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Sample records for early oviposition experience

  1. Oviposition preference hierarchy in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae: influence of female age and experience

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    Joachim-Bravo Iara S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of two factors, age and previous experience, on the oviposition hierarchy preference of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 females was studied. Two populations were analyzed: one reared in laboratory during 17 years and the other captured in nature. In the first experiment the oviposition preference for four fruits, papaya, orange, banana and apple was tested at the beginning of oviposition period and 20 days past. The results showed that the wild females as much the laboratory ones had an oviposition preference hierarchy at the beginning of peak period of oviposition. However this hierarchic preference disappeared in a later phase of life. In the second experiment the females were previously exposed to fruits of different hierarchic positions and afterwards their choice was tested in respect to the oviposition preference for those fruits. The results showed that there was an influence of the previous experience on the posterior choice of fruits to oviposition when the females were exposed to fruits of lower hierarchic position.

  2. Experience- and age-mediated oviposition behaviour in the yellow fever mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti).

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    Ruktanonchai, N W; Lounibos, L P; Smith, D L; Allan, S A

    2015-09-01

    In repeated behaviours such as those of feeding and reproduction, past experiences can inform future behaviour. By altering their behaviour in response to environmental stimuli, insects in highly variable landscapes can tailor their behaviour to their particular environment. In particular, female mosquitoes may benefit from plasticity in their choice of egg-laying site as these sites are often temporally variable and clustered. The opportunity to adapt egg-laying behaviour to past experience also exists for mosquito populations as females typically lay eggs multiple times throughout their lives. Whether experience and age affect egg-laying (or oviposition) behaviour in the mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) was assessed using a wind tunnel. Initially, gravid mosquitoes were provided with a cup containing either repellent or well water. After ovipositing in these cups, the mosquitoes were blood-fed and introduced into a wind tunnel. In this wind tunnel, an oviposition cup containing repellent was placed in the immediate vicinity of the gravid mosquitoes. A cup containing well water was placed at the opposite end of the tunnel so that if the females flew across the chamber, they encountered the well water cup, in which they readily laid eggs. Mosquitoes previously exposed to repellent cups became significantly more likely to later lay eggs in repellent cups, suggesting that previous experience with suboptimal oviposition sites informs mosquitoes of the characteristics of nearby oviposition sites. These results provide further evidence that mosquitoes modify behaviour in response to environmental information and are demonstrated in a vector species in which behavioural plasticity may be ecologically and epidemiologically meaningful.

  3. Oviposition and Embryotoxicity of Indigofera suffruticosa on Early Development of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    Vieira, Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso; Leite, Roberta Maria Pereira; Lima, Izabela Rangel; Navarro, Daniela do Amaral Ferraz; Bianco, Everson Miguel; Leite, Sônia Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Indigofera suffruticosa leaves obtained by infusion was used to evaluate the oviposition, its effect on development of eggs and larvae, and morphological changes in larvae of Aedes aegypti. The bioassays were carried out with aqueous extract in different concentrations on eggs, larvae, and female mosquitoes, and the morphological changes were observed in midgut of larvae. The extract showed repellent activity on A. aegypti mosquitoes, reducing significantly the egg laying by females with control substrate (343 (185–406)) compared with the treated substrate (88 (13–210)). No eclosion of A. aegypti eggs at different concentrations studied was observed. The controleclodedin 35%. At concentration of 250 μg/mL, 93.3% of larvae remained in the second instar of development and at concentrations of 500, 750, and 1000 μg/mL the inhibitory effect was lower with percentages of 20%, 53.3%, and 46.6%, respectively. Morphological changes like disruption on the peritrophic envelope (PE), discontinued underlying epithelium, increased gut lumen, and segments with hypertrophic aspects were observed in anterior region of medium midgut of larvae of A. aegypti. The results showed repellent activity, specific embryotoxicity, and general growth retardation in A. aegypti by medium containing aqueous extract of I. suffruticosa leaves. PMID:21822443

  4. Oviposition and Embryotoxicity of Indigofera suffruticosa on Early Development of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of Indigofera suffruticosa leaves obtained by infusion was used to evaluate the oviposition, its effect on development of eggs and larvae, and morphological changes in larvae of Aedes aegypti. The bioassays were carried out with aqueous extract in different concentrations on eggs, larvae, and female mosquitoes, and the morphological changes were observed in midgut of larvae. The extract showed repellent activity on A. aegypti mosquitoes, reducing significantly the egg laying by females with control substrate (343 (185–406 compared with the treated substrate (88 (13–210. No eclosion of A. aegypti eggs at different concentrations studied was observed. The controleclodedin 35%. At concentration of 250 μg/mL, 93.3% of larvae remained in the second instar of development and at concentrations of 500, 750, and 1000 μg/mL the inhibitory effect was lower with percentages of 20%, 53.3%, and 46.6%, respectively. Morphological changes like disruption on the peritrophic envelope (PE, discontinued underlying epithelium, increased gut lumen, and segments with hypertrophic aspects were observed in anterior region of medium midgut of larvae of A. aegypti. The results showed repellent activity, specific embryotoxicity, and general growth retardation in A. aegypti by medium containing aqueous extract of I. suffruticosa leaves.

  5. Oviposition and Embryotoxicity of Indigofera suffruticosa on Early Development of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Vieira, Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso; Leite, Roberta Maria Pereira; Lima, Izabela Rangel; Navarro, Daniela do Amaral Ferraz; Bianco, Everson Miguel; Leite, Sônia Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Indigofera suffruticosa leaves obtained by infusion was used to evaluate the oviposition, its effect on development of eggs and larvae, and morphological changes in larvae of Aedes aegypti. The bioassays were carried out with aqueous extract in different concentrations on eggs, larvae, and female mosquitoes, and the morphological changes were observed in midgut of larvae. The extract showed repellent activity on A. aegypti mosquitoes, reducing significantly the egg laying by females with control substrate (343 (185-406)) compared with the treated substrate (88 (13-210)). No eclosion of A. aegypti eggs at different concentrations studied was observed. The controleclodedin 35%. At concentration of 250 μg/mL, 93.3% of larvae remained in the second instar of development and at concentrations of 500, 750, and 1000 μg/mL the inhibitory effect was lower with percentages of 20%, 53.3%, and 46.6%, respectively. Morphological changes like disruption on the peritrophic envelope (PE), discontinued underlying epithelium, increased gut lumen, and segments with hypertrophic aspects were observed in anterior region of medium midgut of larvae of A. aegypti. The results showed repellent activity, specific embryotoxicity, and general growth retardation in A. aegypti by medium containing aqueous extract of I. suffruticosa leaves.

  6. Effects of Barbarea vulgaris Rosette Plants on Oviposition Preference of Plutella xylostella with Different Experiences%欧洲山芥对不同经历的小菜蛾产卵选择行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕建华; 刘树生

    2011-01-01

    The effects of rosette plants of Barbarea vulgaris on oviposition preference of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) female moths with different experiences were studied in laboratory.The results showed that different experiences of DBM during both larva and early adult stage and adult stage indeed enhanced oviposition preference of DBM to the host plants fed on or experienced its leaf volatiles by DBM.However, the increased preference to the plants was still not strong enough to significantly alter extremely strong attractiveness of Barbarea vulgaris to ovipositing P.xylostella.%在实验室内研究了莲座期欧洲山芥对不同经历的小菜蛾雌成虫产卵选择行为的影响.结果表明,小菜蛾在幼虫期及成虫前期的不同经历、成虫期的不同经历均能够显著增强其对所经历寄主植物的产卵偏好性,但仍然不能改变欧洲山芥对小菜蛾具有的极强的产卵引诱力.

  7. Maternal influences on early development: preferred temperature prior to oviposition hastens embryogenesis and enhances offspring traits in the Children's python, Antaresia childreni.

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    Lorioux, Sophie; DeNardo, Dale F; Gorelick, Root; Lourdais, Olivier

    2012-04-15

    Embryonic life is particularly sensitive to its surroundings, and the developmental environment can have long-lasting effects on offspring. In oviparous species, the impacts of the developmental environment on offspring traits are mostly examined during development within the egg. However, as more than 25% of the development of squamate reptiles can occur prior to oviposition, we explored the effect of thermal conditions on development prior to oviposition in an oviparous snake species, the Children's python (Antaresia childreni). We housed gravid female pythons under three thermal cycles: an optimal regime that reflected maternal preference in a non-constrained environment (constant preferred body temperature of gravid females, T(set)=31.5°C) and two mildly suboptimal regimes that shared the same mean temperature of 27.7°C, but differed in the duration at T(set). In one of the constraining regimes, females had access to T(set) for 4 h daily whereas in the other regime, females never reached T(set) (maximal temperature of 29.0°C). Thermal treatments were maintained throughout gravidity in all three groups, but, after oviposition, all eggs were incubated at T(set) until hatching. Compared with the optimal regime, the two suboptimal regimes had a longer duration of gravidity, which resulted in delayed hatching. Between the two suboptimal regimes, gravidity was significantly shorter in the treatment that included time at T(set). Furthermore, suboptimal regimes influenced offspring traits at hatching, including body morphology, antipredator behavior, strength and metabolism. However, partial access to maternal T(set) significantly enhanced several offspring traits, including performance. Our results demonstrate the importance of time at T(set) on early development and suggest an adaptive significance of maternal thermoregulation prior to oviposition.

  8. Experience- and egg-mediated oviposition behaviour in the yellow fever mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti)

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    Animals may adapt foraging behavior in variable environments using environmental information. For repeated behaviors such as feeding or reproduction, past experiences can provide this information to guide future decision-making. By changing behavior to be more efficient in an animal’s specific env...

  9. Size of and damage on shoots of Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae influence oviposition site selection of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Elna Mugrabi-Oliveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition site selection of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae was studied when size of and damage on shoots were variable in a natural population of Passiflora suberosa Linnaeus (Passifloraceae, and through sequential and simultaneous choice experiments performed under insectary conditions. Females showed marked oviposition preference for undamaged and largest shoots of P. suberosa. Eggs were mostly laid on the terminal buds of intact shoots under natural conditions. In simultaneous choice trials, females preferred to oviposit on shoots from which leaves (ten were removed but the terminal bud maintained to those where leaves were kept but the terminal bud was cut out. In sequential choice trials, they did not lay eggs on shoots from which the terminal bud was removed. Females preferred to oviposit on large to short intact shoots in both sequential and simultaneous choice trials. Females laid eggs preferentially on shoots with the greatest leaf area when most plants were intact in the field during early spring. Later in fall, when mostly large, old shoots were damaged or in a reproductive stage (less desirable for oviposition, oviposition intensity was highest on the shortest, youngest shoots of P. suberosa. Thus, females might rank these quality attributes higher than size while selecting shoots for oviposition. The consequences of ovipositing selectively on intact, large shoots of P. suberosa are discussed from the view point of H. erato phyllis larval performance.

  10. Invisalign: early experiences.

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    Joffe, L

    2003-12-01

    This article describes the Invisalign technique. It is based on the author's personal experience of over 60 cases started in the private practice setting. The technology behind Invisalign and its development is reviewed. The Invisalign clinical technique is described, and the advantages and disadvantages of using Invisalign are highlighted.

  11. Oviposition preference and larval performance in Ceratitis capitata (Díptera, Tephritidae

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    Iara Sordi Joachim-Bravo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments concerning oviposition preference were carried out on Ceratitis capitata to determine whether females are able to preferentially oviposit on natural hosts in which the larvae develop better. The results indicated that the females do not preferentially oviposit on hosts of better nutritive value for the larvae.

  12. Oviposition responses of gravid female Culex quinquefasciatus to egg rafts and low doses of oviposition pheromone under semifield conditions.

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    Braks, Marieta A; Leal, Walter S; Cardé, Ring T

    2007-03-01

    Semifield experiments were conducted to study the oviposition of gravid Culex quinquefasciatus females in response to one or 10 egg rafts, or 3.0 microg of synthetic oviposition pheromone, (-)-(5R, 6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide, a dose equivalent to 10 egg rafts. These treatments were added to the small bowls filled with either hay infusion or water in a small (0.3-m spacing) or a large-square design (3.4-m spacing). Oviposition choice was more pronounced in the "small square" assays. Mean number of egg rafts laid in response to a single egg raft in an oviposition jar filled with hay infusion was significantly greater than with all other treatments. When the oviposition pheromone dose was increased from one to 10 rafts or when 3.0 microg synthetic oviposition pheromone were dispensed on a floating receptacle, synergistic effects were observed between the oviposition pheromone and the hay infusion at both distances. This study is the first demonstration that the amount in a single raft induces oviposition of gravid Cx. quinquefasciatus females under semi-natural conditions.

  13. Early Soil Moisture Field Experiments

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    Schmugge, T.

    2008-12-01

    Before the large scale field experiments described in the call for papers, there were a number of experiments devoted to a single parameter, e.g. soil moisture. In the early 1970's, before the launch of the first microwave radiometer by NASA, there were a number of aircraft experiments to determine utility of these sensors for land observations. For soil moisture, these experiments were conducted in southwestern United States over irrigated agricultural areas which could provide a wide range of moisture conditions on a given day. The radiometers covered the wavelength range from 0.8 to 21 cm. These experiments demonstrated that it is possible to observe soil moisture variations remotely using a microwave radiometer with a sensitivity of about 3 K / unit of soil moisture. The results also showed that the longer wavelengths were better, with a radiometer at the 21 cm wavelength giving the best results. These positive results led to the development of Push Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) and the Electrically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR) instruments at the 21-cm wavelength. They have been used extensively in the large-scale experiments such as HAPEX-MOBILHY, FIFE, Monsoon90, SMEX, etc. The multi-beam nature of these instruments makes it possible to obtain more extensive coverage and thus to map spatial variations of surface soil moisture. Examples of the early results along with the more recent soil moisture maps will be presented.

  14. Oviposição de Bemisia tabaci (genn. (Homoptera: aleyrodidae em três variedades de soja sem chance de escolha Oviposition of Bemisia tabaci (genn. (homoptera:aleyrobidae on three soybean varieties in a non-choice type of experiment

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    André Luiz Lourenção

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available A non-choice type of experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at Campinas to study the oviposition of B. tabaci on two introductions (PI 171451 and PI 229358 and one commercial variety (Santa Rosa of soybean. Previously these introductions were less oviposited by the whitefly in a free-choice type of experiment when compared to commercial varieties. The observed average number of eggs per square centimeter of leaf were 0.82, 0.42 and 0.41 for 'Santa Rosa' susceptible, PI 171451 (resistant and PI 229358 (resistant, respectively. These results showed that the lower rate of for oviposition observed previously is maintained when the insect does not have a chance to oviposit on a susceptible variety.

  15. Oviposition pheromones in haematophagous insects.

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    Seenivasagan, T; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2010-01-01

    Pheromones influencing oviposition behavior in females of haematophagous insects have been the interest of recent past by many group of scientists working on oviposition pheromones. Finding and choosing a good site for oviposition is a challenging task for females of haematophagous insects, especially in those insects which does not have the parental care. Their decisions have far-reaching and profound consequences for the life history of the offspring. In such blood feeding insects, the choice of oviposition site is affected by pheromones, which may function either as deterrents or stimulants in short range, while they may also act as repellents or attractants in long range perception. During the location of a suitable oviposition site for egg laying or a potential host for blood feeding, haematophagous insects mainly use olfactory and visual cues. These pheromones are produced by the ovipositing female or by conspecific larvae co-occurring with gravid females. Adult females detect oviposition pheromones by odor receptors on the antennae, as well as by contact chemoreceptors on tarsi, mouthparts and antennae. Different cues exploited by gravid females from a diversified arena include egg, larva, habitat, microbes, infusions and plant produced volatiles influence the oviposition behavior. Traps baited with pheromones, infusions, and insecticides shall be promising tools for monitoring and control of target insect using integrated vector management strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early sexual experience and prostitution.

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    James, J; Meyerding, J

    1977-12-01

    The authors compared several aspects of early sexual experience found in two earlier studies of prostitutes with results of research on "normal" women. The prostitutes had in common many negative experiences not found or found less often in other populations of young women. These include incestuous and/or coerced sex, lack parental guidance, intercouse at a young age, and few or no meaningful relationships with males. These women had discovered that sex could lead to a kind of status, even though that status is negatively labeled by the wider culture. In a society that values women on the basis of their sexuality, a woman who views herself as "debased" may see prostitution as a viable alternative--perhaps the only alternative.

  17. Selection of artificial hosts for oviposition by wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart (Diptera, Tephritidae: influence of adult food and effect of experience Seleção de hospedeiros artificiais para oviposição por Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart (Diptera, Tephritidae selvagem: influência do alimento do adulto e efeito da experiência

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    Thamara A. B. S. Leal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Several factors influence the selection of oviposition substrates by insects. The aim of the present work was to find answers to the following questions related to the oviposition behavior of Anastrepha obliqua. Can carbohydrates (glucose or sucrose present in the adult diet have influence on the female preference for an oviposition substrate with similar composition? Can the previous experience with a host containing one of mentioned carbohydrates interfere in further selection of oviposition substrates? The results showed that the kind of carbohydrate present in the adult diet did not affect the female preference for an artificial oviposition substrate, neither when it was presented by itself nor in combination with brewer's yeast. The effect of experience in the oviposition behavior was observed when there was a previous contact with artificial oviposition substrates containing yeast and sucrose. The data are discussed in terms of the behavioral plasticity presented by this species in relation to feeding and oviposition behaviors.Vários fatores podem atuar durante a seleção de substratos para oviposição por insetos. O presente estudo teve por objetivo responder às seguintes questões relacionadas ao comportamento de oviposição de Anastrepha obliqua. O carboidrato presente na dieta do adulto (glicose ou sacarose pode influenciar a preferência da fêmea por um substrato para oviposição com composição semelhante? A experiência prévia com um hospedeiro que possui um dos dois carboidratos citados pode interferir em escolhas futuras entre substratos para oviposição? Os resultados indicaram que o tipo de carboidrato presente na dieta do adulto não exerceu influência sobre a preferência das fêmeas por um substrato artificial para oviposição, tanto quando em combinação com lêvedo de cerveja ou quando sozinho. O efeito da experiência no comportamento de oviposição foi notado quando o contato prévio foi com substratos

  18. Early flavor experiences: research update.

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    Mennella, J A; Beauchamp, G K

    1998-07-01

    Anyone who has observed infants for any period of time can testify to the intense activity occurring in and around their mouths--the primary site for learning in the first few months of life. Before they are even able to crawl, infants have learned much about their new sensory world. Though recent research we have begun to explore the impact of these early experiences on infants' acceptance of solid foods and how they explore objects in their environment. We have also begun to focus on the sensory experiences of the formula-fed infant, in particular, how their responses to particular formulas, which are extremely unpalatable to older children and adults, change during infancy. This is a relatively new and exciting area of study, with much research yet to be done. It is clear, however, that infants are not passive receptacles for flavored foods. Parents who offer a variety of foods will provide both a nutritious, well-balanced diet, as well as an opportunity for their children's own personal preferences to develop.

  19. Toxicity and sub-lethal effect of endemic plants from family Anacardiaceae on oviposition behavior of Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan; Fatma; Zuharah; Chan; Jia; Ling; Nurfazlina; Zulkifly; Nik; Fadzly

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the lethal concentration, oviposition deterrence and ovicidal activity of acetone extracts of Melanochyla fasciculiflora(M. fasciculiflora) leaf and Gluta renghas(G. renghas) leaf against Aedes albopictus(Ae. albopictus). Methods: To determine the lethal concentration of Anacardiaceae, ten test concentrations of the extracts ranging from 200 to 650 mg/L were selected for larvicidal bioassays and 25 early fourth instar larvae were exposed to the extracts for 24 h. The sub-lethal concentrations used for oviposition deterrence was the value of LC25, LC50 and LC75 from above study which is 235 mg/L, 470 mg/L and 705 mg/L for M. fasciculiflora extract and 187.5 mg/L, 375 mg/L and 562.5 mg/L for G. renghas extract, respectively. Twenty gravid Ae. albopictus were allowed to oviposit in different treated concentrations. For oviciding procedure, a total of 300 eggs of Ae. albopictus were soaked in solution with each treated concentration as mentioned above for 24 h. After 24 h, eggs were sieved and soaked in seasoned water, and hatching rates were calculated. For comparison, only seasoned water was used in control experiment.Results: G. renghas demonstrated lower LC50 value of 372.80 mg/L compared to M. fasciculiflora(467.90 mg/L). The activity index of negative oviposition revealed the deterrent effect and thus, caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of fewer eggs compared with control(without plant extract). The acetone extract of M. fasciculiflora was more effective than G. renghas extract in displaying oviposition deterrence potential since the latter did not possess the deterring effect within the concentration range tested. However, both plant extracts exhibited excellent oviciding effect as 92.33% of eggs failed to be hatched when treated with 705.0 mg/L of M. fasciculiflora and 86.67% with 562.5 mg/L of G. renghas. The oviposition deterrence and percentage of egg mortality were directly proportional to the

  20. Larval exposure to azadirachtin affects fitness and oviposition site preference of Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Bezzar-Bendjazia, Radia; Kilani-Morakchi, Samira; Aribi, Nadia

    2016-10-01

    Azadirachtin, a biorational insecticide, is one of the prominent biopesticide commercialized today and represent an alternative to conventional insecticides. The current study examined the lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as biological model. Various doses ranging from 0.1 to 2μg were applied topically on early third instar larvae and the cumulative mortality of immature stage was determined. In second series of experiments, azadirachtin was applied at its LD25 (0.28μg) and LD50 (0.67μg) and evaluated on fitness (development duration, fecundity, adult survival) and oviposition site preference with and without choice. Results showed that azadirachtin increased significantly at the two tested doses the duration of larval and pupal development. Moreover, azadirachtin treatment reduced significantly adult's survival of both sex as compared to control. In addition, azadirachtin affected fecundity of flies by a significant reduction of the number of eggs laid. Finally results showed that females present clear preference for oviposition in control medium. Pre-imaginal exposure (L3) to azadirachtin increased aversion to this substance suggesting a memorability of the learned avoidance. The results provide some evidence that larval exposure to azadirachtin altered adult oviposition preference as well as major fitness traits of D. melanogaster. Theses finding may reinforce behavioural avoidance of azadirachtin and contribute as repellent strategies in integrated pest management programmes.

  1. Early experience with robotic rectopexy.

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    Buchs, Nicolas C; Pugin, François; Ris, Frederic; Volonte, Francesco; Morel, Philippe; Roche, Bruno

    2013-12-01

    The introduction of robotics in colorectal surgery has been gaining increasing acceptance. However, experience remains still limited for pelvic floor disorders. We report herein our first cases of fully robotic rectopexy and promontofixation for rectal prolapse. From October 2011 to June 2012, five female patients underwent a robotic rectopexy at our institution. The patients were selected according to their primary pathology and their medical history for this preliminary experience. Four of them presented a rectal prolapse associated or not with a vaginal prolapse and the last patient presented a recurrent rectal prolapse 5 years after a laparoscopic repair. The study was approved by our local ethics committee. The robot da Vinci Si (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) was used with a 4-port setting in all cases. The mean operative time was 170 minutes (range: 120-270). There was no conversion. The blood loss was minimal. One patient presented a retrorectal hematoma, treated conservatively with success. There was no other complication. The mean hospital stay was 3.6 days (range: 2-7). At 2 months, there was neither recurrence nor readmission. In comparison with the laparoscopic approach, there were no statistically significant differences. Robotic rectopexy and promontofixation are feasible and safe. The outcomes are encouraging, but functional results and long-term outcomes are required to evaluate the exact role of robotics for rectal prolapse. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Pungent spices, ground red pepper, and synthetic capsaicin as onion fly ovipositional deterrents.

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    Cowles, R S; Keller, J E; Miller, J R

    1989-02-01

    In laboratory choice experiments, the spices dill, paprika, black pepper, chili powder, ginger, and red pepper deterredDelia antiqua oviposition by 88-100%. Dose-response choice tests demonstrated that 1 mg of ground cayenne pepper (GCP) placed within 1 cm of artificial onion foliage reduced oviposition by 78%. A synthetic analog of capsaicin, the principal flavor ingredient of red peppers, deterred oviposition by 95% when present at 320 ppm in the top centimeter of sand (the ovipositional substrate). However, in no-choice conditions 10 mg GCP was not an effective deterrent. Sevana Bird Repellent and Agrigard Insect Repellent both use red pepper as a principal ingredient; at recommended field rates, neither of these materials was an effective ovipositional deterrent either in laboratory or field. Capsaicin-based materials do not appear to be candidates for onion maggot control via behavioral modification.

  3. Bioinsecticide and leaf litter combination increases oviposition and reduces adult recruitment to create an effective ovitrap for Culex mosquitoes.

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    Bellile, Katie G; Vonesh, James R

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito egg traps, aquatic habitats baited with oviposition attractant and insecticide, are important tools for surveillance and control efforts in integrated vector management programs. The bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is increasingly used as an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical insecticides and the combination of Bti with a simple oviposition attractant like leaf litter to create an effective egg trap seems appealing. However, previous research suggests that Bti may itself alter oviposition, and that leaf litter may dramatically reduce Bti toxicity. Here we present results from field experiment designed to link the effects of litter and Bti on mosquito oviposition habitat selection and post-colonization survival to production of adult mosquitoes. Tripling litter increased Culex spp. oviposition nearly nine-fold, while Bti had no effect on oviposition. Neither factor altered egg survival, thus larval abundance reflected the effects of litter on oviposition. Both Bti and litter reduced larval survival by ∼60%. We found no evidence that increased litter reduced Bti toxicity. Adult production was dependent upon both litter and Bti. In the absence of Bti, effects of litter on oviposition translated into three-fold more adults. However, in the presence of Bti, initial increases in oviposition were erased by the combined negative effects of Bti and litter on post-colonization survival. Thus, our study provides field evidence that combined litter and Bti application creates an effective ovitrap. This combined treatment had the highest oviposition and the lowest survival, and thus removed the greatest number of mosquitoes from the landscape.

  4. Temporal patterns in Homalodisca spp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) oviposition on southern California citrus and jojoba.

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    Al-Wahaibi, Ali K; Morse, Joseph G

    2010-02-01

    A detailed study of the distribution of egg masses of Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) and H. liturata Ball was done across a 2-yr period (2001-2003) on six host plants in southern California (Marsh grapefruit, Lisbon lemon, Washington navel, Dancy tangerine, rough lemon, and jojoba in Riverside; jojoba in Desert Center). The majority of egg masses in Riverside belonged to H. vitripennis (84-100%), whereas in Desert Center, all Homalodisca egg masses were H. liturata. Oviposition in Riverside occurred in two discrete periods, a late winter and spring period (mid-February to late May), followed by a short interval of very low oviposition during most of June, and then a summer period (late June to late September) followed by a relatively long period of very low oviposition in fall and early winter (October to mid-February). Levels of oviposition during the late winter-spring period were similar to those during the summer despite an observed larger population of adults during the latter period. Moreover, egg clutch size for H. vitripennis was generally greater in spring than during summer and was generally higher than that for H. liturata, especially on Riverside jojoba. Larger egg clutch size was seen on grapefruit than on lemon, navel, and tangerine during summer. There appeared to be temporal host shifts in oviposition; most evident was the shift from relatively high rates of oviposition on lemon and tangerine in late winter-early spring to relatively higher rates of oviposition on grapefruit and navel during summer.

  5. Parental experiences of early postnatal discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid; Danbjørg, Dorthe B.; Aagaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    and taking responsibility; A time of insecurity; Being together as a family; and Striving to be confident. The mothers׳ and fathers׳ experiences of responsibility, security and confidence in their parental role, were positively influenced by having the opportunity to be together as a family, receiving...... postnatal care that included both parents, having influence on time of discharge, and getting individualised and available support focused on developing and recognising their own experiences of taking care of the baby. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: the new parents׳ experiences of early...... discharge and becoming a parent were closely related. Feeling secure and confident in the parental role was positively or negatively influenced by the organisation of early discharge. This underscores the importance of the way health professionals support new mothers and fathers at early postnatal discharge....

  6. Early wind engineering experiments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larose, Guy; Franck, Niels

    1997-01-01

    A review of works by Danish wind engineers is presented to commemorate the 100th year anniversary of the first wind tunnel experiments. Pioneer tests by Irminger and Nøkkentved in "artificial" wind on scaled models are described. The early experiments aimed at measuring the surface pressure...... distribution around bodies ranging from bird wings to buildings. The experiments shed light on the importance of suction on the overall wind loading. Martin Jensen combined field measurements of pressure distributions to model scale experiments to write "The Model-Law for Phenomena in Natural Wind...

  7. Teacher Knowledge Development in Early Field Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Casey; Jenkins, Jayne M.; Lux, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of physical education preservice teacher knowledge development has been primarily limited to study of a single semester of early field experience (EFE), with findings from these investigations driving EFE design. The purpose of this research was to investigate what types of knowledge develop and how knowledge evolves and interacts to…

  8. Effects of Insecticides on Oviposition and Host Discrimination Behavior in Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Desen; Lü, Lihua; He, Yurong; Shi, Qingxing; Wang, Guohong

    2016-12-01

    Trichogramma chilonis Ishii is an important natural enemy of many lepidopterous pests on various crops. Effects of two conventional insecticides on oviposition and host discrimination behavior in T. chilonis were evaluated in the laboratory through video tracking. During the oviposition period, when the number of host eggs was limited (only one host egg), females exposed to beta-cypermethrin LC1 or LC20 exhibited significantly higher feeding and re-drilling rate and significantly longer post-oviposition duration than control females. Spinosad LC20 treatment not only decreased the wasp oviposition rate but also significantly extended the oviposition duration. When the number of host eggs was six, similarly, females exposed to spinosad LC20 exhibited a significantly lower oviposition rate (79.2%) than control ones (100%). In the host discrimination experiment, females exposed to LC20 of both tested insecticides (beta-cypermethrin and spinosad) spent significantly more time on the extra-patch area. The females that survived spinosad LC20 could not discriminate between unparasitized and parasitized host eggs. Our study suggests that even the LC1 and LC20 of the tested insecticides had negative effects on the oviposition and host discrimination behavior of T. chilonis Thus, the use of these two insecticides should be carefully evaluated. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Induction of oviposition by the administration of oxytocin in hawksbill turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazu, Isao; Kino, Masakatsu; Maeda, Konomi; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Sawamukai, Yutaka

    2014-12-01

    We set out to develop an oviposition induction technique for captive female hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata. The infertile eggs of nine females were induced to develop by the administration of follicle-stimulating hormone, after which we investigated the effects of administering oxytocin on oviposition. Seven of the turtles were held in a stationary horizontal position on a retention stand, and then oxytocin was administrated (0.6-0.8 units/kg of body weight; 5 mL). The seven turtles were retained for a mandatory 2 h period after oxytocin administration, and were then returned to the holding tanks. As the control, normal saline (5 mL) was administered to the other two turtles, followed by the administration of oxytocin after 24 h. The eggs in oviducts of all nine turtles were observed by ultrasonography at 24 h after oxytocin administration. The control experiment validated that stationary retention and normal saline administration had no effect on egg oviposition. Eight of the turtles began ovipositing eggs at 17-43 min after oxytocin administration, while one began ovipositing in the holding tank immediately after retention. All turtles finished ovipositing eggs within 24 h of oxytocin administration. This report is the first to demonstrate successful induced oviposition in sea turtles. We suggest that the muscles in the oviducts of hawksbill turtles may respond to relatively lower doses of oxytocin (inducing contractions) compared to land and freshwater turtles (4-40 units/kg) based on existing studies.

  10. Northwestern salamanders Ambystoma gracile in mountain lakes: record oviposition depths among salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R.; Pearl, C.A.; Larson, G.L.; Samora, B.

    2012-01-01

    Oviposition timing, behaviors, and microhabitats of ambystomatid salamanders vary considerably (Egan and Paton 2004; Figiel and Semlitsch 1995; Howard and Wallace 1985; Mac-Cracken 2007). Regardless of species, however, females typically oviposit using sites conducive to embryo development and survival. For example, the results of an experiment by Figiel and Semlitsch (1995) on Ambystoma opacum (Marbled Salamander) oviposition indicated that females actively selected sites that were under grass clumps in wet versus dry treatments, and surmised that environmental conditions such as humidity, moisture, and temperature contributed to their results. Other factors associated with ambystomatid oviposition and embryo survival include water temperature (Anderson 1972; Brown 1976), dissolved oxygen concentration (Petranka et al. 1982; Sacerdote and King 2009), oviposition depth (Dougherty et al. 2005; Egan and Paton 2004), and oviposition attachment structures such as woody vegetation (McCracken 2007; Nussbaum et al. 1983). Resetarits (1996), in creating a model of oviposition site selection for anuran amphibians, hypothesized that oviparous organisms were also capable of modifying oviposition behavior and site selection to accommodate varying habitat conditions and to minimize potential negative effects of environmental stressors. Kats and Sih (1992), investigating the oviposition of Ambystoma barbouri (Streamside Salamander) in pools of a Kentucky stream, found that females preferred pools without predatory Lepomis cyanellus (Green Sunfish), and that the number of egg masses present in a pool historically containing fish increased significantly the year after fish had been extirpated from the pool. Palen et al. (2005) determined that Ambystoma gracile (Northwestern Salamander) and Ambystoma macrodactylum (Longtoed Salamander) eggs were deposited either at increased depth or in full shaded habitats, respectively, as water transperancy to UV-B radiation increased.

  11. Mosquito Oviposition Behavior and Vector Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan F. Day

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The burden of gene transfer from one mosquito generation to the next falls on the female and her eggs. The selection of an oviposition site that guarantees egg and larval survival is a critical step in the reproductive process. The dangers associated with ephemeral aquatic habitats, lengthy droughts, freezing winters, and the absence of larval nutrition makes careful oviposition site selection by a female mosquito extremely important. Mosquito species exhibit a remarkable diversity of oviposition behaviors that ensure eggs are deposited into microenvironments conducive for successful larval development and the emergence of the next mosquito generation. An understanding of mosquito oviposition behavior is necessary for the development of surveillance and control opportunities directed against specific disease vectors. For example, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus is the vector of viruses causing important human diseases including yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. The preference of this species to oviposit in natural and artificial containers has facilitated the development of Ae. aegypti-specific surveillance and toxic oviposition traps designed to detect and control this important vector species in and around disease foci. A better understanding of the wide diversity of mosquito oviposition behavior will allow the development of new and innovative surveillance and control devices directed against other important mosquito vectors of human and animal disease.

  12. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina De Cosmi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Methods. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Results. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia. While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Conclusions. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children’s willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment.

  13. Oviposition and olfaction responses of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canyon, D V; Muller, R

    2013-12-01

    Insecticide applications are not particularly effective on Aedes aegypti mosquitoes which has been attributed to their 'closet' behaviour, or ability to rest in places that remain unexposed to insecticides. Some researchers have suggested that insecticides repel mosquitoes, which would result in less exposure and increased dispersal. If repellence due to insecticides is a fact, acquiring a vector-borne disease, such as dengue, could legitimately be attributed to local vector control efforts and this would lead to restitution claims. This study thus investigated the effect of insecticide presence on mosquito behaviour indirectly via oviposition and directly via olfactory response. In all experiments, oviposition in each insecticide compared to its water and ethanol controls was not significantly different. This indicates that Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are not affected by insecticide presence and that increased dispersal is unlikely to be caused by vector control spraying.

  14. Early Management Experience of Perforation after ERCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Perforation after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP is a rare complication, but it is associated with significant mortality. This study evaluated the early management experience of these perforations. Patients and Methods. Between November 2003 and December 2011, a total of 8504 ERCPs were performed at our regional endoscopy center. Sixteen perforations (0.45% were identified and retrospectively reviewed. Results. Nine of these 16 patients with perforations were periampullary, 3 duodenal, 1 gastric fundus, and 3 patients had a perforation of an afferent limb of a Billroth II anastomosis. All patients with perforations were recognized during ERCP by X-ray and managed immediately. One patient with duodenal perforation and three patients with afferent limb perforation received surgery, others received medical conservative treatment which included suturing lesion, endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD, endoscopic retrograde pancreatic duct drainage (ERPD, gastrointestinal decompression, fasting, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and so on. All patients with perforation recovered successfully. Conclusions. We found that: (1 the diagnosis of perforation during ERCP may be easy, but you must pay attention to it. (2 Most retroperitoneal perforations can recover with only medical conservative treatment in early phase. (3 Most peritoneal perforations need surgery unless you can close the lesion up under endoscopy in early phase.

  15. Multitasking roles of mosquito labrum in oviposition and blood feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Moo eChoo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reception of odorants by two main head appendages, antennae and maxillary palps, is essential for insects’ survival and reproduction. There is growing evidence in the literature suggesting that the proboscis is also an olfactory appendage and its function as an additional antenna has been previously proposed. We surmised that movements of the labrum towards blood vessel might be chemically oriented and, if so, there should be odorant receptors expressed in the labrum. To test this hypothesis, we first compared by quantitative PCR expression of odorant receptors (OR from the Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus in antennae and proboscis and, subsequently compared OR expression in various proboscis parts. Our data suggested that a receptor for the oviposition attractant, skatole, CquiOR21, was not expressed in proboscis, whereas a receptor for another oviposition attractant, 4EP (4-ethylphenol, CquiOR99, and a receptor for the insect repellent DEET, CquiOR136, were expressed in the stylet of the proboscis, particularly in the tip of the labrum. In a dual-choice olfactometer, mosquitoes having the stylet coated with nail polish were attracted to 4EP in the same manner as the untreated mosquitoes. By contrast, in an oviposition assay, the stylet-treated mosquitoes did not discriminate 4EP from control oviposition cups, whereas the untreated mosquitoes (as well as mosquitoes having the labella coated laid significantly more egg rafts in cups treated with 4EP. Ablation experiments confirmed that 4EP was sensed by the labrum where CquiOR99 is highly expressed. Stylet-coated, labella-coated, and untreated mosquitoes laid significantly more egg rafts in skatole-treated cups than in control cups. Likewise, coating of proboscis structures with nail polish had no effect on DEET-mediated oviposition deterrence. In a behavioral arena designed to mimic a human arm, mosquitoes showed significantly reduced probing time when blood was impregnated

  16. OVIPOSITION AND OVICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF ALKALOIDAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... moderate ovicidal activity but inflict delayed effects such as high larval and low pupal and adult mortality. ... Key Words: Murraya koenigii; Rutaceae; alkaloidal extract; oviposition; ovicidal; Culex quinquefasciatus; Culex tritaeniorhynchus.

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of Oviposition Behavior of Field Collected Aedes Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrat K. Panigrahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild female Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were allowed to lay eggs in (i ovitraps with different concentrations of NaCl, (ii different coloured ovistrips, (iii water from different sources, (iv larva holding water, and different sized ovitraps for oviposition preference. Oviposition cycle was also studied in different photoperiod regimens. The number of eggs laid was observed to gradually decrease with increase in NaCl concentration in both the species. Experiments were conducted to determine egg laying preference for any specific colour of the ovistrip and black ovistrip was found to be most preferred by both the species. For oviposition preference, eight water samples collected from different sources were used and it was observed that the maximum number of eggs was laid in ovitraps containing distilled water followed by tap water. In addition, Aedes mosquitoes laid more number of eggs in ovitraps containing larval holding water than ovitraps containing distilled water. Further, both the species did not lay any egg in the smallest used ovitrap although the number of eggs was maximally deposited in the largest ovitrap used. In the present studies, both the Aedes species laid the maximum number of eggs in the 4th quarter of the light period with normal 12 h light and dark phases (LD 12 : 12.

  18. Host plant oviposition preference of Ceratapion basicorne (Coleoptera:Apionidae), a potential biological control agent of yellow starthistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceratapion basicorne (Coleoptera: Apionidae) is a weevil native to Europe and western Asia that is being evaluated as a prospective classical biological control agent of Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) in the United States. Choice oviposition experiments were conducted under laboratory ...

  19. Different patterns of oviposition learning in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-02-01

    Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.

  20. Different patterns of oviposition learning in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-02-01

    Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.

  1. A bioassay to evaluate the activity of chemical stimuli from grape berries on the oviposition of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, N; Thiéry, D

    2004-02-01

    A two-choice bioassay was developed to evaluate the role of host-plant berry compounds on the oviposition site acceptance of the generalist moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Shiffermüller). A key feature was the lining of the bioassay arena with felt which focused oviposition on the test substrates. Initial experiments comparing substrates with different physical features indicated that smooth textures and spherical shapes with interstices favour oviposition. Artificial oviposition substrates were thus constructed with glass spheres in order to test the behavioural activity of grapevine berry extracts. Only polar extracts obtained by soaking berries in methanol or water stimulated oviposition (more eggs were laid on the extract-treated substrate than on the control substrate), whereas more apolar ones obtained with chloroform or hexane had no significant effect. The prior removal of epicuticular waxes from grape berries before extraction did not enhance the stimulatory activity of the methanol extract. The oviposition response to this extract was dose-dependent. It is concluded that polar compounds present on grape berries act as oviposition stimulants for L. botrana.

  2. Correlates of Bulimia Nervosa: Early Family Mealtime Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Debra A. F.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined relationship of early mealtime experiences to later bulimia in 128 female college students. Found significant group differences among bulimics, nonbulimics, and repeat dieters on early meal experience questionnaire, with bulimic group reporting most negative and unusual experiences. Found significant differences among groups on depression…

  3. Oviposition preferences of Culex restuans and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) for selected infusions in oviposition traps and gravid traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bryan T; Paulson, Sally L; Youngman, Roger R; Scheffel, Sabra L; Hawkins, Belinda

    2005-12-01

    Field studies were conducted in southwestern Virginia to determine the ovipositional preferences of Culex restuans and Culex pipiens by using ovitraps and gravid traps baited with selected infusions. For the ovitrap collections, 4 different infusions (manure, hay, grass, and rabbit chow) were used. Significant differences among infusions were detected on most sample dates for both species. For 3 of the first 4 wk of collections, the manure infusion collected significantly more Cx. restuans than all the other infusions. The hay and grass infusions collected the majority of the egg rafts during weeks 5-9. Cx. pipiens egg rafts were absent from the first 3 wk of collections. Of the remaining 6 wk, 4 showed significant differences in attractiveness of infusions, with the hay and grass infusions preferred by Cx. pipiens. Two infusions, manure and hay, were used for the gravid trap experiment and both Cx. restuans and Cx. pipiens data were combined for analysis. Only the first 2 wk showed significance, with manure being preferred over hay in both weeks. In later collections, the relative attractiveness of the hay infusion increased. A seasonal shift in infusion preference may be related to incubation temperature during preparation of the infusions. New infusions were prepared each week and incubation was done outside. Increased attractiveness of the hay infusion coincided with higher average temperatures in July and August. Hay infusion was very effective for trapping both Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans in southwestern Virginia and is more convenient to use than manure. However, cool outside temperatures in the early season may interfere with the fermentation process and thus incubation should be done for a longer time or brought indoors.

  4. Music and the Baby's Brain: Early Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Donna Brink

    2000-01-01

    States that brain research may be too immature to use it as the only rationale for early music education. Proposes integrated instruction for music education and addresses the need for teacher preparation in early childhood music education. Discusses future collaborations providing three examples of models of childhood music collaborations and…

  5. Oviposition behavior of the wheat stem sawfly when encountering plants infested with cryptic conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteler, Micaela; Weaver, David K; Peterson, Robert K D

    2009-12-01

    Insect herbivores typically oviposit on the most suitable hosts, but choices can be modulated by detection of potential competition among conspecifics, especially when eggs are deposited cryptically. Larvae of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton, developing within an already infested stem, experience elevated risk when only one will survive because of cannibalism. To increase our understanding of host selection when the choices made by females can lead to severe intraspecific competition, females were presented with either uninfested wheat plants or with plants previously exposed to other females in laboratory choice tests. The oviposition behavior of this insect was described by recording the behavioral sequences that lead to and follow the insertion of the ovipositor in both previously infested and uninfested stems. No significant differences were found in frequencies of specific behaviors or behavioral transitions associated with oviposition. In choice tests, there was no difference in the numbers of eggs laid in infested and uninfested plants. Taller plants received more eggs, irrespective of infestation. Females neither preferred nor avoided previously infested hosts. Other characteristics of the host, such as stem height, may be more important in determining suitability for oviposition. These findings support the use of management tactics relying on the manipulation of oviposition behavior, such as trap cropping. Given that there is no evidence for response to previously infested hosts, the infested plants in a trap crop would remain as suitable as they were when uninfested, which could also lead to an increase in mortality caused by intraspecific competition.

  6. Nocturnal Oviposition Behavior of Forensically Important Diptera in Central England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kate M; Grace, Karon A; Bulling, Mark T

    2015-11-01

    Timing of oviposition on a corpse is a key factor in entomologically based minimum postmortem interval (mPMI) calculations. However, there is considerable variation in nocturnal oviposition behavior of blow flies reported in the research literature. This study investigated nocturnal oviposition in central England for the first time, over 25 trials from 2011 to 2013. Liver-baited traps were placed in an urban location during control (diurnal), and nocturnal periods and environmental conditions were recorded during each 5-h trial. No nocturnal activity or oviposition was observed during the course of the study indicating that nocturnal oviposition is highly unlikely in central England.

  7. The role of cow urine in the oviposition site preference of culicine and Anopheles mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kweka Eliningaya J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical and behavioural ecology of mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of chemical cue based vector control. To date, studies available have focused on evaluating mosquito attractants and repellents of synthetic and human origins. This study, however, was aimed at seasonal evaluation of the efficiency of cow urine in producing oviposition cues to Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus in both laboratory and field conditions. Methods Oviposition response evaluation in laboratory conditions was carried out in mosquito rearing cages. The oviposition substrates were located in parallel or in diagonal positions inside the cage. Urine evaluation against gravid females of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out at Day 1, Day 3 and Day 7. Five millilitres (mls of cow urine was added to oviposition substrate while de-chlorinated water was used as a control. In field experiments, 500 mls of cow urine was added in artificial habitats with 2500 mls of de-chlorinated water and 2 kgs of soil. The experiment was monitored for thirty consecutive days, eggs were collected daily from the habitats at 7.00 hrs. Data analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests for treatments and controls while attraction of the oviposition substrate in each species was presented using Oviposition Activity Index (OAI. Results The OAI was positive with ageing of cattle urine in culicine species in both laboratory and field experiments. The OAI for anopheline species was positive with fresh urine. The OAI during the rainy season was positive for all species tested while in the dry season the OAI for culicine spp and Anopheles gambiae s.l., changed with time from positive to negative values. Based on linear model analysis, seasons and treatments had a significant effect on the number of eggs laid in habitats, even though the number of days had no effect. Conclusion Oviposition substrates treated with

  8. Effects of covering highland banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment ovipositio

  9. Oviposition and flight orientation response of Aedes aegypti to certain aromatic aryl hydrazono esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Lopamudra; Seenivasagan, T; Bandyopadhyay, Prabal; Iqbal, S Thanvir; Sathe, Manisha; Sharma, Pratibha; Parashar, B D; Kaushik, M P

    2012-09-01

    Aedes aegypti is a day-biting, highly anthropophilic mosquito and a potential vector of dengue and chikungunya in India. A. aegypti is a container breeder, generally oviposit in the stored and fresh water bodies, and discarded containers near residential areas that provide suitable habitats for oviposition by gravid females. The diurnal activity and endophilic nature of these mosquitoes have increased the frequency of contact with human being. Assured blood meal from human host in an infested area leads to increased disease occurrence. Gravid mosquitoes can potentially be lured to attractant-treated traps and could subsequently be killed with insecticides or growth regulators. In this direction, oviposition by A. aegypti females to aryl hydrazono esters (AHE)-treated bowls at 10 ppm concentration was tested in dual choice experiment, and their orientation response to these ester compounds was studied in Y-tube olfactometer. Among the esters tested, AHE-2, AHE-11 and AHE-12 elicited increased egg deposition with oviposition activity indices (OAI) of +0.39, +0.24 and +0.48, respectively, compared to control; in contrast, AHE-8, AHE-9 and AHE-10 showed negative oviposition response with OAI of -0.46, -0.35 and -0.29, respectively, at 10 mg/L. In the Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, AHE-2 attracted 60 % females compared to control, while to the odour of AHE-11 and AHE-12, about 70 % of the females were trapped in treated chambers. In contrast, only 27-30 % of gravid females entered the chamber releasing AHE-8, AHE-9 and AHE-10 odour plumes, while 70 % entered control chamber, evincing a possible non-preference of treatment odours as well as interference with olfactory receptors. These compounds have the potential for application as oviposition stimulants or deterrents for surveillance and control of mosquito population using ovitraps.

  10. Early Results from the Qweak Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Androic, D; Asaturyan, A; Averett, T; Balewski, J; Beaufait, J; Beminiwattha, R S; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Birchall, J; Carlini, R D; Cates, G D; Cornejo, J C; Covrig, S; Dalton, M M; Davis, C A; Deconinck, W; Diefenbach, J; Dowd, J F; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Duvall, W S; Elaasar, M; Falk, W R; Finn, J M; Forest, T; Gaskel, D; Gericke, M T W; Grames, J; Gray, V M; Grimm, K; Guo, F; Hoskins, J R; Johnston, K; Jones, D; Jones, M; Jones, R; Kargiantoulakis, M; King, P M; Korkmaz, E; Kowalski, S; Leacock, J; Leckey, J; Lee, A R; Lee, J H; Lee, L; MacEwan, S; Mack, D; Magee, J A; Mahurin, R; Mammei, J; Martin, J; McHugh, M J; Meekins, D; Mei, J; Michaels, R; Micherdzinska, A; Mkrtchyan, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Morgan, N; Myers, K E; Narayan, A; Ndukum, L Z; Nelyubin, V; Nuruzzaman,; van Oers, W T H; Opper, A K; Page, S A; Pan, J; Paschke, K; Phillips, S K; Pitt, M L; Poelker, M; Rajotte, J F; Ramsay, W D; Roche, J; Sawatzky, B; Seva, T; Shabestari, M H; Silwal, R; Simicevic, N; Smith, G R; Solvignon, P; Spayde, D T; Subedi, A; Subedi, R; Suleiman, R; Tadevosyan, V; Tobias, W A; Tvaskis, V; Waidyawansa, B; Wang, P; Wells, S P; Wood, S A; Yang, S; Young, R D; Zhamkochyan, S

    2013-01-01

    A subset of results from the recently completed Jefferson Lab Qweak experiment are reported. This experiment, sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model, exploits the small parity-violating asymmetry in elastic ep scattering to provide the first determination of the protons weak charge Qweak(p). The experiment employed a 180 uA longitudinally polarized 1.16 GeV electron beam on a 35 cm long liquid hydrogen target. Scattered electrons corresponding to Q2 of 0.025 GeV2 were detected in eight Cerenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. The goals of the experiment were to provide a measure of Qweak(p) to 4.2 percent (combined statistical and systematic error), which implies a measure of sin2(thetaw) at the level of 0.3 percent, and to help constrain the vector weak quark charges C1u and C1d. The experimental method is described, with particular focus on the challenges associated with the worlds highest power LH2 target. The new constraints on C1u and C1d provided by the subset of the experi...

  11. Effects of Various Degrees of Antennal Ablation on Mating and Oviposition Preferences of the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xi-zhong; DENG Cai-ping; SUN Xue-jun; HAO Chi

    2014-01-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy, we investigated the distribution of the trichoid, basiconic, and coeloconic sensilla on the antennae of the diamondback moth (DBM;Plutella xylostella). The trichoid sensilla were the most abundant sensory organ, and the male moth antennae host signiifcantly more trichoid sensilla than female moth antennae. Conversely, basiconic and coeloconic sensilla were found more frequently on female than on male antennae. We performed experiments with various degrees of antennal ablation and demonstrated that DBM antennae played a key role in the control of mating and oviposition. We found that neither oviposition preference nor mating behaviors changed signiifcantly when less than 1/4 of both antennae were removed. However, there was a signiifcant behavioral change when the antennae were ablated by more than half. As the length of the antenna was shortened, the successful mating rate decreased and mating peak was delayed. An otherwise consistent host preference for oviposition was eliminated when both antennae were completely removed. Furthermore, we found that the number of trichoid sensilla was positively correlated with mating rate and oviposition preference. However, the numbers of basiconic and coeloconic sensilla were not correlated with mating rate and mating peak, but highly correlated with oviposition preference. Taken together, our results indicate that antennal sensory information plays a critical role in the mating and oviposition behaviors of this economically important pest.

  12. Host pollination mode and mutualist pollinator presence: net effect of internally ovipositing parasite in the fig-wasp mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengping; Peng, Yanqiong; Compton, Stephen G.; Zhao, Yi; Yang, Darong

    2009-04-01

    The Ficus-their specific pollinating fig wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) interaction presents a striking example of mutualism. Figs also shelter numerous non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW) that exploit the fig-pollinator mutualism. Only a few NPFW species can enter figs to oviposit, they do not belong to the pollinating lineage Agaonidae. The internally ovipositing non-agaonid fig wasps can efficiently pollinate the Ficus species that were passively pollinated. However, there is no study to focus on the net effect of these internally ovipositing non-agaonid wasps in actively pollinated Ficus species. By collecting the data of fig wasp community and conducting controlled experiments, our results showed that internally ovipositing Diaziella bizarrea cannot effectively pollinate Ficus glaberrima, an actively pollinated monoecious fig tree. Furthermore, D. bizarrea failed to reproduce if they were introduced into figs without Eupristina sp., the regular pollinator, as all the figs aborted. Furthermore, although D. bizarrea had no effect on seed production in shared figs, it significantly reduced the number of Eupristina sp. progeny emerging from them. Thus, our experimental evidence shows that reproduction in Diaziella depends on the presence of agaonid pollinators, and whether internally ovipositing parasites can act as pollinators depends on the host fig’s pollination mode (active or passive). Overall, this study and others suggest a relatively limited mutualistic role for internally ovipositing fig wasps from non-pollinator (non-Agaonidae) lineages.

  13. Early Results from the Qweak Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Androic D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A subset of results from the recently completed Jefferson Lab Qweak experiment are reported. This experiment, sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model, exploits the small parity-violating asymmetry in elastic e→p$\\vec e{\\rm{p}}$ scattering to provide the first determination of the proton’s weak charge Qwp$Q_w^p$. The experiment employed a 180 μA longitudinally polarized 1.16 GeV electron beam on a 35 cm long liquid hydrogen target. Scattered electrons in the angular range 6° < θ < 12° corresponding to Q2 = 0.025 GeV2 were detected in eight Cerenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. The goals of the experiment were to provide a measure of e→p$\\vec e{\\rm{p}}$ to 4.2% (combined statisstatistical and systematic error, which implies a measure of sin2(θw at the level of 0.3%, and to help constrain the vector weak quark charges C1u and C1d. The experimental method is described, with particular focus on the challenges associated with the world’s highest power LH2 target. The new constraints on C1u and C1d provided by the subset of the experiment’s data analyzed to date will also be shown, together with the extracted weak charge of the neutron.

  14. Transformers: Movement Experiences for Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagovic, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…

  15. Portfolio assessment: practice teachers' early experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, William; El-Ansari, Walid

    2004-07-01

    Experience was recognised to be a vital source of learning as long ago as 1762 [Emile, Everyman, London, 1993] and reflection on practice experience may be one way forward in addressing nursing's anxieties concerning the practice theory gap. However, despite the acceptance that subjectivity in the process seems inevitable and potentially important, little is understood of the practitioner's experience of practice assessment. Two questionnaires sought the views of specialist community nursing practitioner (SCNP) programme (United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting (UKCC) 2001) practice teachers (PTs) on the introduction of the portfolio approach to practice assessment. These were distributed to 62 and 76 PTs and the response rates were 32% and 50%, respectively. Responses of those PTs from the three specialisms participating in the piloting of the portfolio approach were compared with those using an existing approach. An action research method was adopted which attempted to use established theory to explain the challenges presented by the introduction of this approach and ultimately to raise the PT group's awareness of assessment issues. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and the findings support the use of the portfolio approach to practice assessment. The PT experience of portfolio use was found to be a largely positive one. PTs reported the utility of the portfolio in prompting student self-evaluation of learning. Concerns were expressed by PTs around the quality of portfolio evidence although many felt that it had promoted students' reflection on practice. Inter-PT reliability in practice assessment was identified as a topic for PT continuing professional development. Many sources of evidence, including patient feedback, were used by PTs in their assessment of students although PTs using the portfolio approach used less first-hand experience of students' practice in their assessments of competence, relying more

  16. Orthographic Awareness and Gifted Spellers: Early Experiences and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Mary W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Approximately 100 national spelling bee finalists and their parents were surveyed concerning their early literacy experiences and spelling practices. The fourth-eighth grade spellers showed an early interest in language activities; passed through developmental spelling stages earlier than average; and mastered words via visual memory strategies,…

  17. Oviposition site selection in Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera): constraints and compromises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, H G

    1987-10-01

    Oviposition by Cactoblastis cactorum on Opuntia ficus-indica and O. aurantiaca was assessed from the positioning of egg sticks on plants in the field. The number of egg sticks laid on O. ficus-indica plants was affected by: (1) plant size; (2) moth emergence near the plant; (3) cladode condition; and (4) plant conspicuousness. These factors contributed towards the clumping of egg sticks on plants. There was no apparent oviposition preference for one of the two host plant species despite the fact that egg predation was higher and fecundity lower on O. aurantiaca. The selection of a site for oviposition on the host plants was influenced by: (1) cladode condition; (2) height above ground; and (3) shelter from wind during oviposition. Succulent cladodes were the favoured sites for oviposition. The evidence suggests that in C. cactorum, oviposition site selection is largely the net result of a compromise between oviposition behaviour selected for increasing the probability of juvenile survival and oviposition behaviour selected for increasing the probability of laying the full complement of eggs. In addition, environmental and physiological factors such as wind and wing-loading, are thought to place constraints on the range of sites available for oviposition.

  18. Transmyocardial laser revascularization. Early clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Sérgio Almeida de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the initial clinical experience of transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR in patients with severe diffuse coronary artery disease. METHODS: Between February, 1998 and February, 1999, 20 patients were submitted to TMLR at the Heart Institute (InCor, University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil, isolated or in association with conventional coronary artery bypass graft (CABG. All patients had severe diffuse coronary artery disease, with angina functional class III/IV (Canadian Cardiovascular Society score unresponsive to medical therapy. Fourteen patients were submitted to TMLR as the sole therapy, whereas 6 underwent concomitant CABG. Fifty per cent of the patients had either been previously submitted to a CABG or to a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA. Mean age was 60 years, ranging from 45 to 74 years. RESULTS: All patients had three-vessel disease, with normal or mildly impaired left ventricular global function. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 13 months (mean 6.6 months, with no postoperative short or long term mortality. There was significant symptom improvement after the procedure, with 85% of the patients free of angina, and the remaining 15 % of the patients showing improvement in functional class, as well as in exercise tolerance. CONCLUSION: This novel technique can be considered a low risk alternative for a highly selected group of patients not suitable for conventional revascularization procedures.

  19. Music Experience in Early Childhood: Potential for Emotion Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vist, Torill

    2011-01-01

    Most cultures carry an idea of music being connected to emotion. New research suggests that we may also acquire emotion knowledge from our music experiences. This article investigates music experience as a mediating tool for emotion knowledge in early childhood, as revealed through qualitative interviews of adults. The interviewees describe music…

  20. Music Experience in Early Childhood: Potential for Emotion Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vist, Torill

    2011-01-01

    Most cultures carry an idea of music being connected to emotion. New research suggests that we may also acquire emotion knowledge from our music experiences. This article investigates music experience as a mediating tool for emotion knowledge in early childhood, as revealed through qualitative interviews of adults. The interviewees describe music…

  1. [Alcohol experience, alcohol knowledge, and alcohol expectancy in early adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Young-Ran; Yun, E-hwa; An, Ji-Yeon

    2007-02-01

    This study was to explore the prevalence of alcohol experiences and to identify the expectancy on the effects of alcohol and alcohol knowledge in early adolescents. The cross-sectional survey of 1854 students from seven middle schools in one district of Seoul was conducted by convenience sampling. Alcohol experience and early onset of alcohol use were measured by the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Alcohol expectancy was measured by an Alcohol Effects Questionnaire. Over sixty five percent of adolescents reported that they had previous drinking experiences. The participants with no alcohol drinking experience had a lower level of alcohol knowledge than those with experience(t=2.73, p=.007). In expectancy on effects of alcohol, girls had a more positive alcohol expectation than boys(t=-2.54, p=.011). Alcohol knowledge negatively correlated with alcohol expectancy(r=-.40 p=.000). In regression of alcohol expectancy, gender and alcohol knowledge were significant predictors explaining 17%. The results support that alcohol expectancy is an important link with early drinking experiences and alcohol knowledge, focusing on the importance of gender differences. Therefore, an alcohol prevention program in early adolescence is needed and should be focused on multidimensionality of the alcohol expectancy with developmental and psychosocial factors for early adolescents.

  2. Effect of learning on the oviposition preference of field-collected and laboratory-reared Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glas, J J; van den Berg, J; Potting, R P J

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies show that Vetiver grass, (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash), may have potential as a dead-end trap crop in an overall habitat management strategy for the spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Vetiver grass is highly preferred for oviposition, in spite of the fact that larval survival is extremely low on this grass. The oviposition behaviour of female Chilo partellus moths was investigated by determining the amount and size of egg batches allocated to maize and Vetiver plants and studying the effect of rearing conditions and oviposition experience on host plant selection. Two-choice preference tests were used to examine the effect of experience of maize (a suitable host plant) and Vetiver plants on the oviposition choice of C. partellus. For both field-collected and laboratory-reared moths, no significant differences were found in the preference distributions between the experienced groups. It is concluded that females do not learn, i.e. that they do not change their preference for Vetiver grass after having experienced oviposition on either maize or this grass, which supports the idea that trap cropping could have potential as a control method for C. partellus. Differences observed between field-collected and laboratory-reared moths in the amount and size of egg batches laid on maize and Vetiver grass indicate that data obtained from experiments with laboratory-reared insects should be treated with caution.

  3. Families' First Experiences with Early Intervention: National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study. NEILS Data Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Don; Scarborough, Anita; Hebbeler, Kathleen

    This report describes several aspects of families' experiences in beginning early intervention services using data from the National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study (NEILS). Funded by the U.S. Department of Education, NEILS is following a nationally representative sample of 3,338 infants and toddlers and their families from the time they…

  4. Oviposition behaviour as influenced by the oviposition deterring pheromone in the large white butterfly, Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijnstra, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis deals with a detailed analysis of egglaying behaviour of adult females of the Large White Butterfly, Pieris brassicae, and the way this behaviour is influenced by the oviposition deterring pheromone (ODP) in order to investigate the prospects for field application of this pheromone in ca

  5. Early sexual experience as a factor in prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J; Meyerding, J

    1978-01-01

    Using the literature of the early sexual histories of "normal" women and two recent studies on the sexual histories of prostitutes, this article examines the pattern of early sexual experience among prostitutes and how it differs from that common to nonprostitute women. Some significant differences found between the samples of prostitutes and the samples of "normal" women were that the prostitute samples, on the whole, learned less about sex from parents and more from personal experiences, as children experienced more sexual advances by elders, were more victimized by incest, generally initiated sexual activity at a younger age, more often had no further relationship with their first coital partner, and experienced a higher incidence of rape. The analysis of these data on early sexual history concentrates on abusive sexual experiences such as incest and rape. The authors believe that an abusive sexual self-identity relates to the development of an adult female pattern of occupational deviance such as prostitution.

  6. Oviposition behaviour of Phlebotomus argentipes - A laboratory-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The breeding habitat of sandflies is a little studied and poorly understood phenomenon. More importantly, oviposition behaviour is a largely neglected aspect of sandfly biology and this knowledge gap further undermines our understanding of the biology of sandflies. Pheromones released by the eggs play an important role in identifying good sites for oviposition by female insects. Several recent studies have examined the oviposition pheromone. The present study provides a preliminary report on the oviposition behaviour of Phlebotomus argentipes, the only vector of kala-azar (or visceral leishmaniasis on the Indian sub-continent. Sandflies prefer to oviposit their eggs on surfaces that contain organic substances, especially substances with an odour of decaying animal products and the remains of conspecific eggs. The results presented here suggest that the odour released by the organic substances of old sandfly colony remains that contain dead flies, old unhatched eggs, larval food containing vertebrate faeces, frass and other organic matter serves as an attractant for the ovipositing females of P. argentipes and hence greatly increases the number of oviposited eggs compared to eggs deposited in controlled oviposition pots. This result will be helpful in maintaining an efficient colony of P. argentipes and may be a promising tool for monitoring and controlling the target insect as part of a synergistic approach.

  7. First time pregnant women's experiences in early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modh Carin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are few studies focusing on women's experiences of early pregnancy. Medical and psychological approaches have dominated the research. Taking women's experiences seriously during early pregnancy may prevent future suffering during childbirth. Aim: To describe and understand women's first time experiences of early pregnancy. Method: Qualitative study using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Data were collected via tape-recorded interviews in two antenatal care units in Sweden. Twelve first time pregnant women in week 10–14, aged between 17 and 37 years participated. Results: To be in early pregnancy means for the women a life opening both in terms of life affirming and suffering. The central themes are: living in the present and thinking ahead, being in a change of new perspectives and values and being in change to becoming a mother. Conclusions: The results have implications for the midwife's encounter with the women during pregnancy. Questions of more existential nature, instead of only focusing the physical aspects of the pregnancy, may lead to an improvement in health condition and a positive experience for the pregnant woman.

  8. Early experience with laparoscopic lavage for perforated diverticulitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swank, H.A.; Mulder, I.M.; Hoofwijk, A.G.; Nienhuijs, S.W.; Lange, J.F.; Bemelman, W.A.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic lavage has recently emerged as a promising alternative to sigmoid resection in the treatment of perforated diverticulitis. This study examined an early experience with this technique. METHODS: The files of all patients with complicated diverticulitis were searched in 34 teac

  9. Early clinical experience: do students learn what we expect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, E.; Bolhuis, S.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Early clinical experience is thought to contribute to the professional development of medical students, but little is known about the kind of learning processes that actually take place. Learning in practice is highly informal and may be difficult to direct by predefined learning outcomes.

  10. Total ankle replacement. Early experiences with STAR prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnaghan, J. M.; Warnock, D. S.; Henderson, S. A.

    2005-01-01

    Early designs of Total Ankle Replacement (TAR) had a high failure rate. More recent experience with the 3-piece, meniscal bearing, total ankle replacement has been more promising. We report a review of the early results of our first 22 prostheses in 20 patients undergoing Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement (STAR) in Northern Ireland. There was a mean follow-up time of 26 months. Seventeen patients are pain-free at the ankle joint during normal daily activities. Two of the early cases have required revision surgery due to technical errors. Other complications have included malleolar fractures, poor wound healing and postoperative stiffness. These early results show high levels of patient satisfaction, and we are encouraged to continue with total ankle arthroplasty. There is a steep initial learning curve and use of TAR should be restricted to foot and ankle surgeons. Images Fig 1 Figs 2a and b Figs 2 c and d PMID:16022128

  11. Electroantennogram, flight orientation, and oviposition responses of Aedes aegypti to the oviposition pheromone n-heneicosane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenivasagan, T; Sharma, Kavita R; Sekhar, K; Ganesan, K; Prakash, Shri; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2009-03-01

    Oviposition pheromones specifically influence the females of many insects to lay eggs in the sites resulting in more egg deposition. A previous report describes the principal role of n-heneicosane (C(21)) identified and characterized from the larval cuticle of Aedes aegypti (L.) in attracting the gravid mosquitoes to oviposit in treated substrates among other chemical components. However, the means by which this compound is perceived by the females for oviposition has not been reported. In this study, we have recorded the peripheral olfactory responses from the antenna of Ae. aegypti from 10(-7) g to 10(-3) g doses of n-heneicosane. The EAG response of female mosquitoes increased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing stimulus strength. In the orientation assay using Y-maze olfactometer, female mosquitoes were attracted to the odor plume of 10(-6) g and 10(-5) g dose, while the higher dose of 10(-3) g plume enforced repellency to gravid mosquitoes. The response to oviposition substrates by gravid Ae. aegypti females differed across the range of concentrations of n-heneicosane under multiple choice conditions, larger number of eggs were deposited in 10 ppm (10 mg/l) solutions compared to lower and higher concentrations indicating 10 ppm was most attractive. Application of n-heneicosane at 10 ppm in breeding habitats will be a useful method to attract the gravid mosquitoes using ovitraps for surveillance and monitoring. The possible use of this compound in monitoring of mosquito population in endemic areas in relevance to integrated vector management strategies is discussed in detail.

  12. Quark-Gluon Plasma: from accelerator experiments to early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Rosnet, P

    2015-01-01

    In the Big Bang scenario, the early Universe is characterized by the {\\it particle era}, i.e. a Universe made of particles. This period connects both scales of fundamental physics: infinitesimally small and infinitely large. So, particle physics and in particular experimental programs at accelerators can bring valuable inputs for the understanding of the early Universe and its evolution. These proceedings discuss the impact of the Quantum ChromoDynamics phase transition experienced by the {\\it particle era} in the expanding Universe, which is connected to the study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma produced in heavy-ion physics experiments.

  13. First experiences with early intervention: a national perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Donald B; Hebbeler, Kathleen; Scarborough, Anita; Spiker, Donna; Mallik, Sangeeta

    2004-04-01

    Families of young children with disabilities are eligible for early intervention services as mandated by Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act. Although prior research has shown that families are generally satisfied with early intervention, this research has not been based on a nationally representative sample of families, nor has it systematically examined perceptions of the initial experiences entering early intervention. This study was designed to determine families' initial experiences in determining their child's eligibility, interactions with medical professionals, effort required to obtain services, participation in planning for services, satisfaction with services, and interactions with professionals. We interviewed a nationally representative sample of 3338 parents of young children with or at risk for disability. All the children had recently entered an early intervention program operated under the auspices of Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act. The average age at which families reported a concern about their child was 7.4 months. A diagnosis was made, on average, 1.4 months later, the child was referred for early intervention an average of 5.2 months after the diagnosis, and the individualized family service plan was developed 1.7 months later or at an average age of 15.7 months. Most families were very positive about their entry into early intervention programs. They reported discussing their concerns with a medical professional and finding that person helpful. Families reported relative ease in accessing services, felt that services were related to their perceived needs, rated positively the professionals working in early intervention, and felt that they had a role in making key decisions about child and family goals. A small percentage of families experienced significant delays in getting services, wanted more involvement in service planning, or felt that services were inadequate, and nearly 20% were unaware

  14. Selection of oviposition sites by wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on the nutritional composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontellas-Brandalha, Tania M.L.; Zucoloto, Fernando S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Biologia]. E-mail: zucoloto@ffclrp.usp.br

    2004-09-15

    Few works have studied in detail the types of nutrients associated to hosts which are attractive to females of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and influence the choice of the oviposition site. The relationship of the males in the physiology and in the behavior of those females has also been scarcely studied and some ecological relationships seem to be quite important for the knowledge of this species' biology. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the discriminatory behavior of A. obliqua between oviposition sites containing different nutrients. The presence of the male and the nutritional status of the female were also considered in this work. Two experiments were developed: in the first, the preference of A. obliqua females between artificial oviposition substrates was evaluated; in the second, females were submitted to two types of artificial oviposition substrates in the presence and in the absence of males and were fed either on a poor diet or on an adequate diet concerning sucrose concentration. In the first experiment, A. obliqua showed higher preference for substrates containing brewer's yeast and sucrose. Substrate containing only yeast was the second most accepted. Offspring development and adult feeding may have determined the choice for the substrate containing brewer's yeast and sucrose. In addition, the presence of protein in the brewer's yeast may indicate nutritional quality to the females in a more accurate way than the sucrose. In the second experiment, the brewer's yeast was the most accepted by the females. The male absence was also an important factor in the selection of hosts and in the egg production of A. obliqua. (author)

  15. Are behavioral effects of early experience mediated by oxytocin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lisa Bales

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Early experiences can alter adaptive emotional responses necessary for social behavior as well as physiological reactivity in the face of challenge. In the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster, manipulations in early life or hormonal treatments specifically targeted at the neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP, have long-lasting, often sexually-dimorphic, consequences for social behavior. Here we examine the hypothesis that behavioral changes associated with differential early experience, in this case handling the family during the first week of life, may be mediated by changes in OT or AVP or their brain receptors. Four early treatment groups were used, differing only in the amount of manipulation received during the first week of life. MAN1 animals were handled once on post-natal day 1; MAN1 treatment produces a pattern of behavior usually considered typical of this species, against which other groups were compared. MAN 1-7 animals were handled once a day for post-natal days 1-7, MAN 7 animals were handled once on post-natal day 7, and MAN0 animals received no handling during the first week of life. When tested following weaning, males in groups that had received manipulation during the first few days of life (MAN1 and MAN1-7 displayed higher alloparenting than other groups. Neuroendocrine measures, including OT receptor binding and OT and AVP immunoreactivity, varied by early treatment. In brain areas including the nucleus accumbens, bed nucleus of stria terminalis and lateral septum, MAN0 females showed increased OT receptor binding. MAN1 animals also displayed higher numbers of immunoreactive OT cell bodies in the supraoptic nucleus. Taken together these findings support the broader hypothesis that experiences in the first few days of life, mediated in part by sexually-dimorphic changes in neuropeptides, especially in the receptor for OT, may have adaptive consequences for sociality and emotion regulation.

  16. Oviposition choice of Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis) depends on host plants cyanogenic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Lieberei, Reinhard

    2006-08-01

    The choice of insect females as to where to lay their eggs strongly affects progeny survival and, thus, fitness. We conducted choice experiments with female Mexican bean beetles, which were offered lima bean plants differing in their cyanogenic capacity (HCNc), i.e., in the intensity of hydrogen cyanide release per time unit from damaged plant tissue. Females preferred to lay their eggs on plants with low HCNc. In contrast, the mere concentration of cyanide-containing precursors (the cyanogenic potential, HCNp) did not affect oviposition choices. Plant cyanogenesis occurs after tissue damage, which brings specific beta-glucosidases in contact with their substrates, cyanogenic glycosides, from which they are separated by compartmentation in the intact plant tissue. Plants commonly store toxic compounds in an inactive form. Our results demonstrate that for cyanogenesis, which is widespread in plants, it is the toxic product itself rather than the precursor that affects oviposition choices of a specialized herbivore.

  17. Early experiences and performance of the Intel Paragon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.H.

    1994-08-01

    Experiences and performance figures are reported from early tests of the 512-node Intel Paragon XPS35 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Computation performance of the 50 MHz i860XP processor as well as communication performance of the 200 megabyte/second mesh are reported and compared with other multiprocessors. Single and multiple hop communication bandwidths and latencies are measured. Concurrent communication speeds and speed under network load are also measured. File I/O performance of the mesh-attached Parallel File System is measured. Early experiences with OSF/Mach and SUNMOS operating systems are reported, as well results from porting various distributed-memory applications. This report also summarizes the second phase of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Intel in evaluating a 66-node Intel Paragon XPS5.

  18. The Use of Concrete Experiences in Early Childhood Mathematics Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Arthur J

    2017-01-01

    Addressed are four key issues regarding concrete instruction: What is concrete? What is a worthwhile concrete experience? How can concrete experiences be used effectively in early childhood mathematics instruction? Is there evidence such experiences work? I argue that concrete experiences are those that build on what is familiar to a child and can involve objects, verbal analogies, or virtual images. The use of manipulatives or computer games, for instance, does not in itself guarantee an educational experience. Such experiences are worthwhile if they target and further learning (e.g., help children extend their informal knowledge or use their informal knowledge to understand and learn formal knowledge). A crucial guideline for the effective use of concrete experience is Dewey's principle of interaction-external factors (e.g., instructional activities) need to mesh with internal factors (readiness, interest). Cognitive views of concrete materials, such as the cognitive alignment perspective and dual-representation hypothesis, provide useful guidance about external factors but do not adequately take into account internal factors and their interaction with external factors. Research on the effectiveness of concrete experience is inconclusive because it frequently overlooks internal factors. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fern-synthesized silver nanocrystals: Towards a new class of mosquito oviposition deterrents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Jayashanthini, Sudalaimani; Aziz, Al Thbiani; Roni, Mathath; Suresh, Udaiyan; Trivedi, Subrata; Rehman, Hasibur; Higuchi, Akon; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Mosquitoes act as vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, representing a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide. Eco-friendly control tools are urgently required. We proposed a novel method of fern-mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using Dicranopteris linearis, acting as a reducing and capping agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential and particle size analysis. In mosquitocidal assays, the LC50 of D. linearis extract against Aedes aegypti ranged from 165.213 (larva I) to 255.055ppm (pupa). LC50 of D. linearis-synthesized AgNP ranged from 18.905 (larva I) to 29.328ppm (pupa). In the field, the application of D. linearis extract and AgNP (10×LC50) led to 100% larval reduction after 72h. Smoke toxicity experiments conducted against A. aegypti adults showed that D. linearis leaf-, stem- and root-based coils evoked mortality rates comparable to the permethrin-based positive control (58%, 47%, 34%, and 48% respectively). In ovicidal experiments, egg hatchability was reduced by 100% after treatment with 25ppm of AgNP and 300ppm of D. linearis extract. Interestingly, oviposition deterrent assays highlighted that 100ppm of fern extract reduced oviposition rates of more than 65%, while 10ppm of fern-fabricated AgNP reduced oviposition rates of more than 70% in A. aegypti (OAI were -0.52 and -0.55, respectively). Overall, our results highlighted that D. linearis-synthesized AgNP could be useful candidates to develop nano-formulated oviposition deterrents effective against dengue vectors.

  20. Plasticity in early language acquisition: the effects of prenatal and early childhood experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervain, Judit

    2015-12-01

    Early experience with speech and language, starting in the womb, has been shown to shape perceptual and learning abilities, paving the way for language development. Indeed, recent studies suggest that prenatal experience with speech, which consists mainly of prosodic information, already impacts how newborns perceive speech and produce communicative sounds. Similarly, the newborn brain already shows specialization for speech processing, resembling that of the adult brain. Yet, newborns' early preparedness for speech is broad, comprising many universal perceptual abilities. During the first years of life, experience narrows down speech perception, allowing the child to become a native listener and speaker. Concomitantly, the neural correlates of speech and language processing become increasingly specialized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Divergence in the ovipositional behavior of the Papilio glaucus group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigo J. Mercader; J. Mark Scriber

    2008-01-01

    This study contrasts the ovipositional profiles of four members of the Papiliog laucus group, P. glaucus, P. multicaudatus, P. canadensis, and P. rutulus. We used seven choice oviposition bioassays containing leaves from hosts in seven plant families utilized by members of the P. glaucus group. Specifically, we contrast the overall ovipositional profiles of these species and their acceptance of a host in a novel plant family (Populus tremuloides:Salicaceae) and a host in a putatively ancestral host plant family (Liriodendron tulipifera:Magnoliaceae). Significant differences were observed between the ovipositional profiles of P.glaucus and P. multicaudatus relative to each other and to P. canadensis and P. rutulus. Incontrast, no significant differences were observed between the ovipositional profiles of P.canadensis and P. rutulus, which were also the only species that accepted P. tremuloides.Unlike the acceptance of P. tremuloides, the acceptance of L. tulipifera was present throughout the group despite the inability of the larvae of most species in the group to utilize this host. These results support the prediction of the "hierarchical threshold model" that ancestral host plants are likely to be retained in the ovipositional hierarchy while novel hosts should only be accepted by derived populations.

  2. Oviposition Attractancy of Bacterial Culture Filtrates: response of Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Poonam

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition attractants could be used for monitoring as well as controlling mosquitoes by attracting them to lay eggs at chosen sites. In the present study, culture filtrates of seven bacterial species were tested for their attractancy against gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus. When their oviposition active indices (OAI were studied, the culture filtrates of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens exhibited oviposition attractancy (OAI = >0.3 at 100 ppm and the OAI were respectively 0.70 and 0.47. Culture filtrates of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (wild type, B. t. var. israelensis (mutant and B. sphaericus showed attractancy at 2000 ppm with OAI of respectively 0.71, 0.59 and 0.68. However, the OAI of B. megaterium as well as Azospirillum brasilense was 0.13 (at 2000 ppm, which was less than 0.3 required to be considered them as attractants. When the oviposition attractancy of the bacterial culture filtrates were compared with that of a known oviposition attractant, p-cresol (at 10 ppm, the culture filtrates of B. t. var. israelensis (wild type and B. cereus were found to be more active than p-cresol, respectively with 64.2 and 54.3% oviposition.

  3. A review of evolution of oviposition guilds in the Bruchidae (Coleoptera

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    Clarence Dan Johnson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Three guilds of bruchid beetles oviposit on seeds at different times and in different ways, i. e., in these guilds some species only oviposit on fruits while on the plant (Guild A, other species only oviposit on seeds exposed in fruits while still on the plant (Guild B and some only oviposit on seeds once they are exposed on the substrate (Guild C. It has been established that one plant species may be oviposited upon by all three guilds, some only by two guilds and some by only one guild. Before and after the inception of this concept many papers have been published that seem to establish that early oviposition behavior of bruchids was probably onto fruits where they burrowed through the fruit wall and fed on seeds (Guild A. Then, as evolution of the fruits developed for dispersal of seeds and possible escape from bruchid predation, bruchids developed to feed in seeds in various other ways (Guilds B and C. Our data show that about 78% of extant bruchids oviposit on fruits, and the other 22% with behavior of Guilds B and C. A review of these papers and new data on oviposition guilds and bruchid evolution are presented and discussed here.Uma revisão das guildas de oviposição em Bruchidae (Coleoptera. Os bruquídeos apresentam três guildas de oviposição caracterizadas por períodos e maneiras diferentes de postura. Algumas espécies somente ovipositam nos frutos enquanto presos à planta (Guilda A, outras somente em sementes expostas de frutos enquanto ainda estão na planta (Guilda B e algumas apenas em sementes livres no substrato (Guilda C. Uma espécie de planta pode ser infestada nas três condições, outras somente por duas e outras por apenas uma condição. Muitos artigos científicos têm sido publicados antes e após o conceito das guildas e, ao que parece, o comportamento primitivo dos bruquídeos provavelmente foi o de ovipositar sobre os frutos, com as larvas penetrando através de sua parede para se alimentarem das sementes

  4. Impact of a bifenthrin-treated lethal ovitrap on Aedes aegypti oviposition and mortality in north Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig R; Ritchie, Scott A; Long, Sharron A; Dennison, Nigel; Russell, Richard C

    2007-03-01

    Lethal ovitraps (LOs) containing an insecticide-treated ovistrip are used as a lure-and-kill device for the container-breeding dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (L.). We aimed to affirm that the pyrethroid bifenthrin could be used effectively in LOs against Ae. aegypti in north Queensland, Australia, by quantifying oviposition in and mortality caused by LOs. Small cage experiments in which individual gravid Ae. aegypti were given a choice of LOs and untreated ovitraps revealed that although LOs were less acceptable for oviposition, they provided an average 64.6% adjusted mortality. Although 92% of mosquitoes ovipositing in LOs died, 61.8% of mosquitoes that visited but did not oviposit in an LO also died, demonstrating that lethal contact occurred without egg laying. The bifenthrin content of strips (approximately 0.1 mg/cm2; 7 mg/strip) did not decrease significantly after 4 wk of field exposure nor did the toxic effect of the LOs. Large cage trials with groups of 10 Ae. aegypti confirmed that bifenthrin-treated LOs provided consistent control (average adjusted mortality 79.7%). Four-week field trials in north Queensland showed that although LOs were acceptable to ovipositing Ae. aegypti (mean time to first egg 10.9 d; mean eggs 47.3), insecticide-free ovitraps were oviposited in more readily (6.8 d, 199 eggs). The number of eggs laid per mosquito in laboratory LOs allowed calculation of the number of Ae. aegypti killed in field-deployed LOs; rapid estimates can be made by simply dividing the number of eggs on the strip by 2.84. Overall, the studies demonstrated that bifenthrin-treated LOs have potential for use as a lure-and-kill device against Ae. aegypti and that they should be effective in the field for at least 4 wk. Given that untreated ovitraps were more acceptable for Ae. aegypti oviposition, the removal of alternative oviposition sites before deployment of LOs in the field should maximize their effectiveness.

  5. Selaginella and the Satyr: Euptychia westwoodi (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) Oviposition Preference and Larval Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Christopher A; Fordyce, James A

    2016-01-01

    Members of the plant genus Selaginella (de Beauvois 1805) have few known insect herbivores even though they are considered by some to be 'living fossils', with extant taxa virtually indistinguishable from 300 Mya fossils. Butterflies are well-known herbivores, and the satyrs are among the most speciose of them despite having radiated ∼ 35 Mya ago. Nearly all satyrs feed on grass or sedges, but members of the Neotropical genus Euptychia Hübner 1818 feed on Selaginella; little is known about the degree to which this butterfly favors this ancient plant over those that its close relatives utilize. To advance our knowledge of Euptychia natural history, we conducted a series of experiments to examine oviposition preference and growth rates across a series of potential host plants on a Euptychia westwoodi population in Costa Rica. We found that Euptychia westwoodi Butler 1867 exhibit a strong preference to oviposit on Selaginella eurynota over the sympatric Selaginella arthritica, though they perform equally well as larvae on both plants. We did not observe oviposition on a sympatric grass that is commonly consumed by close relatives of E. westwoodi, and when larvae were offered the grass they refused to eat. These results suggest that E. westwoodi in Costa Rica exhibit a strong preference for Selaginella and may have lost the ability to feed on a locally abundant grass commonly used by other Satyrinae.

  6. Regulation of host workers' oviposition by the social parasite ant Polyergus samurai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuneoka, Yousuke

    2014-07-01

    Polyergus samurai, an obligatory social parasite ant, lacks the ability to perform usual colony tasks. It depends completely on host Formica japonica workers. In the mixed colony, arrhenotokous reproduction by host workers must be detrimental to the parasites. This study, conducted under artificial rearing conditions, investigated the behavioral influence by P. samurai worker on the production of host workers' male eggs. Host workers started laying eggs when the P. samurai queen was removed, but most eggs were destroyed by P. samurai workers. In a queenless condition, P. samurai workers showed frequent intraspecific dominance interactions, but few interspecific ones. After a short while the P. samurai worker started laying eggs, the F. japonica worker stopped laying eggs. The ovary had no mature oocyte. These results suggest that both the P. samurai queen and dominant workers can inhibit host workers' oviposition. A mesh experiment revealed that the dominant P. samurai workers were able to inhibit host workers' oviposition without contacts. The dominant workers and queens of P. samurai frequently received grooming and trophallaxis from host workers just as a host queen does, suggesting that the parasites secreted similar products to those of the host queen to inhibit the host workers' oviposition.

  7. Water surface area and depth determine oviposition choice in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiskind, Michael H; Zarrabi, Ali A

    2012-01-01

    Oviposition choice is a well-studied aspect of the mosquito life cycle, and offers a potential avenue for species-specific surveillance and control. In container inhabiting mosquitoes, there has been a focus on how the components of the aquatic media determine choice, with little work on the physical characteristics of the containers themselves. We performed five experiments examining the effect of physical container parameters on oviposition choice by Aedes albopictus. We examined containers of three different surface areas (small, 496 cm2; medium, 863 cm2; and large, 1,938 cm2) at the same water depth and the same or different heights in a series of binary choice assays. We also examined different depths with the same surface area in clear containers (where the depth may be perceived by the darkness of the water) and in opaque containers, which appear uniformly dark at different depths. We found a significant preference for medium containers over large containers, whether the containers were different or the same heights, and a trend toward a preference for small containers over medium containers. There was a preference for deeper water regardless of whether containers were clear or opaque. These behaviors suggest mosquitoes take into account physical aspects of their habitats and their oviposition choices are consistent with minimizing the risk of habitat drying.

  8. Lessons From Early REDD+ Experiences in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodel D. Lasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest globally in REDD+ initiatives to help mitigate climate change; the Philippines is no exception. In this paper, we review early REDD+ project experiences in the country. The guiding document for REDD+ in the Philippines is the National REDD+ Strategy (PNRPS which was prepared by a multisectoral group of authors. There are five REDD+ projects that are underway. The critical factors emerging from these early REDD+ actions are the following: external support, local participation, free prior and informed consent, capacity building, sustainability, national laws and policies, biodiversity conservation, and use of safeguards. The pioneering projects reviewed here as well as the emerging lessons from them will hopefully provide a firmer basis for future REDD+ actions in the country.

  9. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

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    Katriina Tiira

    Full Text Available Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264 in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002 and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001 during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001 and separation anxiety (p = 0.007 was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  10. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p anxiety (p = 0.007) was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  11. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paige Hall

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have

  12. Milgram's Obedience to Authority experiments: origins and early evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nestar John Charles

    2011-03-01

    Stanley Milgram's Obedience to Authority experiments remain one of the most inspired contributions in the field of social psychology. Although Milgram undertook more than 20 experimental variations, his most (in)famous result was the first official trial run - the remote condition and its 65% completion rate. Drawing on many unpublished documents from Milgram's personal archive at Yale University, this article traces the historical origins and early evolution of the obedience experiments. Part 1 presents the previous experiences that led to Milgram's conception of his rudimentary research idea and then details the role of his intuition in its refinement. Part 2 traces the conversion of Milgram's evolving idea into a reality, paying particular attention to his application of the exploratory method of discovery during several pilot studies. Both parts illuminate Milgram's ad hoc introduction of various manipulative techniques and subtle tension-resolving refinements. The procedural adjustments continued until Milgram was confident that the first official experiment would produce a high completion rate, a result contrary to expectations of people's behaviour. Showing how Milgram conceived of, then arrived at, this first official result is important because the insights gained may help others to determine theoretically why so many participants completed this experiment.

  13. Early childhood experiences shaping vulnerability to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Barcaccia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature, inflated responsibility/sensitivity to guilt play a pivotal role in both the genesis and maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD. They may be learned in childhood and adolescence, through particular experiences and parental rearing styles, involving criticism, excessively high standards, and social moralization. Preliminary data on the role of dysfunctional beliefs in the development/maintenance of OCD also show that non-affected family members of OC individuals score higher than controls in domains concerning responsibility, suggesting it might represent a candidate endophenotype for the disorder. Compulsive conducts, that far from being mechanical reactions are instead clearly goal-oriented, may be triggered by the need of preventing responsibility/guilt. Therefore, useful psychological interventions aimed at not only reappraising meanings associated with the specific early experiences connected to hyper-sensitivity to guilt, but also at developing a more general compassionate and forgiving stance towards oneself, may prove particularly effective.

  14. Implementing Business Process Redesign: early lessons from the Australian experience

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    Marianne Broadbent

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Business Process Redesign (BPR is a change management approach aimed at achieving quantum improvements in business performance. Industry interest levels in BPR are high as a direct result of current difficulties in the global economic climate and tight business conditions. Integral to BPR is the availability of new stable technologies which both stimulate and enable process changes. This paper highlights the experiences of a number of Australian firms which have implemented BPR. A ten step framework for BPR is presented together with a series of caveats. BPR is a difficult, messy and often non-linear activity which challenges many of the ways organisations operate. Information Technology plays a pivotal role in BPR as both an enabler and disenabler for change. Lessons emerging from early Australian experiences with BPR focus on the role of executive sponsorship, consultants, measurements, education and training, technology and people involved in the change process.

  15. Effects of Early Musical Experience on Auditory Sequence Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Adam T; Bergeson-Dana, Tonya R; Pisoni, David B

    2008-10-01

    The present study investigated a possible link between musical training and immediate memory span by testing experienced musicians and three groups of musically inexperienced subjects (gymnasts, Psychology 101 students, and video game players) on sequence memory and word familiarity tasks. By including skilled gymnasts who began studying their craft by age six, video game players, and Psychology 101 students as comparison groups, we attempted to control for some of the ways skilled musicians may differ from participants drawn from the general population in terms of gross motor skills and intensive experience in a highly skilled domain from an early age. We found that musicians displayed longer immediate memory spans than the comparison groups on auditory presentation conditions of the sequence reproductive span task. No differences were observed between the four groups on the visual conditions of the sequence memory task. These results provide additional converging support to recent findings showing that early musical experience and activity-dependent learning may selectively affect verbal rehearsal processes and the allocation of attention in sequence memory tasks.

  16. Effects of Early Musical Experience on Auditory Sequence Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam T. Tierney

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated a possible link between musical training and immediate memory span by testing experienced musicians and three groups of musically inexperienced subjects (gymnasts, Psychology 101 students, and video game players on sequence memory and word familiarity tasks. By including skilled gymnasts who began studying their craft by age six, video game players, and Psychology 101 students as comparison groups, we attempted to control for some of the ways skilled musicians may differ from participants drawn from the general population in terms of gross motor skills and intensive experience in a highly skilled domain from an early age. We found that musicians displayed longer immediate memory spans than the comparison groups on auditory presentation conditions of the sequence reproductive span task. No differences were observed between the four groups on the visual conditions of the sequence memory task. These results provide additional converging support to recent findings showing that early musical experience and activity-dependent learning may selectively affect verbal rehearsal processes and the allocation of attention in sequence memory tasks.

  17. Toxicity and sub-lethal effect of endemic plants from family Anacardiaceae on oviposition behavior of Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Fatma Zuharah; Chan Jia Ling; Nurfazlina Zulkifly; Nik Fadzly

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the lethal concentration, oviposition deterrence and ovicidal activity of acetone extracts of Melanochyla fasciculiflora (M. fasciculiflora) leaf and Gluta renghas (G. renghas) leaf against Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus). Methods: To determine the lethal concentration of Anacardiaceae, ten test concentrations of the extracts ranging from 200 to 650 mg/L were selected for larvicidal bioassays and 25 early fourth instar larvae were exposed to the extracts for 24 h. ...

  18. Oviposition strategies adopted by gravid Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) as detected by ovitraps in Trinidad, West Indies (2002-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadee, D D

    2009-09-01

    Aedes aegypti oviposition strategies were studied weekly over a period of 5 years (2002-2006) in Curepe, Trinidad using modified ovitraps. From a total of 23,293 ovitraps collected, 10,156 were collected in the months of the dry season, with 3041 positive (30%) containing 99,577 Ae. aegypti eggs. In contrast, during the wet season from 13,137 ovitraps collected, 10,652 were positive (81.9%), containing 192,209 Ae. aegypti eggs. When, the number of eggs collected and the number of positive ovitraps were divided into different egg number categories, 91, significantly more eggs (G=89.6; d.f.=4; P91 eggs. The patterns of oviposition displayed by Ae. aegypti during the early, mid and late wet and dry seasons showed a significant (F=102.8; d.f.=5; P91 egg category. These results suggest that the oviposition strategies adopted depend on numerous factors including the physical state of the oviposition site, the presence of eggs from conspecific females, whether the same or different individuals and the number or clutch size already present on the oviposition site. Therefore vector control workers should employ source reduction strategies to remove the small containers which may harbour 1-30 eggs and treat the larger permanent containers like water drums which may contain >60 eggs and may be the sites of superoviposition in nature. These combined strategies can effectively control the vector populations and reduce dengue transmission in Ae. aegypti infested countries.

  19. Effect of time of day of artificial insemination and oviposition-insemination interval of the fertility of broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, A F; McDaniel, G R; Sexton, T J

    1980-11-01

    Two experiments using two populations of 160 broiler-type females in each were conducted to study the effect of time of day of artificial insemination and the effect of oviposition-insemination interval on fertility. Each population was subdivided into eight groups of 20 hens and inseminated with .05 ml of semen once a week at one of the following times: 2400, 0300, 0600, 0900, 1200, 1500, 1800, or 2100 hr for 5 weeks in Experiment 1 and for 6 weeks in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, the highest level of fertility was obtained from hens inseminated at 2100 hr, while in Experiment 2, significantly higher levels of fertility were obtained from hens inseminated at 2100, 2400, and 0300 hr. In both experiments, fertility of females inseminated in mid-morning and mid-afternoon did not differ significantly and lower levels of fertility were obtained when hens oviposited within 3 hr after insemination. Lower fertility occurred when morning and mid-day inseminations were followed by oviposition within 3 hr after insemination.

  20. How can Early Life Flavor Experiences Affect Food Preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early experiences with food flavors lead up to children’s food preferences and develop long-lasting flavor preferences and healthy eating habits. The process of flavor learning begins during pregnancy by the foods eaten by mothers which pass to the amniotic fluid. Some flavors coming from the mother’s diet that pass to the amniotic fluid are detected by the fetus. This flavor learning continues after birth with breastfeeding, since the human milk is composed of flavors which reflect the foods consumed by the mother. Flavor composition in human milk which changes during the course of lactation due to the transmission of flavors into human milk enables the baby to get used to new flavors. Therefore, breastfed infants are likely to accept flavor changes and novel flavors more than formula fed infants. Flavor learning continues with starting complementary foods and eating the foods directly. Exposure to a specific flavor and repeated exposures in different times may facilitate the acceptance of this flavor. Furthermore, infants exposed to a variety of foods accept new flavors than infants following a monotonous diet. This underlines the importance of promoting the access to a variety of foods in early childhood. In conclusion, pregnant and lactating women should have variety of healthy foods in their diets with a variety of flavors and they should be encouraged to breastfeed their babies. In addition, starting complementary foods and early repeated exposure to a wide variety of healthy foods, the infants should get familiar with the flavor of healthy and various food. These factors may influence the development of healthy food preferences and healthy eating habits in later periods.

  1. Value or waste: Perfusion imaging following radiofrequency ablation - early experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Stefan F; Vahldiek, Janis L; Tummler, Katja; Poch, Franz; Gemeinhardt, Ole; Hiebl, Bernhard; Lehmann, Kai S; Hamm, B; Niehues, Stefan M

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an evolving technique in treatment of hepatic malignant tumors. By heating local tissue it leads to coagulative necrotic areas around the ablation probe. Temperature falls with increasing distance to the probe, risking incomplete necrosis at the margins of the RFA-induced lesion. Therefore, immediate non-invasive and precise detection of incomplete ablation is necessary for early enlargement of the ablation if needed. This in vivo pig study compares early experiences of immediate post-interventional computed tomography (CT) perfusion volume analysis to macroscopic and CT image evaluation in healthy pig liver. RFA was performed in vivo in healthy pig livers. Different CT perfusion algorithms (Maximum slope analysis and Patlak plot) were used to quantify three different perfusion parameters. Data points were acquired from rectangular grids. These grids were semiautomatically overlayed to macroscopic images documented after liver explantation. Each data point was visually assigned to zones defined as "inner" and "outer necrotic zone", "margin" or "vital tissue". Significant differences between necrotic zones and vital tissue are shown for equivalent blood volume (p <  0.0001), arterial flow (p <  0.01) and flow extraction product (p <  0.001). Looking at equivalent blood volume and flow extraction product, there were also significant differences (EquivBV: p <  0.0001, FE: p <  0.001) between margins, necrotic and vital areas. In a porcine model these early results could show that all of the used CT perfusion parameters allowed discrimination of necrosis from vital tissue after RFA at high levels of significance. In addition, the parameters EquivBV and FE that give an estimate of the tissue blood volume and the permeability, were able to precisely discern different zones also seen macroscopically. From this data CT perfusion analysis could be precise tool for measurement and visualization of ablated liver lesions and

  2. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lobectomy – early experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šimon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS lobectomy is the anatomical resection of a whole lobe ofthe lung followed by removal of the lymph nodes from the mediastinum using a thoracoscope and an access incision(small thoracotomy ≤ 5 cm without using the rib spreader. Aim: To present the early experience with VATS lobectomy. Material and methods: Five patients were treated surgically using the VATS technique of anatomical lung resection atthe 2nd Department of Surgery, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, University Hospital of L. Pasteur, Košice, (Slovak Republicwithin 12 months from 10.2008 to 10.2009. Lobectomy was performed in 4 patients and pneumonectomy in 1 patient. Results: The mean operating time was 120 min (range 80-170 min. Following lobectomy a drain was inserted into thepleural cavity in 4 cases, whereas there was no drainage after 1 pneumonectomy. Drains were removed 2-5 days afterthe surgery. Four patients suffered from lung carcinoma (1 squamous cell carcinoma, 3 adenocarcinomas; 1 patienthad chondroid hamartoma. Postoperative condition was good in all patients. There were no early complications andpatients were released home on the 6th postoperative day on average. Conclusions: The advantages of VATS lobectomy have been widely discussed. There is a consensus that in elderlypatients with non-small cell lung cancer VATS lobectomy accompanied by mediastinal lymphadenectomy reduces theincidence of complications after the surgery and patients recover faster.

  3. Snow, Ice, & Satellites: An Early Career Researcher's Experience with Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, A.; Scambos, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    As a doctoral student, I was lucky enough to be able to experiment with a variety of communication and outreach activities (classroom visits, museum events, science festivals, blogging, social media, etc.) to build communication skills and learn how to talk about my science without writing a journal article. More importantly, the wide range of experience helped me identify what worked for me. My favorite way to share my science now? Twitter. To many, Twitter is a frivolous platform for sharing snippets 140 characters or less. To me, however, it is how I can connect directly with the elusive "wider public" and share my science. Specifically, I use satellite imagery (mostly Landsat 8) to study glaciers around the world. I look at long-term change related to climate, and I also investigate new, innovative ways to use satellite imagery to better understand glaciers and ice sheets. Luckily for me, my research is very visual. Whether fieldwork snapshots or satellite data, images make for great, shareable, accessible tweets. In this presentation, I propose to share my experience of tweeting as an early career researcher. I will include successful strategies (e.g. particular #hashtags, creating new content, using story-telling, timely tweets), as well as some not-so-successful attempts. I will also talk about how I built my Twitter network. In addition to anecdotes, I will include evaluation of my Twitter activity using available metrics and analytics (e.g. followers, favorites, re-tweets, Klout score, etc.). While misunderstood by many in the scientific community, Twitter is a platform increasingly being adopted by researchers. Used correctly, it can be a great tool for connecting directly with an interested, non-technical audience eager to learn about your research. With my experiences and evaluation, I will show how both scientists and the networks that they join and create can benefit by using Twitter as a platform for science communication.

  4. Pond dyes are Culex mosquito oviposition attractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natali Ortiz Perea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background British mosquito population distribution, abundance, species composition and potential for mosquito disease transmission are intimately linked to the physical environment. The presence of ponds and water storage can significantly increase the density of particular mosquito species in the garden. Culex pipiens is the mosquito most commonly found in UK gardens and a potential vector of West Nile Virus WNV, although the current risk of transmission is low. However any factors that significantly change the distribution and population of C. pipiens are likely to impact subsequent risk of disease transmission. Pond dyes are used to control algal growth and improve aesthetics of still water reflecting surrounding planting. However, it is well documented that females of some species of mosquito prefer to lay eggs in dark water and/or containers of different colours and we predict that dyed ponds will be attractive to Culex mosquitoes. Methods Black pond dye was used in oviposition choice tests using wild-caught gravid C. pipiens. Larvae from wild-caught C. pipiens were also reared in the pond dye to determine whether it had any impact on survival. An emergence trap caught any adults that emerged from the water. Water butts (80 L were positioned around university glasshouses and woodland and treated with black pond dye or left undyed. Weekly sampling over a six month period through summer and autumn was performed to quantified numbers of larvae and pupae in each treatment and habitat. Results Gravid female Culex mosquitoes preferred to lay eggs in dyed water. This was highly significant in tests conducted under laboratory conditions and in a semi-field choice test. Despite this, survivorship in black dyed water was significantly reduced compared to undyed water. Seasonal analysis of wild larval and pupal numbers in two habitats with and without dye showed no impact of dye but a significant impact of season and habitat. Mosquitoes were more

  5. Relationship between adverse early experiences, stressors, psychosocial resources and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Elroy, Sharon; Hevey, David

    2014-01-01

    The study examined a diathesis stress model of the relationship between adverse child experiences (ACEs), stressors and psychosocial resources to explore their relationship with wellbeing. A cross sectional study was conducted across two mental health and addiction treatment centers. 176 individuals were interviewed using a demographics form, SCID-DSM-IV(First, Spitzer, Gibbon, &Williams, 2002), Child Trauma Questionnaire (Bernstein & Fink, 1998), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Petrides, 2009), The Coping, Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) (Endler & Parker, 1990), Recent Life Events Questionnaire (Department of Health, 1985) and perceived social support from family, friends and religion. Multiple, regressions and correlations were used to analyze the data. All early experiences, except physical, abuse and death of a parent in childhood, were significantly correlated with increased number of, stressors and lower wellbeing scores. This is possibly because of sample specific issues. Number of stressors partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and wellbeing. Increased number of ACEs was related to higher neuroticism and emotion-focused coping and lower conscientiousness, agreeableness, trait emotional intelligence and task coping scores. These resources were significantly related to increased stressors and lower wellbeing. Distraction and emotion coping significantly moderated the relationship between number of stressors and wellbeing. These findings support the diathesis stress model and indicate that there are significant relationships between ACEs, psychosocial, resources, stressors and wellbeing. Recommendations to improve wellbeing are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Early life stress experience may blunt hypothalamic leptin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Yoo, S B; Kim, J Y; Lee, J Y; Kim, B T; Park, K; Jahng, J W

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether neonatal maternal separation (MS) - chronic stress experience in early life - affects the anorectic efficacy of leptin in the offspring at adolescence. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from the dam daily for 3 h during postnatal day 1-14 or left undisturbed as non-handled controls (NH). NH and MS male pups received an intraperitoneal leptin (100 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal day (PND) 28, and then food intake and body weight gain were recorded. The hypothalamic levels of leptin-signalling-related genes, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) were examined at 40 min after a single injection of leptin on PND 39 by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Leptin-induced suppressions in food intake and weight gain was observed in NH pups, but not in MS. Leptin increased pSTAT3 in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of NH pups, but not of MS. Interestingly, basal levels of the hypothalamic PTP1B and pSTAT3 were increased in MS pups compared with NH controls. The results suggest that neonatal MS experience may blunt the anorectic efficacy of leptin later in life, possibly in relation with increased expressions of PTP1B and/or pSTAT3 in the hypothalamus.

  7. Early experiences with microvascular free tissue transfer in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Bolaji O Mofikoya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Microvascular free tissue transfer within our subregion is fraught with considerable challenges. We aim to highlight our experiences gained with our first fifteen cases of microvascular free tissue transfer at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. We believe our report will be useful to colleagues embarking on such reconstructions in similar settings. Materials and Methods: The clinical records of the first 15 cases of free flaps done at our center were reviewed. The indications for surgery, choice of flap, recipient vessels, duration of surgery and complications were noted. Results: Fifteen cases were done, 10 flaps survived, ten defects occurred following trauma while remaining five followed cancer resections. Anterolateral thigh and radial forearm flaps were the most common flap used. The mean duration of surgeries was 7.1 hours SD ± 1.10 hours. Our take back rate was 13.3%, with a salvage rate of 50%. Three flaps failed on account venous congestion while remaining two failed due to arterial occlusion. Conclusion: 66.67% free flap success rate recorded reflect our early experiences in our institution. We believe meticulous planning, careful vessel selection, close flap monitoring as well as improved infrastructural support can lead to much better success rates in microvascular reconstruction in our country.

  8. Oviposition choice of two fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) host strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is a noctuid species that is composed of two morphologically identical sympatric host strains (corn and rice) that differ in their distribution among plant hosts. In an effort to explain observations of host fidelity in the field, ovipositional pre...

  9. Early experience with titanium elastic nails in a trauma unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shah, M H

    2012-02-03

    The Titanium Elastic Nail (TEN) offers a number of potential advantages over traditional ways of treating long bone fractures particularly in the paediatric population. These advantages include earlier mobilisation and shorter hospital stay and less risk of loss of fracture position. These advantages are most apparent and significant when treating femoral fractures in children where the length of hospital stay is reduced from several weeks to a typical period of 5 to 8 days. We have reviewed our early experience of using these implants over the past 2 years. Patients were assessed clinically and radiologically. 13 patients were treated using the TEN during this period. There were 2 femoral fractures, 4 humeral fractures, 1 tibial and 6 forearm fractures treated using the Titanium Elastic Nail. All fractures united during the study period. However 1 humeral fracture required a secondary bone grafting and plating for delayed union and 1 fracture lost position during follow-up. Insertion point pain was a problem in 4 patients but this resolved after nail removal in all. There was 1 superficial wound infection which resolved with antibiotics and 1 superficial wound infection of an open fracture wound which resolved following nail removal and antibiotics. There were no cases of deep infection. There were no limb length discrepancy or rotational or angular malalignment problems. Biomechanical principles and technical aspects of this type of fixation are discussed.

  10. Radiofrequency Ablation Treatment for Renal Cell Carcinoma: Early Clinical Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Hoon; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Cho, Jin Han; Oh, Jong Young; Nam, Kyung Jin; Kwon, Hee Jin; Kim, Su Yeon; Kang, Myong Jin; Choi, Sun Seob; Sung, Gyung Tak [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    To evaluate the early clinical experience associated with radiofrequency (RF) ablation in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The RF ablation treatment was performed on 17 tumors from 16 patients (mean age, 60.5 years; range, 43 73 years) with RCC. The treatment indications were localized, solid renal mass, comorbidities, high operation risk, and refusal to perform surgery. All tumors were treated by a percutaneous CT (n = 10), followed by an US-guided (n = 2), laparoscopy-assisted US (n = 2), and an open (n = 2) RF ablation. Furthermore, patients underwent a follow- up CT at one day, one week, one month, three and six months, and then every six months from the onset of treatment. We evaluated the technical success, technical effectiveness, ablation zone, benign periablation enhancement, irregular peripheral enhancement, and complications. All 17 exophytic tumors (mean size, 2.2 cm; range, 1.1 5.0 cm) were completely ablated. Technical success and effectiveness was achieved in all cases and the mean follow-up period was 23.8 months (range, 17 33 months). A local recurrence was not detected in any of the cases; however, five patients developed complications as a result of treatment, including hematuria (n = 2), mild thermal injury of the psoas muscle (n = 1), mild hydronephrosis (n = 1), and fistula formation (n = 1). The RF ablation is an alternative treatment for exophytic RCCs and represents a promising treatment for some patients with small RCCs.

  11. Experiences from site-specific landslide early warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Michoud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Landslide early warning systems (EWSs have to be implemented in areas with large risk for populations or infrastructures when classical structural remediation measures cannot be set up. This paper aims to gather experiences of existing landslide EWSs, with a special focus on practical requirements (e.g., alarm threshold values have to take into account the smallest detectable signal levels of deployed sensors before being established and specific issues when dealing with system implementations. Within the framework of the SafeLand European project, a questionnaire was sent to about one-hundred institutions in charge of landslide management. Finally, we interpreted answers from experts belonging to 14 operational units related to 23 monitored landslides. Although no standard requirements exist for designing and operating EWSs, this review highlights some key elements, such as the importance of pre-investigation work, the redundancy and robustness of monitoring systems, the establishment of different scenarios adapted to gradual increasing of alert levels, and the necessity of confidence and trust between local populations and scientists. Moreover, it also confirms the need to improve our capabilities for failure forecasting, monitoring techniques and integration of water processes into landslide conceptual models.

  12. Early experience with endoscopic lumbar sympathectomy for plantar hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjay; Kaur, Simranjit; Wilson, Paul

    2016-05-01

    We describe our endoscopic lumbar sympathectomy technique and our early experience using it to treat plantar hyperhidrosis. We reviewed 20 lumbar sympathectomies performed in our vascular unit for plantar hyperhidrosis in 10 patients from 2011 and 2014. Demographics and outcomes were analyzed and a review of the literature conducted. All procedures were carried out endoscopically with no intraoperative or postoperative morbidity. Plantar anhidrosis was achieved in all the patients, although two patients (20%) suffered a relapse. Unwanted side-effects occurred in the form of compensatory sweating in three patients (30%) and post-sympathectomy neuralgia in two patients (20%). None of the patients experienced sexual dysfunction. Management of plantar hyperhidrosis may be based upon a therapeutic ladder starting with conservative measures and working up to surgery depending on the severity of the disease. Minimally invasive (endoscopic) sympathectomy for the thoracic chain is well established, but minimally invasive sympathectomy for the lumbar chain is a relatively new technique. Endoscopic lumbar sympathectomy provides an effective, minimally invasive method of surgical management, but long-term data are lacking. © 2016 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. General systems theory, brain organization, and early experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denenberg, V H

    1980-01-01

    Three hypothetical brain processes--interhemispheric coupling, hemispheric activation, and interhemispheric inhibition--are derived from an equation characterizing general systems theory. To investigate these processes, experimental rats were reared under differing early experience conditions. When adult, they had their right or left neocortex lesioned, had a sham operation, or were left undisturbed. Interhemispheric coupling was measured by means of a correlation coefficient between the right and left hemispheres. The presence of a significant positive correlation is taken as evidence of a negative feedback loop between the hemispheres. In one experimental population, in which rats did not receive any extra stimulation in infancy, the correlation was not significantly different from zero, thus implying that the two hemispheres were operating independently. In another population, in which rats had received handling stimulation in infancy, the correlation coefficient was significant (0.543), indicating that the hemispheres were coupled in a systems arrangement. The processes of hemispheric activation and interhemispheric inhibition were assessed by comparing the mean performance of the two unilateral lesion groups and the group with intact brain. The two rat populations had different forms of brain organizations as measured by these processes. These analyses show that the behavior of the isolated hemisphere cannot be directly extrapolated to the behavior of the connected hemisphere. If there is hemispheric coupling via a negative feedback loop or if there is interhemispheric inhibition, then the disconnected hemisphere may show behaviors that are not evident in the normal connected condition.

  14. Early experiences in developing and managing the neuroscience gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Subhashini; Majumdar, Amit; Yoshimoto, Kenneth; Astakhov, Vadim; Bandrowski, Anita; Martone, MaryAnn; Carnevale, Nicholas. T.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The last few decades have seen the emergence of computational neuroscience as a mature field where researchers are interested in modeling complex and large neuronal systems and require access to high performance computing machines and associated cyber infrastructure to manage computational workflow and data. The neuronal simulation tools, used in this research field, are also implemented for parallel computers and suitable for high performance computing machines. But using these tools on complex high performance computing machines remains a challenge because of issues with acquiring computer time on these machines located at national supercomputer centers, dealing with complex user interface of these machines, dealing with data management and retrieval. The Neuroscience Gateway is being developed to alleviate and/or hide these barriers to entry for computational neuroscientists. It hides or eliminates, from the point of view of the users, all the administrative and technical barriers and makes parallel neuronal simulation tools easily available and accessible on complex high performance computing machines. It handles the running of jobs and data management and retrieval. This paper shares the early experiences in bringing up this gateway and describes the software architecture it is based on, how it is implemented, and how users can use this for computational neuroscience research using high performance computing at the back end. We also look at parallel scaling of some publicly available neuronal models and analyze the recent usage data of the neuroscience gateway. PMID:26523124

  15. Influence of host age and host deprivation on longevity,egg load dynamics and oviposition rate in Microplitis rufiventris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ESMAT MOHAMED HEGAZI; GEHAN MOHAMED ABD EL-AZIZ; AHMED YOUSEF EL-SHAZLY; WEDAD EMAM KHAFAGI

    2007-01-01

    Adult size, longevity, egg load dynamics and oviposition of Microplitis rufiventris Kok. which began their development in the first, second, third (preferred hosts) or fourth (non-preferred hosts) instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) were studied. The parasitoid size was largely determined by the initial host size at parasitism. Non-ovipositing females derived from older hosts lived for longer periods than those derived from younger ones. However, the ovipositing females, irrespective of their size, lived for almost the same periods. At emergence, the oviducts of adult females contain a significant amount of mature eggs available for oviposition for a few hours on eclosion day. Egg load increases during the early phase of adult life. The amount of additional mature eggs and rate of egg maturation per hour was greater for wasps derived from preferred hosts compared with those in females derived from non-preferred hosts. The pattern of egg production in M. rufiventris females depended on the availability of hosts for parasitization. Host-deprived females depleted the egg complement with aging; the longer the host deprivation, the lower the oviduct egg load.Marked reduction in both realized or potential fecundity of host-deprived females was observed following host availability. Host privation for more than 3 days induced a marked deficit fecundity pattern through the female's life. The realized fecundity was determined by the interaction among host availability, the number of eggs that are matured over the female's life span, oviposition rate and host size from which the female was derived. These results suggest that: (i) M. rufiventris wasp is a weak synovigenic species; (ii) the maturation of additional eggs is inhibited once the maximum oviduct egg load is reached; (iii) the egg load of the newly emerged female is significantly less than the realized fecundity; and (iv)because M. rufiventris females oviposit fewer eggs when they begin depleting their

  16. Specific volatile compounds from mango elicit oviposition in gravid Bactrocera dorsalis females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala Jayanthi, Pagadala D; Kempraj, Vivek; Aurade, Ravindra M; Venkataramanappa, Ravindra K; Nandagopal, Bakthavatsalam; Verghese, Abraham; Bruce, Toby J A

    2014-03-01

    Selecting a suitable oviposition site is crucial to the fitness of female insects because it determines the successful development of their offspring. During the oviposition process, an insect must use cues from the external environment to make an appropriate choice of where to lay eggs. Generalist insects can detect and react to a plethora of cues, but are under selection pressure to adopt the most reliable ones to override noise and increase efficiency in finding hosts. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a generalist that utilizes a multitude of fruits as oviposition sites. However, the identity and nature of oviposition stimulants for B. dorsalis is not well known. Recently, we identified a volatile compound γ-octalactone that elicits an innate oviposition response in B. dorsalis. We screened 21 EAD-active volatiles, identified from mango, for their oviposition stimulant activity. 1-Octen-3-ol, ethyl tiglate, and benzothiazole instigated oviposition in gravid B. dorsalis females. Flies deposited most of their eggs into pulp discs with oviposition-stimulants, and only a small fraction of eggs were laid into control discs. In a binary choice oviposition assay, 95.1, 93.7, and 65.6 % of eggs were laid in discs treated with 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl tiglate, and benzothiazole, respectively. Single plate two-choice assays proved that oviposition-stimulants were crucial in oviposition site selection by gravid female B. dorsalis. In simulated semi-natural assays, gravid B. dorsalis females accurately differentiated between fruits with and without 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl tiglate, and γ-octalactone by laying more eggs on the treated fruit. However, benzothiazole did not elicit an increase in oviposition when presented in this context. Our results suggest that the identified oviposition-stimulants are 'key' compounds, which the flies associate with suitable oviposition sites.

  17. Identifying potential evolutionary relationships within a facultative lycaenid-ant system: Ant association,oviposition, and butterfly-ant conflict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NEIL COLLIER

    2007-01-01

    Facultative associations are commonly encountered between ants and lycaenids,although the nature and patterns of associations are typically unclear. This study investigated a facultative symbiosis involving the lycaenid Theclinesthes albocincta (Lycaenidae), its host plant Adriana quadripartita and Australian native ants. Ants in the genera Ochetellus and Iridomyrmex were most frequently found in association with T. albocincta larvae,although Iridomyrmex ants were found in much lower abundance than were ants in Ochetellus. The abundances of Ochetellus and Iridomyrmex were highly correlated with larval abundance, but not egg abundance. Observations and experiments recorded oviposition on male inflorescences on more than 95% of occasions, but oviposition was not greater on inflorescences with ants present. Behavioral assays showed that Iridomyrmex ants were aggressive towards female butterflies on significantly more occasions than were Ochetellus ants. These findings indicate potential evolutionary relationships between T. albocincta and two genera of ants that were abundant within the habitat.

  18. Diet and density dependent competition affect larval performance and oviposition site selection in the mosquito species Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshioka Miho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oviposition-site choice is an essential component of the life history of all mosquito species. According to the oviposition-preference offspring-performance (P-P hypothesis, if optimizing offspring performance and fitness ensures high overall reproductive fitness for a given species, the female should accurately assess details of the heterogeneous environment and lay her eggs preferentially in sites with conditions more suitable to offspring. Methods We empirically tested the P-P hypothesis using the mosquito species Aedes albopictus by artificially manipulating two habitat conditions: diet (measured as mg of food added to a container and conspecific density (CD; number of pre-existing larvae of the same species. Immature development (larval mortality, development time to pupation and time to emergence and fitness (measured as wing length were monitored from first instar through adult emergence using a factorial experimental design over two ascending gradients of diet (2.0, 3.6, 7.2 and 20 mg food/300 ml water and CD (0, 20, 40 and 80 larvae/300 ml water. Treatments that exerted the most contrasting values of larval performance were recreated in a second experiment consisting of single-female oviposition site selection assay. Results Development time decreased as food concentration increased, except from 7.2 mg to 20.0 mg (Two-Way CR ANOVA Post-Hoc test, P > 0.1. Development time decreased also as conspecific density increased from zero to 80 larvae (Two-Way CR ANOVA Post-Hoc test, P . Combined, these results support the role of density-dependent competition for resources as a limiting factor for mosquito larval performance. Oviposition assays indicated that female mosquitoes select for larval habitats with conspecifics and that larval density was more important than diet in driving selection for oviposition sites. Conclusions This study supports predictions of the P-P hypothesis and provides a mechanistic understanding

  19. Oviposition Preference and Survival of the Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Bioenergy and Conventional Sugarcane and Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWeelden, M T; Wilson, B E; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Way, M O

    2017-08-01

    Oviposition preference and host suitability of the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on bioenergy and conventional cultivars of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and sorghum, Sorghum spp., were examined in a series of greenhouse experiments. Two energycane cultivars, two sugarcane cultivars, two high-biomass sorghum cultivars, and one sweet sorghum cultivar were assessed at two phenological stages (immature and mature). Mature plants possessed greater availability of dry leaf material compared with immature plants, and all E. loftini eggs were observed exclusively on dry leaves. Oviposition did not vary among host combinations (cultivar by phenological stage); however, eggs per plant and eggs per oviposition event were numerically greater on mature plants than immature plants. In a no-choice experiment, survival from egg to adult did not vary among host combinations, with <2.0% of E. loftini larvae surviving to adulthood. Failed establishment by neonates on plants was 13.4- to 53.9-fold greater than successful establishment across all host combinations. Results from this study suggest that plant physical characteristics continue to play an important role in host selection, but further evaluations will be needed to quantify other characteristics which influence host suitability. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Oviposition Preference of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Among Host and Non-host Plants and its Implication for Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendesil, Esayas; Rämert, Birgitta; Marttila, Salla; Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1) and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np) formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior of the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants.

  1. Oviposition preference of pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. among host and non-host plants and its implication for pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esayas Mendesil eAmosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1 and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm. and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L., in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants.

  2. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtinger, E.T.; Weeks, E.N.I.; Geden, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed. PMID:27302955

  3. Ethical, Practical, and Scientific Considerations of Randomized Experiments in Early Childhood Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Karl R.; Pezzino, James

    1986-01-01

    The paper summarizes and presents counter arguments against positions claiming that randomized experiments in early childhood are unnecessary, impractical, or unethical. It is concluded that more frequent use of randomized experiments in early childhood special education would provide more effective program evaluation data for resource allocation…

  4. The Influence of Technology-Rich Early Childhood Field Experiences on Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Nicholas; Lux, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite a comprehensive body of research on field experiences in teacher education, technology-rich early field experiences in early childhood environments is one particular area of inquiry lacking substantive current research. Therefore, this study was conducted to better understand how preservice teachers' perceptions of global concepts related…

  5. Age at Adoption from Institutional Care as a Window into the Lasting Effects of Early Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Megan M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major questions of human development is how early experience impacts the course of development years later. Children adopted from institutional care experience varying levels of deprivation in their early life followed by qualitatively better care in an adoptive home, providing a unique opportunity to study the lasting effects of early…

  6. Response of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to Screwworm Oviposition Attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Skoda, S R

    2015-07-01

    The sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. Female flies are attracted to sheep following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Earlier workers attempted to reduce fly population in the field, with some success, using traps baited with various attractants. This research was conducted to determine if L. sericata would respond to a recently developed synthetic attractant that has attracted gravid screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, and stimulated them to oviposit. Results of the laboratory bioassays demonstrated that gravid females L. sericata were attracted to substrates treated with the synthetic screwworm attractant composed of five compounds--dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, p-cresol, and indole. Tests with various combinations of these compounds suggest that the sulfur compounds and indole are the most important compounds to elicit attraction and stimulate oviposition, while phenol and p-cresol may have minor roles. Semiochemical baits based on these compounds may be useful in the field to trap gravid L. sericata. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Larval host plant origin modifies the adult oviposition preference of the female European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, J.; Rahme, J.; Benrey, B.; Thiery, D.

    2008-04-01

    According to the ‘natal habitat preference induction’ (NHPI) hypothesis, phytophagous insect females should prefer to lay their eggs on the host species on which they developed as larvae. We tested whether this hypothesis applies to the breeding behaviour of polyphagous European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, an important pest in European vineyards. We previously found that different grape cultivars affect several life history traits of the moth. Because the different cultivars of grapes are suspected to provide different plant quality, we tested the NHPI hypothesis by examining oviposition choice of L. botrana among three Vitis vinifera cultivars (Pinot, Chasselas and Chardonnay). In a choice situation, females of L. botrana that had never experienced grapes were able to discriminate between different grape cultivars and preferentially selected Pinot as an oviposition substrate. This ‘naive’ preference of oviposition could be modified by larval environment: Females raised on grapes as larvae preferred to lay eggs on the cultivar that they had experienced. Furthermore, experience of the host plant during adult emergence could be excluded because when pupae originating from our synthetic diet were exposed to grapes, the emerging adults did not show preference for the cultivar from which they emerged. The NHPI hypothesis that includes the two sub-hypothesis “Hopkins host selection principle” and “chemical legacy” may thus be relevant in this system.

  8. Electroantennogram, flight orientation and oviposition responses of Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti to a fatty acid ester-propyl octadecanoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenivasagan, Thangaraj; Sharma, Kavita R; Prakash, Shri

    2012-10-01

    Studies were carried out to evaluate the role of a C(21)-fatty acid ester; propyl octadecanoate (PO) for olfaction-mediated behavioral responses of urban malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi and dengue vector, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes using electroantennogram (EAG), flight orientation and oviposition experiments. Dose dependent electrophysiological responses were recorded for PO from the antenna of both mosquito species in which 10(-5) g elicited significant EAG response. An. stephensi exhibited 2.4, 4.2 and 5.5 fold increased EAG response compared to control, while Ae. aegypti showed 1.9, 4.6 and 5.8 fold EAG responses respectively at 10(-7) g, 10(-6) g and 10(-5) g doses. In the Y-tube olfactometer, 77-80% gravid females of An. stephensi, and 64-77% of Ae. aegypti were caught in the chambers releasing 10(-6) g and 10(-5) g plume of PO. The synthetic fatty acid ester loaded onto an effervescent tablet at 0.1 mg/L, 1 mg/L and 10 mg/L elicited increased ovipositional responses from gravid mosquitoes compared to control. The oviposition activity indices (OAI) of An. stephensi females were +0.40, +0.51 and +0.58, whereas the OAI for Ae. aegypti females were +0.05, +0.36 and +0.57 respectively in 0.1, 1, 10 mg/L of PO; indicated concentration dependent increased egg deposition. Similarly, in the residual activity studies, oviposition substrates treated with PO on effervescent tablet at 1mg/L and 10mg/L received significantly increased egg deposition by gravid females of both mosquito species for up to 1 week compared to control substrates. PO can potentially be used in ovitraps to monitor An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti populations in the vector surveillance programs.

  9. Oviposition Preferences of Pickleworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Relation to a Potential Push-Pull Cropping Management Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, R C; Spafford, H

    2016-04-25

    Pickleworm, Diaphania nitidalis Cramer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a major pest of cucurbits. The current management approach for this pest is weekly insecticide applications. A push-pull cropping approach may be an alternative management practice and could reduce reliance on pesticides. One potential push-pull scenario is the use of squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) as a trap crop and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. & Nakai) as a deterrent intercrop to manage pickleworm on cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.). This study investigated if the underlying mechanism required for the success of this management approach (a female oviposition preference or nonpreference among squash, cantaloupe, and watermelon) is present. A series of oviposition preference experiments was conducted to see how individual females responded when presented with different host plants for oviposition. Under laboratory conditions, when females had the choice of a leaf from squash, cantaloupe, and watermelon, they laid a higher proportion of their eggs on the cantaloupe leaf. However, under greenhouse conditions, when females were presented with whole plants of the three different species, they laid a higher percent of their eggs on the squash plant. Females laid a similar number of eggs on watermelon as compared with cantaloupe under greenhouse conditions, and appeared to not be averse to laying their eggs on watermelon. However, when presented with a noncucurbit, such as bean, females laid a low number of total eggs. Overall, it appears that squash may be more preferred as an oviposition substrate than cantaloupe or watermelon and may be a useful trap crop or pull. Further study to determine a suitable deterrent intercrop or push and evaluation of the proposed system under field conditions are needed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Spatial Distribution of Adult Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Damage to Cotton Flower Buds Due to Feeding and Oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigolli, J F J; Souza, L A; Fernandes, M G; Busoli, A C

    2016-12-12

    The cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the main pest in cotton crop around the world, directly affecting cotton production. In order to establish a sequential sampling plan, it is crucial to understand the spatial distribution of the pest population and the damage it causes to the crop through the different developmental stages of cotton plants. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of adults in the cultivation area and their oviposition and feeding behavior throughout the development of the cotton plants. The experiment was conducted in Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 growing seasons, in an area of 10,000 m(2), planted with the cotton cultivar FM 993. The experimental area was divided into 100 plots of 100 m(2) (10 × 10 m) each, and five plants per plot were sampled weekly throughout the crop cycle. The number of flower buds with feeding and oviposition punctures and of adult A. grandis was recorded throughout the crop cycle in five plants per plot. After determining the aggregation indices (variance/mean ratio, Morisita's index, exponent k of the negative binomial distribution, and Green's coefficient) and adjusting the frequencies observed in the field to the distribution of frequencies (Poisson, negative binomial, and positive binomial) using the chi-squared test, it was observed that flower buds with punctures derived from feeding, oviposition, and feeding + oviposition showed an aggregated distribution in the cultivation area until 85 days after emergence and a random distribution after this stage. The adults of A. grandis presented a random distribution in the cultivation area.

  11. Characteristics of Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) oviposition sites in northeastern Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, C.A.; Adams, M.J.; Wente, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Several western ranid frogs possess a unique strategy of breeding communally over a short temporal window and reusing oviposition sites between years. However, little is published on the characteristics of oviposition sites selected by these explosive breeders. The Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) is native to northwestern North America and is of conservation concern in the southern portions of its range. As part of a study examining relationships between livestock grazing and R. luteiventris habitat, we assessed characteristics of the species' oviposition sites in 25 fishless ponds in northeastern Oregon. Oviposition sites were generally in shallow water (<25 cm) close to shore and tended to be in the northeastern portion of ponds. Oviposition sites were found more frequently over heavily vegetated substrates and in areas of less substrate slope and shade than random points in littoral zones. We did not quantify temperature differences within ponds, but the patterns we documented are consistent with preferential use of warmer microhabitats for oviposition.

  12. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    simple empirical models [Versace et al., 2003] based on correlation between some features of rainfall records (cumulated height, duration, season etc.) and the correspondent observed landslides. Laboratory experiments on instrumented small scale slope models represent an effective way to provide data sets [Eckersley, 1990; Wang and Sassa, 2001] useful for building up more complex models of landslide triggering prediction. At the Geotechnical Laboratory of C.I.R.I.AM. an instrumented flume to investigate on the mechanics of landslides in unsaturated deposits of granular soils is available [Olivares et al. 2003; Damiano, 2004; Olivares et al., 2007]. In the flume a model slope is reconstituted by a moist-tamping technique and subjected to an artificial uniform rainfall since failure happens. The state of stress and strain of the slope is monitored during the entire test starting from the infiltration process since the early post-failure stage: the monitoring system is constituted by several mini-tensiometers placed at different locations and depths, to measure suction, mini-transducers to measure positive pore pressures, laser sensors, to measure settlements of the ground surface, and high definition video-cameras to obtain, through a software (PIV) appositely dedicated, the overall horizontal displacement field. Besides, TDR sensors, used with an innovative technique [Greco, 2006], allow to reconstruct the water content profile of soil along the entire thickness of the investigated deposit and to monitor its continuous changes during infiltration. In this paper a series of laboratory tests carried out on model slopes in granular pyroclastic soils taken in the mountainous area north-eastern of Napoli, are presented. The experimental results demonstrate the completeness of information provided by the various sensors installed. In particular, very useful information is given by the coupled measurements of soil water content by TDR and suction by tensiometers. Knowledge of

  13. Choices and consequences of oviposition by a pollinating seed predator, Hadena ectypa (Noctuidae), on its host plant, Silene stellata (Caryophyllaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Abigail A R; Dudash, Michele R; Fenster, Charles B

    2013-06-01

    Pollinating seed predators are models for the study of mutualisms. These insects have dual effects on host-plant fitness, through pollination as adults and flower and fruit predation as larvae. A rarely examined question is whether pollinating seed-predator oviposition choices are influenced by plant floral and size traits and the potential consequences of oviposition for host-plant reproduction. • We quantified oviposition by a pollinating seed predator, Hadena ectypa, on its host, Silene stellata, to determine if oviposition was associated with specific plant traits and whether oviposition was significantly correlated with fruit initiation or flower and fruit predation over three years. We also quantified whether stigmatic pollen loads of flowers visited by Hadena that both fed on nectar and oviposited were greater than when Hadena only fed on nectar. • Hadena had significant preference for plants having flowers with long corolla tubes in all three years. Moth oviposition was correlated with other traits only in some years. Oviposition did not increase stigmatic pollen loads. We observed significant positive relationships between both oviposition and fruit initiation and oviposition and flower/fruit predation. • Hadena ectypa oviposition choices were based consistently on floral tube length differences among individuals, and the consequences of oviposition include both fruit initiation (due to pollination while feeding on nectar prior to oviposition) and larval flower/fruit predation. The positive association between oviposition and fruit initiation may explain the long-term maintenance of facultative pollinating seed-predator interactions.

  14. The Early Years of Indirect Drive Development for High Energy Density Physics Experiments at AWE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian

    2016-10-01

    The importance of laser driven indirect drive for high energy density physics experiments was recognised at A WE in 1971. The two beam 1TW HELEN laser was procured to work in this area and experiments with this system began in 1980. Early experiments in hohlraum coupling and performance scaling with both l.06μm and 0.53μm will be described together with experiments specifically designed to confirm the understanding of radiation wave propagation, hohlraum heating and hohlraum plasma filling. The use of indirect drive for early experiments to study spherical and cylindrical implosions, opacity, EOS, mix and planar radiation hydrodynamics experiments will also be described.

  15. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158met Polymorphism Interacts With Early Experience to Predict Executive Functions in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Sulik, Michael; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Petrill, Stephen; Bartlett, Christopher; Greenberg, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that the Methionine variant of the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism, which confers less efficient catabolism of catecholamines, is associated with increased focal activation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and higher levels of executive function abilities. By and large, however, studies of COMT Val158Met have been conducted with adult samples and do not account for the context in which development is occurring. Effects of early adversity on stress response physiology and the inverted U shape relating catecholamine levels to neural activity in PFC indicate the need to take into account early experience when considering relations between genes such as COMT and executive cognitive ability. Consistent with this neurobiology, we find in a prospective longitudinal sample of children and families (N=1292) that COMT Val158Met interacts with early experience to predict executive function abilities in early childhood. Specifically, the Valine variant of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, which confers more rather than less efficient catabolism of catecholamines is associated with higher executive function abilities at child ages 48 and 60 months and with faster growth of executive function for children experiencing early adversity, as indexed by cumulative risk factors in the home at child ages 7, 15, 24, and 36 months. Findings indicate the importance of the early environment for the relation between catecholamine genes and developmental outcomes and demonstrate that the genetic moderation of environmental risk is detectable in early childhood. PMID:26251232

  16. Early Childhood Professionals' Experience of Time to Facilitate Children's Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumoto, Hiroko; Robson, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the second phase of the Froebel Research Fellowship project "Ownership and Autonomy in Early Childhood" (2003-5). Based on the first phase of the project (Robson and Hargreaves, 2005), a questionnaire survey of 80 professionals working in the Foundation Stage (age 3-5) in England was conducted to obtain an overview…

  17. Nurturing Social Experience in Three Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Susan L.; Soucacou, Eleni P.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the ways in which early childhood special education teachers supported children's social behavior within the context of their preschool classrooms. Data collected for six children through naturalistic classroom observations were coded and analyzed for emergent themes within a qualitative framework. Findings revealed a variety…

  18. New Languages of Possibility: Early Experiments in Education as Dissent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Brendan; Lalor, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the work of four early radical educators: the cultural nationalist Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941), Asia's first Nobel Laureate; Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), Cambridge mathematician and philosopher; the Irish educationalist and insurgent Patrick Pearse (1879-1916) and Leonard Elmhirst (1893-1975), co-founder of Dartington Hall…

  19. Early Adverse Experiences and the Neurobiology of Facial Emotion Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulson, Margaret C.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the neurobiological consequences of early institutionalization, the authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3 groups of Romanian children--currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized but randomly assigned to foster care, and family-reared children--in response to pictures of happy, angry, fearful, and sad…

  20. Electrophysiological, flight orientation and oviposition responses of three species of mosquito vectors to hexadecyl pentanoate: residual oviposition repellent activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenivasagan, T; Sharma, Kavita R; Ganesan, K; Prakash, Shri

    2010-05-01

    Understanding on the chemical ecology of mosquito behavior is of paramount importance in developing control programs employing attractants and repellents. Several workers focused on topical repellents and oviposition attractants of mosquitoes, however, only limited work has been accomplished on mosquito oviposition repellents. The present systematic investigation provides evidence on the effectiveness of a C21 fatty acid ester- hexadecyl pentanoate, to stimulate antennal olfactory receptors of Aedes aegypti (L.), Ae. albopictus (Skuse), and Anopheles stephensi (Liston) that mediate their long-range olfaction guided flight orientation behavior by repelling the gravid females of these mosquito vectors in the olfactometer. The compound loaded onto an effervescent tablet retained its repellent property in the treated substrates for up to 1 wk at 10 mg/L. In places, where the mosquito breeding habitats are near to human habitations, could be treated with hexadecyl pentanoate to repel the ovipositing gravid females as a component of the integrated approach for mosquito management by disrupting the mosquito life cycle and population growth.

  1. Naturalistic Experience and the Early Use of Symbolic Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troseth, Georgene L.; Casey, Amy M.; Lawver, Kelly A.; Walker, Joan M. T.; Cole, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been proposed as a mechanism underlying symbolic development. In this study, the parents of 120 2-year-old children who participated in symbolic object retrieval tasks completed a questionnaire regarding their children's naturalistic experience with symbolic artifacts and activities. In separate…

  2. Egg length of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera, Tephritidae according to oviposition rate and maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C. Boleli

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of the entire egg, micropile and vitellus regions of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart, 1835 were measured during all opposition period. Obtained values were compared among them and with oviposition rate. The smallest eggs were produced during the first 35 oviposition days, period where the highest oviposition rate occured. The decrease in egg length was found to be due to a descrease in the vitellus region. Micropile length was found to be pratically constant throughout oviposition. Furthermore, no relationship between maternal age and length was detectable.

  3. Early radium experiments in Guadalajara, M'exico

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alba Martínez, Durruty Jesús

    2005-04-01

    In April 01, 1904, two catholic lay priests, Severo D'iaz Galindo and Jos'e Mar'ia Arreola Mendoza, performed firsts Radium experiments in Guadalajara, M'exico, just after Radium experiments realized in Mexico City by Prof. Luis G. Le'on. Results of such experiences where published in the Bolet'in Eclesi'astico y Cient'ifico del Arzobispado de Guadalajara/ (Eclesiastic and Scientific Bulletin of the Guadalajara Archbishopric), here is show this paper and some of the first Radium plates obtained. Scientific and educational situation in Guadalajara is described and how both persons became founders of the modern scientific activity in the city.

  4. Early cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis: experience at DHQ Hospital Abbottabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Asif; Nawaz, Muhammad; Noreen, Aysha; Ahmad, Sarfraz

    2010-01-01

    Cholelithiasis is a common disorder affecting the females more commonly. Most of the population carrying the gallstones remains asymptomatic, however biliary colic and acute cholecystitis is a common complication. Most surgeons agree that early cholecystectomy is safe and should be the procedure of choice in acute cholecystitis. Objective of this study was to determine the frequency of patients with acute cholecystitis, and morbidity and mortality in such cases. A prospective study, conducted at DHQ Hospital Abbottabad, and Yahya Welfare Hospital, Haripur simultaneously on 162 patients having symptomatic gall stones. All patients were admitted on presentation and surgical intervention done within 72 hours on patients fit for surgery. Patients with cardiac problem, HCV positive, and with radiologic evidence of Common Bile Duct (CBD) stones were excluded. Ultrasonography abdomen was the main investigation. Postoperative complications, hospital stay and return to routine activities was evaluated. The postoperative complications were seroma formation in 3 cases (1.9%), liver trauma resulting in bleeding and prolonged hospital stay in 1 case (0.6%). In 1 patient stones slipped into CBD resulting in CBD exploration. Early cholecystectomy with upper right transverse incision and muscle retraction in acute cholecystitis is a safe, and cost effective procedure with fewer complications, better cosmesis and early return to work.

  5. Solid phase microextraction, sand flies, oviposition pheromones, plaster of Paris and siloxanes-What is in common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Thais Marchi; Tosta, Christiann Davis; Machado, Vicente Estevam; da Rocha Silva, Flávia Benini; de Castro, Camila Feitosa; Ortiz, Dennys Ghenry Samillan; Oliveira, Wanderson Henrique Cruz; Pinto, Mara Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Sand flies are natural hosts of various microorganisms. Due to their epidemiological importance, sand fly colonies are kept in laboratories to be studied in terms of their biology and vector/host/parasite interactions. In order to investigate the presence of oviposition pheromones in Nyssomyia neivai, experiments using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) were performed. However, siloxanes which is an external class of contamination, present in breeding containers made by plaster used to maintain sand flies in colonies, may be hindered the experiments. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Early Results from the Q{sub weak} Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Androic, D; Armstrong, D S; Asaturyan, A; Averett, T; Balewski, J; Beaufait, J; Beminiwattha, R S; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Birchall, J; Carlini, R D; Cates, G D; Cornejo, J C; Covrig, S; Dalton, M M; Davis, C A; Deconinck, W; Diefenbach, J; Dowd, J F; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Duvall, W S; Elaasar, M; Falk, W R; Finn, J M; Forest, T; Gaskel, D; Gericke, M T.W.; Grames, J; Gray, V M; Grimm, K; Guo, F; Hoskins, J R; Johnston, K; Jones, D; Jones, M; Jones, R; Kargiantoulakis, M; King, P M; Korkmaz, E; Kowalski, S; Leacock, J; Leckey, J; Lee, A R; Lee, J H; Lee, L; MacEwan, S; Mack, D; Magee, J A; Mahurin, R; Mammei, J; Martin, J; McHugh, M J; Meekins, D; Mei, J; Michaels, R; Micherdzinska, A; Mkrtchyan, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Morgan, N; Myers, K E; Narayan, A; Ndukum, L Z; Nelyubin, V; W T H, Nuruzzaman; Oers, van; Opper, A K; Page, S A; Pan, J; Paschke, K; Phillips, S K; Pitt, M L; Poelker, M; Rajotte, J F; Ramsay, W D; Roche, J; Sawatzky, B; Seva, T; Shabestari, M H; Silwal, R; Simicevic, N; Smith, G R; Solvignon, P; Spayde, D T; Subedi, A; Subedi, R; Suleiman, R; Tadevosyan, V; Tobias, W A; Tvaskis, V; Waidyawansa, B; Wang, P; Wells, S P; Wood, S A; Yang, S; Young, R D; Zhamkochyan, S

    2014-03-01

    A subset of results from the recently completed Jefferson Lab Q{sub weak} experiment are reported. This experiment, sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model, exploits the small parity-violating asymmetry in elastic {vector e}p scattering to provide the first determination of the protons weak charge Q{sub w}{sup p}. The experiment employed a 180 {micro}A longitudinally polarized 1.16 GeV electron beam on a 35 cm long liquid hydrogen target. Scattered electrons corresponding to Q{sup 2} of 0.025 GeV{sup 2} were detected in eight Cerenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. The goals of the experiment were to provide a measure of Q{sub w}{sup p} to 4.2 percent (combined statistical and systematic error), which implies a measure of sin2(thetaw) at the level of 0.3 percent, and to help constrain the vector weak quark charges C{sub 1u} and C{sub 1d}. The experimental method is described, with particular focus on the challenges associated with the worlds highest power LH{sub 2} target. The new constraints on C{sub 1u} and C{sub 1d} provided by the subset of the experiments data analyzed to date will also be shown, together with the extracted weak charge of the neutron.

  7. Early experience and plasticity of song in adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, AE; TenCate, C; Slater, PJB

    1996-01-01

    Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) learn song primarily at 35-65 days of age, but birds deprived of experience at that stage may modify their songs later. Experiments on 5 groups examined the effect of varying early social experience on the plasticity of adult song. Major changes of song in adultho

  8. Targets of an invasive species: oviposition preference and larval performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on 14 North American opuntioid cacti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, Heather A; Stiling, Peter D; Carpenter, James E

    2010-12-01

    Cactoblastis cactorum Berg (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the cactus moth, is a well-known biological control agent of prickly pear cactus (Cactaceae: Opuntia Miller). The arrival of the moth in Florida and its subsequent spread through the southeastern United States poses a threat to opuntioid diversity in North America. Of particular concern are the ecological and economic impacts the moth could have in the southwestern United States and Mexico, where both native and cultivated Opuntia species are important resources. It is unknown which species would best support larval development if the moth were to spread further westward in North America. This study aimed to determine if ovipositing females demonstrate preferences for any of 14 common opuntioids native to or naturalized in Mexico and the southwestern United States; which of these opuntioids best support larval development; and if oviposition preference correlates with larval performance, as predicted by simple adaptive models. Results from a field experiment showed that female moths preferred O. engelmannii Salm-Dyck ex Engelmann variety linguiformis (Griffiths) Parfitt and Pinkava and O. engelmannii variety engelmannii for oviposition. A generalized linear model showed number of cladodes and degree of spininess to be significant predictors of oviposition activity. Results from a no-choice larval survival experiment showed Consolea rubescens (Salm-Dyck ex de Candolle.) Lemaire and O. streptacantha Lemaire to be the best hosts. Epidermal toughness was a significant predictor of most larval fitness parameters. In general, oviposition preference was not correlated with larval performance. A lack of co-evolutionary history between C. cactorum and North American opuntioid species may help explain this disconnect.

  9. Electric nets and sticky materials for analysing oviposition behaviour of gravid malaria vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugassa Sisay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how malaria mosquitoes locate oviposition sites in nature. Such knowledge is important to help devise monitoring and control measures that could be used to target gravid females. This study set out to develop a suite of tools that can be used to study the attraction of gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. towards visual or olfactory cues associated with aquatic habitats. Methods Firstly, the study developed and assessed methods for using electrocuting nets to analyse the orientation of gravid females towards an aquatic habitat. Electric nets (1m high × 0.5m wide were powered by a 12V battery via a spark box. High and low energy settings were compared for mosquito electrocution and a collection device developed to retain electrocuted mosquitoes when falling to the ground. Secondly, a range of sticky materials and a detergent were tested to quantify if and where gravid females land to lay their eggs, by treating the edge of the ponds and the water surface. A randomized complete block design was used for all experiments with 200 mosquitoes released each day. Experiments were conducted in screened semi-field systems using insectary-reared An. gambiae s.s. Data were analysed by generalized estimating equations. Results An electric net operated at the highest spark box energy of a 400 volt direct current made the net spark, creating a crackling sound, a burst of light and a burning smell. This setting caught 64% less mosquitoes than a net powered by reduced voltage output that could neither be heard nor seen (odds ratio (OR 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.40-0.53, p Conclusion A square of four e-nets with yellow sticky boards as a collection device can be used for quantifying the numbers of mosquitoes approaching a small oviposition site. Shiny sticky surfaces attract gravid females possibly because they are visually mistaken as aquatic habitats. These materials might be developed further as gravid traps

  10. Dimensions of early experience and neural development: deprivation and threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2014-11-01

    Over the past decade, a growing area of research has focused on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and their impacts on neural and developmental outcomes. Work in the field to-date has generally conceptualized ACEs in terms of exposure to stress while overlooking the underlying dimensions of environmental experience that may distinctly impact neural development. Here, we propose a novel framework that differentiates between deprivation (absence of expected cognitive and social input) and threat (presence of a threat to one's physical integrity). We draw support for the neural basis of this distinction from studies on fear learning and sensory deprivation in animals to highlight potential mechanisms through which experiences of threat and deprivation could affect neural structure and function in humans.

  11. Endoscopic mucosal resection of early gastric cancer: Experiences in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Haeng Lee; Jae J Kim

    2007-01-01

    Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) has been established as one of the treatment options for early gastric cancer (EGC). However, there are many uncertain areas such as indications of EMR, best treatment methods, management of complications and follow-up methods after the procedure. Most studies on this topic have been carried out by researchers in Japan. In Korea,gastric cancer is the most common malignant disease,and the second leading cause of cancer death. In these days, EMR for EGC is widely performed in many centers in Korea. In this review, we will provide an overview of the techniques and outcomes of EMR in Korea.

  12. Location and the experience of early Netherlandish art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Nuechterlein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In The Limewood Sculptors of Renaissance Germany, Michael Baxandall incorporated contingent site-specific observations into his interpretation of Tilman Riemenschneider’s Holy Blood Altarpiece (1499-1505. Where Baxandall typically linked such site-specific analysis to the processes of authorial intent, the present article expands this mode of inquiry to investigate how the contingent viewing contexts of early Netherlandish art could have affected viewers’ perceptions of meaning, in ways that may or may not have accorded with the artists’ or patrons’ expectations. This approach potentially yields new interpretations that cannot easily arise in a museum setting.

  13. Images for 'Location and the experience of early Netherlandish art’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Nuechterlein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In The Limewood Sculptors of Renaissance Germany, Michael Baxandall incorporated contingent site-specific observations into his interpretation of Tilman Riemenschneider’s Holy Blood Altarpiece (1499-1505. Where Baxandall typically linked such site-specific analysis to the processes of authorial intent, the present article expands this mode of inquiry to investigate how the contingent viewing contexts of early Netherlandish art could have affected viewers’ perceptions of meaning, in ways that may or may not have accorded with the artists’ or patrons’ expectations. This approach potentially yields new interpretations that cannot easily arise in a museum setting.

  14. First Year Teaching Experiences of Early Childhood Urban Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    The first-year teaching experiences of urban teachers were studied to conceptualize the reality faced by urban teachers and to determine the implications of the urban environment for teacher education. Subjects were four graduates of a teacher education program that gave no particular attention to the urban context beyond placement for student…

  15. Some Early Optics: Classical and Medieval. Experiment No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devons, Samuel

    Information related to the history of optics with emphasis on the classical and medieval periods is presented. Notes are included on experiments dealing with refraction at a plane interface between two media; refraction by transparent spheres; light, color, and reflection by transparent spheres. (Author/SA)

  16. Medical students' emotional development in early clinical experience: a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Dornan, Tim; Koopmans, Raymond

    2014-08-01

    Dealing with emotions is a critical feature of professional behaviour. There are no comprehensive theoretical models, however, explaining how medical students learn about emotions. We aimed to explore factors affecting their emotions and how they learn to deal with emotions in themselves and others. During a first-year nursing attachment in hospitals and nursing homes, students wrote daily about their most impressive experiences, explicitly reporting what they felt, thought, and did. In a subsequent interview, they discussed those experiences in greater detail. Following a grounded theory approach, we conducted a constant comparative analysis, collecting and then interpreting data, and allowing the interpretation to inform subsequent data collection. Impressive experiences set up tensions, which gave rise to strong emotions. We identified four 'axes' along which tensions were experienced: 'idealism versus reality', 'critical distance versus adaptation', 'involvement versus detachment' and 'feeling versus displaying'. We found many factors, which influenced how respondents relieved those tensions. Their personal attributes and social relationships both inside and outside the medical community were important ones. Respondents' positions along the different dimensions, as determined by the balance between attributes and tensions, shaped their learning outcomes. Medical students' emotional development occurs through active participation in medical practice and having impressive experiences within relationships with patients and others on wards. Tensions along four dimensions give rise to strong emotions. Gaining insight into the many conditions that influence students' learning about emotions might support educators and supervisors in fostering medical students' emotional and professional development.

  17. Experiences of Early Transdisciplinary Teams in Pediatric Community Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Tamie; Mortenson, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Although a transdisciplinary approach (TA) is considered best practice for children aged 0-3 years, there is limited information for professionals on how to successfully implement TA services. Using qualitative inquiry, in-depth interviews were conducted to explore the experiences of 6 service providers and managers who took part in early…

  18. Maximizing the DUNE early physics output with current experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Monojit; Goswami, Srubabati [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India); Raut, Sushant K. [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India); School of Engineering Sciences, KTH Royal Institute of Technology-AlbaNova University Center, Department of Theoretical Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-03-15

    The deep underground neutrino experiment (DUNE) is a proposed next generation superbeam experiment at Fermilab. Its aims include measuring the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters - the neutrino mass hierarchy, the octant of the mixing angle θ{sub 23}, and the CP-violating phase δ{sub CP}. The current and upcoming experiments T2K, NOνA, and ICAL rate at IN will also be collecting data for the same measurements. In this paper, we explore the sensitivity reach of DUNE in combination with these other experiments. We evaluate the least exposure required by DUNE to determine the above three unknown parameters with reasonable confidence.We find that for each case, the inclusion of data from T2K, NOνA, and ICAL rate at IN help to achieve the same sensitivity with a reduced exposure from DUNE thereby helping to economize the configuration. Further, we quantify the effect of the proposed near detector on systematic errors and study the consequent improvement in sensitivity. We also examine the role played by the second oscillation cycle in furthering the physics reach of DUNE. Finally, we present an optimization study of the neutrino-antineutrino running of DUNE. (orig.)

  19. Early Experiences of Young Men of Latin Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Bryant; Prezas, Raul; Labercane, George

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the narratives and experiences of young Hispanics in south Texas. These youths matured during Americas high period of civic engagement. Their involvement in the development of social clubs defined and reinforced their culture. Growing up Hispanic meant belonging to a large, supportive, Hispanic family. The clubs defined…

  20. Bacteria as a source of oviposition attractant for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaoui, A A; Chua, T H

    2014-03-01

    Since a safe and effective mass vaccination program against dengue fever is not presently available, a good way to prevent and control dengue outbreaks depends mainly on controlling the mosquito vectors. Aedes aegypti mosquito populations can be monitored and reduced by using ovitraps baited with organic infusions. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted which demonstrated that the bacteria in bamboo leaf infusion produce volatile attractants and contact chemical stimulants attractive to the female mosquitoes. The results showed that the female mosquitoes laid most of their eggs (59.9 ± 8.1 vs 2.9 ± 2.8 eggs, PAedes mosquitoes. Aedes aegypti laid significantly more eggs (63.3 ± 6.5 vs 3.1 ± 2.4 eggs, P<0.001) in bacteria suspension compared to sterile R2A medium. Our results suggest microbial activity has a role in the production of odorants that mediate the oviposition response of gravid mosquitoes.

  1. Early experiences with big data at an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halamka, John D

    2014-07-01

    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), an academic health care institution affiliated with Harvard University, has been an early adopter of electronic applications since the 1970s. Various departments of the medical center and the physician practice groups affiliated with it have implemented electronic health records, filmless imaging, and networked medical devices to such an extent that data storage at BIDMC now amounts to three petabytes and continues to grow at a rate of 25 percent a year. Initially, the greatest technical challenge was the cost and complexity of data storage. However, today the major focus is on transforming raw data into information, knowledge, and wisdom. This article discusses the data growth, increasing importance of analytics, and changing user requirements that have shaped the management of big data at BIDMC.

  2. Mentalization mediates the relation between early traumatic experiences and aggressive behavior in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taubner Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine whether mentalization serves as a protective factor against aggressive behavior in adolescence in the context of early traumatization. We present data from a non-clinical sample of adolescents from Germany (n=97 and calculate a mediation model to test the link between early traumatic experiences and aggressive behavior with mentalizing skills as a mediator. Mentalization was assessed with the Reflective Functioning Scale on the Adult-Attachment-Interview and aggressive behavior was measured with the Reactive-Proactive-Aggression-Questionnaire. Traumatic experience was operationalized as physical and/or sexual abuse as reported in the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Results show a complete mediation for Reflective Functioning on the relationship between early abuse and aggressive behavior. Thus, the findings of the study support an understanding of mentalizing as a protective factor for the relationship between early abusive experience and the development of aggressive behavior. Clinical implications are discussed.

  3. Exploring a Comprehensive Model for Early Childhood Vocabulary Instruction: A Design Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Christine; Christ, Tanya; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2014-01-01

    Addressing a critical need for effective vocabulary practices in early childhood classrooms, we conducted a design experiment to achieve three goals: (1) developing a comprehensive model for early childhood vocabulary instruction, (2) examining the effectiveness of this model, and (3) discerning the contextual conditions that hinder or facilitate…

  4. Enhancing Research and Practice in Early Childhood through Formative and Design Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Barbara A.; Reinking, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes formative and design experiments and how they can advance research and instructional practices in early childhood education. We argue that this relatively new approach to education research closes the gap between research and practice, and it addresses limitations that have been identified in early childhood research. We…

  5. Diverse Field Experiences as a Catalyst for Preparing High Quality Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Susan L.; Beck, Lisa; Esposito, Ann; Tarrant, Kate

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the process through which a group of preservice early childhood/early childhood special education students examined their own beliefs about quality teaching and learning within the context of multiple practicum experiences in diverse settings. Students' reflections and actions are illuminated through a careful individual and…

  6. Designing Informal Learning Experiences for Early Career Academics Using a Knowledge Ecosystem Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Faye; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine; Hemmings, Brian

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a "knowledge ecosystem" model of how early career academics experience using information to learn while building their social networks for developmental purposes. Developed using grounded theory methodology, the model offers a way of conceptualising how to empower early career academics through (1) agency…

  7. More than "Just" Changing Diapers: The Experiences of Preservice Early Childhood Teachers in Infant Field Placements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Lisa Marie Powell

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that early childhood preservice teachers are typically being prepared to work with children from birth through age 8, preservice field experiences with infants continue to be largely missing in early childhood teacher preparation programs Since the education and care of infants often takes place in vastly different settings than…

  8. Reflective Processes: A Qualitative Study Exploring Early Learning Student Teacher Mentoring Experiences in Student Teaching Practicums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis explored mentoring in early learning teacher preparation programs. This study explored the reflective processes embedded in the work between student teachers and their mentors during early learning student teacher experiences at Washington State community and technical colleges. Schon's (1987a) concepts of…

  9. Early Childhood Settings and Funded Two-Year-Old Children: Experiences from Four Settings in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phair, Heleanna; Davis, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 funding was introduced to support disadvantaged two-year-old children to attend early childhood settings in England. This study explores the experiences of four early childhood settings as they worked with these funded children for the first time. Using interviews and observations within the settings, findings demonstrate some adjustment…

  10. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya Tezel, Fulya; Tutarel Kişlak, Şennur; Boysan, Murat

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas.

  11. When choice makes sense: menthol influence on mating, oviposition and fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehbia eABED-VIEILLARD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe environment to which insects have been exposed as larvae and adults can affect subsequent behaviors, such as mating, oviposition, food preference or fitness. Experience can change female preference for oviposition, particularly in phytophagous insects. In Drosophila melanogaster, females avoid laying eggs on menthol rich-food when given the choice. Exposure to menthol during larval development reduces this aversion. However, this observation was not reproduced in the following generation. Recently, we have shown that oviposition-site preference (OSP differs between wild-type D. melanogaster lines freely or forcibly exposed to menthol. After 12 generations, menthol forced lines still exhibit a persistent aversion to menthol whereas ‘free-choice’ lines show a decreased aversion for menthol rich-food. Here, we compare courtship behavior, mating and female fecundity in forced and free-choice lines, raised either on menthol rich-food (Menthol-lines or on menthol-free food (Plain-lines. Forced males did not discriminate between decapitated virgin females of the two lines. They courted and mated with intact females of both forced lines in a comparable rate. However forced M-line males did mate significantly more rapidly with forced M-line females. In the free-choice procedure, P-line males show a similar pattern as forced males for discrimination ability and courtship. M-line males courted significantly more M-line females. Both ‘free-choice’ lines males mated significantly more with females of their own line. Female fecundity was assessed during ten days in ‘free-choice’ lines. Menthol-line females laid more eggs during the first four days than female Plain-lines and parental control-line. The total number of eggs laid during the first ten days of female adult life is comparable in M-line and parental control line. However, Menthol-line females laid eggs earlier than both parental control and Plain-lines. Our findings show that

  12. Oviposition preference of Lygocoris pabulinus (Het., Miridae) in relation to plants and conspecifics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, A.T.; Heijboer, A.; Visser, J.H.; Dicke, M.

    2003-01-01

    To predict possible locations of Lygocoris pabulinus (L) in the field during the summer, we determined their oviposition preference under summer conditions. With L. pabulinus reared on potato, oviposition preference was determined for potato, tomato or green bean. As preference may depend on larval

  13. D-(+)-Pinitol, an oviposition stimulant for the pipevine swallowtail butterfly,Battus philenor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaj, D R; Feeny, P; Sachdev-Gupta, K; Rosenberry, L

    1992-05-01

    Oviposition by females of the pipevine swallowtail butterfly,Battus philenor, was stimulated by contact with alcoholic extracts of host foliage.D-(+)-Pinitol was isolated and identified from leaf material of one host species,Aristolochia macrophylla (Aristolochiaceae). In combination with chloroform-soluble components of host leaf material, this compound was comparable to the parent extract in stimulating oviposition.

  14. Early life stress experience may blunt hypothalamic leptin signalling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JH LEE; SB YOO; JY KIM; JY LEE; BT KIM; K PARK; JW JAHNG

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether neonatal maternal separation (MS) – chronic stress experience inearly life – affects the anorectic efficacy of leptin in the offspring at adolescence. Sprague–Dawley pups wereseparated from the dam daily for 3 h during postnatal day 1–14 or left undisturbed as non-handled controls (NH).NH and MS male pups received an intraperitoneal leptin (100 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal day (PND) 28, and thenfood intake and body weight gain were recorded. The hypothalamic levels of leptin-signalling-related genes,phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B(PTP1B) were examined at 40 min after a single injection of leptin on PND 39 by immunohistochemistry and Westernblot analysis. Leptin-induced suppressions in food intake and weight gain was observed in NH pups, but not in MS.Leptin increased pSTAT3 in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of NH pups, but not of MS. Interestingly, basal levelsof the hypothalamic PTP1B and pSTAT3 were increased in MS pups compared with NH controls. The results suggestthat neonatal MS experience may blunt the anorectic efficacy of leptin later in life, possibly in relation with increasedexpressions of PTP1B and/or pSTAT3 in the hypothalamus.

  15. EARLY EXPERIENCE WITH A HYBRID PROCESSOR: K-MEANS CLUSTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. GOKHALE; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    We discuss hardware/software coprocessing on a hybrid processor for a compute- and data-intensive hyper-spectral imaging algorithm, K-Means Clustering. The experiments are performed on the Altera Excalibur board using the soft IP core 32-bit NIOS RISC processor. In our experiments, we compare performance of the sequential algorithm with two different accelerated versions. We consider granularity and synchronization issues when mapping an algorithm to a hybrid processor. Our results show that on the Excalibur NIOS, a 15% speedup can be achieved over the sequential algorithm on images with 8 spectral bands where the pixels are divided into 8 categories. Speedup is limited by the communication cost of transferring data from external memory through the NIOS processor to the customized circuits. Our results indicate that future hybrid processors must either (1) have a clock rate 10X the speed of the configurable logic circuits or (2) include dual port memories that both the processor and configurable logic can access. If either of these conditions is met, the hybrid processor will show a factor of 10 speedup over the sequential algorithm. Such systems will combine the convenience of conventional processors with the speed of configurable logic.

  16. Survival of offspring who experience early parental death: early life conditions and later-life mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ken R; Hanson, Heidi A; Norton, Maria C; Hollingshaus, Michael S; Mineau, Geraldine P

    2014-10-01

    We examine the influences of a set of early life conditions (ELCs) on all-cause and cause-specific mortality among elderly individuals, with special attention to one of the most dramatic early events in a child's, adolescent's, or even young adult's life, the death of a parent. The foremost question is, once controlling for prevailing (and potentially confounding) conditions early in life (family history of longevity, paternal characteristics (SES, age at time of birth, sibship size, and religious affiliation)), is a parental death associated with enduring mortality risks after age 65? The years following parental death may initiate new circumstances through which the adverse effects of paternal death operate. Here we consider the offspring's marital status (whether married; whether and when widowed), adult socioeconomic status, fertility, and later life health status. Adult health status is based on the Charlson Co-Morbidity Index, a construct that summarizes nearly all serious illnesses afflicting older individuals that relies on Medicare data. The data are based on linkages between the Utah Population Database and Medicare claims that hold medical diagnoses data. We show that offspring whose parents died when they were children, but especially when they were adolescents/young adults, have modest but significant mortality risks after age 65. What are striking are the weak mediating influences of later-life comorbidities, marital status, fertility and adult socioeconomic status since controls for these do little to alter the overall association. No beneficial effects of the surviving parent's remarriage were detected. Overall, we show the persistence of the effects of early life loss on later-life mortality and indicate the difficulties in addressing challenges at young ages.

  17. Oviposition responses of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) and identification of volatiles from bacteria-containing solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindh, J.M.; Kännaste, A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Faye, I.; Borg-Karlson, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a dual-choice oviposition bioassay was used to screen responses of gravid An. gambiae toward 17 bacterial species, previously isolated from Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) midguts or oviposition sites. The 10 isolates from oviposition sites have been identified by

  18. Philosophy of experiment in early modern England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment. It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history. The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of early modern experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J.E. Tiles and Peter Dear.

  19. Factors Affecting the Spatial Distribution of Oviposition Sites for Tandem Black Saddlebags Dragonflies (Odonata: Libellulidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Jessica L.; Switzer, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    Oviposition site location may be affected by (1) factors influencing the costs and benefits to the offspring (e.g., resource availability, competition, predation risk) and (2) factors influencing the costs and benefits to the female (e.g., predation risk or mate harassment). In cases in which both the male and female are involved in locating a site, costs and benefits may differ for each parent and the resulting oviposition site location may represent the outcome of selection pressures on one or both of them. We studied oviposition behavior in the black saddlebags dragonfly (Tramea lacerata Hagen), a species in which the male and female typically remain together (i.e., in tandem) while traveling among potential oviposition locations. Oviposition sites tended to be away from pond shoreline at the outer edge of the vegetation on the water’s surface. We found that tandems distributed their oviposition locations widely around the pond, and interactions with other dragonflies (typically other T. lacerata, either territorial males or tandems) led to a larger distance between consecutive oviposition locations. Interestingly, for 10% of the tandems, the female became separated from the male and oviposited solitarily multiple times. These solitary females spent significantly less time and traveled significantly smaller distances between successive oviposition sites than when in tandem. Our results indicate that while some aspects of oviposition behavior and site selection may be consistent between the male and female (e.g., the characteristics that make a site suitable), other aspects, such as the distribution of sites, may be a result of a differing benefits and costs for the two sexes, perhaps as a consequence of potential sperm competition.

  20. Newcomers in organisational entry coping with early job experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Breackell

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available In making sense of a new situation, individuals rely on a number of inputs. The present study investigates two such inputs: the role that past experience plays in helping the newcomer to cope with current situations, and the extent to which more general personal characteristics play a role in the sense-making process. The relationship between personality and situational variables and coping resources was studied in a large financial organisation. A group of new employees was studied during their first six months with the organisation. Theoretical material is presented which indicates that processes occur by which individuals detect and interpret surprises. Opsomming Om sin uit te maak in 'n nuwe situasie vertrou mense dikwels op 'n aantal insette. In die studie wat hier gerapporteer word, word twee suike insette ondersoek: die rol wat vorige ondervinding speel om die nuweling te help in die hantering van bestaande situasies, en die mate waartoe algemeen persoonlike eienskappe 'n rol speel in die sinmakende proses. Die verwantskap tussen persoonlikheid en situasieveranderlikes met aanpassingshulpbronne is in 'n groot finansiele organisasie ondersoek. 'n Groep nuwe werknemers is gedurende die eerste ses maande na hul diensaanvaarding waargeneem. Die resultate dui aan dat daar prosesse bestaan waarmee individuele verassings opgespoor en geinterpreteer word.

  1. Relationship between oviposition, virulence gene expression and parasitism success in Cotesia typhae nov. sp. parasitoid strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoist, R; Chantre, C; Capdevielle-Dulac, C; Bodet, M; Mougel, F; Calatayud, P A; Dupas, S; Huguet, E; Jeannette, R; Obonyo, J; Odorico, C; Silvain, J F; Le Ru, B; Kaiser, L

    2017-09-22

    Studying mechanisms that drive host adaptation in parasitoids is crucial for the efficient use of parasitoids in biocontrol programs. Cotesia typhae nov. sp. (Fernández-Triana) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a newly described parasitoid of the Mediterranean corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Braconidae are known for their domesticated bracovirus, which is injected with eggs in the host larva to overcome its resistance. In this context, we compared reproductive success traits of four Kenyan strains of C. typhae on a French and a Kenyan populations of its host. Differences were found between the four strains and the two most contrasted ones were studied more thoroughly on the French host population. Parasitoid offspring size was correlated with parasitism success and the expression of bracovirus virulence genes (CrV1 and Cystatin) in the host larva after parasitism. Hybrids between these two parasitoid strains showed phenotype and gene expression profiles similar to the most successful parental strain, suggesting the involvement of dominant alleles in the reproductive traits. Ovary dissections revealed that the most successful strain injected more eggs in a single host larva than the less successful one, despite an equal initial ovocyte number in ovaries. It can be expected that the amount of viral particles increase with the number of eggs injected. The ability to bypass the resistance of the allopatric host may in consequence be related to the oviposition behaviour (eggs allocation). The influence of the number of injected eggs on parasitism success and on virulence gene expression was evaluated by oviposition interruption experiments.

  2. Preparedness to Teach: Experiences of the University of Ibadan Early Career Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udegbe, I. Bola

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the experiences of early career academics (ECAs) in terms of their preparedness to teach. Using a survey design involving 104 ECAs in a large Nigeria university, quantitative and qualitative data were obtained to address the research questions raised. Findings showed that (1) prior experience and training impacted on…

  3. Effects of Experience on the Brain: The Role of Neuroscience in Early Development and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardosz, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Research on the effect of experience on the structure and function of the brain across the lifespan pertains directly to the concerns of professionals involved with children's early development and education. This paper briefly reviews (a) the role of experience in shaping the developing brain, (b) individual adaptation to the…

  4. Effects of Experience on the Brain: The Role of Neuroscience in Early Development and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardosz, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Research on the effect of experience on the structure and function of the brain across the lifespan pertains directly to the concerns of professionals involved with children's early development and education. This paper briefly reviews (a) the role of experience in shaping the developing brain, (b) individual adaptation to the…

  5. The earth radiation budget experiment: Early validation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. Louis; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) consists of radiometers on a dedicated spacecraft in a 57° inclination orbit, which has a precessional period of 2 months, and on two NOAA operational meteorological spacecraft in near polar orbits. The radiometers include scanning narrow field-of-view (FOV) and nadir-looking wide and medium FOV radiometers covering the ranges 0.2 to 5 μm and 5 to 50 μm and a solar monitoring channel. This paper describes the validation procedures and preliminary results. Each of the radiometer channels underwent extensive ground calibration, and the instrument packages include in-flight calibration facilities which, to date, show negligible changes of the instruments in orbit, except for gradual degradation of the suprasil dome of the shortwave wide FOV (about 4% per year). Measurements of the solar constant by the solar monitors, wide FOV, and medium FOV radiometers of two spacecraft agree to a fraction of a percent. Intercomparisons of the wide and medium FOV radiometers with the scanning radiometers show agreement of 1 to 4%. The multiple ERBE satellites are acquiring the first global measurements of regional scale diurnal variations in the Earth's radiation budget. These diurnal variations are verified by comparison with high temporal resolution geostationary satellite data. Other principal investigators of the ERBE Science Team are: R. Cess, SUNY, Stoneybrook; J. Coakley, NCAR; C. Duncan, M. King and A Mecherikunnel, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA; A. Gruber and A.J. Miller, NOAA; D. Hartmann, U. Washington; F.B. House, Drexel U.; F.O. Huck, Langley Research Center, NASA; G. Hunt, Imperial College, London U.; R. Kandel and A. Berroir, Laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology, Ecole Polytechique; V. Ramanathan, U. Chicago; E. Raschke, U. of Cologne; W.L. Smith, U. of Wisconsin and T.H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State U.

  6. Behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early social experiences: the case of the honeybee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés eArenas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive experiences during the early stages of life play an important role in shaping future behavior. Behavioral and neural long-term changes after early sensory and associative experiences have been recently reported in the honeybee. This invertebrate is an excellent model for assessing the role of precocious experiences on later behavior due to its extraordinarily tuned division of labor based on age polyethism. These studies are mainly focused on the role and importance of experiences occurred during the first days of the adult lifespan, their impact on foraging decisions and their contribution to coordinate food gathering. Odor-rewarded experiences during the first days of honeybee adulthood alter the responsiveness to sucrose, making young hive bees more sensitive to assess gustatory features about the nectar brought back to the hive and affecting the dynamic of the food transfers and the propagation of food-related information within the colony as well. Early olfactory experiences lead to stable and long-term associative memories that can be successfully recalled after many days, even at foraging ages. Also they improve memorizing of new associative learning events later in life. The establishment of early memories promotes stable reorganization of the olfactory circuits inducing structural and functional changes in the antennal lobe. Early rewarded experiences have relevant consequences at the social level too, biasing dance and trophallaxis partner choice and affecting recruitment. Here, we revised recent results in bees´ physiology, behavior and sociobiology to depict how the early experiences affect their cognition abilities and neural-related circuits.

  7. Negative body experience in women with early childhood trauma: associations with trauma severity and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffers, Mia; Hoek, Maike; Bosscher, Ruud J; van Duijn, Marijtje A J; Schoevers, Robert A; van Busschbach, Jooske T

    2017-01-01

    Background: A crucial but often overlooked impact of early life exposure to trauma is its far-reaching effect on a person's relationship with their body. Several domains of body experience may be negatively influenced or damaged as a result of early childhood trauma. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate disturbances in three domains of body experience: body attitude, body satisfaction, and body awareness. Furthermore, associations between domains of body experience and severity of trauma symptoms as well as frequency of dissociation were evaluated. Method: Body attitude was measured with the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire, body satisfaction with the Body Cathexis Scale, and body awareness with the Somatic Awareness Questionnaire in 50 female patients with complex trauma and compared with scores in a non-clinical female sample (n = 216). Patients in the clinical sample also filled out the Davidson Trauma Scale and the Dissociation Experience Scale. Results: In all measured domains, body experience was severely affected in patients with early childhood trauma. Compared with scores in the non-clinical group, effect sizes in Cohen's d were 2.7 for body attitude, 1.7 for body satisfaction, and 0.8 for body awareness. Associations between domains of body experience and severity of trauma symptoms were low, as were the associations with frequency of dissociative symptoms. Conclusions: Early childhood trauma in women is associated with impairments in self-reported body experience that warrant careful assessment in the treatment of women with psychiatric disorders.

  8. Experiences of patients and caregivers with early palliative care: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Breffni; Swami, Nadia; Rodin, Gary; Pope, Ashley; Zimmermann, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    Early palliative care improves quality of life and satisfaction with care and is increasingly endorsed for patients with advanced cancer. However, little is known about the experience of receiving early palliative care from a patient and caregiver perspective. The aim of this qualitative study was to determine, from a participant perspective, the experience of receiving early palliative care and elements of that care. Qualitative grounded theory study using individual interviews. The study took place at a comprehensive cancer centre. Patients ( n = 26) and caregivers ( n = 14) from the intervention arm of a cluster-randomised controlled trial of early palliative care versus standard oncology care participated in qualitative interviews. Participants were asked to comment on their quality of life, the quality of care provided over the intervention period and their experiences with the palliative care team. Participants described feeling supported and guided in their illness experience and in their navigation of the healthcare system. Specific elements of early palliative care included prompt, personalised symptom management; holistic support for patients and caregivers; guidance in decision-making; and preparation for the future. Patients with symptoms particularly valued prompt attention to their physical concerns, while those without symptoms valued other elements of care. Although three patients were ambivalent about their current need for palliative care, no distress was reported as a consequence of the intervention. The elements of care described by participants may be used to develop, support and refine models of early palliative care for patients with cancer.

  9. Predicting addiction potential on the basis of early traumatic events, dissociative experiences, and suicide ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Hajjari, Zahra; Zargar, Yadollah; Mehrabizade Honarmand, Mahnaz; Arshadi, Nasrin

    2014-12-01

    There is a great deal of medical literature suggesting that substance use disorder is a serious clinical concern, affecting general population and associated with considerable economic, societal, and personal costs. This study sought to clarify the relationship between early trauma, dissociative experience, and suicide ideation as predictive factors of active and passive addiction potential (A/PAP) in high-school students. Three hundred students with the mean age of 15.72 y were selected via multistage random sampling. All participants were asked to complete Iranian addiction potential scale, early trauma inventory, dissociative experiences scale, and Beck's suicide ideation scale. Analyzing data was done using canonical correlation. Structural coefficients showed that the pattern of high scores in A/PAP correlates with the pattern of high scores in early trauma, dissociative experience and suicide ideation. The findings of the study showed that the combination of low A/PAP can probably decrease the likelihood of early trauma, dissociative experience and suicide ideation. Early trauma, dissociative experience, and suicide ideation can predict A/PAP and explain the considerable variance of survival index.

  10. Suboptimal Larval Habitats Modulate Oviposition of the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunho Suh

    Full Text Available Selection of oviposition sites by gravid females is a critical behavioral step in the reproductive cycle of Anopheles coluzzii, which is one of the principal Afrotropical malaria vector mosquitoes. Several studies suggest this decision is mediated by semiochemicals associated with potential oviposition sites. To better understand the chemosensory basis of this behavior and identify compounds that can modulate oviposition, we examined the generally held hypothesis that suboptimal larval habitats give rise to semiochemicals that negatively influence the oviposition preference of gravid females. Dual-choice bioassays indicated that oviposition sites conditioned in this manner do indeed foster significant and concentration dependent aversive effects on the oviposition site selection of gravid females. Headspace analyses derived from aversive habitats consistently noted the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone each of which unitarily affected An. coluzzii oviposition preference. Electrophysiological assays across the antennae, maxillary palp, and labellum of gravid An. coluzzii revealed differential responses to these semiochemicals. Taken together, these findings validate the hypothesis in question and suggest that suboptimal environments for An. coluzzii larval development results in the release of DMDS, DMTS and sulcatone that impact the response valence of gravid females.

  11. Spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in northwestern Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabet Lilia Estallo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Argentina, dengue has affected mainly the Northern provinces, including Salta. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, northwestern Argentina. The location of clusters as hot spot areas should help control programs to identify priority areas and allocate their resources more effectively. METHODOLOGY: Oviposition activity was detected in Orán City (Salta province using ovitraps, weekly replaced (October 2005-2007. Spatial autocorrelation was measured with Moran's Index and depicted through cluster maps to identify hot spots. Total egg numbers were spatially interpolated and a classified map with Ae. aegypti high oviposition activity areas was performed. Potential breeding and resting (PBR sites were geo-referenced. A logistic regression analysis of interpolated egg numbers and PBR location was performed to generate a predictive mapping of mosquito oviposition activity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both cluster maps and predictive map were consistent, identifying in central and southern areas of the city high Ae. aegypti oviposition activity. A logistic regression model was successfully developed to predict Ae. aegypti oviposition activity based on distance to PBR sites, with tire dumps having the strongest association with mosquito oviposition activity. A predictive map reflecting probability of oviposition activity was produced. The predictive map delimitated an area of maximum probability of Ae. aegypti oviposition activity in the south of Orán city where tire dumps predominate. The overall fit of the model was acceptable (ROC=0.77, obtaining 99% of sensitivity and 75.29% of specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Distance to tire dumps is inversely associated with high mosquito activity, allowing us to identify hot spots. These methodologies are useful for prevention, surveillance, and control of tropical vector borne diseases and might assist

  12. Spatial Patterns of High Aedes aegypti Oviposition Activity in Northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estallo, Elizabet Lilia; Más, Guillermo; Vergara-Cid, Carolina; Lanfri, Mario Alberto; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco; Scavuzzo, Carlos Marcelo; Introini, María Virginia; Zaidenberg, Mario; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Background In Argentina, dengue has affected mainly the Northern provinces, including Salta. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, northwestern Argentina. The location of clusters as hot spot areas should help control programs to identify priority areas and allocate their resources more effectively. Methodology Oviposition activity was detected in Orán City (Salta province) using ovitraps, weekly replaced (October 2005–2007). Spatial autocorrelation was measured with Moran’s Index and depicted through cluster maps to identify hot spots. Total egg numbers were spatially interpolated and a classified map with Ae. aegypti high oviposition activity areas was performed. Potential breeding and resting (PBR) sites were geo-referenced. A logistic regression analysis of interpolated egg numbers and PBR location was performed to generate a predictive mapping of mosquito oviposition activity. Principal Findings Both cluster maps and predictive map were consistent, identifying in central and southern areas of the city high Ae. aegypti oviposition activity. A logistic regression model was successfully developed to predict Ae. aegypti oviposition activity based on distance to PBR sites, with tire dumps having the strongest association with mosquito oviposition activity. A predictive map reflecting probability of oviposition activity was produced. The predictive map delimitated an area of maximum probability of Ae. aegypti oviposition activity in the south of Orán city where tire dumps predominate. The overall fit of the model was acceptable (ROC = 0.77), obtaining 99% of sensitivity and 75.29% of specificity. Conclusions Distance to tire dumps is inversely associated with high mosquito activity, allowing us to identify hot spots. These methodologies are useful for prevention, surveillance, and control of tropical vector borne diseases and might assist National Health

  13. Early experience affects the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2005-07-01

    Maternal abuse of offspring in macaque monkeys shares some similarities with child maltreatment in humans, including its transmission across generations. This study used a longitudinal design and a cross-fostering experiment to investigate whether abusive parenting in rhesus macaques is transmitted from mothers to daughters and whether transmission occurs through genetic or experiential factors. Nine of 16 females who were abused by their mothers in their first month of life, regardless of whether they were reared by their biological mothers or by foster mothers, exhibited abusive parenting with their firstborn offspring, whereas none of the females reared by nonabusive mothers did. These results suggest that the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys is the result of early experience and not genetic inheritance. The extent to which the effects of early experience on the intergenerational transmission of abusive parenting are mediated by social learning or experience-induced physiological alterations remains to be established.

  14. Oviposition Deterrents in Herbivorous Insects and their potential use in Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Archana; Kaushik, Nutan

    2016-03-01

    In the life cycle of insects, oviposition is an important phenomenon, and it is influenced by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, especially in relation to suitable hosts for completion of their life-cycle. Oviposition deterrents which deter an insect from laying eggs are important in the management of insect pests. Proper understanding of these deterrents shall provide necessary insight into new vistas for Insect Pest Management. Chemicals from plants and insects play an important role in attracting phytophagous insects for selecting host for oviposition. Considerable research has been done on oviposition deterrents and their mode of actions. In the present review, we have consolidated the updated information on this important aspect of insect behavior.

  15. Identification of communal oviposition pheromones from the black fly Simulium vittatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaha, Tommy W; Young, Ryan M; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Iburg, Joseph P; Beau, Jeremy M; Hassan, Sayed; Katholi, Charles R; Cupp, Eddie W; Baker, Bill J; Unnasch, Thomas R; Noblet, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    The suite of pheromones that promote communal oviposition by Simulium vittatum, a North American black fly species, was identified and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electrophysiological, and behavioral bioassays. Behavioral assays demonstrated that communal oviposition was induced by egg-derived compounds that were active at short range and whose effect was enhanced through direct contact. Three compounds (cis-9-tetradecen-1-ol, 1-pentadecene, and 1-tridecene) were identified in a non-polar solvent extract of freshly deposited S. vittatum eggs that were capable of inducing the oviposition response. Electroantennography demonstrated that two of these three compounds (1-pentadecene and 1-tridecene) actively stimulated antennal neurons. Identification of the oviposition pheromones of this family may be helpful in developing control measures for nuisance black flies and for medically-important species such as Simulium damnosum sensu lato.

  16. Identification of Communal Oviposition Pheromones from the Black Fly Simulium vittatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaha, Tommy W.; Young, Ryan M.; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; Iburg, Joseph P.; Beau, Jeremy M.; Hassan, Sayed; Katholi, Charles R.; Cupp, Eddie W.; Baker, Bill J.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Noblet, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    The suite of pheromones that promote communal oviposition by Simulium vittatum, a North American black fly species, was identified and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electrophysiological, and behavioral bioassays. Behavioral assays demonstrated that communal oviposition was induced by egg-derived compounds that were active at short range and whose effect was enhanced through direct contact. Three compounds (cis-9-tetradecen-1-ol, 1-pentadecene, and 1-tridecene) were identified in a non-polar solvent extract of freshly deposited S. vittatum eggs that were capable of inducing the oviposition response. Electroantennography demonstrated that two of these three compounds (1-pentadecene and 1-tridecene) actively stimulated antennal neurons. Identification of the oviposition pheromones of this family may be helpful in developing control measures for nuisance black flies and for medically-important species such as Simulium damnosum sensu lato. PMID:25786206

  17. Effect of egg weight and oviposition time on hatchability and post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of egg weight and oviposition time on hatchability and post hatch ... Hatchability parameters were determined during incubation period of 18 days. ... with egg weight, egg weight loss, percent egg weight loss and fertility percentage but ...

  18. Identification of communal oviposition pheromones from the black fly Simulium vittatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy W McGaha

    Full Text Available The suite of pheromones that promote communal oviposition by Simulium vittatum, a North American black fly species, was identified and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electrophysiological, and behavioral bioassays. Behavioral assays demonstrated that communal oviposition was induced by egg-derived compounds that were active at short range and whose effect was enhanced through direct contact. Three compounds (cis-9-tetradecen-1-ol, 1-pentadecene, and 1-tridecene were identified in a non-polar solvent extract of freshly deposited S. vittatum eggs that were capable of inducing the oviposition response. Electroantennography demonstrated that two of these three compounds (1-pentadecene and 1-tridecene actively stimulated antennal neurons. Identification of the oviposition pheromones of this family may be helpful in developing control measures for nuisance black flies and for medically-important species such as Simulium damnosum sensu lato.

  19. Creating Socionas: Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the

  20. Socialization to Student Affairs: Early Career Experiences Associated with Professional Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschy, Amy S.; Wilson, Maureen E.; Liddell, Debora L.; Boyle, Kathleen M.; Pasquesi, Kira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors propose and test a model of professional identity development among early career student affairs professionals. Using survey data from 173 new professionals (0-5 years of experience), factor analysis revealed 3 dimensions of professional identity: commitment, values congruence, and intellectual investment. Multivariate…

  1. Marijuana Experiences, Voting Behaviors, and Early Perspectives Regarding Marijuana Legalization among College Students from 2 States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students' (1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, (2) voting behaviors, and (3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. Participants: College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May and September 2013. Methods: Participants…

  2. The Social Experience of Early Childhood for Children with Learning Disabilities: Inclusion, Competence and Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nind, Melanie; Flewitt, Rosie; Payler, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper tells of the social experiences of three four-year-old children with learning disabilities as they negotiate their daily lives in their homes and early education settings in England. We apply a social model of childhood disability to the relatively unexplored territory of young children and use vignettes drawn from video observation to…

  3. Developing the Effective Teaching Skills of Teacher Candidates during Early Field Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Kelly A.; Schaffer, Connie

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the development of effective teaching skills in teacher candidates in the context of early field experiences directly tied to a pedagogical course. Evidence from faculty instructors, mentor teachers, and teacher candidates suggests secondary education candidates were able to develop effective teaching skills related to…

  4. The Impact of Discrimination on the Early Schooling Experiences of Children from Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Jennifer Keys

    2015-01-01

    How the young children of immigrants experience their early school years may in large part determine their academic future and negatively affect their emotional, social, and mental development. Children benefit from a positive, supportive learning environment where their contributions are valued; many from immigrant families, however, experience…

  5. Children's Communication and Socialization Skills by Types of Early Education Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohi; Fox, Jill

    2009-01-01

    This study is an investigation of children's communication skills and socialization by the types of their early education experiences (e.g., child care centers, private schools, public schools, home, or other). A total of 244 children (average age: 61 months) and their parents participated in this study. According to the results of this study,…

  6. Family Attachment Narrative Therapy: Healing the Experience of Early Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Joanne C.

    2005-01-01

    Based on attachment theory and research, Family Attachment Narrative Therapy is introduced as a new family therapy modality developed to heal the experience of early childhood maltreatment. Unresolved childhood trauma has been correlated with impaired and delayed cognitive, behavioral and emotional functioning. Gentle, soothing, nonprovocative and…

  7. Marijuana Experiences, Voting Behaviors, and Early Perspectives Regarding Marijuana Legalization among College Students from 2 States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students' (1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, (2) voting behaviors, and (3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. Participants: College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May and September 2013. Methods: Participants…

  8. The Fate of Early Experience Following Developmental Change: Longitudinal Approaches to Individual Adaptation in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined Bowlby's proposition that early experiences and the adaptations to which they give rise influence later development, even beyond the influence of current circumstances or very recent adaptation. Groups whose adaptation were similar during preschool years but consistently different earlier were defined and compared. Results supported…

  9. DNA Methylation: A Mechanism for Embedding Early Life Experiences in the Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyf, Moshe; Bick, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Although epidemiological data provide evidence that early life experience plays a critical role in human development, the mechanism of how this works remains in question. Recent data from human and animal literature suggest that epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, are involved not only in cellular differentiation but also in the…

  10. Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

  11. Development of Preservice Teachers' Value Orientations during a Secondary Methods Course and Early Field Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofo, Seidu; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the value orientations of physical education preservice teachers (PTs). The purposes of this study were to: (1) describe the extent to which one cohort of PTs' value orientations changed and developed during a secondary methods course and early field experience (EFE); and (2) determine why PTs' value orientations changed…

  12. Creating Socionas: Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the

  13. Cannabis use and subclinical positive psychotic experiences in early adolescence : findings from a Dutch survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gastel, Willemijn A; Wigman, Johanna T W; Monshouwer, Karin; Kahn, René S; van Os, Jim; Boks, Marco P M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the association between early cannabis use and subclinical psychotic experiences, distinguishing between five levels of use: never used, discontinued use (life-time users who did not use in the preceding year), experimental use, regular use and heavy use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional

  14. Onboarding Experiences: An Examination of Early Institutional Advancement Professionals' Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosh, Meghan E.

    2013-01-01

    Onboarding is a new employee orientation process that is designed to formalize and socialize new hires to an organization, or in this case higher education institutions. The onboarding experience that many new employees have can shape employee views and first impressions of their new employer, and shape their early career path to stay or leave…

  15. Early experience with the Intel iPSC/860 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, M.T.; Geist, G.A.; Drake, J.B.

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the early experience in using the Intel iPSC/860 parallel supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The hardware and software are described in some detail, and the machine's performance is studied using both simple computational kernels and a number of complete applications programs. 21 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Early experience with the Intel iPSC/860 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, M.T.; Geist, G.A.; Drake, J.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US))

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the early experience in using the Intel iPSC/860 parallel supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The hardware and software are described in some detail, and the machine's performance is studied using both simple computational kernels and a number of complete applications programs.

  17. Early life experiences affect the adaptive capacity of rearing hens during infectious challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, I.; Napel, ten J.; Kemp, B.; Schipper, H.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether pre- and early postnatal experiences of rearing hens contribute to the ability to cope with infectious challenges at an older age. In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 352 Lohmann Brown chicks were exposed to either suboptimal or optimized incubation plus hatch c

  18. DNA Methylation: A Mechanism for Embedding Early Life Experiences in the Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyf, Moshe; Bick, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Although epidemiological data provide evidence that early life experience plays a critical role in human development, the mechanism of how this works remains in question. Recent data from human and animal literature suggest that epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, are involved not only in cellular differentiation but also in the…

  19. Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

  20. Oxytocin mediates early experience-dependent cross-modal plasticity in the sensory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing-Jing; Li, Shu-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Di; Miao, Wan-Ying; Zhang, Dinghong; Yao, Haishan; Yu, Xiang

    2014-03-01

    Sensory experience is critical to development and plasticity of neural circuits. Here we report a new form of plasticity in neonatal mice, where early sensory experience cross-modally regulates development of all sensory cortices via oxytocin signaling. Unimodal sensory deprivation from birth through whisker deprivation or dark rearing reduced excitatory synaptic transmission in the correspondent sensory cortex and cross-modally in other sensory cortices. Sensory experience regulated synthesis and secretion of the neuropeptide oxytocin as well as its level in the cortex. Both in vivo oxytocin injection and increased sensory experience elevated excitatory synaptic transmission in multiple sensory cortices and significantly rescued the effects of sensory deprivation. Together, these results identify a new function for oxytocin in promoting cross-modal, experience-dependent cortical development. This link between sensory experience and oxytocin is particularly relevant to autism, where hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity to sensory inputs is prevalent and oxytocin is a hotly debated potential therapy.

  1. Oviposition Preferences for Infusion-Baited Traps and Seasonal Abundance of Culex Mosquitoes in Southwestern Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Bryan Tyler

    2004-01-01

    Field studies were conducted in southwestern Virginia to determine the bionomics and ovipositional preferences of Culex restuans Theobald and Culex pipiens Linnaeus using ovitraps and gravid traps. Both species have been implicated as enzootic and epizootic vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) and these studies provide information on the relative abundance of gravid mosquitoes. Ovitraps were used in the summers of 2002 and 2003 to measure the oviposition activity of Culex mosquitoes, main...

  2. Quantitative genetic variation for oviposition preference with respect to phenylthiocarbamide in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possidente, B; Mustafa, M; Collins, L

    1999-05-01

    Seven isogenic strains of Drosophila melanogaster were assayed for oviposition preference on food with phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) versus plain food. There was significant variation among strains for the percentage of eggs oviposited on each medium, ranging from 70 +/- 4% (SE) preference for plain food to no significant preference. Reciprocal hybrid, backcross, and F2 generations derived from two extreme parent strains revealed significant additive and nonadditive genetic variation but no evidence of maternal, paternal, or sex-chromosome effects.

  3. RNAi silencing of the HaHMG-CoA reductase gene inhibits oviposition in the Helicoverpa armigera cotton bollworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijian; Dong, Yongcheng; Desneux, Nicolas; Niu, Changying

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has considerable promise for developing novel pest control techniques, especially because of the threat of the development of resistance against current strategies. For this purpose, the key is to select pest control genes with the greatest potential for developing effective pest control treatments. The present study demonstrated that the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase; HMGR) gene is a potential target for insect control using RNAi. HMGR is a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway in insects. A complete cDNA encoding full length HMGR (encoding an 837-aa protein) was cloned from Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The HaHMGR (H. armigera HMGR) knockdown using systemic RNAi in vivo inhibited the fecundity of the females, effectively inhibited ovipostion, and significantly reduced vitellogenin (Vg) mRNA levels. Moreover, the oviposition rate of the female moths was reduced by 98% by silencing HaHMGR compared to the control groups. One-pair experiments showed that both the proportions of valid mating and fecundity were zero. Furthermore, the HaHMGR-silenced females failed to lay eggs (approximate 99% decrease in oviposition) in the semi-field cage performance. The present study demonstrated the potential implications for developing novel pest management strategies using HaHMGR RNAi in the control of H. armigera and other insect pests.

  4. An integrated hybrid microfluidic device for oviposition-based chemical screening of adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jacob C K; Hilliker, Arthur J; Rezai, Pouya

    2016-02-21

    Chemical screening using Drosophila melanogaster (the fruit fly) is vital in drug discovery, agricultural, and toxicological applications. Oviposition (egg laying) on chemically-doped agar plates is an important read-out metric used to quantitatively assess the biological fitness and behavioral responses of Drosophila. Current oviposition-based chemical screening studies are inaccurate, labor-intensive, time-consuming, and inflexible due to the manual chemical doping of agar. In this paper, we have developed a novel hybrid agar-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device for single- and multi-concentration chemical dosing and on-chip oviposition screening of free-flying adult stage Drosophila. To achieve this, we have devised a novel technique to integrate agar with PDMS channels using ice as a sacrificial layer. Subsequently, we have conducted single-chemical toxicity and multiple choice chemical preference assays on adult Drosophila melanogaster using zinc and acetic acid at various concentrations. Our device has enabled us to 1) demonstrate that Drosophila is capable of sensing the concentration of different chemicals on a PDMS-agar microfluidic device, which plays significant roles in determining oviposition site selection and 2) investigate whether oviposition preference differs between single- and multi-concentration chemical environments. This device may be used to study fundamental and applied biological questions in Drosophila and other egg laying insects. It can also be extended in design to develop sophisticated and dynamic chemical dosing and high-throughput screening platforms in the future that are not easily achievable with the existing oviposition screening techniques.

  5. An early neutrino experiment: how we missed quark substructure in 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, D. H.

    2013-12-01

    Some 50 years after the event seems to be an appropriate time at which to take a long look back at one of the early neutrino experiments at CERN. This report is principally about a failure in a 1963 bubble chamber experiment to detect substructure in the nucleon, a year before the quark concept was invented by Gell-Mann and Zweig, and some five years before the existence of quarks as real dynamical objects was definitely established in deep inelastic electron scattering experiments at Stanford.

  6. Feeding and oviposition preference of Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser) (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) on several crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lenita J; Garcia, Maria A; Hoffmann-Campo, Clara B; do Amaral, Maria L B

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out to study food and oviposition preference by Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser) on different plant species as Cajanus cajan L. (pigeon pea), Crotalaria juncea L. (sun hemp), Crotalaria spectabilis Roth (showy crotalaria), Crotalaria ochroleuca G. Don (slenderleaf rattlebox), Glycine max [L.] Merrill (soybean), Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton), Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower), Stizolobium aterrimum [Mucuna aterrima] Piper Tracey (velvetbean) and Zea mays L. (mayze). In no-choice experiments, the number of eggs layed in sunflower, C. juncea and soybean was larger compared to cotton. Despite the fact that the adults did not discriminate among plants, in dual-choice test, the proportion of eggs layed and leaf consumption by P. cuyabana adults in soybean were significantly higher than in C. spectabilis. The larval distribution in the soil was at random in multiple-choice, without any trend of preference, but in dual-choice, when soybean was the control, larvae always preferred to feed on its roots. P. cuyabana adults had preference for more suitable hosts and that could stand their offspring survival. This behaviour can be usefully exploited in an integrated management program for this pest.

  7. Feeding and oviposition preference of Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser) (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) on several crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Lenita J.; Hoffmann-Campo, Clara B. [EMBRAPA Soja, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja]. E-mail: lenita@cnpso.embrapa.br; Garcia, Maria A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Zoologia; Amaral, Maria L.B. do [Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2007-09-15

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out to study food and oviposition preference by Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser) on different plant species as Cajanus cajan L. (pigeon pea), Crotalaria juncea L. (sun hemp), Crotalaria spectabilis Roth (showy crotalaria), Crotalaria ochroleuca G. Don (slenderleaf rattlebox), Glycine max [L.] Merrill (soybean), Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton), Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower), Stizolobium aterrimum [Mucuna aterrima] Piper and Tracey (velvetbean) and Zea mays L. (mayze). In no-choice experiments, the number of eggs layed in sunflower, C. juncea and soybean was larger compared to cotton. Despite the fact that the adults did not discriminate among plants, in dual-choice test, the proportion of eggs layed and leaf consumption by P. cuyabana adults in soybean were significantly higher than in C. spectabilis. The larval distribution in the soil was at random in multiple-choice, without any trend of preference, but in dual-choice, when soybean was the control, larvae always preferred to feed on its roots. P. cuyabana adults had preference for more suitable hosts and that could stand their offspring survival. This behaviour can be usefully exploited in an integrated management program for this pest. (author)

  8. Dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among early adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syudo Yamasaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peer victimization increases the risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms among clinical and general populations, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. Dissociation, which is related to peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences, has been demonstrated as a significant mediator in the relation between childhood victimization and hallucinatory experience among adult patients with psychosis. However, no studies have examined the mediating effect of dissociation in a general early adolescent population. We examined whether dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among 10-year-old adolescents using a population-based cross-sectional survey of early adolescents and their main parent (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey; N = 4478. We examined the mediating effect of dissociation, as well as external locus of control and depressive symptoms, on the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences using path analysis. The model assuming mediation effects indicated good model fit (comparative fit index = .999; root mean square error of approximation = .015. The mediation effect between peer victimization and hallucination via dissociation (standardized indirect effect = .038, p < .001 was statistically significant, whereas the mediation effects of depressive symptoms (standardized indirect effect = −.0066, p = 0.318 and external locus of control (standardized indirect effect = .0024, p = 0.321 were not significant. These results suggest that dissociation is a mediator in the relation between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences in early adolescence. For appropriate intervention strategies, assessing dissociation and peer victimization as they affect hallucinatory experiences is necessary.

  9. Sweet potato resistance to Euscepes postfasciatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): larval performance adversely effected by adult's preference to tuber for food and oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Y; Yasuda, K; Sakai, T; Ichinose, K

    2014-08-01

    The preferences of the West Indian sweet potato weevil, Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire), to tubers of sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.), for food and for oviposition were evaluated, and correlated to sweet potato's resistance to immatures. Adults (parent) were released in a plastic box containing tubers of sweet potato cultivars and maintained for 5 d, after which the adults on each tuber were counted. All adults were then removed and each tuber was maintained separately. New adults that emerged from the tubers were counted. Cultivars were grouped by cluster analyses using the number of parent adults on the tubers and the number of new adults emerging from the tubers, adjusted for the weight of each tuber. Cultivars were divided into five groups: average level of preference, preferred, preferred for oviposition but not for food, preferred for food but not for oviposition, and not preferred. New adults from the first two groups took less time to eclose than those from the other groups, and their body size was smaller. In a second experiment, one to five cultivars were selected from each group and inoculated each tuber with 10 weevil eggs on each cultivar. Although the proportion of eclosed adults was not significantly different between cultivars, the time to eclosion was shorter and body size was smaller on preferred cultivars. The selection of tubers by parent adults was not linearly related with larval development, and did not reduce the survival of the immatures.

  10. Early experience affects adult personality in the red junglefowl: A role for cognitive stimulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidar, Josefina; Sorato, Enrico; Malmqvist, Ann-Marie; Jansson, Emelie; Rosher, Charlotte; Jensen, Per; Favati, Anna; Løvlie, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Despite intense research efforts, biologists are still puzzled by the existence of animal personality. While recent studies support a link between cognition and personality, the directionality of this relationship still needs to be clarified. Early-life experiences can affect adult behaviour, and among these, cognitive stimulation has been suggested theoretically to influence personality. Yet, the influence of early cognitive stimulation has rarely been explored in empirical investigations of animal behaviour and personality. We investigated the effect of early cognitive stimulation on adult personality in the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). To this end, we assessed adult behaviour across a number of personality assays and compared behaviour of individuals previously exposed to a series of learning tasks as chicks, with that of control individuals lacking this experience. We found that individuals exposed to early stimulation were, as adults, more vigilant and performed fewer escape attempts in personality assays. Other behaviours describing personality traits in the fowl were not affected. We conclude that our results support the hypothesis that early stimulation can affect aspects of adult behaviour and personality, suggesting a hitherto underappreciated causality link between cognition and personality. Future research should aim to confirm these findings and resolve their underlying dynamics and proximate mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Conserved epigenetic sensitivity to early life experience in the rat and human hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suderman, Matthew; McGowan, Patrick O; Sasaki, Aya; Huang, Tony C T; Hallett, Michael T; Meaney, Michael J; Turecki, Gustavo; Szyf, Moshe

    2012-10-16

    Early life experience is associated with long-term effects on behavior and epigenetic programming of the NR3C1 (GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR) gene in the hippocampus of both rats and humans. However, it is unlikely that such effects completely capture the evolutionarily conserved epigenetic mechanisms of early adaptation to environment. Here we present DNA methylation profiles spanning 6.5 million base pairs centered at the NR3C1 gene in the hippocampus of humans who experienced abuse as children and nonabused controls. We compare these profiles to corresponding DNA methylation profiles in rats that received differential levels of maternal care. The profiles of both species reveal hundreds of DNA methylation differences associated with early life experience distributed across the entire region in nonrandom patterns. For instance, methylation differences tend to cluster by genomic location, forming clusters covering as many as 1 million bases. Even more surprisingly, these differences seem to specifically target regulatory regions such as gene promoters, particularly those of the protocadherin α, β, and γ gene families. Beyond these high-level similarities, more detailed analyses reveal methylation differences likely stemming from the significant biological and environmental differences between species. These results provide support for an analogous cross-species epigenetic regulatory response at the level of the genomic region to early life experience.

  12. PEACESAT (Pan Pacific Education and Communication Experiments by Satellite) Project Early Experience: The Design and Early Years of the First Educational Communication Satellite Experiment. Report 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu.

    The PEACESAT Project (Pan Pacific Education and Communication Experiments by Satellite) has been in daily operation for four years since April 1971. Initiated as an individual research project of a university faculty member, it has expanded to involve educational institutions in 12 countries or jurisdictions in the Pacific Basin. These…

  13. Associations between early life experience, chronic HPA axis activity, and adult social rank in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Wooddell, Lauren J; Rosenberg, Kendra L; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2017-02-01

    Early life experience and socioeconomic status (SES) are well-established predictors of health outcomes in people. Both factors likely influence health outcomes via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. However, it is unclear how early experience and HPA axis activity influence adult social status. We studied differentially reared female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, N = 90) as models to test the hypothesis that chronic HPA axis activity assessed via hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) mediated the relationship between early life experience and adult social rank. We found that mother-peer-reared (MPR) monkeys acquired higher social ranks than either of the two nursery-reared (NR) groups (peer-reared, PR, or surrogate-peer-reared, SPR monkeys) (β = -0.07, t(89) = -2.16, p = 0.034). We also found that MPR HCCs were lower during the juvenile period at 18 months (F(2,25) = 3.49, p = 0.047). Furthermore, for MPR but not NR monkeys, changes in HCCs from 18 to 24 months (r(s) = -0.627, p = 0.039) and adult HCCs (r(s) = -0.321, p = 0.03) were negatively correlated with adult social rank. These findings suggest that chronic HPA axis regulation in juvenility, and perhaps in adulthood, may influence adult social status for primates that experience typical early rearing. However, early life adversity may result in dissociation between neuroendocrine stress regulation and adult social competence, which may be risk factors for adverse health outcomes.

  14. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler RE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Racquel E Kohler,1 Clara N Lee,2 Satish Gopal,3 Bryce B Reeve,1 Bryan J Weiner,1 Stephanie B Wheeler11Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3UNC Project-Malawi, Tidziwe Center, Lilongwe, MalawiBackground: In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women’s preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment.Objective: To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women’s preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare.Methods: We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs.Results: Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants’ responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes

  15. Oviposition strategies of conifer seed chalcids in relation to host phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouault, Gaëlle; Turgeon, Jean; Candau, Jean-Noël; Roques, Alain; Aderkas, Patrick

    2004-10-01

    Insects are considered the most important predators of seed cones, the female reproductive structures of conifers, prior to seed dispersal. Slightly more than 100 genera of insects are known to parasitize conifer seed cones. The most diverse (i.e., number of species) of these genera is Megastigmus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), which comprises many important seed pests of native and exotic conifers. Seed chalcids, Megastigmus spp., lay eggs inside the developing ovules of host conifers and, until recently, oviposition was believed to occur only in fertilized ovules. Ovule development begins just after pollination, but stops if cells are not fertilized. The morphological stage of cone development at the time of oviposition by seed chalcids has been established for many species; however, knowledge of ovule development at that time has been documented for only one species, M. spermotrophus. Megastigmus spermotrophus oviposits in Douglas-fir ovules after pollination but before fertilization. Unlike the unfertilized ovules, those containing a M. spermotrophus larva continue to develop, whether fertilized or not, stressing the need to broaden our understanding of the insect plant interactions for this entire genus. To achieve this task, we reviewed the scientific literature and assembled information pertaining to the timing of oviposition and to the pollination and fertilization periods of their respective host(s). More specifically, we were searching for circumstantial evidence that other species of Megastigmus associated with conifers could behave (i.e., oviposit before ovule fertilization) and impact on female gametophyte (i.e., prevent abortion) like M. spermotrophus. The evidence from our compilation suggests that seed chalcids infesting Pinaceae may also oviposit before ovule fertilization, just like M. spermotrophus, whereas those infesting Cupressaceae seemingly oviposit after ovule fertilization. Based on this evidence, we hypothesize that all species of Megastigmus

  16. Effects of early life adverse experiences on brain activity: Implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi eNishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been completely elucidated. In this review, we introduce various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT, an end product of the HPA axis in rodents. We then present a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression, a biological marker of neuronal activity. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we discuss how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders. Furthermore, alterations in gene expression in adult mice exposed to MS, especially epigenetic changes of DNA methylation, are discussed.

  17. Role of bacteria in the oviposition behaviour and larval development of stable flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A; Broce, A; Zurek, L

    2006-03-01

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are the most important pests of cattle in the United States. However, adequate management strategies for stable flies, especially for pastured cattle, are lacking. Microbial/symbiont-based approaches offer novel venues for management of insect pests and/or vector-borne human and animal pathogens. Unfortunately, the fundamental knowledge of stable fly-microbial associations and their effect on stable fly biology is lacking. In this study, stable flies laid greater numbers of eggs on a substrate with an active microbial community (> 95% of total eggs oviposited) than on a sterilized substrate. In addition, stable fly larvae could not develop in a sterilized natural or artificial substrate/medium. Bacteria were isolated and identified from a natural stable fly oviposition/developmental habitat and their individual effect on stable fly oviposition response and larval development was evaluated in laboratory bioassays. Of nine bacterial strains evaluated in the oviposition bioassays, Citrobacter freundii stimulated oviposition to the greatest extent. C. freundii also sustained stable fly development, but to a lesser degree than Serratia fanticola. Serratia marcescens and Aeromonas spp. neither stimulated oviposition nor supported stable fly development. These results demonstrate a stable fly bacterial symbiosis; stable fly larval development depends on a live microbial community in the natural habitat, and stable fly females are capable of selecting an oviposition site based on the microbially derived stimuli that indicate the suitability of the substrate for larval development. This study shows a promising starting point for exploiting stable fly-bacterial associations for development of novel approaches for stable fly management.

  18. Oviposition deterring and oviciding potentials of Ipomoea cairica L. leaf extract against dengue vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahbirami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Yahaya, Zary Shariman; Dieng, Hamady; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Fadzly, Nik; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abu Bakar, Sazaly

    2014-09-01

    Bioprospecting of plant-based insecticides for vector control has become an area of interest within the last two decades. Due to drawbacks of chemical insecticides, phytochemicals of plant origin with mosquito control potential are being utilized as alternative sources in integrated vector control. In this regard, the present study aimed to investigate oviposition deterring and oviciding potentials of Ipomoea cairica (L.) (Family: Convolvulaceae) crude leaf extract against dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Ipomoea cairica is an indigenous plant that has demonstrated marked toxicity towards larvae of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Leaves of I. cairica were extracted using Soxhlet apparatus with acetone as solvent. Oviposition deterrent activity and ovicidal assay was carried out in oviposition site choice tests with three different concentrations (50, 100, 450 ppm). Acetone extract of I. cairica leaf strongly inhibited oviposition with 100% repellence to Ae. aegypti at lower concentration of 100 ppm, while for Ae. albopictus was at 450 ppm. The oviposition activity index (OAI) values which ranged from -0.69 to -1.00 revealed that I. cairica demonstrated deterrent effect. In ovicidal assay, similar trend was observed whereby zero hatchability was recorded for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus eggs at 100 and 450 ppm, respectively. It is noteworthy that I. cairica leaf extract had significantly elicited dual properties as oviposition deterrent and oviciding agent in both Aedes species. Reduction in egg number through oviposition deterring activity, reduction in hatching percentage and survival rates, suggested an additional hallmark of this plant to be integrated in Aedes mosquito control. Ipomoea cairica deserved to be considered as one of the potential alternative sources for the new development of novel plant based insecticides in future.

  19. Bias to pollen odors is affected by early exposure and foraging experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, A; Farina, W M

    2014-07-01

    In many pollinating insects, foraging preferences are adjusted on the basis of floral cues learned at the foraging site. In addition, olfactory experiences gained at early adult stages might also help them to initially choose food sources. To understand pollen search behavior of honeybees, we studied how responses elicited by pollen-based odors are biased in foraging-age workers according to (i) their genetic predisposition to collect pollen, (ii) pollen related information gained during foraging and (iii) different experiences with pollen gained at early adult ages. Bees returning to the hive carrying pollen loads, were strongly biased to unfamiliar pollen bouquets when tested in a food choice device against pure odors. Moreover, pollen foragers' orientation response was specific to the odors emitted by the pollen type they were carrying on their baskets, which suggests that foragers retrieve pollen odor information to recognize rewarding flowers outside the hive. We observed that attraction to pollen odor was mediated by the exposure to a pollen diet during the first week of life. We did not observe the same attraction in foraging-age bees early exposed to an artificial diet that did not contain pollen. Contrary to the specific response observed to cues acquired during foraging, early exposure to single-pollen diets did not bias orientation response towards a specific pollen odor in foraging-age bees (i.e. bees chose equally between the exposed and the novel monofloral pollen odors). Our results show that pollen exposure at early ages together with olfactory experiences gained in a foraging context are both relevant to bias honeybees' pollen search behavior.

  20. Puncture resistance in 'Sharwil' avocado to oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A

    2009-06-01

    The physiological basis for host antibiosis or nonpreference to a quarantine pest is often not understood. Studies are needed on the mechanisms that impart resistance to better understand how resistance might fail. Experiments were conducted to examine the infestability of 'Sharwil' avocados by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), after harvest and to quantify the effect of avocado skin hardness on resistance to infestation by oriental fruit fly. Infestation rate increased with decreasing fruit firmness, but fruit were generally poor hosts. Fruit with a patch of skin removed produced more flies than intact fruit, suggesting that skin puncture resistance was an important deterrent to oviposition. This study showed that fruit can be infested within 1 d after harvest, suggesting that fruit should be transferred to fruit fly-proof containers as they are harvested to minimize the risk of attack. Although risk of infestation is negatively correlated with fruit firmness, even some hard fruit may become infested. Therefore, fruit firmness cannot be used alone as an indicator to ensure fruit fly-free 'Sharwil' avocados. Measuring fruit firmness may be a useful component of a multiple component systems approach as an additional safeguard to reduce risk of infestation.

  1. "It's Just So Lovely to Hear Him Talking": Exploring the Early-Intervention Expectations and Experiences of Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Rena; O'Malley, Mary Pat; O'Connor, Patricia; Monaghan, Una

    2010-01-01

    Little research to date explores parental experiences of early intervention. This study uses action research over a six-month period to explore the expectations and experiences of parents whose children attended an early-intervention group for speech/language impairments. This intervention programme was facilitated by a speech and language…

  2. First-time pregnant women's experiences of their body in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergbom, Ingegerd; Modh, Carin; Lundgren, Ingela; Lindwall, Lillemor

    2016-10-11

    The body of first-time pregnant women is affected in many ways, and the women may not know what to expect. Conversations between women and healthcare personnel about women's bodily experience in early pregnancy can contribute to increased body knowledge, which may have a positive impact in later stages of their pregnancy and in relation to delivery. The aim of the study was to describe first-time pregnant women's experiences of their body in early pregnancy (pregnancy weeks 10-14). Twelve women were asked to draw pictures and answer questions freely about their experiences of their first pregnant body. Hermeneutical text interpretation was used to obtain an overall view of the experiences. A main theme emerged: 'the body is connected to the cycle of life'. This theme comprised five subthemes: 'bodily longing and a sense of ambivalence', 'being doubtful', 'welcoming changes in body and mind', 'feeling inner strength and struggle to find strength' and 'accepting a different body and mind'. This main theme and the subthemes were further interpreted and were understood as an experience of 'me and my body'. The body reminded the women to take care of it and gave rise to positive thoughts. When the body exhibited uncomfortable reactions and sensations, these were taken as evidence of pregnancy, which was also seen positive but it also triggered a sense of dissatisfaction with the body and a feeling of it becoming alien. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. The Holy Spirit and the early Church: The experience of the Spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes van Oort

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, the present article explored the occurrence of special gifts of the Holy Spirit (charismata both in the New Testament and in a number of early Christian writers (e.g. Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian and Augustine. Secondly, it indicated how this experience of special charismata exerted its influence on the formulation of the most authoritative and ecumenical statement of belief, viz. the Creed of Nicaea-Constantinople (381.

  4. Devaluation of low-quality food during early experience by sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, F; Freidin, E; Cuello, M I; Distel, R A

    2011-05-01

    A ruminant's early experience with low-quality food (LQF) is expected to increase its acceptance and preference in adulthood. Contrarily, we found that experienced sheep (ES) exposed to mature oat hay early in life ate less of this LQF than inexperienced sheep (IS). A possibility is that ES might have devaluated the LQF through continuous comparisons against high-quality food (HQF) supplements (sunflower meal and ground corn) that were simultaneously available during early experience. In this study, we tested the devaluation hypothesis with a successive negative contrast (SNC) procedure. In a consummatory SNC procedure, 'shift' subjects are unexpectedly changed from HQF to LQF, and their consumption is then compared against the consumption of 'unshift' subjects that receive LQF all throughout the SNC procedure. The magnitude of the difference in consumption between preshift and postshift is regarded as a measure of the degree to which both foods (HQF and LQF) are perceived to differ hedonically. When sheep from our previous study were 300 days old, both ES and IS were randomly assigned to either shift (ES-S and IS-S) or unshift conditions (ES-U and IS-U; n = 6 in each group). Groups ES-S and IS-S were fed HQF (alfalfa hay) during the preshift phase, and then suddenly changed to LQF (oat hay) in the postshift phase. Groups ES-U and IS-U (controls) were fed only LQF throughout the SNC procedure. Subjects in ES-S showed a significantly lower intake of LQF than those in ES-U in the first postshift session (i.e. they showed an SNC effect), which was not observed in IS. These results agree with ES subjects having devalued LQF during early experience. We discuss the possibility that high levels of nutrient supplementation can result in devaluation of LQF (i.e. decrease in preference and acceptance), whereas restricted levels of supplementation may promote a positive experience with LQF.

  5. Early childhood experiences, parenting and the process of drug dependency among young people in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlashari, Jila; Demirkol, Apo; Salsali, Mahvash; Rafiey, Hassan; Jahanbani, Jahanfar

    2012-06-01

    Substance abuse has become a major public health problem in Iran. The process of developing an addiction is complex and multifaceted. Early childhood experiences are thought to be one of the important determinants of addictive behaviour. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the early childhood experiences, especially the experiences within the immediate family, of current substance-using young adults in Iran. The study is qualitative in nature. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young men and women who were either in treatment for their addiction or were active drug users at the time of the interviews. Moreover, four interviews have been conducted with family members of participants. The majority of the participants experienced traumatic events during childhood and came from dysfunctional families. There appears to be a significant disconnect between these individuals and their families. An obedience-instilling parenting style and parents' knowledge and attitude toward drug using and prevention were also identified as important determinants of substance use. The results of this research point out the need for early interventions for at-risk families as well as at-risk individuals. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Children with disorders of sex development: A qualitative study of early parental experience

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    Crissman Halley P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical research on psychological aspects of disorders of sex development (DSD has focused on psychosexual differentiation with relatively little attention directed toward parents' experiences of early clinical management and their influence on patient and family psychosocial adaptation. Objectives To characterize parental experiences in the early clinical care of children born with DSD. Study Design Content analysis of interviews with parents (n = 41 of 28 children, newborn to 6 years, with DSD. Results Four major domains emerged as salient to parents: (1 the gender assignment process, (2 decisions regarding genital surgery, (3 disclosing information about their child's DSD, and (4 interacting with healthcare providers. Findings suggested discordance between scientific and parental understandings of the determinants of "sex" and "gender." Parents' expectations regarding the benefits of genital surgery appear largely met; however, parents still had concerns about their child's future physical, social and sexual development. Two areas experienced by many parents as particularly stressful were: (1 uncertainties regarding diagnosis and optimal management, and (2 conflicts between maintaining privacy versus disclosing the condition to access social support. Conclusions Parents' experiences and gaps in understanding can be used to inform the clinical care of patients with DSD and their families. Improving communication between parents and providers (and between parents and their support providers throughout the early clinical management process may be important in decreasing stress and improving outcomes for families of children with DSD.

  7. Mucho camino: the experiences of two undocumented Mexican mothers participating in their child's early intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, M Irma

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the experiences of two mothers of Mexican origin who are immigrants living under undocumented status in the United States and who participated in their children's early intervention programs. In-depth interviews, archival data, and participant observation conducted with two mothers of children with special needs provided data for this case study design research. A phenomenological analytical approach and qualitative data analysis software were employed to gain understandings particular to each family's experience. These families share similar experiences and interactions with many other families in the United States who live within the context of having a child with a disabling condition. Constraints on family functioning related to the families' status of undocumented immigration included: mothers as active participants in their children's early intervention programs, mothers' understanding of their children, mothers' communication with service providers, and life as an immigrant family of Mexican origin living under undocumented status. The examination of how these mothers negotiated family life while participating in their child's early intervention program provides an appreciation for how these families view the long road--"mucho camino"--involved in achieving their family's well-being.

  8. Early experience shapes amygdala sensitivity to race: an international adoption design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Flannery, Jessica; Shapiro, Mor; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Goff, Bonnie; Gabard-Durman, Laurel; Gee, Dylan D; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-08-14

    In the current study, we investigated how complete infant deprivation to out-group race impacts behavioral and neural sensitivity to race. Although monkey models have successfully achieved complete face deprivation in early life, this is typically impossible in human studies. We overcame this barrier by examining youths with exclusively homogenous racial experience in early postnatal development. These were youths raised in orphanage care in either East Asia or Eastern Europe as infants and later adopted by American families. The use of international adoption bolsters confidence of infant exposure to race (e.g., to solely Asian faces or European faces). Participants completed an emotional matching task during functional MRI. Our findings show that deprivation to other-race faces in infancy disrupts recognition of emotion and results in heightened amygdala response to out-group faces. Greater early deprivation (i.e., later age of adoption) is associated with greater biases to race. These data demonstrate how early social deprivation to race shapes amygdala function later in life and provides support that early postnatal development may represent a sensitive period for race perception.

  9. Deep brain stimulation in early stage Parkinson's disease: operative experience from a prospective randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Elyne; D'Haese, Pierre-Francois; Dawant, Benoit; Allen, Laura; Kao, Chris; Charles, P David; Konrad, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) may have a disease modifying effect in early Parkinson's disease (PD). A randomised, prospective study is underway to determine whether STN-DBS in early PD is safe and tolerable. 15 of 30 early PD patients were randomised to receive STN-DBS implants in an institutional review board approved protocol. Operative technique, location of DBS leads and perioperative adverse events are reported. Active contact used for stimulation in these patients was compared with 47 advanced PD patients undergoing an identical procedure by the same surgeon. 14 of the 15 patients did not sustain any long term (>3 months) complications from the surgery. One subject suffered a stroke resulting in mild cognitive changes and slight right arm and face weakness. The average optimal contact used in symptomatic treatment of early PD patients was: anterior -1.1±1.7 mm, lateral 10.7±1.7 mm and superior -3.3±2.5 mm (anterior and posterior commissure coordinates). This location is statistically no different (0.77 mm, p>0.05) than the optimal contact used in the treatment of 47 advanced PD patients. The perioperative adverse events in this trial of subjects with early stage PD are comparable with those reported for STN-DBS in advanced PD. The active contact position used in early PD is not significantly different from that used in late stage disease. This is the first report of the operative experience from a randomised, surgical versus best medical therapy trial for the early treatment of PD.

  10. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  11. Early experience with racial discrimination and conduct disorder as predictors of subsequent drug use: a critical period hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Frederick X; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen; Gerrard, Meg; Cleveland, Michael J; Cutrona, Carolyn; Simons, Ronald L; Brody, Gene H

    2007-04-01

    A critical period hypothesis linking early experiences with both racial discrimination and conduct disorder (CD) with subsequent drug use was examined in a panel of 889 African American adolescents (age 10.5 at time 1) and their parents. Analyses indicated that these early experiences did predict use by the adolescents at time 3 (T3)-5 years later. These relations were both direct and indirect, being mediated by an increase in affiliation with friends who were using drugs. The relations existed controlling for parents' reports of their use, discrimination experiences, and their socioeconomic status (SES). The impact of these early experiences on African American families is discussed.

  12. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition Preference as Influenced by Container Size and Buddleja davidii Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy J; Kline, Daniel L; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2016-03-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is a container-breeding mosquito commonly found in residential areas of its range in the United States. Mosquitoes are known to utilize flowering plants for sugar acquisition. Limited information is known about the influences on oviposition site selection, outside of container size. Residential areas are often landscaped with a variety of flowering plants and are known to provide numerous sizes of potential larval developmental sites for container-breeding mosqutioes. Through screened enclosure and field studies, the oviposition preference of Ae. albopictus for containers of three selected sizes (473, 946 and 1,892 ml) and the influence of flowering butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii Franchett cultivar 'Guinevere') plants were examined. Our results document that significantly more eggs were oviposited in the largest containers. Additionally, significantly more eggs were oviposited in containers adjacent to flowering butterfly bushes than in those without a flowering butterfly bush. Finally, our results document that flowering butterfly bushes exerted greater influence over Ae. albopictus oviposition decisions than did container size. Our findings can be applied to several aspects of Ae. albopictus surveillance and control.

  13. Different repellents for Aedes aegypti against blood-feeding and oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afify, Ali; Horlacher, Bérénice; Roller, Johannes; Galizia, C Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Methyl N,N-dimethyl anthranilate (MDA), ethyl anthranilate (EA) and butyl anthranilate (BA) were previously shown to repel Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from landing on human skin. However, the effect of these compounds on the orientation of flying mosquitoes in a choice situation and their effect on mosquito oviposition are not yet known. Here, we used a modified Y-tube olfactometer to test the effect of these compounds on the orientation of Aedes aegypti flying towards skin odor (human fingers), and we tested their effect on Aedes aegypti oviposition choice in a cage assay. In both behavioral situations we compared the effect to the well-documented repellent N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET). MDA, EA, and DEET inhibited Aedes aegypti from flying towards skin odor while BA had no such effect. Conversely, MDA had no effect on oviposition while EA, BA, and DEET deterred oviposition, with the strongest effect observed for BA. Thus, we confirm that EA and DEET are generally repellent, while MDA is repellent only in a host-seeking context, and BA is deterrent only in an oviposition context. These compounds appear of potential use in mosquito control programs.

  14. D-Pinitol in Fabaceae: an Oviposition Stimulant for the Common Grass Yellow Butterfly, Eurema mandarina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukae, Shin-Ya; Ohashi, Toshiki; Matsumoto, Yuika; Ohta, Shinji; Ômura, Hisashi

    2016-11-01

    The common grass yellow butterfly, Eurema mandarina (formerly Eurema hecabe mandarina) (Lepidoptera, Pieridae), recently has been separated taxonomically from a subtropical population of Eurema hecabe in Japan. This species is widely distributed in the temperate region of Japan, and feeds mainly on various ligneous plants within the Fabaceae. We attempted to identify an oviposition stimulant for E. mandarina from its primary hosts, Albizia julibrissin and Lespedeza cuneata. In both hosts, crude extract and an aqueous fraction elicited oviposition responses from gravid females. A polar subfraction of the aqueous fraction also stimulated high oviposition-stimulatory activity, comparable to the original aqueous fraction, suggesting that E. mandarina females use water-soluble compounds for host recognition. Subsequent activity-directed fractionation by ion exchange chromatography indicated that one of the key substances was contained in the neutral/amphoteric fraction. Chemical analyses revealed that the active fractions of both hosts contained D-(+)-pinitol as the major component. We examined female responses to authentic D-pinitol and found that it induced oviposition responses at concentrations greater than 0.1 %. Since this cyclitol is omnipresent in Fabaceae, we conclude that D-pinitol plays a role in mediating oviposition of E. mandarina on fabaceous plants.

  15. Early liver retransplantation versus late liver retransplantation:analysis of a single-center experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Gui-hua; ZHANG Jun-feng; ZHANG Tong; WANG Guo-ying; FU Bin-sheng; YANG Yang; CAI Chang-jie; LU Min-qiang; LI Hua; WANG Gen-shu; YI Shu-hong; XU Chi

    2008-01-01

    Background Orthotopic liver retransplantation (re-OLT) is the only effective therapy for irreversible failure of a liver graft. Early and late graft failure gives way to two different clinical conditions that should be discussed separately. This study was designed to compare early and late re-OLT for patients with poor graft function after primary transplantation at our center and sum up our clinical experience in re-OLT.Methods The clinical data of 31 re-OLTs at our center from January 2004 to February 2007 were analyzed retrospectively, consisting of the first group with 14 cases of early re-OLT and the second group with 17 cases of late re-OLT.Results Biliary tract complications were the main indications for early re-OLT (57.1%) and late re-OLT (52.9%). Other common indications were vascular complications in early re-OLT and recurrence of primary diseases in late re-OLT. No significant differences were found between the groups with regard to the volume of bleeding during operation, cold ischemia time, operative duration, and perioperative mortality; except for the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. Outcome was fatal for 7 patients in early re-OLT and 9 patients in late re-OLT. Two deaths were due to multiple organ failure with 3 deaths due to severe sepsis-related disease in early re-OLT, and 4 deaths were due to severe sepsis-related disease with 3 deaths due to recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in late re-OLT. One and 2-year actuarial survival rates after re-OLT were 55.2% and 36.9%, respectively, for patients in early re-OLT, and 65.1% and 52% respectively, for patients in late re-OLT. No significant differences were found regarding survival rates between the two groups.Conclusions Similar clinical results can be achieved in early and late re-OLT. Proper indications and optimal operation timing, adequate preoperative preparation, experienced surgical procedures, and effective perioperative anti-infection strategy contribute to the

  16. Consequences of early adverse rearing experience (EARE) on development: insights from non-human primate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Early rearing experiences are important in one's whole life, whereas early adverse rearing experience (EARE) is usually related to various physical and mental disorders in later life. Although there were many studies on human and animals, regarding the effect of EARE on brain development, neuroendocrine systems, as well as the consequential mental disorders and behavioral abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Due to the close genetic relationship and similarity in social organizations with humans, non-human primate (NHP) studies were performed for over 60 years. Various EARE models were developed to disrupt the early normal interactions between infants and mothers or peers. Those studies provided important insights of EARE induced effects on the physiological and behavioral systems of NHPs across life span, such as social behaviors (including disturbance behavior, social deficiency, sexual behavior, etc), learning and memory ability, brain structural and functional developments (including influences on neurons and glia cells, neuroendocrine systems, e.g., hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, etc). In this review, the effects of EARE and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms were comprehensively summarized and the possibility of rehabilitation was discussed. PMID:28271667

  17. Early experiences matter: lasting effect of concentrated disadvantage on children's language and cognitive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jennifer E V; Li, Leah; Hertzman, Clyde

    2010-03-01

    A small but provocative literature suggests that neighbourhood socioeconomic conditions experienced by children early in life influence a variety of health and developmental outcomes later in life. We contribute to this literature by testing the degree to which neighbourhood socioeconomic conditions that children experience in Kindergarten influence their later language and cognitive outcomes in early adolescence, over and above current neighbourhood context and various child-level covariates including scores on a Kindergarten measure of school readiness. Cross-classified random effects modelling (CCREM) analyses were performed on a study population of 2648 urban children residing throughout the province of British Columbia, Canada, who were followed longitudinally from Kindergarten (age 5/6) to Grade 7 (age 12/13). Findings demonstrate that neighbourhood concentrated disadvantage experienced during Kindergarten has a durable, negative effect on children's reading comprehension outcomes seven years later-providing evidence that early social contextual experiences play a critical role in the lives of children. Possible explanations and future directions are discussed.

  18. Neonatal imitation and early social experience predict gaze following abilities in infant monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Miller, Grace M; Ferrari, Pier F; Suomi, Stephen J; Paukner, Annika

    2016-02-01

    Individuals vary in their social skills and motivation, the causes of which remain largely unknown. Here we investigated whether an individual's propensity to interact with others measured within days after birth, and differences in infants' early social environment, may predict a later social skill. Specifically, we tested whether neonatal imitation--newborns' capacity to match modelled actions--and social experience in the first months of life predict gaze following (directing attention to locations where others look), in infant macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 119). Facial gesture imitation in the first week of life predicted gaze following at 7 months of age. Imitators were better at gaze following than non-imitators, suggesting neonatal imitation may be an early marker predicting socio-cognitive functioning. In addition, infants with rich social environments outperformed infants with less socialization, suggesting early social experiences also support the development of infants' gaze following competence. The present study offers compelling evidence that an individual difference present from birth predicts a functional social cognitive skill in later infancy. In addition, this foundational skill--gaze following--is plastic, and can be improved through social interactions, providing infants with a strong foundation for later social interaction and learning.

  19. Interaction between oxytocin genotypes and early experience predicts quality of mothering and postpartum mood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viara Mileva-Seitz

    Full Text Available Individual differences in maternal behavior are affected by both early life experiences and oxytocin, but little is known about genetic variation in oxytocin genes and its effects on mothering. We examined two polymorphisms in the oxytocin peptide gene OXT (rs2740210 and rs4813627 and one polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene OXTR (rs237885 in 187 Caucasian mothers at six months postpartum. For OXT, both rs2740210 and rs4813627 significantly associated with maternal vocalizing to the infant. These polymorphisms also interacted with the quality of care mothers experienced in early life, to predict variation in maternal instrumental care and postpartum depression. However, postpartum depression did not mediate the gene-environment effects of the OXT SNPs on instrumental care. In contrast, the OXTR SNP rs237885 did not associate with maternal behavior, but it did associate with pre-natal (but not post-natal depression score. The findings illustrate the importance of variation in oxytocin genes, both alone and in interaction with early environment, as predictors of individual differences in human mothering. Furthermore, depression does not appear to have a causal role on the variation we report in instrumental care. This suggests that variation in instrumental care varies in association with a gene-early environment effect regardless of current depressive symptomatology. Finally, our findings highlight the importance of examining multiple dimensions of human maternal behavior in studies of genetic associations.

  20. Oviposition by small hive beetles elicits hygienic responses from Cape honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Richards, C S; Hepburn, H R; Elzen, P J

    2003-11-01

    Two novel behaviours, both adaptations of small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybees ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.), are described. Beetles puncture the sides of empty cells and oviposit under the pupae in adjoining cells. However, bees detect this ruse and remove infested brood (hygienic behaviour), even under such well-disguised conditions. Indeed, bees removed 91% of treatment brood (brood cells with punctured walls caused by beetles) but only 2% of control brood (brood not exposed to beetles). Only 91% of treatment brood actually contained beetle eggs; the data therefore suggest that bees remove only that brood containing beetle eggs and leave uninfected brood alone, even if beetles have accessed (but not oviposited on) the brood. Although this unique oviposition strategy by beetles appears both elusive and adaptive, Cape honeybees are able to detect and remove virtually all of the infested brood.

  1. Plastic pellets as oviposition site and means of dispersal for the ocean-skater insect Halobates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, A P; Vedolin, M C; Turra, A

    2012-06-01

    Microplastics are omnipresent in the oceans and generally have negative impacts on the biota. However, flotsam may increase the availability of hard substrates, which are considered a limiting resource for some oceanic species, e.g. as oviposition sites for the ocean insect Halobates. This study describes the use of plastic pellets as an oviposition site for Halobates micans and discusses possible effects on its abundance and dispersion. Inspection of egg masses on stranded particles on beaches revealed that a mean of 24% (from 0% to 62%) of the pellets bore eggs (mean of 5 and max. of 48 eggs per pellet). Most eggs (63%) contained embryos, while 37% were empty egg shells. This shows that even small plastic particles are used as oviposition site by H. micans, and that marine litter may have a positive effect over the abundance and dispersion of this species.

  2. Shifting preference between oviposition vs. host-feeding under changing host densities in two aphelinid parasitoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Nian-Wan; Ji, Lu-Lu; Lövei, Gabor L

    2012-01-01

    feeding and oviposition on two whitefly parasitoids under varying host densities. Females of two aphelinid parasitoids, Eretmocerus hayati and Encarsia sophia were exposed to nine different densities of their whitefly host, Bemisia tabaci, in single-instar tests to identify their functional response....... Mixed-instar host choice tests were also conducted by exposing whiteflies at four densities to the parasitoids. We hypothesized that the parasitoid females can detect different host densities, and decide on oviposition vs. host-feeding accordingly. The results showed that both Er. hayati and En. sophia...... parasitized most on first and second (the optimal ones), and fed most on third nymphal instars (the suboptimal one) of the whitefly host as theory predicts, while at high densities, both parasitism and host-feeding occurred on first and second instars which are preferred for oviposition. En. sophia...

  3. Oviposition Site Selection in the Malayan Giant Frog (Limnonectes blythii) in Singapore:Conservation Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishnu Vardhan SRIDHAR; David BICKFORD

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians require speciifc habitats for breeding and loss or degradation of such habitats can negatively affect reproductive success. Oviposition site selection within a habitat is also important as site quality is linked to larval survivorship and metamorphic success. We investigated oviposition site preferences of the stream-breeding frog Limnonectes blythii in Singapore through surveys and habitat measurements of breeding and non-breeding sites (N =30 and 32, respectively). The study species L. blythii is classiifed as Near Threatened (NT) in the IUCN red list and is associated with medium sized forest streams. L. blythii appeared to prefer streams with higher water pH and shallower water depths for oviposition. Our ifndings have implications in conservation management as it provides the baseline for habitat restoration for creation of new and for preserving existing breeding habitat of L. blythii.

  4. Shifting preference between oviposition vs. host-feeding under changing host densities in two aphelinid parasitoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Nian-Wan; Ji, Lu-Lu; Lövei, Gabor L;

    2012-01-01

    Destructive host-feeding is common in hymenopteran parasitoids. Such feeding may be restricted to host stages not preferred for oviposition. However, whether this is a fixed strategy or can vary according to resource levels or parasitoid needs is less clear. We tested the trade-off between host...... feeding and oviposition on two whitefly parasitoids under varying host densities. Females of two aphelinid parasitoids, Eretmocerus hayati and Encarsia sophia were exposed to nine different densities of their whitefly host, Bemisia tabaci, in single-instar tests to identify their functional response....... Mixed-instar host choice tests were also conducted by exposing whiteflies at four densities to the parasitoids. We hypothesized that the parasitoid females can detect different host densities, and decide on oviposition vs. host-feeding accordingly. The results showed that both Er. hayati and En. sophia...

  5. Time of day that Aedes sierrensis females enter oviposition sites prior to laying eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, David L; Colwell, Arthur E; Mills, Brittany M

    2008-03-01

    An ovitrap with a time-segregated entrance was used to separate eggs laid by Aedes sierrensis females according to the time of day that females entered the ovitrap. During a 37-day period in Lake County, CA, females that entered the ovitrap between sunrise and sunset laid 82% of the total number of eggs collected. A daily peak in oviposition (eggs per hour) was produced by females that entered during the 2-h period ending at sunset. Overall, females that oviposited had entered the ovitrap throughout the diel cycle except for a 2-h period ending at sunrise. Those eggs laid by females that entered the ovitrap between 2 h after sunset and 2 h before sunrise provided the 1st evidence that Ae. sierrensis females are capable of locating oviposition sites during the night.

  6. [Lung and heart-lung transplantation in Rabin medical center: early experience with 70 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Mordechai R; Saute, Milton; Eidelman, Leonid; Aravot, Dan; Fink, Gershon; Shitrit, David; Izbicky, Gabriel; Izvicky, Gavriel; Dayan, Daniel Ben; Bakal, Ilana; Kogan, Alex; Gendel, Boris; Vidne, Bernardo; Sahar, Gideon

    2004-01-01

    Lung transplantation is a relatively new field in solid organ transplantation. We present our early experience with the first 70 cases at the Rabin Medical Center during the years 1997-2003. Forty seven patients underwent single lung, eight double lung and eight heart-lung transplantations. The patients treated included 49 men and 21 women aged 5-66 years. There were 26 cases with emphysema COPD. 30 patients with pulmonary fibrosis. 5 patients with pulmonary hypertension/Eisenmenger and 9 patients with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. Although early results (1997-1999) showed 1 and 3 year survival of only 50%, in the last 3 years (2000-2003), survival reached 84% and 82% at 1 and 3 years respectively. Improvement in the success rate is due to better patient selection, new immunosuppressive regimen and, most importantly, excellent teamwork. We conclude that lung transplantation is a viable option for selected patients with end-stage lung disease.

  7. Nurses' experiences using a nursing information system: early stage of technology implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ting-Ting

    2007-01-01

    Adoption of information technology in nursing practice has become a trend in healthcare. The impact of this technology on users has been widely studied, but little attention has been given to its influence at the beginning stage of implementation. Knowing the barriers to adopting technology could shorten this transition stage and minimize its negative influences. The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' experiences in the early stage of implementing a nursing information system. Focus groups were used to collect data at a medical center in Taiwan. The results showed that nurses had problems with the system's content design, had insufficient training, were concerned about data security, were stressed by added work, and experienced poor interdisciplinary cooperation. To smooth this beginning stage, the author recommends involving nurses early in the system design, providing sufficient training in keyboard entry skills, redesigning workflow, and improving interdisciplinary communication.

  8. Oviposition preference but not adult feeding preference matches with offspring performance in the bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, Gonzalo; Finozzi, María Victoria; Cantero, Gissel; Soler, Roxina; Dicke, Marcel; González, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Optimal foraging and optimal oviposition are two major forces leading to plant selection by insect females, but the contribution of these forces to the host-selection process has been little studied for sucking herbivores. We studied feeding and oviposition behavior of a global pest, the bronze bug,

  9. Oviposition site selection by the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and its implications for dengue control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacklyn Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because no dengue vaccine or antiviral therapy is commercially available, controlling the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, is currently the only means to prevent dengue outbreaks. Traditional models of Ae. aegypti assume that population dynamics are regulated by density-dependent larval competition for food and little affected by oviposition behavior. Due to direct impacts on offspring survival and development, however, mosquito choice in oviposition site can have important consequences for population regulation that should be taken into account when designing vector control programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined oviposition patterns by Ae. aegypti among 591 naturally occurring containers and a set of experimental containers in Iquitos, Peru. Using larval starvation bioassays as an indirect measure of container food content, we assessed whether females select containers with the most food for their offspring. Our data indicate that choice of egg-laying site is influenced by conspecific larvae and pupae, container fill method, container size, lid, and sun exposure. Although larval food positively influenced oviposition, our results did not support the hypothesis that females act primarily to maximize food for larvae. Females were most strongly attracted to sites containing immature conspecifics, even when potential competitors for their progeny were present in abundance. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Due to strong conspecific attraction, egg-laying behavior may contribute more to regulating Ae. aegypti populations than previously thought. If highly infested containers are targeted for removal or larvicide application, females that would have preferentially oviposited in those sites may instead distribute their eggs among other suitable, previously unoccupied containers. Strategies that kill mosquitoes late in their development (i.e., insect growth regulators that kill pupae rather than larvae will enhance vector

  10. Oviposition preferences of dengue vectors; Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Sri Lanka under laboratory settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilaka, N; Ranathunge, T; Udayanga, L; Wijegunawardena, A; Abeyewickreme, W

    2017-09-27

    Investigations on oviposition behaviour of dengue vectors are critical for effective controlling of vector breeding. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the oviposition behaviour of dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Sri Lanka. Batches of 1000 adult mosquitoes (1 : 1, male: female ratio) housed in rearing cages were used for each experimental setup from Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Oviposition responses with respect to the size of the ovitrap, colours of the ovitrap, water source, sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration and presence/absence of larvae were evaluated by enumerating the number of eggs laid in the ovitraps. The analysis of variance and cluster analysis were used to investigate the significance in the variations among oviposition. The number of eggs laid by both species were improved with the increasing size of ovitraps. Ae. albopictus indicated the highest mean number of eggs in 0.2% of NaCl than in the ovitraps filled with distilled water. However, the egg laying preference was reduced with increasing salinity in both species. Drain water with low dissolved oxygen (DO) level (0.43 ± 0.12 mg l-1) was the preferred water source for both species, while a significantly high oviposition rate was observed in ovitraps with larvae. Black colour ovitraps attracted the majority of gravid females, while white was least preferred. There were no significant variations among oviposition behaviours of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. The ability of these vectors to breed in waste water with low DO levels may lead them to attain wide dissemination in the natural environment, enhancing their potential threat to human life.

  11. Circadian rhythms of feeding, oviposition, and emergence of the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHOIL M.GREENBERG; J.SCOTT ARMSTRONG; MAMOUDOU S(E)TAMOU; THOMAS W.SAPPINGTON; RANDY J.COLEMAN; TONG-XIAN LIU

    2006-01-01

    Circadian rhythm of feeding,oviposition,and emergence of boll weevil adults were determined at five different photophases (24,14,12,10,and 0 hours) and a constant 27℃ temperature,65% RH in the laboratory. Squares from Petri dishes,where they were exposed to boll weevil females,were removed and examined for feeding and oviposition punctures every 4 hours during daylight (0700-1900 h) and every 12 h at night (1900-0700 h) over eight consecutive days. Cohorts of randomly selected egg-punctured squares were sampled from ovipositing females at 0700,1100,1500,and 1900 during 24 hours and under different photophase treatments,and maintained in Petri dishes at 27 ± 1℃,65% RH.Dishes were observed twice daily (1900 and 0700 h) for adults emerging at day or night.Circadian rhythm of oviposition was not affected by the length of the photophase. The boll weevil has round-the-clock circadian rhythm of oviposition,with a daytime preference. We observed that 82.4%-86.0% of the boll weevil eggs were deposited between 0700 and 1900 h,and 14.0%-17.6% between 1900 and 0700 h during a 24-h period. Feeding of boll weevil females in photoperiods 24:0 h (complete light) and 0:24 h (complete darkness) did not significantly change between 0700-1900 h versus 1900-0700 h,while the daily cycle of light and darkness in other photoperiods significantly increased the feeding punctures from 0700-1900 compared with 1900-0700 h. The circadian rhythm of emergence depended significantly on the time of oviposition and the length of the photophase. Investigation of boll weevil circadian rhythm provides a better understanding of boll weevil ecology and reveals potential weak links for improving control technologies targeting their reproductive strategies.

  12. The emergence of solitude as a constructive domain of experience in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R W

    1997-02-01

    Adolescents spend one-quarter of their waking hours alone, yet the significance of this time is little understood. This study evaluates developmental changes in the experience of solitude between late childhood and early adolescence. Four hundred eighty-three European American fifth through ninth graders provided experience-sampling reports on their companionship and subjective states at random times over a week. The findings show, first, that time alone becomes more voluntary across this age period. Second, time-series analysis shows that for seventh through ninth graders, but not fifth and sixth graders, solitude had a positive after effect on emotional state. Third, adolescents, but not preadolescents, who spent an intermediate amount of their time alone were better adjusted than those who spent little or a great deal of time alone. As a whole, the findings suggest that, while continuing to be a lonely time, in early adolescence solitude comes to have a more constructive role in daily life as a strategic retreat that complements social experience.

  13. Comparative microhabitat characteristics at oviposition sites of the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jeff A.; Cook, David G.; Yee, Julie L.; van Hattem, Michael G.; Fong, Darren R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the microhabitat characteristics of 747 egg masses of the federally-threatened Rana draytonii (California red-legged frog) at eight sites in California. our study showed that a broad range of aquatic habitats are utilized by ovipositing R. draytonii, including sites with perennial and ephemeral water sources, natural and constructed wetlands, lentic and lotic hydrology, and sites surrounded by protected lands and nested within modified urban areas. We recorded 45 different egg mass attachment types, although the use of only a few types was common at each site. These attachment types ranged from branches and roots of riparian trees, emergent and submergent wetland vegetation, flooded upland grassland/ruderal vegetation, and debris. eggs were deposited in relatively shallow water (mean 39.7 cm) when compared to maximum site depths. We found that most frogs in artificial pond, natural creek, and artificial channel habitats deposited egg masses within one meter of the shore, while egg masses in a seasonal marsh averaged 27.3 m from the shore due to extensive emergent vegetation. Rana draytonii appeared to delay breeding in lotic habitats and in more inland sites compared to lentic habitats and coastal sites. eggs occurred as early as mid-december at a coastal artificial pond and as late as mid-April in an inland natural creek. We speculate that this delay in breeding may represent a method of avoiding high-flow events and/or freezing temperatures. Understanding the factors related to the reproductive needs of this species can contribute to creating, managing, or preserving appropriate habitat, and promoting species recovery.

  14. Systems-Oriented Workplace Learning Experiences for Early Learners: Three Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Bridget C; Bachhuber, Melissa R; Teherani, Arianne; Iker, Theresa M; Batt, Joanne; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2017-05-01

    Early workplace learning experiences may be effective for learning systems-based practice. This study explores systems-oriented workplace learning experiences (SOWLEs) for early learners to suggest a framework for their development. The authors used a two-phase qualitative case study design. In Phase 1 (spring 2014), they prepared case write-ups based on transcribed interviews from 10 SOWLE leaders at the authors' institution and, through comparative analysis of cases, identified three SOWLE models. In Phase 2 (summer 2014), studying seven 8-week SOWLE pilots, the authors used interview and observational data collected from the seven participating medical students, two pharmacy students, and site leaders to construct case write-ups of each pilot and to verify and elaborate the models. In Model 1, students performed specific patient care activities that addressed a system gap. Some site leaders helped students connect the activities to larger systems problems and potential improvements. In Model 2, students participated in predetermined systems improvement (SI) projects, gaining experience in the improvement process. Site leaders had experience in SI and often had significant roles in the projects. In Model 3, students worked with key stakeholders to develop a project and conduct a small test of change. They experienced most elements of an improvement cycle. Site leaders often had experience with SI and knew how to guide and support students' learning. Each model could offer systems-oriented learning opportunities provided that key elements are in place including site leaders facile in SI concepts and able to guide students in SOWLE activities.

  15. First record of invasive Burmese Python oviposition and brooding inside an anthropogenic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslowe, Emma; Falk, Bryan; Collier, Michelle A. M.; Josimovich, Jillian; Rahill, Thomas; Reed, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We discovered an adult female Python bivittatus (Burmese Python) coiled around a clutch of 25 eggs in a cement culvert in Flamingo, FL, in Everglades National Park. To our knowledge, this is the first record of an invasive Burmese Python laying eggs and brooding inside an anthropogenic structure in Florida. A 92% hatch-success rate suggests that the cement culvert provided suitable conditions for oviposition, embryonic development, and hatching. Given the plenitude of such anthropogenic structures across the landscape, available sites for oviposition and brooding may not be limiting for the invasive Burmese Python population.

  16. Oviposition-site selection by Phyllomedusa sauvagii (Anura: Hylidae): An arboreal nester inhabiting arid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Cecilia G.; Lescano, Julián N.; Leynaud, Gerardo C.

    2013-08-01

    Breeding biology in Phyllomedusa sauvagii is related to vegetation since the species encloses its eggs in leaves above water. Considering that arid environments may represent high risks of death by desiccation for amphibians with this reproductive mode, we evaluated plant characteristics associated with sites used for oviposition in semi-permanent ponds in the Arid Chaco region of Argentina. Plant characteristics were used to fit a statistical habitat selection model that allows the prediction of nest presence. Our results show that P. sauvagii needs substrate with specific features for oviposition that would help to reduce the probability of eggs and tadpoles desiccation.

  17. Oviposition response of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to different concentrations of hay infusion in Trinidad, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadee, D D; Lakhan, A; Ramdath, W R; Persad, R C

    1993-09-01

    Ovitraps containing various concentrations of hay infusion and tap water were exposed weekly in the field for 15 wk to determine the oviposition patterns of Aedes aegypti. The results showed 10, 20, 60 and 80% hay infusions each attracted similar numbers of Ae. aegypti eggs oviposited and egg occurrences. No repellent effect was observed. In another field study, significantly more eggs and egg occurrences were collected from 25 and 50% hay infusions and tap water. The differences in these results from those of a previous study in Puerto Rico are discussed.

  18. The role of food experiences during early childhood in food pleasure learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklaus, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Infants are born equipped to ingest nutrients, but have to learn what to eat. This must occur early, because the mode of feeding evolves dramatically, from "tube" feeding in utero to eating family foods. Eating habits established during early years contribute to the development of subsequent eating habits. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand the most important early periods (between birth and 2 years, i.e. onset of food neophobia) for the development of eating habits and the drivers of this development. The role of pleasure in eating is central, especially during childhood when cognitive drivers of food choices may be less prominent than later in life. It is not easy to define and measure pleasure of eating in early childhood. However, it is possible to identify the characteristics of the eating experience which contribute to drive infant's eating and to shape preferences (food sensory properties; food rewarding properties; social context of eating). The learning processes involve repeated exposure (including to a variety of flavours), association with post-absorptive consequences and with contextual signals (including family members). The important early periods for learning food pleasure start being well identified. Beyond the first flavour discoveries during the prenatal and lactation periods (through the infant's exposure to flavours from foods of the mother's diet), the most important phase may be the beginning of complementary feeding. Infants discover the sensory (texture, taste and flavour) and nutritional properties (energy density) of the foods that will ultimately compose their adult diet; parents are still in charge of providing appropriate foods, timing, context for eating. Inter-individual differences in food pleasure learning, related to temperamental dimensions, or to sensory sensitivity also have to be taken into account.

  19. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars, and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E; Fuest, J; Horton, D L

    2008-12-01

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), showed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer blows, knife cuts, pruning wounds), infested by lesser peachtree borer larvae or injured by disease. In fact, there was no difference in female oviposition response to knife cut wounds and knife cut wounds infested with lesser peachtree borer larvae. Oviposition on wounded bark from three different high chill peach cultivars was similar and strongly suggests that the narrow genetic base of high chill peach cultivars grown in the southeastern United States has little inherent resistance to the lesser peachtree borer. In stark contrast, when provided different Prunus spp., i.e., exotic peach and the native species P. angustifolia and P. serotina, the exotic peach was highly preferred for oviposition by the native lesser peachtree borer.

  20. Modeling the Kinetics of a Memory-Associated Immediate Early Gene's Compartmental Expression After Sensory Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willats, Adam; Ivanova, Tamara; Prinz, Astrid; Liu, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Immediate Early Genes (IEGs) are rapidly and transiently transcribed in neurons after a sensory experience. Some of these genes act as effector IEGs, which mediate specific effects on cellular function. Arc is one such effector IEG that is essential for synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation in hippocampus and cortex. The expression of Arc in neurons has previously been examined using an imaging method known as Compartmental Analysis of Temporal Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization. Previous work found that the time course of Arc expression within the nuclear and perinuclear cytoplasmic compartments of a neuron is altered by prior sensory experience. We explore a simple model of the kinetics of IEG transcription and nuclear export, with the aim of eventually uncovering possible mechanisms for how experience alters expression kinetics. Thus far, we characterize our compartmental model using phase-plane analysis and validate it against several IEG expression data sets, including one where prior experience with vocalizing mice alters the time course of call-induced Arc expression in the auditory cortex of a listening mouse. Our model provides a framework to explore why Arc expression may change depending on a receiver's past sound experience and internal state. Adam Willats was supported by NIH Training Grant 5T90DA032466. This research was also supported by NIDCD R01 DC8343.

  1. The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE): Enabling technology for an early lunar surface payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nein, M. E.; Hilchey, J. D.

    1995-02-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-m aperture, fixed declination, optical telescope to be operated on the surface of the Moon. This autonomous science payload will provide an unprecedented ultraviolet stellar survey even before manned lunar missions are resumed. This paper very briefly summarizes the LUTE concept analyzed by the LUTE Task Team of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Scientific capabilities and the Reference Design Concept are identified, and the expected system characteristics are summarized. Technologies which will be required to enable the early development, deployment, and operation of the LUTE are identified, and the principle goals and approaches for their advancement are described.

  2. Commissioning and Early Operation Experience of the NSLS-II Storage Ring RF System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, F.; Rose, J.; Cupolo, J.; Dilgen, T.; Rose, B.; Gash, W.; Ravindranath, V.; Yeddulla, M.; Papu, J.; Davila, P.; Holub, B.; Tagger, J.; Sikora, R.; Ramirez, G.; Kulpin, J.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a 3 GeV electron X-ray user facility commissioned in 2014. The storage ring RF system, essential for replenishing energy loss per turn of the electrons, consists of digital low level RF controllers, 310 kW CW klystron transmitters, CESR-B type superconducting cavities, as well as a supporting cryogenic system. Here we will report on RF commissioning and early operation experience of the system for beam current up to 200mA.

  3. Early-life origin of adult disease: evidence from natural experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiserman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Until the present time, disease susceptibility was believed to be determined solely by the genetic information carried in the DNA sequence. In recent years, however, it has become clear that epigenetic rearrangements play an equally essential role in the disease development and that this process, particularly at key developmental stages, is very susceptible to environmental modulations. The extensive studies, both human and animal, have shown that early-life environment is probably the most important causal component in the etiology of some diseases including cancer as well as metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. This review considers the natural experiment-based evidence regarding the developmental origin of human adult disease.

  4. Early experiences of computer-aided assessment and administration when teaching computer programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohd Zin

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes early experiences with the Ceilidh system currently being piloted at over 30 institutions of higher education. Ceilidh is a course-management system for teaching computer programming whose core is an auto-assessment facility. This facility automatically marks students programs from a range of perspectives, and may be used in an iterative manner, enabling students to work towards a target level of attainment. Ceilidh also includes extensive courseadministration and progress-monitoring facilities, as well as support for other forms of assessment including short-answer marking and the collation of essays for later hand-marking. The paper discusses the motivation for developing Ceilidh, outlines its major facilities, then summarizes experiences of developing and actually using it at the coal-face over three years of teaching.

  5. Ovipositional preference and larval performance of poplar defoliator,Clostera restitura on different poplar clones in north-western India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gurmail Singh; K.S. Sangha

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated ten poplar clones (G-3,G-48,L-50/88,L154/84,L-156/89,S7C8,S7C15.WSL-22,WSL-29 and Uday) for ovipositional preference and larval performance of Clostera restitura.Female moths did not show any preference with respect to clones for oviposition.Significant differences were observed for number of eggs laid on different plant parts.C.restitura laid eggs in clusters,preferably on upper surface of leaf and size of the egg cluster varied from 15 to 167 eggs.Clones varied for their relative resistance and susceptibility to C.restitura.L-50/88; L-156/89 were identified as most resistant clone based on minimum leaf consumption,whereas S7C15 was found to be most susceptible clone to C.restitura.In multiple choice experiments,no feeding preference by C restitura larvae was detected amongst different poplar clones.After initial settlement of larvae on a particular clone,the larvae remained confined to that clone and negligible inter-clonal movement was noticed subsequently.The fresh pupal weight was correlated negatively (r =-0.37) with percentage surface leaf area eaten and positively (r =0.47) with length of larval period,measured on different clones.Relationship between percentage leaf area eaten and length of larval period was negative (r =-0.23).Owing to relative resistance of L50/88 and L-156/89 against C.restitura,these clones can be recommended for plantation in defoliator prone areas in north-western India.

  6. Cognitive impairment effects of early life stress in adolescents can be predicted with early biomarkers: Impacts of sex, experience, and cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Holland, Freedom H; Ganguly, Prabarna; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2016-09-01

    Childhood adversity increases vulnerability to psychiatric disorders that emerge in adolescence, in a sex-dependent manner. Early adversity modeled in rodents with maternal separation (MS) affects cognition and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuitry. Humans and animals exposed to early life adversity also display heightened circulating inflammatory cytokines, however the predictive relationship of these early measures with later behavioral deficits is unknown. Here, male and female rats were exposed to MS or control rearing during the postnatal period (P2-21). Blood samples were taken at distinct developmental time points for analysis of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, and IL-10, followed by win-shift cognitive testing and analysis of mPFC parvalbumin (PVB) immunofluorescent interneurons in adolescence. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between early cytokines and adolescent behavioral measures. We observed sex- and age-dependent effects of MS on circulating cytokines. MS also yielded adolescent decreases in mPFC PVB and cognitive deficits, which were predicted by early cytokine expression in a sex- and experience-dependent manner. Taken together, the present data reveals that circulating cytokines and PVB levels are predictive of adolescent cognitive deficits, and therefore provide compelling evidence for a putative role of early biomarkers in mediating MS-induced behavioral dysfunction. Importantly, predictive relationships often depended on sex and on MS history, suggesting that early life experiences may yield individualistic mechanisms of vulnerability compared to the general population.

  7. When early experiences build a wall to others' emotions: an electrophysiological and autonomic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ardizzi

    Full Text Available Facial expression of emotions is a powerful vehicle for communicating information about others' emotional states and it normally induces facial mimicry in the observers. The aim of this study was to investigate if early aversive experiences could interfere with emotion recognition, facial mimicry, and with the autonomic regulation of social behaviors. We conducted a facial emotion recognition task in a group of "street-boys" and in an age-matched control group. We recorded facial electromyography (EMG, a marker of facial mimicry, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA, an index of the recruitment of autonomic system promoting social behaviors and predisposition, in response to the observation of facial expressions of emotions. Results showed an over-attribution of anger, and reduced EMG responses during the observation of both positive and negative expressions only among street-boys. Street-boys also showed lower RSA after observation of facial expressions and ineffective RSA suppression during presentation of non-threatening expressions. Our findings suggest that early aversive experiences alter not only emotion recognition but also facial mimicry of emotions. These deficits affect the autonomic regulation of social behaviors inducing lower social predisposition after the visualization of facial expressions and an ineffective recruitment of defensive behavior in response to non-threatening expressions.

  8. Assessing adverse experiences from infancy through early childhood in home visiting programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Lorraine M; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; Swindle, Taren; Fitzgerald, Shalese

    2016-01-01

    The general aim of early intervention and home visiting programs is to support families to minimize Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). However, assessing children's exposure to these risks is complicated because parents serve as the conduit for both measurement and intervention. The primary aims of the study were to develop an assessment of children's exposure to ACEs and to examine concurrently measured parental child abuse and neglect potential and child social-emotional functioning. Home visiting programs in a southern state implemented the Family Map Inventories (FMI) as comprehensive family assessment and child screenings (N=1,282) within one month of enrollment. Children (M=33 months of age, SD=20) were exposed at rates of 27% to one, 18% to two, 11% to three, and 12% to four or more FMI-ACEs. FMI-ACEs were associated with increased parental beliefs and behaviors associated with child abuse and neglect. FMI-ACEs also significantly predicted the likelihood of the child having at-risk social-emotional development; children with 4 or more FMI-ACEs were over 6 times more likely than those with none to have at-risk scores. The findings add to our understanding of the negative impact of trauma on children and families. Assessing these risks as they occur in a family-friendly manner provides a platform for early intervention programs to work with families to increase family strengths and reduce the impacts of adverse experiences for their children.

  9. When early experiences build a wall to others' emotions: an electrophysiological and autonomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardizzi, Martina; Martini, Francesca; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Sestito, Mariateresa; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Facial expression of emotions is a powerful vehicle for communicating information about others' emotional states and it normally induces facial mimicry in the observers. The aim of this study was to investigate if early aversive experiences could interfere with emotion recognition, facial mimicry, and with the autonomic regulation of social behaviors. We conducted a facial emotion recognition task in a group of "street-boys" and in an age-matched control group. We recorded facial electromyography (EMG), a marker of facial mimicry, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an index of the recruitment of autonomic system promoting social behaviors and predisposition, in response to the observation of facial expressions of emotions. Results showed an over-attribution of anger, and reduced EMG responses during the observation of both positive and negative expressions only among street-boys. Street-boys also showed lower RSA after observation of facial expressions and ineffective RSA suppression during presentation of non-threatening expressions. Our findings suggest that early aversive experiences alter not only emotion recognition but also facial mimicry of emotions. These deficits affect the autonomic regulation of social behaviors inducing lower social predisposition after the visualization of facial expressions and an ineffective recruitment of defensive behavior in response to non-threatening expressions.

  10. Working with Space and Shape in Early Childhood Education: Experiences in Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Luiza da Silva Fernandes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This report shows the experience of a work conducted with the Meli-Melo puzzle in two early childhood education classes at two different schools in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. With the work’s activities as a starting point, aspects related to space and shape, as well as quantities and measures, were approached. Children from two and a half to five years old participated in the playful activities, which had the following goals: to develop spatial and geometric skills, to allow measuring actions, to favor dialogue and to boost group work experience. There were several activities, like handling the pieces, assembling images freely or according with outlines and models, assembling three-dimensional figures, and the length game. The following questions were considered in the evaluation of the work: how was the children’s participation in large groups and small groups? How did children of different age groups engage in the different proposals? Which activities were easier or more difficult for each group? Which behaviors and conversations showed us new knowledge? The fulfillment of the planned activities showed that the children had several hypotheses regarding shapes and that they were able to identify similarities and differences, use geometry vocabulary, and discuss their thoughts, particularly when working in small groups, which favored the participation of nearly all children. We believe the work reported has allowed learnings and a contact with mathematics in early childhood education.

  11. Early Career Mathematics Teachers' General Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills: Do Teacher Education, Teaching Experience, and Working Conditions Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Johannes; Blömeke, Sigrid; Kaiser, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    We examined several facets of general pedagogical knowledge and skills of early career mathematics teachers, asking how they are associated with characteristics of teacher education, teaching experience, and working conditions. Declarative general pedagogical knowledge (GPK) was assessed via a paper-and-pencil test, while early career teachers'…

  12. Early Childhood Educators' Knowledge, Beliefs, Education, Experiences and Children's Language- and Literacy-Learning Opportunities: What Is the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Rachel E.; Spear, Caitlin F.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; Logan, Jessica A. R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how multiple types of knowledge and beliefs, along with holding an early childhood-related degree and teaching experience were linked to amounts of early childhood educators' language and literacy instruction. Quantile regression was used to estimate associations between these variables along a continuum of language…

  13. Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Early Colorectal Neoplasms: Clinical Experience in a Tertiary Medical Center in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yu Tseng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD is a promising technique to treat early colorectal neoplasms by facilitating en bloc resection without size limitations. Although ESD for early gastrointestinal epithelial neoplasms has been popular in Japan, clinical experience with colorectal ESD has been rarely reported in Taiwan. Methods. From March 2006 to December 2011, 92 consecutive patients with early colorectal neoplasms resected by ESD at Tri-Service General Hospital were included. ESD was performed for colorectal epithelial neoplasms with a noninvasive pit pattern which had the following criteria: (1 lesions difficult to remove en bloc with a snare, such as laterally spreading tumors-nongranular type (LST-NG ≧20 mm and laterally spreading tumors-granular type (LST-G ≧30 mm; (2 lesions with fibrosis or which had recurred after endoscopic mucosal resection with a nonlifting sign. Results. The mean age of the patients was 66.3±12.9 years, and the male-female ratio was 1.8 : 1. The mean tumor size was 37.2±17.9 mm. The en bloc resection rate was 90.2% and the R0 resection rate was 89.1%. Perforations during ESD occurred in 11 patients (12.0% and all of them were effectively treated by endoscopic closure with hemoclips. No delayed perforation or postoperative bleeding was recorded. There were no procedure-related morbidities or mortalities. Conclusion. ESD is an effective method for en bloc resection of large early colorectal neoplasms and those with a nonlifting sign. An endoscopic technique to close perforations is essential for colorectal ESD.

  14. Weather Variability Associated with Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Dengue Vector) Oviposition Dynamics in Northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estallo, Elizabet L.; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco F.; Introini, María V.; Zaidenberg, Mario; Almirón, Walter R.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop a forecasting model by assessing the weather variability associated with seasonal fluctuation of Aedes aegypti oviposition dynamic at a city level in Orán, in northwestern Argentina. Oviposition dynamics were assessed by weekly monitoring of 90 ovitraps in the urban area during 2005-2007. Correlations were performed between the number of eggs collected weekly and weather variables (rainfall, photoperiod, vapor pressure of water, temperature, and relative humidity) with and without time lags (1 to 6 weeks). A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the set of meteorological variables from the first year of study with the variables in the time lags that best correlated with the oviposition. Model validation was conducted using the data from the second year of study (October 2006- 2007). Minimum temperature and rainfall were the most important variables. No eggs were found at temperatures below 10°C. The most significant time lags were 3 weeks for minimum temperature and rains, 3 weeks for water vapor pressure, and 6 weeks for maximum temperature. Aedes aegypti could be expected in Orán three weeks after rains with adequate min temperatures. The best-fit forecasting model for the combined meteorological variables explained 70 % of the variance (adj. R2). The correlation between Ae. aegypti oviposition observed and estimated by the forecasting model resulted in rs = 0.80 (P vector activity can be predicted three or four weeks in advance. PMID:25993415

  15. Ant-Related Oviposition and Larval Performance in a Myrmecophilous Lycaenid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Trager

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally assessed ant-related oviposition and larval performance in the Miami blue butterfly (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri. Ant tending had sex-dependent effects on most measures of larval growth: female larvae generally benefitted from increased tending frequency whereas male larvae were usually unaffected. The larger size of female larvae tended by ants resulted in a substantial predicted increase in lifetime egg production. Oviposition by adult females that were tended by C. floridanus ants as larvae was similar between host plants with or without ants. However, they laid relatively more eggs on plants with ants than did females raised without ants, which laid less than a third of their eggs on plants with ants present. In summary, we found conditional benefits for larvae tended by ants that were not accompanied by oviposition preference for plants with ants present, which is a reasonable result for a system in which ant presence at the time of oviposition is not a reliable indicator of future ant presence. More broadly, our results emphasize the importance of considering the consequences of variation in interspecific interactions, life history traits, and multiple measures of performance when evaluating the costs and benefits of mutualistic relationships.

  16. Chronobiological studies on body search, oviposition and emergence of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera, Phoridae) in controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, Esta; Green, Edward W; Kyriacou, Charalambos P; Vanin, Stefano

    2017-03-18

    Circadian clocks have evolved to synchronize physiology, metabolism and behaviour to the 24-h geophysical cycles of the Earth. Understanding the circadian clock mechanism could play an important role in forensic entomology because it temporally gates behaviour such as locomotor activities, feeding, mating, egg laying and adult emergence which could provide useful information for crime reconstruction. The scuttle fly Megaselia scalaris colonises both exposed and buried bodies, whether indoors or outdoors. Locomotor activity, oviposition and adult emergence of this species have been investigated using technologies employed in many previous Drosophila circadian studies. The results reported here clearly highlight the underlying role of the circadian clock in regulating the behaviour of males and females of M. scalaris, and show the role of light as a "zeitgeber" for clock resetting. In contrast to Calliphoridae, M. scalaris can reach the oviposition site and lay eggs in darkness both during the day and the night, although the number of ovipositing females is lower under subjective darkness. The number of eggs laid shows a clear circadian rhythm with much higher numbers laid during the day than during night or subjective night. In conclusion, locomotor activity and oviposition rate of M. scalaris is under circadian clock control with significant forensic implications.

  17. The role of mosquito olfaction in oviposition site location and in the avoidance of unsuitable hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, J A; Woodcock, C M

    1996-01-01

    Developments in the exploitation of mosquito olfaction are traced, in collaborative studies with various groups, from the first identification of a mosquito pheromone through to a discussion of non-host avoidance. The characterization of the oviposition pheromone for mosquitoes in the genus Culex, e.g. Culex quinquefasciatus, as a novel chiral lactone ester provided the impetus for a number of sophisticated asymmetric syntheses and economical large-scale routes to racemic products. The latter have provided material for successful field trials in three continents. During the course of this field work, we obtained evidence that semiochemicals originating directly from the oviposition site are essential for activity of the oviposition pheromone. Recent studies are elucidating the nature of these agents and their geographical variability. Initially, we used synthetic oviposition pheromone to attract mosquitoes to sites treated with a biorational larvicide. However, recyclable biological control agents offer better prospects for resource-poor regions. A biotechnological approach to pheromone production has been devised involving the generation of inexpensive starting materials by the cultivation of a higher plant. New studies on dipterous pests feeding on farm animals indicate a semiochemically based mechanism by which unsuitable individuals within the host species are avoided. There appears to be an analogous process in which mosquitoes avoid certain potential human hosts, thereby raising prospects for the development of novel, rationally identified repellents once the semiochemical/olfactory interactions have been fully elucidated.

  18. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Composition Influences Cinnabar Moth Oviposition Preferences in Jacobaea Hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, D.; Meijden, van der E.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Vrieling, K.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce a variety of secondary metabolites (PSMs) that may be selective against herbivores. Yet, specialist herbivores may use PSMs as cues for host recognition, oviposition, and feeding stimulation, or for their own defense against parasites and predators. This summarizes a dual role of PSMs

  19. Weather Variability Associated with Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Dengue Vector) Oviposition Dynamics in Northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estallo, Elizabet L; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco F; Introini, María V; Zaidenberg, Mario; Almirón, Walter R

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop a forecasting model by assessing the weather variability associated with seasonal fluctuation of Aedes aegypti oviposition dynamic at a city level in Orán, in northwestern Argentina. Oviposition dynamics were assessed by weekly monitoring of 90 ovitraps in the urban area during 2005-2007. Correlations were performed between the number of eggs collected weekly and weather variables (rainfall, photoperiod, vapor pressure of water, temperature, and relative humidity) with and without time lags (1 to 6 weeks). A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the set of meteorological variables from the first year of study with the variables in the time lags that best correlated with the oviposition. Model validation was conducted using the data from the second year of study (October 2006- 2007). Minimum temperature and rainfall were the most important variables. No eggs were found at temperatures below 10 °C. The most significant time lags were 3 weeks for minimum temperature and rains, 3 weeks for water vapor pressure, and 6 weeks for maximum temperature. Aedes aegypti could be expected in Orán three weeks after rains with adequate min temperatures. The best-fit forecasting model for the combined meteorological variables explained 70 % of the variance (adj. R(2)). The correlation between Ae. aegypti oviposition observed and estimated by the forecasting model resulted in rs = 0.80 (P variables, vector activity can be predicted three or four weeks in advance.

  20. Oviposition and Sex Ratio of the Redbanded Stink Bug, Piezodorous guildinii, in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua H. Temple

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood, is a significant soybean pest across the mid-south region of the United States. The objectives of these studies were to characterize: (1 redbanded stink bug oviposition in relationship to soybean maturity group (MG, plant structure, crop phenology, and vertical distribution within the plant canopy; and (2 redbanded stink bug adult sex ratios in relationship to soybean phenology. A total of 5645 redbanded stink bug eggs in 421 egg masses (clusters were field collected from naturally-occurring populations in MG IV and V soybean over a three year period (2009 to 2011. The mean number of eggs within a cluster was 16.6 ± 0.3. Plant structures by MG interactions were highly significant with more egg masses oviposited on leaves in MG IV (79.4% and more on pods in MG V (72.7%. The ratio of females to males was similar in all soybean growth stages except R5, where the sex ratio increased to 1.4:1, coinciding with peak oviposition. Only 29.9% of egg clusters in MG IV and 18.3% of egg clusters in MG V were oviposited in the upper 35 cm of the soybean canopy. Based on these results, sampling strategies and insecticide application placement for stink bugs may require modification.

  1. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition Response to Organic Infusions from Common Flora of Suburban Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the oviposition response of Aedes albopictus to six organic infusions. Laboratory and field placed ovitraps baited with water oak (Quercus nigra L.), longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill) and St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze), as well as two-species mixture...

  2. Laboratory and field evaluation of an oviposition trap for Culex quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela MR Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An ovitrap (BR-OVT based on physical and chemical stimuli for attracting gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae females was developed and evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Attractants were assayed using alternative chamber bioassays prior to being used in the BR-OVT oviposition trap. A significant preference of gravid females for sites containing conspecific egg rafts was observed, as a response to the natural oviposition pheromone, as well as for sites treated with the synthetic pheromone erythro-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide. Five- to 20-day old grass infusion was strongly attractive to gravid females for laying eggs. On the other hand, entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus (Bs did not influence the choice of an oviposition site when used in combination with grass infusion and can therefore be used as a larvicide in ovitraps. Results from field trials showed that the BR-OVT with grass infusion and with or without Bs works as a preferred oviposition site for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The BR-OVT was more effective for egg collection when placed indoors and comparison with the number of egg rafts laid in cesspits over 40 days indicates that this very simple ovitrap may be a useful tool for monitoring populations of the most important of the vectors of bancroftian filariasis.

  3. The use of oviposition-induced plant cues by Trichogramma egg parasitoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashalidou, F.G.; Huigens, M.E.; Dicke, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    1. Female parasitoids have evolved various foraging strategies in order to find suitable hosts. Egg parasitoids have been shown to exploit plant cues induced by the deposition of host eggs. 2. The tiny wasp Trichogramma brassicae uses oviposition-induced cues from Brussels sprouts to locate eggs of

  4. Efficacy and longevity of the newly developed catnip oil microcapsules against stable fly oviposition larval growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most important pests of cattle and costs U.S. cattle producers billions of dollars in losses annually. In this study, the efficacy of catnip oil encapsulated in gelatin in oviposition deterrence and larval growth inhibition in st...

  5. Chinese primiparous women's experiences of early motherhood: factors affecting maternal role competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Fei-Wan; Chan, Sally W C; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Chinese women's perceptions of maternal role competence and factors contributing to maternal role competence during early motherhood. Developing a sense of competence and satisfaction in the maternal role are considered critical components in maternal adaptation, which have a significant impact on parenting behaviours and the psychosocial development of the child. However, qualitative studies that address maternal role competence are limited in the Chinese population. This was an exploratory descriptive study. A purposive sample of 26 Chinese primiparous mothers participated in a childbirth psychoeducation programme and was interviewed at six weeks postpartum. Data were analysed using content analysis. Women perceived a competent mother as being able to make a commitment to caring for the physical and emotional well-being of child, while cultivating appropriate values for childhood. Personal knowledge and experience of infant care, success in breastfeeding, infant's well-being, availability of social support and contradictory information from various sources were major factors affecting maternal role competency. The findings highlight the importance of understanding Chinese cultural attitudes to childrearing and maternal role competence. New Chinese mothers need information on child care, positive experiences of infant care, social support and consistent information to enhance their maternal role competency. Recommendations are made for Chinese culturally specific guidelines and healthcare delivery interventions to enhance maternal role competence in early motherhood. Nursing and midwifery care should always take into account the cultural beliefs and enable adaptation of traditional postpartum practices. Providing consistent information and positive experience on parenting skills and infant behaviour as well as enhancing effective coping strategies could strengthen Chinese women's maternal role competency. © 2011 Blackwell

  6. Oviposition Site-Selection by Bactrocera dorsalis Is Mediated through an Innate Recognition Template Tuned to γ-Octalactone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagadala Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi; Kempraj, Vivek; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Venkataramanappa, Ravindra Kothapalli; Nandagopal, Bakthavatsalam; Verghese, Abraham; Bruce, Toby

    2014-01-01

    Innate recognition templates (IRTs) in insects are developed through many years of evolution. Here we investigated olfactory cues mediating oviposition behavior in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and their role in triggering an IRT for oviposition site recognition. Behavioral assays with electrophysiologically active compounds from a preferred host, mango, revealed that one of the volatiles tested, γ-octalactone, had a powerful effect in eliciting oviposition by gravid B. dorsalis females. Electrophysiological responses were obtained and flies clearly differentiated between treated and untreated substrates over a wide range of concentrations of γ-octalactone. It triggered an innate response in flies, overriding inputs from other modalities required for oviposition site evaluation. A complex blend of mango volatiles not containing γ-octalactone elicited low levels of oviposition, whereas γ-octalactone alone elicited more oviposition response. Naïve flies with different rearing histories showed similar responses to γ-octalactone. Taken together, these results indicate that oviposition site selection in B. dorsalis is mediated through an IRT tuned to γ-octalactone. Our study provides empirical data on a cue underpinning innate behavior and may also find use in control operations against this invasive horticultural pest. PMID:24465690

  7. Oviposition site-selection by Bactrocera dorsalis is mediated through an innate recognition template tuned to γ-octalactone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala Damodaram

    Full Text Available Innate recognition templates (IRTs in insects are developed through many years of evolution. Here we investigated olfactory cues mediating oviposition behavior in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and their role in triggering an IRT for oviposition site recognition. Behavioral assays with electrophysiologically active compounds from a preferred host, mango, revealed that one of the volatiles tested, γ-octalactone, had a powerful effect in eliciting oviposition by gravid B. dorsalis females. Electrophysiological responses were obtained and flies clearly differentiated between treated and untreated substrates over a wide range of concentrations of γ-octalactone. It triggered an innate response in flies, overriding inputs from other modalities required for oviposition site evaluation. A complex blend of mango volatiles not containing γ-octalactone elicited low levels of oviposition, whereas γ-octalactone alone elicited more oviposition response. Naïve flies with different rearing histories showed similar responses to γ-octalactone. Taken together, these results indicate that oviposition site selection in B. dorsalis is mediated through an IRT tuned to γ-octalactone. Our study provides empirical data on a cue underpinning innate behavior and may also find use in control operations against this invasive horticultural pest.

  8. 20-hydroxyecdysone deters oviposition and larval feeding in the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, Delphine; Thiéry, Denis; Marion-Poll, Frédéric

    2006-11-01

    European grapevine moth females (Lobesia botrana, Lepidoptera Tortricidae) select an oviposition site by tasting the host plant surface and then gluing a single egg on berries from grapes or from several other host plant species. In doing so, females should avoid ovipositing on plants that are detrimental to their progeny. Do they sense the same deterrent compounds as larvae, despite the fact that they do not have access to the same compartments of the plants? We tested this hypothesis with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), purified from Leuzea carthamoides. Phytoecdysteroids are usually found inside plant tissues and accessible to larvae in an aqueous phase, while adults would access them only through the epicuticular wax. We first confirmed that larvae avoid feeding on 20E and that they taste 20E with their lateral sensilla styloconica, at a threshold of 10(-6) M. Then, we tested whether adult females avoid ovipositing on glass spheres sprayed with 20E. When given a choice, females avoided laying eggs on a treated surface, at a threshold of 8 ng/cm(2). In addition, they deposited significantly fewer eggs in the presence of 20E. Presuming that legs play an important role in assessing the oviposition substrate, we assessed the sensitivity of their taste receptors. In females, 14 taste sensilla are located on the ventral side of the last tarsus of the prothoracic leg. One group of these sensilla house one neuron that is sensitive to 20E, with a detection threshold of about 10(-7) M. The same molecule is thus sensed both in larvae and adults of L. botrana where it respectively inhibits feeding and oviposition.

  9. Childhood Adversity and Neural Development: Deprivation and Threat as Distinct Dimensions of Early Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Lambert, Hilary K.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research has examined the impact of childhood adversity on neural structure and function. Advances in our understanding of the neurodevelopmental consequences of adverse early environments require the identification of dimensions of environmental experience that influence neural development differently and mechanisms other than the frequently-invoked stress pathways. We propose a novel conceptual framework that differentiates between deprivation (absence of expected environmental inputs and complexity) and threat (presence of experiences that represent a threat to one’s physical integrity) and make predictions grounded in basic neuroscience principles about their distinct effects on neural development. We review animal research on fear learning and sensory deprivation as well as human research on childhood adversity and neural development to support these predictions. We argue that these previously undifferentiated dimensions of experience exert strong and distinct influences on neural development that cannot be fully explained by prevailing models focusing only on stress pathways. Our aim is not to exhaustively review existing evidence on childhood adversity and neural development, but to provide a novel framework to guide future research. PMID:25454359

  10. Developing Research-Ready Skills: Preparing Early Academic Students for Participation in Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlevoix, D. J.; Morris, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Engaging lower-division undergraduates in research experiences is a key but challenging aspect of guiding talented students into the geoscience research pipeline. UNAVCO conducted a summer internship program to prepare first and second year college students for participation in authentic, scientific research. Many students in their first two years of academic studies do not have the science content knowledge or sufficient math skills to conduct independent research. Students from groups historically underrepresented in the geosciences may face additional challenges in that they often have a less robust support structure to help them navigate the university environment and may be less aware of professional opportunities in the geosciences.UNAVCO, manager of NSF's geodetic facility, hosted four students during summer 2015 internship experience aimed to help them develop skills that will prepare them for research internships and skills that will help them advance professionally. Students spent eight weeks working with UNAVCO technical staff learning how to use equipment, prepare instrumentation for field campaigns, among other technical skills. Interns also participated in a suite of professional development activities including communications workshops, skills seminars, career circles, geology-focused field trips, and informal interactions with research interns and graduate student interns at UNAVCO. This presentation will outline the successes and challenges of engaging students early in their academic careers and outline the unique role such experiences can have in students' academic careers.

  11. 早期经验对动物认知的影响%Effects of Early Experience On Animal Cognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明亮; 王威; 王衣博

    2015-01-01

    早期经验是动物在发育早期阶段受到的对以后发育产生重大影响的刺激,早期经验对动物成年后的行为表达和认知产生持久而深远的影响。本文分别从产前和产后综述了早期经验对动物认知能力的影响。%Early experience is a stimulation significant effect the early stage of animal on the subsequent devel-opment,the early experience have a lasting and profound influence on the expression of behavior and cognitive in adult. In this paper, from the prenatal and postnatal we reviewed the the effect of early experience on animal cog-nition.

  12. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J; Sadato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience.

  13. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: Involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo eKitada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus and posterior superior temporal sulcus in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early-blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early-blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control. The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience.

  14. The Influence of Early Science Experience in Kindergarten on Children's Immediate and Later Science Achievement: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Bell, Randy L.; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the impacts of selected early science experiences in kindergarten (frequency and duration of teachers' teaching of science, availability of sand/water table and science areas, and children's participation in cooking and science equipment activities) on children's science achievement in kindergarten and third grade using data…

  15. When Language Experience Fails to Explain Word Reading Development: Early Cognitive and Linguistic Profiles of Young Foreign Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Fang; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Although language experience is a key factor in successful foreign language (FL) learning, many FL learners fail to achieve performance levels that were predicted on the basis of their FL experience. This retrospective study investigated early cognitive and linguistic correlates of learning English as a foreign language (FL) in a group of…

  16. Early experiences can alter the size of cortical fields in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelke, A.M.H.; Yuan, S.-M.; Perkeybile, A.M.; Krubitzer, L.A.; Bales, K.L.

    2016-01-01

    The neocortex of the prairie vole is composed of three well-defined sensory areas and one motor area: primary somatosensory, visual, auditory areas and the primary motor area respectively. The boundaries of these cortical areas are identifiable very early in development, and have been thought to resist alteration by all but the most extreme physical or genetic manipulations. Here we assessed the extent to which the boundaries of sensory/motor cortical areas can be altered by exposing young prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) to a chronic stimulus, high or low levels of parental contact, or an acute stimulus, a single dose of saline, oxytocin (OT), or oxytocin antagonist on the day of birth. When animals reached adulthood, their brains were removed, the cortex was flattened, cut parallel to the pial surface, and stained for myelin to identify the architectonic boundaries of sensory and motor areas. We measured the overall proportion of cortex that was myelinated, as well as the proportion of cortex devoted to the sensory and motor areas. Both the chronic and acute manipulations were linked to significant alterations in areal boundaries of cortical fields, but the areas affected differed with different conditions. Thus, differences in parental care and early exposure to OT can both change cortical organization, but their effects are not identical. Furthermore, the effects of both manipulations were sexually dimorphic, with a greater number of statistically significant differences in females than in males. These results indicate that early environmental experience, both through exposure to exogenous neuropeptides and parental contact, can alter the size of cortical fields.

  17. Lakes on Early Mars: A Space-for-Time Substitution Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes were abundant and active on early Mars for 100s millions of years. As global climate change prevented liquid water from remaining stable at the surface, they left behind key evidence of their past existence and duration in the landscape morphology, mineralogy, composition, and topography. As significant markers of environmental change, they have become critical exploration targets for our understanding of Mars past habitability potential, and the preservation potential of their sediments make them high-priority candidate landing sites for the upcoming NASA and ESA rover missions that will search for evidence of biosignatures on early Mars. Identifying and caching the most valuable samples with these missions will require to both recognize these signatures, the geological and environmental processes that may have modified them through time, the spatiotemporal constraints these processes could have imposed on a biogeological record, and their significance for biosignatures and their preservation potential. To help us understand where, what, and how to search on Mars, the Chilean Atacama desert, Altiplano, and the High Andes have provided robust analog study sites over the past 20 years. Exposed to the strongest solar irradiance measured so far on our planet, from sea level up to 6,000 m elevation, and from glacial regions to some of the most arid conditions on Earth, these unique sites allow us to perform a space-for-time substitution experiments that shows the likely evolution of martian lake habitats over time from the early Noachian to the Hesperian. The observed changes provide critical clues about plausible scenarios for the evolution of habitability and life potential. They also give us pointers on how increased environmental extremes linked to a thinning unstable atmosphere, increasing UV, desiccation, and geological and climate changes, may have impacted biodiversity at local and global scale.

  18. Experiences integrating autonomous components and legacy systems into tsunami early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reißland, S.; Herrnkind, S.; Guenther, M.; Babeyko, A.; Comoglu, M.; Hammitzsch, M.

    2012-04-01

    Fostered by and embedded in the general development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) the evolution of Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS) shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors, e.g. sea level stations for the detection of tsunami waves and GPS stations for the detection of ground displacements. Furthermore, the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources serving near real-time data not only includes sensors but also other components and systems offering services such as the delivery of feasible simulations used for forecasting in an imminent tsunami threat. In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) have been successfully incorporated. In the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC) new developments are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed TEWS. This talk will describe experiences made in GITEWS, DEWS and TRIDEC while integrating legacy stand-alone systems and newly developed special-purpose software components into TEWS using different software adapters and communication strategies to make the systems work together in a corporate infrastructure. The talk will also cover task management and data conversion between the different systems. Practical approaches and software solutions for the integration of sensors, e.g. providing seismic and sea level data, and utilisation of special

  19. Early Career Summer Interdisciplinary Team Experiences and Student Persistence in STEM Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadavid, A. C.; Pedone, V. A.; Horn, W.; Rich, H.

    2015-12-01

    STEPS (Students Targeting Engineering and Physical Science) is an NSF-funded program designed to increase the number of California State University Northridge students getting bachelor's degrees in the natural sciences, mathematics, engineering and computer science. The greatest loss of STEM majors occurs between sophomore and junior- years, so we designed Summer Interdisciplinary Team Experience (SITE) as an early career program for these students. Students work closely with a faculty mentor in teams of ten to investigate regionally relevant problems, many of which relate to sustainability efforts on campus or the community. The projects emphasize hands-on activities and team-based learning and decision making. We report data for five years of projects, qualitative assessment through entrance and exit surveys and student interviews, and in initial impact on retention of the participants.

  20. Early experiences with tachycardia-triggered vagus nerve stimulation using the AspireSR stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tahry, Riëm; Hirsch, Martin; Van Rijckevorsel, Kenou; Santos, Susana Ferrao; de Tourtchaninoff, Marianne; Rooijakkers, Herbert; Coenen, Volker; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Many epilepsy patients treated with vagus nerve stimulation additionally use an "on-demand" function, triggering an extra stimulation to terminate a seizure or diminish its severity. Nevertheless, a substantial number of patients are not able to actively trigger stimulations by use of a magnet, due to the absence of an aura or inability for voluntary actions in the early phase of a seizure. To address this need, a novel implantable pulse generator, the AspireSR VNS system, was developed to provide automated ictal stimulation triggered by a seizure-detecting algorithm. We report our experience with three patients in assessing the functionality of ictal stimulation, illustrating the detection system in practice. Detection of ictal tachycardia and variable additional detections of physiological tachycardia depended on the individual seizure-detecting algorithm settings.

  1. Use of Occupancy Sensors in LED Parking Lot and Garage Applications: Early Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael; Royer, Michael P.; Sullivan, Greg P.

    2012-11-07

    Occupancy sensor systems are gaining traction as an effective technological approach to reducing energy use in exterior commercial lighting applications. Done correctly, occupancy sensors can substantially enhance the savings from an already efficient lighting system. However, this technology is confronted by several potential challenges and pitfalls that can leave a significant amount of the prospective savings on the table. This report describes anecdotal experiences from field installations of occupancy sensor controlled light-emitting diode (LED) lighting at two parking structures and two parking lots. The relative levels of success at these installations reflect a marked range of potential outcomes: from an additional 76% in energy savings to virtually no additional savings. Several issues that influenced savings were encountered in these early stage installations and are detailed in the report. Ultimately, care must be taken in the design, selection, and commissioning of a sensor-controlled lighting installation, else the only guaranteed result may be its cost.

  2. Preparing culturally and linguistically diverse preservice Early Childhood teachers for field experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Miller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an action research project focussed on preparing culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD preservice early childhood teachers for field experience. A series of targeted workshops delivered over one semester was designed to support the students to develop intercultural competence in relation to knowledge, attitude, skills and behaviours that contribute to success on field placement. Findings indicate that short-term initiatives targeted specifically to students’ identified needs and strengths can help to build intercultural competence for both students and teacher educators. For the participants, access to communication strategies, opportunities for rehearsal of teaching practice, and peer and academic support contributed to shifts in attitude, and the development of skills and new knowledge. New learnings for the teacher educators included challenging assumptions about CALD students’ sense of community and belonging in the university context.

  3. Early educational foundations for the development of civic responsibility: an African experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Mumba, Paul; Chansa-Kabali, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    An innovative curriculum designed to foster the development of social responsibility among pre-adolescent children was introduced at a rural Zambian primary school. The curriculum invoked Child-to-Child principles focusing on health education, advancing a synthesis of Western psychological theories and African cultural traditions. The teacher sought to democratize the educational process through cooperative learning in mixed-gender, mixed-social-class, and mixed-ability study groups. Learners engaged in community service activities and contributed to the nurturant care of younger children. Young adults interviewed seventeen years after completing the program recalled their experience and reflected on how it had promoted their personal agency, cooperative disposition, and civic responsibility in early adulthood.

  4. Partial Cricotracheal Resection (PCTR), a Rewarding Outcome for Paediatric Subglottic Stenosis: An Early Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, B S; Roopesh, S; Marina, M B; Abdullah, S M

    2014-02-01

    This is a retrospective study examining the outcome of paediatric patients with subglottic stenosis who underwent partial cricotracheal resection (PCTR) as a primary open procedure from 2004 to 2012. There were 5 patients identified aged from 3 to 18 years old. All the subglottic stenosis were acquired type. All of them were secondary to prolonged intubation. Three patients were classified as Myer-Cotton grade III and the other two were Myer-Cotton grade IV. Two of the patients had concomitant bilateral vocal cord immobility. All patients underwent two staged PCTR . All patients underwent two staged PCTR, and one patient underwent posterior cordectomy apart from partial CTR at different setting. All patients were successfully decannulated at various durations postoperatively. Although this is an early experience in our institution, PCTR has shown to be effective and safe procedure in patients with subglottic stenosis especially those with Myer-Cotton grade III and IV.

  5. Use of artificial substrates of different colors for oviposition by the brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Krinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to a rearing methodology for the brown stink bug, Euschistus heros, in the laboratory, we evaluated oviposition on artificial substrates of different colors. During six days, oviposition was evaluated daily, by counting the total number of eggs, number of clutches, and eggs/clutch. Females laid 12,463 eggs, in 1,677 clutches, resulting in an average of 7.28 ± 0.44 eggs/clutch. Black, brown, and green felt had the most eggs and clutches. The results demonstrated that many colors are suitable as oviposition substrate for E. heros, providing information for the mass rearing of this insect.

  6. The Experiences of Israeli Early Childhood Educators Working With Children of Ethiopian Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Firstater

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study offers an in-depth examination of the experiences of early childhood educators, focusing on their work with Ethiopian immigrant children and their families. We aim to describe and analyze the teachers’ insider views vis-à-vis the challenges faced by these children and their parents in the Israeli preschool system. Using narrative methodology, the analysis of findings is based upon 20 stories written by 10 early childhood educators. It reveals that for these teachers, the chief struggle is their relationship with the parents of their Ethiopian pupils, one characterized by difficulties, frustrations, and burdens. The engagement with parents of Ethiopian children exhibited a range of possibilities: from the expression of patronizing, hierarchical viewpoints, to a search for ad hoc ways of coping with a persistent cultural gap, to the attainment of genuine, successful partnerships. Lack of sufficient knowledge and understanding of the unique cultural attributes of the Ethiopian community appears to be the basis for the teachers’ view of the parents as lacking faith in them and in the educational system as a whole. In addition, suggestions are made about implications for educational practice and for policies that might assist teachers in ameliorating these challenges via the development of, and professional training in, skills which help coping with the problems and dilemmas unique to the multicultural classroom.

  7. Experience-dependent hemispheric specialization of letters and numbers is revealed in early visual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonkoo; Chiang, Crystal; Brannon, Elizabeth M; Woldorff, Marty G

    2014-10-01

    Recent fMRI research has demonstrated that letters and numbers are preferentially processed in distinct regions and hemispheres in the visual cortex. In particular, the left visual cortex preferentially processes letters compared with numbers, whereas the right visual cortex preferentially processes numbers compared with letters. Because letters and numbers are cultural inventions and are otherwise physically arbitrary, such a double dissociation is strong evidence for experiential effects on neural architecture. Here, we use the high temporal resolution of ERPs to investigate the temporal dynamics of the neural dissociation between letters and numbers. We show that the divergence between ERP traces to letters and numbers emerges very early in processing. Letters evoked greater N1 waves (latencies 140-170 msec) than did numbers over left occipital channels, whereas numbers evoked greater N1s than letters over the right, suggesting letters and numbers are preferentially processed in opposite hemispheres early in visual encoding. Moreover, strings of letters, but not single letters, elicited greater P2 ERP waves (starting around 250 msec) than numbers did over the left hemisphere, suggesting that the visual cortex is tuned to selectively process combinations of letters, but not numbers, further along in the visual processing stream. Additionally, the processing of both of these culturally defined stimulus types differentiated from similar but unfamiliar visual stimulus forms (false fonts) even earlier in the processing stream (the P1 at 100 msec). These findings imply major cortical specialization processes within the visual system driven by experience with reading and mathematics.

  8. Early literacy experiences constrain L1 and L2 reading procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeetee eBhide

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Computational models of reading posit that there are two pathways to word recognition, using sublexical phonology or morphological/orthographic information. They further theorize that everyone uses both pathways to some extent, but the division of labor between the pathways can vary. This review argues that the first language one was taught to read, and the instructional method by which one was taught, can have profound and long-lasting effects on how one reads, not only in one’s first language, but also in one’s second language. Readers who first learn a transparent orthography rely more heavily on the sublexical phonology pathway, and this seems relatively impervious to instruction. Readers who first learn a more opaque orthography rely more on morphological/orthographic information, but the degree to which they do so can be modulated by instructional method. Finally, readers who first learned to read a highly opaque morphosyllabic orthography use less sublexical phonology while reading in their second language than do other second language learners and this effect may be heightened if they were not also exposed to an orthography that codes for phonological units during early literacy acquisition. These effects of early literacy experiences on reading procedure are persistent despite increases in reading ability.

  9. Preparing beginning reading teachers: An experimental comparison of initial early literacy field experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Lake, Vickie E; Greulich, Luana; Folsom, Jessica S; Guidry, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This randomized-control trial examined the learning of preservice teachers taking an initial Early Literacy course in an early childhood education program and of the kindergarten or first grade students they tutored in their field experience. Preservice teachers were randomly assigned to one of two tutoring programs: Book Buddies and Tutor Assisted Intensive Learning Strategies (TAILS), which provided identical meaning-focused instruction (shared book reading), but differed in the presentation of code-focused skills. TAILS used explicit, scripted lessons, and the Book Buddies required that code-focused instruction take place during shared book reading. Our research goal was to understand which tutoring program would be most effective in improving knowledge about reading, lead to broad and deep language and preparedness of the novice preservice teachers, and yield the most successful student reading outcomes. Findings indicate that all pre-service teachers demonstrated similar gains in knowledge, but preservice teachers in the TAILS program demonstrated broader and deeper application of knowledge and higher self-ratings of preparedness to teach reading. Students in both conditions made similar comprehension gains, but students tutored with TAILS showed significantly stronger decoding gains.

  10. Coping with the challenges of early disaster response: 24 years of field hospital experience after earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Elhanan; Abargel, Avi; Peleg, Kobi; Kreiss, Yitshak

    2013-10-01

    To propose strategies and recommendations for future planning and deployment of field hospitals after earthquakes by comparing the experience of 4 field hospitals deployed by The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Medical Corps in Armenia, Turkey, India and Haiti. Quantitative data regarding the earthquakes were collected from published sources; data regarding hospital activity were collected from IDF records; and qualitative information was obtained from structured interviews with key figures involved in the missions. The hospitals started operating between 89 and 262 hours after the earthquakes. Their sizes ranged from 25 to 72 beds, and their personnel numbered between 34 and 100. The number of patients treated varied from 1111 to 2400. The proportion of earthquake-related diagnoses ranged from 28% to 67% (P earthquakes, patient caseload and treatment requirements varied widely. The variables affecting the patient profile most significantly were time until deployment, total number of injured, availability of adjacent medical facilities, and possibility of evacuation from the disaster area. When deploying a field hospital in the early phase after an earthquake, a wide variability in patient caseload should be anticipated. Customization is difficult due to the paucity of information. Therefore, early deployment necessitates full logistic self-sufficiency and operational versatility. Also, collaboration with local and international medical teams can greatly enhance treatment capabilities.

  11. Does Early Decompressive Craniectomy Improve Outcome? Experience from an Active UK Recruiter Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. García Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The results of the recent DECRA study suggest that although craniectomy decreases ICP and ICU length of stay, it is also associated with worst outcomes. Our experience, illustrated by these two striking cases, supports that early decompressive craniectomy may significantly improve the outcome in selected patients. Case Reports. The first patient, a 20-year-old man who suffered severe brain contusion and subarachnoid haemorrhage after a fall downstairs, with refractory ICP of 35 mmHg, despite maximal medical therapy, eventually underwent decompressive craniectomy. After 18 days in intensive care, he was discharged for rehabilitation. The second patient, a 23-year-old man was found at the scene of a road accident with a GCS of 3 and fixed, dilated pupils who underwent extensive unilateral decompressive craniectomy for refractory intracranial hypertension. After three weeks of cooling, paralysis, and neuroprotection, he eventually left ICU for rehabilitation. Outcomes. Four months after leaving ICU, the first patient abseiled 40 m down the main building of St. Mary’s Hospital to raise money for the Trauma Unit. He has returned to part-time work. The second patient, was decannulated less than a month later and made a full cognitive recovery. A year later, with a titanium skull prosthesis, he is back to part-time work and to playing football. Conclusions. Despite the conclusions of the DECRA study, our experience of the use of early decompressive craniectomy has been associated with outstanding outcomes. We are currently actively recruiting patients into the RESCUEicp trial and have high hopes that it will clarify the role of the decompressive craniectomy in traumatic brain injury and whether it effectively improves outcomes.

  12. Before Student Teaching: How Undergraduate Students in Early Childhood Teacher Preparation Programs Describe Their Early Classroom-Based Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Christine; La Paro, Karen M.; Johnson, Amy V.

    2014-01-01

    Classroom-based experiences, alternatively known as practica, are an integral component of undergraduate teacher preparation programs, which provide students essential opportunities to apply knowledge in practice. Though much is known about student teaching, much less is known about students' earlier classroom-based experiences. This…

  13. Study of soil moisture sensor for landslide early warning system: Experiment in laboratory scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliza, E.; Habil, H.; Munir, M. M.; Irsyam, M.; Abdullah, M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    The high rate of rainfall is the main trigger factor in many cases of landslides. However, each type of soils has unique characteristics and behavior concerning the rainfall infiltration. Therefore, early warning system of landslide will be more accurate by monitoring the changes of ground water condition. In this study, the monitoring of ground water changes was designed by using soil moisture sensor and simple microcontroller for data processing. The performance of soil moisture sensor was calibrated using the gravimetric method. To determine the soil characteristic and behavior with respect to water content that induce landslides, an experiment involving small-scale landslide model was conducted. From these experiments, the electric resistance of the soil increased as soil water content increases. The increase of soil water content led to the rise of the pore pressure and soil weight which could cause soil vulnerability to the movement. In addition, the various soil types were used to determine the responses of soils that induce the slope failure. Experimental results showed that each type of soils has different volumetric water content, soil matrix suction and shear strength of the slope. This condition influenced the slope stability that trigger of landslide.

  14. An animal model of eating disorders associated with stressful experience in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Jeong Won

    2011-02-01

    Experience of childhood abuse is prevalent among patients with eating disorders, and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is implicated in its pathophysiology. Neonatal maternal separation is considered as an animal model of stressful experience early in life. Many of studies have demonstrated its impact both on the activity of HPA axis and the development of psycho-emotional disorders later in life. In this paper, a series of our researches on developing an animal model of eating disorders is reviewed. An animal model of neonatal maternal separation was used; Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam daily for 180 min during the first 2 weeks of life (MS) or undisturbed. Anxiety-/depression-like behaviors were observed in MS rats at the age of two months with decreased serotonergic activity in the hippocampus and the raphe. Post-weaning social isolation promoted food intake and weight gain of adolescent MS pups, with impacts on anxiety-like behaviors. Sustained hyperphagia was observed in the MS pups subjected to a fasting/refeeding cycle repeatedly during adolescence, with increased plasma corticosterone levels. Anhedonia, major symptom of depression, to palatable food was observed in adolescent MS pups with blunted response of the mesolimbic dopaminergic activity to stress. Results suggest that neonatal maternal separation lead to the development of eating disorders when it is challenged with social or metabolic stressors later in life, in which dysfunctions in the HPA axis and the brain monoaminergic systems may play important roles.

  15. Early experience of a safety net provider reorganizing into an accountable care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Karen; Santos, Palmira; Thompson, Douglas; Stout, Somava S; Bearse, Adriana; Mechanic, Robert E

    2014-08-01

    Although safety net providers will benefit from health insurance expansions under the Affordable Care Act, they also face significant challenges in the postreform environment. Some have embraced the concept of the accountable care organization to help improve quality and efficiency while addressing financial shortfalls. The experience of Cambridge Health Alliance (CHA) in Massachusetts, where health care reform began six years ago, provides insight into the opportunities and challenges of this approach in the safety net. CHA's strategies include care redesign, financial realignment, workforce transformation, and development of external partnerships. Early results show some improvement in access, patient experience, quality, and utilization; however, the potential efficiencies will not eliminate CHA's current operating deficit. The patient population, payer mix, service mix, cost structure, and political requirements reduce the likelihood of financial sustainability without significant changes in these factors, increased public funding, or both. Thus the future of safety net institutions, regardless of payment and care redesign success, remains at risk. Copyright © 2014 by Duke University Press.

  16. Marijuana experiences, voting behaviors and early perspectives regarding marijuana legalization among college students from two states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Whitehill, Jennifer M; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students’ 1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, 2) voting behaviors, and 3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. PARTICIPANTS College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May–September 2013 METHODS Participants completed phone interviews assessing marijuana attitudes, intentions, behaviors, voting behaviors or intentions, and perceptions of the impact of legislation. RESULTS A total of 283 participants completed the interview (83.7% retention rate): 56.8% were female, 57.2% were from Wisconsin, and 74.6% were Caucasian. Almost half of Washington participants (46.3%) indicated that they voted for marijuana legalization. Participants most commonly responded that the legislation did not change their attitudes towards marijuana, though some participants discussed perceived safety of the product because legislation passed. CONCLUSIONS Findings indicate similarities in views and experiences among college students from states affected and unaffected by legalization; legalization may increase perceptions of safety. PMID:26182234

  17. Differential and Synergistic Functionality of Acylsugars in Suppressing Oviposition by Insect Herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M Leckie

    Full Text Available Acylsugars are secondary metabolites exuded from type IV glandular trichomes that provide broad-spectrum insect suppression for Solanum pennellii Correll, a wild relative of cultivated tomato. Acylsugars produced by different S. pennellii accessions vary by sugar moieties (glucose or sucrose and fatty acid side chains (lengths and branching patterns. Our objective was to determine which acylsugar compositions more effectively suppressed oviposition of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Middle East--Asia Minor 1 Group, tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds, and western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande. We extracted and characterized acylsugars from four S. pennellii accessions with different compositions, as well as from an acylsugar-producing tomato breeding line. We also fractionated the acylsugars of one S. pennellii accession to examine the effects of its components. Effects of acylsugars on oviposition were evaluated by administering a range of doses to oviposition sites of adult whiteflies and thrips in non-choice and choice bioassays, respectively. The acylsugars from S. pennellii accessions and the tomato breeding line demonstrated differential functionality in their ability to alter the distribution of whitefly oviposition and suppress oviposition on acylsugar treated substrates. Tobacco thrips were sensitive to all compositions while western flower thrips and whiteflies were more sensitive to acylsugars from a subset of S. pennellii accessions. It follows that acylsugars could thus mediate plant-enemy interactions in such a way as to affect evolution of host specialization, resistance specificity, and potentially host differentiation or local adaptation. The acylsugars from S. pennellii LA1376 were separated by polarity into two fractions that differed sharply for their sugar moieties and fatty acid side chains. These fractions had different efficacies, with neither having activity approaching that of the

  18. Influence of Host-Plant Surface Chemicals on the Oviposition of the Cereal Stemborer Busseola Fusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Gerald; Clément, Gilles; Ahuya, Peter; Hassanali, Ahmed; Derridj, Sylvie; Gaertner, Cyrile; Linard, Romain; Le Ru, Bruno; Frérot, Brigitte; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2016-05-01

    The chemical composition of plant surfaces plays a role in selection of host plants by herbivorous insects. Once the insect reaches the plant, these cues determine host acceptance. Laboratory studies have shown that the stem borer Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important pest of sorghum and maize in sub-Saharan Africa, is able to differentiate between host and non-host plant species. However, no information is available on the cues used by this insect to seek and accept the host plant. Thus, the role of surface phytochemical stimuli on host selection and oviposition by B. fusca was studied in the laboratory using two host plants, sorghum, Sorghum bicolor, and maize, Zea mays, and one non-host plant, Napier grass, Pennisetum purpureum. The numbers of eggs and egg masses deposited on the three plant species were compared first under no-choice and choice conditions. In both cases, more eggs and egg masses were laid on maize and sorghum than on the non-host. Artificial surrogate stems treated with a water or chloroform surface extract of each plant were then compared with surrogate stems treated with, respectively, water or chloroform as controls, under similar conditions. Surrogate stems treated with plant water extracts did not show an increase in oviposition when compared to controls, indicating that the major compounds in these extracts, i.e., simple sugars and free amino acids, are not significantly responsible for the oviposition preference. By contrast, a chloroform extract of sorghum enhanced oviposition on the surrogate stems compared to the control, while those of maize and Napier grass showed no significant effects. Analysis of the chloroform extract of sorghum showed higher amounts of α-amyrin, ß-amyrin, and n-nonacosane compared to those of maize and Napier grass. A blend of the three chemicals significantly increased oviposition compared to the chloroform-treated control, indicating that these compounds are part of the surface chemical

  19. REPELLENT AND OVIPOSITION DETERRENT ACTIVITIES OFTHE ESSENTIAL OIL FROM MIKANIA MICRANTHA AND ITS COMPOUNDS ON PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-xinZhang; BingLing; Shao-yingChen; Guang-wenLiang; Xiong-feiPang

    2004-01-01

    Repellent and oviposition deterrent activities of the essential oil from Mikania micrantha and five volatile compounds including limonene, a-terpinene, linalool, B-caryophylene and verbenone on the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, was investigated in door and in net-house. The results showed that the essential oil of the M. micrantha had significant repellant effect (at flow 100-180 mL/min) and oviposition deterrent activity at dose 1020 uL/seedling for the DBM. In five volatile compounds, a-terpinene, limonene and linalool had significant effect on repellent and oviposition deterrent of the DBM moths, but verbenone and B-caryophylene, no significantly effect was observed in repellent and oviposition deterrent.

  20. Grapevines respond to glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) oviposition by increasing local and systemic terpenoid levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevines (Vitis vinifera) have been observed to respond to oviposition by glassy-winged sharpshooters [Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar)(Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)] by producing volatile compounds that attract egg parasitoids such as Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Recent work ...

  1. The oviposition of the chili fruit fly (Bactrocera latifrons Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae with reference to reproductive capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anothai Wingsanoi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The chili fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons Hendel, is a serious pest of chili fruit production in Thailand. To determine theeffective control planning of the fly population, the oviposition related to reproductive capacity of the female were observed.The female ovary was daily dissected through the entire life span and the eggs inside the ovary were examined and counted.There were 44.84±19.60 eggs/ovary. The oviposition of female was simultaneously conducted. Eggs inside the ovarypresented on 8th day and the female oviposited on 10th day of the life span. The female laid 4.25±2.28 eggs, which was 12.45±9.56 fold less than the reproductive capacity. The female longevity was 31.1±8.40 days and the oviposition period was 40days.

  2. Personal strengths and traumatic experiences among institutionalized children given up at birth (Les Enfants de Duplessis--Duplessis' children): I: Early experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J Christopher; Sigal, John J; Boucher, Sophie; Paré, Nikolas; Ouimet, Marie Claude

    2005-12-01

    We examined childhood and early adult strengths and adverse experiences of a group of orphans given up at or near birth and raised in Quebec institutions into early adulthood. A follow-up interview of 81 adults (41 women, 40 men) at a mean age of 59.2 years included retrospective assessments of childhood experiences. Most participants reported multiple early adverse experiences, including, in descending order, unfair rules and excessive punishment, physical abuse, emotional neglect, witnessing violence, verbal abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and serious illness. Adverse experiences were mainly due to lay caretakers, not peers or nuns. Twelve childhood strengths, such as self-protectiveness and athletic talent, were scored at each of four age periods, yielding a median score equivalent to one strength at each period. Over half had significant childhood attachments, but of limited intimacy. Childhood variables correlated with their respective variables in later adulthood. Overall, these older adults reported a high prevalence of adverse or traumatic childhood experiences, counterbalanced by modest levels of individual strengths and attachment relationships. Institutionalization of children--if unavoidable--must build in effective safeguards against adverse experiences.

  3. Metamorphic sole formation and early plate interface rheology: Insights from Griggs apparatus experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soret, Mathieu; Agard, Philippe; Dubacq, Benoît; Hirth, Greg; Yamato, Philippe; Ildefonse, Benoît; Prigent, Cécile

    2016-04-01

    Metamorphic soles correspond to m to ~500 m thick highly strained metamorphic rock units found beneath mylonitic banded peridotites at the base of large-scale ophiolites, as exemplified in Oman. Metamorphic soles are mainly composed of metabasalts deriving from the downgoing oceanic lithosphere and metamorphosed up to granulite-facies conditions by heat transfer from the mantle wedge. Pressure-temperature peak conditions are usually estimated at 1.0±0.2 GPa and 800±100°C. The absence of HP-LT metamorphism overprint implies that metamorphic soles have been formed and exhumed during subduction infancy. In this view, metamorphic soles were strongly deformed during their accretion to the mantle wedge (corresponding, now, to the base of the ophiolite). Therefore, metamorphic soles and banded peridotites are direct witnesses of the dynamics of early subduction zones, in terms of thermal structure, fluid migration and rheology evolution across the nascent slab interface. Based on fieldwork and EBSD analyses, we present a detailed (micro-) structural study performed on samples coming from the Sumeini window, the better-preserved cross-section of the metamorphic sole of Oman. Large differences are found in the deformation (CPO, grain size, aspect ratio) of clinopyroxene, amphibole and plagioclase, related to mineralogical changes linked with the distance to the peridotite contact (e.g., hardening due to the appearance of garnet and clinopyroxene). To model the incipient slab interface in laboratory, we carried out 5 hydrostatic annealing and simple-shear experiments on Griggs solid-medium apparatus. Deformation experiments were conducted at axial strain rates of 10-6 s-1. Fine-grained amphibolite was synthetized by adding 1 wt.% water to a (Mid-Ocean Ridge) basalt powder as a proxy for the metamorphic sole (amphibole + plagioclase + clinopyroxene ± garnet assemblage). To synthetize garnet, 2 experiments were carried out in hydrostatic conditions and with deformation at

  4. STAR - Research Experiences at National Laboratory Facilities for Pre-Service and Early Career Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. M.; Rebar, B.; Buxner, S.

    2012-12-01

    The STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program provides pre-service and beginning teachers the opportunity to develop identity as both teachers and researchers early in their careers. Founded and implemented by the Center for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Education (CESaME) at California Polytechnic State University on behalf of the California State University (CSU) system, STAR provides cutting edge research experiences and career development for students affiliated with the CSU system. Over the past three summers, STAR has also partnered with the NSF Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship Program to include Noyce Scholars from across the country. Key experiences are one to three summers of paid research experience at federal research facilities associated with the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Anchoring beginning teachers in the research community enhances participant understanding of what it means to be both researchers and effective teachers. Since its inception in 2007, the STAR Program has partnered with 15 national lab facilities to provide 290 research experiences to 230 participants. Several of the 68 STAR Fellows participating in the program during Summer 2012 have submitted abstracts to the Fall AGU Meeting. Through continued partnership with the Noyce Scholar Program and contributions from outside funding sources, the CSU is committed to sustaining the STAR Program in its efforts to significantly impact teacher preparation. Evaluation results from the program continue to indicate program effectiveness in recruiting high quality science and math majors into the teaching profession and impacting their attitudes and beliefs towards the nature of science and teaching through inquiry. Additionally, surveys and interviews are being conducted of participants who are now teaching in the classroom as

  5. Evaluation of treatment outcomes of early-stage endometrial cancer radiotherapy: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiral, S; Beyzadeoglu, M; Sager, O; Dincoglan, F; Uysal, B; Gamsiz, H; Akin, M; Turker, T; Dirican, B

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in the management of early stage endometrial cancer (EC) is still controversial. Here we report our institutional experience with patients who received postoperative RT for stage I-II EC over a period of 35 years and assess potential predictors of local recurrence (LR), distant metastasis (DM), and overall survival (OS). A total of 188 patients undergoing postoperative RT for stage IA-II EC between 1977 and 2012 were evaluated. Some 96 received median 46 Gy whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) (range: 40-60 Gy), 37 were given WPRT with vaginal cuff therapy (VCT), and 55 received only VCT either with brachytherapy (BT) or stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Chemotherapy was given to 5 patients with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC). Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect of clinicopathological factors on LR, DM, and OS. Median follow-up time was 11 years (range: 1-35 years). At the time of analysis, 34 patients were not alive. Of the 15 patients with LR, 7 (46.7%) recurred in the vaginal stump, 5 (33.3%) in the pelvic region, and 3 (20%) in the paraaortic nodal region, while 12 had distant metastasis. UPSC histology (p=0.027), sole VCT (p=0.041), high histologic grade (p=0.034), and age≥71 (p=0.04) were poor prognostic factors on univariate analysis. In our patients receiving radiotherapy for early-stage EC, grade III disease and age≥71 were associated with shorter OS whereas UPSC histology was an independent predictor for both LR and DM.

  6. Early experiences on living donor liver transplantation in China: multicenter report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-hao; SUN Bei-cheng; GE Wen-gang; YAN Lü-nan; ZHANG Feng; LI Xiang-cheng; ZHU Ji-ye; PENG Zhi-hai; LIU Jin-hui; LI Guo-qiang; CHENG Feng

    2006-01-01

    Background Because of the lack of brain death laws in China, the proportion of cadaveric organ donation is low. Many patients with end-stage liver disease die waiting for a suitable donor. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) would reduce the current discrepancy between the number of patients on the transplant waiting list and the number of available organ donors. We describe the early experience of LDLT in the mainland of China based on data from five liver transplant centers.Methods Between January 2001 and October 2003, 45 patients with end-stage liver disease received LDLT at five centers in China. The indication and timing, surgical techniques and complications, nonsurgical issues including rejection, infection, and advantages of LDLT in the series were reviewed. Actuarial patient and graft survival rates were calculated by using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimate. Statistical analysis was completed by using SPSS 10.0.Results All LDLT recipients were cirrhotic patients, except for one man with fulminant hepatic failure. Among the 45 cases of LDLT, 35 (77.8%) were performed in one center (the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University). The overall 1 and 3 year survival rate of the recipients was 93.1% and 92.0%, respectively. Of the 45 LDLT donors, there were 3 cases of biliary leakage, 2 subphrenic collections, 1 fat liquefaction around the incision and 1 biliary peritonitis after T tube removal. All donors recovered completely.Conclusions LDLT provides an excellent approach to addressing the problem of donor shortage in China even though the operation is complicated, uncompromising and difficult with respect to the safety of the donors and receptors. Despite early technical hurdles having been overcome, perfection of technique is still necessarily. At present, LDLT is a good choice for the patients with irreversible liver disease.

  7. Transarterial embolisation of hepatocellular carcinoma with doxorubicin-eluting beads: single centre early experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawawi, O; Hazman, MN; Abdullah, BJJ; Vijayananthan, A; Manikam, J; Mahadeva, S; Goh, KL

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This is a retrospective study to evaluate the results of our early experience of using doxorubicin eluting beads (DEB) to treat patients with early and intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Material and methods: A cohort of 19 patients (84.2% male; 15.8% female; mean age 59.2 years ± 11.0; range, 32-80 years) with documented HCC of size 1.8-10cm (mean, 4.0cm ± 1.8 ) undergoing DEB transarterial chembolisation (TACE) was reviewed. All patients had at least one image examination (multiphase computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) after embolisation. Results: A total of 32 procedures were performed. The objective response according to the European Association for the Study of the Liver criteria was 57.9% at 1-month, 42.8% at 6-month and 50.0% at 1-year follow up. There were 4 (21.1%) treatment-related complications (1 liver abscess, 2 pancreatitis and 1 tumour rupture) which resulted in 2 deaths. One death occurred 3 weeks after second embolisation, due to ruptured pancreatic pseudocyst, giving a 5.3% 30-day mortality rate. Another patient died 2 months after embolisation caused by tumour rupture. Eight patients received radiofrequency ablation after embolisation for residual or recurrent tumours. The 1-year survival rate in the DEB TACE only group was 80% while the 1- and 2-year survival rate in the group that received radiofrequency after DEB TACE was 85.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: DEB TACE is safe and effective in select group of patients. Survival may be improved when combined with other treatment modality. PMID:21611067

  8. The State of Alaska's early experience with institutionalization of health impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Anderson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Many nations routinely include health impact assessments (HIA in public policy decisions. Institutionalization of HIA formally integrates health considerations into a governmental decision-making process. We describe an example of institutionalization in the United States through Alaska's early experience with institutionalization of HIA. Literature review . HIA arose from a series of health conferences in the 1970s that affirmed the importance of “health for all.” A number of key milestones eventually defined HIA as a unique field of impact assessment. There are several approaches to institutionalization, and one common approach in the United States is through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA. NEPA formed the basis for the earliest HIAs in Alaska. Program description . Early HIAs in Alaska led to conferences, working groups, a state guidance document and the institutionalization of a HIA program within the Department of Health and Social Services in 2010. A medical epidemiologist staffs the program, which utilizes contractors to meet rising demand for HIA. The HIA program has sustainable funding from the state budget and from the state's natural resource permitting process. The HIA document is the main deliverable, but the program performs other tasks, including fieldwork and technical reviews. The HIA program works closely with a host of collaborative partners. Conclusion . Alaska's institutionalized HIA program benefits from sustainable funding that promotes continuous quality improvement and involves the program in the entire life cycle of a development project. The program structure adapts well to variations in workflow and supports a host of quality control activities. Currently, the program focuses on HIAs for natural resource development projects.

  9. Laparoscopic single port surgery in children using Triport: our early experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Armas, Ismael A Salas; Garcia, Isabella; Pimpalwar, Ashwin

    2011-09-01

    Laparoscopy has become the gold standard technique for appendectomy and cholecystectomy. With the emergence of newer laparoscopic instruments which are roticulating and provide 7 degrees of freedom it is now possible to perform these operations through a single umbilical incision rather than the standard 3-4 incisions and thus lead to more desirable cosmetic results and less postoperative pain. The newer reticulating telescopes provide excellent exposure of the operating field and allow the operations to proceed routinely. Recently, ports [Triports (Olympus surgery)/SILS ports] especially designed for single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) have been developed. We herein describe our experience with laparoscopic single port appendectomies and cholecystectomies in children using the Triport. This is a retrospective cohort study of children who underwent single incision laparoscopic surgery between May 2009 and August 2010 at Texas Children's Hospital and Ben Taub General Hospital in Houston Texas by a single surgeon. Charts were reviewed for demographics, type of procedure, operative time, early or late complications, outcome and cosmetic results. Fifty-four patients underwent SILS. A total of 50 appendectomies (early or perforated) and 4 cholecystectomies were performed using this new minimally invasive approach. The average operative time for SILS/LESS appendectomy was 54 min with a range between 25 and 205 min, while operative time for SILS cholecystectomy was 156 min with a range of 75-196 min. Only small percentage (4%) of appendectomies (mostly complicated) were converted to standard laparoscopy, but none were converted to open procedure. All patients were followed up in the clinic after 3-4 weeks. No complications were noted and all patients had excellent cosmetic results. Parents were extremely satisfied with the cosmetic results. SILS/LESS is a safe, minimally invasive approach for appendectomy and cholecystectomy in children. This new approach is

  10. Effect of learning on the oviposition preference of field-collected and laboratory-reared Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations

    OpenAIRE

    Glas, J. J.; Berg, van den, A.E.; Potting, R.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies show that Vetiver grass, (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash), may have potential as a dead-end trap crop in an overall habitat management strategy for the spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Vetiver grass is highly preferred for oviposition, in spite of the fact that larval survival is extremely low on this grass. The oviposition behaviour of female Chilo partellus moths was investigated by determining the amount and size of egg batches allocat...

  11. Malnutrition in early life and adult mental health: evidence from a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Phillips, Michael R; Zhang, Yali; Zhang, Jingxuan; Shi, Qichang; Song, Zhiqiang; Ding, Zhijie; Pang, Shutao; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2013-11-01

    As natural experiments, famines provide a unique opportunity to test the health consequences of nutritional deprivation during the critical period of early life. Using data on 4972 Chinese born between 1956 and 1963 who participated in a large mental health epidemiology survey conducted between 2001 and 2005, we investigated the potential impact of exposure to the 1959-1961 Chinese Famine in utero and during the early postnatal life on adult mental illness. The risk of mental illness was assessed with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and eight other risk factors, and the famine impact on adult mental illness was estimated by difference-in-difference models. Results show that compared with unexposed women born in 1963, women born during the famine years (1959-1961) had higher GHQ scores (increased by 0.95 points; CI: 0.26, 1.65) and increased risk of mental illness (OR = 2.80; CI: 1.23, 6.39); those born in 1959 were the most affected and had GHQ scores 1.52 points higher (CI: 0.42, 2.63) and an OR for mental illness of 4.99 (CI: 1.68, 14.84). Compared to men in the 1963 birth cohort, men born during the famine had lower GHQ scores (decreased by 0.89 points; CI: -1.59, -0.20) and a nonsignificant decrease in the risk of mental illness (OR = 0.60; CI: 0.26, 1.40). We speculate that the long-term consequences of early-life famine exposure include both the selection of the hardiest and the enduring deleterious effects of famine on those who survive. The greater biological vulnerability and stronger natural selection in utero of male versus female fetuses during severe famine may result in a stronger selection effect among men than women, obscuring the deleterious impact of famine exposure on the risk of mental illness in men later in life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Heterologous microarray experiments allow the identification of the early events associated with potato tuber cold sweetening

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    Vitulli Federico

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its discovery more than 100 years ago, potato (Solanum tuberosum tuber cold-induced sweetening (CIS has been extensively investigated. Several carbohydrate-associated genes would seem to be involved in the process. However, many uncertainties still exist, as the relative contribution of each gene to the process is often unclear, possibly as the consequence of the heterogeneity of experimental systems. Some enzymes associated with CIS, such as β-amylases and invertases, have still to be identified at a sequence level. In addition, little is known about the early events that trigger CIS and on the involvement/association with CIS of genes different from carbohydrate-associated genes. Many of these uncertainties could be resolved by profiling experiments, but no GeneChip is available for the potato, and the production of the potato cDNA spotted array (TIGR has recently been discontinued. In order to obtain an overall picture of early transcriptional events associated with CIS, we investigated whether the commercially-available tomato Affymetrix GeneChip could be used to identify which potato cold-responsive gene family members should be further studied in detail by Real-Time (RT-PCR (qPCR. Results A tomato-potato Global Match File was generated for the interpretation of various aspects of the heterologous dataset, including the retrieval of best matching potato counterparts and annotation, and the establishment of a core set of highly homologous genes. Several cold-responsive genes were identified, and their expression pattern was studied in detail by qPCR over 26 days. We detected biphasic behaviour of mRNA accumulation for carbohydrate-associated genes and our combined GeneChip-qPCR data identified, at a sequence level, enzymatic activities such as β-amylases and invertases previously reported as being involved in CIS. The GeneChip data also unveiled important processes accompanying CIS, such as the induction of redox

  13. Distress and negative experiences of the caregiving relationship in early psychosis: does social cognition play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Eleanor; Onwumere, Juliana; Kuipers, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the relationship between individuals with early psychosis and first-degree relatives who were carers, to see whether negative and distressing experiences of the patient-carer relationship were associated with social cognition difficulties in both groups. The study had a cross-sectional correlational design. A total of 33 patients with early psychosis (within 3 years of first psychotic episode) and 24 first-degree relative carers (all parents) completed measures of mood, expressed emotion and negative experiences of caregiving. Social cognition measures of theory of mind and emotion recognition were also collected. Patient perceptions of carer criticism were related to increased anxiety and depression. Carer negative experiences of caregiving were related to higher levels of expressed emotion, anxiety and depression. Both patients and carers showed impaired performance on social cognition tasks. However, patient social cognition was not related to perceptions of carer criticism or symptoms. Carer social cognition was not related to expressed emotion or carer burden. Even in the early stages of psychosis, both patients and carers were reporting negative experiences of the caregiving relationship. These were related to higher levels of anxiety and depression. Social cognition difficulties were found in both early psychosis patients and first-degree relatives, but did not relate to caregiving relationships. The findings underscore the importance of providing targeted family interventions to individuals with early psychosis and their carers that address appraisals of the relationship and low mood. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Early Canadian Multicenter Experience With WATCHMAN for Percutaneous Left Atrial Appendage Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Jacqueline; Fahmy, Peter; Azzalini, Lorenzo; Marquis, Jean-Francois; Hibbert, Benjamin; Morillo, Carlos; Carrizo, Aldo; Ibrahim, Reda

    2017-04-01

    There are limited data with WATCHMAN (Boston Scientific Corporation, Natick, MA, USA) for left atrial appendage (LAA) closure in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and contraindications to anticoagulation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of WATCHMAN in our early Canadian experience. We report our pooled consecutive series of patients who underwent WATCHMAN implantation at four major Canadian centers. Indications for LAA closure were CHADS2 ≥ 1 or CHA2 DS2 -VASc ≥ 2, and contraindication/intolerance to or failure on anticoagulation. Follow-up imaging was typically performed 1-6 months postprocedure. One hundred and six patients underwent LAA closure with WATCHMAN from May 2013 to October 2015. The mean age was 74.8 ± 7.7, mean CHADS2 score was 2.8 ± 1.2, CHA2 DS2 -VASc score was 4.3 ± 1.5, and HASBLED score was 3.2 ± 1.2. Permanent AF was present in 67.9% and paroxysmal AF in 32.1%. Indications for LAA closure were prior bleeding 89.6% (87 major bleeding and 8 minor bleeding), 9.4% were deemed high risk for bleeding, and 0.9% with recurrent strokes on warfarin. Procedural success was 97.2% (103 of 106), with one device embolization (snared percutaneously), one implant failure due to inadequate LAA depth, and one cardiac perforation requiring surgical repair before WATCHMAN implantation. The composite major safety event-rate was 1.9% (1 death and 1 device embolization). Mean hospital stay was 1.8 ± 4.7 days. Antithrombotic therapy postimplant included dual antiplatelet therapy in 76 of 103 (73.8%). Mean follow-up was 210 ± 182 days; there were two transient ischemic attacks, with estimated 66% reduction in thromboembolic events relative to CHADS2 predicted risk. In our early Canadian experience, WATCHMAN for LAA closure in patients contraindicated to anticoagulation appeared safe and effective. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Relationships between the emergence and oviposition of ectoparasitoid Spathius agrili Vang and its host emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaoyi; YANG Zhongqi; LIU Guijun; LIU Enshan

    2007-01-01

    Emerald ash borer(EAB),Agrilus planipennisFairmaire(Coleoptera: Buprestidae),(=A.marcopoli Obenberger),is an important bark beetle attacking ash trees (Fraxinus spp.).It is very difficult to detect and control because of its highly concealed life history.This pest mainly distributed in partial Asian countries(China,Japan,Korea,Mongolia)and Far East Russia,while in China it presented in Heilongjiang,Jilin,Liaoning,Shandong,Inner Mongolia,Hebei,Taiwan Provinces and Tianjin City,etc.The important timber species F.mandshurica and gardening tree F.velutina were damaged severely in northern China.Spathius agrili Yang(Hymenoptera:Braconidae)is an important ectoparasitic wasp of the EAB larvae.This parasitoid has the potential to use as an excellent biological control agent for suppressing populations of EAB.The differences of emergence date between overwintered S.agrili and its host,parasitism rates at different periods,relations between parasitism rates and host densities,and relationships between ovipositions of braconid wasp and body sizes of host larvae were studied using methods of regular surveys in forests and observations in laboratory.Results revealed that the emergence of S.agrili was more than one month later than that of its host.It suggests good synchrony between parasitoid emergence and host availability.The overwintered S.agrili emerged from mid June to mid August with the peak in July in 2003,and it lasted from late May till late July with the peak during late June to early July in 2004.While the EAB emergence period ranged from mid May to late May in 2003,it ranged from mid April to mid May in 2004(in laboratory).The emergence date of parasitoid asynchronously inosculated with the optimum developmental instars of the earliest host larvae,which was the result of a long-term co-evolution between the two species.It was also suggested that the parasitoid S.agrili could be a specialized natural enemy for EAB.The natural parasitism rates on the whole gradually

  16. Density-Dependent Oviposition by Female Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Spreads Eggs Among Containers During the Summer but Accumulates Them in the Fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, D M; Kaplan, L R; Heiry, R A; Strickman, D

    2015-07-01

    When possible, oviparous females should deposit eggs in sites that maximize the future performance of their offspring. Therefore, studies of oviposition behavior may uncover parameters important to offspring fitness. Gravid female Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were given a choice of containers with leaf infusion or plain water, either open or with a cover with a small opening, and their behavior was compared under summer (long day, higher temperature) or fall (short day, lower temperature) regimes. Open containers with leaf infusion were always preferred, but over time, summer females expanded their choices to oviposit in all containers and follow-up experiments indicated that the number of eggs laid was inversely correlated to the number of eggs present. In contrast, fall females laying diapausing eggs that do not hatch until the spring, accumulated eggs in open containers with food resulting in high egg densities. Combined, these results demonstrate a seasonal shift that suggests either high winter egg mortality or safety in numbers. It also demonstrates that female Ae. albopictus change their behavior based on cues associated with expected added risk, which varies across time and space. The wide distribution of summer eggs across container types may contribute to the fast expansion of Ae. albopictus across its invasive range, but egg accumulation in the fall may be exploited for control. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Oviposition efficacy of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on different cultivars of blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Hirotoshi; Kunimi, Yasuhisa; Ban, Takuya; Nakai, Madoka

    2013-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an important pest of thin-skinned fruits including blueberry, raspberry, strawberry, and cherry. Blueberry was introduced into Japan in the 1950s, and severe economic losses attributable to D. suzukii were first reported in 2002. The objective of this study was to elucidate whether oviposition behavior varies among blueberry cultivars having different firmness of fruit. Fruit firmness in 12 cultivars of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton) was determined using a rheometer. More eggs tended to be laid in berries of cultivars possessing softer fruits than in those having firmer fruits. Choice tests, where one female was allowed to oviposit on blueberry fruits with different firmness, showed that softer fruits were more vulnerable to D. suzukii females than firmer fruits.

  18. Effects of cysteine protease inhibitors on oviposition rate of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annadana, S; Peters, J; Gruden, K; Schipper, A; Outchkourov, N S; Beekwilder, M J.; Udayakumar, M; Jongsma, M A.

    2002-07-01

    Proteolytic activity in whole insect extracts of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, was found to belong predominantly to the class of cysteine proteases. The pH optimum of the general proteolytic activity was determined to be 3.5, which is low when compared to other insects using cysteine proteases for protein digestion. The proteinaceous cysteine protease inhibitors chicken cystatin, potato cystatin and sea anemone equistatin inhibited in vitro more than 90% of the protease activity. To test in vivo the biological effect of such inhibitors on the oviposition rate of western flower thrips, recombinant potato cystatin and equistatin were fed to adult females. A gradual reduction in oviposition rate to about 45% of control was observed when reared on these PIs for a period of 5 days, with no increase in mortality. These results are discussed in the light of the application of protease inhibitors in transgenic plants to control this insect pest.

  19. Reduced oviposition of Aedes aegypti gravid females in domestic containers with predatory fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Luciano de Góes Cavalcanti; Alencar, Carlos H; Lima, José Wellington O; Heukelbach, Jörg

    2009-11-01

    The presence of pathogens or predators in water may alter oviposition behaviour of gravid female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. We evaluated the oviposition behaviour of A. aegypti in recipients containing larvivorous fish (Betta splendens and Poecilia reticulata). In four breeders, fish specimens were placed in 15 l of dechlorined water. Four control breeders only contained dechlorined water. Breeders with eucatex ovitraps and approximately 100 male and female mosquitoes were placed in wire netting cages. During a period of 7 weeks, eggs on the ovitraps were counted weekly. The median number of eggs laid in recipients with B. splendens (32.5/week) was lower than in those with P. reticulata (200.5/week) and the control group (186.5/week; P splendens showed a lower position than those used as controls (-0627). We conclude that B. splendens can be used to effectively prevent gravid A. aegypti females from laying eggs in large water containers.

  20. Occurrence of Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab) in oviposition trap of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honorio, Nildimar A. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia. Lab. de Transmissores de Hematozoarios; Barros, Fabio S.M. de [Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Nucleo Avancado de Vetores; Tsouris, Pantelis; Rosa-Freitas, Maria G. [Freitas and Tsouris Consultants, Spata-Attikis (Greece)]. E-mail: maria@freitas-tsouris.com

    2007-09-15

    Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab), a poorly known mosquito species, was observed preying upon Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae, in an oviposition trap placed for routine dengue entomological surveillance, during 2003-2004 in the urban area of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. This is the first report for Tx. guadeloupensis using Ae. aegypti oviposition traps as breeding places. This finding may have important consequences in the epidemiology and local dengue control since Ae. aegypti density is a basic variable in dengue prediction. Whether predation of Ae aegypti by Tx. guadeloupensis in the Amazon is of significance, is a question to be examined. Also, larval predation may be a cause for underestimation of the actual Ae aegypti numbers. Together these hypotheses need to be better investigated as they are directly related to dengue epidemiology, to the success of any outbreak prediction and surveillance program. (author)

  1. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bawin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research.

  2. Oviposition by Female Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Description and Time Budget Analysis of Behaviors in Laboratory Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambaraju, Kishan R; Donelson, Sarah L; Bozic, Janko; Phillips, Thomas W

    2016-01-22

    The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting gravid females typically became active shortly after the start of the scotophase. The characteristic behaviors exhibited by mated females prior to oviposition included antennal movement, grooming of antennae and mouth parts using the forelegs, walking or flying, and abdomen bending and dragging. Pre-oviposition behaviors such as antennal grooming and walking or flying were observed to alternate several times before females commenced the abdominal dragging behavior that preceded egg laying. Eggs were laid singly or sometimes in groups, either freely or stuck to food material. Gravid females showed little or no movement during the photophase; however, they actively flew and oviposited during the scotophase. Females allocated only a small portion of their time to oviposition while the rest of the time was spent away from food. Females oviposited on food material by making repeated visits, predominantly during the first four hours of the scotophase. Visits and time spent on food declined as the scotophase advanced.

  3. Oviposition by Female Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Description and Time Budget Analysis of Behaviors in Laboratory Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishan R. Sambaraju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting gravid females typically became active shortly after the start of the scotophase. The characteristic behaviors exhibited by mated females prior to oviposition included antennal movement, grooming of antennae and mouth parts using the forelegs, walking or flying, and abdomen bending and dragging. Pre-oviposition behaviors such as antennal grooming and walking or flying were observed to alternate several times before females commenced the abdominal dragging behavior that preceded egg laying. Eggs were laid singly or sometimes in groups, either freely or stuck to food material. Gravid females showed little or no movement during the photophase; however, they actively flew and oviposited during the scotophase. Females allocated only a small portion of their time to oviposition while the rest of the time was spent away from food. Females oviposited on food material by making repeated visits, predominantly during the first four hours of the scotophase. Visits and time spent on food declined as the scotophase advanced.

  4. Atmospheric Humidity Influences Oviposition Rate of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) Through Morphological Responses of Host Cucumis sativus Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, T; Itagaki, K; Ueyama, S; Hirai, N; Endo, R

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of morphology of host cucumber, Cucumis sativus L., leaves acclimatized to different atmospheric humidity levels on oviposition by adult females of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. Cucumber seedlings were grown at a vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of 0.4, 1.9, or 3.0 kPa at 28°C (90%, 50%, or 20% relative humidity, respectively) in growth chambers until the second true leaves had expanded. Adult females of T. urticae were released on the adaxial surfaces of leaf squares cut from first and second true leaves in each treatment group, and held in the same humidity condition. Eggs were counted 2 d after release. The lower acclimatization humidity (higher VPD) increased trichome (leaf hair) density of the host leaves and oviposition rate, but the relationship between the trichome and oviposition differed between leaf positions. The leaf mass per area (LMA) was greater in first true leaves than in second true leaves, but was not influenced by VPD. A linear regression model with oviposition rate as the dependent variable and trichome density and LMA as independent variables showed that both variables influenced the oviposition rate approximately equally. We conclude that oviposition was accelerated under low humidity (high VPD) conditions indirectly probably through an increase in the trichome density of host leaves.

  5. Does a Change from Whole to Powdered Food (Artemia franciscana eggs Increase Oviposition in the Ladybird Coleomegilla maculata?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. Riddick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The limited availability of alternative foods to replace natural prey hinders cost-effective mass production of ladybird beetles for augmentative biological control. We compared the effects of powdered vs. whole Artemia franciscana (A. franciscana (brine shrimp eggs with or without a dietary supplement on development and reproduction of Coleomegilla maculata (C. maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. We tested the hypotheses that (1 powdered A. franciscana eggs are more suitable than whole eggs; and (2 palmitic acid, a common fatty acid in natural prey, i.e., aphids, is an effective dietary supplement. Development time, pre-imaginal survival, sex ratio, and body weight of adults did not differ significantly amongst individuals fed powdered vs. whole eggs, with or without 5% palmitic acid. Significantly more oviposition occurred when females were fed powdered eggs than whole eggs and powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid than whole eggs with or without 5% palmitic acid. A weak functional relationship was found between pre-oviposition time and total oviposition by females fed powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid; pre-oviposition time decreased as oviposition increased. Food treatments had no significant differential effect on progeny (egg hatch rate. In conclusion, a simple change in A. franciscana egg texture and particle size (i.e., blending whole eggs into a dust-like powder increases oviposition in C. maculata. Supplementing powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid might accelerate oogenesis (egg maturation in some females.

  6. Oviposition by Female Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Description and Time Budget Analysis of Behaviors in Laboratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambaraju, Kishan R.; Donelson, Sarah L.; Bozic, Janko; Phillips, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting gravid females typically became active shortly after the start of the scotophase. The characteristic behaviors exhibited by mated females prior to oviposition included antennal movement, grooming of antennae and mouth parts using the forelegs, walking or flying, and abdomen bending and dragging. Pre-oviposition behaviors such as antennal grooming and walking or flying were observed to alternate several times before females commenced the abdominal dragging behavior that preceded egg laying. Eggs were laid singly or sometimes in groups, either freely or stuck to food material. Gravid females showed little or no movement during the photophase; however, they actively flew and oviposited during the scotophase. Females allocated only a small portion of their time to oviposition while the rest of the time was spent away from food. Females oviposited on food material by making repeated visits, predominantly during the first four hours of the scotophase. Visits and time spent on food declined as the scotophase advanced. PMID:26805893

  7. Differential Larval Toxicity and Oviposition Altering Activity of Some Indigenous Plant Extracts against Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Yadav

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are well known as vectors of several disease causing pathogens. The extensive use of synthetic insecticides in the mosquito control strategies resulted to the development of pesticide resistance and fostered environmental deterioration. Hence in recent years plants become alternative source of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the larvicidal and oviposition altering activity of six different plants species-Alstonia scholaris, Callistemon viminalis, Hyptis suaveolens, Malvastrum coromandelianum, Prosopis juliflora, Vernonia cinerea against Aedes albopictus mosquito in laboratory.Leaf extracts of all the six plants species in five different solvents of various polarities were used in the range of 20-400ppm for larval bioassay and 50,100 and 200ppm for cage bioassay (for the study of oviposition behavior against Ae. albopictus. The larval mortality data were recorded after 24 h and subjected to Probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50, while OAI (Oviposition activity index was calculated for oviposition altering activity of the plant extracts.Vernonia cinerea extract in acetone and C. viminalis extract in isopropanol were highly effective against Aedes albopictus larvae with LC50 value 64.57, 71.34ppm respectively. Acetone extract of P. juliflora found to be strong oviposition-deterrent which inhibited >2 fold egg laying (OAI-0.466 at 100ppm.Vernonia cinerea and C. viminallis leaf extracts have the potential to be used as larvicide and P. juliflora as an oviposition-deterrent for the control of Ae. albopictus mosquito.

  8. Effect of temperature on the oviposition rate of Argentine ant queens (Linepithema humile Mayr) under monogynous and polygynous experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Sílvia; Oliveras, Jordi; Gómez, Crisanto

    2008-01-01

    Data concerning the influence of temperature on a species' physiological parameters can be a useful tool for predicting its potential distribution range, but in the case of the Argentine ant, data based on its physiological needs are too scarce and incomplete to make accurate predictions of this type. In the present study, we offer new and complete data concerning the Argentine ant queen's oviposition rate under a wide range of temperatures in the laboratory. We analyzed the oviposition rate of the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) at 12 experimental temperatures: 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 21, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32 and 34 degrees C under monogynous conditions (one queen per nest) and three different polygynous conditions (two, four and eight queens per nest). We found that temperature affected their oviposition rate and that the effect was similar regardless of the number of queens in the nest. Egg laying was at its maximum at 28 degrees C, with variation in the upper and lower temperature limits at which oviposition took place depending on the degree of polygyny. Oviposition rates were negatively correlated with the number of queens in the nest. We also observed a marked variation in the oviposition rate of queens subjected to the same experimental conditions.

  9. Early stage health technology assessment (HTA) of biomedical devices: the MATCH experience

    OpenAIRE

    Pecchia, Leandro; Craven, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Early stage Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of biomedical devices requires different methods than those usually employed for pharmaceuticals. This paper reviews widely used methods for HTA, discusses their limits for early stage evaluation of biomedical devices and presents two methods for early stage HTA being developed in the Multidisciplinary Assessment of Technology Centre for Healthcare (MATCH) project: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to elicit user needs; and early stage economic ev...

  10. Early stage health technology assessment (HTA) of biomedical devices: the MATCH experience

    OpenAIRE

    Pecchia, Leandro; Craven, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Early stage Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of biomedical devices requires different methods than those usually employed for pharmaceuticals. This paper reviews widely used methods for HTA, discusses their limits for early stage evaluation of biomedical devices and presents two methods for early stage HTA being developed in the Multidisciplinary Assessment of Technology Centre for Healthcare (MATCH) project: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to elicit user needs; and early stage economic e...

  11. Oviposition response of the moth Lobesia botrana to sensory cues from a host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasin, Marco; Lucchi, Andrea; Ioriatti, Claudio; Mraihi, Mohamed; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Boger, Zvi; Anfora, Gianfranco

    2011-09-01

    The grapevine moth Lobesia botrana is a generalist insect herbivore and grapevine is one of its hosts. Previous studies have shown that insects use their olfactory abilities to locate hosts from a distance; whereas contact chemoreception mediates the stimulation of oviposition after landing. Little is known about the role of olfaction and its interactions with contact chemoreception and vision once the insect lands on the plant. Plant volatile compounds can be sensed by host-searching insects located some distance from the plant and insects sense both volatile and nonvolatile cues after landing on a plant. In the present study, we investigated the effects of these volatile and nonvolatile cues on the oviposition behavior of L. botrana. A behavioral bioassay with choice was developed in which insects were offered each sensory cue either alone or in combination with one or 2 other cues. Females were allowed to choose between a device with the stimulus and a blank device. Results were evaluated in terms of 2 parameters: quantity of eggs laid (egg counts) and preference for the stimulus (ODI: oviposition discrimination index). Our results suggest that olfaction significantly affects egg quantity and that there is significant synergism between olfaction and vision, in terms of their combined effect on egg quantity. In terms of preference (ODI), our results did not show a significant preference for any single cue; the highest ODI was measured for the full-cue stimulus (olfaction, vision, and contact). For ODI, a significant interaction was observed between olfaction and vision and a nearly significant interaction was observed between the olfactory and contact cues. The results are discussed in relation to the effects of plant sensory cues on the oviposition behavior of L. botrana.

  12. Oviposition preference of the neotropical brown stink bug Euschistus heros on artificial substrates of different colors

    OpenAIRE

    Diones Krinski; Bruna Magda Favetti; Adielson Gonçalves de Lima; Tatiane Regina Brum

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the oviposition preference of the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (F.) on artificial substrates of different colors (felt woven). For this, ten pairs of stink bugs were transferred into plastic pots. Each pot contained seven felts of 6x20 cm (100% polyester-atoxic) of different colors (white, black, blue, green, red, yellow and brown). The pots were evaluated daily for three weeks (21 days) being counted the number of eggs, clutches and eggs per clut...

  13. The interaction of early life experiences with COMT val158met affects anxiety sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, C; Klauke, B; Weber, H; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Pauli, P; Deckert, J; Reif, A

    2013-11-01

    The pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is considered to be multifactorial with a complex interaction of genetic factors and individual environmental factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine gene-by-environment interactions of the genes coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) with life events on measures related to anxiety. A sample of healthy subjects (N = 782; thereof 531 women; mean age M = 24.79, SD = 6.02) was genotyped for COMT rs4680 and MAOA-uVNTR (upstream variable number of tandem repeats), and was assessed for childhood adversities [Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)], anxiety sensitivity [Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI)] and anxious apprehension [Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)]. Main and interaction effects of genotype, environment and gender on measures related to anxiety were assessed by means of regression analyses. Association analysis showed no main gene effect on either questionnaire score. A significant interactive effect of childhood adversities and COMT genotype was observed: Homozygosity for the low-active met allele and high CTQ scores was associated with a significant increment of explained ASI variance [R(2) = 0.040, false discovery rate (FDR) corrected P = 0.04]. A borderline interactive effect with respect to MAOA-uVNTR was restricted to the male subgroup. Carriers of the low-active MAOA allele who reported more aversive experiences in childhood exhibited a trend for enhanced anxious apprehension (R(2) = 0.077, FDR corrected P = 0.10). Early aversive life experiences therefore might increase the vulnerability to anxiety disorders in the presence of homozygosity for the COMT 158met allele or low-active MAOA-uVNTR alleles.

  14. Early Career Experience of Pediatric Orthopaedic Fellows: What to Expect and Need for Their Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotzbecker, Michael P; Shore, Benjamin J; Fletcher, Nicholas D; Larson, A Noelle; Hydorn, Christopher R; Sawyer, Jeffery R

    2016-06-01

    A dramatic increase in the number of pediatric orthopaedic fellows being trained has led to concerns that there may be an oversupply of pediatric orthopaedists. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this perception is accurate and whether the practice expectations of recent pediatric fellowship graduates are being met by surveying recent pediatric fellowship graduates about their early practice experiences. A 36-question survey approved by the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) leadership was electronically distributed to 120 recent graduates of pediatric orthopaedic fellowships; 81 responses were ultimately obtained (67.5% response rate). Almost all (91%) of the respondents were very or extremely satisfied with their fellowship experience. Half of the respondents had at least 1 job offer before they entered their fellowships. After completion of fellowships, 35% received 1 job offer and 62.5% received ≥2 job offers; only 2.5% did not receive a job offer. Most reported a practice consisting almost entirely of pediatric orthopaedics, and 93.5% thought this was in line with their expectations; 87% indicated satisfaction with their current volume of pediatric orthopaedics, and 85% with the complexity of their pediatric orthopaedic cases. Despite the high employment percentages and satisfaction with practice profiles, nearly a third (28%) of respondents replied that too many pediatric orthopaedists are being trained. Positive messages from this survey include the satisfaction of graduates with their fellowship training, the high percentage of graduates who readily found employment, and the satisfaction of graduates with their current practice environments; this indicates that the pediatric orthopaedic job environment is not completely saturated and there are continued opportunities for graduating pediatric fellows despite the increased number of fellows being trained. Although not determined by this study, it may be that the stable

  15. Developing Identities in the Workplace: Students' Experiences of Distance Early Childhood Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Alice

    2016-01-01

    In Aotearoa New Zealand, many early childhood teachers gain their teaching qualification via distance study while working in an early childhood centre. Early childhood teachers work in a team environment, and it is important to understand more about how distance students negotiate changes in their workplace practice as their professional knowledge…

  16. Important first encounter: Service user experience of pathways to care and early detection in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Hastrup, Lene Halling; Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Simonsen, Erik

    2015-11-16

    Long duration of untreated psychosis is associated with poor clinical and functional outcomes. However, few systematic attempts have been made to reduce this delay and little is known of service users' experience of early detection efforts. We explored service users' experience of an early detection service and transition to specialized treatment service, including pathway to care, understanding of illness and barriers to adequate assessment and treatment. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 service users (median age 21, range 18-27, five males and five females) who were diagnosed with a first-episode non-affective psychosis and who were seen by an early detection team (TOP) and currently enrolled in a specialized early intervention service for this disorder (OPUS). Stigma and fear of the 'psychiatric system' were reported as significant barriers to help seeking, while family members were seen as a crucial support. Moreover, the impact of traumatic events on the experience and development of psychosis was highlighted. Finally, participants were relieved by the prospect of receiving help and the early detection team seemed to create a trusting relationship by offering a friendly, 'anti-stigmatized' space, where long-term symptomatology could be disclosed through accurate and validating questioning. Early detection services have two important functions. One is to make accurate assessments and referrals. The other is to instil hope and trust, and to facilitate further treatment by forming an early therapeutic alliance. The findings in this study provide important insights into the way in which early detection efforts and pathways to care are experienced by service users, with direct implications for improving psychiatric services. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Repellency, toxicity, and oviposition inhibition of vegetable extracts against greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Eduardo Mendoza-Garcia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a search for sustainable options of greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood management, the toxic and/or repellent potential of water, ethanolic, and acetonic extracts of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Asteraceae, Comocladia engleriana Loes (Anacardiaceae, Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae, Raphanus raphanistrum L. (Brassicaceae, and Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. aggr.* (Asteraceae were evaluated. Repellency was assessed by the cylinder method (olfactometer, while toxicity and oviposition inhibition were assessed by the leaf immersion method. Acetonic extracts did not cause any repellent or insecticidal effect. In contrast, 200 mg mL-1 water and ethanolic extracts of R. raphanistrum and ethanolic extract of A. artemisiifolia had the highest repellent activity (76%, 72%, and 69%, respectively although their activity decreased gradually over time. Ethanolic extracts of P. auritum (66% and R. raphanistrum (56% at 200 mg mL¹ were highlighted as being toxic, while the most effective in inhibiting oviposition were water extracts of R. raphanistrum (76.1% and P. auritum (72.0% and ethanolic extract of P. auritum (69.5%; however, concentrations lower than 60 mg mL-1 caused oviposition stimulation. Our results suggest that water and ethanolic extracts of R. raphanistrum and P. auritum represent a useful tool in integrated whitefly management.

  18. Evidence for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition on Boats in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardo, Sarah Anne; Morrison, Amy C; Luis Barboza, Jose; Wesson, Dawn M; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Kitron, Uriel

    2015-07-01

    Dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. is invading peri-urban and rural areas throughout Latin America. Our previous research in the Peruvian Amazon has shown that river boats are heavily infested with immature and adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, likely playing a major role in their long-distance dispersal and successful invasion. However, the presence of immature mosquitoes provides no information about the timing of oviposition, and whether it took place in the boats. Here, we used baited ovitraps deployed on river boats to test the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti oviposition occurs during boat travel. We deployed 360 ovitraps on 60 different barges during August and October of 2013, and February 2014 (with 20 barges sampled during each month). We found that Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in 22 individual ovitraps from 15 of the 60 barges (premise index 25%) across all sampling dates. Further, the distribution of Ae. aegypti egg abundance was highly aggregated: 2.6% of traps (N=7) were responsible for 71.8% of eggs found, and 1.5% of traps (N=4) were responsible for all (100%) of the larvae found. Similarly, 5% of boats were responsible for the 71.47% of eggs. Our results provide strong evidence that Ae. aegypti oviposition commonly occurs during boat travel. Baited ovitraps could represent a cost-effective means of monitoring and controlling mosquito populations on boats.

  19. The State of the Art of Lethal Oviposition Trap-Based Mass Interventions for Arboviral Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J.; Ritchie, Scott A.; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2017-01-01

    The intensifying expansion of arboviruses highlights the need for effective invasive Aedes control. While mass-trapping interventions have long been discredited as inefficient compared to insecticide applications, increasing levels of insecticide resistance, and the development of simple affordable traps that target and kill gravid female mosquitoes, show great promise. We summarize the methodologies and outcomes of recent lethal oviposition trap-based mass interventions for suppression of urban Aedes and their associated diseases. The evidence supports the recommendation of mass deployments of oviposition traps to suppress populations of invasive Aedes, although better measures of the effects on disease control are needed. Strategies associated with successful mass-trap deployments include: (1) high coverage (>80%) of the residential areas; (2) pre-intervention and/or parallel source reduction campaigns; (3) direct involvement of community members for economic long-term sustainability; and (4) use of new-generation larger traps (Autocidal Gravid Ovitrap, AGO; Gravid Aedes Trap, GAT) to outcompete remaining water-holding containers. While to the best of our knowledge all published studies so far have been on Ae. aegypti in resource-poor or tropical settings, we propose that mass deployment of lethal oviposition traps can be used for focused cost-effective control of temperate Ae. albopictus pre-empting arboviral epidemics and increasing participation of residents in urban mosquito control. PMID:28075354

  20. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, Allan T; Castro, Boris A

    2010-08-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a key pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and rice, Oryza sativa L., in Texas, has not been controlled with chemical insecticides or biological agents, but some sugarcane varieties have shown degrees of resistance. Assessment of selected sugarcane leaf characteristics indicate that preference for oviposition sites is mostly determined by the presence of a leaf fold and secondarily by the availability of dry leaf tissue, both of which are antixenotic nonchemical stimuli. We suggest that breeding sugarcane lines bearing leaves that do not fold on drying could provide substantial antixenotic resistance against the Mexican rice borer. Previously identified antixenotic chemical stimuli, i.e., low quantities or absence of important nutrients in green leaf tissue, only become apparent when resistant and susceptible sugarcane varieties are compared. Varietal differences in oviposition preference, however, were not observed on excised dry leaf tissue, indicating that expression of resistance in terms of chemical stimuli requires detection of biochemicals in nearby living leaf tissue. Excised dry sugarcane leaves retain the two dominant nonchemical oviposition preference stimuli for Mexican rice borers, and the leaves effectively trapped eggs away from intact plants when dry leaves were used as "mulch" at the bottom of greenhouse cages. Under commercial sugarcane field conditions, bundled dry leaves also collected Mexican rice borer eggs. Possible applications of dry sugarcane leaf substrate for egg scouting and for trapping eggs are discussed.

  1. The State of the Art of Lethal Oviposition Trap-Based Mass Interventions for Arboviral Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J; Ritchie, Scott A; Fonseca, Dina M

    2017-01-08

    The intensifying expansion of arboviruses highlights the need for effective invasive Aedes control. While mass-trapping interventions have long been discredited as inefficient compared to insecticide applications, increasing levels of insecticide resistance, and the development of simple affordable traps that target and kill gravid female mosquitoes, show great promise. We summarize the methodologies and outcomes of recent lethal oviposition trap-based mass interventions for suppression of urban Aedes and their associated diseases. The evidence supports the recommendation of mass deployments of oviposition traps to suppress populations of invasive Aedes, although better measures of the effects on disease control are needed. Strategies associated with successful mass-trap deployments include: (1) high coverage (>80%) of the residential areas; (2) pre-intervention and/or parallel source reduction campaigns; (3) direct involvement of community members for economic long-term sustainability; and (4) use of new-generation larger traps (Autocidal Gravid Ovitrap, AGO; Gravid Aedes Trap, GAT) to outcompete remaining water-holding containers. While to the best of our knowledge all published studies so far have been on Ae. aegypti in resource-poor or tropical settings, we propose that mass deployment of lethal oviposition traps can be used for focused cost-effective control of temperate Ae. albopictus pre-empting arboviral epidemics and increasing participation of residents in urban mosquito control.

  2. The State of the Art of Lethal Oviposition Trap-Based Mass Interventions for Arboviral Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensifying expansion of arboviruses highlights the need for effective invasive Aedes control. While mass-trapping interventions have long been discredited as inefficient compared to insecticide applications, increasing levels of insecticide resistance, and the development of simple affordable traps that target and kill gravid female mosquitoes, show great promise. We summarize the methodologies and outcomes of recent lethal oviposition trap-based mass interventions for suppression of urban Aedes and their associated diseases. The evidence supports the recommendation of mass deployments of oviposition traps to suppress populations of invasive Aedes, although better measures of the effects on disease control are needed. Strategies associated with successful mass-trap deployments include: (1 high coverage (>80% of the residential areas; (2 pre-intervention and/or parallel source reduction campaigns; (3 direct involvement of community members for economic long-term sustainability; and (4 use of new-generation larger traps (Autocidal Gravid Ovitrap, AGO; Gravid Aedes Trap, GAT to outcompete remaining water-holding containers. While to the best of our knowledge all published studies so far have been on Ae. aegypti in resource-poor or tropical settings, we propose that mass deployment of lethal oviposition traps can be used for focused cost-effective control of temperate Ae. albopictus pre-empting arboviral epidemics and increasing participation of residents in urban mosquito control.

  3. Transoral endoluminal approach to Zenker's diverticulum using LigasureTM: early clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Noguera-Aguilar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of minimally invasive procedures has rekindled interest in endoluminal techniques for the management of Zenker's diverticulum. Tissue sealers as employed in laparoscopic surgery have not been previously used for Zenker's diverticulum septotomy. Supported by the established safety of linear cutters, bipolar forceps, and ultrasonic scalpels, we have started a procedure using the Ligasure 5TM tissue sealer. Safety and efficacy results in our early clinical experience are shown for a prospective series of 5consecutive Zenker's diverticulum cases that were perorally managed with tissue sealing. The procedure was quickly and safely performed in the endoscopy room under sedation. Mean number of seals per patient was2, and mean procedure duration was 33minutes. No complications developed during or after the procedure, and patients were discharged with immediate dysphagia relief and adequate oral tolerance. No diverticular relapses occurred after a mean follow-up of 21months (range18-30. This procedure may be repeated as often as desired with no need for hospital admission. Safety should be prospectively assessed by further studies using a higher number of procedures.

  4. Antenatal Weight Management: Women’s Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Swift

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy sought to examine women’s self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+ were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10–27 weeks, with 41.5% (n=80 between 12 and 14 and 43.0% (n=83 between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants (n=97 could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m2 did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m2. The majority of women (regardless of BMI did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue.

  5. Antenatal Weight Management: Women's Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, J A; Pearce, J; Jethwa, P H; Taylor, M A; Avery, A; Ellis, S; Langley-Evans, S C; McMullen, S

    2016-01-01

    The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy) sought to examine women's self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+) were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10-27 weeks, with 41.5% (n = 80) between 12 and 14 and 43.0% (n = 83) between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants (n = 97) could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m(2)) did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m(2). The majority of women (regardless of BMI) did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue.

  6. Early clinical experience with volumetric modulated arc therapy in head and neck cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozzi Luca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report about early clinical experience in radiation treatment of head and neck cancer of different sites and histology by volumetric modulated arcs with the RapidArc technology. Methods During 2009, 45 patients were treated at Istituto Clinico Humanitas with RapidArc (28 males and 17 females, median age 65 years. Of these, 78% received concomitant chemotherapy. Thirty-six patients were treated as exclusive curative intent (group A, three as postoperative curative intent (group B and six with sinonasal tumours (group C. Dose prescription was at Planning Target Volumes (PTV with simultaneous integrated boost: 54.45Gy and 69.96Gy in 33 fractions (group A; 54.45Gy and 66Gy in 33 fractions (group B and 55Gy in 25 fractions (group C. Results Concerning planning optimization strategies and constraints, as per PTV coverage, for all groups, D98% > 95% and V95% > 99%. As regards organs at risk, all planning objectives were respected, and this was correlated with observed acute toxicity rates. Only 28% of patients experienced G3 mucositis, 14% G3 dermitis 44% had G2 dysphagia. Nobody required feeding tubes to be placed during treatment. Acute toxicity is also related to chemotherapy. Two patients interrupted the course of radiotherapy because of a quick worsening of general clinical condition. Conclusions These preliminary results stated that volumetric modulated arc therapy in locally advanced head and neck cancers is feasible and effective, with acceptable toxicities.

  7. Independent effects of early-life experience and trait aggression on cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C; Katz, Erin; Stringfellow, Sara A; Lin, Chee Paul; Wyss, J Michael; Stauss, Harald M; White, C Roger; Clinton, Sarah M; Kerman, Ilan A

    2016-08-01

    Early-life experience (ELE) can significantly affect life-long health and disease, including cardiovascular function. Specific dimensions of emotionality also modify risk of disease, and aggressive traits along with social inhibition have been established as independent vulnerability factors for the progression of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the biological mechanisms mediating these associations remain poorly understood. The present study utilized the inherently stress-susceptible and socially inhibited Wistar-Kyoto rats to determine the potential influences of ELE and trait aggression (TA) on cardiovascular parameters throughout the lifespan. Pups were exposed to maternal separation (MS), consisting of daily 3-h separations of the entire litter from postnatal day (P)1 to P14. The rats were weaned at P21, and as adults were instrumented for chronic radiotelemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Adult aggressive behavior was assessed using the resident-intruder test, which demonstrated that TA was independent of MS exposure. MS-exposed animals (irrespective of TA) had significantly lower resting HR accompanied by increases in HR variability. No effects of MS on resting blood pressure were detected. In contrast, TA correlated with increased resting mean, systolic, and diastolic arterial pressures but had no effect on HR. TA rats (relative to nonaggressive animals) also manifested increased wall-to-lumen ratio in the thoracic aorta, increased sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced vascular contractility, and increased norepinephrine content in the heart. Together these data suggest that ELE and TA are independent factors that impact baseline cardiovascular function.

  8. Early experiences matter: a review of the effects of prenatal environment on offspring characteristics in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L M; Sparks, N H C; Rutherford, K M D

    2016-03-01

    Early life experiences can be important in determining offspring phenotypes and may influence interaction with the environment and hence health, welfare, and productivity. The prenatal environment of poultry can be divided into the pre-lay environment and the egg storage/incubation environment, both of which can affect offspring outcomes. The ability to separate maternal and egg/incubation effects makes birds well suited to this type of research. There are many factors, including feeding and nutrition, environmental conditions, husbandry practices, housing system, social environment, infectious environment, and maternal health status, that can influence both the health and performance and behavior and cognition of the offspring. There are some aspects of the environments that can be changed to produce beneficial effects in the offspring, like addition of certain additives to feed or short changes in incubation temperatures, while other aspects should be avoided to reduce negative effects, such as unpredictable feeding and lighting regimens. Measures of offspring characteristics may prove to be a useful method of assessing parent stock welfare if known stressors result in predictable offspring outcomes. This has the advantage of assessing the parent environment without interfering with the animals and possibly affecting their responses and could lead to improved welfare for the animals.

  9. The Data Conservancy: Early experiences with cross-disciplinary data management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, S.; Duerr, R. E.; Mayernik, M. S.; DiLauro, T.; Metsger, E.; Rippin, M.; Pralle, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Data Conservancy is a growing community organized around data curation research, technology development, and community building. Initially funded by the National Science Foundation's DataNet program, the Data Conservancy is headquartered at the Sheridan Libraries, Johns Hopkins University. Data Conservancy community members include university libraries, national data centers, national research labs, and information science research and education programs. The Data Conservancy Community is driven by a common theme: the need for Institutional solutions to digital research data collection, curation and preservation challenges. While firmly convinced that data curation solutions for research institutions must address both technical and organizational challenges, a significant activity within the community is the shared development of curation cyberinfrastructure. Despite many challenges, an alpha release of the Data Conservancy software (DCS) stack was publicly released at the end of August this year. While components of the DCS stack are being used by other projects, this first instantiation of the DCS is in use at two institutions, as the technical underpinnings of the Johns Hopkins University Data Management Services (JHU DMS) and at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) where it is being used to manage data from the Exchange for Local and Traditional Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA). Here we briefly provide an overview of the DCS system, describe our early experiences with the two instances of the DCS, and discuss our plans and the roadmap for the future of the Data Conservancy.

  10. The effects of early experience on subsequent feeding responses in the Tegu, Tupinambis teguixin (Squamata : Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzo, F

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of early feeding experiences on subsequent responses to prey in the tegu, Tupinambis teguixin. Five-day old lizards were exposed to the odors of various prey and control substances on cotton-tipped applicators with the tongue-flick attack score (TFAS) chosen as the dependent variable. Each lizard was exposed to four stimuli: two controls (deionised water and cologne), and extracts from a mouse Mus musculus, and a lizard Ameiva ameiva, in a repeated measures, randomized block design, receiving one stimulus training session / day over a 40-day period. Tongue-flicks directed toward the applicator were counted over a 1 min period as well as the amount of time that elapsed from the first tongue flick to any bite that may have occurred. Live neonatal mice (but not A. ameiva), offered on a weekly basis, were used as a food source for tegus over a 10-month period. After 10 months, tegus were exposed to applicators containing control odors as well as those containing extracts from mice and lizards (A. ameiva). Mouse extracts elicited significantly higher TFAS as compared to those elicited by A. ameiva or control odors, suggesting that prey odors encountered in the environment shortly after hatching can influence prey preferences by these lizards later in life. These results also indicate that tegu lizards can learn to use specific odor cues associated with naturally occurring prey as releasers for subsequent hunting behaviors.

  11. Spacetime deformation effect on the early universe and the PTOLEMY experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Raul; Trampetic, Josip; You, Jiangyang

    2017-09-01

    Using a fully-fledged formulation of gauge field theory deformed by the spacetime noncommutativity, we study its impact on relic neutrino direct detection, as proposed recently by the PTOLEMY experiment. The noncommutative background tends to influence the propagating neutrinos by providing them with a tree-level vector-like coupling to photons, enabling thus otherwise sterile right-handed (RH) neutrinos to be thermally produced in the early universe. Such a new component in the universe's background radiation has been switched today to the almost fully active sea of non-relativistic neutrinos, exerting consequently some impact on the capture on tritium at PTOLEMY. The peculiarities of our nonperturbative approach tend to reflect in the cosmology as well, upon the appearances of the coupling temperature, above which RH neutrinos stay permanently decoupled from thermal environment. This entails the maximal scale of noncommutativity as well, being of order of 10-4MPl, above which there is no impact whatsoever on the capture rates at PTOLEMY. The latter represents an exceptional upper bound on the scale of noncommutativity coming from phenomenology.

  12. The additive effect on suicidality of family history of suicidal behavior and early traumatic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Castroman, J; Guillaume, S; Olié, E; Jaussent, I; Baca-García, E; Courtet, P

    2015-01-01

    Family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood abuse are reported risk factors for suicide attempts and suicide completion. We aim to quantify the additive effect of family history of suicidal behavior and different subtypes of childhood abuse on suicidal behavior. We examined a sample of 496 suicide attempters, comparing individuals with family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood (physical or sexual) abuse, individuals with family history of suicidal behavior only, individuals with history of early traumatic experiences only, and individuals with none of these two risk factors with regards to suicidal features. An additive effect was found for the age at the first attempt in suicide attempters with both family history of suicidal behavior and either physical or sexual abuse. No significant interactions were found between family history of suicidal behavior and childhood trauma in relation to any characteristics of suicidal behavior. Subjects presenting family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse attempt suicide earlier in life than subjects with just one or none of them, particularly if they were sexually abused. Other suicidality indexes were only partially or not associated with this combination of risk factors. A careful assessment of patients with both family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse could help to prevent future suicide attempts, particularly in young people.

  13. Experiments and Research Programmes. Revisiting Vitalism/Non-Vitalism Debate in Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijoy MUKHERJEE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Debates in the philosophy of science typically take place around issues such as realism and theory change. Recently, the debate has been reformulated to bring in the role of experiments in the context of theory change. As regards realism, Ian Hacking’s contribution has been to introduce ‘intervention’ as the basis of realism. He also proposed, following Imre Lakatos, to replace the issue of truth with progress and rationality. In this context we examine the case of the vitalism — reductionism debate in biology inspired by the works of Indian physicist-turned-biologist Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858–1937, in the early twentieth century. Both camps had their characteristic hardcores. Vitalists led by John S. Burdon-Sanderson and Augustus D. Waller accepted religious metaphysics to support their research programme, which ultimately degenerated. Bose worked more with the ideals of science such as Occam’s razor, large-scale systematization of phenomena and novel prediction. I argue that his religious metaphysics, instead of acting as a protective shield, helped him to consolidate his position and allowed further problem shift resulting in a research programme that involved consciousness too. His research programme remains relevant even today.

  14. Early oral sensory experiences and feeding development in children with CHARGE syndrome: a report of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbelsteyn, Cindy; Marche, Darlene M; Blake, Kim; Rashid, Mohsin

    2005-01-01

    Children with CHARGE syndrome commonly experience feeding and swallowing problems. Difficulties may be associated with congenital structural anomalies, motor impairment, and/or oral sensory impairment. For many children with CHARGE syndrome, the introduction of functional oral feeding is delayed and there are often long-term feeding complications. Oral aversion or defensiveness is a frequent serious issue; however, it is uncertain whether this is a primary sensory disorder or secondary to delayed and/or negative oral sensory and feeding experiences. This article examines in detail the early oral sensory and feeding experiences of five children with CHARGE syndrome, through a review of medical records and caregiver questionnaires. Findings indicate variable early oral sensory experiences in this group of children, with all of the children having some difficulty or delay in the development of oral feeding and swallowing. The nature of these difficulties and the potential contributory factors are discussed.

  15. Exploring Early Angiosperm Fire Feedbacks using Coupled Experiments and Modelling Approaches to Estimate Cretaceous Palaeofire Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria

    2016-04-01

    Using the fossil record we are typically limited to exploring linkages between palaeoecological changes and palaeofire activity by assessing the abundance of charcoals preserved in sediments. However, it is the behaviour of fires that primarily governs their ecological effects. Therefore, the ability to estimate variations in aspects of palaeofire behaviour such as palaeofire intensity and rate of spread would be of key benefit toward understanding the coupled evolutionary history of ecosystems and fire. The Cretaceous Period saw major diversification in land plants. Previously, conifers (gymnosperms) and ferns (pteridophytes) dominated Earth's ecosystems until flowering plants (angiosperms) appear in the fossil record of the Early Cretaceous (~135Ma). We have created surface fire behaviour estimates for a variety of angiosperm invasion scenarios and explored the influence of Cretaceous superambient atmospheric oxygen levels on the fire behaviour occurring in these new Cretaceous ecosystems. These estimates are then used to explore the hypothesis that the early spread of the angiosperms was promoted by the novel fire regimes that they created. In order to achieve this we tested the flammability of Mesozoic analogue fuel types in controlled laboratory experiments using an iCone calorimeter, which measured the ignitability as well as the effective heat of combustion of the fuels. We then used the BehavePlus fire behaviour modelling system to scale up our laboratory results to the ecosystem scale. Our results suggest that fire-angiosperm feedbacks may have occurred in two phases: The first phase being a result of weedy angiosperms providing an additional easily ignitable fuel that enhanced both the seasonality and frequency of surface fires. In the second phase, the addition of shrubby understory fuels likely expanded the number of ecosystems experiencing more intense surface fires, resulting in enhanced mortality and suppressed post-fire recruitment of gymnosperms

  16. Early Correction of Common Atrioventricular Septal Defects: A Single-Center 20-Year Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Vladimiro L; Tessari, Chiara; Castaldi, Biagio; Padalino, Massimo A; Milanesi, Ornella; Gregori, Dario; Stellin, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 20 years our policy has been to electively repair common atrioventricular canal defects (CAVCD) in patients between 8 and 12 weeks of age. We sought to evaluate the results of our past 20-year experience. From January 1992 to April 2014, 159 consecutive patients underwent CAVCD repair (133 patients had complete CAVCD and 26 patients had a transitional form of CAVCD). Surgical repair was accomplished with a double-patch (n = 137 [86%]) or a modified single patch (n = 22 [14%]) technique. Median age at operation was 96 days (interquartile range [IQR], 73-128 days); 90 patients were younger than 3 months of age. There were 3 operative (1.9%) and 12 late (7.7%) deaths. Median follow-up time after repair was 8.2 years (IQR, 3.6-15 years). Twenty patients (13%) required reoperation-16 (10%) for left atrioventricular valve (LAVV) regurgitation. Reoperation on the LAVV was more frequent in patients with a dysplastic LAVV preoperatively (p = 0.01; odds ratio [OR], 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-13.5) and in patients who underwent closure for an absent/incomplete cleft at the time of repair (p = 0.01; OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.4-21). Late LAVV performance (regurgitation greater than or equal to moderate or the need for reoperation), including late deaths and patients who underwent reoperation, was significantly worse in patients older than 3 months at repair (10 of 83 patients [12%] versus 20 of 73 patients [27%]; hazard ratio [HR], 2.71; 95% CI, 1.19-6.19) and in patients with LAVV dysplasia (19 of 68 patients [28%] versus 11 of 88 patients [12%]; HR, 3; 95% CI, 1.53-8.51). Individualized early repair of CAVCD is safe and beneficial, with good early and long-term results. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Oviposition-Stimulant and Ovicidal Activities of Moringa oleifera Lectin on Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nataly Diniz de Lima; de Moura, Kézia Santana; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Santos, Geanne Karla Novais; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2012-01-01

    Background Natural insecticides against the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti have been the object of research due to their high level of eco-safety. The water-soluble Moringa oleifera lectin (WSMoL) is a larvicidal agent against A. aegypti. This work reports the effects of WSMoL on oviposition and egg hatching of A. aegypti. Methodology/Principal Findings WSMoL crude preparations (seed extract and 0–60 protein fraction), at 0.1 mg/mL protein concentration, did not affect oviposition, while A. aegypti gravid females laid their eggs preferentially (73%) in vessels containing isolated WSMoL (0.1 mg/mL), compared with vessels containing only distilled water (control). Volatile compounds were not detected in WSMoL preparation. The hatchability of fresh eggs deposited in the solutions in the oviposition assay was evaluated. The numbers of hatched larvae in seed extract, 0–60 protein fraction and WSMoL were 45±8.7 %, 20±11 % and 55±7.5 %, respectively, significantly (pactivity was also assessed using stored A. aegypti eggs. The protein concentrations able to reduce the hatching rate by 50% (EC50) were 0.32, 0.16 and 0.1 mg/mL for seed extract, 0–60 protein fraction and WSMoL, respectively. The absence of hatching of stored eggs treated with WSMoL at 0.3 mg/mL (EC99) after transfer to medium without lectin indicates that embryos within the eggs were killed by WSMoL. The reduction in hatching rate of A. aegypti was not linked to decrease in bacteria population. Conclusions/Significance WSMoL acted both as a chemical stimulant cue for ovipositing females and ovicidal agent at a given concentration. The oviposition-stimulant and ovicidal activities, combined with the previously reported larvicidal activity, make WSMoL a very interesting candidate in integrated A. aegypti control. PMID:22970317

  18. Oviposition-stimulant and ovicidal activities of Moringa oleifera lectin on Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Diniz de Lima Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural insecticides against the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti have been the object of research due to their high level of eco-safety. The water-soluble Moringa oleifera lectin (WSMoL is a larvicidal agent against A. aegypti. This work reports the effects of WSMoL on oviposition and egg hatching of A. aegypti. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: WSMoL crude preparations (seed extract and 0-60 protein fraction, at 0.1 mg/mL protein concentration, did not affect oviposition, while A. aegypti gravid females laid their eggs preferentially (73% in vessels containing isolated WSMoL (0.1 mg/mL, compared with vessels containing only distilled water (control. Volatile compounds were not detected in WSMoL preparation. The hatchability of fresh eggs deposited in the solutions in the oviposition assay was evaluated. The numbers of hatched larvae in seed extract, 0-60 protein fraction and WSMoL were 45 ± 8.7 %, 20 ± 11 % and 55 ± 7.5 %, respectively, significantly (p<0.05 lower than in controls containing only distilled water (75-95%. Embryos were visualized inside fresh control eggs, but not within eggs that were laid and maintained in WSMoL solution. Ovicidal activity was also assessed using stored A. aegypti eggs. The protein concentrations able to reduce the hatching rate by 50% (EC50 were 0.32, 0.16 and 0.1 mg/mL for seed extract, 0-60 protein fraction and WSMoL, respectively. The absence of hatching of stored eggs treated with WSMoL at 0.3 mg/mL (EC99 after transfer to medium without lectin indicates that embryos within the eggs were killed by WSMoL. The reduction in hatching rate of A. aegypti was not linked to decrease in bacteria population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: WSMoL acted both as a chemical stimulant cue for ovipositing females and ovicidal agent at a given concentration. The oviposition-stimulant and ovicidal activities, combined with the previously reported larvicidal activity, make WSMoL a very interesting candidate in

  19. Romantic Relationship Patterns from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Family and Peer Experiences in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Stéphanie; Poulin, François

    2016-05-01

    The present study identifies and describes romantic relationship patterns from adolescence to adulthood and examines their associations with family and peer experiences in early adolescence. In a 13-year longitudinal study, 281 youth (58 % girls) identified all their romantic partners each year from the ages of 16-24. Dimensions of family relationships (family cohesion, parent-child conflict) and peer relationships (peer likeability, social withdrawal, close friendships, other-sex friendships) were assessed at age 12. Latent class analyses brought out five distinct romantic relationship patterns and significant associations were found with family and peer relationships in early adolescence. These five romantic relationship patterns appeared to follow a continuum of romantic involvement, with romantic relationship patterns situated a both ends of this continuum (later involvement pattern and intense involvement pattern) being associated with more interpersonal experiences in early adolescence.

  20. The Long-Run Impacts of Early Childhood Education: Evidence from a Failed Policy Experiment. NBER Working Paper No. 17085

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Smith, Justin D.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate short and long-term effects of early childhood education using variation created by a unique policy experiment in British Columbia, Canada. Our findings imply starting Kindergarten one year late substantially reduces the probability of repeating the third grade, and meaningfully increases in tenth grade math and reading scores.…

  1. Teaching Experience and Expectations of Early-Career Academics in Mozambique: The Case of Universidade Eduardo Mondlane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossa, Eugénia Flora Rosa; Buque, Domingos Carlos; Fringe, Jorge Jaime dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-methods study explored how early-career academics (ECA) at the Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (UEM) acquire pedagogical knowledge, develop their teaching experience as well as examine their expectations regarding the teaching profession. A questionnaire, composed mostly of closed questions and one open-ended question, was applied to 71…

  2. Cope and Grow: A Grounded Theory Approach to Early College Entrants' Lived Experiences and Changes in a STEM Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, David Yun; Steenbergen-Hu, Saiying; Zhou, Yehan

    2015-01-01

    In this grounded theory qualitative study, we interviewed 34 graduates from one cohort of 51 students from a prestigious early college entrance program in China. Based on the interview data, we identified distinct convergent and divergent patterns of lived experiences and changes. We found several dominant themes, including peers' mutual…

  3. Early mortality experience in a large military cohort and a comparison of mortality data sources

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    Smith Besa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete and accurate ascertainment of mortality is critically important in any longitudinal study. Tracking of mortality is particularly essential among US military members because of unique occupational exposures (e.g., worldwide deployments as well as combat experiences. Our study objectives were to describe the early mortality experience of Panel 1 of the Millennium Cohort, consisting of participants in a 21-year prospective study of US military service members, and to assess data sources used to ascertain mortality. Methods A population-based random sample (n = 256,400 of all US military service members on service rosters as of October 1, 2000, was selected for study recruitment. Among this original sample, 214,388 had valid mailing addresses, were not in the pilot study, and comprised the group referred to in this study as the invited sample. Panel 1 participants were enrolled from 2001 to 2003, represented all armed service branches, and included active-duty, Reserve, and National Guard members. Crude death rates, as well as age- and sex-adjusted overall and age-adjusted, category-specific death rates were calculated and compared for participants (n = 77,047 and non-participants (n = 137,341 based on data from the Social Security Administration Death Master File, Department of Veterans Affairs (VA files, and the Department of Defense Medical Mortality Registry, 2001-2006. Numbers of deaths identified by these three data sources, as well as the National Death Index, were compared for 2001-2004. Results There were 341 deaths among the participants for a crude death rate of 80.7 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 72.2,89.3 compared to 820 deaths and a crude death rate of 113.2 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: 105.4, 120.9 for non-participants. Age-adjusted, category-specific death rates highlighted consistently higher rates among study non-participants. Although there were advantages and

  4. Postmortem computed tomography with the use of air for blood vessel enhancement--Early experience.

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    Borowska-Solonynko, Aleksandra; Solonynko, Bohdan; Fudalej, Marcin; Żyłkowski, Jarosław

    2016-04-01

    Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) is gaining popularity in forensic medicine. Computed tomography routinely performed in clinical medicine involves intravenous contrast administration. Unfortunately, postmortem examinations are typically limited to uncontrasted CT scans, where blood vessels and their potential injury sites are invisible. One serious problem is the fact that due to the process of decomposition, contrast agents used for vessel visualization in the living cannot be used in cadavers. Therefore, a special contrast agent designed for cadavers has been developed. This contrast agent has a high density and is lipophilic. Its use ensures very good visualization of blood vessels it is, however, associated with high costs and may alter findings of a later histopathological examination. This study presents early experience with the air as negative contrast agent to enhance all blood vessels in the body. The carbon dioxide (CO2) gas has been used as a contrast agent in live individuals with contraindications against the use of iodinated contrast. In corpses with advanced postmortem changes, putrefaction gases also considerably enhance the visibility of blood vessels and organs they fill. There have also been some positive effects with the use of gas in postmortem angiography of coronary vessels. These findings encouraged us to attempt air administration via catheters introduced into the femoral artery or a central venous access site in the superior vena cava. The gas distributed easily throughout the body and surprisingly well contrasted both arteries and veins of various caliber. The presence of the air administered into vessels did not cause any apparent, significant alterations in autopsy findings. Although optimization of the gas administration technique requires further studies, we can already say that this is a promising direction in postmortem angiography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Early Experiences of Sandwich Technique to Preserve Pelvic Circulation during Endovascular Aneurysm Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Chung, Jung Kee; Park, Hyung Sub; Jung, In Mok; Lee, Taeseung

    2017-06-01

    To report experiences of the sandwich technique (ST) for preservation of pelvic flow during endovascular repair of complex aortic or aortoiliac aneurysms. Eight patients underwent elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) using the ST between March 2013 and February 2017. The anatomic indications for the ST were complex aortoiliac aneurysms (5 cases), abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) with non-diseased short common iliac arteries (2 cases) and AAA with unilateral occluded iliac artery (1 case). The ST was performed through both femoral and brachial approach. Patient clinical and radiologic data were collected and analyzed. Eight patients (7 male; mean age, 73.4 years) were followed over a mean period of 277 days (range, 9-1,106 days). The technical success rate was 100%. The primary patency rate of the iliac stent-grafts was 88% (14/16 cases). One internal iliac and 1 external iliac stent-graft occlusion was observed during the early postoperative period. There was 1 gutter endoleak which disappeared spontaneously within 4 days, and there were 2 type II endoleaks: one treated by coil embolization after 13 months, and the other observed without treatment. There were no cases of sac growth or aneurysm-related deaths, and no cases of buttock claudication or impotence. The ST is a safe and feasible technique to preserve pelvic circulation during endovascular treatment of complex aortoiliac aneurysms. The need to expand the indications for complex EVARs with adjunctive procedures, such as the ST is highlighted in situations where branched/fenestrated device availability is limited.

  6. Cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of an early experience on cognitive abilities and affective states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippidis Eleni

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study we investigated the effects of neonatal handling, an animal model of early experience, on spatial learning and memory, on hippocampal glucocorticoid (GR, mineralocorticoid (MR and type 1A serotonin (5-HT1A receptors, as well as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and on circulating leptin levels, of male rats. Method Spatial learning and memory following an acute restraint stress (30 min were assessed in the Morris water maze. Hippocampal GR, MR and BDNF levels were determined immunocytochemically. 5-HT1A receptors were quantified by in vitro binding autoradiography. Circulating leptin levels, following a chronic forced swimming stress, were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results Neonatal handling increased the ability of male rats for spatial learning and memory. It also resulted in increased GR/MR ratio, BDNF and 5-HT1A receptor levels in the hippocampus. Furthermore, leptin levels, body weight and food consumption during chronic forced swimming stress were reduced as a result of handling. Conclusion Neonatal handling is shown to have a beneficial effect in the males, improving their cognitive abilities. This effect on behavior could be mediated by the handling-induced increase in hippocampal GR/MR ratio and BDNF levels. The handling-induced changes in BDNF and 5-HT1A receptors could underlie the previously documented effect of handling in preventing "depression". Furthermore, handling is shown to prevent other maladaptive states such as stress-induced hyperphagia, obesity and resistance to leptin.

  7. Early experience with digital advance care planning and directives, a novel consumer-driven program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Robert L; Yang, Zhiyong; Spivey, Christy; Boardman, Bonnie; Courtney, Maureen

    2016-07-01

    Barriers to traditional advance care planning (ACP) and advance directive (AD) creation have limited the promise of ACP/AD for individuals and families, the healthcare team, and society. Our objectives were to determine the results of a digital ACP/AD through which consumers create, store, locate, and retrieve their ACP/AD at no charge and with minimal physician involvement, and the ACP/AD can be integrated into the electronic health record. The authors chose 900 users of MyDirectives, a digital ACP/AD tool, to achieve proportional representation of all 50 states by population size and then reviewed their responses. The 900 participants had an average age of 50.8 years (SD = 16.6); 84% of the men and 91% of the women were in self-reported good health when signing their ADs. Among the respondents, 94% wanted their physicians to consult a supportive and palliative care team if they were seriously ill; nearly 85% preferred cessation of life-sustaining treatments during their final days; 76% preferred to spend their final days at home or in a hospice; and 70% would accept attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation in limited circumstances. Most respondents wanted an autopsy under certain conditions, and 62% wished to donate their organs. In conclusion, analysis of early experience with this ACP/AD platform demonstrates that individuals of different ages and conditions can engage in an interrogatory process about values, develop ADs that are more nuanced than traditional paper-based ADs in reflecting those values, and easily make changes to their ADs. Online ADs have the potential to remove barriers to ACP/AD and thus further improve patient-centered end-of-life care.

  8. Oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of seven herbal essential oils against female adults of housefly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthusiri, Jirisuda; Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-08-01

    The oviposition deterrent and ovicidal of seven herbal essential oils derived from Citrus sinensis, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus glubulus, Illicium verum, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, and Zingiber cussumunar were assessed against the gravid female of housefly, Musca domestica L., under laboratory conditions and compared with commercial insecticide (10% w/v cypermethrin). They were assayed at three concentrations (1.0, 5.0, and 10.0%) where plastic cups containing 1 ml of desired oil concentration and cotton pad soaked with 10 ml of milk solution (10% w/v) were used as oviposition substrate. The 0.1 ml of deferent concentrations was dropped on ten housefly eggs, which were used for ovicidal activity. The number of eggs laid and the hatched larvae in each cup was recorded to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of the herbal essential oils. High concentration (10%) of herbal essential oils showed high percent effective repellency (ER). The 10% I. verum oil caused complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, oviposition activity index (OAI) = -1.0), followed by Z. cussumunar, M. piperita, L. angustifolia, C. citratus, C. sinensis, and E. glubulus oils with 97.20, 88.55, 88.14, 87.93, 76.68, and 57.00% ER, respectively. As the concentration of herbal essential oils increased from 1.0, 5.0, and up to 10.0% concentration, the hatching rate decreased. Ten percent I. verum oil gave the maximum inhibiting rate at 97.3% (LC50 value of 6.85%); in addition, the other herbal essential oils showed the minimum inhibiting rate of 3.3-22.7%. On the other hand, cypermethrin 10% w/v showed complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, OAI = -1.0) and ovicidal activity (100% inhibiting rate). Our data showed that I. verum oil have high potential of oviposition deterrence and ovicide housefly control.

  9. Host plant oviposition preference of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera : Tephritidae)%瓜实蝇对寄主植物的产卵选择性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭帅; 郑丽霞; 吴伟坚

    2013-01-01

    The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae ( Coquillett) has been reported to damage more than 100 host plants and is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables. Choice oviposition experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to help assess host plant specificity of the fruit fly. Six host species: Momordica charantiap, Luffa cylindrical, Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita moschata, Carica papaya and Cucurbita pepo were tested. Oviposition rates were highest on M. charantiap (56. 18% of eggs) and C. sativus (29. 00% ) , with low rates on C. papaya (1. 85% ) and C. moschata (0. 00% ) . In contrast, Oviposition rates were highest on C. sativus ( 34. 64% ) , C. pepo ( 30. 37% ) and C. moschata (18. 05% ) , with low rates on C. papaya (0. 60% ) when the fruit peel were pared. Oviposition rates of B. cucurbitae females on fruits with peel had a significant negative correlation with the hardness of peel, and the correlation coefficient was - 0. 8772. The results imply that in addition to the in - built chemical compounds, plants have physical barrier like hard fruit peel, which impact melon fruit fly oviposition.%瓜实蝇Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)可危害100多种寄主植物,是葫芦科蔬菜的重要害虫.为了探明瓜实蝇的寄主特异性,在实验室条件下研究了瓜实蝇对黄瓜Cucumis sativus、苦瓜Momordica charantiap、丝瓜Luffa cylindrica、南瓜Cucurbita moschata、番木瓜Carica papaya和西葫芦Cucurbita pepo的产卵选择性.瓜实蝇在苦瓜和黄瓜上的产卵比率较高,分别为56.18%和29.00%,在番木瓜和南瓜上产卵比率较低,分别为1.85%和0.00%,但是在去掉果皮后,黄瓜、西葫芦和南瓜的产卵比率较高,分别达到34.64%、30.37%和18.05%,在番木瓜上的产卵率较低仅为0.60%.瓜实蝇雌虫在带皮果实上的产卵比率与果皮硬度呈显著的负相关关系,相关系数为-0.8772结果表明除了自身的化合物之外,植物具有的物理屏障如坚硬的

  10. Everyday Environmental Education Experiences: The Role of Content in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy; Edwards, Suzy

    2014-01-01

    In recent years discussions surrounding early childhood curriculum has focused on the movement from developmental to sociocultural theory. A further area worthy of investigation involves the role of content in early childhood education, specifically the relationship between content, context and pedagogy. The paper draws on teacher vignettes to…

  11. A "Noble Bet" in Early Care and Education: Lessons from One Community's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Brian P.; Dembosky, Jacob W.; Caulkins, Jonathan P.

    The Early Childhood Initiative (ECI) was an ambitious effort launched in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1996 to provide high-quality early care and education services to at-risk children, on a county-wide scale and under the direction of local neighborhood agencies. Four years after its launch, ECI was providing substantial social and educational…

  12. Everyday Environmental Education Experiences: The Role of Content in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy; Edwards, Suzy

    2014-01-01

    In recent years discussions surrounding early childhood curriculum has focused on the movement from developmental to sociocultural theory. A further area worthy of investigation involves the role of content in early childhood education, specifically the relationship between content, context and pedagogy. The paper draws on teacher vignettes to…

  13. Early maternal relational traumatic experiences and psychopathological symptoms: a longitudinal study on mother-infant and father-infant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambelli, Renata; Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Ballarotto, Giulia

    2015-09-10

    Early maternal relational traumas and psychopathological risk can have an impact on mother-infant interactions. Research has suggested the study of fathers and of their psychological profiles as protection or risk factors. The aim of the paper is to assess the quality of parental interactions during feeding in families with mothers with early traumatic experiences. One hundred thirty-six (N = 136) families were recruited in gynecological clinics: Group A included families with mothers who experienced early sexual/physical abuse; Group B was composed of families with mothers who experienced early emotional abuse or neglect; and Group C comprised healthy controls. The subjects participated in a 10-month longitudinal protocol [at the fourth month of pregnancy (T0), 3 months after child birth (T1), and 6 months after child birth (T2)] that included an observation of mother-infant and father-infant interactions during feeding (Scala di Valutazione dell'Interazione Alimentare [SVIA]) and a self-reporting 90-item Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R). Maternal higher rates of depression and early traumatic experiences of neglect and emotional abuse predicted more maladaptive scores on the affective state of the dyad SVIA subscale. Paternal anxiety predicted more severe levels of food refusal in the child during feeding.

  14. How does a neuron know to modulate its epigenetic machinery in response to early-life environment/experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley A Karsten

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Exciting information is emerging about epigenetic mechanisms and their role in long-lasting changes of neuronal gene expression. Whereas these mechanisms are active throughout life, recent findings point to a critical window of early postnatal development during which neuronal gene expression may be persistently re-programmed via epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unclear how the epigenetic machinery is modulated. Here we focus on an important example of early-life programming: the effect of sensory input from the mother on expression patterns of key stress-related genes in the developing brain. We focus on the lasting effects of this early life experience on corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH gene expression in the hypothalamus, and describe recent work that integrates organism-wide signals with cellular signals that in turn impact epigenetic regulation. We describe the operational brain networks that convey sensory input to CRH-expressing cells, and highlight the resulting re-wiring of synaptic connectivity to these neurons. We then move from intercellular to intracellular mechanisms, speculating about the induction and maintenance of lifelong CRH repression provoked by early-life experience. Elucidating such pathways is critical for understanding the enduring links between experience and gene expression. In the context of responses to stress, such mechanisms should contribute to vulnerability or resilience to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other stress-related disorders.

  15. The International Society for Developmental Psychobiology annual meeting symposium: Impact of early life experiences on brain and behavioral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Regina; Wilson, Donald A; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K; Meyer, Urs; Richter-Levin, Gal; Avi, Avital; Michael, Tsoory; Gruss, Michael; Bock, Jörg; Helmeke, Carina; Braun, Katharina

    2006-11-01

    Decades of research in the area of developmental psychobiology have shown that early life experience alters behavioral and brain development, which canalizes development to suit different environments. Recent methodological advances have begun to identify the mechanisms by which early life experiences cause these diverse adult outcomes. Here we present four different research programs that demonstrate the intricacies of early environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in both pathological and normal development. First, an animal model of schizophrenia is presented that suggests prenatal immune stimulation influences the postpubertal emergence of psychosis-related behavior in mice. Second, we describe a research program on infant rats that demonstrates how early odor learning has unique characteristics due to the unique functioning of the infant limbic system. Third, we present work on the rodent Octodon degus, which shows that early paternal and/or maternal deprivation alters development of limbic system synaptic density that corresponds to heightened emotionality. Fourth, a juvenile model of stress is presented that suggests this developmental period is important in determining adulthood emotional well being. The approach of each research program is strikingly different, yet all succeed in delineating a specific aspect of early development and its effects on infant and adult outcome that expands our understanding of the developmental impact of infant experiences on emotional and limbic system development. Together, these research programs suggest that the developing organism's developmental trajectory is influenced by environmental factors beginning in the fetus and extending through adolescence, although the specific timing and nature of the environmental influence has unique impact on adult mental health.

  16. Mid-dose rate intracavitary therapy for uterine cervix cancer with a Selectron; An early experience of Osaka University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, Teruki; Inoue, Takehiro; Sasaki, Shigeru; Ohtani, Masatoshi; Kozuka, Takahiro; Inoue, Toshihiko; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Hideya (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Murayama, Shigeyuki

    1993-05-01

    From May 1991 through September 1992, a total of 17 previously untreated patients with invasive uterine cervix cancer and with intact uterus were treated with mid-dose rate intracavitary therapy administered with a Selectron. Early primary tumor responses for all patients were complete. No acute or subacute radiation injury was observed except one patient with aplastic anemia who developed rectal ulcer. Two patients of Stage IIIb died from tumor because of local, paraaortic lymph node and distant metastases. Our early experience concluded that Selectron MDR can be used for cervix cancer patients as safely and effectively as our previously used high-dose rate machine. (author).

  17. Fragmentation and Unpredictability of Early-Life Experience in Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram, Tallie Z.; Solodkin, Ana; Davis, Elysia P.; Stern, Hal; Obenaus, Andre; Sandman, Curt A.; Small, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal sensory signals in early life play a crucial role in programming the structure and function of the developing brain, promoting vulnerability or resilience to emotional and cognitive disorders. In rodent models of early-life stress, fragmentation and unpredictability of maternally derived sensory signals provoke persistent cognitive and emotional dysfunction in offspring. Similar variability and inconsistency of maternal signals during both gestation and early postnatal human life may influence development of emotional and cognitive functions, including those that underlie later depression and anxiety. PMID:22885631

  18. [Early life stressful experiences and neuropsychiatric vulnerability: evidences from human and animal models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincel, Marion; Lépinay, Amandine; Gabory, Anne; Théodorou, Vassilia; Koehl, Muriel; Daugé, Valérie; Maccari, Stefania; Darnaudéry, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    The human newborn is highly dependent on parental care for its survival but also for the healthy development of its brain. A large body of literature demonstrates the impact of early life adversity, even during the prenatal period, on the adult's health. The susceptibility to neuropsychiatric diseases is often potentiated by early stress. If there is an agreement that a critical developmental period exists, the mechanisms underlying the long term effects of early life adversity are still poorly understood. Recent studies in animals highlight the involvement of epigenetic processes in the transmission of such vulnerabilities, notably via modifications in germ cells, which can be transmitted in the next generations.

  19. Genetic architecture of differences in oviposition preference between ancestral and derived populations of the seed beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucić, N; Seslija, D

    2007-05-01

    We investigated the additive, dominance and epistatic genetic effects underlying differentiation in oviposition preference between two populations of the seed beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus evolved in the laboratory for 102 generations on bean and chickpea seeds. We reared and tested females on each of two host legumes. The populations differed in mean oviposition preference; the preference for chickpea was stronger in population reared on the chickpea (C) than in population maintained on common bean (P). Observations in the parental populations indicated that females tend to prefer ovipositioning their eggs on the seeds they have already experienced. The patterns of the means in each of the parental populations and 12 types of hybrids (two F(1), two F(2) and eight backcrosses) indicated that population differences in oviposition preference from both rearing hosts could be explained by nonadditive genetic effects. Statistically detectable additive and dominance genetic effects were observed in the most parsimonious model only when females were reared on the chickpea. The most parsimonious models on both rearing hosts suggested a contribution of negative additive x additive epistasis to the divergence of oviposition preference between the P and C populations. This indicates a positive effect of epistasis on the performance of the second generations of hybrids.

  20. Oviposition Preference for Young Plants by the Large Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae ) Does not Strongly Correlate with Caterpillar Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Minghui; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Yin, Yi; Gols, Rieta

    2017-06-01

    The effects of temporal variation in the quality of short-lived annual plants on oviposition preference and larval performance of insect herbivores has thus far received little attention. This study examines the effects of plant age on female oviposition preference and offspring performance in the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae. Adult female butterflies lay variable clusters of eggs on the underside of short-lived annual species in the family Brassicaceae, including the short-lived annuals Brassica nigra and Sinapis arvensis, which are important food plants for P. brassicae in The Netherlands. Here, we compared oviposition preference and larval performance of P. brassicae on three age classes (young, mature, and pre-senescing) of B. nigra and S. arvensis plants. Oviposition preference of P. brassicae declined with plant age in both plant species. Whereas larvae performed similarly on all three age classes in B. nigra, preference and performance were weakly correlated in S. arvensis. Analysis of primary (sugars and amino acids) and secondary (glucosinolates) chemistry in the plant shoots revealed that differences in their quality and quantity were more pronounced with respect to tissue type (leaves vs. flowers) than among different developmental stages of both plant species. Butterflies of P. brassicae may prefer younger and smaller plants for oviposition anticipating that future plant growth and size is optimally synchronized with the final larval instar, which contributes >80% of larval growth before pupation.

  1. Early clinical experience of radiotherapy of prostate cancer with volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valli Mariacarla

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report about initial clinical experience in radiation treatment of carcinoma of prostate with volumetric modulated arcs with the RapidArc (RA technology. Methods Forty-five patients with a median age of 72 ± 3, affected by prostate carcinoma (T1c: 22 patients, T2a-b: 17 patients, T3a-b: 6 patients. N0: 43 patients, N1-Nx: 2 patients, all M0, with initial PSA of 10.0 ± 3.0 ng/mL, were treated with RapidArc in a feasibility study. All patients were treated with single arc using 6MV photons. Dose prescription ranged between 76 (7 patients and 78 Gy (38 patients in 2Gy/fraction. Plan quality was assessed by means of Dose Volume Histogram (DVH analysis. Technical parameters of arcs and pre-treatment quality assurance results (Gamma Agreement Index, GAI are reported to describe delivery features. Early toxicity was scored (according to the Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Effects scale, CTCAE, scale at the end of treatment together with biochemical outcome (PSA. Results From DVH data, target coverage was fulfilling planning objectives: V95% was in average higher than 98% and V107%~0.0% (D2%~104.0% in average. Homogeneity D5%-D95% ranged between 6.2 ± 1.0% to 6.7 ± 1.3%. For rectum, all planning objectives were largely met (e.g. V70Gy = 10.7 ± 5.5% against an objective of 2% = 79.4 ± 1.2Gy against an objective of 80.0Gy. Maximum dose to femurs was D2% = 36.7 ± 5.4Gy against an objective of 47Gy. Monitor Units resulted: MU/Gy = 239 ± 37. Average beam on time was 1.24 ± 0.0 minutes. Pre-treatment GAI resulted in 98.1 ± 1.1%. Clinical data were recorded as PSA at 6 weeks after RT, with median values of 0.4 ± 0.4 ng/mL. Concerning acute toxicity, no patient showed grade 2-3 rectal toxicity; 5/42 (12% patients experienced grade 2 dysuria; 18/41 (44% patients preserved complete or partial erectile function. Conclusion RapidArc proved to be a safe, qualitative and advantageous treatment modality for prostate cancer.

  2. Only fixation for cervical spondylosis: Report of early results with a preliminary experience with 6 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The author reports early post-operative outcome and preliminary experience with an alternative form of treatment of cervical degenerative or spondylotic disease leading to spinal canal stenosis that involves fixation-arthrodesis of the affected spinal segment using one or two (double insurance transarticular screws for each joint. Materials and Methods: During the period of months from March 2013 to July 2013, six patients having cervical spondylotic cord compression were treated with transarticular method of screw fixation of the involved segments. The operation involved section of the spinous process at its base, opening up of the facet joint, denuding of articular cartilage, placement of intraarticular cavity bone graft chips and insertion of either a single or two transarticular screws at each level. The fixation was done in four levels in four patients and at two levels in two patients. Japanese Orthopedic Association score, visual analog scale (neck pain and Odom′s criteria were used to monitor the clinical status of the patients before and after the surgery and at follow-up. Results: Immediate post-operative and a relatively short-term post-operative outcome was remarkably gratifying. During the average period of follow-up of 6 months (range: 3-8 months; there was varying degree of recovery of symptoms. The procedure resulted in firm stabilization and fixation of the spinal segment and provided a ground for arthrodesis. No patient worsened after treatment. During the period of follow-up, all patients showed remarkable and progressive recovery in symptoms. Conclusions: Vertical instability and telescoping, listhesis or overriding of the facets on physical activity seems to be the defining phenomenon in pathogenesis of cervical spondylotic disease. The clinical outcome in our patients suggest that only fixation of the spinal segment can be a rationale form of treatment. Transarticular method of treatment is a simple, safe and

  3. Single-port video-assisted thoracic surgery for early lung cancer: initial experience in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Shingo; Usuda, Jitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Single-port video-assisted thoracic surgery (SPVATS) emerged several years ago as a new, minimally invasive surgery for diseases in the field of respiratory surgery, and is increasingly becoming a subject of interest for some thoracic surgeons in Europe and Asia. However, the adoption rate of this procedure in the United States and Japan remains low. We herein reviewed our experience of SPVATS for early lung cancer in our center, and evaluated the safety and minimal invasiveness of this technique. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patients who had undergone SPVATS for pathological stage I lung cancer in Nippon Medical School Chiba Hokusoh Hospital between September 2012 and October 2015. In SPVATS, an approximately 4-cm incision was made at the 4th or 5th intercostal space between the anterior and posterior axillary lines. A rib spreader was not used at the incision site, and surgical manipulation was performed very carefully in order to avoid contact between surgical instruments and the intercostal nerves. The same surgeon performed surgery on all patients, and analyzed laboratory data before and after surgery. Results Eighty-four patients underwent anatomical lung resection for postoperative pathological stage I lung cancer. The mean wound length was 4.2 cm. Eighty-four patients underwent lobectomy and segmentectomy, respectively. The mean preoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) was 1.85%±0.36%. Our patients consisted of 49 men (58.3%) and 35 women (41.7%), with 64, 18, 1, and 1 having adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, and small-cell lung cancer, respectively. The mean operative time was 175±21 min, operative blood loss 92±18 mL, and duration of drain placement 1.9±0.6 days. The duration of the postoperative hospital stay was 7.1±1.7 days, numeric rating scale (NRS) 1 week after surgery 2.8±0.6, and occurrence rate of allodynia 1 month after surgery 10.7%. No patient developed serious

  4. Minding experience: An exploration of the concept of "experience" in the early French anthropology of Durkheim, Lévy-Bruhl, and Lévi-Strauss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, C Jason

    2003-01-01

    In line with the growing concern with the unexamined reliance upon the concept of "experience" in anthropology, this article explores in some detail the various usages and definitions of the concept in the work of three of early French anthropology's most influential theorists: Emile Durkheim (1858-1918), Lucien Lévy-Bruhl (1857-1939), and Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908-). With its important influence on both British and American anthropology, the early French anthropological tradition, as epitomized in the writings of these three thinkers, has indeed played a pivotal role in shaping many current taken-for-granted understandings of the concept of experience in the discipline of anthropology as a whole. In the process of exploring how experience is viewed by these three scholars, this paper will thus take some initial steps toward the historical contextualization of many of the unquestioned assumptions underpinning current understandings of experience in the discipline of anthropology and the social sciences more generally. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. 2012 Early Life History Experiment Data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  6. 2013 Early Life History Experiment Data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  7. Patterns of Early Rejection in Renal Retransplantation: A Single-Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that kidney retransplant patients had high rates of early acute rejection due to previous sensitization. In addition to the acute antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR that has received widespread attention, the early acute T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR may be another important issue in renal retransplantation. In the current single-center retrospective study, we included 33 retransplant patients and 90 first transplant patients with similar protocols of induction and maintenance therapy. Analysis focused particularly on the incidence and patterns of early acute rejection episodes, as well as one-year graft and patient survival. Excellent short-term clinical outcomes were obtained in both groups, with one-year graft and patient survival rates of 93.9%/100% in the retransplant group and 92.2%/95.6% in the first transplant group. Impressively, with our strict immunological selection and desensitization criteria, the retransplant patients had a very low incidence of early acute ABMR (6.1%, which was similar to that in the first transplant patients (4.4%. However, a much higher rate of early acute TCMR was observed in the retransplant group than in the first transplant group (30.3% versus 5.6%, P<0.001. Acute TCMR that develops early after retransplantation should be monitored in order to obtain better transplant outcomes.

  8. Larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of four plant extracts against three mosquito species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathibha, K P; Raghavendra, B S; Vijayan, V A

    2014-05-01

    In mosquito control programs, insecticides of botanical origin have the potential to eliminate eggs, larvae, and adults. So, the larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Eugenia jambolana, Solidago canadensis, Euodia ridleyi, and Spilanthes mauritiana were assayed against the three vector mosquito species, namely Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval bioassay was conducted following the World Health Organization method. The maximum larval mortality was found with ethyl acetate extract of S. mauritiana against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with LC50 values of 11.51, 28.1, 14.10 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed at 48-h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was found to be inversely proportional to the concentration of the extract and directly proportional to the number of eggs. The flower head extract of S. mauritiana gave 100% mortality followed by E. ridleyi, S. canadensis, and E. jambolana against the eggs of the three mosquito vectors. For oviposition-deterrent effect, out of the five concentrations tested (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 ppm), the concentration of 100 ppm showed a significant egg laying-deterrent capacity. The oviposition activity index value of E. jambolana, E. ridleyi, S. canadensis, and S. mauritiana against A. aegypti, A. stephensi, C. quinquefasciatus at 100 ppm were -0.71, -0.71, -0.90, -0.93, -0.85, -0.91, -1, -1, -0.71, -0.85, -1, and -1, respectively. These results suggest that the leaf/flower extracts of certain local plants have the potential to be developed as possible eco-friendly means for the control of mosquitoes.

  9. Mortality risk from entomopathogenic fungi affects oviposition behavior in the parasitoid wasp Trybliographa rapae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rännbäck, Linda-Marie; Cotes, Belen; Anderson, Peter; Rämert, Birgitta; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2015-01-01

    Biological control of pests in agroecosystems could be enhanced by combining multiple natural enemies. However, this approach might also compromise the control efficacy through intraguild predation (IGP) among the natural enemies. Parasitoids may be able to avoid the risk of unidirectional IGP posed by entomopathogenic fungi through selective oviposition behavior during host foraging. Trybliographa rapae is a larval parasitoid of the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum. Here we evaluated the susceptibility of D. radicum and T. rapae to two species of generalist entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium brunneum isolate KVL 04-57 and Beauveria bassiana isolate KVL 03-90. Furthermore, T. rapae oviposition behavior was assessed in the presence of these entomopathogenic fungi either as infected hosts or as infective propagules in the environment. Both fungi were pathogenic to D. radicum larvae and T. rapae adults, but with variable virulence. When host patches were inoculated with M. brunneum conidia in a no-choice situation, more eggs were laid by T. rapae in hosts of those patches compared to control and B. bassiana treated patches. Females that later succumbed to mycosis from either fungus laid significantly more eggs than non-mycosed females, indicating that resources were allocated to increased oviposition due to perceived decreased life expectancy. When presented with a choice between healthy and fungal infected hosts, T. rapae females laid more eggs in healthy larvae than in M. brunneum infected larvae. This was less pronounced for B. bassiana. Based on our results we propose that T. rapae can perceive and react towards IGP risk posed by M. brunneum but not B. bassiana to the foraging female herself and her offspring. Thus, M. brunneum has the potential to be used for biological control against D. radicum with a limited risk to T. rapae populations.

  10. Enduring consequences of early experiences: 40 year effects on survival and success among African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Phyllis C; Bussière, Luc F; Webber, C Elizabeth; Poole, Joyce H; Moss, Cynthia J

    2013-04-23

    Growth from conception to reproductive onset in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) provides insights into phenotypic plasticity, individual adaptive plastic responses and facultative maternal investment. Using growth for 867 and life histories for 2652 elephants over 40 years, we demonstrate that maternal inexperience plus drought in early life result in reduced growth rates for sons and higher mortality for both sexes. Slow growth during early lactation was associated with smaller adult size, later age at first reproduction, reduced lifetime survival and consequently limited reproductive output. These enduring effects of trading slow early growth against immediate survival were apparent over the very long term; delayed downstream consequences were unexpected for a species with a maximum longevity of 70+ years and unpredictable environmental experiences.

  11. Effects of preterm experience on the developing visual system : A longitudinal study of shifts of attention and gaze in early infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunnius, Sabine; Geuze, Reint H.; Zweens, Mar J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies on visual development support the notion that healthy, low-risk preterm infants benefit from their early exposure to the visual world. It has been suggested, however, that mainly early developing sensory and motor processes are enhanced as a result of visual experience and early exer

  12. Effects of preterm experience on the developing visual system: A longitudinal study of shifts of attention and gaze in early infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunnius, S.; Geuze, R.H.; Zweens, M.J.; Bos, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies on visual development support the notion that healthy, low-risk preterm infants benefit from their early exposure to the visual world. It has been suggested, however, that mainly early developing sensory and motor processes are enhanced as a result of visual experience and early exer

  13. Atratividade e preferência para oviposição de Trialeurodes vaporariorum em genótipos de aboboreira Attractiveness and oviposition preference of Trialeurodes vaporariorum in squash genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André C Alves

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento de 13 genótipos de aboboreira foi avaliado em relação à atratividade para adultos e à preferência para oviposição da mosca-branca Trialeurodes vaporariorum (West. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em testes com e sem chance de escolha, em campo e em casa de vegetação. Os experimentos foram conduzidos com plantas de aboboreira em fase vegetativa, infestadas naturalmente no campo (atratividade para adultos e oviposição com chance de escolha e artificialmente em casa de vegetação (oviposição sem chance de escolha. Dentre as aboboreiras tipo moita, o híbrido Arlika apresentou a menor atratividade para adultos e, entre os genótipos de crescimento rasteiro, não houve diferença em relação à atratividade. Quanto à preferência para oviposição em teste de livre escolha, 'Arlika', no grupo de moita, e 'Atlas', 'Sandy', 'Bárbara', 'Baianinha' e 'Caravela', no grupo das rasteiras, apresentaram os menores índices de oviposição, que se confirmaram no teste sem chance de escolha, indicando que a menor preferência para oviposição de T. vaporariorum nesses genótipos é estável.Thirteen squash genotypes were evaluated in relation to attractiveness and oviposition preference of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (West. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae under field and greenhouse conditions. In the field, two experiments were carried out, one being with bush squash and the other with summer squash genotypes. Plant infestation occurs naturally after seedling transplanting. By counting adults on the abaxial surfaces of the leaves, in the bush squash experiment, the hybrid 'Arlika' showed the lowest attractiveness; in the summer squash experiment, no difference was observed among genotypes. Regarding eggs counting, 'Arlika' (bush squash experiment, 'Atlas', 'Sandy', 'Barbara', 'Baianinha' and 'Caravela' (summer squash experiment presented nonpreference for oviposition. Oviposition was also evaluated in two no-choice experiments, with artificial

  14. Exploring early twenty-first century developed forest camping experiences and meanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry A. Garst; Daniel R. Williams; Joseph W. Roggenbuck

    2010-01-01

    This study examines experiences and associated meanings of 38 family groups participating in developed camping. The analysis is guided by discursive social psychology in which expressed meanings reflect interpretive frames campers use to explain experiences. Key elements of camping experience include nature, social interaction, and comfort/convenience. The most common...

  15. Behavioral Avoidance - Will Physiological Insecticide Resistance Level of Insect Strains Affect Their Oviposition and Movement Responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Baissac, Olivier; Nansen, Maria; Powis, Kevin; Baker, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural organisms, such as insect herbivores, provide unique opportunities for studies of adaptive evolutionary processes, including effects of insecticides on movement and oviposition behavior. In this study, Brassica leaves were treated with one of two non-systemic insecticides and exposed to two individual strains (referred to as single or double resistance) of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) (DBM) exhibiting physiological resistance. Behavioral responses by these two strains were compared as part of characterizing the relative effect of levels of physiological resistance on the likelihood of insects showing signs of behavioral avoidance. For each DBM strain, we used choice bioassays to quantify two possible types of behavioral avoidance: 1) females ovipositing predominantly on leaf surfaces without insecticides, and 2) larvae avoiding insecticide-treated leaf surfaces. In three-choice bioassays (leaves with no pesticide, 50% coverage with pesticide, or 100% coverage with pesticide), females from the single resistance DBM strain laid significantly more eggs on water treated leaves compared to leaves with 100% insecticide coverage (both gamma-cyhalothrin and spinetoram). Females from the double resistance DBM strain also laid significantly more eggs on water treated leaves compared to leaves with 100% gamma-cyhalothrin, while moths did not adjust their oviposition behavior in response to spinetoram. Larvae from the single resistance DBM strain showed a significant increase in mobility in response to both insecticides and avoided insecticide-treated portions of leaves when given a choice. On the other hand, DBM larvae from the double resistance strain showed a significant decrease in mobility in response to insecticides, and they did not avoid insecticide-treated portions of leaves when given a choice. Our results suggest that pest populations with physiological resistance may show behavioral avoidance, as resistant females avoided oviposition on

  16. Mortality risk from entomopathogenic fungi affects oviposition behavior in the parasitoid wasp Trybliographa rapae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rännbäck, Linda-Marie; Cotes, Belen; Anderson, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    Biological control of pests in agroecosystems could be enhanced by combining multiple natural enemies. However, this approach might also compromise the control efficacy through intraguild predation (IGP) among the natural enemies. Parasitoids may be able to avoid the risk of unidirectional IGP...... posed by entomopathogenic fungi through selective oviposition behavior during host foraging. Trybliographa rapae is a larval parasitoid of the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum. Here we evaluated the susceptibility of D. radicum and T. rapae to two species of generalist entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium...

  17. Does S-methoprene affect oviposition by Aedes aegypti in an ovitrap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Scott A; Long, Sharron

    2003-06-01

    We conducted a field study to test if the addition of a pellet of S-methoprene (Altosid pellets) to an ovitrap would affect oviposition by Aedes aegypti or Ochlerotatus notoscriptus. In 2 trials conducted near Cairns, Queensland, Australia, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was found in the number of eggs of Ae. aegypti or Oc. notoscriptus laid in ovitraps with or without a methoprene pellet. These results suggest the addition of an S-methoprene pellet to ovitraps or sentinel tires could be employed to eliminate the risk of mosquito production by ovitrap surveys.

  18. Different early rearing experiences have long-term effects on cortical organization in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogart, Stephanie L; Bennett, Allyson J; Schapiro, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Consequences of rearing history in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been explored in relation to behavioral abnormalities and cognition; however, little is known about the effects of rearing conditions on anatomical brain development. Human studies have revealed that experiences of maltreatment...... and neglect during infancy and childhood can have detrimental effects on brain development and cognition. In this study, we evaluated the effects of early rearing experience on brain morphology in 92 captive chimpanzees (ages 11-43) who were either reared by their mothers (n = 46) or in a nursery (n = 46......-reared chimpanzees have greater global white-to-grey matter volume, more cortical folding and thinner grey matter within the cortical folds than nursery-reared animals. The findings reported here are the first to demonstrate that differences in early rearing conditions have significant consequences on brain...

  19. Early experience, structural dissociation, and emotional dysregulation in borderline personality disorder: the role of insecure and disorganized attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Dolores; Gonzalez, Anabel; Leeds, Andrew M

    2014-01-01

    Persistent problems in emotional regulation and interpersonal relationships in borderline patients can be understood as developing from difficulties in early dyadic regulation with primary caregivers. Early attachment patterns are a relevant causal factor in the development of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Links between attachment issues, early history of neglect, and traumatic experiences, and symptoms observed in patients with BPD as per the DSM-5 classification (American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (Fifth ed.). Washington, D.C; (2013)) are described in this article, while delineating possible pathways from attachment disruptions to the specific symptomatology of these patients. The theory of structural dissociation of the personality (TSDP) provides an essential framework for understanding the processes that may lead from insecure early attachment to the development and maintenance of BPD symptoms. Dyadic parent-child interactions and subsequent modulation of emotion in the child and future adult are considered closely related, but other factors in the development of BPD, such as genetic predisposition and traumatic experiences, should also be considered in conceptualizing and organizing clinical approaches based on a view of BPD as a heterogeneous disorder.

  20. Early social experience is critical for the development of cognitive control and dopamine modulation of prefrontal cortex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarendse, Petra J J; Counotte, Danielle S; O'Donnell, Patricio; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2013-07-01

    Social experiences during youth are thought to be critical for proper social and cognitive development. Conversely, social insults during development can cause long-lasting behavioral impairments and increase the vulnerability for psychopathology later in life. To investigate the importance of social experience during the juvenile and early adolescent stage for the development of cognitive control capacities, rats were socially isolated from postnatal day 21 to 42 followed by re-socialization until they reached adulthood. Subsequently, two behavioral dimensions of impulsivity (impulsive action in the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and impulsive choice in the delayed reward task) and decision making (in the rat gambling task) were assessed. In a separate group of animals, long-lasting cellular and synaptic changes in adult medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) pyramidal neurons were determined following social isolation. Juvenile and early adolescent social isolation resulted in impairments in impulsive action and decision making under novel or challenging circumstances. Moreover, socially isolated rats had a reduced response to enhancement of dopaminergic neurotransmission (using amphetamine or GBR12909) in the 5-CSRTT under challenging conditions. Impulsive choice was not affected by social isolation. These behavioral deficits were accompanied by a loss of sensitivity to dopamine of pyramidal neurons in the medial PFC. Our data show long-lasting deleterious effects of early social isolation on cognitive control and its neural substrates. Alterations in prefrontal cognitive control mechanisms may contribute to the enhanced risk for psychiatric disorders induced by aberrations in the early social environment.

  1. Effect of Fopius arisanus Sonan oviposition experience on parasitization of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an important fruit fly parasitoid, successfully introduced in programs of classical biological control around the world. One aspect of its reproductive biology that has received increasing attention is the role of learning on parasitization by ind...

  2. Positive and negative early life experiences differentially modulate long term survival and amyloid protein levels in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesuis, S.L.; Maurin, H.; Borghgraef, P.; Lucassen, P.J.; Van Leuven, F.; Krugers, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Stress has been implicated as a risk factor for the severity and progression of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Early life experiences determine stress responsivity in later life, and modulate age-dependent cognitive decline. Therefore, we examined whether early life experiences influence AD

  3. Representations of sensory experiences in the early phases of architectural design: there is more than meets the eye

    OpenAIRE

    Elsen, Catherine; Heylighen, Ann

    2014-01-01

    In response to questions about designers’ visual way of knowing and working, this article explores how sensory experience is conveyed during the early phases of architectural design. By processing 985 graphic components issued from a three-month ethnographic observation inside an architecture firm, and proposing an original methodology for their analysis, we identify and analyse graphic expressions of sensory-related design intentions. Multi-sensory dimensions of experiencing an architectural...

  4. Early positive effects of tree species richness on herbivory in a large-scale forest biodiversity experiment influence tree growth

    OpenAIRE

    Schuldt, Andreas; Bruelheide, Helge; Härdtle, Werner; Assmann, Thorsten; Li, Ying; Ma, Keping; von Oheimb, Goddert; Zhang, Jiayong

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of herbivory for the structure and functioning of species-rich forests, little is known about how herbivory is affected by tree species richness, and more specifically by random vs. non-random species loss. We assessed herbivore damage and its effects on tree growth in the early stage of a large-scale forest biodiversity experiment in subtropical China that features random and non-random extinction scenarios of tree mixtures numbering between one and 24 species. In cont...

  5. Larvicide and oviposition deterrent effects of fruit and leaf extracts from Melia azedarach L. on Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria, C; Almiron, W; Valladares, G; Carpinella, C; Ludueña, F; Defago, M; Palacios, S

    2008-05-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main urban vector of dengue, has developed resistance to various insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. We explored the effects of Argentine Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) fruit and senescent leaf extracts on Ae. aegypti larval development and survival, by rearing cohorts of first instar mosquitoes in water with different extract concentrations. We also analysed oviposition deterrent activity in choice tests with extract-treated ovitraps. The leaf extract showed a strong larvicide activity, with all larvae dying before pupation, and significantly delayed development time. It strongly inhibited oviposition by Ae. aegypti females. The fruit extract showed much weaker effects. This first report of highly effective larvicidal, growth regulating and oviposition deterrent activity of a senescent leaf extract of M. azedarach against Ae. aegypti, suggests that such extract could represent a promising tool in the management of this mosquito pest.

  6. Influence of rain and malathion on the oviposition and development of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) infesting rabbit carcasses in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Zafarina, Z; Jayaprakash, P T

    2009-11-20

    The influence of rain and malathion on the initial oviposition as well as development of blowfly species infesting rabbit carcasses decomposing in sunlit and shaded habitats were studied over a period of 1 year in Kelantan, Malaysia. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) was the most dominant species that infested the carcasses, followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). In general, rain, depending on its intensity, delayed initial oviposition by 1-2 days and prolonged the pupation period by 1-3 days. The presence of malathion in the carcasses delayed initial oviposition by 1-3 days and prolonged the pupation period by 2-3 days. These findings deserve consideration while estimating postmortem interval since rain is a commonplace occurrence in Malaysia and malathion is one of the common poisons as an agent for choice to commit suicide.

  7. Is Prey Specificity Constrained by Geography? Semiochemically Mediated Oviposition in Rhizophagus grandis (Coleoptera: Monotomidae) with Its Specific Prey, Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and with Exotic Dendroctonus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

    2017-08-14

    Examples of totally specific predators are rare, and the mechanisms underlying this specificity are often poorly understood. In Eurasia, the Monotomid beetle Rhizophagus grandis is found only in the galleries of its prey, the bark beetle Dendroctonus micans. The specificity of R. grandis relies on kairomones which female predators use to adjust their oviposition to the number of prey larvae available in a gallery. Yet these chemical signals are still largely unknown. The North American D. punctatus and D. valens, which are not sympatric with R. grandis but have a similar ecology as D. micans, could also elicit predator oviposition, which would suggest that specificity in this predator-prey system is constrained by geography. In order to further identify these determinants of specificity, we used artificial oviposition boxes to compare the oviposition level of R. grandis in the presence of larvae of each of the three prey species. We jointly used sequential dynamic headspace extractions and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to investigate oviposition stimuli associated with each prey species and potential oviposition inhibitors emitted by the predator. We further assessed potential stimuli with the analysis of emissions from D. micans larvae reared alone. Overall, we identified and quantified 67 compounds, mostly terpenes. Several robust candidate stimulants or inhibitors of R. grandis' oviposition were identified. The three prey species elicited similar oviposition levels in R. grandis, which suggests that this predator could form new associations outside of its native range.

  8. Keeping the golden mean: plant stiffness and anatomy as proximal factors driving endophytic oviposition site selection in a dragonfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matushkina, Natalia; Lambret, Philippe; Gorb, Stanislav

    2016-12-01

    Oviposition site selection is a crucial component of habitat selection in dragonflies. The presence of appropriate oviposition plants at breeding waters is considered to be one of the key habitat determinants for species laying eggs endophytically. Thus, Lestes macrostigma, a species which is regarded as threatened in Europe because of its highly disjunct distribution, typically prefers to lay eggs in the sea club rush Bolboschoenus maritimus. However, little is known about how the anatomical and mechanical properties of plant tissues determine the choice of L. macrostigma females. We examined green shoots of six plant species used by L. macrostigma for oviposition, either in the field (actual oviposition plants) or under experimental conditions (potential oviposition plants), to analyse anatomical and mechanical properties of shoots in a framework of known preferences regarding plant substrates for oviposition. As expected, the anatomy of shoots differed between representatives of two plant families, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae, most essentially in the distribution of supporting bundles and the presence of large aeriferous cavities that may affect egg placing within a shoot. The force necessary to puncture the tested plant samples ranged from 360 to 3298 mN, and their local stiffness ranged from 777 to 3363N/m. We show that the shoots of B. maritimus, the plant most preferred by L. macrostigma, have intermediate characteristics regarding both the stiffness and specific anatomical characteristics. The bending stiffness of the ovipositor in L. macrostigma was estimated as 1414N/m, one of the highest values recorded for zygopteran dragonflies so far. The ecological and behavioural implications of plant choice mechanisms in L. macrostigma are discussed in the context of the disjunct distribution of this species.

  9. Early experience with percutaneous cryoablation of extra-abdominal desmoid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujak, Jennifer L.; Liu, Patrick T. [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Johnson, Geoffrey B.; Callstrom, Matthew R. [Mayo Clinic Rochester, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Surgical resection, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are all accepted as standard treatments for extra-abdominal desmoid (EAD) tumors, but their effectiveness has been limited by frequent local recurrence. The purpose of this article is to describe our early experiences with using percutaneous cryoablation for local control of extra-abdominal desmoid tumors in five patients whose tumors had failed to respond to standard therapy. In a retrospective search of our institution's radiology database for patients who had undergone percutaneous cryoablation for treatment of EAD tumors between June 2004 and July 2007, we identified five patients (three female and two male). No patients were excluded from this review. Three of these patients had been referred for cryoablation for local tumor control, and two had been referred for palliation of inoperable tumors. The age range of the patients at the time of cryoablation was 9-41 years. The treated EAD tumors were located in the neck, shoulders and trunk and ranged in size from 3.0 cm to 10.0 cm. Medical records were reviewed for short-term and long-term follow-up, and patients were contacted for additional follow-up. Patients were asked to rate their pain as absent, mild, moderate or severe, and to compare it with their levels before cryoablation, describing it as improved, unchanged or worsened. Radiology records were reviewed to follow the size of the EAD tumors before and after cryotherapy. For the three patients referred for local control of EAD tumors, complete tumor coverage with the ablation zones was achieved. Two of these patients, with masses 3.0 cm and 4.9 cm in diameter, reported complete absence of pain at both short-term and long-term follow-up at 13 months and 49 months. Their tumors had completely resolved on long-term imaging follow-up at 19 months and 43 months. The third patient, with a 6.1 cm mass, reported improved mild pain at 6 months, and imaging showed a moderate decrease of tumor size. For the

  10. Repellent effects of pongam oil on settlement and oviposition of the common greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum on chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROMAN PAVELA; GERHARD HERDA

    2007-01-01

    The repellent activities, including host deterrence and anti-oviposion, of pongam oil against the adults of the common greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood in greenhouses were tested. Chrysanthemum plants treated with different concentrations (0.5%-2.0%) of water-suspended pongam oil showed relatively longlasting host deterrent and anti-oviposition effects on the adults of greenhouse whitefly. Although the repellent effect declined in time and concentration, strong effects on the reduction of oviposition were found, which lasts, dependent on concentration at least 12 days after application.

  11. Emergence, Mating and Oviposition Behavior of the Chinese Population in Pink Bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huai-heng; HUANG Min-song; WAN Peng; Kris A G Wyckhuys; WU Kong-ming

    2013-01-01

    The pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae) is one of the most serious lepidopteran pests of cotton in the world. This pest invaded China at the onset of the 20th century, possibly through repeated introductions from several different locations worldwide. In this paper, we describe different behavioral parameters of this Hubei P. gossypiella strain under laboratory and field conditions. Using an infra-red video recorder, we observed (nocturnal) emergence, flight and mating activities, and oviposition patterns. Moth emergence started from 13:00 and continued up till 23:00. Under laboratory and field conditions, 2-7-d-old moths initiated flight around sunset, peaked 50 min later and gradually declined until 04:00. Although mating started immediately after darkness (i.e., 20:00), mating behavior was most intense from 23:00 to 03:40. Oviposition also showed distinct time-related patterns, with approx. 70%eggs laid between 20:00 and 22:00. In the studies of the relationship between flight and oviposition, the duration of flight had an effect on oviposition. The 1-d-old moths flown for 6 and 12 h began oviposition earlier than the unflown ones, and the 6-h flight had no effect on the egg production. However, the longevity of the flown moths was shortened after flight. In addition, the peaks of oviposition for the flown moths were advanced 2-3 d. The age when the moths flied affected the oviposition of adult moths. The earlier the moths started to fly after emergence, the greater the fecundity they had. The average egg production of moths flown for 24 h was less than that of non-flown moths which were of the same age. Both flight and delay in mating could advance the oviposition peak. Our study provides detailed insights in nocturnal activities and the reproductive biology of local P. gossypiella populations, which could be employed to fine-tune current pest management programs in China.

  12. Use of artificial substrates of different colors for oviposition by the brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Diones Krinski; Favetti,Bruna M.; Admar F. Leite-Junior; Silva-Gomes,Izabela T.

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to contribute to a rearing methodology for the brown stink bug, Euschistus heros, in the laboratory, we evaluated oviposition on artificial substrates of different colors. During six days, oviposition was evaluated daily, by counting the total number of eggs, number of clutches, and eggs/clutch. Females laid 12,463 eggs, in 1,677 clutches, resulting in an average of 7.28 ± 0.44 eggs/clutch. Black, brown, and green felt had the most eggs and clutches. The results demonstrated that many ...

  13. Correlation of molecular expression with diel rhythm of oviposition in Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Toop, Tes

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the molecular mechanisms potentially underlying blow fly nocturnal oviposition. A behavioral study revealed that Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) possesses a diel rhythm of oviposition in light under 12:12 light/dark conditions. Reversal to 12:12 dark/light resulted in oviposition behavior changing to align with the adjusted regime in most females, but four of 59 experimental females lacked a diel rhythm of oviposition (were arrhythmic). Real-time PCR was used to monitor the molecular expression levels of known circadian genes per and tim in C. vicina to determine whether gene expression and behavior correlated. As with behavior, reversing light/dark conditions changed rhythmic gene expression to align with an adjusted light regime. This suggests that although it is unlikely that C. vicina will colonize dead bodies at night, arrhythmic females and oviposition in the dark was demonstrated.

  14. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for early esophageal neoplasia: A single center experience in South Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Tai Lee

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: ESD is a promising local curative treatment option for early esophageal neoplasia in Taiwan. However, this procedure may result in complications that are worth noting, especially post-ESD esophageal stricture. Education regarding this procedure and more hands-on training will facilitate endoscopists to improve the outcomes of patients undergoing this procedure.

  15. Nurses' experience of using an application to support new parents after early discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe Danbjørg, Dorthe; Wagner, Lis; Rønde Kristensen, Bjarne;

    2015-01-01

    and information to postnatal mothers who are discharged early and their families. Design. Participatory design. An app with a chat, a knowledgebase, and automated messages was tried out between hospital and parents at home. Settings. The intervention took place on a postnatal ward with approximately 1,000 births...... that connects the homes of the new parents with the hospital....

  16. Aistear vis-à-vis the Primary Curriculum: The Experiences of Early Years Teachers in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Colette; Ryan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Launched in 2009, the Aistear early years curriculum framework sought to complement and extend the primary school curriculum (PSC) at infant class level in the Republic of Ireland. While Aistear focuses on the development of attitudes, values and learning dispositions and is neither statutory nor inspected, the PSC centres on the acquisition of…

  17. Parent-child relationships and dyadic friendship experiences as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n=182; M age=12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were hypothesize

  18. The Role of Formal L2 Learning Experience in L3 Acquisition among Early Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mihi; Starr, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Early bilingualism is thought to facilitate language learning [Klein, E. C. (1995). "Second versus third language acquisition: Is there a difference?" "Language Learning", 45(3), 419-466; Cromdal, J. (1999). "Childhood bilingualism and metalinguistic skills: Analysis and control in young Swedish-English bilinguals."…

  19. The Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) Mission Description and Early Results

    CERN Document Server

    Rottman, G; George, V

    2005-01-01

    This book describes the state-of-the art instruments for measuring the solar irradiance from soft x-ray to the near infrared and the total solar irradiance. Furthermore, the SORCE mission and early results on solar variability are presented along with papers that provide an overview of solar influences on Earth.

  20. Pubertal Timing and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescents: The Roles of Romantic Competence and Romantic Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Catherine B.; Davila, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the large literature supporting the link between early pubertal timing and depression in adolescent girls, there are some exceptions. This suggests that there may be factors that interact with pubertal timing, increasing risk for depression in some girls, but not others. This study examined two such factors, romantic competence and…

  1. Maternal Early Life Experiences and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Cortisol and Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests that early life adversity may affect subsequent parenting. Animal studies investigating mechanisms of transmission have focused on biological factors; whereas research in humans has emphasized cognitive and psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that neuropsychological and physiological factors would act as mediators…

  2. Future of Early Intervention with Infants and Toddlers for Whom Typical Experiences Are Not Effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention for infants and toddlers began with high hopes, but became mired in overspecialization, bureaucracy, and turf guarding. Nevertheless, two important advances in the field have been (a) a recognition that the child's natural caregivers are in the best position to be the intervention agents and, concomitantly, (b) a rethinking…

  3. Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from…

  4. Parent-child relationships and dyadic friendship experiences as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n=182; M age=12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were hypothesize

  5. The Experience of Amnioinfusion for Oligohydramnios During the Early Second Trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Lun Hsu

    2007-12-01

    Conclusion: Amnioinfusion performed the first time might provide some benefits for those with early-onset oligohydramnios, such as to provide confirmation of rupture of membranes, detailed sonography examination and further counseling. We would recommend that this procedure be considered once for these cases.

  6. The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna E.; Loman, Michelle L.; LaFavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old postinstitutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Postinstitutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted…

  7. Parent-child relationships and dyadic friendship experiences as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n=182; M age=12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were

  8. The Role of Formal L2 Learning Experience in L3 Acquisition among Early Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mihi; Starr, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Early bilingualism is thought to facilitate language learning [Klein, E. C. (1995). "Second versus third language acquisition: Is there a difference?" "Language Learning", 45(3), 419-466; Cromdal, J. (1999). "Childhood bilingualism and metalinguistic skills: Analysis and control in young Swedish-English bilinguals."…

  9. Future of Early Intervention with Infants and Toddlers for Whom Typical Experiences Are Not Effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention for infants and toddlers began with high hopes, but became mired in overspecialization, bureaucracy, and turf guarding. Nevertheless, two important advances in the field have been (a) a recognition that the child's natural caregivers are in the best position to be the intervention agents and, concomitantly, (b) a rethinking…

  10. The Republic of the Refugees : Early Modern Migrations and the Dutch Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.H.

    2017-01-01

    This essay surveys the wave of new literature on early modern migration and assesses its impact on the Dutch golden age. From the late sixteenth century, the Netherlands developed into an international hub of religious refugees, displaced minorities, and labour migrants. While migration to the Dutch

  11. The daily of an school of early childhood education: sharing experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Souza Broering

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Assuming the difficulty of talking about the experience and want to say without a model, this report presents the experience lived and shared by professionals, children and families of the "Creche Municipal Nossa Senhora Aparecida" known as nursery school "Pantanal".

  12. Measuring Choice to Participate in Optional Science Learning Experiences during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Li; Schunn, Christian; Bathgate, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Cumulatively, participation in optional science learning experiences in school, after school, at home, and in the community may have a large impact on student interest in and knowledge of science. Therefore, interventions can have large long-term effects if they change student choice preferences for such optional science learning experiences. To…

  13. Postural and Object-Oriented Experiences Advance Early Reaching, Object Exploration, and Means-End Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Michele A.; Galloway, James C.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of 3 weeks of social (control), postural, or object-oriented experiences on 9- to 21-week-old infants' (N = 42) reaching, exploration, and means-end behaviors were assessed. Coders recorded object contacts, mouthing, fingering, attention, and affect from video. Postural and object-oriented experiences advanced reaching, haptic…

  14. Amelogenesis Imperfecta and Early Restorative Crown Therapy: An Interview Study with Adolescents and Young Adults on Their Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickström, Anette; Hasselblad, Tove; Dahllöf, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) can present with rapid tooth loss or fractures of enamel as well as alterations in enamel thickness, color, and shape; factors that may compromise aesthetic appearance and masticatory function. The aim was to explore the experiences and perceptions of adolescents and young adults living with AI and receiving early prosthetic therapy. Seven patients with severe AI aged 16 to 23 years who underwent porcelain crown therapy participated in one-to-one individual interviews. The interviews followed a topic guide consisting of open-ended questions related to experiences of having AI. Transcripts from the interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. The analysis process identified three main themes: Disturbances in daily life, Managing disturbances, and Normalization of daily life. These themes explain the experiences of patients living with enamel disturbances caused by AI and receiving early crown therapy. Experiences include severe pain and sensitivity problems, feelings of embarrassment, and dealing with dental staff that lack knowledge and understanding of their condition. The patients described ways to manage their disturbances and to reduce pain when eating or drinking, and strategies for meeting other people. After definitive treatment with porcelain crown therapy, they described feeling like a normal patient. In conclusion the results showed that adolescents and young adults describe a profound effect of AI on several aspects of their daily life. PMID:27359125

  15. Amelogenesis Imperfecta and Early Restorative Crown Therapy: An Interview Study with Adolescents and Young Adults on Their Experiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla Pousette Lundgren

    Full Text Available Patients with Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI can present with rapid tooth loss or fractures of enamel as well as alterations in enamel thickness, color, and shape; factors that may compromise aesthetic appearance and masticatory function. The aim was to explore the experiences and perceptions of adolescents and young adults living with AI and receiving early prosthetic therapy. Seven patients with severe AI aged 16 to 23 years who underwent porcelain crown therapy participated in one-to-one individual interviews. The interviews followed a topic guide consisting of open-ended questions related to experiences of having AI. Transcripts from the interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. The analysis process identified three main themes: Disturbances in daily life, Managing disturbances, and Normalization of daily life. These themes explain the experiences of patients living with enamel disturbances caused by AI and receiving early crown therapy. Experiences include severe pain and sensitivity problems, feelings of embarrassment, and dealing with dental staff that lack knowledge and understanding of their condition. The patients described ways to manage their disturbances and to reduce pain when eating or drinking, and strategies for meeting other people. After definitive treatment with porcelain crown therapy, they described feeling like a normal patient. In conclusion the results showed that adolescents and young adults describe a profound effect of AI on several aspects of their daily life.

  16. Evolution of cannibalism and female's response to oviposition-deterring pheromone in aphidophagous predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Xavier; Haccou, Patsy; Olivieri, Isabelle; Hemptinne, Jean-Louis

    2009-09-01

    1. Egg cannibalism by larvae is common in Coccinellidae and is known to be advantageous for the cannibals. Furthermore, larvae of aphidophagous ladybirds usually produce an oviposition-deterring pheromone (ODP), which inhibits oviposition by adult females. It has been proposed that the response to ODP has evolved because of the high costs of cannibalism. However, this has never been formally proved. 2. In this paper, we study the theoretical evolution of this system. We first look at the conditions under which cannibalism and the response to ODP can evolve. Subsequently, we examine the occurrence of polymorphism both in the production of larval tracks and in the sensitivity of females to specific pheromones. 3. The models predict that the amount of cannibalism should not depend on prey density and that evolution should lead to a continuous increase in cannibalism, and consequently larvae should always cannibalize eggs when possible. In response to the cost of cannibalism, ODP recognition can evolve, so that females avoid laying eggs in patches of prey already occupied by conspecific larvae. The result is an arms race between larvae and adult females, which favours a diversification of ODP pheromones. Our models show that: (i) females should be able to recognize mixtures of hydrocarbons rather than a single molecule; and (ii) females should be more sensitive to the tracks of their own offspring than those of non-related larvae.

  17. Food odors trigger Drosophila males to deposit a pheromone that guides aggregation and female oviposition decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Chieh; Prokop-Prigge, Katharine A; Preti, George; Potter, Christopher J

    2015-09-30

    Animals use olfactory cues for navigating complex environments. Food odors in particular provide crucial information regarding potential foraging sites. Many behaviors occur at food sites, yet how food odors regulate such behaviors at these sites is unclear. Using Drosophila melanogaster as an animal model, we found that males deposit the pheromone 9-tricosene upon stimulation with the food-odor apple cider vinegar. This pheromone acts as a potent aggregation pheromone and as an oviposition guidance cue for females. We use genetic, molecular, electrophysiological, and behavioral approaches to show that 9-tricosene activates antennal basiconic Or7a receptors, a receptor activated by many alcohols and aldehydes such as the green leaf volatile E2-hexenal. We demonstrate that loss of Or7a positive neurons or the Or7a receptor abolishes aggregation behavior and oviposition site-selection towards 9-tricosene and E2-hexenal. 9-Tricosene thus functions via Or7a to link food-odor perception with aggregation and egg-laying decisions.

  18. Artificial substrates for oviposition and larval development of the pepper weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addesso, K M; McAuslane, H J; Stansly, P A; Slansky, F; Schuster, D J

    2009-02-01

    The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of cultivated peppers (Capsicum spp.) and other cultivated and wild species within the family Solanaceae. Laboratory study of this insect, as well as its biological control agents, will be greatly facilitated by an artificial rearing system that does not rely on pepper fruit. An egg collection method and amendments to a standard larval diet were investigated for use in the rearing of this weevil. Spherical sachets made of Parafilm or netting enclosing leaves of pepper, American black nightshade, eggplant, tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco induced oviposition. Tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco leaves were accepted despite the fact that these are not oviposition hosts for pepper weevils in the wild. A standard larval diet formula was modified in an attempt to improve egg hatch, larval survival, developmental time, and adult mass. The diet formula was modified with the addition of freeze-dried jalapeño pepper powder, an additional lipid source, alternate protein sources, and the removal of methyl paraben. None of the aforementioned treatments resulted in a significant improvement over the standard diet. Egg hatch was greater when eggs were incubated on moist paper towels rather than in diet; thus, placement of neonates rather than eggs into diet improved production of adults. Suggestions for more efficient rearing of weevils on the currently available diet and future directions for the development of an artificial rearing system for pepper weevil are discussed.

  19. Nepetalactones from essential oil of Nepeta cataria represent a stable fly feeding and oviposition repellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J J; Berkebile, D R; Dunlap, C A; Zhang, A; Boxler, D; Tangtrakulwanich, K; Behle, R W; Baxendale, F; Brewer, G

    2012-06-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most serious pests to livestock. It feeds mainly on cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. Standard stable fly control involving insecticides and sanitation is usually costly and often has limited effectiveness. As we continue to evaluate and develop safer fly control strategies, the present study reports on the effectiveness of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) oil and its constituent compounds, nepetalactones, as stable fly repellents. The essential oil of catnip reduced the feeding of stable flies by >96% in an in vitro bioassay system, compared with other sesquiterpene-rich plant oils (e.g. amyris and sandalwood). Catnip oil demonstrated strong repellency against stable flies relative to other chemicals for repelling biting insects, including isolongifolenone, 2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide and (1S,2'S)-2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide. The repellency against stable flies of the most commonly used mosquito repellent, DEET, was relatively low. In field trials, two formulations of catnip oil provided >95% protection and were effective for up to 6 h when tested on cattle. Catnip oil also acted as a strong oviposition repellent and reduced gravid stable fly oviposition by 98%. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Chemical mimicry of insect oviposition sites: a global analysis of convergence in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Andreas; Wee, Suk-Ling; Shuttleworth, Adam; Johnson, Steven D

    2013-09-01

    Floral mimicry of decaying plant or animal material has evolved in many plant lineages and exploits, for the purpose of pollination, insects seeking oviposition sites. Existing studies suggest that volatile signals play a particularly important role in these mimicry systems. Here, we present the first large-scale phylogenetically informed study of patterns of evolution in the volatile emissions of plants that mimic insect oviposition sites. Multivariate analyses showed strong convergent evolution, represented by distinct clusters in chemical phenotype space of plants that mimic animal carrion, decaying plant material, herbivore dung and omnivore/carnivore faeces respectively. These plants deploy universal infochemicals that serve as indicators for the main nutrients utilised by saprophagous, coprophagous and necrophagous insects. The emission of oligosulphide-dominated volatile blends very similar to those emitted by carrion has evolved independently in at least five plant families (Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Araceae, Orchidaceae and Rafflesiaceae) and characterises plants associated mainly with pollination by necrophagous flies and beetles. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  1. Evaluation of oviposition substrates and organic infusions on collection of Culex in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Sandra A; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kline, Daniel L

    2005-09-01

    Gravid mosquito traps are commonly used for both arbovirus surveillance and population surveillance of mosquitoes of the genus Culex. Oviposition substrates, used as baits in these traps, were tested against Culex under laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory all substrates tested as 1% and 10% dilutions in 2-choice bioassays against female Cx. quinquefasciatus were significantly more effective than well water controls in eliciting oviposition. Strongest responses were to dilutions of dairy effluent, followed by larval water and infusions of alfalfa hay, alfalfa pellets, Bermuda hay, oak leaves, and Typha leaves, with lowest responses to cow manure infusion. In the field, few significant differences in collections were obtained between traps baited with different infusions. Significantly more Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus were collected in traps baited with cow manure infusion (highest) compared to alfalfa hay infusion (lowest). Responses of Cx. quinquefasciatus to dairy effluent and infusions of Bermuda hay, oak leaves, and Typha leaves were not significantly different from either cow manure infusion or alfalfa hay infusion. Responses of Cx. nigripalpus were highest to cow manure infusion and equally low to infusions of alfalfa hay and Typha leaves; moderate responses were observed to dairy effluent and infusions of Bermuda hay and oak leaves. Gravid females comprised 66.7-81.9% of the collections for each infusion type, with no significant difference among infusions in the proportion of gravid females collected.

  2. Effects of Croton rhamnifolioides essential oil on Aedes aegypti oviposition, larval toxicity and trypsin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Geanne K N; Dutra, Kamilla A; Lira, Camila S; Lima, Bheatriz N; Napoleão, Thiago H; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Maranhão, Claudia A; Brandão, Sofia S F; Navarro, Daniela M A F

    2014-10-14

    Although numerous reports are available concerning the larvicidal potential of essential oils, very few investigations have focused on their mechanisms of action. In the present study, we have investigated the chemical composition of the leaf oil of Croton rhamnifolioides during storage and its effects on oviposition and survival of larvae of the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. In addition, we have established a possible mechanism of action for the larvicidal activity of the essential oil. GC-MS analyses revealed marked differences in the composition of oil that had been freshly isolated and that of a sample that had been stored in a sealed amber-glass vial under refrigeration for three years. However, both fresh and stored oil exhibited substantial larvicidal activities with LC50 values of 122.35 and 89.03 ppm, respectively, and oviposition deterrent effects against gravid females at concentrations of 50 and 100 µg·mL-1. These results demonstrate that the larvicidal effect of the essential oil was unchanged during three years of storage even though its chemical composition altered. Hence, the essential oil could be used in the preparation of commercial products. In addition, we observed that the trypsin-like activity of mosquito larvae was inhibited in vitro by the essential oil of C. rhamnifolioides, suggesting that the larvicidal effect may be associated with inhibition of this enzyme.

  3. Oviposition behaviour and parity rates of Aedes aegypti collected in sticky traps in Trinidad, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadee, Dave D; Ritchie, Scott A

    2010-12-01

    The oviposition behaviour of Aedes aegypti was studied using sticky traps (ST), double sticky traps (DST) and standard ovitrap traps in urban St. Augustine and rural Tamana, Trinidad, West Indies. In St. Augustine three traps were deployed in 10 houses for 10 weeks while in Tamana traps were similarly deployed (10 houses for 10 weeks). At each house one ovitrap, one ST and one DST were placed using the criteria established for ovitrap placement. The results showed large numbers of adults collected, 3602 collected in DSTs and 1,670 adults collected in STs. In addition, >9000 immatures were collected in the DST vs >7000 in the STs. Over the 10 weeks 517 Ae. aegypti eggs were collected from ovitraps from Tamana and 3252 eggs from St. Augustine. Most of the females collected were parous (99%) with many older females collected e.g. 7 pars collected in both Tamana and St. Augustine. A major finding of the study was the observation of the "death stress oviposition" behaviour displayed among Ae. aegypti females captures in the sticky traps. This is the first report of this behaviour in the field and may well explain the collection of large numbers of immatures found in the ST and DSTs. The results of this study are discussed in the context of developing surveillance and control strategies, especially for reducing man-vector contact. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Safety of Early Carotid Artery Stenting after Systemic Thrombolysis: A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Sallustio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients with acute ischemic stroke due to internal carotid artery (ICA disease are at high risk of early stroke recurrence. A combination of IV thrombolysis and early carotid artery stenting (CAS may result in more effective secondary stroke prevention. Objective. We tested safety and durability of early CAS following IV thrombolysis in stroke patients with residual stenosis in the symptomatic ICA. Methods. Of consecutive patients treated with IV rtPA, those with residual ICA stenosis ≥70% or 24 hours. The protocol included pre-rtPA MRI and MR angiography, and post-rtPA carotid ultrasound and CT angiography. Stroke severity was assessed by the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS. Three- and twelve-month stent patency was assessed by ultrasound. Twelve-month functional outcome was assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS. Results. Of 145 consecutive IV rtPA-treated patients, 6 (4% underwent early CAS. Median age was 76 (range 67–78 years, median NIHSS at stroke onset was 12 (range 9–16 and 7 (range 7-8 before CAS. Median onset-to-CAS time was 48 (range 30–94 hours. A single self-expandable stent was implanted to cover the entire lesion in all patients. The procedure was uneventful in all patients. After 12 months, all patients had stent patency, and the functional outcome was favourable (mRS ≤ 2 in all but 1 patient experiencing a recurrent stroke for new-onset atrial fibrillation. Conclusion. This small case series of a single centre suggests that early CAS may be considered a safe alternative to CEA after IV rtPA administration in selected patients at high risk of stroke recurrence.

  5. Early rearing experience is related to altered aggression and vasopressin production following chronic social isolation in the prairie vole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkeybile, Allison M; Bales, Karen L

    2015-04-15

    Parent-offspring interactions early in life can permanently shape the developmental path of those offspring. Manipulation of maternal care has long been used to alter the early-life environment of infants and impacts their later social behavior, aggression, and physiology. More recently, naturally occurring variation in maternal licking and grooming behavior has been shown to result in differences in social behavior and stress physiology in adult offspring. We have developed a model of natural variation in biparental care in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) and have demonstrated an association between the amount of early care received and later social behavior. In this study, we investigate the relationship between early life care and later aggression and neuroendocrine responses following chronic social isolation. Male and female offspring were reared by their high-contact (HC) or low-contact (LC) parents, then housed for 4 weeks post-weaning in social isolation. After 4 weeks, half of these offspring underwent an intrasexual aggression test. Brains and plasma were collected to measure corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactivity and plasma corticosterone (CORT). Male offspring of LC parents engaged in more aggressive behavior in the intrasexual aggression test compared to HC males. Female offspring of HC parents had higher plasma CORT levels after chronic social isolation and increases in the number and density of AVP-immunopositive cells in the supraoptic nucleus following an intrasexual aggression test. These findings show that the impact of early life biparental care on behavior and HPA activity following a social stressor is both sex-dependent and early experience-specific.

  6. A Differential Role of Volatiles from Conspecific and Heterospecific Competitors in the Selection of Oviposition Sites by the Aphidophagous Hoverfly Sphaerophoria rueppellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós-Jiménez, Rocco; Robert, Christelle A M; Marcos-García, M Ángeles; Fereres, Alberto; Turlings, Ted C J

    2015-05-01

    The selection of oviposition sites by syrphids and other aphidophagous insects is influenced by the presence of con- and heterospecific competitors. Chemical cues play a role in this selection process, some of them being volatile semiochemicals. Yet, little is known about the identity and specificity of chemical signals that are involved in the searching behavior of these predators. In this study, we used olfactometer bioassays to explore the olfactory responses of gravid females and larvae of the syrphid Sphaerophoria rueppellii, focussing on volatiles from conspecific immature stages, as well as odors from immature stages of the competing coccinellid Adalia bipunctata. In addition, a multiple-choice oviposition experiment was conducted to study if females respond differently when they can also sense their competitors through visual or tactile cues. Results showed that volatiles from plants and aphids did not affect the behavior of second-instars, whereas adult females strongly preferred odors from aphid colonies without competitors. Odors from conspecific immature stages had a repellent effect on S. rueppellii adult females, whereas their choices were not affected by volatiles coming from immature heterospecific A. bipunctata. The results imply that the syrphid uses odors to avoid sites that are already occupied by conspecifics. They did not avoid the odor of the heterospecific competitor, although in close vicinity they were found to avoid laying eggs on leaves that had traces of the coccinellid. Apparently adult syrphids do not rely greatly on volatile semiochemicals to detect the coccinellid, but rather use other stimuli at close range (e. g., visual or non-volatile compounds) to avoid this competitor.

  7. Comparative evaluation of the efficiency of the BG-Sentinel trap, CDC light trap and Mosquito-oviposition trap for the surveillance of vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiji; Su, Xinghua; Zhou, Guofa; Zhang, Hong; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Shuai, Shufen; Cai, Songwu; Gu, Jinbao; Zhou, Xiaohong; Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2016-08-12

    The surveillance of vector mosquitoes is important for the control of mosquito-borne diseases. To identify a suitable surveillance tool for the adult dengue vector Aedes albopictus, the efficacy of the BG-Sentinel trap, CDC light trap and Mosquito-oviposition trap (MOT) on the capture of vector mosquitoes were comparatively evaluated in this study. The capture efficiencies of the BG-Sentinel trap, CDC light trap and Mosquito-oviposition trap for common vector mosquitoes were tested in a laboratory setting, through the release-recapture method, and at two field sites of Guangzhou, China from June 2013 to May 2014. The captured mosquitoes were counted, species identified and compared among the three traps on the basis of species. In the release-recapture experiments in a laboratory setting, the BG-Sentinel trap caught significantly more Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus than the CDC light trap and Mosquito-ovitrap, except for Anopheles sinensis. The BG-Sentinel trap had a higher efficacy in capturing female rather than male Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus, but the capture in CDC light traps displayed no significant differences. In the field trial, BG-Sentinel traps collected more Aedes albopictus than CDC light traps and MOTs collected in both urban and suburban areas. The BG-Sentinel trap was more sensitive for monitoring the population density of Aedes albopictus than the CDC light trap and MOT during the peak months of the year 2013. However, on an average, CDC light traps captured significantly more Cx. quinquefasciatus than BG-Sentinel traps. The population dynamics of Cx. quinquefasciatus displayed a significant seasonal variation, with the lowest numbers in the middle of the year. This study indicates that the BG-Sentinel trap is more effective than the commonly used CDC light trap and MOT in sampling adult Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. We recommend its use in the surveillance of dengue vector mosquitoes in China.

  8. Consequences of early adverse rearing experience(EARE) on development: insights from non-human primate studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-18

    Early rearing experiences are important in one's whole life, whereas early adverse rearing experience(EARE) is usually related to various physical and mental disorders in later life. Although there were many studies on human and animals, regarding the effect of EARE on brain development, neuroendocrine systems, as well as the consequential mental disorders and behavioral abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Due to the close genetic relationship and similarity in social organizations with humans, non-human primate(NHP) studies were performed for over 60 years. Various EARE models were developed to disrupt the early normal interactions between infants and mothers or peers. Those studies provided important insights of EARE induced effects on the physiological and behavioral systems of NHPs across life span, such as social behaviors(including disturbance behavior, social deficiency, sexual behavior, etc), learning and memory ability, brain structural and functional developments(including influences on neurons and glia cells, neuroendocrine systems, e.g., hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal(HPA) axis, etc). In this review, the effects of EARE and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms were comprehensively summarized and the possibility of rehabilitation was discussed.

  9. The iDuo Bi-compartmental Knee Replacement: Our Early Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jemmett

    2016-12-01

    Our early results suggest that the iDuo knee is a good option for those with isolated bi-compartmental disease and outcome scores are comparable with those reported for the BKA. This bi-compartmental design may bridge the gap between the uni-compartmental and total knee replacement. The choice between monolithic or modular designs remains in debate. We will continue to use this prosthesis for a carefully selected group of patients.

  10. Girls’ challenging social experiences in early adolescence predict neural response to rewards and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melynda D. Casement

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental models of psychopathology posit that exposure to social stressors may confer risk for depression in adolescent girls by disrupting neural reward circuitry. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between early adolescent social stressors and later neural reward processing and depressive symptoms. Participants were 120 girls from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. Low parental warmth, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms were assessed when the girls were 11 and 12 years old, and participants completed a monetary reward guessing fMRI task and assessment of depressive symptoms at age 16. Results indicate that low parental warmth was associated with increased response to potential rewards in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, striatum, and amygdala, whereas peer victimization was associated with decreased response to potential rewards in the mPFC. Furthermore, concurrent depressive symptoms were associated with increased reward anticipation response in mPFC and striatal regions that were also associated with early adolescent psychosocial stressors, with mPFC and striatal response mediating the association between social stressors and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with developmental models that emphasize the adverse impact of early psychosocial stressors on neural reward processing and risk for depression in adolescence.

  11. Experience of Primary Care Services Among Early Adolescents in England and Association With Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaee, Arrash A; Hargreaves, Dougal S; Chester, Kayleigh; Lamb, Stephanie; Hagell, Ann; Brooks, Fiona M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate adolescents' (11-15 years) experience of their general practitioner (GP), whether poor reported GP experience was associated with worse physical and mental health measures and whether poor previous GP experience was linked to lower utilization of these services. We used logistic regression to analyze data from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Four aspects of recent care experience were studied: feeling at ease, feeling treated with respect, satisfaction with doctor's explanation, and feeling able to discuss personal matters. Five dichotomized measures of health status were used: ever self-harmed; fair or poor self-reported health; frequent (at least weekly) low mood; sleeping problems; or headaches. Of 5,335 students, 4,149 reported having visiting their GP within the past year. Of these, 91.8% felt treated with respect, 78.7% felt at ease, 85.7% were satisfied with explanation, and 53.9% felt able to discuss personal matters. After adjusting for ethnicity, age, gender, and family affluence score, poor experience on any indicator was strongly associated with increased risk of self-harm (adjusted odds ratio range, 2.01-2.70; all p experience on all indicators, except discussing personal matters, was associated with worse self-reported health. Nearly half of this large, national study of adolescents did not feel able to discuss personal matters with their doctor. There was a consistent, strong association between reported lack of good GP experience and poor health measures. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A generation apart? Gender-related experiences and health in women in early and late mid-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kate

    2002-03-01

    There have been a number of critiques in the last few years of the prevailing paradigm of research on gender and health, which dominated in the latter part of the 20th century. One such criticism has centred on the a historic and decontextualised way in which much evidence for gender differences has been used. In this paper we aim to show that, even within a relatively confined geographical locale over a relatively short period of time, there have been substantial changes in gender relations which are likely to have affected the experience, opportunities, and attitudes of women born in the early 1930s and early 1950s. We illustrate this using data from a study of inequalities in health in Scotland, which includes unusually rich longitudinal data on gender, including occupancy and experience of gender-related roles, attitudinal data on gender equality, and measures of gender role orientation (GRO). These are related to various dimensions of health and health behaviour. The data show substantial differences in the experiences of two generations of women, who are just 20 years apart in age, and a lack of consistency between measures of GRO and health. Whilst on the one hand these data suggest the importance of taking more account of the broader (social, historical or political) context, the analysis also highlights the methodological problems posed.

  13. Examining negative effects of early life experiences on reproductive and sexual health among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Karishma K; Silverman, Jay G; Bojorquez, Ietza; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2015-02-01

    To explore experiences during childhood and adolescence that influenced reproductive and sexual health among women who had entered the sex industry in adolescence. A qualitative study was conducted using information provided by 25 female sex workers (FSWs) from Tijuana, Mexico, who reported entering the sex industry when younger than 18 years. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants between January 31, 2011, and July 8, 2011. Four interrelated themes that shaped health experiences-early sexual abuse, early illicit drug use, ongoing violence, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health care-were identified. Participants reporting these experiences were at risk of unintended teenaged pregnancy, spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and untreated sexually transmitted infections. Programs and policies that address social, structural, and individual vulnerabilities during adolescence and adulthood are required to promote reproductive and sexual health among FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaridou, Salomi S.; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval) or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel). We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly. PMID:26659377

  15. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomi S Asaridou

    Full Text Available We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch. We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel. We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly.

  16. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaridou, Salomi S; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval) or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel). We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly.

  17. The effects of water depth and light on oviposition and egg cannibalism in the bluefin killifish Lucania goodei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandkam, B A; Fuller, R C

    2011-03-01

    This study showed that sex and depth had strong effects on egg cannibalism, whereas water clarity (clear v. tea-stained) had no effect on cannibalism or oviposition in the bluefin killifish Lucania goodei. These results are consistent with the extreme levels of iteroparity in L. goodei where females appear to spread their eggs across multiple locations and depths presumably to avoid egg predation.

  18. Effect of learning on the oviposition preference of field-collected and laboratory-reared Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, J.J.; Berg, van den J.; Potting, R.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies show that Vetiver grass, (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash), may have potential as a dead-end trap crop in an overall habitat management strategy for the spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Vetiver grass is highly preferred for oviposition, in spite

  19. Oviposition and larval development of a stem borer, Eoreuma loftini, on rice and non-crop grass hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A greenhouse study compared oviposition preference and larval development duration of a stem borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on rice, Oryza sativa L. (cv. Cocodrie), and four primary non-crop hosts of Gulf Coast Texas rice agroecosystems. Rice and two perennials, johnsongrass...

  20. Landing and Oviposition Responses of Rhagoletis indifferens (Dipt., Tephritidae) on Sweet Cherry Treated with Kaolin- and Limestone-Based Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaolin- and limestone-based products were compared for their effects on landing and oviposition on sweet cherry by Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Dipt., Tephritidae). Surround (95% calcined kaolin), Cocoon (100% hydrous kaolin), Eclipse (>97% limestone), and Purshade (62.5% limestone) were studied....