonary tolerance in man to continuous oxygen exposure at 3.0, 2.5, 2.0, and 1.5 ATA in Predictive Studies V (United States)

    Clark, J. M.; Gelfand, R.; Flores, N. D.; Lambertsen, C. J.; Pisarello, J. B.


    Oxygen effects on pulmonary function were measured in normal, resting men who breathed oxygen continuously at 3.0, 2.5, 2.0, and 1.5 ATA to predefined limits of CNS, cardiac, or pulmonary tolerance. Rates of pulmonary symptom intensification and decrease in vital capacity (VC) increased progressively with elevation of inspired oxygen pressure. Although VC decrements occurred concurrently with symptoms, the lung volume changes became prominent when symptoms were still mild. The observed effects were consistent with the interpretation that small airway function is impaired more selectively by oxygen exposure at 3.0 and 2.5 ATA than by exposure at 2.0 and 1.5 ATA. Despite similar VC changes after oxygen exposure at 2.0 ATA for nearly 10 hr and exposure at 1.5 ATA for almost 18 hr, the 2.0 ATA exposure caused greater impairment of pulmonary function and required a longer recovery period.

  20. Fire feedbacks over geological time and the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentration (United States)

    Mills, B.; Belcher, C.; Lenton, T. M.


    During the 4.5 billion year history of the Earth, the concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere has risen from trace levels to today's 21%. Yet over the last 400 million years, O2 concentration appears to have remained within a relatively narrow range (around 15% - 30%), despite dramatic changes in the nature of global biogeochemical cycling. This stability has been crucial for continued animal evolution, and is thought to have arisen through feedbacks between oxygen, wildfire and plant productivity: the strong oxygen- dependence of fire initiation and spread means that global photosynthetic primary productivity is suppressed when oxygen levels are high, and enhanced when levels are low. We present biogeochemical modelling of the long term carbon and oxygen cycles, which aims to capture the operation of the wildfire feedback alongside other key processes. We find that wildfire can effectively stabilize long term oxygen concentrations, but that the nature of this feedback has changed as plant evolution has provided different fuels. Specifically, the evolution of early angiosperms during the Cretaceous period provided new understory fuels that more easily facilitated crown and canopy fires. Adding these dynamics to our model produces a more stable system over long timescales, and the model predicts that oxygen concentration has declined towards the present day - a prediction that is supported by other independent estimates.

  1. Theory and development of fluorescence-based optochemical oxygen sensors: oxygen optodes. (United States)

    Opitz, N; Lübbers, D W


    As the preceding considerations concerning the physical and technical features of oxygen optodes have demonstrated, fluorescence-based optochemical oxygen sensors possess certain advantages and peculiarities compared to conventionally applied electrochemical sensors such as polarographic oxygen electrodes. First, in contrast to oxygen electrodes, oxygen measurements with oxygen optodes do not suffer from distortions caused by the reference electrodes. In addition, because of the polarographic process, platinum electrodes continuously consume oxygen, which falsifies the results, especially when small sample volumes or long-term measurements, or both, are involved, whereas the sensor layer of oxygen optodes must only be equilibrated. Moreover, the surface of the platinum wire has to be catalytically clean in order to obtain a plateau of the polarogram and, consequently, to achieve a low rest current at zero PO2. Unfortunately, the demand for catalytically clean platinum surfaces turns out to be rather critical, since surface contamination occurs even with membranized electrodes, resulting in the well-known phenomenon of "electrode poisoning." The question of the specificity of oxygen electrodes also must be considered. In this context, CO2 and halothane may interfere with oxygen measurements, whereas fluorescence quenching is unaffected by CO2 and halothane affects the measurements only slightly, depending on the special indicator used. Furthermore, because of the flow dependence, oxygen measurements with the oxygen electrode show a distinct "stirring effect" caused by the turbulence in front of the electrode, which disturbs the diffusion field. Because of the completely different physical principle of fluorescence optical sensors, such influences are not observed with oxygen optodes. In addition, isolation and shielding of electrical circuits found in electrodes are not necessary for optodes. Furthermore, the sensitivity of oxygen optodes can be tuned to the desired

  2. Interleukin-4 ameliorates the functional recovery of intracerebral hemorrhage through the alternative activation of microglia/macrophage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjing eYang


    Full Text Available Neuro-inflammation plays an important role in the recovery of brain injury after stroke. Microglia/macrophage is the major executor in the neuro-inflammation, which can be polarized into two distinct phenotypes: injurious/toxic classical activation (M1 phenotype and protective alternative activation (M2 phenotype. Here, we investigated whether intracerebral administration of interleukin-4 (IL-4 at an early stage could affect the activation of microglia/macrophage and the corresponding outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. The neuro-behavior was recorded between different groups in the rat ICH model. The M1 and M2 markers were then determined by qRT-PCR, western blotting, ELISA and immunofluorescence, respectively. We observed aberrant activation of microglia/macrophage after ICH. After intracerebral injection of IL-4, M1 activation was greatly inhibited while M2 activation was enhanced, along with improving neurobehavioral recovery from deficits after ICH. Our study showed that early intracerebral injection of IL-4 potentially promotes neuro-functional recovery, probably through enhancing the alternative activation of microglia/macrophage.

  3. Post-injury stretch promotes recovery in a rat model of muscle damage induced by lengthening contractions. (United States)

    Mori, Tomohiro; Agata, Nobuhide; Itoh, Yuta; Inoue-Miyazu, Masumi; Mizumura, Kazue; Sokabe, Masahiro; Taguchi, Toru; Kawakami, Keisuke


    We investigated the cellular mechanisms and therapeutic effect of post-injury stretch on the recovery process from muscle injury induced by lengthening contractions (LC). One day after LC, a single 15-min bout of muscle stretch was applied at an intensity of 3 mNm. The maximal isometric torque was measured before and at 2-21 days after LC. The myofiber size was analyzed at 21 days after LC. Developmental myosin heavy chain-immunoreactive (dMHC-ir) cells, a marker of regenerating myofibers, were observed in the early recovery stage (2-5 days after LC). We observed that LC-induced injury markedly decreased isometric torque and myofiber size, which recovered faster in rats that underwent stretch than in rats that did not. Regenerating myofiber with dMHC-ir cells was observed earlier in rats that underwent stretch. These results indicate that post-injury stretch may facilitate the regeneration and early formation of new myofibers, thereby promoting structural and functional recovery from LC-induced muscle injury.

  4. Mechanical ventilation in patients subjected to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). (United States)

    López Sanchez, M


    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a crucial element in the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), because there is high level evidence that a low tidal volume of 6ml/kg (protective ventilation) improves survival. In these patients with refractory respiratory insufficiency, venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used. This salvage technique improves oxygenation, promotes CO 2 clearance, and facilitates protective and ultraprotective MV, potentially minimizing ventilation-induced lung injury. Although numerous trials have investigated different ventilation strategies in patients with ARDS, consensus is lacking on the optimal MV settings during venovenous ECMO. Although the concept of "lung rest" was introduced years ago, there are no evidence-based guidelines on its use in application to MV in patients supported by ECMO. How MV in ECMO patients can promote lung recovery and weaning from ventilation is not clear. The purpose of this review is to describe the ventilation strategies used during venovenous ECMO in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxygen Therapy (United States)

    ... their breathing to dangerously low levels. Will I need oxygen when I sleep? Usually if you use supplemental oxygen during the ... your health care provider tells you you only need to use oxygen for exercise or sleep. Even if you feel “fine” off of your ...

  6. Early reoxygenation in tumors after irradiation: Determining factors and consequences for radiotherapy regimens using daily multiple fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crokart, Nathalie; Jordan, Benedicte F.; Baudelet, Christine; Ansiaux, Reginald; Sonveaux, Pierre; Gregoire, Vincent; Beghein, Nelson; Wever, Julie de; Bouzin, Caroline; Feron, Olivier; Gallez, Bernard


    Purpose: To characterize changes in the tumor microenvironment early after irradiation and determine the factors responsible for early reoxygenation. Methods and Materials: Fibrosarcoma type II (FSaII) and hepatocarcinoma transplantable liver tumor tumor oxygenation were determined using electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry and a fiberoptic device. Perfusion was assessed by laser Doppler, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and dye penetration. Oxygen consumption was determined by electron paramagnetic resonance. The interstitial fluid pressure was evaluated by the wick-in-needle technique. Results: An increase in oxygen partial pressure was observed 3-4 h after irradiation. This increase resulted from a decrease in global oxygen consumption and an increase in oxygen delivery. The increase in oxygen delivery was due to radiation-induced acute inflammation (that was partially inhibited by the antiinflammatory agent diclofenac) and to a decrease in interstitial fluid pressure. The endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway, identified as a contributing factor at 24 h after irradiation, did not play a role in the early stage after irradiation. We also observed that splitting a treatment of 18 Gy into two fractions separated by 4 h (time of maximal reoxygenation) had a greater effect on tumor regrowth delay than when applied as a single dose. Conclusion: Although the cell cycle redistribution effect is important for treatment protocols using multiple daily radiation fractions, the results of this work emphasize that the oxygen effect must be also considered to optimize the treatment strategy

  7. Plasma YKL-40 and recovery of left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, A.; Ripa, Maria Sejersten; Johansen, J.S.


    Background: Plasma YKL-40 is increased early in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It is not known whether plasma YKL-40 is related to infarct size and recovery of ventricular function after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of STEMI and whether granulocyte...... colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy influence plasma YKL-40 concentration. Materials and methods: A total of 72 patients (age: 56 +/- 9 years (mean +/- SD), 56 men and 16 women) with STEMI treated with PCI were included in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with subcutaneous G...... to LVEF recovery (p = 0.04) but not infarct size. G-CSF injections increased YKL-40 compared to placebo (p recovery. Conclusion: Plasma YKL-40 was significantly increased in STEMI patients at admission and G-CSF treatment caused a further increase...

  8. The role of repopulation in early and late radiation reactions in pig skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redpath, J.L.; Peel, D.M.; Dodd, P.; Simmonds, R.H.; Hopewell, J.W.


    The role of repopulation in early and late radiation reactions in pig skin has been assessed by comparing split dose recovery doses (D/sub 2/-D/sub 1/) for a 1-day interval and a 28-day interval. For a 1-day interval, repair of sublethal damage is the major contribution to any recovery observed, whereas for a 28-day interval, repopulation may also play a role. The early reaction studied was moist desquamation and the late reactions studied were a later dermal erythema and necrosis. The data show that over a 28-day interval, repopulation contributes -- 7.0 Gy to a total D/sub 2/-D/sub 1/, of --14.0 Gy for the early moist desquamation (epidermal) reaction. Data for the role of repopulation in the late (dermal) reactions are also presented

  9. The effects of dexamethasone on post-asphyxial cerebral oxygenation in the preterm fetal sheep (United States)

    Lear, Christopher A; Koome, Miriam E; Davidson, Joanne O; Drury, Paul P; Quaedackers, Josine S; Galinsky, Robert; Gunn, Alistair J; Bennet, Laura


    Exposure to clinical doses of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone increases brain activity and causes seizures in normoxic preterm fetal sheep without causing brain injury. In contrast, the same treatment after asphyxia increased brain injury. We hypothesised that increased injury was in part mediated by a mismatch between oxygen demand and oxygen supply. In preterm fetal sheep at 0.7 gestation we measured cerebral oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy, electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, and carotid blood flow (CaBF) from 24 h before until 72 h after asphyxia induced by 25 min of umbilical cord occlusion. Ewes received dexamethasone intramuscularly (12 mg 3 ml–1) or saline 15 min after the end of asphyxia. Fetuses were studied for 3 days after occlusion. During the first 6 h of recovery after asphyxia, dexamethasone treatment was associated with a significantly greater fall in CaBF (P < 0.05), increased carotid vascular resistance (P < 0.001) and a greater fall in cerebral oxygenation as measured by the difference between oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin (delta haemoglobin; P < 0.05). EEG activity was similarly suppressed in both groups. From 6 to 10 h onward, dexamethasone treatment was associated with a return of CaBF to saline control levels, increased EEG power (P < 0.005), greater epileptiform transient activity (P < 0.001), increased oxidised cytochrome oxidase (P < 0.05) and an attenuated increase in [delta haemoglobin] (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dexamethasone treatment after asphyxia is associated with greater hypoperfusion in the critical latent phase, leading to impaired intracerebral oxygenation that may exacerbate neural injury after asphyxia. PMID:25384775

  10. Analysis of flammability limits for the liquefaction process of oxygen-bearing coal-bed methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q.Y.; Wang, L.; Ju, Y.L.


    Highlights: → A novel liquefaction and distillation process is designed for oxygen bearing coal-bed methane. → Oxygen contained in coal-bed methane is removed in distillation process. → Flammability limits are analyzed for the whole operation process. → We find explosion hazard may exist in distillation tower. → Effective measures are proposed to ensure the operation safety in distillation tower. - Abstract: A novel liquefaction and distillation process has been proposed and designed for the typical oxygen-bearing coal-bed methane (CBM), in which the impurities of the oxygen and nitrogen components are removed in the distillation column. The flammability limit theory combining with HYSYS simulation results are employed to analyze and calculate the flammability limits and the results indicate that no flammability hazard exists in the stages of compression, liquefaction and throttling. However, flammability hazard exists at the top the distillation column because the methane mole fraction decreases to the value below the upper flammability limit (UFL). The safety measures of initially removing oxygen content from the feed gas combining with the control of the bottom flowrate (flowrate of the liquid product at column bottom) are proposed to ensure the operation safety of the liquefaction process. The results reveal that the operation safety of the whole process can be guaranteed, together with high methane recovery rate and high purity of the liquid product. The applicability of the liquefaction process has also been analyzed in this paper. The simulation results can offer references for the separation of oxygen from CBM, the analysis of flammability limits and the safety measures for the whole process.

  11. Tumor oxygenation in a transplanted rat rhabdomyosarcoma during fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zywietz, Friedrich; Reeker, Wolfram; Kochs, Eberhard


    Purpose: To quantify the changes in tumor oxygenation in the course of a fractionated radiation treatment extending over 4 weeks. Methods and Materials: Rhabdomyosarcomas R1H of the rat were irradiated with 60 Co-γ-rays with a total dose of 60 Gy, given in 20 fractions over 4 weeks. Oxygen partial pressure (pO 2 ) in tumors was measured at weekly intervals using polarographic needle probes in combination with a microprocessor-controlled device (pO 2 -Histograph/KIMOC). The pO 2 measurements were carried out in anesthetized animals under mechanical ventilation and in respiratory and hemodynamic steady state. Tumor pO 2 values were correlated to the arterial oxygen pressure p a O 2 , arterial pCO 2 , and pH determined with a blood gas analyzer. Results: Tumor oxygenation did not change significantly during the 3 weeks of irradiation (up to 45 Gy), from a median pO 2 of 23 ± 2 mmHg in untreated controls to 19 ± 4 mmHg after the third week. The decrease of the number of pO 2 values between 0 and 5 mmHg indicated that an improved oxygenation in the tumors occurred. However, with increasing radiation dose (fourth week, 60 Gy) a significant decrease in tumor oxygenation to a median pO 2 of 8 ± 2 mmHg and a rapid increase in the frequency of pO 2 values (35 ± 4%) between 0 and 5 mmHg was found. Conclusion: Improved oxygenation in rhabdomyosarcomas R1H was only present in the early phase of the fractionated irradiation. Radiation doses above 45 Gy led to a considerable decrease of tumor oxygenation in the later phase of irradiation

  12. Recovery and recycling of uranium from rejected coated particles for compact high temperature reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, Rajesh V., E-mail: [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Mollick, P.K. [Powder Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Kumar, Ashok [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Banerjee, J. [Radiometullurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Radhakrishna, J. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Chakravartty, J.K. [Powder Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)


    UO{sub 2} microspheres prepared by internal gelation technique were coated with pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide using CVD technique. The particles which were not meeting the specifications were rejected. The rejected/failed UO{sub 2} based coated particles prepared by CVD technique was used for oxidation and recovery and recycling. The oxidation behaviour of sintered UO{sub 2} microspheres coated with different layers of carbon and SiC was studied by thermal techniques to develop a method for recycling and recovery of uranium from the failed/rejected coated particles. It was observed that the complete removal of outer carbon from the spheres is difficult. The crushing of microspheres enabled easier accessibility of oxygen and oxidation of carbon and uranium at 800–1000 °C. With the optimized process of multiple crushing using die & plunger and sieving the broken coated layers, we could recycle around fifty percent of the UO{sub 2} microspheres which could be directly recoated. The rest of the particles were recycled using a wet recycling method. - Highlights: • The oxidation behaviour of coated particles was studied in air, O{sub 2} and moist O{sub 2}. • It was observed that coated layers cannot be completely removed by mere oxidation. • Complete recovery of uranium from the rejected coated particles has been carried out using a combination of dry and wet recovery scheme. • A crushing step prior to oxidation is needed for full recovery of uranium from the coated particles.

  13. Vantage point - Early warning flaws. (United States)

    Swinden, Donna


    USING AN EARLY warning score (EWS) system should improve the detection of acutely deteriorating patients. Under such a system, a score is allocated to each of six physiological measurements including respiratory rate and oxygen saturations, which are aggregated to produce an overall score. An aggregated score of seven or higher prompts nursing staff to refer a patient for emergency assessment.

  14. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on SAS and SDS in children with ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yun Li


    Full Text Available Objective: To study and analyze the effect of early psychological intervention on the scores of SAS and SDS in children with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy undergoing hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Methods: A total of 64 children with hypoxic - ischemic encephalopathy enrolled in our hospital from July 2015 to July 2016 and their parents were selected as study subjects. The patients were treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy, while their parents were given early psychological intervention. By the way of increasing parents’ awareness of the disease, helping parents build confidence in their children’s treatment and encouraging them to participate in daily training for their children to relieve their anxiety and depression. The parents' knowledge of the disease before and during treatment, the treatment of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and the change of SAS and SDS were observed. Results: After effective intervention, the scores of SAS and SDS of 64 patients’ parents were significantly lower than those before treatment. After 1 courses of intervention, the score of SAS was (43.36 ± 1.27 points, and the score of SDS was (45.22 ± 8.13 points. After 2 courses of intervention, the score of SAS was (41.07 ± 1.21 and the score of SDS was (42.35 ± 7.44 points, and parents' awareness of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy was significantly increased, and the differences between the two groups were statistically significant. Conclusion: Early psychological intervention on parents of children with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy can effectively improve the awareness of parents on the disease, so as to improve their acceptance of hyperbaric oxygen therapy; significantly reduce the parents’ SAS, SDS score. It is beneficial to build a good doctor-patient and nurse-patient relationship, improve the treatment effect and shorten the treatment time.

  15. Costs and benefits of lunar oxygen: Engineering, operations, and economics (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent; Woodcock, Gordon R.


    Oxygen is the most commonly discussed lunar resource. It will certainly not be the easiest to retrieve, but oxygen's fundamental place in propulsion and life support guarantees it continued attention as a prime candidate for early in situ resource utilization (ISRU). The findings are reviewed of recent investigation, sponsored by NASA-Ames, into the kinds of technologies, equipment, and scenarios (the engineering and operations costs) that will be required even to initiate lunar oxygen production. The infrastructure necessary to surround and support a viable oxygen-processing operation is explained. Selected details are used to illustrate the depth of technology challenges, extent of operations burdens, and complexity of decision linkages. Basic assumptions, and resulting timelines and mass manifests, are listed. These findings are combined with state-of-the-art knowledge of lunar and Mars propulsion options in simple economic input/output and internal-rate-of-return models, to compare production costs with performance benefits. Implications for three realistic scales of exploration architecture - expeditionary, aggressive science, and industrialization/settlement - are discussed. Conclusions are reached regarding the contextual conditions within which production of lunar oxygen (LLOX) is a reasonable activity. LLOX appears less useful for Mars missions than previously hoped. Its economical use in low Earth orbit hinges on production of lunar hydrogen as well. LLOX shows promise for lunar ascent/descent use, but that depends strongly on the plant mass required.

  16. The effects of swimming exercise and dissolved oxygen on growth performance, fin condition and precocious maturation of early-rearing Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (United States)

    Waldrop, Thomas; Summerfelt, Steven T.; Mazik, Patricia M.; Good, Christopher


    Swimming exercise, typically measured in body-lengths per second (BL/s), and dissolved oxygen (DO), are important environmental variables in fish culture. While there is an obvious physiological association between these two parameters, their interaction has not been adequately studied in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Because exercise and DO are variables that can be easily manipulated in modern aquaculture systems, we sought to assess the impact of these parameters, alone and in combination, on the performance, health and welfare of juvenile Atlantic salmon. In our study, Atlantic salmon fry were stocked into 12 circular 0.5 m3 tanks in a flow-through system and exposed to either high (1.5–2 BL/s) or low (salmon early rearing can result in improved growth performance and a lower incidence of precocious parr.

  17. Uncovering Recovery: The Resistible Rise of Recovery and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harper


    Full Text Available Discourses of recovery and resilience have risen to positions of dominance in the mental health field. Models of recovery and resilience enjoy purchase, in both policy and practice, across a range of settings from self-described psychiatric survivors through to mental health charities through to statutory mental health service providers. Despite this ubiquity, there is confusion about what recovery means. In this article we problematize notions of recovery and resilience, and consider what, if anything, should be recovered from these concepts. We focus on three key issues, i individualization, ii the persistence of a deficit model, and iii collective approaches to recovery. Through documentary analysis we consider these issues across third sector organizations, and public and mental health policy. Firstly, definitional debates about recovery reflect wider ideological debates about the nature of mental health. The vagueness of these concepts and implicit assumptions inherent in dominant recovery and resilience discourses render them problematic because they individualize what are social problems. Secondly, these discourses, despite being seen as inherently liberatory are conceptually dependent on a notion of deficit in that talk of “positives” and “strengths” requires the existence of “negatives” and “weaknesses” for these concepts to make sense.  We argue that this does little to substantially transform dominant understandings of psychological distress. Thirdly, these issues combine to impact upon the progressive potential of recovery. It comes to be seen as an individualistic experiential narrative accompaniment to medical understandings where the structural causes of distress are obscured. This in turn impacts upon the potential for recovery to be used to explore more collective, political aspects of emotional distress. Drawing on the work of Fraser, we use this critique to characterize “recovery” as a “struggle for

  18. Micromechanism of oxygen transport during initial stage oxidation in Si(100) surface: A ReaxFF molecular dynamics simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yu; Liu, Yilun; Chen, Xuefeng; Zhai, Zhi; Xu, Fei; Liu, Yijun


    Highlights: • A competition mechanism between thermal actuation and compressive stress blocking was found for the oxygen transport. • At low temperature, a compressive stress was generated in the oxide layer which blocked oxygen transport into the deeper region. • O atoms gained larger possibility to go deeper inward as temperature increase. • The related film quality was well explained by the competition mechanism. - Abstract: The early stage oxidation in Si(100) surface has been investigated in this work by a reactive force field molecular dynamics (ReaxFF MD) simulation, manifesting that the oxygen transport acted as a dominant issue for initial oxidation process. Due to the oxidation, a compressive stress was generated in the oxide layer which blocked the oxygen transport perpendicular to the Si(100) surface and further prevented oxidation in the deeper layer. In contrast, thermal actuation was beneficial to the oxygen transport into deeper layer as temperature increases. Therefore, a competition mechanism was found for the oxygen transport during early stage oxidation in Si(100) surface. At room temperature, the oxygen transport was governed by the blocking effect of compressive stress, so a better quality oxide film with more uniform interface and more stoichiometric oxide structure was obtained. Indeed, the mechanism presented in this work is also applicable for other self-limiting oxidation (e.g. metal oxidation) and is helpful for the design of high-performance electronic devices.

  19. Micromechanism of oxygen transport during initial stage oxidation in Si(100) surface: A ReaxFF molecular dynamics simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yu, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Institute for Computational Mechanics and Its Applications, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Liu, Yilun [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Aerospace Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Chen, Xuefeng; Zhai, Zhi [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Xu, Fei [Institute for Computational Mechanics and Its Applications, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Liu, Yijun [Institute for Computational Mechanics and Its Applications, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Mechanical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0072 (United States)


    Highlights: • A competition mechanism between thermal actuation and compressive stress blocking was found for the oxygen transport. • At low temperature, a compressive stress was generated in the oxide layer which blocked oxygen transport into the deeper region. • O atoms gained larger possibility to go deeper inward as temperature increase. • The related film quality was well explained by the competition mechanism. - Abstract: The early stage oxidation in Si(100) surface has been investigated in this work by a reactive force field molecular dynamics (ReaxFF MD) simulation, manifesting that the oxygen transport acted as a dominant issue for initial oxidation process. Due to the oxidation, a compressive stress was generated in the oxide layer which blocked the oxygen transport perpendicular to the Si(100) surface and further prevented oxidation in the deeper layer. In contrast, thermal actuation was beneficial to the oxygen transport into deeper layer as temperature increases. Therefore, a competition mechanism was found for the oxygen transport during early stage oxidation in Si(100) surface. At room temperature, the oxygen transport was governed by the blocking effect of compressive stress, so a better quality oxide film with more uniform interface and more stoichiometric oxide structure was obtained. Indeed, the mechanism presented in this work is also applicable for other self-limiting oxidation (e.g. metal oxidation) and is helpful for the design of high-performance electronic devices.

  20. Submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. (United States)

    Hummel, Scott L; Herald, John; Alpert, Craig; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Champoux, Wendy S; Dengel, Donald R; Vaitkevicius, Peter V; Alexander, Neil B


    Submaximal oxygen uptake measures are more feasible and may better predict clinical cardiac outcomes than maximal tests in older adults with heart failure (HF). We examined relationships between maximal oxygen uptake, submaximal oxygen kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction. Older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction (n = 25, age 75 ± 7 years) were compared to 25 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Assessments included a maximal treadmill test for peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), oxygen uptake kinetics at onset of and on recovery from a submaximal treadmill test, functional mobility testing [Get Up and Go (GUG), Comfortable Gait Speed (CGS), Unipedal Stance (US)], and self-reported physical activity (PA). Compared to controls, HF had worse performance on GUG, CGS, and US, greater delays in submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, and lower PA. In controls, VO2peak was more strongly associated with functional mobility and PA than submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics. In HF patients, submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics were similarly associated with GUG and CGS as VO2peak, but weakly associated with PA. Based on their mobility performance, older HF patients with reduced ejection fraction are at risk for adverse functional outcomes. In this population, submaximal oxygen uptake measures may be equivalent to VO2 peak in predicting functional mobility, and in addition to being more feasible, may provide better insight into how aerobic function relates to mobility in older adults with HF.

  1. Non-mass-dependent fractionation of sulfur and oxygen isotopes during UV photolysis of sulfur dioxide (United States)

    Pen, Aranh

    Since the discovery of anomalous sulfur isotope abundance in the geological record in sulfate and sulfide minerals (Farquhar et al., 2000), much effort has been put into understanding their origin to provide new insights into the environmental conditions on the early Earth (Farquhar et al., 2001; Pavlov and Kasting, 2002; Ono et al., 2003; Zahnle et al., 2006; Farquhar et al., 2007; Lyons, 2007; Lyons, 2008). This discovery gained immense interest because of its implications for both the lack of oxygen in the atmosphere during the Archean era 2.5-3.8 Gya (billion years ago), and for rise of oxygen, or the "Great Oxidation Event", that occurred 2.2-2.4 Gya (Holland, 2002). These signatures are believed to be produced in an anticorrelation to oxygen abundance in the early atmosphere, which will aid in quantifying the rate of oxygenation during the "Great Oxidation Event". According to Farquhar et al. (2000), the non-mass-dependent (NMD), or anomalous, fractionation signatures were produced by photochemical reactions of volcanic sulfur species in Earth's early atmosphere (> 2.3 Gya) due to the lack of an oxygen and ozone shield, resulting in an atmosphere transparent to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Farquhar et al., 2001). Interpretation of the anomalous rock records, though, depends on the identification of (1) chemical reactions that can produce the NMD signature (Farquhar and Wing, 2003); and (2) conditions necessary for conversion of the gas-phase products into solid minerals (Pavlov and Kasting, 2002). The focus of my research addresses the first step, which is to determine whether the chemical reactions that occurred in Earth's early atmosphere, resulting in NMD fractionation of sulfur isotopes, were due to broadband UV photochemistry, and to test isotopic self-shielding as the possible underlying mechanism. In this project, our goals were to test isotopic self-shielding during UV photolysis as a possible underlying mechanism for anomalous sulfur isotopic

  2. Elderly vs. younger problem drinker 'treatment' and recovery experiences. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J L; Mulford, H A


    To address the question of whether or not elderly problem drinkers experience any treatment contact discrimination or recovery rate disadvantages, the programme utilization and recovery rate experiences of a representative sample of older and younger persons arrested for drinking and driving (OWI) in Iowa were compared. Subjects were interviewed by phone or mail shortly after their OWI arrest and then again approximately 12 months later. Younger persons (18-54 years old) were compared with elderly persons (55 and over and 65 and over). The elderly subjects were also dichotomized as early onset (at least one problem drinking indicator occurred prior to age 55) or late onset (all problem drinking indicators occurred at age 55 or later). The elderly were as likely as, or more likely than, their younger counterparts to make a treatment contact, to remain in treatment and to recover.

  3. Uranium recovery from slags of metallic uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornarolo, F.; Frajndlich, E.U.C.; Durazzo, M.


    The Center of the Nuclear Fuel of the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research - IPEN finished the program of attainment of fuel development for research reactors the base of Uranium Scilicet (U 3 Si 2 ) from Hexafluoride of Uranium (UF 6 ) with enrichment 20% in weight of 235 U. In the process of attainment of the league of U 3 Si 2 we have as Uranium intermediate product the metallic one whose attainment generates a slag contend Uranium. The present work shows the results gotten in the process of recovery of Uranium in slags of calcined slags of Uranium metallic. Uranium the metallic one is unstable, pyrophoricity and extremely reactive, whereas the U 3 O 8 is a steady oxide of low chemical reactivity, what it justifies the process of calcination of slags of Uranium metallic. The calcination of the Uranium slag of the metallic one in oxygen presence reduces Uranium metallic the U 3 O 8 . Experiments had been developed varying it of acid for Uranium control and excess, nitric molar concentration gram with regard to the stoichiometric leaching reaction of temperature of the leaching process. The 96,0% income proves the viability of the recovery process of slags of Uranium metallic, adopting it previous calcination of these slags in nitric way with low acid concentration and low temperature of leaching. (author)

  4. From recovery to regulation: an attempt to reconceptualize 'recovery from work'. (United States)

    Zijlstra, F R H; Cropley, M; Rydstedt, L W


    The concept of 'recovery' (from work) has quickly gained in importance in the occupational health literature. However, we think that the conceptualization of 'recovery' needs some more attention. Although many authors acknowledge that 'recovery' refers to a 'process', the concept is often treated as a static construct. In this paper, we argue that recovery should be conceptualized as a dynamic construct related to changes in psychophysiological state of the person. We refer to two main theories that have provided a theoretical framework for research in this area: Meijman & Mulder's Effort-Recovery (E-R) model and Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources theory. In particular, the E-R model has been seminal in this area and stresses the element of changing psychophysiological states that has been used for reconceptualising 'recovery'. Various biological rhythms influence these changing psychophysiological states, and thus the level of energy (or effort) a person can mobilize or wants to mobilize. A distinction is made between 'physical fatigue' and 'mental fatigue' and its consequences for recovery. The discrepancy between 'actual state' and 'required state' has been suggested as the basis for 'recovery'. This emphasises that recovery is a dynamic and ongoing process, which also included motivational aspects, in particular as far as mental work is concerned. The capacity to maintain self-regulation of one's psychophysiological state is important in this respect. Thus, we propose that 'recovery' is the continuous process of harmonizing the 'actual state' with the state that is 'required' at that moment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Supernova SN 2011fe from an exploding carbon-oxygen white dwarf star. (United States)

    Nugent, Peter E; Sullivan, Mark; Cenko, S Bradley; Thomas, Rollin C; Kasen, Daniel; Howell, D Andrew; Bersier, David; Bloom, Joshua S; Kulkarni, S R; Kandrashoff, Michael T; Filippenko, Alexei V; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard T; Maguire, Kate; Suzuki, Nao; Tarlton, James E; Pan, Yen-Chen; Bildsten, Lars; Fulton, Benjamin J; Parrent, Jerod T; Sand, David; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Bianco, Federica B; Dilday, Benjamin; Graham, Melissa L; Lyman, Joe; James, Phil; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Law, Nicholas M; Quimby, Robert M; Hook, Isobel M; Walker, Emma S; Mazzali, Paolo; Pian, Elena; Ofek, Eran O; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Poznanski, Dovi


    Type Ia supernovae have been used empirically as 'standard candles' to demonstrate the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe even though fundamental details, such as the nature of their progenitor systems and how the stars explode, remain a mystery. There is consensus that a white dwarf star explodes after accreting matter in a binary system, but the secondary body could be anything from a main-sequence star to a red giant, or even another white dwarf. This uncertainty stems from the fact that no recent type Ia supernova has been discovered close enough to Earth to detect the stars before explosion. Here we report early observations of supernova SN 2011fe in the galaxy M101 at a distance from Earth of 6.4 megaparsecs. We find that the exploding star was probably a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, and from the lack of an early shock we conclude that the companion was probably a main-sequence star. Early spectroscopy shows high-velocity oxygen that slows rapidly, on a timescale of hours, and extensive mixing of newly synthesized intermediate-mass elements in the outermost layers of the supernova. A companion paper uses pre-explosion images to rule out luminous red giants and most helium stars as companions to the progenitor.

  6. Sex-specific responses to winter flooding, spring waterlogging and post-flooding recovery in Populus deltoides. (United States)

    Miao, Ling-Feng; Yang, Fan; Han, Chun-Yu; Pu, Yu-Jin; Ding, Yang; Zhang, Li-Jia


    Winter flooding events are common in some rivers and streams due to dam constructions, and flooding and waterlogging inhibit the growth of trees in riparian zones. This study investigated sex-specific morphological, physiological and ultrastructural responses to various durations of winter flooding and spring waterlogging stresses, and post-flooding recovery characteristics in Populus deltoides. There were no significant differences in the morphological, ultrastructural and the majority of physiological traits in trees subjected to medium and severe winter flooding stresses, suggesting that males and females of P. deltoides were winter flooding tolerant, and insensitive to winter flooding duration. Males were more tolerant to winter flooding stress in terms of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence than females. Females displayed greater oxidative damage due to flooding stress than males. Males developed more efficient antioxidant enzymatic systems to control reactive oxygen species. Both sexes had similarly strong post-flooding recovery capabilities in terms of plant growth, and physiological and ultrastructural parameters. However, Males had better recovery capabilities in terms of pigment content. These results increase the understanding of poplars's adaptation to winter flooding stress. They also elucidate sex-specific differences in response to flooding stress during the dormant season, and during post-flooding recovery periods.

  7. Recovery from swimming-induced hypothermia in king penguins: effects of nutritional condition. (United States)

    Halsey, L G; Handrich, Y; Rey, B; Fahlman, A; Woakes, A J; Butler, P J


    We investigated changes in the rate of oxygen consumption (V O2) and body temperature of wild king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) in different nutritional conditions during recovery after exposure to cold water. Over time, birds undertook an identical experiment three times, each characterized by different nutritional conditions: (1) having recently completed a foraging trip, (2) after fasting for many days, and (3) having been refed one meal after the fast. The experiments consisted of a 2-h session in a water channel followed by a period of recovery in a respirometer chamber on land. Refed birds recovered significantly more quickly than fed birds, in terms of both time to reach resting V O2 on land and time to reach recovery of lower abdominal temperature. Previous work found that when penguins are in cold water, abdominal temperatures decrease less in refed birds than in fed or fasted birds, suggesting that refed birds may be vasoconstricting the periphery while perfusing the gut region to access nutrients. This, alongside an increased resting [V O2], seems the most reasonable explanation for why refed birds recovered more quickly subsequent to cold-water exposure in this study; that is, vasoconstriction of the insulative periphery meant that they lost less heat generated by the body core.

  8. System analysis of dry black liquor gasification based synthetic gas production comparing oxygen and air blown gasification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Muhammad; Yan, Jinyue; Dahlquist, Erik


    Highlights: ► Circulating fluidized bed system for black liquor gasification with direct causticization. ► Effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on gasification are studied. ► Direct causticization eliminates energy intensive limekiln reducing biomass use. ► Results show 10% higher SNG production from O 2 blown system than air blown system. ► SNG production is higher in O 2 blown system than air blown system. - Abstract: The black liquor gasification based bio-fuel production at chemical pulp mill is an attractive option to replace conventional recovery boilers increasing system energy efficiency. The present paper studies circulating fluidized bed system with direct causticization using TiO 2 for the gasification of the black liquor to the synthesis gas. The advantage of using direct causticization is the elimination of energy-intensive lime kiln which is an integral part of the conventional black liquor recovery system. The study evaluates the effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on the fluidized bed gasification system, the synthesis gas composition, and the downstream processes for the synthesis gas conversion to the synthetic natural gas (SNG). The results showed higher synthetic natural gas production potential with about 10% higher energy efficiency using oxygen blown gasification system than the air blown system. From the pulp mill integration perspective, the material and energy balance results in better integration of air blown system than the oxygen blown system, e.g. less steam required to be generated in the power boiler, less electricity import, and less additional biomass requirement. However, the air blown system still requires a significant amount of energy in terms of the synthesis gas handling and gas upgrading using the nitrogen rejection system

  9. WHO Class of Obesity Influences Functional Recovery Post-TKA. (United States)

    Maniar, Rajesh N; Maniar, Parul R; Singhi, Tushar; Gangaraju, Bharat Kumar


    No study in the literature has compared early functional recovery following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the obese with the nonobese using World Health Organization (WHO) classes of obesity. Our aim was to compare functional scores and flexion post-TKA in each class of obesity as per WHO classification against a matched control group of nonobese patients. Records of 885 consecutive primary TKA patients (919 knees) operated by a single surgeon were reviewed. The first 35 knees in each class I, class II and class III obesity group during the study period were then matched with a similar number of knees in nonobese TKA patients during the same period. Functional scores recorded pre- and postoperatively at 3 months and 1 year were Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) score, and Knee Society Score (KSS). There was no difference in any parameter between the class I obese and matched nonobese at any assessment point. In the class II obese, as compared to the nonobese, there was no difference in any parameter preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. However, 1 year postoperatively, the SF-12 physical subscore was lower in the class II obese than the nonobese (44.7 vs. 48.6, p = 0.047) and the WOMAC score was significantly higher (15.8 vs. 9.7, p = 0.04). In the class III obese, the WOMAC score was significantly higher than the nonobese (58.1 vs. 44.3, p lower (83.5 vs. 96.5, p = 0.049 preoperatively; 172 vs. 185; p = 0.003 at 1 year). Knee flexion was significantly lower in the class III obese than the nonobese (95 vs. 113; p class I obese can expect good early and late functional recovery as the nonobese. The class II obese can expect comparable early functional recovery as the nonobese but their late function may be lesser. The class III obese would have poorer functional scores and lesser knee flexion postoperatively compared to the nonobese. However, compared to their own preoperative status, there is

  10. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, nucleotide phosophate, and organic and inorganic phosphate levels during the early phases of diabetic ketoacidosis. (United States)

    Kanter, Y; Gerson, J R; Bessman, A N


    The relation between serum and red blood cell (RBC) inorganic phosphate levels, RBC 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels, RBC nucleotide phosphate (Pn), and RBC total phosphate (Pt) levels were studied during the early phases of treatment and recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). A steady drop in serum inorganic phosphate was found during the first 24 hours of insulin treatment and was most profound at 24 hours. No statistically significant changes (P less than 0.05) were found in red cell inorganic phosphate or nucleotide phosphate levels during the 24-hour study period. The levels of total red cell phosphate were lower in this group of patients than in nonacidotic diabetic subjects and decreased slightly after 24 hours of treatment. The red cell 2,3-DPG levels were low at the initiation of therapy and remained low during the 24-hour study period. Glucose, bicarbonate, lactate, and ketone levels fell in linear patterns with treatment. In view of the current evidence for the effects of low 2,3-DPG on oxygen delivery and the relation of low serum phosphate levels to RBC glycolysis and 2,3-DPG formation, this study reemphasizes the need for phosphate replacement during the early phases of treatment of DKA.

  11. Modelling post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal (United States)

    Bastos, A.; Gouveia, C. M.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.


    Wildfires in Mediterranean Europe have been increasing in number and extension over the last decades and constitute one of the major disturbances of these ecosystems. Portugal is the country with more burnt area in the last decade and the years of 2003 and 2005 were particularly devastating, the total burned areas of 425 000 and 338 000 ha being several times higher than the corresponding average. The year of 2005 further coincided with one of the most severe droughts since early 20th century. Due to different responses of vegetation to diverse fire regimes and to the complexity of landscape structures, fires have complex effects on vegetation recovery. Remote sensing has revealed to be a powerful tool in studying vegetation dynamics and in monitoring post-fire vegetation recovery, which is crucial to land-management and to prevent erosion. The main goals of the present work are (i) to assess the accuracy of a vegetation recovery model previously developed by the authors; (ii) to assess the model's performance, namely its sensitivity to initial conditions, to the temporal length of the input dataset and to missing data; (iii) to study vegetation recovery over two selected areas that were affected by two large wildfire events in the fire seasons of 2003 and 2005, respectively. The study relies on monthly values of NDVI over 11 years (1998-2009), at 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution, as obtained by the VEGETATION instrument. According to results from sensitivity analysis, the model is robust and able to provide good estimations of recovery times of vegetation when the regeneration process is regular, even when missing data is present. In respect to the two selected burnt scars, results indicate that fire damage is a determinant factor of regeneration, as less damaged vegetation recovers more rapidly, which is mainly justified by the high coverage of Pinus pinaster over the area, and by the fact that coniferous forests tend to recover slower than transitional woodland

  12. Post-operative recovery profile after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective, observational study of a multimodal anaesthetic regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Kehlet, H; Lund, Claus Michael


    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now often an ambulatory procedure, but dependent on short-term post-operative complaints of pain and post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV). The efficacy of post-anaesthesia care units (PACUs) is therefore important to facilitate return to normal fun...... are predictors of a complicated recovery profile and deserve further attention. Transient oxygen desaturations postpone discharge from the PACU, but the clinical significance of this fact is questionable. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr...

  13. Seaweed richness and herbivory increase rate of community recovery from disturbance. (United States)

    Aquilino, Kristin M; Stachowicz, John J


    The importance of herbivores and of plant diversity for community succession and recovery from disturbance is well documented. However, few studies have assessed the relative magnitude of, or potential interactions between, these factors. To determine the combined effect of herbivory and surrounding algal species richness on the recovery of a rocky intertidal community, we conducted a 27-month field experiment assessing algal recruitment and succession in cleared patches that mimic naturally forming gaps in the ambient community. We crossed two herbivore treatments, ambient and reduced abundance, with monocultures and polycultures of the four most common algal species in a mid-high rocky intertidal zone of northern California. We found that both the presence of herbivores and high surrounding algal richness increased recovery rates, and the effect of algal richness was twice the magnitude of that of herbivores. The increased recovery rate of patches containing herbivores was due to the consumption of fast-growing, early colonist species that preempt space from perennial, late-successional species. Mechanisms linking algal richness and recovery are more numerous. In polycultures, herbivore abundance and species composition is altered, desiccation rates are lower, and propagule recruitment, survival, and growth are higher compared to monocultures, all of which could contribute the observed effect of surrounding species richness. Herbivory and species richness should jointly accelerate recovery wherever palatable species inhibit late-successional, herbivore-resistant species and recruitment and survival of new colonists is promoted by local species richness. These appear to be common features of rocky-shore seaweed, and perhaps other, communities.

  14. The family living the child recovery process after hospital discharge. (United States)

    Pinto, Júlia Peres; Mandetta, Myriam Aparecida; Ribeiro, Circéa Amalia


    to understand the meaning attributed by the family to its experience in the recovery process of a child affected by an acute disease after discharge, and to develop a theoretical model of this experience. Symbolic interactionism was adopted as a theoretical reference, and grounded theory was adopted as a methodological reference. data were collected through interviews and participant observation with 11 families, totaling 15 interviews. A theoretical model consisting of two interactive phenomena was formulated from the analysis: Mobilizing to restore functional balance and Suffering from the possibility of a child's readmission. the family remains alert to identify early changes in the child's health, in an attempt to avoid rehospitalization. the effects of the disease and hospitalization continue to manifest in family functioning, causing suffering even after the child's discharge and recovery.

  15. Heart rate recovery after maximal exercise is blunted in hypertensive seniors (United States)

    Best, Stuart A.; Bivens, Tiffany B.; Dean Palmer, M.; Boyd, Kara N.; Melyn Galbreath, M.; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Carrick-Ranson, Graeme; Shibata, Shigeki; Hastings, Jeffrey L.; Spencer, Matthew D.; Tarumi, Takashi; Levine, Benjamin D.; Fu, Qi


    Abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR) after maximal exercise may indicate autonomic dysfunction and is a predictor for cardiovascular mortality. HRR is attenuated with aging and in middle-age hypertensive patients, but it is unknown whether HRR is attenuated in older-age adults with hypertension. This study compared HRR among 16 unmedicated stage 1 hypertensive (HTN) participants [nine men/seven women; 68 ± 5 (SD) yr; awake ambulatory blood pressure (BP) 149 ± 10/87 ± 7 mmHg] and 16 normotensive [control (CON)] participants (nine men/seven women; 67 ± 5 yr; 122 ± 4/72 ± 5 mmHg). HR, BP, oxygen uptake (V̇o2), cardiac output (Qc), and stroke volume (SV) were measured at rest, at two steady-state work rates, and graded exercise to peak during maximal treadmill exercise. During 6 min of seated recovery, the change in HR (ΔHR) was obtained every minute and BP every 2 min. In addition, HRR and R-R interval (RRI) recovery kinetics were analyzed using a monoexponential function, and the indexes (HRRI and RRII) were calculated. Maximum V̇o2, HR, Qc, and SV responses during exercise were not different between groups. ΔHR was significantly different (P age adults, HRR is attenuated further with the presence of hypertension, which may be attributable to an impairment of autonomic function. PMID:25301897

  16. Dissolved oxygen mapping: A powerful tool for site assessments and ground water monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, W.A.; Kimball, G.


    Dissolved oxygen concentration profiles often provide an excellent indication of the natural biological activity of microorganisms in ground water. The analysis of dissolved oxygen in ground water also provides a rapid, inexpensive method for determining the areal extent of contaminant plumes containing aerobically degraded compounds such as petroleum hydrocarbons. Indigenous hydrocarbon degrading organisms are present at most petroleum product spills giving this technique an almost universal application for dissolved hydrocarbons in ground water. Data from several sites will be presented to demonstrate the relationship between oxygen and dissolved contaminant concentrations. The inverse relationship between oxygen concentrations and dissolved contaminants can be used in many ways. During the initial site assessment, rapid on-site testing of ground water can provide real time data to direct drilling by identification of potentially contaminated locations. Several analytical techniques are available that allow field analysis to be performed in less than five minutes. Dissolved oxygen testing also provides an inexpensive way to monitor hydrocarbon migration without expensive gas chromatography. Often a plume of oxygen depleted ground water extends farther downgradient than the dissolved hydrocarbon plume. The depletion of oxygen in a well can provide an early warning system that detects upgradient contamination before the well is impacted by detectable levels of contaminants. Another application is the measurement of the natural degradation potential for aerobic remediation. If an aerobic in-situ remediation is used, dissolved oxygen monitoring provides an inexpensive method to monitor the progress of the remediation

  17. Early PTSD Symptom Trajectories: Persistence, Recovery, and Response to Treatment: Results from the Jerusalem Trauma Outreach and Prevention Study (J-TOPS) (United States)

    Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R.; Ankri, Yael; Freedman, Sara; Israeli-Shalev, Yossi; Roitman, Pablo; Gilad, Moran; Shalev, Arieh Y.


    Context Uncovering heterogeneities in the progression of early PTSD symptoms can improve our understanding of the disorder's pathogenesis and prophylaxis. Objectives To describe discrete symptom trajectories and examine their relevance for preventive interventions. Design Latent Growth Mixture Modeling (LGMM) of data from a randomized controlled study of early treatment. LGMM identifies latent longitudinal trajectories by exploring discrete mixture distributions underlying observable data. Setting Hadassah Hospital unselectively receives trauma survivors from Jerusalem and vicinity. Participants Adult survivors of potentially traumatic events consecutively admitted to the hospital's emergency department (ED) were assessed ten days and one-, five-, nine- and fifteen months after ED admission. Participants with data at ten days and at least two additional assessments (n = 957) were included; 125 received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) between one and nine months. Approach We used LGMM to identify latent parameters of symptom progression and tested the effect of CBT on these parameters. CBT consisted of 12 weekly sessions of either cognitive therapy (n = 41) or prolonged exposure (PE, n = 49), starting 29.8±5.7 days after ED admission, or delayed PE (n = 35) starting at 151.8±42.4 days. CBT effectively reduced PTSD symptoms in the entire sample. Main Outcome Measure Latent trajectories of PTSD symptoms; effects of CBT on these trajectories. Results Three trajectories were identified: Rapid Remitting (rapid decrease in symptoms from 1- to 5-months; 56% of the sample), Slow Remitting (progressive decrease in symptoms over 15 months; 27%) and Non-Remitting (persistently elevated symptoms; 17%). CBT accelerated the recovery of the Slow Remitting class but did not affect the other classes. Conclusions The early course of PTSD symptoms is characterized by distinct and diverging response patterns that are centrally relevant to understanding the disorder

  18. Sulfur Isotope Trends in Archean Microbialite Facies Record Early Oxygen Production and Consumption (United States)

    Zerkle, A.; Meyer, N.; Izon, G.; Poulton, S.; Farquhar, J.; Claire, M.


    The major and minor sulfur isotope composition (δ34S and Δ33S) of pyrites preserved in ~2.65-2.5 billion-year-old (Ga) microbialites record localized oxygen production and consumption near the mat surface. These trends are preserved in two separate drill cores (GKF01 and BH1-Sacha) transecting the Campbellrand-Malmani carbonate platform (Ghaap Group, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa; Zerkle et al., 2012; Izon et al., in review). Microbialite pyrites possess positive Δ33S values, plotting parallel to typical Archean trends (with a Δ33S/δ34S slope of ~0.9) but enriched in 34S by ~3 to 7‰. We propose that these 34S-enriched pyrites were formed from a residual pool of sulfide that was partially oxidized via molecular oxygen produced by surface mat-dwelling cyanobacteria. Sulfide, carrying the range of Archean Δ33S values, could have been produced deeper within the microbial mat by the reduction of sulfate and elemental sulfur, then fractionated upon reaction with O2 produced by oxygenic photosynthesis. Preservation of this positive 34S offset requires that: 1) sulfide was only partially (50­­-80%) consumed by oxidation, meaning H2S was locally more abundant (or more rapidly produced) than O2, and 2) the majority of the sulfate produced via oxidation was not immediately reduced to sulfide, implying either that the sulfate pool was much larger than the sulfide pool, or that the sulfate formed near the mat surface was transported and reduced in another part of the system. Contrastingly, older microbialite facies (> 2.7 Ga; Thomazo et al., 2013) appear to lack these observed 34S enrichments. Consequently, the onset of 34S enrichments could mark a shift in mat ecology, from communities dominated by anoxygenic photosynthesizers to cyanobacteria. Here, we test these hypotheses with new spatially resolved mm-scale trends in sulfur isotope measurements from pyritized stromatolites of the Vryburg Formation, sampled in the lower part of the BH1-Sacha core. Millimeter

  19. Impact of Early Parenteral Nutrition on Metabolism and Kidney Injury


    Gunst, Jan; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Casaer, Michaël P.; Hermans, Greet; Wouters, Pieter J.; Dubois, Jasperina; Claes, Kathleen; Schetz, Miet; Van den Berghe, Greet


    A poor nutritional state and a caloric deficit associate with increased morbidity and mortality, but a recent multicenter, randomized controlled trial found that early parenteral nutrition to supplement insufficient enteral nutrition increases morbidity in the intensive care unit, including prolonging the duration of renal replacement therapy, compared with withholding parenteral nutrition for 1 week. Whether early versus late parenteral nutrition impacts the incidence and recovery of AKI is ...

  20. Effect of bleeding on recovery of erythropoiesis in mice after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Nobuo


    The radioprotective effect of bleeding was studied by depleting 0.4 ml of blood immediately after whole body irradiation. As the indicator in this experiment, 30-day survival rate was used. To analyse the effect of bleeding, erythropoietic recovery after irradiation was examined. Before these experiments, erythropoietic activity after the depletion was examined in non-irradiated mice. Also, radioactive iron uptake was measured in the femur and spleen as an indicator of erythropoietic activity in both irradiated and non-irradiated groups. An increase in the 30-day survival rate was noted: 40% in the group with blood depletion after 700 R irradiation, but only 15% in the group without blood depletion. In blood depleted mice, marked erythropoietic activity was observed in the spleen, but this activity was not increased in the femur bone marrow. Gradual and relatively early increase in iron-59 uptake was observed immediately after irradiation in the blood-depleted mice but not in those with irradiation alone. This phenomenon indicated early recovery of erythropoietic repopulation in the spleen. The mean number of endogenous spleen colonies was 13 and 27 respectively, in the mice without and with blood depletion immediately after 750 R irradiation. (author)

  1. Rapid Blood Pressure Lowering According to Recovery at Different Time Intervals after Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Pooled Analysis of the INTERACT Studies. (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Arima, Hisatomi; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Woodward, Mark; Heeley, Emma; Stapf, Christian; Lavados, Pablo M; Robinson, Thompson; Huang, Yining; Wang, Jiguang; Delcourt, Candice; Anderson, Craig S


    Early intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering has been shown to improve functional outcome in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but the treatment effect is modest and without a clearly defined underlying explanatory mechanism. We aimed at more reliably quantifying the benefits of this treatment according to different time periods in the recovery of participants in the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT) studies. Pooled analysis of the pilot INTERACT1 (n = 404) and main INTERACT2 (n = 2,839) involving patients with spontaneous ICH (patient characteristic subgroups, with trends favoring those randomized early, and with higher SBP and milder neurological severity at baseline. Intensive BP lowering provides beneficial effects on physical functioning that manifests consistently through the early and later phases of recovery from ICH. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Immune recovery in acute and chronic HIV infection and the impact of thymic stromal lymphopoietin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelpi, Marco; Hartling, Hans J; Thorsteinsson, Kristina


    was comparable in all groups, and no differences in immune homeostasis were found between primary HIV infection and early presenters, whereas differences in absolute counts and proportions of CD4+ T cell subpopulations were found between primary HIV infection and late presenters. TSLP was elevated in primary HIV...... thymic output, but not with immune recovery. These findings indicate a possible role of TSLP in immune homeostasis in HIV infection but do not support TSLP to affect immune recovery in primary HIV infection.......BACKGROUND: Symptomatic primary HIV infection is associated with an adverse prognosis, and immediate initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is recommended. However, little is known about immunological predictors of immune recovery. Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine...

  3. Recovery of molybdenum and cobalt powders from spent hydrogenation catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, M.A.; Hewaidy, I.F.; Farghaly, F.E.


    Free powders as well as compact shapes of molybdenum and cobalt have been successfully recovered from spent hydrogenation and desulphurization catalysts. A process flow sheet was followed involving crushing, milling, particle sizing, hydrometallurgical acid leaching roasting of the obtained salts in an atmospheric oxygen to obtain the respective oxides. These were reduced by hydrogen gas at 110 degree C and 900 degree C respectively. Parameters affecting the properties of the products and the recovery efficiency value such as acid concentration, particle diameter of the solid catalyst, temperature time under a constant mass flow rate the hydrogen gas, have been investigated. A mixture of concentration.sulphuric and nitric acids (3:1 by volume) achieved adequate recovery of both metals. The latter increased with the increase in acid concentration, time up 10 3 hours and temperature: 100 degree C and with the decrease in particle diameter of the spent catalyst. The PH of the obtained filtrate was adjusted to 2 with ammonia to precipitate insoluble ammonium molybdate and a solution of cobalt sulphate. Cobalt hydroxide can be precipitate from the latter solution at a PH = 7.6 using excess ammonium hydroxide solution. The obtained results showed that the metallic products are technically pure meeting the standard specifications. Compact shapes of molybdenum acquire density values increasing with the increase of the pressing load whereby a maximum density value of 2280 kg/m 3 is attained at 0.75 MPa. Maximum recovery efficiency amounts to 96%. 10 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hidemichi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hayashi, Tatsuo; Hashimoto, Takuo


    The mechanism of reduction of cerebral circulation in the early phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has not yet been clarified. Previous studies have variously indicated that cerebral blood flow (CBF) reduction may be due to cerebral vasospasm, an elevation in intracranial pressure (ICP), constriction of intraparenchymal arterioles, or metabolic reduction. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between cerebral circulation and oxygen metabolism. In 36 patients with aneurysmal SAH, the values of mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (GMRO 2 ) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were measured by using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with arterial blood drawing and oxygen saturation of internal jugular bulb blood (SjO 2 ) in the acute stage (1-3 days after onset) and the spasm stage (7-10 days after onset). The patients in our study were selected by using the following criteria: no history of cerebrovascular or cardiopulmonary diseases; under the age of 70; the ruptured aneurysm was treated by clipping or coil embolization within 72 hours after onset; no symptoms of cerebral vasospasm; no signs of cerebral ischemic change on CT scans. These patients were divided into 2 groups according to the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) grading classification; the mild group (Grades I and II) consisted of 27 cases and the severe group (Grade IV) consisted of 9 cases. We studied differences in mCBF CMRO 2 , and OEF between the mild group and severe group. In the mild group, mCBF, CMRO 2 , and OEF were significantly higher than in the severe group during both the acute and the spasm stage. Also mCBF showed a direct correlation with CMRO 2 . All the patients were kept under the following conditions: the bed was positioned so that the upper body was raised at an angle at 30 deg; blood pressure was maintained at 130-150 mmHg and PaCO 2 of arterial blood was maintained at 35-40 mmHg; ICP

  5. Oxygen-Partial-Pressure Sensor for Aircraft Oxygen Mask (United States)

    Kelly, Mark; Pettit, Donald


    A device that generates an alarm when the partial pressure of oxygen decreases to less than a preset level has been developed to help prevent hypoxia in a pilot or other crewmember of a military or other high-performance aircraft. Loss of oxygen partial pressure can be caused by poor fit of the mask or failure of a hose or other component of an oxygen distribution system. The deleterious physical and mental effects of hypoxia cause the loss of a military aircraft and crew every few years. The device is installed in the crewmember s oxygen mask and is powered via communication wiring already present in all such oxygen masks. The device (see figure) includes an electrochemical sensor, the output potential of which is proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen. The output of the sensor is amplified and fed to the input of a comparator circuit. A reference potential that corresponds to the amplified sensor output at the alarm