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Sample records for early outbreak detection

  1. Early Detection of Disease Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability to detect disease outbreaks early is important in order to minimize morbidity and mortality through timely implementation of disease prevention and control measures. Many national, state, and local health departments are launching disease surveillance systems with daily analyses of hospital emergency department visits, ambulance dispatch calls, or pharmacy sales for which population-at-risk information is unavailable or irrelevant. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We propose a pr...

  2. Innovation in observation: a vision for early outbreak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fefferman, Nh; Naumova, En

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of new infections and resurgence of old onesFhealth threats stemming from environmental contamination or purposeful acts of bioterrorismFcall for a worldwide effort in improving early outbreak detection, with the goal of ameliorating current and future risks. In some cases, the problem of outbreak detection is logistically straightforward and mathematically easy: a single case of a disease of great concern can constitute an outbreak. However, for the vast majority of maladies, a simple analytical solution does not exist. Furthermore, each step in developing reliable, sensitive, effective surveillance systems demonstrates enormous complexities in the transmission, manifestation, detection, and control of emerging health threats. In this communication, we explore potential future innovations in early outbreak detection systems that can overcome the pitfalls of current surveillance. We believe that modern advances in assembling data, techniques for collating and processing information, and technology that enables integrated analysis will facilitate a new paradigm in outbreak definition and detection. We anticipate that moving forward in this direction will provide the highly desired sensitivity and specificity in early detection required to meet the emerging challenges of global disease surveillance.

  3. INFERNO: a system for early outbreak detection and signature forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, Elena N; O'Neil, E; MacNeill, I

    2005-08-26

    Public health surveillance systems that monitor daily disease incidence provide valuable information about threats to public health and enable public health authorities to detect enteric outbreaks rapidly. This report describes the INtegrated Forecasts and EaRly eNteric Outbreak (INFERNO) detection system of algorithms for outbreak detection and forecasting. INFERNO incorporates existing knowledge of infectious disease epidemiology into adaptive forecasts and uses the concept of an outbreak signature as a composite of disease epidemic curves. Four main components comprise the system: 1) training, 2) warning and flagging, 3) signature forecasting, and 4) evaluation. The unifying goal of the system is to gain insight into the nature of temporal variations in the incidence of infection. Daily collected records are smoothed initially by using a loess-type smoother. Upon receipt of new data, the smoothing is updated; estimates are made of the first two derivatives of the smoothed curve, which are used for near-term forecasting. Recent data and near-term forecasts are used to compute a five level, color-coded warning index to quantify the level of concern. Warning algorithms are designed to balance false detection of an epidemic (Type I errors) with failure to correctly detect an epidemic (Type II errors). If the warning index signals a sufficiently high probability of an epidemic, the fitting of a gamma-based signature curve to the actual data produces a forecast of the possible size of the outbreak. Although the system is under development, its potential has been demonstrated through successful use of emergency department records associated with a substantial waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis that occurred in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1993. Prospects for further development, including adjustment for seasonality and reporting delays, are also outlined.

  4. Social Network Sensors for Early Detection of Contagious Outbreaks

    CERN Document Server

    Christakis, Nicholas A

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for the detection of contagious outbreaks give contemporaneous information about the course of an epidemic at best. Individuals at the center of a social network are likely to be infected sooner, on average, than those at the periphery. However, mapping a whole network to identify central individuals whom to monitor is typically very difficult. We propose an alternative strategy that does not require ascertainment of global network structure, namely, monitoring the friends of randomly selected individuals. Such individuals are known to be more central. To evaluate whether such a friend group could indeed provide early detection, we studied a flu outbreak at Harvard College in late 2009. We followed 744 students divided between a random group and a friend group. Based on clinical diagnoses, the progression of the epidemic in the friend group occurred 14.7 days (95% C.I. 11.7-17.6) in advance of the randomly chosen group (i.e., the population as a whole). The friend group also showed a significa...

  5. The difficulties of early detection for infectious disease outbreak in China:A qualitative investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weirong Yan; Yikai Zhou; Shen Wei; Huijuan Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To make intensified analysis upon the existing difficulties in early detection for the infectious diseases outbreak in China and put forward some effective measures to improve it. Methods: Field investigation and in-depth interview were applied in 23 interviewees from different-level CDC. Results:The study findings suggest that although the timeliness of outbreak detection has been improved since SARS epidemic in China, some problems still exist, such as: ① lacking syndrome surveillance; ② report quality of infectious disease should be improved; ③ difficulties of identifying the cases at lower social economic status; ④ a definite financial compensation mechanism for the operation of web-based report system is absent; ⑤ insufficient information exchange among different branches. Conclusion:Some effective measures must be taken including developing syndrome surveillance system; affording more education and training for related staff; increasing payout on surveillance and establishing an information exchange platform for early detection of disease outbreak.

  6. Evaluation of school absenteeism data for early outbreak detection, New York City

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    Mostashari Farzad

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School absenteeism data may have utility as an early indicator of disease outbreaks, however their value should be critically examined. This paper describes an evaluation of the utility of school absenteeism data for early outbreak detection in New York City (NYC. Methods To assess citywide temporal trends in absenteeism, we downloaded three years (2001–02, 2002–03, 2003–04 of daily school attendance data from the NYC Department of Education (DOE website. We applied the CuSum method to identify aberrations in the adjusted daily percent absent. A spatial scan statistic was used to assess geographic clustering in absenteeism for the 2001–02 academic year. Results Moderate increases in absenteeism were observed among children during peak influenza season. Spatial analysis detected 790 significant clusters of absenteeism among elementary school children (p Conclusion Monitoring school absenteeism may be moderately useful for detecting large citywide epidemics, however, school-level data were noisy and we were unable to demonstrate any practical value in using cluster analysis to detect localized outbreaks. Based on these results, we will not implement prospective monitoring of school absenteeism data, but are evaluating the utility of more specific school-based data for outbreak detection.

  7. A large Legionnaires' disease outbreak in Pamplona, Spain: early detection, rapid control and no case fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, J; Barricarte, A; Aldaz, J; García Cenoz, M; Ferrer, T; Pelaz, C; Pineda, S; Baladrón, B; Martín, I; Goñi, B; Aratajo, P; Chamorro, J; Lameiro, F; Torroba, L; Dorronsoro, I; Martínez-Artola, V; Esparza, M J; Gastaminza, M A; Fraile, P; Aldaz, P

    2008-06-01

    An outbreak of Legionnaire's disease was detected in Pamplona, Spain, on 1 June 2006. Patients with pneumonia were tested to detect Legionella pneumophila antigen in urine (Binax Now; Binax Inc., Scarborough, ME, USA), and all 146 confirmed cases were interviewed. The outbreak was related to district 2 (22 012 inhabitants), where 45% of the cases lived and 50% had visited; 5% lived in neighbouring districts. The highest incidence was found in the resident population of district 2 (3/1000 inhabitants), section 2 (14/1000). All 31 cooling towers of district 2 were analysed. L. pneumophila antigen (Binax Now) was detected in four towers, which were closed on 2 June. Only the strain isolated in a tower situated in section 2 of district 2 matched all five clinical isolates, as assessed by mAb and two genotyping methods, AFLP and PFGE. Eight days after closing the towers, new cases ceased appearing. Early detection and rapid coordinated medical and environmental actions permitted immediate control of the outbreak and probably contributed to the null case fatality.

  8. Detection of pathogenic viruses in sewage provided early warnings of hepatitis A virus and norovirus outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas; Norder, Heléne

    2014-11-01

    Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Early detection of influenza outbreaks using the DC Department of Health's syndromic surveillance system

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    Washington Samuel C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2001, the District of Columbia Department of Health has been using an emergency room syndromic surveillance system to identify possible disease outbreaks. Data are received from a number of local hospital emergency rooms and analyzed daily using a variety of statistical detection algorithms. The aims of this paper are to characterize the performance of these statistical detection algorithms in rigorous yet practical terms in order to identify the optimal parameters for each and to compare the ability of two syndrome definition criteria and data from a children's hospital versus vs. other hospitals to determine the onset of seasonal influenza. Methods We first used a fine-tuning approach to improve the sensitivity of each algorithm to detecting simulated outbreaks and to identifying previously known outbreaks. Subsequently, using the fine-tuned algorithms, we examined (i the ability of unspecified infection and respiratory syndrome categories to detect the start of the flu season and (ii how well data from Children's National Medical Center (CNMC did versus all the other hospitals when using unspecified infection, respiratory, and both categories together. Results Simulation studies using the data showed that over a range of situations, the multivariate CUSUM algorithm performed more effectively than the other algorithms tested. In addition, the parameters that yielded optimal performance varied for each algorithm, especially with the number of cases in the data stream. In terms of detecting the onset of seasonal influenza, only "unspecified infection," especially the counts from CNMC, clearly delineated influenza outbreaks out of the eight available syndromic classifications. In three of five years, CNMC consistently flags earlier (from 2 days up to 2 weeks earlier than a multivariate analysis of all other DC hospitals. Conclusions When practitioners apply statistical detection algorithms to their own data, fine tuning

  10. Chikungunya outbreak in Al-Hudaydah, Yemen, 2011: epidemiological characterization and key lessons learned for early detection and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Mamunur Rahman; Mnzava, Abraham; Mohareb, Emad; Zayed, Alia; Al Kohlani, Abdulhakeem; Thabet, Ahmed A K; El Bushra, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the occurrence of chikungunya fever in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). In January 2011, the Ministry of Public Health and Population (MoPH&P) of Yemen reported to WHO an increasing number of "dengue-like" acute febrile illnesses of unknown origin from one of its coastal governorates. An epidemiological investigation was conducted in Al-Hudaydah governorate between 23 and 26 January 2011 by a joint team of WHO, the MoPH&P of Yemen and the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit (NAMRU-3) in Cairo, Egypt. The investigation led to the detection of an outbreak of chikungunya in Yemen which was the first time ever from any of the 22 countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of WHO. Appropriate public health control measures were strengthened following the investigation, and the outbreak was contained. This paper provides a short description of the outbreak and its epidemiological characteristics and highlights the important lessons that were learned for early detection and control of chikungunya in countries where competent vectors for transmission of the virus exist. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk based surveillance for early detection of low pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in layer chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales, J.L.; Boender, G.J.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Stegeman, J.A.; Koeijer, de A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge does not allow the prediction of when low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) of the H5 and H7 subtypes infecting poultry will mutate to their highly pathogenic phenotype (HPAIV). This mutation may already take place in the first infected flock; hence early detection of LPAIV

  12. Automated DNA sequence-based early warning system for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreaks.

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    Alexander Mellmann

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA usually requires the implementation of often rigorous infection-control measures. Prompt identification of an MRSA epidemic is crucial for the control of an outbreak. In this study we evaluated various early warning algorithms for the detection of an MRSA cluster. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between 1998 and 2003, 557 non-replicate MRSA strains were collected from staff and patients admitted to a German tertiary-care university hospital. The repeat region of the S. aureus protein A (spa gene in each of these strains was sequenced. Using epidemiological and typing information for the period 1998-2002 as reference data, clusters in 2003 were determined by temporal-scan test statistics. Various early warning algorithms (frequency, clonal, and infection control professionals [ICP] alerts were tested in a prospective analysis for the year 2003. In addition, a newly implemented automated clonal alert system of the Ridom StaphType software was evaluated. A total of 549 of 557 MRSA were typeable using spa sequencing. When analyzed using scan test statistics, 42 out of 175 MRSA in 2003 formed 13 significant clusters (p < 0.05. These clusters were used as the "gold standard" to evaluate the various algorithms. Clonal alerts (spa typing and epidemiological data were 100% sensitive and 95.2% specific. Frequency (epidemiological data only and ICP alerts were 100% and 62.1% sensitive and 47.2% and 97.3% specific, respectively. The difference in specificity between clonal and ICP alerts was not significant. Both methods exhibited a positive predictive value above 80%. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid MRSA outbreak detection, based on epidemiological and spa typing data, is a suitable alternative for classical approaches and can assist in the identification of potential sources of infection.

  13. A socio-psychological investigation into limitations and incentives concerning reporting a clinically suspect situation aimed at improving early detection of classical swine fever outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn, M.J.; Velden, P.G.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Zarafshani, K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify limitations and incentives in reporting clinically suspect situations, possibly caused by classical swine fever (CSF), to veterinary authorities with the ultimate aim to facilitate early detection of CSF outbreaks. Focus group sessions were held with policy make

  14. Faster Detection of Poliomyelitis Outbreaks to Support Polio Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Isobel M; Chenoweth, Paul; Okayasu, Hiro; Donnelly, Christl A; Aylward, R Bruce; Grassly, Nicholas C

    2016-03-01

    As the global eradication of poliomyelitis approaches the final stages, prompt detection of new outbreaks is critical to enable a fast and effective outbreak response. Surveillance relies on reporting of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and laboratory confirmation through isolation of poliovirus from stool. However, delayed sample collection and testing can delay outbreak detection. We investigated whether weekly testing for clusters of AFP by location and time, using the Kulldorff scan statistic, could provide an early warning for outbreaks in 20 countries. A mixed-effects regression model was used to predict background rates of nonpolio AFP at the district level. In Tajikistan and Congo, testing for AFP clusters would have resulted in an outbreak warning 39 and 11 days, respectively, before official confirmation of large outbreaks. This method has relatively high specificity and could be integrated into the current polio information system to support rapid outbreak response activities.

  15. Enhanced surveillance of shellfish mortality to improve early detection and investigation of outbreaks of exotic or emerging infectious diseases: An example of a mass mortality outbreak of mussels, France 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, C; Prou, J

    2016-09-15

    This paper explores the relevance and feasibility of enhanced surveillance of mussel-related mortality based on regular telephone interviews of a key informant in a farming community. Based on qualitative analyses of data collected through semi-structured interviews, this method of participatory disease surveillance enabled the retrieval of high quality data during an outbreak of mussel mortality which occurred in Pertuis Charentais, France, in 2014. The findings illustrated that such an enhanced surveillance approach compared with the institutional shellfish health surveillance system could improve the early detection of outbreaks of mussel mortality by one week. This approach enabled a detailed description of the outbreak, showing higher incidence proportion in the Northern water bodies. It also captured relevant data for hypothesis generation for further outbreak investigations, integrating a global view of the health and disturbance of the coastal marine ecosystem. However, to be effective and sustainable, this flexible approach requires a pre-existing knowledge of the structure of the information network of the farmers' community. Such a community-based enhanced surveillance could increase the reactivity of the entire system to enable the earliest possible and most appropriate interventions to protect shellfish populations against exotic or emerging infectious diseases. This would also help to improve the vigilance of mussel farmers and foster their commitment, which is an essential element for sustainable shellfish health surveillance.

  16. Impact of virus strain characteristics on early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza infection in commercial table-egg layer flocks and implications for outbreak control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J Todd; Malladi, Sasidhar; Goldsmith, Timothy J; Hueston, Will; Hennessey, Morgan; Lee, Brendan; Voss, Shauna; Funk, Janel; Der, Christina; Bjork, Kathe E; Clouse, Timothy L; Halvorson, David A

    2012-12-01

    Early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) infection in commercial poultry flocks is a critical component of outbreak control. Reducing the time to detect HPAI infection can reduce the risk of disease transmission to other flocks. The timeliness of different types of detection triggers could be dependent on clinical signs that are first observed in a flock, signs that might vary due to HPAI virus strain characteristics. We developed a stochastic disease transmission model to evaluate how transmission characteristics of various HPAI strains might effect the relative importance of increased mortality, drop in egg production, or daily real-time reverse transcriptase (RRT)-PCR testing, toward detecting HPAI infection in a commercial table-egg layer flock. On average, daily RRT-PCR testing resulted in the shortest time to detection (from 3.5 to 6.1 days) depending on the HPAI virus strain and was less variable over a range of transmission parameters compared with other triggers evaluated. Our results indicate that a trigger to detect a drop in egg production would be useful for HPAI virus strains with long infectious periods (6-8 days) and including an egg-drop detection trigger in emergency response plans would lead to earlier and consistent reporting in some cases. We discuss implications for outbreak control and risk of HPAI spread attributed to different HPAI strain characteristics where an increase in mortality or a drop in egg production or both would be among the first clinical signs observed in an infected flock.

  17. Factors influencing performance of internet-based biosurveillance systems used in epidemic intelligence for early detection of infectious diseases outbreaks.

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    Philippe Barboza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Internet-based biosurveillance systems have been developed to detect health threats using information available on the Internet, but system performance has not been assessed relative to end-user needs and perspectives. METHOD AND FINDINGS: Infectious disease events from the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (InVS weekly international epidemiological bulletin published in 2010 were used to construct the gold-standard official dataset. Data from six biosurveillance systems were used to detect raw signals (infectious disease events from informal Internet sources: Argus, BioCaster, GPHIN, HealthMap, MedISys and ProMED-mail. Crude detection rates (C-DR, crude sensitivity rates (C-Se and intrinsic sensitivity rates (I-Se were calculated from multivariable regressions to evaluate the systems' performance (events detected compared to the gold-standard 472 raw signals (Internet disease reports related to the 86 events included in the gold-standard data set were retrieved from the six systems. 84 events were detected before their publication in the gold-standard. The type of sources utilised by the systems varied significantly (p<0001. I-Se varied significantly from 43% to 71% (p=0001 whereas other indicators were similar (C-DR: p=020; C-Se, p=013. I-Se was significantly associated with individual systems, types of system, languages, regions of occurrence, and types of infectious disease. Conversely, no statistical difference of C-DR was observed after adjustment for other variables. CONCLUSION: Although differences could result from a biosurveillance system's conceptual design, findings suggest that the combined expertise amongst systems enhances early detection performance for detection of infectious diseases. While all systems showed similar early detection performance, systems including human moderation were found to have a 53% higher I-Se (p=00001 after adjustment for other variables. Overall, the use of moderation, sources

  18. Detecting and responding to a dengue outbreak: evaluation of existing strategies in country outbreak response planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Julia; Kroeger, Axel; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; O'Dempsey, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Background. Dengue outbreaks are occurring with increasing frequency and intensity. Evidence-based epidemic preparedness and effective response are now a matter of urgency. Therefore, we have analysed national and municipal dengue outbreak response plans. Methods. Thirteen country plans from Asia, Latin America and Australia, and one international plan were obtained from the World Health Organization. The information was transferred to a data analysis matrix where information was extracted according to predefined and emerging themes and analysed for scope, inconsistencies, omissions, and usefulness. Findings. Outbreak response planning currently has a considerable number of flaws. Outbreak governance was weak with a lack of clarity of stakeholder roles. Late timing of responses due to poor surveillance, a lack of combining routine data with additional alerts, and lack of triggers for initiating the response weakened the functionality of plans. Frequently an outbreak was not defined, and early response mechanisms based on alert signals were neglected. There was a distinct lack of consideration of contextual influences which can affect how an outbreak detection and response is managed. Conclusion. A model contingency plan for dengue outbreak prediction, detection, and response may help national disease control authorities to develop their own more detailed and functional context specific plans.

  19. Using health and demographic surveillance for the early detection of cholera outbreaks: analysis of community- and hospital-based data from Matlab, Bangladesh

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    Dell D. Saulnier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cholera outbreaks are a continuing problem in Bangladesh, and the timely detection of an outbreak is important for reducing morbidity and mortality. In Matlab, the ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS data records symptoms of diarrhea in children under the age of 5 years at the community level. Cholera surveillance in Matlab currently uses hospital-based data. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine whether increases in cholera in Matlab can be detected earlier by using HDSS diarrhea symptom data in a syndromic surveillance analysis, when compared to hospital admissions for cholera. Methods: HDSS diarrhea symptom data and hospital admissions for cholera in children under 5 years of age over a 2-year period were analyzed with the syndromic surveillance statistical program EARS (Early Aberration Reporting System. Dates when significant increases in either symptoms or cholera cases occurred were compared to one another. Results: The analysis revealed that there were 43 days over 16 months when the cholera cases or diarrhea symptoms increased significantly. There were 8 months when both data sets detected days with significant increases. In 5 of the 8 months, increases in diarrheal symptoms occurred before increases of cholera cases. The increases in symptoms occurred between 1 and 15 days before the increases in cholera cases. Conclusions: The results suggest that the HDSS survey data may be able to detect an increase in cholera before an increase in hospital admissions is seen. However, there was no direct link between diarrheal symptom increases and cholera cases, and this, as well as other methodological weaknesses, should be taken into consideration.

  20. Using health and demographic surveillance for the early detection of cholera outbreaks: analysis of community- and hospital-based data from Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Dell D; Persson, Lars-Åke; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Faruque, A S G; Rahman, Anisur

    2016-01-01

    Cholera outbreaks are a continuing problem in Bangladesh, and the timely detection of an outbreak is important for reducing morbidity and mortality. In Matlab, the ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data records symptoms of diarrhea in children under the age of 5 years at the community level. Cholera surveillance in Matlab currently uses hospital-based data. The objective of this study is to determine whether increases in cholera in Matlab can be detected earlier by using HDSS diarrhea symptom data in a syndromic surveillance analysis, when compared to hospital admissions for cholera. HDSS diarrhea symptom data and hospital admissions for cholera in children under 5 years of age over a 2-year period were analyzed with the syndromic surveillance statistical program EARS (Early Aberration Reporting System). Dates when significant increases in either symptoms or cholera cases occurred were compared to one another. The analysis revealed that there were 43 days over 16 months when the cholera cases or diarrhea symptoms increased significantly. There were 8 months when both data sets detected days with significant increases. In 5 of the 8 months, increases in diarrheal symptoms occurred before increases of cholera cases. The increases in symptoms occurred between 1 and 15 days before the increases in cholera cases. The results suggest that the HDSS survey data may be able to detect an increase in cholera before an increase in hospital admissions is seen. However, there was no direct link between diarrheal symptom increases and cholera cases, and this, as well as other methodological weaknesses, should be taken into consideration.

  1. Application of syndromic surveillance on routinely collected cattle reproduction and milk production data for the early detection of outbreaks of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Anouk; Brouwer-Middelesch, Henriëtte; Marceau, Alexis; Madouasse, Aurélien; Van der Stede, Yves; Fourichon, Christine; Welby, Sarah; Wever, Paul; van Schaik, Gerdien

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of routinely collected reproductive and milk production data for the early detection of emerging vector-borne diseases in cattle in the Netherlands and the Flanders region of Belgium (i.e., the northern part of Belgium). Prospective space-time cluster analyses on residuals from a model on milk production were carried out to detect clusters of reduced milk yield. A CUSUM algorithm was used to detect temporal aberrations in model residuals of reproductive performance models on two indicators of gestation length. The Bluetongue serotype-8 (BTV-8) epidemics of 2006 and 2007 and the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) epidemic of 2011 were used as case studies to evaluate the sensitivity and timeliness of these methods. The methods investigated in this study did not result in a more timely detection of BTV-8 and SBV in the Netherlands and BTV-8 in Belgium given the surveillance systems in place when these viruses emerged. This could be due to (i) the large geographical units used in the analyses (country, region and province level), and (ii) the high level of sensitivity of the surveillance systems in place when these viruses emerged. Nevertheless, it might be worthwhile to use a syndromic surveillance system based on non-specific animal health data in real-time alongside regular surveillance, to increase the sense of urgency and to provide valuable quantitative information for decision makers in the initial phase of an emerging disease outbreak. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A socio-psychological investigation into limitations and incentives concerning reporting a clinically suspect situation aimed at improving early detection of classical swine fever outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, A R W; Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn, M J; van der Velden, P G; Loeffen, W L A; Zarafshani, K

    2010-04-21

    The aim of this study was to identify limitations and incentives in reporting clinically suspect situations, possibly caused by classical swine fever (CSF), to veterinary authorities with the ultimate aim to facilitate early detection of CSF outbreaks. Focus group sessions were held with policy makers from the veterinary authorities, and representatives of veterinary practitioners and pig farmer unions. Personal interviews with a small group of pig farmers and practitioners were held to check limitations raised and solutions proposed during the focus group sessions. An electronic questionnaire was mailed to pig farmers and practitioners to investigate perceptions and attitudes with respect to clinically suspect situations possibly caused by CSF. After triangulating the responses of veterinary authorities, veterinary practitioners and farmers, six themes emerged across all groups: (1) lack of knowledge on the early signs of CSF; (2) guilt, shame and prejudice; (3) negative opinion on control measures; (4) dissatisfaction with post-reporting procedures; (5) lack of trust in government bodies; (6) uncertainty and lack of transparency of reporting procedures. The following solutions to facilitate early detection of CSF were put forward: (a) development of a clinical decision-support system for vets and farmers, in order to get faster diagnosis and detection of CSF; (b) possibility to submit blood samples directly to the reference laboratory to exclude CSF in a clinical situation with non-specific clinical signs, without isolation of the farm and free of charge for the individual farmer; (c) decrease social and economic consequences of reporting CSF, for example by improving the public opinion on first reports; (d) better schooling of veterinary officers to deal with emotions and insecurity of farmers in the process after reporting; (e) better communication of rules and regulations, where to report, what will happen next; (f) up-to-date website with information and

  3. Predicting potential and actual distribution of sudden oak death in Oregon: prioritizing landscape contexts for early detection and eradication of disease outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas Vaclavik; Alan Kanaskie; Everett M. Hansen; Janet L. Ohmann; Ross K. Meentemeyer

    2010-01-01

    An isolated outbreak of the emerging forest disease sudden oak death was discovered in Oregon forests in 2001. Despite considerable control efforts, disease continues to spread from the introduction site due to slow and incomplete detection and eradication. Annual field surveys and laboratory tests between 2001 and 2009 confirmed a total of 802 infested locations. Here...

  4. Detecting the start of an influenza outbreak using exponentially weighted moving average charts

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    Coory Michael

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza viruses cause seasonal outbreaks in temperate climates, usually during winter and early spring, and are endemic in tropical climates. The severity and length of influenza outbreaks vary from year to year. Quick and reliable detection of the start of an outbreak is needed to promote public health measures. Methods We propose the use of an exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA control chart of laboratory confirmed influenza counts to detect the start and end of influenza outbreaks. Results The chart is shown to provide timely signals in an example application with seven years of data from Victoria, Australia. Conclusions The EWMA control chart could be applied in other applications to quickly detect influenza outbreaks.

  5. Epidemic features affecting the performance of outbreak detection algorithms

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    Kuang Jie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreak detection algorithms play an important role in effective automated surveillance. Although many algorithms have been designed to improve the performance of outbreak detection, few published studies have examined how epidemic features of infectious disease impact on the detection performance of algorithms. This study compared the performance of three outbreak detection algorithms stratified by epidemic features of infectious disease and examined the relationship between epidemic features and performance of outbreak detection algorithms. Methods Exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA, cumulative sum (CUSUM and moving percentile method (MPM algorithms were applied. We inserted simulated outbreaks into notifiable infectious disease data in China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS, and compared the performance of the three algorithms with optimized parameters at a fixed false alarm rate of 5% classified by epidemic features of infectious disease. Multiple linear regression was adopted to analyse the relationship of the algorithms’ sensitivity and timeliness with the epidemic features of infectious diseases. Results The MPM had better detection performance than EWMA and CUSUM through all simulated outbreaks, with or without stratification by epidemic features (incubation period, baseline counts and outbreak magnitude. The epidemic features were associated with both sensitivity and timeliness. Compared with long incubation, short incubation had lower probability (β* = −0.13, P  Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the MPM is a prior algorithm for outbreak detection and differences of epidemic features in detection performance should be considered in automatic surveillance practice.

  6. An epidemiological network model for disease outbreak detection.

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    Ben Y Reis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advanced disease-surveillance systems have been deployed worldwide to provide early detection of infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorist attacks. New methods that improve the overall detection capabilities of these systems can have a broad practical impact. Furthermore, most current generation surveillance systems are vulnerable to dramatic and unpredictable shifts in the health-care data that they monitor. These shifts can occur during major public events, such as the Olympics, as a result of population surges and public closures. Shifts can also occur during epidemics and pandemics as a result of quarantines, the worried-well flooding emergency departments or, conversely, the public staying away from hospitals for fear of nosocomial infection. Most surveillance systems are not robust to such shifts in health-care utilization, either because they do not adjust baselines and alert-thresholds to new utilization levels, or because the utilization shifts themselves may trigger an alarm. As a result, public-health crises and major public events threaten to undermine health-surveillance systems at the very times they are needed most. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To address this challenge, we introduce a class of epidemiological network models that monitor the relationships among different health-care data streams instead of monitoring the data streams themselves. By extracting the extra information present in the relationships between the data streams, these models have the potential to improve the detection capabilities of a system. Furthermore, the models' relational nature has the potential to increase a system's robustness to unpredictable baseline shifts. We implemented these models and evaluated their effectiveness using historical emergency department data from five hospitals in a single metropolitan area, recorded over a period of 4.5 y by the Automated Epidemiological Geotemporal Integrated Surveillance real-time public health

  7. Estimating the joint disease outbreak-detection time when an automated biosurveillance system is augmenting traditional clinical case finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanna; Adamou, Christina; Dowling, John N; Cooper, Gregory F

    2008-04-01

    The goals of automated biosurveillance systems are to detect disease outbreaks early, while exhibiting few false positives. Evaluation measures currently exist to estimate the expected detection time of biosurveillance systems. Researchers also have developed models that estimate clinician detection of cases of outbreak diseases, which is a process known as clinical case finding. However, little research has been done on estimating how well biosurveillance systems augment traditional outbreak detection that is carried out by clinicians. In this paper, we introduce a general approach for doing so for non-endemic disease outbreaks, which are characteristic of bioterrorist induced diseases, such as respiratory anthrax. We first layout the basic framework, which makes minimal assumptions, and then we specialize it in several ways. We illustrate the method using a Bayesian outbreak detection algorithm called PANDA, a model of clinician outbreak detection, and simulated cases of a windborne anthrax release. This analysis derives a bound on how well we would expect PANDA to augment clinician detection of an anthrax outbreak. The results support that such analyses are useful in assessing the extent to which computer-based outbreak detection systems are expected to augment traditional clinician outbreak detection.

  8. Outbreak detection algorithms for seasonal disease data: a case study using ross river virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatton Michelle L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of outbreaks is an important part of disease surveillance. Although many algorithms have been designed for detecting outbreaks, few have been specifically assessed against diseases that have distinct seasonal incidence patterns, such as those caused by vector-borne pathogens. Methods We applied five previously reported outbreak detection algorithms to Ross River virus (RRV disease data (1991-2007 for the four local government areas (LGAs of Brisbane, Emerald, Redland and Townsville in Queensland, Australia. The methods used were the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS C1, C2 and C3 methods, negative binomial cusum (NBC, historical limits method (HLM, Poisson outbreak detection (POD method and the purely temporal SaTScan analysis. Seasonally-adjusted variants of the NBC and SaTScan methods were developed. Some of the algorithms were applied using a range of parameter values, resulting in 17 variants of the five algorithms. Results The 9,188 RRV disease notifications that occurred in the four selected regions over the study period showed marked seasonality, which adversely affected the performance of some of the outbreak detection algorithms. Most of the methods examined were able to detect the same major events. The exception was the seasonally-adjusted NBC methods that detected an excess of short signals. The NBC, POD and temporal SaTScan algorithms were the only methods that consistently had high true positive rates and low false positive and false negative rates across the four study areas. The timeliness of outbreak signals generated by each method was also compared but there was no consistency across outbreaks and LGAs. Conclusions This study has highlighted several issues associated with applying outbreak detection algorithms to seasonal disease data. In lieu of a true gold standard, a quantitative comparison is difficult and caution should be taken when interpreting the true positives, false positives

  9. Disease outbreak detection through clique covering on a weighted ICPC-coded graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuurden, Klaske; Hartvigsen, Gunnar; Bellika, Johan Gustav

    2008-01-01

    Even after a decade of increased research into the problem of detecting disease outbreaks, we lack a system that can limit the number of patients affected by a potential epidemic by recognising its existence at an early stage. In this paper we suggest the use of a weighted graph representing symptoms with an exceptionally high prevalence. Cliques with high weighted edges in such a graph will represent groups of symptoms that occur together more often than usual. As a result each clique will represent the main symptoms of a disease with a high incidence rate. This will make it easier to diagnose the nature of an outbreak, to reach the affected patients at an early stage and to distinguish between outbreaks occurring simultaneously.

  10. A space-time permutation scan statistic for disease outbreak detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kulldorff

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to detect disease outbreaks early is important in order to minimize morbidity and mortality through timely implementation of disease prevention and control measures. Many national, state, and local health departments are launching disease surveillance systems with daily analyses of hospital emergency department visits, ambulance dispatch calls, or pharmacy sales for which population-at-risk information is unavailable or irrelevant. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We propose a prospective space-time permutation scan statistic for the early detection of disease outbreaks that uses only case numbers, with no need for population-at-risk data. It makes minimal assumptions about the time, geographical location, or size of the outbreak, and it adjusts for natural purely spatial and purely temporal variation. The new method was evaluated using daily analyses of hospital emergency department visits in New York City. Four of the five strongest signals were likely local precursors to citywide outbreaks due to rotavirus, norovirus, and influenza. The number of false signals was at most modest. CONCLUSION: If such results hold up over longer study times and in other locations, the space-time permutation scan statistic will be an important tool for local and national health departments that are setting up early disease detection surveillance systems.

  11. Early Decision Indicators for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreaks in Non-Endemic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Michael G.; East, Iain J.; Stevenson, Mark A.; Sanson, Robert L.; Rawdon, Thomas G.; Bradhurst, Richard A.; Roche, Sharon E.; Van Ha, Pham; Kompas, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Disease managers face many challenges when deciding on the most effective control strategy to manage an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Decisions have to be made under conditions of uncertainty and where the situation is continually evolving. In addition, resources for control are often limited. A modeling study was carried out to identify characteristics measurable during the early phase of a FMD outbreak that might be useful as predictors of the total number of infected places, outbreak duration, and the total area under control (AUC). The study involved two modeling platforms in two countries (Australia and New Zealand) and encompassed a large number of incursion scenarios. Linear regression, classification and regression tree, and boosted regression tree analyses were used to quantify the predictive value of a set of parameters on three outcome variables of interest: the total number of infected places, outbreak duration, and the total AUC. The number of infected premises (IPs), number of pending culls, AUC, estimated dissemination ratio, and cattle density around the index herd at days 7, 14, and 21 following first detection were associated with each of the outcome variables. Regression models for the size of the AUC had the highest predictive value (R2 = 0.51–0.9) followed by the number of IPs (R2 = 0.3–0.75) and outbreak duration (R2 = 0.28–0.57). Predictability improved at later time points in the outbreak. Predictive regression models using various cut-points at day 14 to define small and large outbreaks had positive predictive values of 0.85–0.98 and negative predictive values of 0.52–0.91, with 79–97% of outbreaks correctly classified. On the strict assumption that each of the simulation models used in this study provide a realistic indication of the spread of FMD in animal populations. Our conclusion is that relatively simple metrics available early in a control program can be used to indicate the likely magnitude of an FMD

  12. Early decision indicators for foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in non-endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Graeme Garner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Disease managers face many challenges when deciding on the most effective control strategy to manage an outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD. Decisions have to be made under conditions of uncertainty and where the situation is continually evolving. In addition, resources for control are often limited. A modelling study was carried out to identify characteristics measurable during the early phase of a FMD outbreak that might be useful as predictors of the total number of infected places, outbreak duration and the total area under control. The study involved two modelling platforms in two countries (Australia and New Zealand and encompassed a large number of incursion scenarios. Linear regression, classification and regression tree and boosted regression tree analyses were used to quantify the predictive value of a set of parameters on three outcome variables of interest: the total number of infected places, outbreak duration and the total area under control. The number of infected premises, number of pending culls, area under control, estimated dissemination ratio, and cattle density around the index herd at days 7, 14 and 21 following first detection were associated with each of the outcome variables. Regression models for the size of the area under control had the highest predictive value (R2 = 0.51-0.9 followed by the number of infected premises (R2 = 0.3-0.75 and outbreak duration (R2 = 0.28-0.57. Predictability improved at later time points in the outbreak. Predictive regression models using various cut-points at day 14 to define small and large outbreaks had positive predictive values of 0.85‒0.98 and negative predictive values of 0.52‒0.91, with 79‒97% of outbreaks correctly classified. On the strict assumption that each of the simulation models used in this study provide a realistic indication of the spread of FMD in animal populations our conclusion is that relatively simple metrics available early in a control program can be

  13. A flexibly shaped space-time scan statistic for disease outbreak detection and monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tango Toshiro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection of disease outbreaks enables public health officials to implement disease control and prevention measures at the earliest possible time. A time periodic geographical disease surveillance system based on a cylindrical space-time scan statistic has been used extensively for disease surveillance along with the SaTScan software. In the purely spatial setting, many different methods have been proposed to detect spatial disease clusters. In particular, some spatial scan statistics are aimed at detecting irregularly shaped clusters which may not be detected by the circular spatial scan statistic. Results Based on the flexible purely spatial scan statistic, we propose a flexibly shaped space-time scan statistic for early detection of disease outbreaks. The performance of the proposed space-time scan statistic is compared with that of the cylindrical scan statistic using benchmark data. In order to compare their performances, we have developed a space-time power distribution by extending the purely spatial bivariate power distribution. Daily syndromic surveillance data in Massachusetts, USA, are used to illustrate the proposed test statistic. Conclusion The flexible space-time scan statistic is well suited for detecting and monitoring disease outbreaks in irregularly shaped areas.

  14. Characterizing zoonotic disease detection in the United States: who detects zoonotic disease outbreaks & how fast are they detected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    There have been many calls for improved detection of zoonoses; research has not yet characterized zoonotic disease detection in the United States, in humans or animals. This research reviewed "who detects" zoonotic disease outbreaks and "how fast" they are detected. Definitions were operationalized based on existing literature and current practice. An outbreak database was created from publicly available records: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports and ProMed-Mail. Univariate and bivariate statistics--including chi-square tests, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Dunn's method were used for analysis. From an n = 101, results showed that laboratories (human health) detected 32.7% (n = 33) of the outbreaks; physicians/clinicians (human health) detected 18.8% (n = 19). The median time to was 13 days; mean was 31.7 (range = 0-492). There was a relationship between the type of the entity (laboratory, practitioner, or state agency) and how fast the outbreak was detected; state agencies were slower in detection. There was also a significant relationship between how fast an outbreak was detected and whether the outbreak occurred in multiple regions. This research provides important empirical evidence regarding U.S. zoonotic disease outbreak detection, highlighting the difficulty in rapid detection of multi-state outbreaks and the need for rapid, sensitive diagnostic testing and astute practitioners.

  15. Detection of multiple sapovirus genotypes and genogroups in oyster-associated outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa-Okamoto, Reiko; Arita-Nishida, Tomoko; Toda, Shoichi; Kato, Hirotomo; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Miho; Nishio, Osamu; Kimura, Hirokazu; Noda, Mamoru; Takeda, Naokazu; Oka, Tomoichiro

    2009-01-01

    This report describes multiple viruses in stool specimens from oyster-associated gastroenteritis. Eleven outbreaks of oyster-associated gastroenteritis were examined for enteric viruses between January 2002 and March 2006 in Japan. Multiple norovirus genotypes were detected in all outbreaks; moreover, kobuvirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus were also detected in 6, 3, and 1 of the 11 outbreaks, respectively. Notably, multiple sapovirus genogroups were detected in the stool specimens from subjects in two oyster-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks.

  16. Early-warning signals for an outbreak of theinfluenza pandemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Di; Gao Jie

    2011-01-01

    Over the course of human history,influenza pandemics have been seen as major disasters,so studies on the influenza virus have become an important issue for many experts and scholars.Comprehensive research has been performed over the years on the biological properties,chemical characteristics,external environmental factors and other aspects of the virus,and some results have been achieved.Based on the chaos game representation walk model,this paper uses the time series analysis method to study the DNA sequences of the influenza virus from 1913 to 2010,and works out the early-warning signals indicator value for the outbreak of an influenza pandemic.The variances in the CGR walk sequences for the pandemic years (or + -1 to 2 years) are significantly higher than those for the adjacent years,while those in the non-pandemic years are usually smaller.In this way we can provide an influenza early-warning mechanism so that people can take precautions and be well prepared prior to a pandemic.

  17. Early detection of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T. K.; Melle, I.; Auestad, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background During the last decades we have seen a new focus on early treatment of psychosis. Several reviews have shown that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is correlated to better outcome. However, it is still unknown whether early treatment will lead to a better long-term outcome....... This study reports the effects of reducing DUP on 5-year course and outcome.Method During 1997â€"2000 a total of 281 consecutive patients aged >17 years with first episode non-affective psychosis were recruited, of which 192 participated in the 5-year follow-up. A comprehensive early detection (ED) programme...... with public information campaigns and low-threshold psychosis detection teams was established in one healthcare area (ED-area), but not in a comparable area (no-ED area). Both areas ran equivalent treatment programmes during the first 2 years and need-adapted treatment thereafter.Results At the start...

  18. Toward unsupervised outbreak detection through visual perception of new patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lévy Pierre P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistical algorithms are routinely used to detect outbreaks of well-defined syndromes, such as influenza-like illness. These methods cannot be applied to the detection of emerging diseases for which no preexisting information is available. This paper presents a method aimed at facilitating the detection of outbreaks, when there is no a priori knowledge of the clinical presentation of cases. Methods The method uses a visual representation of the symptoms and diseases coded during a patient consultation according to the International Classification of Primary Care 2nd version (ICPC-2. The surveillance data are transformed into color-coded cells, ranging from white to red, reflecting the increasing frequency of observed signs. They are placed in a graphic reference frame mimicking body anatomy. Simple visual observation of color-change patterns over time, concerning a single code or a combination of codes, enables detection in the setting of interest. Results The method is demonstrated through retrospective analyses of two data sets: description of the patients referred to the hospital by their general practitioners (GPs participating in the French Sentinel Network and description of patients directly consulting at a hospital emergency department (HED. Informative image color-change alert patterns emerged in both cases: the health consequences of the August 2003 heat wave were visualized with GPs' data (but passed unnoticed with conventional surveillance systems, and the flu epidemics, which are routinely detected by standard statistical techniques, were recognized visually with HED data. Conclusion Using human visual pattern-recognition capacities to detect the onset of unexpected health events implies a convenient image representation of epidemiological surveillance and well-trained "epidemiology watchers". Once these two conditions are met, one could imagine that the epidemiology watchers could signal epidemiological alerts

  19. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in Ambient Air after a Large Q Fever Outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna M T de Rooij

    Full Text Available One of the largest Q fever outbreaks ever occurred in the Netherlands from 2007-2010, with 25 fatalities among 4,026 notified cases. Airborne dispersion of Coxiella burnetii was suspected but not studied extensively at the time. We investigated temporal and spatial variation of Coxiella burnetii in ambient air at residential locations in the most affected area in the Netherlands (the South-East, in the year immediately following the outbreak. One-week average ambient particulate matter < 10 μm samples were collected at eight locations from March till September 2011. Presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Associations with various spatial and temporal characteristics were analyzed by mixed logistic regression. Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected in 56 out of 202 samples (28%. Airborne Coxiella burnetii presence showed a clear seasonal pattern coinciding with goat kidding. The spatial variation was significantly associated with number of goats on the nearest goat farm weighted by the distance to the farm (OR per IQR: 1.89, CI: 1.31-2.76. We conclude that in the year after a large Q fever outbreak, temporal variation of airborne Coxiella burnetii is suggestive to be associated with goat kidding, and spatial variation with distance to and size of goat farms. Aerosol measurements show to have potential for source identification and attribution of an airborne pathogen, which may also be applicable in early stages of an outbreak.

  20. Early Detection Of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V B Bhatnagar

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Farly detection of cancer is based upon three fundamental assumptions, firstly that the trea'ment of benign and precancerous lesions reduces the incidence of cancer, secondly, that the treatment of in situ cancers is conducive to total cure and thirdly that early diagnosis and management of invasive cancer ensures be.ter survival. When patient seeks medical advice for vague symptoms, which could however be due to a possible malignant tumour at a particular site, the alert clinician should investigate the patient immediately to exclude cancer. At this stage cancer is usually not significantly advanced.Currently the U. I. C. C. (International Union for Cancer Control} is studying the epidemiology of cancers in various countries The importance of this is two folds : Firstly by focussing attention on a section of population vulnerable to a particular cancer an early detection is facilitated Secondly by changing the causative factors responsible to a particular cancer, the incidence of that cancer can be reduced e. g. reduction in lung cancer following campaigns against ciguette smoking and reductioi in breast cancer after campaigns for advocating breast feeding of infants, lowering fat consumption and encouraging self palpation of breast regularly.Indeed early diagnosis of cancer implies diagnosis of cancer in almost a symptomatic stage It involves motiva’ion of the population towards acquisitio : of knowledge, attitude and practice.. Epidemiologies and clinicians should be able to recognise high risk cases exposed to particular neoplasia and knowledge of alarming symptoms should be pro- pogated for wide publicity through common available media and means. Probable cases should have regular clhrcal examination periodically and relevant investigations including radiological, imaging techniques and Bio-Chemical examination should be undertaken as and when desired Suspicious lesions should be investigated by specific tests including smear cytology

  1. Evaluation of the performance of a dengue outbreak detection tool for China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglong Zhang

    Full Text Available An outbreak detection and response system, using time series moving percentile method based on historical data, in China has been used for identifying dengue fever outbreaks since 2008. For dengue fever outbreaks reported from 2009 to 2012, this system achieved a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 99.8% and a median time to detection of 3 days, which indicated that the system was a useful decision tool for dengue fever control and risk-management programs in China.

  2. Detecting Disease Outbreaks in Mass Gatherings Using Internet Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yom-Tov, Elad; Cox, Ingemar J; McKendry, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass gatherings, such as music festivals and religious events, pose a health care challenge because of the risk of transmission of communicable diseases. This is exacerbated by the fact that participants disperse soon after the gathering, potentially spreading disease within their communities. The dispersion of participants also poses a challenge for traditional surveillance methods. The ubiquitous use of the Internet may enable the detection of disease outbreaks through analysis of data generated by users during events and shortly thereafter. Objective The intent of the study was to develop algorithms that can alert to possible outbreaks of communicable diseases from Internet data, specifically Twitter and search engine queries. Methods We extracted all Twitter postings and queries made to the Bing search engine by users who repeatedly mentioned one of nine major music festivals held in the United Kingdom and one religious event (the Hajj in Mecca) during 2012, for a period of 30 days and after each festival. We analyzed these data using three methods, two of which compared words associated with disease symptoms before and after the time of the festival, and one that compared the frequency of these words with those of other users in the United Kingdom in the days following the festivals. Results The data comprised, on average, 7.5 million tweets made by 12,163 users, and 32,143 queries made by 1756 users from each festival. Our methods indicated the statistically significant appearance of a disease symptom in two of the nine festivals. For example, cough was detected at higher than expected levels following the Wakestock festival. Statistically significant agreement (chi-square test, Pfestival. Conclusions Our work shows the feasibility of creating a public health surveillance system for mass gatherings based on Internet data. The use of multiple data sources and analysis methods was found to be advantageous for rejecting false positives. Further

  3. Detection and forecasting of oyster norovirus outbreaks: recent advances and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2012-09-01

    Norovirus is a highly infectious pathogen that is commonly found in oysters growing in fecally contaminated waters. Norovirus outbreaks can cause the closure of oyster harvesting waters and acute gastroenteritis in humans associated with consumption of contaminated raw oysters. Extensive efforts and progresses have been made in detection and forecasting of oyster norovirus outbreaks over the past decades. The main objective of this paper is to provide a literature review of methods and techniques for detecting and forecasting oyster norovirus outbreaks and thereby to identify the future directions for improving the detection and forecasting of norovirus outbreaks. It is found that (1) norovirus outbreaks display strong seasonality with the outbreak peak occurring commonly in December-March in the U.S. and April-May in the Europe; (2) norovirus outbreaks are affected by multiple environmental factors, including but not limited to precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, wind, and salinity; (3) various modeling approaches may be employed to forecast norovirus outbreaks, including Bayesian models, regression models, Artificial Neural Networks, and process-based models; and (4) diverse techniques are available for near real-time detection of norovirus outbreaks, including multiplex PCR, seminested PCR, real-time PCR, quantitative PCR, and satellite remote sensing. The findings are important to the management of oyster growing waters and to future investigations into norovirus outbreaks. It is recommended that a combined approach of sensor-assisted real time monitoring and modeling-based forecasting should be utilized for an efficient and effective detection and forecasting of norovirus outbreaks caused by consumption of contaminated oysters.

  4. Building test data from real outbreaks for evaluating detection algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texier, Gaetan; Jackson, Michael L; Siwe, Leonel; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Deparis, Xavier; Chaudet, Herve

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking surveillance systems requires realistic simulations of disease outbreaks. However, obtaining these data in sufficient quantity, with a realistic shape and covering a sufficient range of agents, size and duration, is known to be very difficult. The dataset of outbreak signals generated should reflect the likely distribution of authentic situations faced by the surveillance system, including very unlikely outbreak signals. We propose and evaluate a new approach based on the use of historical outbreak data to simulate tailored outbreak signals. The method relies on a homothetic transformation of the historical distribution followed by resampling processes (Binomial, Inverse Transform Sampling Method-ITSM, Metropolis-Hasting Random Walk, Metropolis-Hasting Independent, Gibbs Sampler, Hybrid Gibbs Sampler). We carried out an analysis to identify the most important input parameters for simulation quality and to evaluate performance for each of the resampling algorithms. Our analysis confirms the influence of the type of algorithm used and simulation parameters (i.e. days, number of cases, outbreak shape, overall scale factor) on the results. We show that, regardless of the outbreaks, algorithms and metrics chosen for the evaluation, simulation quality decreased with the increase in the number of days simulated and increased with the number of cases simulated. Simulating outbreaks with fewer cases than days of duration (i.e. overall scale factor less than 1) resulted in an important loss of information during the simulation. We found that Gibbs sampling with a shrinkage procedure provides a good balance between accuracy and data dependency. If dependency is of little importance, binomial and ITSM methods are accurate. Given the constraint of keeping the simulation within a range of plausible epidemiological curves faced by the surveillance system, our study confirms that our approach can be used to generate a large spectrum of outbreak signals.

  5. Building test data from real outbreaks for evaluating detection algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texier, Gaetan; Jackson, Michael L.; Siwe, Leonel; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Deparis, Xavier; Chaudet, Herve

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking surveillance systems requires realistic simulations of disease outbreaks. However, obtaining these data in sufficient quantity, with a realistic shape and covering a sufficient range of agents, size and duration, is known to be very difficult. The dataset of outbreak signals generated should reflect the likely distribution of authentic situations faced by the surveillance system, including very unlikely outbreak signals. We propose and evaluate a new approach based on the use of historical outbreak data to simulate tailored outbreak signals. The method relies on a homothetic transformation of the historical distribution followed by resampling processes (Binomial, Inverse Transform Sampling Method—ITSM, Metropolis-Hasting Random Walk, Metropolis-Hasting Independent, Gibbs Sampler, Hybrid Gibbs Sampler). We carried out an analysis to identify the most important input parameters for simulation quality and to evaluate performance for each of the resampling algorithms. Our analysis confirms the influence of the type of algorithm used and simulation parameters (i.e. days, number of cases, outbreak shape, overall scale factor) on the results. We show that, regardless of the outbreaks, algorithms and metrics chosen for the evaluation, simulation quality decreased with the increase in the number of days simulated and increased with the number of cases simulated. Simulating outbreaks with fewer cases than days of duration (i.e. overall scale factor less than 1) resulted in an important loss of information during the simulation. We found that Gibbs sampling with a shrinkage procedure provides a good balance between accuracy and data dependency. If dependency is of little importance, binomial and ITSM methods are accurate. Given the constraint of keeping the simulation within a range of plausible epidemiological curves faced by the surveillance system, our study confirms that our approach can be used to generate a large spectrum of outbreak signals. PMID

  6. Sharing Data for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Koopmans, Marion G.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid global sharing and comparison of epidemiological and genomic data on infectious diseases would enable more rapid and efficient global outbreak control and tracking of diseases. Several barriers for global sharing exist but, in our opinion, the presumed magnitude of the problems appears larg...

  7. Genomics-enabled sensor platform for rapid detection of viruses related to disease outbreak.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozik, Susan M; Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Edwards, Thayne L.; Anderson, John Moses; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Branch, Darren W.; Wheeler, David Roger; Polsky, Ronen; Lopez, DeAnna M.; Ebel, Gregory D.; Prasad, Abhishek N.; Brozik, James A.; Rudolph, Angela R.; Wong, Lillian P.

    2013-09-01

    Bioweapons and emerging infectious diseases pose growing threats to our national security. Both natural disease outbreak and outbreaks due to a bioterrorist attack are a challenge to detect, taking days after the outbreak to identify since most outbreaks are only recognized through reportable diseases by health departments and reports of unusual diseases by clinicians. In recent decades, arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have emerged as some of the most significant threats to human health. They emerge, often unexpectedly, from cryptic transmission foci causing localized outbreaks that can rapidly spread to multiple continents due to increased human travel and trade. Currently, diagnosis of acute infections requires amplification of viral nucleic acids, which can be costly, highly specific, technically challenging and time consuming. No diagnostic devices suitable for use at the bedside or in an outbreak setting currently exist. The original goals of this project were to 1) develop two highly sensitive and specific diagnostic assays for detecting RNA from a wide range of arboviruses; one based on an electrochemical approach and the other a fluorescent based assay and 2) develop prototype microfluidic diagnostic platforms for preclinical and field testing that utilize the assays developed in goal 1. We generated and characterized suitable primers for West Nile Virus RNA detection. Both optical and electrochemical transduction technologies were developed for DNA-RNA hybridization detection and were implemented in microfluidic diagnostic sensing platforms that were developed in this project.

  8. Detection, quantification and genotyping of noroviruses in oysters implicated in disease outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haefeli, Deborah; Gantenbein-Demarchi, Corinne; Böttiger, Blenda

    2012-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of foodborne outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Transmission of NoV is commonly linked to the consumption of oysters as they accumulate viruses through filter feeding in faecal-contaminated water. The NoV genogroups (G)I, GII and GIV infect humans....... While GI and GII have often been verified as causative agents of oyster-transmitted illness, GIV is rarely detected and has so far not been confirmed in outbreaks related to oysters. The aim of this study was to determine whether NoVs from oysters implicated in a disease outbreak were linked to the GI...

  9. Using friends as sensors to detect global-scale contagious outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Moro, Esteban; Cebrian, Manuel; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has focused on the monitoring of global-scale online data for improved detection of epidemics, mood patterns, movements in the stock market political revolutions, box-office revenues, consumer behaviour and many other important phenomena. However, privacy considerations and the sheer scale of data available online are quickly making global monitoring infeasible, and existing methods do not take full advantage of local network structure to identify key nodes for monitoring. Here, we develop a model of the contagious spread of information in a global-scale, publicly-articulated social network and show that a simple method can yield not just early detection, but advance warning of contagious outbreaks. In this method, we randomly choose a small fraction of nodes in the network and then we randomly choose a friend of each node to include in a group for local monitoring. Using six months of data from most of the full Twittersphere, we show that this friend group is more central in the network and it helps us to detect viral outbreaks of the use of novel hashtags about 7 days earlier than we could with an equal-sized randomly chosen group. Moreover, the method actually works better than expected due to network structure alone because highly central actors are both more active and exhibit increased diversity in the information they transmit to others. These results suggest that local monitoring is not just more efficient, but also more effective, and it may be applied to monitor contagious processes in global-scale networks.

  10. Using friends as sensors to detect global-scale contagious outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Garcia-Herranz

    Full Text Available Recent research has focused on the monitoring of global-scale online data for improved detection of epidemics, mood patterns, movements in the stock market political revolutions, box-office revenues, consumer behaviour and many other important phenomena. However, privacy considerations and the sheer scale of data available online are quickly making global monitoring infeasible, and existing methods do not take full advantage of local network structure to identify key nodes for monitoring. Here, we develop a model of the contagious spread of information in a global-scale, publicly-articulated social network and show that a simple method can yield not just early detection, but advance warning of contagious outbreaks. In this method, we randomly choose a small fraction of nodes in the network and then we randomly choose a friend of each node to include in a group for local monitoring. Using six months of data from most of the full Twittersphere, we show that this friend group is more central in the network and it helps us to detect viral outbreaks of the use of novel hashtags about 7 days earlier than we could with an equal-sized randomly chosen group. Moreover, the method actually works better than expected due to network structure alone because highly central actors are both more active and exhibit increased diversity in the information they transmit to others. These results suggest that local monitoring is not just more efficient, but also more effective, and it may be applied to monitor contagious processes in global-scale networks.

  11. A new outbreak of brucellosis in Bulgaria detected in July 2015--preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenova, Rumiana; Tomova, Iskra; Saparevska, Raina; Kantardjiev, Todor

    2015-01-01

    During July 2015 a brucellosis outbreak was detected in Kyustendil district, west Bulgaria. As of 15 August, 31 patients have been diagnosed all with an epidemiological connection to Rila town. Patients have not travelled/worked abroad. Breeding family-owned goats and/or improper use of their milk appear to be the main risk factors for transmission of the infection. This second autochthonous brucellosis outbreak in Bulgaria since 2006, affects the western part of the country.

  12. Practical usage of computer-supported outbreak detection in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulth, A; Andrews, N; Ethelberg, S; Dreesman, J; Faensen, D; van Pelt, W; Schnitzler, J

    2010-09-09

    This paper discusses computer-supported outbreak detection using routine surveillance data, as implemented at six institutes for infectious disease control in five European countries. We give an overview of the systems used at the Statens Serum Institut (Denmark), Health Protection Agency (England, Wales and Northern Ireland), Robert Koch Institute (Germany), Governmental Institute of Public Health of Lower Saxony (Germany), National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (the Netherlands) and Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (Sweden). Despite the usefulness of the algorithms or the outbreak detection procedure itself, all institutes have experienced certain limitations of the systems. The paper therefore concludes with a list of recommendations for institutes planning to introduce computer-supported outbreak detection, based on experiences on the practical usage of the systems. This list--which concerns usability, standard operating procedures and evaluation--might also inspire improvements of systems in use today.

  13. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Won Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment.

  14. Economic impact of a nationwide outbreak of salmonellosis: cost-benefit of early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J A; Sockett, P N; Gill, O N

    1989-05-06

    The recognition and investigation of an outbreak of food poisoning in 1982 due to chocolate contaminated with Salmonella napoli enabled the food that carried the salmonella to be identified and four fifths of the implicated consignment of chocolate to be withdrawn. The economic benefits of prompt intervention in the outbreak have been assessed. The cost of the outbreak was over 0.5 pounds m. It is estimated that five deaths were prevented by the intervention and that 185 admissions to hospital and 29,000 cases of S napoli enteritis were avoided. This successful investigation yielded a 3.5-fold rate of return to the public sector and a 23.3-fold return to society on an investment in public health surveillance. A methodology is described that can be used to estimate the benefits of early intervention in outbreaks of foodborne illness and topics for further research are suggested. It is concluded that public health authorities and industry have much to gain by collaborating in the research into the design of cost effective programmes to prevent foodborne infections.

  15. Applying cusum-based methods for the detection of outbreaks of Ross River virus disease in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Graeme

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The automated monitoring of routinely collected disease surveillance data has the potential to ensure that important changes in disease incidence are promptly recognised. However, few studies have established whether the signals produced by automated monitoring methods correspond with events considered by epidemiologists to be of public health importance. This study investigates the correspondence between retrospective epidemiological evaluation of notifications of Ross River virus (RRv disease in Western Australia, and the signals produced by two cumulative sum (cusum-based automated monitoring methods. Methods RRv disease case notification data between 1991 and 2004 were assessed retrospectively by two experienced epidemiologists, and the timing of identified outbreaks was compared with signals generated from two different types of cusum-based automated monitoring algorithms; the three Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS cusum algorithms (C1, C2 and C3, and a negative binomial cusum. Results We found the negative binomial cusum to have a significantly greater area under the receiver operator characteristic curve when compared with the EARS algorithms, suggesting that the negative binomial cusum has a greater level of agreement with epidemiological opinion than the EARS algorithms with respect to the existence of outbreaks of RRv disease, particularly at low false alarm rates. However, the performance of individual EARS and negative binomial cusum algorithms were not significantly different when timeliness was also incorporated into the area under the curve analyses. Conclusion Our retrospective analysis of historical data suggests that, compared with the EARS algorithms, the negative binomial cusum provides greater sensitivity for the detection of outbreaks of RRv disease at low false alarm levels, and decreased timeliness early in the outbreak period. Prospective studies are required to investigate the potential

  16. Biosurveillance in outbreak investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydos-Daniels, S Cornelia; Rojas Smith, Lucia; Farris, Tonya R

    2013-03-01

    Following the terrorist attacks of September 11 and the anthrax attacks in 2001, public health entities implemented automated surveillance systems based on disease syndromes for early detection of bioterror events and to increase timeliness of responses. Despite widespread adoption, syndromic surveillance systems' ability to provide early notification of outbreaks is unproven, and there is little documentation on their role in outbreak response. We hypothesized that biosurveillance is used in practice to augment classical outbreak investigations, and we used case studies conducted in 2007-08 to determine (1) which steps in outbreak investigations were best served by biosurveillance, and (2) which steps presented the greatest opportunities for improvement. The systems used in the case studies varied in how they functioned, and there were examples in which syndromic systems had identified outbreaks before other methods. Biosurveillance was used successfully for all steps of outbreak investigations. Key advantages of syndromic systems were sensitivity, timeliness, and flexibility and as a source of data for situational awareness. Limitations of biosurveillance were a lack of specificity, reliance on chief complaint data, and a lack of formal training for users. Linking syndromic data to triage notes and medical chart data would substantially increase the value of biosurveillance in the conduct of outbreak investigations and reduce the burden on health department staff.

  17. Early detection of tubular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscator, M

    1991-11-01

    The determination of low-molecular-weight proteins in urine as a tool for early detection of damage to the proximal tubules is briefly discussed. Beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein and alpha 1-microglobulin are at present the most widely used markers for tubular dysfunction. The determination of beta 2-microglobulin has earlier been the method of choice, but due to its instability at low pH there are certain disadvantages. Available data indicate that alpha 1-microglobulin may replace beta 2-microglobulin for screening purposes. The low-molecular-weight proteins are at present the best markers for early detection of tubular dysfunction; other constituents are not as well suited for this, even if the determination of urine enzymes has its supporters.

  18. Detection and characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae during an outbreak of respiratory illness at a university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jessica L; Diaz, Maureen H; Petrone, Brianna L; Benitez, Alvaro J; Wolff, Bernard J; Edison, Laura; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Moore, Ashley; Martyn, Audrey; Dishman, Hope; Drenzek, Cherie L; Turner, Kim; Hicks, Lauri A; Winchell, Jonas M

    2014-03-01

    An outbreak at a university in Georgia was identified after 83 cases of probable pneumonia were reported among students. Respiratory specimens were obtained from 21 students for the outbreak investigation. The TaqMan array card (TAC), a quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based multipathogen detection technology, was used to initially identify Mycoplasma pneumoniae as the causative agent in this outbreak. TAC demonstrated 100% diagnostic specificity and sensitivity compared to those of the multiplex qPCR assay for this agent. All M. pneumoniae specimens (n=12) and isolates (n=10) were found through genetic analysis to be susceptible to macrolide antibiotics. The strain diversity of M. pneumoniae associated with this outbreak setting was identified using a variety of molecular typing procedures, resulting in two P1 genotypes (types 1 [60%] and 2 [40%]) and seven different multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) profiles. Continued molecular typing of this organism, particularly during outbreaks, may enhance the current understanding of the epidemiology of M. pneumoniae and may ultimately lead to a more effective public health response.

  19. Detection and response to a meningococcal disease outbreak following a youth football tournament with teams from four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintjes, Ralf; Kistemann, Thomas; MacLehose, Laura; McKee, Martin; Gill, Noel; Weinberg, Julius; Schaefer, Oliver; Camaroni, Ivonne; Fulop, Naomi; Brand, Helmut

    2002-05-01

    An outbreak of meningococcal disease, caused by Neisseria meningitidis, occurred following an international youth football tournament in the summer of 1997, affecting individuals from four European countries. This paper describes the outbreak, focusing on international co-operation in detection, investigation, control and follow-up, identifying weaknesses and exploring opportunities for improved co-operation. Data came from interviews, reports and related documents. The detection and management of the outbreak in each country is analysed. Eleven cases were linked to this outbreak and serotyped as C:2a:P1.5. Control measures varied in each country, reflecting different national guidelines. The outbreak illustrated deficiencies in management of international outbreaks but also demonstrated benefits of international co-operation.

  20. Prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in water sources: an overview on associated diseases, outbreaks and detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Tanushree; Kaushik, Pallavi; Krishna Mohan, Medicherla

    2015-07-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen with its ability to cause human illness ranging from diarrheal disease to fatal hemolytic uremic syndrome. E. coli O157:H7 had been associated with waterborne outbreaks resulting in high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therefore, it is important to investigate the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in water sources especially used for drinking and to develop the diagnostic methods for its early detection. The review describes traditional cultural methods, immunological techniques, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for detection of this bacterium in water sources. The current PCR-based techniques such as real-time PCR are more specific and sensitive and require less detection time (sources to prevent waterborne diseases due to E. coli O157:H7.

  1. Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Badgwell

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in therapy, ovarian cancer remains the most deadly of the gynecological cancers. Less than 30% of women with advanced stage disease survive long-term. When diagnosed in stage I, up to 90% of patients can be cured with conventional surgery and chemotherapy. At present, only 25% of ovarian cancers are detected in stage I due, in part, to the absence of specific symptoms and to lack of an effective screening strategy. Early detection of ovarian cancer might significantly improve the overall survival rate of women with ovarian cancer if 1 most cancers are clonal and unifocal, arising in the ovary rather than in the peritoneum, 2 metastatic disease results from progression of clinically detectable stage I lesions, and 3 cancers remain localized for a sufficient interval to permit cost-effective screening. Given the prevalence of ovarian cancer, strategies for early detection must have high sensitivity for early stage disease (> 75%, but must have extremely high specificity (99.6% to attain a positive predictive value of at least 10%. Transvaginal sonography (TVS, serum markers and a combination of the two modalities have been evaluated for early detection of ovarian cancer. Among the serum markers, CA125 has received the most attention, but lacks the sensitivity or specificity to function alone as a screening test. Greater specificity can be achieved by combining CA125 and TVS and/or by monitoring CA125 over time. Two stage screening strategies promise to be cost effective, where abnormal serum assays prompt TVS to detect lesions that require laparotomy. Accrual has been completed for a 200,000 woman trial in the United Kingdom that will test the ability of a rising CA125 to trigger TVS and subsequent exploratory surgery. Given the heterogeneity of ovarian cancer, it is unlikely that any single marker will be sufficiently sensitive to provide an effective initial screen. Sensitivity of serum assays might be enhanced by utilizing a

  2. Comparison of Statistical Algorithms for the Detection of Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Large Multiple Surveillance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, C. Paddy; Noufaily, Angela; Andrews, Nick J.; Charlett, Andre

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale multiple surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation in England and Wales since the early 1990s. Changes to the statistical algorithm at the heart of the system were proposed and the purpose of this paper is to compare two new algorithms with the original algorithm. Test data to evaluate performance are created from weekly counts of the number of cases of each of more than 2000 diseases over a twenty-year period. The time series of each disease is separated into one series giving the baseline (background) disease incidence and a second series giving disease outbreaks. One series is shifted forward by twelve months and the two are then recombined, giving a realistic series in which it is known where outbreaks have been added. The metrics used to evaluate performance include a scoring rule that appropriately balances sensitivity against specificity and is sensitive to variation in probabilities near 1. In the context of disease surveillance, a scoring rule can be adapted to reflect the size of outbreaks and this was done. Results indicate that the two new algorithms are comparable to each other and better than the algorithm they were designed to replace. PMID:27513749

  3. The impact of health communication and enhanced laboratory-based surveillance on detection of cyclosporiasis outbreaks in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohle-Boetani, J. C.; Werner, S. B.; Waterman, S. H.; Vugia, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the timing of diagnosis, influence of media information on testing for Cyclospora, and the method used to identify cases during eight cyclosporiasis outbreaks in California in spring of 1997. We found that Internet information, media reports, and enhanced laboratory surveillance improved detection of these outbreaks. PMID:10756158

  4. Ethics dilemmas of early detection of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the ethics dilemmas of the early detection of overweight and obesity. Methods: Analysis of the ethical aspects of early detection. Results: The early detection of overweight and obesity entails a number of ethical dilemmas because it may both be helpful and harmful. It may help...

  5. Norovirus GII.4 detection in environmental samples from patient rooms during nosocomial outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenonen, Nancy P; Hannoun, Charles; Svensson, Lennart; Torén, Kjell; Andersson, Lars-Magnus; Westin, Johan; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-07-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is an important cause of nosocomial gastroenteric outbreaks. This 5-month study was designed to characterize NoV contamination and airborne dispersal in patient rooms during hospital outbreaks. Air vents, overbed tables, washbasins, dust, and virus traps designed to collect charged particles from the air were swabbed to investigate the possibility of NoV contamination in patient rooms during outbreaks in seven wards and in an outbreak-free ward. Symptomatic inpatients were also sampled. Nucleic acid extracts of the samples were examined for NoV RNA using genogroup I (GI) and GII real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The NoV strains were characterized by RT-PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase-N/S capsid-coding region (1,040 nucleotides [nt]). Patient strains from two outbreaks in one ward were sequenced across the RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase major capsid-coding region (2.5 kb), including the hypervariable P2 domain. In the outbreak wards, NoV GII was detected in 48 of 101 (47%) environmental swabs and 63 of 108 patients (58%); NoV genotype II.4 was sequenced from 18 environmental samples, dust (n = 8), virus traps (n = 4), surfaces (n = 6), and 56 patients. In contrast, NoV GII was detected in 2 (GII.4) of 28 (7%) environmental samples and in 2 (GII.6 and GII.4) of 17 patients in the outbreak-free ward. Sequence analyses revealed a high degree of similarity (>99.5%, 1,040 nt) between NoV GII.4 environmental and patient strains from a given ward at a given time. The strains clustered on 11 subbranches of the phylogenetic tree, with strong correlations to time and place. The high nucleotide similarity between the NoV GII.4 strains from patients and their hospital room environment provided molecular evidence of GII.4 dispersal in the air and dust; therefore, interventional cleaning studies are justified.

  6. Origin Detection During Food-borne Disease Outbreaks - A Case Study of the 2011 EHEC/HUS Outbreak in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitz, Juliane; Kneib, Thomas; Schlather, Martin; Helbing, Dirk; Brockmann, Dirk

    2014-04-01

    The key challenge during food-borne disease outbreaks, e.g. the 2011 EHEC/HUS outbreak in Germany, is the design of efficient mitigation strategies based on a timely identification of the outbreak's spatial origin. Standard public health procedures typically use case-control studies and tracings along food shipping chains. These methods are time-consuming and suffer from biased data collected slowly in patient interviews. Here we apply a recently developed, network-theoretical method to identify the spatial origin of food-borne disease outbreaks. Thereby, the network captures the transportation routes of contaminated foods. The technique only requires spatial information on case reports regularly collected by public health institutions and a model for the underlying food distribution network. The approach is based on the idea of replacing the conventional geographic distance with an effective distance that is derived from the topological structure of the underlying food distribution network. We show that this approach can efficiently identify most probable epicenters of food-borne disease outbreaks. We assess and discuss the method in the context of the 2011 EHEC epidemic. Based on plausible assumptions on the structure of the national food distribution network, the approach can correctly localize the origin of the 2011 German EHEC/HUS outbreak.

  7. Early detection of materials degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyendorf, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Lightweight components for transportation and aerospace applications are designed for an estimated lifecycle, taking expected mechanical and environmental loads into account. The main reason for catastrophic failure of components within the expected lifecycle are material inhomogeneities, like pores and inclusions as origin for fatigue cracks, that have not been detected by NDE. However, material degradation by designed or unexpected loading conditions or environmental impacts can accelerate the crack initiation or growth. Conventional NDE methods are usually able to detect cracks that are formed at the end of the degradation process, but methods for early detection of fatigue, creep, and corrosion are still a matter of research. For conventional materials ultrasonic, electromagnetic, or thermographic methods have been demonstrated as promising. Other approaches are focused to surface damage by using optical methods or characterization of the residual surface stresses that can significantly affect the creation of fatigue cracks. For conventional metallic materials, material models for nucleation and propagation of damage have been successfully applied for several years. Material microstructure/property relations are well established and the effect of loading conditions on the component life can be simulated. For advanced materials, for example carbon matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites, the processes of nucleation and propagation of damage is still not fully understood. For these materials NDE methods can not only be used for the periodic inspections, but can significantly contribute to the material scientific knowledge to understand and model the behavior of composite materials.

  8. Evaluating Hospital-Based Surveillance for Outbreak Detection in Bangladesh: Analysis of Healthcare Utilization Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolay, Birgit; Salje, Henrik; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Homaira, Nusrat; Iuliano, A. Danielle; Paul, Repon C.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Cauchemez, Simon; Gurley, Emily S.

    2017-01-01

    Background The International Health Regulations outline core requirements to ensure the detection of public health threats of international concern. Assessing the capacity of surveillance systems to detect these threats is crucial for evaluating a country’s ability to meet these requirements. Methods and Findings We propose a framework to evaluate the sensitivity and representativeness of hospital-based surveillance and apply it to severe neurological infectious diseases and fatal respiratory infectious diseases in Bangladesh. We identified cases in selected communities within surveillance hospital catchment areas using key informant and house-to-house surveys and ascertained where cases had sought care. We estimated the probability of surveillance detecting different sized outbreaks by distance from the surveillance hospital and compared characteristics of cases identified in the community and cases attending surveillance hospitals. We estimated that surveillance detected 26% (95% CI 18%–33%) of severe neurological disease cases and 18% (95% CI 16%–21%) of fatal respiratory disease cases residing at 10 km distance from a surveillance hospital. Detection probabilities decreased markedly with distance. The probability of detecting small outbreaks (three cases) dropped below 50% at distances greater than 26 km for severe neurological disease and at distances greater than 7 km for fatal respiratory disease. Characteristics of cases attending surveillance hospitals were largely representative of all cases; however, neurological disease cases aged <5 y or from the lowest socioeconomic group and fatal respiratory disease cases aged ≥60 y were underrepresented. Our estimates of outbreak detection rely on suspected cases that attend a surveillance hospital receiving laboratory confirmation of disease and being reported to the surveillance system. The extent to which this occurs will depend on disease characteristics (e.g., severity and symptom specificity) and

  9. Early warning signal for dengue outbreaks and identification of high risk areas for dengue fever in Colombia using climate and non-climate datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Seok; Carabali, Mabel; Lim, Jacqueline K; Herrera, Victor M; Park, Il-Yeon; Villar, Luis; Farlow, Andrew

    2017-07-10

    Dengue has been prevalent in Colombia with high risk of outbreaks in various locations. While the prediction of dengue epidemics will bring significant benefits to the society, accurate forecasts have been a challenge. Given competing health demands in Colombia, it is critical to consider the effective use of the limited healthcare resources by identifying high risk areas for dengue fever. The Climate Risk Factor (CRF) index was constructed based upon temperature, precipitation, and humidity. Considering the conditions necessary for vector survival and transmission behavior, elevation and population density were taken into account. An Early Warning Signal (EWS) model was developed by estimating the elasticity of the climate risk factor function to detect dengue epidemics. The climate risk factor index was further estimated at the smaller geographical unit (5 km by 5 km resolution) to identify populations at high risk. From January 2007 to December 2015, the Early Warning Signal model successfully detected 75% of the total number of outbreaks 1 ~ 5 months ahead of time, 12.5% in the same month, and missed 12.5% of all outbreaks. The climate risk factors showed that populations at high risk are concentrated in the Western part of Colombia where more suitable climate conditions for vector mosquitoes and the high population level were observed compared to the East. This study concludes that it is possible to detect dengue outbreaks ahead of time and identify populations at high risk for various disease prevention activities based upon observed climate and non-climate information. The study outcomes can be used to minimize potential societal losses by prioritizing limited healthcare services and resources, as well as by conducting vector control activities prior to experiencing epidemics.

  10. Detection of Saint Louis encephalitis virus in dengue-suspected cases during a dengue 3 outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes; Mondini, Adriano; Bronzoni, Roberta Vieira de Moraes; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Ferro, Bianca Piovezan; Cabrera, Eliana Márcia Sotello; Figueiredo, Luis Tadeu Moraes; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2011-03-01

    Arboviruses are frequently associated with outbreaks in humans and represent a serious public health problem. Among the Brazilian arboviruses, Mayaro virus, Dengue virus (DENV), Yellow Fever virus, Rocio virus, Saint Louis Encephalitis virus (SLEV), and Oropouche virus are responsible for most of human cases. All these arboviruses usually produce undistinguishable acute febrile illness, especially in the acute phase of infection. In this study we investigated the presence of arboviruses in sera of 519 patients presenting acute febrile illness, during a dengue outbreak in São José do Rio Preto City (São Paulo, Brazil). A multiplex-nested RT-polymerase chain reaction assay was applied to detect and identify the main Brazilian arboviruses (Flavivirus, Alphavirus, and Orthobunyavirus genera). The molecular analysis showed that 365 samples were positive to DENV-3, 5 to DENV-2, and 8 to SLEV. Among the positive samples, one coinfection was detected between DENV-2 and DENV-3. The phylogenetic analysis of the SLEV envelope gene indicated that the virus circulating in city is related to lineage V strains. These results indicated that during that large DENV-3 outbreak in 2006, different arboviruses cocirculated causing human disease. Thus, it is necessary to have an efficient surveillance system to control the dissemination of these arboviruses in the population.

  11. Comparison of molecular detection methods for pertussis in children during a state-wide outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, X; Zerr, D M; Kronman, M P; Adler, A L; Berry, J E; Rich, S; Buccat, A M; Xu, M; Englund, J A

    2016-04-27

    A state-wide pertussis outbreak occurred in Washington during the winter-spring months of 2012, concurrent with respiratory viral season. We compared performance characteristics of a laboratory-developed pertussis PCR (LD-PCR for Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, and Bordetella holmesii) and rapid multiplex PCR (RM-PCR) for respiratory viruses (FilmArray™, BioFire, B. pertussis data unblinded following FDA approval post outbreak). We analyzed three cohorts of patients using physician testing orders as a proxy for clinical suspicion for pertussis or respiratory viruses: Cohort 1, tested by LD-PCR for pertussis pathogens only by nasopharyngeal swab; Cohort 2, by RM-PCR for respiratory viruses only by mid-nasal turbinate swab; and Cohort 3, by both methods. B. pertussis was detected in a total of 25 of the 490 patients in Cohort 3 in which LD-PCR detected 20/25 (80 %) cases and the RM-PCR detected 24/25 (96 %; p = 0.2). Pertussis pathogens were detected in 21/584 (3.6 %) of samples from Cohort 1 where clinicians had a relatively strong suspicion for pertussis. In contrast, B. pertussis was detected in only 4/3071 (0.1 %) specimens from Cohort 2 where suspicion for pertussis was lower (p < 0.001 for comparison with Cohort 1). In summary, the two laboratory methods were comparable for the detection of B. pertussis.

  12. Serological and Molecular Detection of Senecavirus A Associated with an Outbreak of Swine Idiopathic Vesicular Disease and Neonatal Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez-Lirola, Luis Gabriel; Rademacher, Chris; Linhares, Daniel; Harmon, Karen; Rotolo, Marisa; Sun, Yaxuan; Baum, David H; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Piñeyro, Pablo

    2016-08-01

    We performed a longitudinal field study in a swine breeding herd that presented with an outbreak of vesicular disease (VD) that was associated with an increase in neonatal mortality. Initially, a USDA Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) investigation confirmed the presence of Senecavirus A (SVA) and ruled out the presence of exotic agents that produce vesicular lesions, e.g., foot-and-mouth disease virus and others. Subsequently, serum samples, tonsil swabs, and feces were collected from sows (n = 22) and their piglets (n = 33) beginning 1 week after the onset of the clinical outbreak and weekly for 6 weeks. The presence of SVA RNA was evaluated in all specimens collected by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) targeting a conserved region of the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR). The serological response (IgG) to SVA was evaluated by the weekly testing of sow and piglet serum samples on a SVA VP1 recombinant protein (rVP1) indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The rVP1 ELISA detected seroconversion against SVA in clinically affected and non-clinically affected sows at early stages of the outbreak as well as maternal SVA antibodies in offspring. Overall, the absence of vesicles (gross lesions) in SVA-infected animals and the variability of RT-qPCR results among specimen type demonstrated that a diagnostic algorithm based on the combination of clinical observations, RT-qPCR in multiple diagnostic specimens, and serology are essential to ensure an accurate diagnosis of SVA. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Ebola Virus Disease: Rapid Diagnosis and Timely Case Reporting are Critical to the Early Response for Outbreak Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Lola V

    2015-09-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a life-threatening zoonosis caused by infection with the Ebola virus. Since the first reported EVD outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, several small outbreaks have been reported in central Africa with about 2,400 cases occurring between 1976 and 2013. The 2013-2015 EVD outbreak in west Africa is the first documented outbreak in this region and the largest ever with over 27,000 cases and more than 11,000 deaths. Although EVD transmission rates have recently decreased in west Africa, this crisis continues to threaten global health and security, particularly since infected travelers could spread EVD to other resource-limited areas of the world. Because vaccines and drugs are not yet licensed for EVD, outbreak control is dependent on the use of non-pharmaceutical interventions (e.g., infection control practices, isolation of EVD cases, contact tracing with follow-up and quarantine, sanitary burial, health education). However, delays in diagnosing and reporting EVD cases in less accessible rural areas continue to hamper control efforts. New advances in rapid diagnostics for identifying presumptive EVD cases and in mobile-based technologies for communicating critical health-related information should facilitate deployment of an early response to prevent the amplification of sporadic EVD cases into large-scale outbreaks. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Media scanning and verification system as a supplemental tool to disease outbreak detection & reporting at National Centre for Disease Control, Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajeev; Karad, A B; Dash, B; Dhariwal, A C; Chauhan, L S; Lal, S

    2012-03-01

    Media scanning for unusual health events can efficiently supplement conventional communicable disease surveillance systems for early detection and response to outbreaks. There is a need to rapidly process and appropriately disseminate the media reports on unusual health events for timely action. Hence to address this need in India a Media Scanning & Verification Cell (MSVC) was established in July 2008 at the National Centre for Disease Control, Delhi. MSVC is supervised by Epidemiologists working in Central Surveillance Unit of IDSP. This unique system monitors Global and National Media sources such as National and Regional print media, news on internet, news wires and websites, news channels and news shared by partners like Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN), Canada, WHO and other International and national agencies. The information is shared to the districts affected and District Surveillance Officer (DSO) and his team is expected to investigate and revert through the internet about the correctness and action taken. A mean number of 4 Media Alert reports are generated each day. A total of 1685 alerts were reported in a period between July 2008 to December 2011. Of these 1241 (73.7%) were verified as real events and 183 (10.9%) were considered outbreaks by local health officials. Most events were captured through internet (57%) followed by the print media (24%). The most common disease events identified were food-borne and diarrhea (29.1%), dengue (10.68%), influenza & respiratory disease (8.1%) and malaria (7.4%). The sensitivity of MSVC to detect outbreaks was 14.8% with more than half of outbreaks detected before they were identified by the conventional surveillance system. It has proven to be a highly effective supplemental tool to official surveillance system in the detection of early warning signals and hence timely detection and management of public health threats in India.

  15. Rapid detection of foodborne botulism outbreaks facilitated by epidemiological linking of cases: implications for food defense and public health response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, Ryan W; Hedberg, Craig W

    2012-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop an understanding of the descriptive epidemiology of foodborne botulism in the context of outbreak detection and food defense. This study used 1993-2008 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Annual Summaries of Notifiable Diseases, 2003-2006 data from the Bacterial Foodborne and Diarrheal Disease National Case Surveillance Annual Reports, and 1993-2008 data from the Annual Listing of Foodborne Disease Outbreaks. Published outbreak investigation reports were identified through a PubMed search of MEDLINE citations for botulism outbreaks. Fifty-eight foodborne botulism outbreaks were reported to CDC between 1993 and 2008. Four hundred sixteen foodborne botulism cases were documented; 205 (49%) were associated with outbreaks. Familial connections and co-hospitalization of initial presenting cases were common in large outbreaks (>5 cases). In these outbreaks, the time from earliest exposure to outbreak recognition varied dramatically (range, 48-216 h). The identification of epidemiologic linkages between foodborne botulism cases is a critical part of diagnostic evaluation and outbreak detection. Investigation of an intentionally contaminated food item with a long shelf life and widespread distribution may be delayed until an astute physician suspects foodborne botulism; suspicion of foodborne botulism occurs more frequently when more than one case is hospitalized concurrently. In an effort to augment national botulism surveillance and antitoxin release systems and to improve food defense and public health preparedness efforts, medical organizations and Homeland Security officials should emphasize the education and training of medical personnel to improve foodborne botulism diagnostic capabilities to recognize single foodborne botulism cases and to look for epidemiologic linkages between suspected cases.

  16. WMAP Detection of Early Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has mapped the full sky in Stokes I, Q, and U parameters at frequencies 23, 33, 41, 61, and 94 GHz. We detect correlations between the temperature and polarization maps significant at more than 10 standard deviations. The correlations are inconsistent with instrument noise and are significantly larger than the upper limits established for potential systematic errors. The correlations are present in all WMAP frequency bands with similar amplitude from 23 to 94 GHz, and are consistent with a superposition of a CMB signal with a weak foreground. The fitted CMB component is robust against different data combinations and fitting techniques. On small angular scales the WMAP data show the temperature-polarization correlation expected from adiabatic density perturbations. The data for $\\ell > 20$ agree well with the signal predicted solely from the temperature power spectra, with no additional free parameters. The existence of correlations on super-horizon scales provides significant support for inflationary cosmologies. We detect excess power on large angular scales compared to predictions based on the temperature power spectra alone. The excess power is well described by reionization at redshift $11 reionization optical depth yields results consistent with the best-fit $\\Lambda$CDM model, with best fit value $\\tau = 0.17 \\pm 0.04$ at 68\\% confidence, including systematic and foreground uncertainties. This trough in the absorption spectra of distant quasars, and implies that the universe has a complex ionization history. I will discuss the WMAP data and its implications for reionization in the early universe.

  17. Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis Breast cancer is sometimes ... cancer screening is so important. Learn more. Can Breast Cancer Be Found Early? Breast cancer is sometimes found ...

  18. Portable microfluidic raman system for rapid, label-free early disease signature detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meiye [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Davis, Ryan Wesley [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hatch, Anson [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In the early stages of infection, patients develop non-specific or no symptoms at all. While waiting for identification of the infectious agent, precious window of opportunity for early intervention is lost. The standard diagnostics require affinity reagents and sufficient pathogen titers to reach the limit of detection. In the event of a disease outbreak, triaging the at-risk population rapidly and reliably for quarantine and countermeasure is more important than the identification of the pathogen by name. To expand Sandia's portfolio of Biological threat management capabilities, we will utilize Raman spectrometry to analyze immune subsets in whole blood to rapidly distinguish infected from non-infected, and bacterial from viral infection, for the purpose of triage during an emergency outbreak. The goal of this one year LDRD is to determine whether Raman spectroscopy can provide label-free detection of early disease signatures, and define a miniaturized Raman detection system meeting requirements for low- resource settings.

  19. Results from the National Legionella Outbreak Detection Program, the Netherlands, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Boer, Jeroen W; Euser, Sjoerd M; Brandsema, Petra; Reijnen, Linda; Bruin, Jacob P

    2015-07-01

    In 2002, the National Legionella Outbreak Detection Program was implemented in the Netherlands to detect and eliminate potential sources of organisms that cause Legionnaires' disease (LD). During 2002-2012, a total of 1,991 patients with LD were reported, and 1,484 source investigations were performed. Of those sources investigated, 24.7% were positive for Legionella spp. For 266 patients with LD, 105 cluster locations were identified. A genotype match was made between a strain detected in 41 patients and a strain from a source location. Despite the systematic approach used by the program, most sources of LD infections during 2002-2012 remained undiscovered. Explorative studies are needed to identify yet undiscovered reservoirs and transmission routes for Legionella bacteria, and improved laboratory techniques are needed to detect Legionella spp. in clinical samples with a high background of microbial flora (such as soil).

  20. Use of a Web Forum and an Online Questionnaire in the Detection and Investigation of an Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart Chester, Tammy L.; Taylor, Marsha; Sandhu, Jat; Forsting, Sara; Ellis, Andrea; Stirling, Rob; Galanis, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    A campylobacteriosis outbreak investigation provides relevant examples of how two web-based technologies were used in an outbreak setting and potential reasons for their usefulness. A web forum aided in outbreak detection and provided contextual insights for hypothesis generation and questionnaire development. An online questionnaire achieved a high response rate and enabled rapid preliminary data analysis that allowed for a targeted environmental investigation. The usefulness of these tools may in part be attributed to the existence of an internet savvy, close-knit community. Given the right population, public health officials should consider web-based technologies, including web fora and online questionnaires as valuable tools in public health investigations. PMID:23569598

  1. Genotyping of Norovirus strains detected in outbreaks between April 2002 and March 2003 in Osaka City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yoshiyuki; Iritani, Nobuhiro; Kubo, Hideyuki; Kaida, Atsushi; Murakami, Tsukasa; Haruki, Kosuke; Nishio, Osamu; Ayata, Minoru; Ogura, Hisashi

    2005-01-01

    Noroviruses (NVs) are the major cause of food- and waterborne nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Japan. Between April 2002 and March 2003, a total of 111 fecal specimens from 40 outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Osaka City, Japan were subject to NV detection. Seventy-two samples (64.9%) from 31 outbreaks (77.5%) were NV positive by a real time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay. To further determine the genotype of individual NV strains, we sequenced the capsid N-terminal/shell (N/S) domain of some representative strains from each outbreak. The 51 NV strains detected in this study were segregated into 15 genotypes (6 in genogroup I and 9 in genogroup II), and GII/5 genotype NV was a dominant outbreak genotype.

  2. Monitoring of nosocomial invasive aspergillosis and early evidence of an outbreak using cumulative sum tests (CUSUM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti, J; Porcher, R; Ribaud, P; Lacroix, C; Jolivet, V; Hamane, S; Derouin, F

    2010-09-01

    In order to provide a statistically based evaluation of the incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) over time, we applied the cumulative sums (CUSUM) methodology, which was developed for quality control and has already been applied for the surveillance of hospital-acquired infections. Cases of IA were recorded during a 5-year period. Incidence rates of cases assumed to be hospital-acquired, i.e. nosocomial IA (NIA), were analysed using CUSUM tests. Relationships between NIA, fungal contamination and construction or renovation work were tested using time-series methods. Between January 2002 and December 2006, 81 cases of NIA were recorded. CUSUM analysis of NIA incidence showed no significant deviation from the expected monthly number of cases until August 2005, and then the CUSUM crossed the decision limit, i.e. identified a significant increase in NIA as compared with the reference period (January 2002 to December 2004). Up to April 2006, the learning-curve CUSUM stayed over its limit, supporting an ongoing outbreak involving 24 patients, and then it significantly decreased in May 2006. Follow-up after May 2006 indicated no out-of-control situation, supporting a return to the baseline situation. In haematology wards, significant links were found between NIA incidence and fungal contamination of several sites at each ward (mainly unprotected common sites). An environmental source of contamination could be suspected, but no significant relationship was found between NIA incidence and ongoing construction or renovation. In conclusion, the CUSUM test proved to be well suited for real-time monitoring of NIA and for early identification and follow-up of an outbreak.

  3. Evaluating Surveillance Strategies for the Early Detection of Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin, Arianna; Stegeman, Arjan; Marangon, Stefano; Klinkenberg, Don

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the early detection of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in poultry has become increasingly important, given their potential to mutate into highly pathogenic viruses. However, evaluations of LPAI surveillance have mainly focused on prevalence and not on the ability to act as an early warning system. We used a simulation model based on data from Italian LPAI epidemics in turkeys to evaluate different surveillance strategies in terms of their performance as early warning systems. The strategies differed in terms of sample size, sampling frequency, diagnostic tests, and whether or not active surveillance (i.e., routine laboratory testing of farms) was performed, and were also tested under different epidemiological scenarios. We compared surveillance strategies by simulating within-farm outbreaks. The output measures were the proportion of infected farms that are detected and the farm reproduction number (Rh). The first one provides an indication of the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect within-farm infections, whereas Rh reflects the effectiveness of outbreak detection (i.e., if detection occurs soon enough to bring an epidemic under control). Increasing the sampling frequency was the most effective means of improving the timeliness of detection (i.e., it occurs earlier), whereas increasing the sample size increased the likelihood of detection. Surveillance was only effective in preventing an epidemic if actions were taken within two days of sampling. The strategies were not affected by the quality of the diagnostic test, although performing both serological and virological assays increased the sensitivity of active surveillance. Early detection of LPAI outbreaks in turkeys can be achieved by increasing the sampling frequency for active surveillance, though very frequent sampling may not be sustainable in the long term. We suggest that, when no LPAI virus is circulating yet and there is a low risk of virus introduction, a

  4. Detection and Quantification of Norovirus in Raspberries Implicated in Disease Outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Vinje, Jan; Böttiger, Blenda

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, raspberries have emerged as high risk foods for norovirus (NoV) outbreaks. However, the lack of robust and standardized methods has limited our understanding of the level of NoV contamination of raspberries correlated to public health risk. We present an optimized and quality...... controlled protocol for the viral RNA extraction using NucliSens and Plant RNA Isolation Aid and detection by RT-qPCR including bovine serum albumin of NoV in 25 g of raspberries. The protocol was applied on raspberries that had been linked epidemiologically to nine NoV outbreaks which had occurred...... of detection was 119 and 140 RT-qPCR units/25g for NoV GI or GII, respectively. Nineteen (37%) of 51 raspberry samples tested positive for GI and/or GII NoVs with the respective geometric mean values of 70 (range 22-330) or 29 (range 3-217) detectable genome copies/g of raspberries, when corrected using...

  5. Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Polanco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008–2010 taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts.

  6. Detection of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks by CUSUM-based overcrowd-severe-respiratory-disease-index model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Carlos; Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Macías, Alejandro E; Samaniego, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Villanueva-Martínez, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008-2010) taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts.

  7. A review of epidemiological parameters from Ebola outbreaks to inform early public health decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Bento, Ana I; Mills, Harriet L; Ferguson, Neil M; Donnelly, Christl A

    2015-01-01

    The unprecedented scale of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa has, as of 29 April 2015, resulted in more than 10,884 deaths among 26,277 cases. Prior to the ongoing outbreak, Ebola virus disease (EVD) caused relatively small outbreaks (maximum outbreak size 425 in Gulu, Uganda) in isolated populations in central Africa. Here, we have compiled a comprehensive database of estimates of epidemiological parameters based on data from past outbreaks, including the incubation period distribution, case fatality rate, basic reproduction number (R 0 ), effective reproduction number (R t ) and delay distributions. We have compared these to parameter estimates from the ongoing outbreak in West Africa. The ongoing outbreak, because of its size, provides a unique opportunity to better understand transmission patterns of EVD. We have not performed a meta-analysis of the data, but rather summarize the estimates by virus from comprehensive investigations of EVD and Marburg outbreaks over the past 40 years. These estimates can be used to parameterize transmission models to improve understanding of initial spread of EVD outbreaks and to inform surveillance and control guidelines.

  8. Early detection of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Løkke, Anders; Dahl, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Early detection enables the possibility for interventions to reduce the future burden of COPD. The Danish National Board of Health recommends that individuals >35 years with tobacco/occupational exposure, and at least 1 respiratory symptom should be offered a spirometry to facilitate early detect...

  9. Typhoid fever acquired in the United States, 1999–2010: epidemiology, microbiology, and use of a space–time scan statistic for outbreak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    IMANISHI, M.; NEWTON, A. E.; VIEIRA, A. R.; GONZALEZ-AVILES, G.; KENDALL SCOTT, M. E.; MANIKONDA, K.; MAXWELL, T. N.; HALPIN, J. L.; FREEMAN, M. M.; MEDALLA, F.; AYERS, T. L.; DERADO, G.; MAHON, B. E.; MINTZ, E. D.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Although rare, typhoid fever cases acquired in the United States continue to be reported. Detection and investigation of outbreaks in these domestically acquired cases offer opportunities to identify chronic carriers. We searched surveillance and laboratory databases for domestically acquired typhoid fever cases, used a space–time scan statistic to identify clusters, and classified clusters as outbreaks or non-outbreaks. From 1999 to 2010, domestically acquired cases accounted for 18% of 3373 reported typhoid fever cases; their isolates were less often multidrug-resistant (2% vs. 15%) compared to isolates from travel-associated cases. We identified 28 outbreaks and two possible outbreaks within 45 space–time clusters of ⩾2 domestically acquired cases, including three outbreaks involving ⩾2 molecular subtypes. The approach detected seven of the ten outbreaks published in the literature or reported to CDC. Although this approach did not definitively identify any previously unrecognized outbreaks, it showed the potential to detect outbreaks of typhoid fever that may escape detection by routine analysis of surveillance data. Sixteen outbreaks had been linked to a carrier. Every case of typhoid fever acquired in a non-endemic country warrants thorough investigation. Space–time scan statistics, together with shoe-leather epidemiology and molecular subtyping, may improve outbreak detection. PMID:25427666

  10. Typhoid fever acquired in the United States, 1999-2010: epidemiology, microbiology, and use of a space-time scan statistic for outbreak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, M; Newton, A E; Vieira, A R; Gonzalez-Aviles, G; Kendall Scott, M E; Manikonda, K; Maxwell, T N; Halpin, J L; Freeman, M M; Medalla, F; Ayers, T L; Derado, G; Mahon, B E; Mintz, E D

    2015-08-01

    Although rare, typhoid fever cases acquired in the United States continue to be reported. Detection and investigation of outbreaks in these domestically acquired cases offer opportunities to identify chronic carriers. We searched surveillance and laboratory databases for domestically acquired typhoid fever cases, used a space-time scan statistic to identify clusters, and classified clusters as outbreaks or non-outbreaks. From 1999 to 2010, domestically acquired cases accounted for 18% of 3373 reported typhoid fever cases; their isolates were less often multidrug-resistant (2% vs. 15%) compared to isolates from travel-associated cases. We identified 28 outbreaks and two possible outbreaks within 45 space-time clusters of ⩾2 domestically acquired cases, including three outbreaks involving ⩾2 molecular subtypes. The approach detected seven of the ten outbreaks published in the literature or reported to CDC. Although this approach did not definitively identify any previously unrecognized outbreaks, it showed the potential to detect outbreaks of typhoid fever that may escape detection by routine analysis of surveillance data. Sixteen outbreaks had been linked to a carrier. Every case of typhoid fever acquired in a non-endemic country warrants thorough investigation. Space-time scan statistics, together with shoe-leather epidemiology and molecular subtyping, may improve outbreak detection.

  11. Early detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected cattle using a dry filter air sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious livestock disease of high economic impact. Early detection of FMD virus (FMDV) is fundamental for rapid outbreak control. Air sampling collection has been demonstrated as a useful technique for detection of FMDV RNA in infected animals, related to ...

  12. Ethics dilemmas of early detection of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the ethics dilemmas of the early detection of overweight and obesity. Methods: Analysis of the ethical aspects of early detection. Results: The early detection of overweight and obesity entails a number of ethical dilemmas because it may both be helpful and harmful. It may help...... people to lead a healthier life and non-detection could be considered neglectful. It may, however, cause anxiety, interfere with people’s integrity, focus only on individual causes and responsibilities, cause stigmatization and have adverse effects by inducing weight gain. Conclusions: Documentation...

  13. Molecular detection of bovine coronavirus in a diarrhea outbreak in pasture-feeding Nellore steers in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Juliane; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide diarrhea outbreaks in cattle herds are more frequently detected in calves being that diarrhea outbreaks in adult cattle are not common. Winter dysentery (WD) is a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) enteric infection that is more reported in Northern hemisphere. Seasonal outbreaks of WD in adult cattle occur mainly in dairy cows. WD has not been described in beef cattle herds of tropical countries. This study describes the molecular detection of BCoV in a diarrhea outbreak in beef cattle steers (Nellore) raised on pasture in Parana, southern Brazil. During the outbreak, the farm had about 600 fattening steers. Watery and bloody diarrhea unresponsive to systemic broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy reveals a morbidity rate of approximately 15 %. The BCoV N gene was identified in 42.9 % (6/14) of the diarrheic fecal samples evaluated by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (SN-PCR) technique. Other enteric microorganisms occasionally identified in adult cattle and evaluated in this study such as bovine groups A, B, and C rotavirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine torovirus, aichivirus B, and Eimeria sp. were not identified in the fecal samples. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first description of the BCoV diagnosis in fecal samples collected in a diarrhea outbreak in adult beef cattle grazing in the grass in a tropical country.

  14. A novel experience in the use of control charts for the detection of nosocomial infection outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare different control charts to monitor the nosocomial infection rate per 1,000 patient-days. METHODS: The control charts considered in this study were the traditional Shewhart chart and a variation of this, the Cumulative Sum and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average charts. RESULTS: We evaluated 238 nosocomial infections that were registered in the intensive care unit and were detected by the Committee for Nosocomial Infection Control in a university hospital in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in 2004 and 2005. The results showed that the traditional Shewhart chart was the most appropriate method for monitoring periods with large deviations, while the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average and Cumulative Sum charts were better for monitoring periods with smaller deviations of the mean infection rate. CONCLUSION: The ability to detect nosocomial outbreaks was improved by using the information provided by all three different control charts.

  15. Detection of the Northeastern African Rift Valley Fever Virus Lineage During the 2015 Outbreak in Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Ndeye Sakha; Bâ, Hampâté; Fall, Gamou; Ishagh, Elkhalil; Diallo, Mamadou Y; Sow, Abdourahmane; Sembene, Pape Mbacké; Faye, Ousmane; El Kouri, Brahim; Sidi, Mohamed Lemine; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2017-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute viral anthropozoonosis that causes epizootics and epidemics among livestock population and humans. Multiple emergences and reemergences of the virus have occurred in Mauritania over the last decade. This article describes the outbreak that occurred in 2015 in Mauritania and reports the results of serological and molecular investigations of blood samples collected from suspected RVF patients. An RVF outbreak was reported from 14 September to 26 November 2015 in Mauritania. Overall, 184 suspected cases from different localities were identified by 26 health facilities. Blood samples were collected and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at the Institut Pasteur de Dakar (IPD). Sequencing of partial genomes and phylogenetic analyses were performed on RT-PCR-positive samples. As part of routine surveillance at IPD, samples were also screened for dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Zika, and Chikungunya viruses by ELISA and RT-PCR. Of the 184 suspected cases, there were 57 confirmed cases and 12 deaths. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences indicated an emergence of a virus that originated from Northeastern Africa. Our results show co-circulation of other arboviruses in Mauritania-dengue, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, and West Nile viruses. The Northeastern Africa lineage of RVF was responsible for the outbreak in Mauritania in 2015. Co-circulation of multiples arboviruses was detected. This calls for systematic differential diagnosis and highlights the need to strengthen arbovirus surveillance in Africa.

  16. Molecular characterization of Sapovirus detected in a gastroenteritis outbreak at a wedding hall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yasutaka; Ootsuka, Yuka; Kondo, Reiko; Oseto, Mitsuaki; Doi, Mitsunori; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Ueda, Tetsuroo; Kondo, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Wakita, Takaji; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Naokazu; Oka, Tomoichiro

    2010-04-01

    Sapovirus (SaV) is an important pathogen of human acute gastroenteritis. A gastroenteritis outbreak occurred at a wedding hall in October 2007 in Ehime Prefecture, Japan. One hundred nine people who had either attended wedding parties or had eaten a box lunch at a conference held at the same hall complained of gastroenteritis symptoms. Among these 109 people, stool specimens from 56 patients were available for pathogen screening, and 20 (35.7%) of these specimens were positive for SaV, of whom 18 showed symptoms. The numbers of cDNA copies of the specimens ranged from 2.36 x 10(6) to 3.03 x 10(10) for symptomatic patients, and 2.19 x 10(6) and 1.18 x 10(9) per gram of stool for two asymptomatic food handlers. The incubation periods of the 18 symptomatic patients ranged from 14.5 to 99.5 hr. Identical nucleotide sequence types of SaV; that is, a single synonymous nucleotide difference (transition) or microheterogeneity, was detected in stool specimens from the symptomatic patients and the asymptomatic food handlers, with the direct nucleotide sequence of approximately 2.3 kb 3' end of the genome. Based on the phylogenetic analysis with the complete capsid nucleotide sequence, these strains were clustered into genogroup IV. This outbreak was thought to be caused by a single source, and underscores the importance of proper hygiene in the environment and/or in food-handling practices to control SaV outbreaks. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Constructing rigorous and broad biosurveillance networks for detecting emerging zoonotic outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Brown

    Full Text Available Determining optimal surveillance networks for an emerging pathogen is difficult since it is not known beforehand what the characteristics of a pathogen will be or where it will emerge. The resources for surveillance of infectious diseases in animals and wildlife are often limited and mathematical modeling can play a supporting role in examining a wide range of scenarios of pathogen spread. We demonstrate how a hierarchy of mathematical and statistical tools can be used in surveillance planning help guide successful surveillance and mitigation policies for a wide range of zoonotic pathogens. The model forecasts can help clarify the complexities of potential scenarios, and optimize biosurveillance programs for rapidly detecting infectious diseases. Using the highly pathogenic zoonotic H5N1 avian influenza 2006-2007 epidemic in Nigeria as an example, we determined the risk for infection for localized areas in an outbreak and designed biosurveillance stations that are effective for different pathogen strains and a range of possible outbreak locations. We created a general multi-scale, multi-host stochastic SEIR epidemiological network model, with both short and long-range movement, to simulate the spread of an infectious disease through Nigerian human, poultry, backyard duck, and wild bird populations. We chose parameter ranges specific to avian influenza (but not to a particular strain and used a Latin hypercube sample experimental design to investigate epidemic predictions in a thousand simulations. We ranked the risk of local regions by the number of times they became infected in the ensemble of simulations. These spatial statistics were then complied into a potential risk map of infection. Finally, we validated the results with a known outbreak, using spatial analysis of all the simulation runs to show the progression matched closely with the observed location of the farms infected in the 2006-2007 epidemic.

  18. Constructing rigorous and broad biosurveillance networks for detecting emerging zoonotic outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mac; Moore, Leslie; McMahon, Benjamin; Powell, Dennis; LaBute, Montiago; Hyman, James M; Rivas, Ariel; Jankowski, Mark; Berendzen, Joel; Loeppky, Jason; Manore, Carrie; Fair, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Determining optimal surveillance networks for an emerging pathogen is difficult since it is not known beforehand what the characteristics of a pathogen will be or where it will emerge. The resources for surveillance of infectious diseases in animals and wildlife are often limited and mathematical modeling can play a supporting role in examining a wide range of scenarios of pathogen spread. We demonstrate how a hierarchy of mathematical and statistical tools can be used in surveillance planning help guide successful surveillance and mitigation policies for a wide range of zoonotic pathogens. The model forecasts can help clarify the complexities of potential scenarios, and optimize biosurveillance programs for rapidly detecting infectious diseases. Using the highly pathogenic zoonotic H5N1 avian influenza 2006-2007 epidemic in Nigeria as an example, we determined the risk for infection for localized areas in an outbreak and designed biosurveillance stations that are effective for different pathogen strains and a range of possible outbreak locations. We created a general multi-scale, multi-host stochastic SEIR epidemiological network model, with both short and long-range movement, to simulate the spread of an infectious disease through Nigerian human, poultry, backyard duck, and wild bird populations. We chose parameter ranges specific to avian influenza (but not to a particular strain) and used a Latin hypercube sample experimental design to investigate epidemic predictions in a thousand simulations. We ranked the risk of local regions by the number of times they became infected in the ensemble of simulations. These spatial statistics were then complied into a potential risk map of infection. Finally, we validated the results with a known outbreak, using spatial analysis of all the simulation runs to show the progression matched closely with the observed location of the farms infected in the 2006-2007 epidemic.

  19. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of peste des petits ruminants virus isolated from outbreaks in Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, M; Zohari, S; Saeed, A; Khan, Q M; Abubakar, M; LeBlanc, N; Berg, M

    2012-02-01

    Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is an important viral disease of small ruminants and is endemic in Pakistan. In the following study, samples from two outbreaks of PPR in goats have been subjected to laboratory investigations. The Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV) genome was detected using both conventional and real-time PCR. Genetic characterization of the local PPRV field isolates was conducted by sequencing 322 bp of the fusion (F) gene and 255 bp of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. The phylogenetic tree based on the F gene clustered samples from both outbreaks into lineage 4 along with other Asian isolates, specifically into subcluster 1 along with isolates from Middle East. Analysis of N gene revealed a different pattern. In this case, the Pakistani samples clustered with Chinese, Tajikistani and Iranian isolates, which probably represents the true geographical pattern of virus circulation. This is the first report presenting the phylogenetic tree based on N gene as well as performing a parallel comparison of the trees of F and N gene together from Pakistani isolates. The results of this study shed light on the PPRV population in Pakistan and emphasize the importance of using molecular methods to understand the epidemiology. Such understanding is essential in any efforts to control the number and impact of outbreaks that are occurring in endemic countries such as Pakistan, especially in the current scenario where OIE and FAO are eager to control and subsequently eradicate PPR from the globe, as has been achieved for Rinderpest. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Defeating cancer with early detection

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A meeting of scientists and industry experts will hold an open review of the Three Dimension Complete Body Screening System (3D-CBS) on the 1st of July 2003. This new imaging technlogy is potentially powerful and safe enough to offer routine screening of healthy patients for early signs of cancer (1 page).

  1. Molecular detection and sequence analysis of human caliciviruses from acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, T; Berke, T; Reuter, G; Szûcs, G; Matson, D O; Jiang, X

    2002-08-01

    Three viral gastroenteritis (VGE) outbreaks that occurred in 1998-1999, in Hungary were investigated for the presence of human caliciviruses (HuCVs). HuCVs in stool specimens were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primer pair 289/290, which was designed based on the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) sequence. RT-PCR results were confirmed by sequencing showing that all three outbreak strains belonged to genogroup II of "Norwalk-like viruses" (NLVs). Two strains had high sequence identity with strains in known genetic clusters (Hawaii and Lordsdale clusters). The third strain (MOH) had distinct RdRp sequence, sharing 77/86% (nt/aa) identity with Snow Mountain virus (SMV), the closest genogroup II virus. To characterize MOH further, we cloned, sequenced, and expressed in baculovirus its capsid gene. It had 75/79% (nt/aa) identity with SMV, but 97/98% (nt/aa) identity with NLV/Hillingdon/90/UK, a recently identified genetic cluster of HuCVs. The recombinant MOH (rMOH) capsid protein self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs), which is antigenically distinct from other recombinant HuCV capsid antigens available in our laboratory. Further study of this VLP will have important applications in antigenic characterization and diagnosis of HuCVs.

  2. A generalized-growth model to characterize the early ascending phase of infectious disease outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone; Chowell, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    the importance of sub-exponential growth for forecasting purposes.Results: We applied the generalized-growth model to 20 infectious disease outbreaks representing a range of transmission routes. We uncovered epidemic profiles ranging from very slow growth (p = 0.14 for the Ebola outbreak in Bomi, Liberia (2014...... African Ebola epidemic provided a unique opportunity to explore how growth profiles vary by geography; analysis of the largest district-level outbreaks revealed substantial growth variations (mean p = 0.59, range: 0.14–0.97). The districts of Margibi in Liberia and Bombali and Bo in Sierra Leone had near...

  3. A generalized-growth model to characterize the early ascending phase of infectious disease outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone; Chowell, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    the importance of sub-exponential growth for forecasting purposes.Results: We applied the generalized-growth model to 20 infectious disease outbreaks representing a range of transmission routes. We uncovered epidemic profiles ranging from very slow growth (p = 0.14 for the Ebola outbreak in Bomi, Liberia (2014...... African Ebola epidemic provided a unique opportunity to explore how growth profiles vary by geography; analysis of the largest district-level outbreaks revealed substantial growth variations (mean p = 0.59, range: 0.14–0.97). The districts of Margibi in Liberia and Bombali and Bo in Sierra Leone had near...

  4. Screening and Early Detection - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on research related to cancer screening and early detection. Includes posts on diagnostic biomarkers and advances or trends in screening practices.

  5. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  6. Early detection of contagious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Estacio, Pedro; Chang, John

    2011-08-09

    This invention provides an electronic proximity apparatus and a surveillance method using such an apparatus for alerting individuals that are exposed to a contagious disease. When a person becomes symptomatic and is diagnosed as positive for a given contagious agent, individuals that have recently maintained a threshold proximity with respect to an infected individual are notified and advised to seek immediate medial care. Treatment of individuals in the very early phases of infection (pre-symptomatic) significantly reduces contagiousness of the infected population first exposed to the contagious disease, thus preventing spread of the disease throughout the general population.

  7. Early detection of congenital syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagalakshmi Chowdhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Late congenital syphilis is a very rare clinical entity, and its early diagnosis and treatment is essential. Dental findings often provide valuable evidence for the diagnosis of late congenital syphilis. It occurs due to the transmission of the disease from an infected mother to her fetus through placenta. This long forgotten disease continues to effect pregnant women resulting in perinatal morbidity and mortality. Congenital syphilis is a preventable disease, and its presence reflects a failure of prenatal care delivery system, as well as syphilis control programs. We are reporting a case of late congenital syphilis with only Hutchinson′s teeth.

  8. Early detection of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Løkke, Anders; Dahl, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Early detection enables the possibility for interventions to reduce the future burden of COPD. The Danish National Board of Health recommends that individuals >35 years with tobacco/occupational exposure, and at least 1 respiratory symptom should be offered a spirometry to facilitate early...... detection of COPD. The aim, therefore, was to provide evidence for the feasibility and impact of doing spirometry in this target population....

  9. Social and news media enable estimation of epidemiological patterns early in the 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chunara, Rumi; Andrews, Jason R; Brownstein, John S

    2012-01-01

    .... We assessed correlation of volume of cholera-related HealthMap news media reports, Twitter postings, and government cholera cases reported in the first 100 days of the 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak...

  10. Real-Time WGS-based Typing of VTEC Isolates for Surveillance and Outbreak Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup; Hasman, Henrik; Scheutz, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Fast and accurate typing of foodborne pathogens is essential for effective surveillance and the ability to detect and prevent outbreaks. Current routine typing is based on a variety of different typing techniques, making the complete typing procedure laborious, time......-consuming and expensive. With whole-genome sequencing (WGS) becoming continuously cheaper and more available, it has huge potential in both diagnostics and routine surveillance. The aim of this study was to evaluate WGS-based typing, in a real-time setup, for routine typing and surveillance of verocytotoxin-producing E...... the IonTorrent PGM benchtop sequencing technology. WGS-based typing was carried out using web-based tools, developed by the Center for Genomic Epidemiology (www.genomicepidemiology.org), for determination of MLST types, virulence genes and phylogenetic relationship between the isolates. The WGS...

  11. Topic extraction method using RED-NMF algorithm for detecting outbreak of some disease on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Afif Akbar

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is one of the biggest user of social media, this can be useful for detecting a popular trend in an era, including some disease outbreak that we get from topic extracting method, e.g.: NMF. However, the texts that were spread was an unstructured text which needs to be cleaned before being processed. One of the cleaning methods of texts is using regular expression. However, data texts from social media have a lot of variations, which means that regular expression that were being made have to adapt each data that will be cleaned, hence, we need an algorithm to "learn" the form of texts that need to be cleaned. In this paper, we purposed a framework for cleaning and extracting topic from Twitter data called RED-NMF, feature extraction and filtering method based on regular expression discovery algorithm for data cleaning and non-negative matrix factorization for extract the topic.

  12. Early detection of ecosystem regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Dakos, Vasilis; Groeger, Joachim P.;

    2012-01-01

    methods may have limited utility in ecosystem-based management as they show no or weak potential for early-warning. We therefore propose a multiple method approach for early detection of ecosystem regime shifts in monitoring data that may be useful in informing timely management actions in the face......Critical transitions between alternative stable states have been shown to occur across an array of complex systems. While our ability to identify abrupt regime shifts in natural ecosystems has improved, detection of potential early-warning signals previous to such shifts is still very limited...

  13. AUDIOMETRY-FIRST STEP TO EARLY DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavco CADIEV

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of early detection of children with sense of hearing is very complicate. If the damage of sense of hearing is not detected on time and if You don’t take adequate treatment, after seven year that is impossible. Audiometry is one step to reestablishment diagnostic with help of electronic technology.

  14. Early detection of hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schade, Götz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS is currently spreading in Germany, as well, even though there can be no talk of a comprehensive establishment. The introduction of UNHS in several federal states such as Hamburg, Hessen, and Schleswig-Holstein can be ascribed to the personal commitment of individual pediatric audiologists. Apart from the procurement of the screening equipment and the training of the staff responsible for the examination of the newborns, the tracking, i.e. the follow-up on children with conspicuous test results, is of utmost importance. This involves significant administration effort and work and is subject to data protection laws that can differ substantially between the various federal states. Among audiologists, there is consensus that within the first three months of a child’s life, a hearing loss must be diagnosed and that between the age of 3 and 6 months, the supply of a hearing aid must have been initiated. For this purpose, screening steps 1 (usually a TEOAE measurement and 2 (AABR testing need to be conducted in the maternity hospital. The follow-up of step 1 then comprises the repetition of the TEOAE- and AABR measurement for conspicuous children by a specialized physician. The follow-up of step 2 comprises the confirmatory diagnostics in a pediatric audiological center. This always implies BERA diagnostics during spontaneous sleep or under sedation. The subsequent early supply of a hearing aid should generally be conducted by a (pediatric acoustician specialized on children.

  15. Internet worm early detection and response mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, fast spreading worm has become one of the major threats to the security of the Internet and has an increasingly fierce tendency.In view of the insufficiency that based on Kalman filter worm detection algorithm is sensitive to interval, this article presents a new data collection plan and an improved worm early detection method which has some deferent intervals according to the epidemic worm propagation model, then proposes a worm response mechanism for slowing the wide and fast worm propagation effectively.Simulation results show that our methods are able to detect worms accurately and early.

  16. Detection of noroviruses in foods: a study on virus extraction procedures in foods implicated in outbreaks of human gastroenteritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjes, Saskia A; Lodder-Verschoor, Froukje; Poel, Wim H M van der; Duynhoven, Yvonne T H P van; Roda Husman, Ana Maria de

    2006-01-01

    Disease outbreaks in which foods are epidemiologically implicated as the common source are frequently reported. Noroviruses and enteric hepatitis A viruses are among the most prevalent causative agents of foodborne diseases. However, the detection of these viruses in foods other than shellfish is of

  17. Real-time whole-genome sequencing for routine typing, surveillance, and outbreak detection of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup; Scheutz, Flemming; Lund, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Fast and accurate identification and typing of pathogens are essential for effective surveillance and outbreak detection. The current routine procedure is based on a variety of techniques, making the procedure laborious, time-consuming, and expensive. With whole-genome sequencing (WGS) becoming c...

  18. Detection of noroviruses in foods: a study on virus extraction procedures in foods implicated in outbreaks of human gastroenteritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjes, Saskia A; Lodder-Verschoor, Froukje; Poel, Wim H M van der; Duynhoven, Yvonne T H P van; Roda Husman, Ana Maria de

    2006-01-01

    Disease outbreaks in which foods are epidemiologically implicated as the common source are frequently reported. Noroviruses and enteric hepatitis A viruses are among the most prevalent causative agents of foodborne diseases. However, the detection of these viruses in foods other than shellfish is

  19. Detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus 2 as the Cause of Abortion Outbreaks on Commercial Sheep Flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira Partida, L; Fernández, M; Gutiérrez, J; Esnal, A; Benavides, J; Pérez, V; de la Torre, A; Álvarez, M; Esperón, F

    2017-02-01

    Outbreaks of abortions and lambs born with nervous clinical signs and/or congenital malformations affected different sheep farms in Spain. Initial diagnosis of 'border disease-like' was established, based on clinical signs, serology and/or RNA detection by a pan-pestivirus RT-PCR. However, further investigation using immunohistochemical and molecular techniques identified BVDV-2b as the aetiological agent.

  20. Assessment of the use of gross lesions at post-mortem to detect outbreaks of classical swine fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Vos, de J.H.; Bouma, A.; Exsel, van A.C.A.; Stegeman, A.

    2003-01-01

    The performance of pathological findings as a diagnostic tool for the detection of classical swine fever (CSF) outbreaks during the 1997/1998 CSF-epidemic in The Netherlands was evaluated by constructing and analysing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. This was done at the individual pi

  1. Automated detection of infectious disease outbreaks in hospitals: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S Huang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Detection of outbreaks of hospital-acquired infections is often based on simple rules, such as the occurrence of three new cases of a single pathogen in two weeks on the same ward. These rules typically focus on only a few pathogens, and they do not account for the pathogens' underlying prevalence, the normal random variation in rates, and clusters that may occur beyond a single ward, such as those associated with specialty services. Ideally, outbreak detection programs should evaluate many pathogens, using a wide array of data sources. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We applied a space-time permutation scan statistic to microbiology data from patients admitted to a 750-bed academic medical center in 2002-2006, using WHONET-SaTScan laboratory information software from the World Health Organization (WHO Collaborating Centre for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance. We evaluated patients' first isolates for each potential pathogenic species. In order to evaluate hospital-associated infections, only pathogens first isolated >2 d after admission were included. Clusters were sought daily across the entire hospital, as well as in hospital wards, specialty services, and using similar antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. We assessed clusters that had a likelihood of occurring by chance less than once per year. For methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, WHONET-SaTScan-generated clusters were compared to those previously identified by the Infection Control program, which were based on a rule-based criterion of three occurrences in two weeks in the same ward. Two hospital epidemiologists independently classified each cluster's importance. From 2002 to 2006, WHONET-SaTScan found 59 clusters involving 2-27 patients (median 4. Clusters were identified by antimicrobial resistance profile (41%, wards (29%, service (13%, and hospital-wide assessments (17%. WHONET-SaTScan rapidly detected the two

  2. Study on the detection of red-tide outbreaks using big satellite database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Young Baek; Eun, Yoon Joo; Park, Kyongseok; Lee, Sanghwan; Lee, Ryong; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Yoo, Sinjae

    2014-11-01

    Satellite remote sensing has been successfully employed to monitor and detect the increasing incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) under various water conditions. In this study, to establish a comprehensive monitoring system of HAB outbreaks (particularly Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms) in the southern coast of Korea (SCK), we tested the several proposed red-tide detection methods using SeaWiFS and MODIS ocean color data. Temporal and spatial information of red tide events from 2002 to 2013 were obtained from the National Fisheries Research and Development of Korea (NFRDI), which were matched with synchronously obtained satellite-derived ocean color data. The spectral characteristics of C. polykrikoides red tides were that increased phytoplankton absorption at 443 nm and pigment backscattering 555 nm resulted in a steeper slope between 488 and 555 nm with a hinge point at 488 (or 490) nm. On the other hand, non-red tide water, typically were presented by broader radiance spectra between the blue and green bands were associated with reduced pigment absorption and backscattering. The analysis of ocean color imageries that captured C. polykrikoides red tide blooms showed discolored waters with enhanced pigment concentrations, high chlorophyll, fluorescence, absorption at 443 nm. However, most red tide detection algorithms found a large number of false positive but only a small number of true positive areas. These proposed algorithms are not useful to distinguish true red tide water from complex non-red tide water. Our proposed method substantially reduces the false signal rate (false positive) from strong absorption at short wavelengths and provide a more reliable and robust detection of C. polykrikoides blooms in the SCK from the space.

  3. Detection and monitoring of early caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretty, I A; Ekstrand, K R

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review the current evidence base of detecting and monitoring early carious lesions in children and adolescents and a rationale proposed to ensure that such lesions are identified and appropriately managed. METHODS: The systematic literature search identified initially a review by Gomez...... of existing visible and radiographical systems to monitor lesions over time. Using low-cost intra-oral cameras facilitates the recording of lesion appearance in the patient record and may be of significant benefit in monitoring early lesions over time following their detection. This benefit extends...

  4. [Early detection and treatment of strabismus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojon, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    An early diagnosis of strabismus is important in order to rule out treatable organic causes and in children, if indicated, to start as early as possible with an amblyopia treatment. Early detection will also decrease the risk for accidents secondary to diplopia, to the loss of binocular vision and to the restriction of the binocular visual field in case of esodeviations. The following therapeutic options exist: in some cases the prescription of the correct refraction will be sufficient, for small deviations a prismatic correction may allow a longstanding treatment, for larger or incomitant deviations strabismus surgery will be necessary, which nowadays can be performed using minimal-invasive technique on an outpatient base.

  5. Widespread environmental contamination with Norwalk-like viruses (NLV) detected in a prolonged hotel outbreak of gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheesbrough, J. S.; Green, J.; Gallimore, C. I.; Wright, P. A.; Brown, D. W.

    2000-01-01

    A protracted outbreak of Norwalk-like virus (NLV)-associated gastroenteritis occurred in a large hotel in North-West England between January and May 1996. We investigated the pattern of environmental contamination with NLV in the hotel during and after the outbreak. In the ninth week, 144 environmental swabs taken from around the hotel were tested for NLV by nested RT-PCR. The sites were categorized according to the likelihood of direct contamination with vomit/faeces. The highest proportion of positive samples were detected in directly contaminated carpets, but amplicons were detected in sites above 1.5 m which are unlikely to have been contaminated directly. The trend in positivity of different sites paralleled the diminishing likelihood of direct contamination. A second environmental investigation of the same sites 5 months after the outbreak had finished were all negative by RT-PCR. This study demonstrates for the first time the extent of environmental contamination that may occur during a large NLV outbreak. PMID:11057964

  6. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cuzick (Jack); M.A. Thorat (Mangesh A); G. Andriole (Gerald); O.W. Brawley (Otis W); P.H. Brown (Powel H); Z. Culig (Zoran); R. Eeles (Rosalind); L.G. Ford (Leslie G); F. Hamdy (Freddie); L. Holmberg (Lars); D. Ilic (Dragan); T.J. Key (Timothy J); C.L. Vecchia (Carlo La); H. Lilja (Hans); M. Marberger (Michael); F.L. Meyskens (Frank L); L.M. Minasian (Lori M); C. Parker (C.); H.L. Parnes (Howard L); S. Perner (Sven); H. Rittenhouse (Harry); J.A. Schalken (J.); H.-P. Schmid (Hans-Peter); B.J. Schmitz-Dräger (Bernd J); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A. Stenzl (Arnulf); B. Tombal (Bertrand); T.J. Wilt (Timothy J.); K. Wolk (Kerstin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by pr

  7. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cuzick (Jack); M.A. Thorat (Mangesh A); G. Andriole (Gerald); O.W. Brawley (Otis W); P.H. Brown (Powel H); Z. Culig (Zoran); R. Eeles (Rosalind); L.G. Ford (Leslie G); F. Hamdy (Freddie); L. Holmberg (Lars); D. Ilic (Dragan); T.J. Key (Timothy J); C.L. Vecchia (Carlo La); H. Lilja (Hans); M. Marberger (Michael); F.L. Meyskens (Frank L); L.M. Minasian (Lori M); C. Parker (C.); H.L. Parnes (Howard L); S. Perner (Sven); H. Rittenhouse (Harry); J.A. Schalken (J.); H.-P. Schmid (Hans-Peter); B.J. Schmitz-Dräger (Bernd J); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A. Stenzl (Arnulf); B. Tombal (Bertrand); T.J. Wilt (Timothy J.); K. Wolk (Kerstin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by pr

  8. Use of Surveillance Systems in Detection of a Ciguatera Fish Poisoning Outbreak - Orange County, Florida, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klekamp, Benjamin G; Bodager, Dean; Matthews, Sarah D

    2015-10-16

    What is already known on this topic? Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), caused by the ingestion of predatory reef-dwelling fish harboring ciguatoxins is one of the most commonly reported fish-associated marine intoxications. Ciguatoxin retains toxicity regardless of freezing or cooking. Prompt treatment can reduce debilitating neurologic symptoms that are associated with CFP.What is added by this report? Syndromic surveillance systems in Florida identified six adults with CFP following consumption of black grouper. Five patients sought medical attention; health care providers did not make a diagnosis of CFP or report the cases to public health authorities, and none of the patients received treatment. Close collaboration among several investigating agencies allowed traceback efforts to link black grouper consumed by all patients to a common international distributor.What are the implications for public health practice? Syndromic surveillance systems capable of detecting CFP are essential public health tools to identify outbreaks and enhance investigations. Medical and public health practitioners should be educated to inquire about recent fish consumption when evaluating patients with clinically compatible signs and symptoms to allow for prompt treatment, and report suspected CFP cases to public health authorities to facilitate source-food traceback efforts. Public education on avoidance of consumption of relatively large predatory reef fish species known to be from ciguatoxic-endemic areas might reduce the risk for CFP.

  9. Strengthening the diagnostic capacity to detect Bio Safety Level 3 organisms in unusual respiratory viral outbreaks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, L. van; Lubben, M. van der; Wijngaard, C. van den; Pelt, W. van; Verheij, R.; Jacobi, A.; Overduin, P.; Meijer, A.; Luijt, D.; Claas, E.; Hermans, M.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Rossen, J.; Schuurman, R.; Wolffs, P.; Bouchier, C.; Schirm, J.; Kroes, L.; Leenders, S.; Galama, J.M.D.; Peeters, M.; Loon, A. van; Stobberingh, E.E.; Schutten, M.; Koopmans, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experience with a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in the Netherlands (2003) illustrated that the diagnostic demand for respiratory viruses at different biosafety levels (including BSL3), can increase unexpectedly and dramatically. OBJECTIVES: We describe the measures taken sin

  10. Strengthening the diagnostic capacity to detect Bio Safety Level 3 organisms in unusual respiratory viral outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asten, Liselotte; van der Lubben, Mariken; van den Wijngaard, Cees; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Verheij, Robert; Jacobi, Andre; Overduin, Pieter; Meijer, Adam; Luijt, Dirk; Claas, Eric; Hermans, Mirjam; Melchers, Willem; Rossen, John; Schuurman, Rob; Wolffs, Petra; Bouchier, Charles; Schirm, Jurjen; Kroes, Louis; Leenders, Sander; Galama, Joep; Peeters, Marcel; van Loon, Anton; Stobberingh, Ellen; Schutten, Martin; Koopmans, Marion D. V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Experience with a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in the Netherlands (2003) illustrated that the diagnostic demand for respiratory viruses at different biosafety levels (including BSL3), can increase unexpectedly and dramatically. Objectives: We describe the measures taken sin

  11. Molecular detection of Mayaro virus during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Zuchi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mayaro virus (MAYV is frequently reported in Pan-Amazonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of alphaviruses during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Serum samples from dengue-suspected patients were subjected to multiplex semi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for 11 flaviviruses and five alphaviruses, to nucleotide sequencing and to viral isolation. MAYV was detected in 15 (2.5% of 604 patients. Twelve were co-infected with dengue virus 4, which was isolated from 10 patients. The molecular detection of MAYV in dengue-suspected patients suggests that other arboviruses may be silently circulating during dengue outbreaks in Brazil.

  12. Molecular detection of Mayaro virus during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Central-West Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuchi, Nayara; Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes dos; Pereira, Fernanda Carla; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2014-09-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is frequently reported in Pan-Amazonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of alphaviruses during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Serum samples from dengue-suspected patients were subjected to multiplex semi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for 11 flaviviruses and five alphaviruses, to nucleotide sequencing and to viral isolation. MAYV was detected in 15 (2.5%) of 604 patients. Twelve were co-infected with dengue virus 4, which was isolated from 10 patients. The molecular detection of MAYV in dengue-suspected patients suggests that other arboviruses may be silently circulating during dengue outbreaks in Brazil.

  13. Contribution of Contact Sampling in Increasing Sensitivity of Poliovirus Detection During A Polio Outbreak-Somalia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moturi, Edna; Mahmud, Abdirahman; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Farag, Noha; Mulugeta, Abraham; Gary, Howard; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Background.  In May 2013, a wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) outbreak reported in Somalia provided an opportunity to examine the contribution of testing contacts to WPV detection. Methods.  We reviewed acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) case-patients and linked contacts reported in the Somalia Surveillance Database from May 9 to December 31, 2013. We restricted our analysis to AFP case-patients that had ≥3 contacts and calculated the contribution of each contact to case detection. Results.  Among 546 AFP cases identified, 328 AFP cases had ≥3 contacts. Among the 328 AFP cases with ≥3 contacts, 93 WPV1 cases were detected: 58 cases (62%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 52%-72%) were detected through testing stool specimens from AFP case-patients; and 35 cases (38%; 95% CI, 28%-48%) were detected through testing stool specimens from contacts, including 19 cases (20%; 95% CI, 14%-30%) from the first contact, 11 cases (12%; 95% CI, 7%-20%) from the second contact, and 5 cases (5%; 95% CI, 2%-12%) from the third contact. Among the 103 AFP cases with ≥4 contacts, 3 (6%; 95% CI, 2%-16%) of 52 WPV1 cases were detected by testing the fourth contact. No additional WPV1 cases were detected by testing >4 contacts. Conclusions.  Stool specimens from 3 to 4 contacts of persons with AFP during polio outbreaks are needed to maximize detection of WPV cases.

  14. Development and evaluation of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of Ebola virus (Zaire) during an Ebola outbreak in Guinea in 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedkov, V G; Magassouba, N' F; Safonova, M V; Deviatkin, A A; Dolgova, A S; Pyankov, O V; Sergeev, A A; Utkin, D V; Odinokov, G N; Safronov, V A; Agafonov, A P; Maleev, V V; Shipulin, G A

    2016-02-01

    In early February 2014, an outbreak of the Ebola virus disease caused by Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) occurred in Guinea; cases were also recorded in other West African countries with a combined population of approximately 25 million. A rapid, sensitive and inexpensive method for detecting EBOV is needed to effectively control such outbreak. Here, we report a real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay for Z. ebolavirus detection used by the Specialized Anti-epidemic Team of the Russian Federation during the Ebola virus disease prevention mission in the Republic of Guinea. The analytical sensitivity of the assay is 5 × 10(2) viral particles per ml, and high specificity is demonstrated using representative sampling of viral, bacterial and human nucleic acids. This assay can be applied successfully for detecting the West African strains of Z. ebolavirus as well as on strains isolated in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2014.

  15. Early Detection of Alzheimer's - A Crucial Requirement

    CERN Document Server

    Bukhari, Ijaz

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's, an old age disease of people over 65 years causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior. This disease progresses very slow and its identification in early stages is very difficult. The symptoms of Alzheimer's appear slowly and gradually will have worse effects. In its early stages, not only the patients themselves but their loved ones are generally unable to accept that the patient is suffering from disease. In this paper, we have proposed a new algorithm to detect patients of Alzheimer's at early stages by comparing the Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of the patients with normal persons of their age. The progress of the disease can also be monitored by periodic comparison of the previous and current MRI.

  16. Auditory gap detection in the early blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kurt E; Stevens, Alexander A

    2006-01-01

    For blind individuals, audition provides critical information for interacting with the environment. Individuals blinded early in life (EB) typically show enhanced auditory abilities relative to sighted controls as measured by tasks requiring complex discrimination, attention and memory. In contrast, few deficits have been reported on tasks involving auditory sensory thresholds (e.g., Yates, J.T., Johnson, R.M., Starz, W.J., 1972. Loudness perception of the blind. Audiology 11(5), 368-376; Starlinger, I., Niemeyer, W., 1981. Do the blind hear better? Investigations on auditory processing in congenital or early acquired blindness. I. Peripheral functions. Audiology 20(6), 503-509). A study of gap detection stands at odds with this distinction [Muchnik, C., Efrati, M., Nemeth, E., Malin, M., Hildesheimer, M., 1991. Central auditory skills in blind and sighted subjects. Scand. Audiol. 20(1), 19-23]. In the current investigation we re-examined gap detection abilities in the EB using a single-interval, yes/no method. A group of younger sighted control individuals (SCy) was included in the analysis in addition to EB and sighted age matched control individuals (SCm) in order to examine the effect of age on gap detection performance. Estimates of gap detection thresholds for EB subjects were nearly identical to SCm subjects and slightly poorer relative to the SCy subjects. These results suggest some limits on the extent of auditory temporal advantages in the EB.

  17. Detection of noroviruses in foods: a study on virus extraction procedures in foods implicated in outbreaks of human gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutjes, Saskia A; Lodder-Verschoor, Froukje; van der Poel, Wim H M; van Duijnhoven, Yvonne T H P; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2006-08-01

    Disease outbreaks in which foods are epidemiologically implicated as the common source are frequently reported. Noroviruses and enteric hepatitis A viruses are among the most prevalent causative agents of foodborne diseases. However, the detection of these viruses in foods other than shellfish is often time-consuming and unsuccessful. In this study, three virus concentration methods were compared: polyethylene glycol (PEG) plus NaCl, ultracentrifugation, and ultrafiltration. Two RNA extraction methods, TRIzol and RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen), were compared for detection of viruses in whipped cream and lettuce (as representatives of the dairy and vegetable-fruit food groups, respectively). A seeding experiment with canine calicivirus was conducted to determine the efficiency of each virus extraction procedure. The PEG-NaCl-TRIzol method was most efficient for the detection of viruses in whipped cream and the ultracentrifugation-RNeasy-Mini Kit procedure was best for detection on lettuce. Based on the seeding experiments, food items implicated in norovirus-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks were subjected to the optimal procedure for a specific composition and matrix. No noroviruses were detected in the implicated food items, possibly because the concentration of virus on the food item was too low or because of the presence of inhibitory factors. For each food group, a specific procedure is optimal. Inhibitory factors should be controlled in these procedures because they influence virus detection in food.

  18. Rapid detection of a norovirus pseudo-outbreak by using real-time sequence based information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahamat-Langendoen, J. C.; Lokate, M.; Scholvinck, E. H.; Friedrich, A. W.; Niesters, H. G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sequence based information is increasingly used to study the epidemiology of viruses, not only to provide insight in viral evolution, but also to understand transmission patterns during outbreaks. However, sequence analysis is not yet routinely performed by diagnostic laboratories, limit

  19. Building-level analyses to prospectively detect influenza outbreaks in long-term care facilities: New York City, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Rector, Alison; Nivin, Beth; Yeung, Alice; Fine, Annie D; Greene, Sharon K

    2015-08-01

    Timely outbreak detection is necessary to successfully control influenza in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) and other institutions. To supplement nosocomial outbreak reports, calls from infection control staff, and active laboratory surveillance, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene implemented an automated building-level analysis to proactively identify LTCFs with laboratory-confirmed influenza activity. Geocoded addresses of LTCFs in NYC were compared with geocoded residential addresses for all case-patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza reported through passive surveillance. An automated daily analysis used the geocoded building identification number, approximate text matching, and key-word searches to identify influenza in residents of LTCFs for review and follow-up by surveillance coordinators. Our aim was to determine whether the building analysis improved prospective outbreak detection during the 2013-2014 influenza season. Of 119 outbreaks identified in LTCFs, 109 (92%) were ever detected by the building analysis, and 55 (46%) were first detected by the building analysis. Of the 5,953 LTCF staff and residents who received antiviral prophylaxis during the 2013-2014 season, 929 (16%) were at LTCFs where outbreaks were initially detected by the building analysis. A novel building-level analysis improved influenza outbreak identification in LTCFs in NYC, prompting timely infection control measures. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid detection of norovirus in naturally contaminated food: foodborne gastroenteritis outbreak on a cruise ship in Brazil, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, Simone Guadagnucci; Luchs, Adriana; Cilli, Audrey; do Carmo Sampaio Tavares Timenetsky, Maria

    2012-09-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a prevalent pathogen of foodborne diseases; however, its detection in foods other than shellfish is often time consuming and unsuccessful. In 2010, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred on a cruise ship in Brazil, and NoV was the etiologic agent suspected. The objectives of this study were to report that a handy in-house methodology was suitable for NoV detection in naturally contaminated food, and perform the molecular characterization of food strains. Food samples (blue cheese, Indian sauce, herbal butter, soup, and white sauce) were analyzed by ELISA, two methods of RNA extraction, TRIzol(®) and QIAamp(®), following conventional RT-PCR. The qPCR was used in order to confirm the NoV genogroups. GI and GII NoV genogroups were identified by conventional RT-PCR after RNA extraction by means of the TRIzol(®) method. Two GII NoV samples were successfully sequenced, classified as GII.4; and they displayed a genetic relationship with strains from the Asian continent also isolated in 2010. GII and GI NoV were identified in distinct food matrices suggesting that it was not a common source of contamination. TRIzol(®) extraction followed by conventional RT-PCR was a suitable methodology in order to identify NoV in naturally contaminated food. Moreover, food samples could be processed within 8 h indicating the value of the method used for NoV detection, and its potential to identify foodborne gastroenteritis outbreaks in food products other than shellfish. This is the first description in Brazil of NoV detection in naturally contaminated food other than shellfish involved in a foodborne outbreak.

  1. Quantitative Detection of Shiga Toxins Directly from Stool Specimens of Patients Associated with an Outbreak of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Japan—Quantitative Shiga toxin detection from stool during EHEC outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiki Yamasaki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Shiga toxins (Stx is important for accurate diagnosis of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed Stx protein in nine patients’ stool during an outbreak that occurred in Japan. Highly sensitive immunoassay (bead enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bead-ELISA revealed that the concentrations of toxins in stool of patients ranged from 0.71 to 10.44 ng/mL for Stx1 and 2.75 to 51.61 ng/mL for Stx2. To our knowledge, this is the first report that reveals the range of Stx protein concentrations in human stools.

  2. Quantitative Detection of Shiga Toxins Directly from Stool Specimens of Patients Associated with an Outbreak of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Japan—Quantitative Shiga toxin detection from stool during EHEC outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Eiki; Watahiki, Masanori; Isobe, Junko; Sata, Tetsutaro; Nair, G. Balakrish; Kurazono, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    Detection of Shiga toxins (Stx) is important for accurate diagnosis of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed Stx protein in nine patients’ stool during an outbreak that occurred in Japan. Highly sensitive immunoassay (bead enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bead-ELISA)) revealed that the concentrations of toxins in stool of patients ranged from 0.71 to 10.44 ng/mL for Stx1 and 2.75 to 51.61 ng/mL for Stx2. To our knowledge, this is the first report that reveals the range of Stx protein concentrations in human stools. PMID:26516915

  3. Tolerability of Early Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in Infants Aged 6-14 Months during a Measles Outbreak in the Netherlands in 2013-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Maas, Nicoline A T; Woudenberg, T.; Hahń, S. J M; De Melker, H. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In 2013–2014, a measles outbreak spread through the Netherlands. To protect young infants, measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination was offered to those aged 6–14 months in municipalities with routine first-dose MMR vaccine coverage of <90%. We assessed the tolerability of this early admi

  4. Biomarkers for early detection of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Robert C

    2010-09-01

    The existence of an effective biomarker for early detection of Alzheimer disease would facilitate improved diagnosis and stimulate therapeutic trials. Multidisciplinary clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is time consuming and expensive and relies on experts who are rarely available outside of specialty clinics. Thus, many patients do not receive proper diagnosis until the disease has progressed beyond stages in which treatments are maximally effective. In the clinical trial setting, rapid, cost-effective screening of patients for Alzheimer disease is of paramount importance for the development of new treatments. Neuroimaging of cortical amyloid burden and volumetric changes in the brain and assessment of protein concentrations (eg, β-amyloid 1-42, total tau, phosphorylated tau) in cerebrospinal fluid are diagnostic tools that are not widely available. Known genetic markers do not provide sufficient discriminatory power between different forms of dementia to be useful in isolation. Recent studies using panels of biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer disease or mild cognitive impairment have been promising, though no such studies have been cross-validated in independent samples of subjects. The ideal biomarker enabling early detection of Alzheimer disease has not yet been identified.

  5. Early detection and treatment of Speckled leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selviana Tampoma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukoplakia is one of potentially malignant disorders that can be found on oral mucosa. Speckled leukoplakia is a rare type of leukoplakia with a very high risk of premalignant growth. Approximately 3 % of worldwide population has suffered from leukoplakia, 5-25% of which tend to be malignant leukoplakia. Purpose: This case report was aimed to discuss about early detection of speckled leukoplakia as one of potentially malignant disorders. Case: A 62 year old male patient came with chief complaint of bald and painful tongue since one month ago. The patient has a history of allergic reaction, hypertension, uric acid, and hepatitis B. He had been a heavy smoker since young until 10 years ago. Intra oral examination showed a firm, rough, non scrapable white plaque lesion with a size of 1 x 1.5 cm, surrounded by painful erosion with diffuse boundary. Case Management: Based on cytology examination, the patient was reffered to oncologist to get an excisional biopsy. Next, the patient succesfully underwent the excisional biopsy and came for control. The results showed the healing process of the lesion with a minimal complaint of bald tongue, especially when eating spicy or hot meal. To improve healing process, the patient then was given an antibacterial mouth rinse containing zinc and mulvitamin. Conclusion: Speckled leukoplakia could show high malignant transformation rate, therefore, early detection and treatment are necessary.

  6. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

  7. Detection of Mycobacterium ulcerans in environmental samples during an outbreak of ulcerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, B C; Johnson, P D; Oppedisano, F; Marino, L; Sievers, A; Stinear, T; Hayman, J A; Veitch, M G; Robins-Browne, R M

    1997-10-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans is an environmental bacterium which causes chronic skin ulcers. Despite significant epidemiological evidence to suggest that water is the source of infection, the organism has never been identified in the environment. Environmental water samples were collected from a small town in which an outbreak of 29 cases had occurred in a 3-year period. These were examined by mycobacterial culture and PCR amplification. Similar to previous studies, M. ulcerans was not cultured from the water samples. However, five samples were positive for M. ulcerans by PCR. These samples were collected from a swamp and a golf course irrigation system within the outbreak area. This is the first time that M. ulcerans has been demonstrated to be present in the environment and supports the postulated epidemiology of disease due to this organism.

  8. A study regarding the applicability of WSARE algorithms in the early warning system of infectious disease outbreaks%WSARE计算方法在传染病暴发早期预警中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子武; 冯子健; 李晓松

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the application of WSARE (What' s Strange About Recent Events) algorithm in early warning on outbreaks of infectious diseases and to explore the multidimensional statistical methods for the detection of infectious diseases outbreak. Using WSARE algorithms based on historical data and Bayesian Network as baseline respectively, to analyze data on measles by mimicking the real-time monitoring and early warning system in Bao'an district,Shenzhen city, in 2007. WSARE algorithms were considered to be effective and timely in detecting the abnormally increase of measles among special population. WSARE algorithm could timely detect the abnormal increase of diseases among special local populations, thus having important value in the application of early warning system during the outbreak of infectious diseases.%探讨异常模式探测方法--WSARE(What's Strange About Recent Events)在传染病暴发早期预警中的应用价值,拓展传染病病例监测数据的多维聚集性探测统计方法.分别采用基于历史数据和贝叶斯网络为基线的WSARE算法,对2007年深圳市宝安区麻疹发病模拟实时监测预警.结果 表明WSARE算法能够早期探测到麻疹在特定人群的异常增高,在传染病暴发早期预警中具有重要应用价值.

  9. An Enhanced Satellite-Based Algorithm for Detecting and Tracking Dust Outbreaks by Means of SEVIRI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marchese

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dust outbreaks are meteorological phenomena of great interest for scientists and authorities (because of their impact on the climate, environment, and human activities, which may be detected, monitored, and characterized from space using different methods and procedures. Among the recent dust detection algorithms, the RSTDUST multi-temporal technique has provided good results in different geographic areas (e.g., Mediterranean basin; Arabian Peninsula, exhibiting a better performance than traditional split window methods, in spite of some limitations. In this study, we present an optimized configuration of this technique, which better exploits data provided by Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI aboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG satellites to address those issues (e.g., sensitivity reduction over arid and semi-arid regions; dependence on some meteorological clouds. Three massive dust events affecting Europe and the Mediterranean basin in May 2008/2010 are analysed in this work, using information provided by some independent and well-established aerosol products to assess the achieved results. The study shows that the proposed algorithm, christened eRSTDUST (i.e., enhanced RSTDUST, which provides qualitative information about dust outbreaks, is capable of increasing the trade-off between reliability and sensitivity. The results encourage further experimentations of this method in other periods of the year, also exploiting data provided by different satellite sensors, for better evaluating the advantages arising from the use of this dust detection technique in operational scenarios.

  10. [Chickenpox case estimation in acyclovir pharmacy survey and early bioterrorism detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Tamie; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Kawanohara, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2011-11-01

    Early potential health hazards and bioterrorism threats require early detection. Smallpox cases caused by terrorist could, for example, be treated by prescribing acyclovir to those having fever and vesicle exanthema diagnosed as chicken pox. We have constructed real-time pharmacy surveillance scenarios using information technology (IT) to monitor acyclovir prescription. We collected the number of acyclovir prescriptions from 5138 pharmacies using the Application Server Provider System (ASP) to estimate the number of cases. We then compared the number of those given acyclovir under 15 years old from pharmacy surveillance and sentinel surveillance for chickenpox under the Infection Disease Control Law. The estimated number of under 15 years old prescribed acyclovir in pharmacy surveillance resembled sentinel surveillance results and showed a similar seasonal chickenpox pattern. The correlation coefficient was 0.8575. The estimated numbers of adults, older than 15 but under 65 years old, and elderly, older than 65, prescribed acyclovir showed no clear seasonal pattern. Pharmacy surveillance for acyclovir identified the baseline and can be used to detect unusual chickenpox outbreak. Bioterrorism attack could potentially be detected using smallpox virus when acyclovir prescription for adults suddenly increases without outbreaks in children or the elderly. This acyclovir prescription monitoring such as an application is, to our knowledge, the first of its kind anywhre.

  11. Screening and early detection of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Westeinde, Susan C; van Klaveren, Rob J

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer with an estimated 342,000 deaths in 2008 (20% of total) is the most common cause of death from cancer, followed by colorectal cancer (12%), breast cancer (8%), and stomach cancer (7%) in Europe. In former smokers, the absolute lung cancer risk remains higher than in never-smokers; these data therefore call for effective secondary preventive measures for lung cancer in addition to smoking cessation programs. This review presents and discusses the most recent advances in the early detection and screening of lung cancer.An overview of randomized controlled computerized tomography-screening trials is given, and the role of bronchoscopy and new techniques is discussed. Finally, the approach of (noninvasive) biomarker testing in the blood, exhaled breath, sputum, and bronchoscopic specimen is reviewed.

  12. Detection and management of the first human anthrax outbreak in Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patassi, Akouda Akessiwe; Saka, Bayaki; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Agbenoko, Kodjo; Tamekloe, Tsidi; Salmon-Ceron, Dominique

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and define an outbreak of human anthrax in two villages in the northern savannah region of Togo. In December 2009, localised groups of deaths occurred among villagers and their livestock, confirmed to be due to anthrax at the district hospital of Dapaong in Northern Togo. The National Disease Control department undertook an investigation to describe the epidemiological, clinical and bacteriological characteristics of this outbreak. Thirty-four individuals presented with clinical manifestations of anthrax. All patients were known to have consumed meat from cattle who had died of unknown causes or had been killed as a result of unknown illness. All patients presented with muco-cutaneous lesions; some had gastro-intestinal, neurological or meningeal symptoms, or septicaemia. One patient was co-infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Six deaths (17.6%) were reported at the beginning of the epidemic; 28 patients were successfully treated with a 10-day course of intravenous Penicillin or oral Amoxicillin. The two factors that contributed to the ultimate resolution of the anthrax outbreak were the increase of community awareness toward health promotion and vaccination of all farm animals. Although six deaths occurred among families' members who were infected, new human anthrax cases were prevented by rapid treatment of victims as well as aggressive public health interventions. However the risk of re-emergence of infection and exposure still exists as there are no existing epidemiological mapping and no identification of infected zones; and furthermore, no functional anthrax surveillance system exists in the affected region. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Evaluation of whole genome sequencing for outbreak detection of Salmonella enterica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Nielsen, Eva M.; Kaas, Rolf Sommer

    2014-01-01

    . Enteritidis and 5 S. Derby were also sequenced and used for comparison. A number of different bioinformatics approaches were applied on the data; including pan-genome tree, k-mer tree, nucleotide difference tree and SNP tree. The outcome of each approach was evaluated in relation to the association...... of the isolates to specific outbreaks. The pan-genome tree clustered 65% of the S. Typhimurium isolates according to the pre-defined epidemiology, the k-mer tree 88%, the nucleotide difference tree 100% and the SNP tree 100% of the strains within S. Typhimurium. The resulting outcome of the four phylogenetic...

  14. Real-time whole-genome sequencing for routine typing, surveillance, and outbreak detection of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup; Scheutz, Flemming; Lund, Ole; Hasman, Henrik; Kaas, Rolf S; Nielsen, Eva M; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2014-05-01

    Fast and accurate identification and typing of pathogens are essential for effective surveillance and outbreak detection. The current routine procedure is based on a variety of techniques, making the procedure laborious, time-consuming, and expensive. With whole-genome sequencing (WGS) becoming cheaper, it has huge potential in both diagnostics and routine surveillance. The aim of this study was to perform a real-time evaluation of WGS for routine typing and surveillance of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC). In Denmark, the Statens Serum Institut (SSI) routinely receives all suspected VTEC isolates. During a 7-week period in the fall of 2012, all incoming isolates were concurrently subjected to WGS using IonTorrent PGM. Real-time bioinformatics analysis was performed using web-tools (www.genomicepidemiology.org) for species determination, multilocus sequence type (MLST) typing, and determination of phylogenetic relationship, and a specific VirulenceFinder for detection of E. coli virulence genes was developed as part of this study. In total, 46 suspected VTEC isolates were characterized in parallel during the study. VirulenceFinder proved successful in detecting virulence genes included in routine typing, explicitly verocytotoxin 1 (vtx1), verocytotoxin 2 (vtx2), and intimin (eae), and also detected additional virulence genes. VirulenceFinder is also a robust method for assigning verocytotoxin (vtx) subtypes. A real-time clustering of isolates in agreement with the epidemiology was established from WGS, enabling discrimination between sporadic and outbreak isolates. Overall, WGS typing produced results faster and at a lower cost than the current routine. Therefore, WGS typing is a superior alternative to conventional typing strategies. This approach may also be applied to typing and surveillance of other pathogens.

  15. Factors associated to duration of hepatitis a outbreaks: implications for control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Torner

    Full Text Available Even though hepatitis A mass vaccination effectiveness is high, outbreaks continue to occur. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between duration and characteristics of hepatitis A outbreaks. Hepatitis A (HA outbreaks reported between 1991 and 2007 were studied. An outbreak was defined as ≥2 epidemiologically-linked cases with ≥1 case laboratory-confirmed by detection of HA immunoglobulin M (IgM antibodies. Relationships between explanatory variables and outbreak duration were assessed by logistic regression. During the study period, 268 outbreaks (rate 2.45 per million persons-year and 1396 cases (rate 1.28 per 10(5 persons-year were reported. Factors associated with shorter duration were time to intervention (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94-0.98 and school setting (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16-0.92. In person-to-person transmission outbreaks only time to intervention was associated with shorter outbreak duration (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.95-0.98. The only variables associated with shorter outbreak duration were early administration of IG or vaccine and a school setting. Timely reporting HA outbreaks was associated with outbreak duration. Making confirmed HA infections statutory reportable for clinical laboratories could diminish outbreak duration.

  16. Factors Associated to Duration of Hepatitis A Outbreaks: Implications for Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Nuria; Broner, Sonia; Martinez, Ana; Tortajada, Cecilia; Garcia de Olalla, Patricia; Barrabeig, Irene; Sala, MariaRosa; Camps, Neus; Minguell, Sofia; Alvarez, Josep; Ferrús, Gloria; Torra, Roser; Godoy, Pere; Dominguez, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Even though hepatitis A mass vaccination effectiveness is high, outbreaks continue to occur. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between duration and characteristics of hepatitis A outbreaks. Hepatitis A (HA) outbreaks reported between 1991 and 2007 were studied. An outbreak was defined as ≥2 epidemiologically-linked cases with ≥1 case laboratory-confirmed by detection of HA immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Relationships between explanatory variables and outbreak duration were assessed by logistic regression. During the study period, 268 outbreaks (rate 2.45 per million persons-year) and 1396 cases (rate 1.28 per 105 persons-year) were reported. Factors associated with shorter duration were time to intervention (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94–0.98) and school setting (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16–0.92). In person-to-person transmission outbreaks only time to intervention was associated with shorter outbreak duration (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.95–0.98). The only variables associated with shorter outbreak duration were early administration of IG or vaccine and a school setting. Timely reporting HA outbreaks was associated with outbreak duration. Making confirmed HA infections statutory reportable for clinical laboratories could diminish outbreak duration. PMID:22355358

  17. Early detection of ovarian cancer: preliminary results of the Yale Early Detection Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, P. E.; Chambers, J. T.; Taylor, K. J.; Pellerito, J.; Hammers, L.; Cole, L. A.; Yang-Feng, T L; Smith, P; Mayne, S T; Makuch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Eighty-four women at high risk for ovarian cancer by having first-degree relatives with epithelial ovarian cancer participated in a newly established, early ovarian cancer detection program at Yale University. Participants were to be evaluated with physical examinations and circulating tumor markers at entry and every six months thereafter. Endovaginal ultrasound and color Doppler flow studies were to be performed at three and nine months following entry into the program. In addition, women w...

  18. Early detection of ovarian cancer: background, rationale, and structure of the Yale Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, P. E.; Chambers, J. T.; Taylor, K. J.; Pellerito, J.; Hammers, L.; Cole, L. A.; Yang-Feng, T. L.; Smith, P.; Mayne, S. T.; Makuch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Ovarian cancer has received national attention as a highly virulent disease. Its lack of early warning symptoms and the failure to develop highly sensitive screening tests have led some physicians to recommend prophylactic oophorectomies to women with relatives who have had ovarian cancer. Others have recommended routine screening of otherwise normal women for CA 125, a circulating tumor marker, and ultrasound examinations. Each of these techniques is associated with substantial false-positive rates that could lead to unnecessary surgery. A review of epidemiologic data suggests that familial ovarian cancer kindreds are rare, but women with first-degree relatives who have had ovarian cancer have a significant risk themselves for developing ovarian cancer. In addition, women with a great number of ovulatory cycles are at an increased risk for the disease. Circulating tumor markers are frequently elevated in women with advanced ovarian cancer, but their value in early detection of ovarian cancer has yet to be established. Advances in endovaginal ultrasound and color Doppler flow technology have significantly improved our ability to assess pelvic organs. This article presents the background, rationale, and structure of the Yale Early Detection Program for ovarian cancer, whose goals are to identify the best techniques for diagnosing ovarian cancer in an early stage, to determine the frequency with which such tests should be employed, to assess false-positive results, and to identify women who might benefit from prophylactic oophorectomies. PMID:1810100

  19. Early detection and monitoring of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdelhamid; Miller, Howard; Rosy, Dilara A.

    2015-05-01

    Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) are bringing vital societal benefits to people around the globe. In this research article, we engage undergraduate students in the exciting area of space exploration to improve the health of millions of people globally. The goal of the proposed research is to place students in a learning environment where they will develop their problem solving skills in the context of a world crisis (e.g., malaria). Malaria remains one of the greatest threats to public health, particularly in developing countries. The World Health Organization has estimated that over one million die of Malaria each year, with more than 80% of these found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The mosquitoes transmit malaria. They breed in the areas of shallow surface water that are suitable to the mosquito and parasite development. These environmental factors can be detected with satellite imagery, which provide high spatial and temporal coverage of the earth's surface. We investigate on moisture, thermal and vegetation stress indicators developed from NOAA operational environmental satellite data. Using these indicators and collected epidemiological data, it is possible to produce a forecast system that can predict the risk of malaria for a particular geographical area with up to four months lead time. This valuable lead time information provides an opportunity for decision makers to deploy the necessary preventive measures (spraying, treated net distribution, storing medications and etc) in threatened areas with maximum effectiveness. The main objective of the proposed research is to study the effect of ecology on human health and application of NOAA satellite data for early detection of malaria.

  20. Developing new approaches for detecting and preventing Aedes aegypti population outbreaks: basis for surveillance, alert and control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Lêda; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel; Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal de; SilveiraJr, José Constantino; Furtado, André Freire; Acioli, Ridelane Veiga; Santos, Gleice Maria; Nakazawa, Mitsue; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Ribeiro Jr, Paulo Justiniano; Souza, Wayner Vieira de

    2008-02-01

    A new approach to dengue vector surveillance based on permanent egg-collection using a modified ovitrap and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis(Bti) was evaluated in different urban landscapes in Recife, Northeast Brazil. From April 2004 to April 2005, 13 egg-collection cycles of four weeks were carried out. Geo-referenced ovitraps containing grass infusion, Bti and three paddles were placed at fixed sampling stations distributed over five selected sites. Continuous egg-collections yielded more than four million eggs laid into 464 sentinel-ovitraps over one year. The overall positive ovitrap index was 98.5% (over 5,616 trap observations). The egg density index ranged from 100 to 2,500 eggs per trap-cycle, indicating a wide spread and high density of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) breeding populations in all sites. Fluctuations in population density over time were observed, particularly a marked increase from January on, or later, according to site. Massive egg-collection carried out at one of the sites prevented such a population outbreak. At intra-site level, egg counts made it possible to identify spots where the vector population is consistently concentrated over the time, pinpointing areas that should be considered high priority for control activities. The results indicate that these could be promising strategies for detecting and preventing Ae. aegypti population outbreaks.

  1. Developing new approaches for detecting and preventing Aedes aegypti population outbreaks: basis for surveillance, alert and control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lêda Regis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to dengue vector surveillance based on permanent egg-collection using a modified ovitrap and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis(Bti was evaluated in different urban landscapes in Recife, Northeast Brazil. From April 2004 to April 2005, 13 egg-collection cycles of four weeks were carried out. Geo-referenced ovitraps containing grass infusion, Bti and three paddles were placed at fixed sampling stations distributed over five selected sites. Continuous egg-collections yielded more than four million eggs laid into 464 sentinel-ovitraps over one year. The overall positive ovitrap index was 98.5% (over 5,616 trap observations. The egg density index ranged from 100 to 2,500 eggs per trap-cycle, indicating a wide spread and high density of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae breeding populations in all sites. Fluctuations in population density over time were observed, particularly a marked increase from January on, or later, according to site. Massive egg-collection carried out at one of the sites prevented such a population outbreak. At intra-site level, egg counts made it possible to identify spots where the vector population is consistently concentrated over the time, pinpointing areas that should be considered high priority for control activities. The results indicate that these could be promising strategies for detecting and preventing Ae. aegypti population outbreaks.

  2. Performance of clinical signs in poultry for the detection of outbreaks during the avian influenza A (H7N7) epidemic in the Netherlands in 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Koch, G.; Bouma, A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to make an inventory of the clinical signs of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI), to facilitate the development of an operational syndrome-reporting system (SRS) in The Netherlands as an early warning system for HPAI outbreaks. A total of 537 poultry flocks (240

  3. Performance of clinical signs in poultry for the detection of outbreaks during the avian influenza A (H7N7) epidemic in the Netherlands in 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Koch, G.; Bouma, A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to make an inventory of the clinical signs of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI), to facilitate the development of an operational syndrome-reporting system (SRS) in The Netherlands as an early warning system for HPAI outbreaks. A total of 537 poultry flocks (240 infe

  4. Early detection of first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven.......Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven....

  5. Detection of Mayaro virus infections during a dengue outbreak in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Carla Julia da Silva Pessoa; Silva, David José Ferreira da; Barreto, Eriana Serpa; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo Hassegawa; Colombo, Tatiana Elias; Ozanic, Katia; Schmidt, Diane Johnson; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Mondini, Adriano; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda; Bronzoni, Roberta Vieira de Morais

    2015-07-01

    Arboviruses are common agents of human febrile illness worldwide. In dengue-endemic areas illness due to other arboviruses have been misdiagnosed as dengue based only on clinical-epidemiological data. In this study we investigated the presence of Brazilian arboviruses in sera of 200 patients presenting acute febrile illness, during a dengue outbreak in Sinop, MT, Brazil. The results showed that 38 samples were positive to Dengue virus (DENV) type 1, two samples to DENV type 4, and six to Mayaro virus. These results indicate that arboviruses others than DENV are circulating in Sinop and the surrounding region, which are going undiagnosed. In addition, molecular and evolutionary analyses indicate that two MAYV genotypes are co-circulating in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Thus, a strong surveillance program must be implemented to evaluate and monitor the distribution and the true importance of non-dengue arboviruses in the etiology of acute febrile illnesses.

  6. Most Common Foodborne Pathogens and Mycotoxins on Fresh Produce: A Review of Recent Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeni, F; Yavaş, S; Alpas, H; Soyer, Y

    2016-07-03

    Every year millions of people are affected and thousands of them die due to infections and intoxication as a result of foodborne outbreaks, which also cause billions of dollars' worth of damage, public health problems, and agricultural product loss. A considerable portion of these outbreaks is related to fresh produce and caused by foodborne pathogens on fresh produce and mycotoxins. Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak, occurred in Germany in 2011, has attracted a great attention on foodborne outbreaks caused by contaminated fresh produce, and especially the vulnerability and gaps in the early warning and notification networks in the surveillance systems in all around the world. In the frame of this paper, we reviewed the most common foodborne pathogens on fresh produce, traceback investigations of the outbreaks caused by these pathogens, and lastly international early warning and notification systems, including PulseNet International and Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, aiming to detect foodborne outbreaks.

  7. Detection of Kudoa septempunctata 18S ribosomal DNA in patient fecal samples from novel food-borne outbreaks caused by consumption of raw olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tetsuya; Kawai, Takao; Jinnai, Michio; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kumeda, Yuko

    2012-09-01

    Kudoa septempunctata is a newly identified myxosporean parasite of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and a suspected causative agent of several food-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks in Japan. Here, we report the detection of K. septempunctata 18S ribosomal DNA in fecal samples of outbreak patients using an efficient method based on real-time PCR. We first performed a spiking experiment to assess whether our previously developed real-time PCR assay was applicable to detect K. septempunctata in feces. Simultaneously, we compared the relative extraction efficacy of K. septempunctata DNA using three commercial kits. Finally, our detection method was validated by testing 45 clinical samples obtained from 13 food-borne outbreaks associated with the consumption of raw flounder and 41 fecal samples from diarrhea patients epidemiologically unrelated to the ingestion of raw fish. We found that the FastDNA Spin Kit for Soil (MP Biomedicals) was the most efficient method for extracting K. septempunctata DNA from fecal samples. Using this kit, the detection limit of our real-time PCR assay was 1.6 × 10(1) spores per g of feces, and positive results were obtained for 21 fecal and 2 vomitus samples obtained from the food-borne outbreaks. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the detection of K. septempunctata DNA in patient fecal samples. We anticipate that our detection method will be useful for confirming food-borne diseases caused by K. septempunctata in laboratory investigations.

  8. An emetic Bacillus cereus outbreak in a kindergarten: detection and quantification of critical levels of cereulide toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbrassinne, Laurence; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Andjelkovic, Mirjana; Dierick, Katelijne; Denayer, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    A Bacillus cereus-related emetic outbreak was reported in a Belgian kindergarten. High levels of emetic B. cereus (>1.5E+07 colony-forming units/g) were detected in the food leftovers, and the presence of an emetic strain was confirmed in feces. Emetic toxin levels ranging up to 4.2 μg/g were also quantified in the leftovers by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(2)) analysis. Those levels, although moderate in comparison with earlier published intoxications, provoked profuse-vomiting episodes in 20 toddlers aged between 10 and 18 months. Few studies have focused on the levels of emetic toxin implicated in food intoxications. This publication emphasizes the importance of defining toxic doses of emetic toxin among high-risk population groups.

  9. Three-Month Real-Time Dengue Forecast Models: An Early Warning System for Outbreak Alerts and Policy Decision Support in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan; Liu, Xu; Kok, Suet-Yheng; Rajarethinam, Jayanthi; Liang, Shaohong; Yap, Grace; Chong, Chee-Seng; Lee, Kim-Sung; Tan, Sharon S.Y.; Chin, Christopher Kuan Yew; Lo, Andrew; Kong, Waiming; Ng, Lee Ching; Cook, Alex R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: With its tropical rainforest climate, rapid urbanization, and changing demography and ecology, Singapore experiences endemic dengue; the last large outbreak in 2013 culminated in 22,170 cases. In the absence of a vaccine on the market, vector control is the key approach for prevention. Objectives: We sought to forecast the evolution of dengue epidemics in Singapore to provide early warning of outbreaks and to facilitate the public health response to moderate an impending outbreak. Methods: We developed a set of statistical models using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) methods to forecast the weekly incidence of dengue notifications over a 3-month time horizon. This forecasting tool used a variety of data streams and was updated weekly, including recent case data, meteorological data, vector surveillance data, and population-based national statistics. The forecasting methodology was compared with alternative approaches that have been proposed to model dengue case data (seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average and step-down linear regression) by fielding them on the 2013 dengue epidemic, the largest on record in Singapore. Results: Operationally useful forecasts were obtained at a 3-month lag using the LASSO-derived models. Based on the mean average percentage error, the LASSO approach provided more accurate forecasts than the other methods we assessed. We demonstrate its utility in Singapore’s dengue control program by providing a forecast of the 2013 outbreak for advance preparation of outbreak response. Conclusions: Statistical models built using machine learning methods such as LASSO have the potential to markedly improve forecasting techniques for recurrent infectious disease outbreaks such as dengue. Citation: Shi Y, Liu X, Kok SY, Rajarethinam J, Liang S, Yap G, Chong CS, Lee KS, Tan SS, Chin CK, Lo A, Kong W, Ng LC, Cook AR. 2016. Three-month real-time dengue forecast models: an early warning system for outbreak

  10. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF EATING DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaveta Pavlova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating Disorders (EDs are characterized by a persistent disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that significantly impairs physical health or psychosocial functioning. EDs are caused by a complex interaction of genetic, biological, behavioral, psychological, and social factors. Their epidemiology is rising for the past decades, and EDs affect all races, social levels and both genders. Due to the long and expensive treatment, chronic course, and the fact that most of the sufferers do not realize the need for therapy or do not seek treatment, the demand on developing prevention programs, early detection and assessment is essential. Despite the fact, that many new EDs screening tools were developed already, there is a great lack of validated screening instruments, adapted to the Bulgarian conditions. Objects and methods: Our study aimed at eliciting a comprehensive battery for screening of not only specific ED pathology, but also some risk factors, such as negative body image, weight and depressive symptoms. The object of our study consisted of 201 females, aged 18 to 45 (mean 24.65. SCOOF- questionnaire, Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS-5, Body Image Questionnaire-34 and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were applied. Results: Our preliminary results show that approximately 45% of the tested subjects show some of the: negative body image, eating disorders’ clinical pathology, distorted eating patterns, subclinical eating disorders pathology, overweight/obesity, or depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Our ongoing efforts in area of research also are aimed at developing and refining strategies for preventing and treating ED among adolescents and adults.

  11. Performance of clinical signs to detect bluetongue virus serotype 8 outbreaks in cattle and sheep during the 2006-epidemic in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Backx, A.; Ekker, H.M.; Spek, van der A.N.; Rijn, van P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of clinical signs as a diagnostic test for the detection of BTV-8 outbreaks during the 2006-epidemic in The Netherlands was evaluated by constructing and analysing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The area under the ROC curve of the BT-associated clinical signs in catt

  12. Detecting Early Signatures of Persuasion in Information Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    ADDRESS. Indiana University at Bloomington Trustees of Indiana University 509 E 3RD ST Bloomington, IN 47401 -3654 Detecting Early Signatures of Persuasion ...SMISC  Project:   DESPIC:  Detecting  Early  Signatures  of   Persuasion  in  Information  Cascades     Teams:   Indiana

  13. Promoting early detection of breast cancer and care strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoting early detection of breast cancer and care strategies for Nigeria. ... Journal Home > Vol 21, No 2 (2017) > ... Worldwide, it is predicted that more than one million women are diagnosed with breast cancer, and ... between wide spread education, early detection, the disease stage at diagnosis, and survival rates.

  14. Molecular detection and genotyping of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in mosquitoes during a 2010 outbreak in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Ji; Kim, Heung Chul; Klein, Terry A.; Ramey, Andrew M.; Lee, Ji-Hyee; Kyung, Soon-Goo; Park, Jee-Yong; Cho, In-Soo; Yeh, Jung-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen, is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis. To reduce the impact of Japanese encephalitis among children in the Republic of Korea (ROK), the government established a mandatory vaccination program in 1967. Through the efforts of this program only 0-7 (mean 2.1) cases of Japanese encephalitis were reported annually in the ROK during the period of 1984-2009. However, in 2010 there was an outbreak of 26 confirmed cases of Japanese encephalitis, including 7 deaths. This represented a >12-fold increase in the number of confirmed cases of Japanese encephalitis in the ROK as compared to the mean number reported over the last 26 years and a 3.7-fold increase over the highest annual number of cases during this same period (7 cases). Surveillance of adult mosquitoes was conducted during the 2010 outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in the ROK. A total of 6,328 culicine mosquitoes belonging to 12 species from 5 genera were collected at 6 survey sites from June through October 2010 and assayed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the presence of JEV. A total of 34/371 pooled samples tested positive for JEV (29/121 Culex tritaeniorhynchus, 4/64 Cx. pipiens, and 1/26 Cx. bitaeniorhynchus) as confirmed by sequencing of the pre-membrane and envelope protein coding genes. The maximum likelihood estimates of JEV positive individuals per 1,000 culicine vectors for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. pipiens, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus were 11.8, 5.6, and 2.8, respectively. Sequences of the JEV pre-membrane and envelope protein coding genes amplified from the culicine mosquitoes by RT-PCR were compared with those of JEV genotypes I-V. Phylogenetic analyses support the detection of a single genotype (I) among samples collected from the ROK in 2010.

  15. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save – through early response activities – resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Methods Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Results Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems. The country case studies – conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the

  16. Early bronchiectasis in cystic fibrosis detected by surveillance CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillarisetti, Naveen; Linnane, Barry; Ranganathan, Sarath

    2010-08-01

    There is emerging evidence that cystic fibrosis lung disease begins early in infancy. Newborn screening allows early detection and surveillance of pulmonary disease and the possibility of early intervention in this life-shortening condition. We report two children with cystic fibrosis who underwent a comprehensive assessment from diagnosis that included measurement of lung function, limited-slice high-resolution CT and BAL performed annually. Early aggressive surveillance enabled significant lung disease and bronchiectasis to be detected during the first few years of life and led to a change in management, highlighting a clinical role for CT scanning during the preschool years in children with cystic fibrosis.

  17. Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0161 TITLE: Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Avrum E. Spira...W81XWH-11-2-0161 Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0161 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...bodily fluids, which may be used for the early detection of lung cancer among military personnel and veterans. Over the course of the fifth year of

  18. Assessment of MODIS NDVI time series data products for detecting forest defoliation by gypsy moth outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph P. Spruce; Steven Sader; Robert E. Ryan; James Smoot; Philip Kuper; al. et.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an assessment of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data products for detecting forest defoliation from European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). This paper describes an effort to aid the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service in developing and assessing MODIS-based gypsy moth defoliation...

  19. Multiple circulating infections can mimic the early stages of viral hemorrhagic fevers and possible human exposure to filoviruses in Sierra Leone prior to the 2014 outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisen, Matthew L; Schieffelin, John S; Goba, Augustine; Oottamasathien, Darin; Jones, Abigail B; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Hastie, Kathryn M; Hartnett, Jessica N; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohammed; Gabiki, Michael; Safa, Sidiki; Zandonatti, Michelle; Fusco, Marnie; Bornholdt, Zach; Abelson, Dafna; Gire, Stephen K; Andersen, Kristian G; Tariyal, Ridhi; Stremlau, Mathew; Cross, Robert W; Geisbert, Joan B; Pitts, Kelly R; Geisbert, Thomas W; Kulakoski, Peter; Wilson, Russell B; Henderson, Lee; Sabeti, Pardis C; Grant, Donald S; Garry, Robert F; Saphire, Erica O; Branco, Luis M; Khan, Sheik Humarr

    2015-02-01

    Lassa fever (LF) is a severe viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LASV). The LF program at the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in Eastern Sierra Leone currently provides diagnostic services and clinical care for more than 500 suspected LF cases per year. Nearly two-thirds of suspected LF patients presenting to the LF Ward test negative for either LASV antigen or anti-LASV immunoglobulin M (IgM), and therefore are considered to have a non-Lassa febrile illness (NLFI). The NLFI patients in this study were generally severely ill, which accounts for their high case fatality rate of 36%. The current studies were aimed at determining possible causes of severe febrile illnesses in non-LF cases presenting to the KGH, including possible involvement of filoviruses. A seroprevalence survey employing commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests revealed significant IgM and IgG reactivity against dengue virus, chikungunya virus, West Nile virus (WNV), Leptospira, and typhus. A polymerase chain reaction-based survey using sera from subjects with acute LF, evidence of prior LASV exposure, or NLFI revealed widespread infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in febrile patients. WNV RNA was detected in a subset of patients, and a 419 nt amplicon specific to filoviral L segment RNA was detected at low levels in a single patient. However, 22% of the patients presenting at the KGH between 2011 and 2014 who were included in this survey registered anti-Ebola virus (EBOV) IgG or IgM, suggesting prior exposure to this agent. The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is already the deadliest and most widely dispersed outbreak of its kind on record. Serological evidence reported here for possible human exposure to filoviruses in Sierra Leone prior to the current EVD outbreak supports genetic analysis that EBOV may have been present in West Africa for some time prior to the 2014 outbreak.

  20. Early detection of CLas infections in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Early” detection of CLas infection is essential to minimize the risk of Huanglongbing (HLB) epidemics in areas where the pathogen has been recently introduced. Any delay in confirmation of CLas infection results in delays of regulatory and management actions, and increased spread of the pathogen ev...

  1. Early detection and assertive community treatment of young psychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P; Nordentoft, M; Abel, M B

    2000-01-01

    Recent research indicates that early detection of young persons suffering from psychosis and subsequent intensive intervention enhances treatment response and prognosis, but the data are only preliminary and suggestive....

  2. Early Detection of Viral Hepatitis Can Save Lives - PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    Early detection of viral hepatitis can help prevent liver damage, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  3. Understanding apparently non-exponential outbreaks Comment on "Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review" by Gerardo Chowell et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champredon, David; Earn, David J. D.

    2016-09-01

    Mechanistic mathematical modelling of the population dynamics of infectious diseases has advanced tremendously over the last few decades [1-6]. Transmission models have been applied to countless diseases of public health importance, including seasonal and pandemic influenza [7], childhood diseases such as measles [8,9] and whooping cough [10], vector transmitted diseases such as malaria [11] and dengue [12], and waterborne diseases such as cholera [13-15]. Much attention in recent years has been directed to emergent diseases such as SARS [16], new subtypes of influenza [17,18], Ebola [19,20], and Zika [21], for which an understanding of early outbreak dynamics is critical.

  4. Near real-time space-time cluster analysis for detection of enteric disease outbreaks in a community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatman-Freedman, Aharona; Kaufman, Zalman; Kopel, Eran; Bassal, Ravit; Taran, Diana; Valinsky, Lea; Agmon, Vered; Shpriz, Manor; Cohen, Daniel; Anis, Emilia; Shohat, Tamy

    2016-08-01

    To enhance timely surveillance of bacterial enteric pathogens, space-time cluster analysis was introduced in Israel in May 2013. Stool isolation data of Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter from patients of a large Health Maintenance Organization were analyzed weekly by ArcGIS and SaTScan, and cluster results were sent promptly to local departments of health (LDOHs). During eighteen months, we identified 52 Shigella sonnei clusters, two Salmonella clusters, and no Campylobacter clusters. S. sonnei clusters lasted from one to 33 days and included three to 30 individuals. Thirty-one (60%) of the S. sonnei clusters were known to LDOHs prior to cluster analysis. Clusters not previously known by the LDOHs prompted epidemiologic investigations. In 31 of the 37 (84%) confirmed clusters, educational institutes (nursery schools, kindergartens, and a primary school) were involved. Cluster analysis demonstrated capability to complement enteric disease surveillance. Scaling up the system can further enhance timely detection and control of outbreaks. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Cell-Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-15-1-0457 TITLE: A Cell-Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Ben Stanger...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Cell-Based Approach to Early Pancreatic Cancer Detection 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0457 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...pancreatic cancer patients. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Pancreatic cancer , metastasis, circulating tumor cells 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17. LIMITATION

  6. Early detection of age related macular degeneration: current status

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Roy; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life of patients. This review summarizes current literature on the subject of early detection of CNV, both in the clinic setting and mainly in the patient’s home. New technologies are evolving to allow for earlier detection and thus vision preservation in AMD patients.

  7. Early detection of age related macular degeneration: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Roy; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life of patients. This review summarizes current literature on the subject of early detection of CNV, both in the clinic setting and mainly in the patient's home. New technologies are evolving to allow for earlier detection and thus vision preservation in AMD patients.

  8. Early detection of peroneal neuropathy by ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wei Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 12 year old boy presented with ankle sprain. The physical examination revealed mild weakness of ankle dorsiflexion. An ultrasound was done for the soft tissues of the ankle. In addition to relative atrophy of the peroneus longus muscle, a compressive common peroneal nerve (CPN lesion with a synovial cyst at the level of the proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ was accidently found. Since there were features of CPN compression by the synovial cyst, total excision of the cyst was performed. After the operation, muscle strength improved and the neurological deficit subsided. Therefore, the early diagnosis of PTFJ synovial cyst with nerve injury was crucial in order to achieve a better result. The obscure nature of clinical presentations can delay the diagnosis, which may potentially lead to a poor prognosis after treatment in such cases. This report highlights the fact that ankle sprain do need a thorough clinical work up in some cases.

  9. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  10. Early detection of ovarian cancer: preliminary results of the Yale Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, P. E.; Chambers, J. T.; Taylor, K. J.; Pellerito, J.; Hammers, L.; Cole, L. A.; Yang-Feng, T. L.; Smith, P.; Mayne, S. T.; Makuch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Eighty-four women at high risk for ovarian cancer by having first-degree relatives with epithelial ovarian cancer participated in a newly established, early ovarian cancer detection program at Yale University. Participants were to be evaluated with physical examinations and circulating tumor markers at entry and every six months thereafter. Endovaginal ultrasound and color Doppler flow studies were to be performed at three and nine months following entry into the program. In addition, women were encouraged to follow American Cancer Society guidelines for mammography. Stool was checked for occult blood. Endometrial sampling was offered to post-menopausal women. No participant has developed an ovarian cancer since entering the program. One woman has been diagnosed to have breast cancer. False-positive levels of circulating tumor markers (CA 125, 4/84 [4.8 percent]; lipid-associated sialic acid in plasma, 13/84 [15.5 percent]; NB/70K, 4/84 [4.8 percent]; and urinary gonadotropin fragment, 1/65 [1.5 percent]) were observed on entry into the program. Low resistive indices (less than 0.5) were documented in 8/91 (8.8 percent) ovaries studied by the color Doppler flow technique. One participant underwent a laparotomy based on a false-positive endovaginal ultrasound examination. Tests now being employed in community practice have a high likelihood of being associated with false-positive results. Therapeutic interventions based on isolated abnormal tumor markers or ultrasound studies obtained from women with family histories of ovarian cancer may lead to inappropriate surgery. It is necessary for cancer centers to develop expertise in ovarian cancer detection techniques to advise physicians in their geographic areas appropriately about the significance of the abnormal screening test. PMID:1810101

  11. Early hearing detection and intervention in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, DeWet; Störbeck, Claudine; Friedland, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Early hearing detection and intervention programs have become the standard of care to ensure optimal outcomes for infants with hearing loss, their families and society at large. The overwhelming majority of infants with congenital or early-onset permanent bilateral hearing loss are however born in developing countries like South Africa where services are scarce and awareness poor. Despite its comparatively well-developed economic and reasonably developed health care infrastructure in sub-Saharan Africa, limited information on infant hearing loss and the status of early hearing detection and intervention has been available for South Africa. Recently however, an increasing number of initiatives and reports have highlighted the extent of infant hearing loss and the status of identification and intervention services offered in the country. This report provides a review of the available evidence on infant hearing loss and the status of current early hearing detection and intervention services in South Africa.

  12. [Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies to Salmonella Typhi lipopolysaccharide O and capsular polysaccharide Vi antigens in persons from outbreak of typhoid fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastawicki, Waldemar; Kałużewski, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of typhoid fever is dependent upon either isolation of S. Typhi from a clinical sample or the detection of raised titers of serum antibodies in the Widal test or the passive hemagglutination assay (PHA). In this study we evaluated the usefulness of ELISA for detection of antibodies to S. Typhi lipopolysaccharide O and capsular polysaccharide Vi antigens in the sera of persons from outbreak of typhoid fever. Fifteen serum samples from patients with laboratory confirmed typhoid fever and 140 sera from persons suspected for contact with typhoid fever patients from outbreak in 1974/75 in Poland were tested by ELISA. Additionally, as the control group, we tested 115 sera from blood donors for the presence of S. Typhi anti-LPS and anti-Vi antibodies. Anti-LPS and anti-Vi antibodies were detected in 80% and 53.3% of sera obtained from patients with laboratory confirmed typhoid fever, respectively. The high percentages of positive results in ELISA were also noted in the group of persons suspected for contact with typhoid fever patients (51.4% and 45%) but not in the group of blood donors (7.8% and 6.1%, respectively). The ELISA could be a useful tool for the serological diagnosis of typhoid fever in patients who have clinical symptoms but are culture negative, especially during massive outbreaks of typhoid fever.

  13. Outbreaks of virulent diarrheagenic Escherichia coli - are we in control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werber Dirk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are the most virulent diarrheagenic E. coli known to date. They can be spread with alarming ease via food as exemplified by a large sprout-borne outbreak of STEC O104:H4 in 2011 that was centered in northern Germany and affected several countries. Effective control of such outbreaks is an important public health task and necessitates early outbreak detection, fast identification of the outbreak vehicle and immediate removal of the suspected food from the market, flanked by consumer advice and measures to prevent secondary spread. In our view, opportunities to improve control of STEC outbreaks lie in early clinical suspicion for STEC infection, timely diagnosis of all STEC at the serotype-level and integrating molecular subtyping information into surveillance systems. Furthermore, conducting analytical studies that supplement patients' imperfect food history recall and performing, as an investigative element, product tracebacks, are pivotal but underutilized tools for successful epidemiologic identification of the suspected vehicle in foodborne outbreaks. As a corollary, these tools are amenable to tailor microbiological testing of suspected food. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/12

  14. Early Detection for Dengue Using Local Indicator of Spatial Association (LISA Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Elizabeth Parra-Amaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a viral disease caused by a flavivirus that is transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. There is currently no specific treatment or commercial vaccine for its control and prevention; therefore, mosquito population control is the only alternative for preventing the occurrence of dengue. For this reason, entomological surveillance is recommended by World Health Organization (WHO to measure dengue risk in endemic areas; however, several works have shown that the current methodology (aedic indices is not sufficient for predicting dengue. In this work, we modified indices proposed for epidemic periods. The raw value of the epidemiological wave could be useful for detecting risk in epidemic periods; however, risk can only be detected if analyses incorporate the maximum epidemiological wave. Risk classification was performed according to Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA methodology. The modified indices were analyzed using several hypothetical scenarios to evaluate their sensitivity. We found that modified indices could detect spatial and differential risks in epidemic and endemic years, which makes them a useful tool for the early detection of a dengue outbreak. In conclusion, the modified indices could predict risk at the spatio-temporal level in endemic years and could be incorporated in surveillance activities in endemic places.

  15. Assessing the Effectiveness of the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS) for Early Event Detection of the H1N1 ("Swine Flu") Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    assessing their ability to detect the presence of a known H1N1 outbreak in Monterey County. This research found the cumulative sum ( CUSUM ) detection... CUSUM ), Adaptive Regression 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE...found the cumulative sum ( CUSUM ) detection method to be the most reliable in signaling the H1N1 outbreak, across all combinations of logic explored

  16. Protein Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Misek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in breast cancer control will be greatly aided by early detection so as to diagnose and treat breast cancer in its preinvasive state prior to metastasis. For breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the United States, early detection does allow for increased treatment options, including surgical resection, with a corresponding better patient response. Unfortunately, however, many patients' tumors are diagnosed following metastasis, thus making it more difficult to successfully treat the malignancy. There are, at present, no existing validated plasma/serum biomarkers for breast cancer. Only a few biomarkers (such as HER-2/neu, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor have utility for diagnosis and prognosis. Thus, there is a great need for new biomarkers for breast cancer. This paper will focus on the identification of new serum protein biomarkers with utility for the early detection of breast cancer.

  17. DETECTION OF SENTINEL LYMPH NODE IN EARLY CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 李斌; 章文华

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of sentinel lymph node (SLN) localization by lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection in early cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 27 patients with operable invasive early cervical cancer and clinically proved negative pelvic lymph nodes were included in this study. The 99Tcm-dextran of 74 MBq (2 mCi) was injected around the cervix at 2( and 10(. Lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection were used to find the SLN. Results: The SLN was identified in 27 patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the SLN detection to predict the metastasis of the pelvic lymph node were 100% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: Identification of the SLN using radionuclide is feasible and possible in women with early cervical cancer.

  18. Development of an assisting detection system for early infarct diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Ee, C. S. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a detection assisting system for early infarct detection is developed. This new developed method is used to assist the medical practitioners to diagnose infarct from computed tomography images of brain. Using this assisting system, the infarct could be diagnosed at earlier stages. The non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain images are the data set used for this system. Detection module extracts the pixel data from NCCT brain images, and produces the colourized version of images. The proposed method showed great potential in detecting infarct, and helps medical practitioners to make earlier and better diagnoses.

  19. A measles outbreak in Catania, Sicily: the importance of high vaccination coverage and early notification of cases for health and economic reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celesia, Benedetto Maurizio; Fontana, Rossella; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Cuccia, Mario; Bellissimo, Francesco; Rapisarda, Liliana; Rinnone, Sebastiano; Rapisarda, Venerando; Pavone, Piero; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Measles is a paediatric exanthematous disease. Even though vaccination has dramatically reduced measles morbidity and mortality, outbreaks still occur due to insufficient vaccination coverage and importation of the virus from endemic regions. Although child vaccination coverage in Italy has been broadened (from 74% in 2000 to 90.1% in 2011), outbreaks are still observed at a regional level. We describe epidemiological and clinical characteristics of cases reported from January 2009 to May 2010 to the Epidemiology Service of the Provincial Health Authority of Catania. We obtained demographic data and vaccination status from the database of the Epidemiology Service and clinical features and laboratory data from medical records. In all, 522 cases were notified: 286 males (54%), median age 12 years (interquartile range (IQR) 4-18); 401 cases (77%) were notified by the hospital, and 121 (23%) by general practitioners. Only one patient had been previously vaccinated. 52 cases were hospitalized, median age 18 years (IQR 17-23). We observed hypertransaminasaemia in 20 patients (38%), thrombocytopenia in 22 patients (42%) and a creatine phosphokinase increase in 16 (30%). Complications (pneumonia, haemorrhagic cystitis, acute hepatitis) occurred in 10 patients (19%), all older than 18. Recent outbreaks show that immunization practices are still insufficient. Most cases were recorded in adolescents and young adults; even if the vaccine has limited virus circulation in childhood, it did not prevent the infection of other age groups. The number of notifications also suggests that the phenomenon is underestimated. In order to monitor the disease we need early notification of cases and increased vaccination coverage.

  20. Limitations of Colposcopy in Early Invasive Cervical Cancer Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Grubišić, Goran

    2007-01-01

    Colposcopy is a key element in the diagnostic chain required to reduce cervical cancer mortality but it has limitations in the diagnosis of malignant disease. In the Republic of Croatia the Croatian Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology started constructing guidelines for early detection, therapy and follow-up of patients with early invasive cervical cancer in order to achieve the best possible results in diagnosis, therapy and follow-up. From 2001 to 2006 Croatian society ...

  1. Assessment of the use of gross lesions at post-mortem to detect outbreaks of classical swine fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, Armin R W; Vos, Jan H; Bouma, Annemarie; van Exsel, Ad C A; Stegeman, Arjan

    2003-11-07

    The performance of pathological findings as a diagnostic tool for the detection of classical swine fever (CSF) outbreaks during the 1997/1998 CSF-epidemic in The Netherlands was evaluated by constructing and analysing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. This was done at the individual pig level and at the submission level (a group of pigs from the same herd submitted together for post-mortem investigation). At post-mortem examination, the tonsils, spleen, ileo-caecal valve and renal pelvis were sampled, sent to the reference laboratory, and tested by means of a CSF-specific fluorescent antibody test in combination with a confirmatory test. This resulted in an infection status at the individual pig level. The infection status and pathological findings of 1072 individual pigs from a total of 230 infected herds were included in this analysis. We also included submissions of pigs from herds that were sent to post-mortem examination because of a clinically CSF-suspect situation but afterwards were concluded to be from non-infected herds. Infection status and pathological findings of 1224 individual pigs from a total of 241 non-infected herds were included in the analysis. Pneumonia, pleuritis, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary oedema, chronic gastric ulceration, dry faecal contents in the colon, conjunctivitis, haemorrhages in the renal pelvis, renal haemorrhages, splenic enlargement, haemorrhages in the urinary bladder, haemorrhagic and enlarged lymph nodes were the most frequently recorded pathological findings during a post-mortem examination of pigs submitted in a CSF-suspect clinical situation. However, some of these pathological findings (e.g. pneumonia, pleuritis) were almost evenly distributed in infected and in non-infected pigs, resulting in a high sensitivity combined with a low specificity. The area under the ROC curve of pathological findings at the individual pig level and at the submission level was 0.720 and 0.782, respectively, which was

  2. Early Detection of Rogue Waves Using Compressive Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Bayindir, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the possible usage of the compressive sampling for the early detection of rogue waves in a chaotic sea state. One of the promising techniques for the early detection of the oceanic rogue waves is to measure the triangular Fourier spectra which begin to appear at the early stages of their development. For the early detection of the rogue waves it is possible to treat such a spectrum as a sparse signal since we would mainly be interested in the high amplitude triangular region located at the central wavenumber. Therefore compressive sampling can be a very efficient tool for the rogue wave early warning systems. Compressed measurements can be acquired by remote sensing techniques such as coherent SAR which measure the ocean surface fluctuation or by insitu techniques such as spectra measuring tools mounted on a ship hull or bottom mounted pressure gauges. By employing a numerical approach we show that triangular Fourier spectra can be sensed by compressed measurements at the early stages of the develo...

  3. Clinical profile and containment of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in two large West African cities, Nigeria, July–September 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima Ohuabunwo

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The EVD outbreak in Nigeria was characterized by the severe febrile gastroenteritis syndrome typical of the West African outbreak, better outcomes, rapid containment, and no infection among EVD care-providers. Early case detection, an effective incident management system, and prompt case management with on-site mobilization and training of local professionals were key to the outcome.

  4. TOWARDS MODELING DISEASE OUTBREAK NOTIFICATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farag Azzedin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease outbreak detection, monitoring and notification systems play an important role in assessing threats to public health since disease outbreaks are becoming increasingly common world-wide. There are several systems in use around the world, with coverage of national, international and global disease outbreaks. These systems use different taxonomies and classifications for the detection and prioritization of potential disease outbreaks. In this paper, we study and analyze the current disease outbreak systems. Subsequently, we extract features and functions of typical and generic disease outbreak systems. We then propose a generic model for disease outbreak notification systems. Our effort is directed towards standardizing the design process for typical disease outbreak systems.

  5. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  6. Early indices of deviance detection in humans and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Sabine; Escera, Carles; Nelken, Israel

    2016-04-01

    Detecting unexpected stimuli in the environment is a critical function of the auditory system. Responses to unexpected "deviant" sounds are enhanced compared to responses to expected stimuli. At the human scalp, deviance detection is reflected in the mismatch negativity (MMN) and in an enhancement of the middle-latency response (MLR). Single neurons often respond more strongly to a stimulus when rare than when common, a phenomenon termed stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). Here we compare stimulus-specific adaptation with scalp-recorded deviance-related responses. We conclude that early markers of deviance detection in the time range of the MLR could be a direct correlate of cortical SSA. Both occur at an early level of cortical activation, both are robust findings with low-probability stimuli, and both show properties of genuine deviance detection. Their causal relation with the later scalp-recorded MMN is a key question in this field.

  7. Sleep Spindles as Biomarker for Early Detection of Neurodegenerative Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to the use of sleep spindles as a novel biomarker for early diagnosis of synucleinopathies, in particular Parkinson's disease (PD). The method is based on automatic detection of sleep spindles. The method may be combined with measurements of one or more further...

  8. Growth monitoring as an early detection tool: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherdel, P.; Dunkel, L.; Dommelen, P. van; Goulet, O.; Salaün, J.F.; Brauner, R.; Heude, B.; Chalumeau, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growth monitoring of apparently healthy children aims at early detection of serious underlying disorders. However, existing growth-monitoring practices are mainly based on suboptimal methods, which can result in delayed diagnosis of severe diseases and inappropriate referrals. We did a systematic re

  9. Why Ambiguity Detection Is a Predictor of Early Reading Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankoff, Lorain Szabo; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the contributions of metalinguistic skill and psycholinguistic processing ability to children's ability to detect the ambiguity of sentences and the relationship among all three factors to early reading ability. A total of 20 first graders and 20 second graders were given tasks testing the following abilities:…

  10. Illumina Spin-off to Develop Early-Detection Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Janet

    2016-04-01

    DNA-sequencing giant Illumina has formed a new company, called Grail, to develop liquid biopsies capable of spotting cancer before symptoms arise. The start-up is working on a low-cost "pan-cancer" test that can detect multiple cancer types early, which it hopes to introduce by 2019.

  11. Early cell death detection with digital holographic microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pavillon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Digital holography provides a non-invasive measurement of the quantitative phase shifts induced by cells in culture, which can be related to cell volume changes. It has been shown previously that regulation of cell volume, in particular as it relates to ionic homeostasis, is crucially involved in the activation/inactivation of the cell death processes. We thus present here an application of digital holographic microscopy (DHM dedicated to early and label-free detection of cell death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We provide quantitative measurements of phase signal obtained on mouse cortical neurons, and caused by early neuronal cell volume regulation triggered by excitotoxic concentrations of L-glutamate. We show that the efficiency of this early regulation of cell volume detected by DHM, is correlated with the occurrence of subsequent neuronal death assessed with the widely accepted trypan blue method for detection of cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: The determination of the phase signal by DHM provides a simple and rapid optical method for the early detection of cell death.

  12. [Detection of early forms of keratoconus - current screening methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebels, S; Eppig, T; Seitz, B; Langenbucher, A

    2013-10-01

    The detection of early forms of keratoconus is still a challenge for clinicians. Beside clinical examination and diagnosis of keratoconus, a series of examination techniques has been established in clinical routine to assist in the diagnosis of early forms of keratoconus: corneal topography for measuring the geometry of the corneal front surface, tomography for measuring the geometry of structures of the anterior segment of the eye, aberrometers for evaluation of optical aberrations of the entire eye, and a system for investigation of the biomechanical properties of the cornea. These instruments provide software tools which are designed for diagnostic support in keratoconus. In this review article, we provide an overview over the spectrum of measurement systems currently on the market focussing on their performance for detecting (early forms of) keratoconus. In detail, we focus on dedicated keratoconus screening software modules of topography, tomography, aberrometry and biomechanics.

  13. Early detection of occult atrial fibrillation and stroke prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keach, Joseph Walker; Bradley, Steven M; Turakhia, Mintu P; Maddox, Thomas M

    2015-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a very common arrhythmia and significantly increases stroke risk. This risk can be mitigated with oral anticoagulation, but AF is often asymptomatic, or occult, preventing timely detection and treatment. Accordingly, occult AF may cause stroke before it is clinically diagnosed. Currently, guidelines for the early detection and treatment of occult AF are limited. This review addresses recent advancements in occult AF detection methods, identification of populations at high risk for occult AF, the treatment of occult AF with oral anticoagulation, as well as ongoing trials that may answer critically important questions regarding occult AF screening.

  14. Role of Gold Nanoparticles in Early Detection of Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sanjay Reddy

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the science of the small; the very small. It is the use and manipulation of matter at a tiny scale. At this size, atoms and molecules work differently and provide a variety of surprising and interesting uses. These nanoparticles can be used to detect/mondor cancer (by utilizing or adding optical, magnetic, and fluorescent properties. This novel imaging tool can lead to significant improvements in cancer therapy due to earlier detection, accurate staging and microtumor identification. In this review, we will summarize the current state of the art of gold nanoparticles in early detection of oral cancer.

  15. Trigger events: enviroclimatic coupling of Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Jorge E.; Wilson, James M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Arthur, Ray; Jahrling, Peter B.; Formenty, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    We use spatially continuous satellite data as a correlate of precipitation within tropical Africa and show that the majority of documented Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks were closely associated with sharply drier conditions at the end of the rainy season. We propose that these trigger events may enhance transmission of Ebola virus from its cryptic reservoir to humans. These findings suggest specific directions to help understand the sylvatic cycle of the virus and may provide early warning tools to detect possible future outbreaks of this enigmatic disease.

  16. Pan-genome multilocus sequence typing and outbreak-specific reference-based single nucleotide polymorphism analysis to resolve two concurrent Staphylococcus aureus outbreaks in neonatal services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisin, S; Gaudin, C; De Mendonça, R; Bellon, J; Van Vaerenbergh, K; De Bruyne, K; Byl, B; Pouseele, H; Denis, O; Supply, P

    2016-06-01

    We used a two-step whole genome sequencing analysis for resolving two concurrent outbreaks in two neonatal services in Belgium, caused by exfoliative toxin A-encoding-gene-positive (eta+) methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus with an otherwise sporadic spa-type t209 (ST-109). Outbreak A involved 19 neonates and one healthcare worker in a Brussels hospital from May 2011 to October 2013. After a first episode interrupted by decolonization procedures applied over 7 months, the outbreak resumed concomitantly with the onset of outbreak B in a hospital in Asse, comprising 11 neonates and one healthcare worker from mid-2012 to January 2013. Pan-genome multilocus sequence typing, defined on the basis of 42 core and accessory reference genomes, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms mapped on an outbreak-specific de novo assembly were used to compare 28 available outbreak isolates and 19 eta+/spa-type t209 isolates identified by routine or nationwide surveillance. Pan-genome multilocus sequence typing showed that the outbreaks were caused by independent clones not closely related to any of the surveillance isolates. Isolates from only ten cases with overlapping stays in outbreak A, including four pairs of twins, showed no or only a single nucleotide polymorphism variation, indicating limited sequential transmission. Detection of larger genomic variation, even from the start of the outbreak, pointed to sporadic seeding from a pre-existing exogenous source, which persisted throughout the whole course of outbreak A. Whole genome sequencing analysis can provide unique fine-tuned insights into transmission pathways of complex outbreaks even at their inception, which, with timely use, could valuably guide efforts for early source identification.

  17. Early Detection of Rogue Waves by the Wavelet Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Bayindir, Cihan

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the possible advantages of using the wavelet transform over the Fourier transform for the early detection of rogue waves. We show that the triangular wavelet spectra of the rogue waves can be detected at early stages of the development of rogue waves in a chaotic wave field. Compared to the Fourier spectra, the wavelet spectra is capable of detecting not only the emergence of a rogue wave but also its possible spatial (or temporal) location. Due to this fact, wavelet transform is also capable of predicting the characteristic distances between successive rogue waves. Therefore multiple simultaneous breaking of the successive rogue waves on ships or on the offshore structures can be predicted and avoided by smart designs and operations.

  18. Detection of Peste des Petits Ruminants Viral RNA in Fecal Samples of Goats after an Outbreak in Punjab Province of Pakistan: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Zahur, Aamer; Latif, Asma; Iqbal Dasti, Javid; Irshad, Hamid; Afzal, Muhammad; Rasheed, Tahir; Rashid Malik, Adnan; Qureshi, Zafar-ul-Ahsan

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants and thus has serious socioeconomic implications. In Pakistan, during the year 2012-2013, estimated losses due to PPR were worth Rs. 31.51 billions. Close contact between infected and susceptible animals is an important route of transmission of PPR. Therefore, carrier animals play an important role in unnoticed transmission of PPR. The objective of the study was to investigate the detection of PPR virus in goats recovered from PPR. A suspected PPR outbreak was investigated and confirmed as PPR after analysing appropriate samples collected from infected animals using rRT-PCR. A longitudinal study was conducted over the period of 16 weeks to ascertain the detection of PPR virus (PPRV) in faecal samples of recovered goats. Ninety-six (96) faecal samples from each sampling were collected at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after the outbreak. Faecal samples were analysed using rRT-PCR. Of 96 from each sampling a total of 46, 37, 29, and 25 samples were positive for PPR viral genome at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, respectively, after recovery. Attempts were made for the isolation of PPR virus on Vero cells, but results were negative. These results indicated the detection of PPR viral RNA up to 16 weeks after infection. Therefore, these results may help in the future epidemiology of PPR virus shedding and possible role as source of silent infection for healthy animals especially when there is no history of any outbreak in nearby flock or area. PMID:27597951

  19. Detection of Peste des Petits Ruminants Viral RNA in Fecal Samples of Goats after an Outbreak in Punjab Province of Pakistan: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riasat Wasee Ullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants and thus has serious socioeconomic implications. In Pakistan, during the year 2012-2013, estimated losses due to PPR were worth Rs. 31.51 billions. Close contact between infected and susceptible animals is an important route of transmission of PPR. Therefore, carrier animals play an important role in unnoticed transmission of PPR. The objective of the study was to investigate the detection of PPR virus in goats recovered from PPR. A suspected PPR outbreak was investigated and confirmed as PPR after analysing appropriate samples collected from infected animals using rRT-PCR. A longitudinal study was conducted over the period of 16 weeks to ascertain the detection of PPR virus (PPRV in faecal samples of recovered goats. Ninety-six (96 faecal samples from each sampling were collected at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after the outbreak. Faecal samples were analysed using rRT-PCR. Of 96 from each sampling a total of 46, 37, 29, and 25 samples were positive for PPR viral genome at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, respectively, after recovery. Attempts were made for the isolation of PPR virus on Vero cells, but results were negative. These results indicated the detection of PPR viral RNA up to 16 weeks after infection. Therefore, these results may help in the future epidemiology of PPR virus shedding and possible role as source of silent infection for healthy animals especially when there is no history of any outbreak in nearby flock or area.

  20. Detection of Peste des Petits Ruminants Viral RNA in Fecal Samples of Goats after an Outbreak in Punjab Province of Pakistan: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasee Ullah, Riasat; Bin Zahur, Aamer; Latif, Asma; Iqbal Dasti, Javid; Irshad, Hamid; Afzal, Muhammad; Rasheed, Tahir; Rashid Malik, Adnan; Qureshi, Zafar-Ul-Ahsan

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild small ruminants and thus has serious socioeconomic implications. In Pakistan, during the year 2012-2013, estimated losses due to PPR were worth Rs. 31.51 billions. Close contact between infected and susceptible animals is an important route of transmission of PPR. Therefore, carrier animals play an important role in unnoticed transmission of PPR. The objective of the study was to investigate the detection of PPR virus in goats recovered from PPR. A suspected PPR outbreak was investigated and confirmed as PPR after analysing appropriate samples collected from infected animals using rRT-PCR. A longitudinal study was conducted over the period of 16 weeks to ascertain the detection of PPR virus (PPRV) in faecal samples of recovered goats. Ninety-six (96) faecal samples from each sampling were collected at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after the outbreak. Faecal samples were analysed using rRT-PCR. Of 96 from each sampling a total of 46, 37, 29, and 25 samples were positive for PPR viral genome at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, respectively, after recovery. Attempts were made for the isolation of PPR virus on Vero cells, but results were negative. These results indicated the detection of PPR viral RNA up to 16 weeks after infection. Therefore, these results may help in the future epidemiology of PPR virus shedding and possible role as source of silent infection for healthy animals especially when there is no history of any outbreak in nearby flock or area.

  1. Of gastro and the gold standard: evaluation and policy implications of norovirus test performance for outbreak detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisman David N

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The norovirus group (NVG of caliciviruses are the etiological agents of most institutional outbreaks of gastroenteritis in North America and Europe. Identification of NVG is complicated by the non-culturable nature of this virus, and the absence of a diagnostic gold standard makes traditional evaluation of test characteristics problematic. Methods We evaluated 189 specimens derived from 440 acute gastroenteritis outbreaks investigated in Ontario in 2006–07. Parallel testing for NVG was performed with real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT2-PCR, enzyme immunoassay (EIA and electron microscopy (EM. Test characteristics (sensitivity and specificity were estimated using latent class models and composite reference standard methods. The practical implications of test characteristics were evaluated using binomial probability models. Results Latent class modelling estimated sensitivities of RT2-PCR, EIA, and EM as 100%, 86%, and 17% respectively; specificities were 84%, 92%, and 100%; estimates obtained using a composite reference standard were similar. If all specimens contained norovirus, RT2-PCR or EIA would be associated with > 99.9% likelihood of at least one test being positive after three specimens tested. Testing of more than 5 true negative specimens with RT2-PCR would be associated with a greater than 50% likelihood of a false positive test. Conclusion Our findings support the characterization of EM as lacking sensitivity for NVG outbreaks. The high sensitivity of RT2-PCR and EIA permit identification of NVG outbreaks with testing of limited numbers of clinical specimens. Given risks of false positive test results, it is reasonable to limit the number of specimens tested when RT2-PCR or EIA are available.

  2. Detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus and goatpox virus from an outbreak in goats with high mortality in Meghalaya state, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, A.; Bhattacharjee, U.; Puro, K.; Shakuntala, I.; Sanjukta, R.; Das, S.; Ghatak, S.; Sen, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We describe a laboratory investigation carried out to confirm the etiology of the heavy mortality (37 animals died out of total 44, i.e. 84%) in goats in Ri-Bhoi district of Meghalaya, Northeast region of India in December 2015. The clinical signs observed were abortion, diarrhea, high fever (up to 104°F), pox lesion in the skin, and respiratory distress. Materials and Methods: The samples comprising whole blood, sera, and pox lesion were collected from the animals (n=7) from an outbreak for the screening of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and poxviruses. The whole blood and sera were used for screening of PPR virus (PPRV) by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and antibody by competitive ELISA as well as detection of PPRV partial N gene by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The skin lesions were used for the detection of poxvirus by PCR. Results: The results showed the presence of PPR antigens (58-80%) in the samples by sandwich ELISA and antibody in all the sera samples ranging from 9% to 41% positivity in competitive ELISA. Four samples were positive for PPRV partial N gene. The skin lesion screened for poxvirus was also found to be positive for I3L gene of goatpox virus. Conclusion: We confirm the outbreak of disease in goats with high mortality is a case of mixed infection of PPR and goatpox detected for the first time in Northeast India. PMID:27733807

  3. Detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus and goatpox virus from an outbreak in goats with high mortality in Meghalaya state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We describe a laboratory investigation carried out to confirm the etiology of the heavy mortality (37 animals died out of total 44, i.e. 84% in goats in Ri-Bhoi district of Meghalaya, Northeast region of India in December 2015. The clinical signs observed were abortion, diarrhea, high fever (up to 104°F, pox lesion in the skin, and respiratory distress. Materials and Methods: The samples comprising whole blood, sera, and pox lesion were collected from the animals (n=7 from an outbreak for the screening of peste des petits ruminants (PPR and poxviruses. The whole blood and sera were used for screening of PPR virus (PPRV by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and antibody by competitive ELISA as well as detection of PPRV partial N gene by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The skin lesions were used for the detection of poxvirus by PCR. Results: The results showed the presence of PPR antigens (58-80% in the samples by sandwich ELISA and antibody in all the sera samples ranging from 9% to 41% positivity in competitive ELISA. Four samples were positive for PPRV partial N gene. The skin lesion screened for poxvirus was also found to be positive for I3L gene of goatpox virus. Conclusion: We confirm the outbreak of disease in goats with high mortality is a case of mixed infection of PPR and goatpox detected for the first time in Northeast India.

  4. A New Methodology for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, K. N.

    2005-11-27

    The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

  5. A New Methodology for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, K. N.

    2005-11-27

    The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

  6. Early detection of ovarian cancer: background, rationale, and structure of the Yale Early Detection Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, P. E.; Chambers, J. T.; Taylor, K. J.; Pellerito, J.; Hammers, L.; Cole, L. A.; Yang-Feng, T L; Smith, P; Mayne, S T; Makuch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Ovarian cancer has received national attention as a highly virulent disease. Its lack of early warning symptoms and the failure to develop highly sensitive screening tests have led some physicians to recommend prophylactic oophorectomies to women with relatives who have had ovarian cancer. Others have recommended routine screening of otherwise normal women for CA 125, a circulating tumor marker, and ultrasound examinations. Each of these techniques is associated with substantial false-positiv...

  7. Beyond Contact Tracing: Community-Based Early Detection for Ebola Response

    CERN Document Server

    Cooney, Daniel; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in west Africa raised many questions about the control of infectious disease in an increasingly connected global society. Limited availability of contact information has made contact tracing difficult or impractical in combating the outbreak. We consider the development of multi-scale public health strategies and simulate policies for community-level response aimed at early screening of communities rather than individuals, as well as travel restrictions to prevent community cross-contamination. Our analysis shows community screening to be effective even at a relatively low level of compliance. In our simulations, 40% of individuals conforming to this policy is enough to stop the outbreak. Simulations with a 50% compliance rate are consistent with the case counts in Liberia during the period of rapid decline after mid September, 2014. We also find the travel restriction policies to be effective at reducing the risks associated with compliance substantially below the 40% level, shortenin...

  8. Early detection of drillstring washouts reduces fishing jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudleson, B. (Dubai Petroleum Co. (FR)); Arnold, M.; McCann, D. (Sedco Forex (FR))

    1990-10-01

    Rapid detection of unexpected drilling events requires continuous monitoring of drilling parameters. A major R and D program by a drilling contractor has led to the introduction of a computerized monitoring system on its offshore rigs. System includes advanced color graphics displays and new smart alarms to help both contractor and operator personnel detect and observe drilling events before they would normally be apparent with conventional rig instrumentation. This article describes a module of this monitoring system, which uses expert system technology to detect the earliest stages of drillstring washouts. Field results demonstrate the effectiveness of the smart alarm incorporated in the system. Early detection allows the driller to react before a twist-off results in expensive fishing operations.

  9. Early forest fire detection using low-energy hydrogen sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nörthemann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most huge forest fires start in partial combustion. In the beginning of a smouldering fire, emission of hydrogen in low concentration occurs. Therefore, hydrogen can be used to detect forest fires before open flames are visible and high temperatures are generated. We have developed a hydrogen sensor comprising of a metal/solid electrolyte/insulator/semiconductor (MEIS structure which allows an economical production. Due to the low energy consumption, an autarkic working unit in the forest was established. In this contribution, first experiments are shown demonstrating the possibility to detect forest fires at a very early stage using the hydrogen sensor.

  10. Early breast cancer detection using techniques other than mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopans, D.B.

    1984-09-01

    X-ray mammography is the only imaging method currently available with any proven efficacy for screening to detect early-stage, clinically occult breast cancer. Sonography has a limited role in the differentiation of cystic from solid masses and as a guide for aspiration and preoperative localization of selected breast lesions. Computed tomography has a more limited role to determine the spatial orientation of a lesion detected only in the lateral mammographic position. All other imaging methods should be considered experimental at this time.

  11. Early detection of cutaneous melanoma by sequential digital dermatoscopy (SDD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Sophie Luise; Haenssle, Holger Andreas

    2013-06-01

    The early diagnosis and excision of cutaneous melanoma is essential for an improved prognosis of the disease. Besides the investigation of pigmented lesions with the unaided eye and conventional dermatoscopy, long-term sequential digital dermatoscopy has been shown to improve the sensitivity of melanoma detection, especially in high-risk patients. In addition to the static clinical and dermatoscopic assessment, the sequential digital dermatoscopy strategy helps to detect changes over time. This review summarizes the latest developments in the field of sequential digital dermatoscopy, describes current strategies for the selection of patients and lesions to monitor, and suggests objective criteria that should lead to an excisional biopsy.

  12. A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

  13. Early caries detection: comparison of two procedures. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Caries is one of the most common chronic diseases and the main cause of tooth loss. Early detection provides a better evaluation of the disease and improves the chances to succeed of prevention strategies. This pilot study aims to compare the effectiveness of ICDAS-II system (International Caries Detection and Assessment System and the fluorescence terminal (Proof of VistaCam iX intraoral camera, in the early diagnosis and assessment of caries in permanent teeth. Results shows a fair correlation between ICDAS II and VistaCam iX Proof; intraoral camera proved to be a useful support to the ICDAS II visual / tactile monitoring of carious lesions in occlusal surfaces.

  14. Early Detection and Classification of Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hanon. Alasadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a form of cancer that begins in melanocytes (cells that make the pigment melanin. It can affect the skin only, or it may spread to the organs and bones. It is less common, but more serious and aggressive than other types of skin cancer. Melanoma can be of benign or malignant. Malignant melanoma is the dangerous condition, while benign is not. In order to reduce the death rate due to malignant melanoma skin cancer, it is necessary to diagnose it at an early stage. In this paper, a detection system has been designed for diagnosing melanoma in early stages by using digital image processing techniques. The system consists of two phases: the first phase detects whether the pigmented skin lesion is malignant or benign; the second phase recognizes malignant melanoma skin cancer types. Both first and second phases have several stages. The experimental results are acceptable.

  15. Early detection of diabetes after pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jane Hyldgård; Overgaard, Charlotte; Olesen, Christinna Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    ) develops type 2 diabetes within a ten-year period. Early detection can prevent or delay the onset of late complications, for which follow-up screening is important. The women are recommended follow-up screening every 1-2 years after birth do to the potentials in early detection of diabetes and prevention...... of health consequences for women. Aims: Examine the extent of participation in follow-up screening in the Danish Region of North Jutland, and the possible consequences of nonattendance. Methods: A register based study. In Danish national registers 2171 birthing women whose pregnancy was complicated by GDM...... and their participating in follow-up screening were identified. Diagnosis of diabetes or treatment with glucose-lowering agents after giving birth were also identified. Results: Attendance in follow-up screening significantly decreased with time after giving birth. Women attending follow-up screening had a significantly...

  16. A Simple System for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    informatics, immunology , benign cancer , prognostic studies, baseline diagnostics, heatmaps, ROCurves 2 Major Activities 1. Production of IMS arrays...AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0231 TITLE: A Simple System for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing

  17. Earthquake Early Warning with Seismogeodesy: Detection, Location, and Magnitude Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D.; Bock, Y.; Melgar, D.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquake early warning is critical to reducing injuries and casualties in case of a large magnitude earthquake. The system must rely on near-source data to minimize the time between event onset and issuance of a warning. Early warning systems typically use seismic instruments (seismometers and accelerometers), but these instruments experience difficulty maintaining reliable data in the near-source region and undergo magnitude saturation for large events. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) instruments capture the long period motions and have been shown to produce robust estimates of the true size of the earthquake source. However, GNSS is often overlooked in this context in part because it is not precise enough to record the first seismic wave arrivals (P-wave detection), an important consideration for issuing an early warning. GNSS instruments are becoming integrated into early warning, but are not yet fully exploited. Our approach involves the combination of direct measurements from collocated GNSS and accelerometer stations to estimate broadband coseismic displacement and velocity waveforms [Bock et al., 2011], a method known as seismogeodesy. We present the prototype seismogeodetic early warning system developed at Scripps and demonstrate that the seismogeodetic dataset can be used for P-wave detection, hypocenter location, and shaking onset determination. We discuss uncertainties in each of these estimates and include discussion of the sensitivity of our estimates as a function of the azimuthal distribution of monitoring stations. The seismogeodetic combination has previously been shown to be immune to magnitude saturation [Crowell et al., 2013; Melgar et al., 2015]. Rapid magnitude estimation is an important product in earthquake early warning, and is the critical metric in current tsunami hazard warnings. Using the seismogeodetic approach, we refine earthquake magnitude scaling using P-wave amplitudes (Pd) and peak ground displacements (PGD) for a

  18. Mapping the risk of sudden oak death in Oregon: prioritizing locations for early detection and eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    V& aacute; clavík Tom& aacute; & scaron; Alan Kanaskie; Ellen Goheen; Janet Ohmann; Everett Hansen; Ross Meentemeyer

    2010-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum was first discovered in forests of southwestern Oregon in 2001. Despite intense eradication efforts, disease continues to spread from initially infested sites because of the late discovery of disease outbreaks and incomplete detection. Here we present two GIS predictive models of sudden oak death (SOD) establishment and spread...

  19. Early hearing detection and intervention: 2010 CODEPEH recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad-Ramos, Germán; de Aguilar, Valentín Alzina; Jaudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening is currently performed routinely in many regional health-care systems in Spain. Despite the remarkable expansion in newborn hearing screening since 2000, its feasibility and the benefits of early identification and intervention, many major challenges still remain. In this article, the Committee for the Early Detection of Hearing Loss (Comisión para la Detección Precoz de la Hipoacusia, CODEPEH) updates the recommendations that are considered important for the future development of early hearing detection and intervention (EDHI) systems in the following points: 1. Screening protocols: Separate protocols are recommended for NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Units) and well-infant nurseries. 2. Diagnostic audiology evaluation. Professionals with skills and expertise in evaluating newborn and young infants should provide diagnosis, selection and fitting of amplification devices. 3. Medical evaluation. Risk factors for congenital and acquired hearing loss have been combined in a single list rather than grouped by time of onset. A stepwise diagnostic paradigm is diagnostically more efficient and cost-effective than a simultaneous testing approach. 4. Early intervention and surveillance. All individuals providing services to infants with hearing loss should have specialized training and expertise in the development of audition, speech and language. Regular surveillance should be performed on developmental milestones, auditory skills, parental concerns, and middle ear status. 5. Quality control. Data management as part of an integrated system is important to monitor and improve the quality of EDHI services.

  20. Detection of early seizures by diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Hajihashemi, M. Reza; Zhou, Junli; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2015-03-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Besides, preclinical seizure experiments need to be conducted in awake animals with images reconstructed and displayed in real-time. We demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We developed methods to conduct seizure experiments in fully awake rats using a subject-specific helmet and a restraining mechanism. For the first time, we detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a "pre-seizure" state both in anesthetized and awake rats. Using a novel time-series analysis of scattering images, we show that the analysis of scattered diffuse light is a sensitive and reliable modality for detecting changes in neural activity associated with generalized seizure. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

  1. PCR assay detects Mannheimia haemolytica in culture-negative pneumonic lung tissues of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) from outbreaks in the western USA, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Goldy, Andrea; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Subramaniam, Renuka; Batra, Sai Arun; Kugadas, Abirami; Raghavan, Bindu; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica E; Killion, Halcyon J; Edwards, William H; Ramsey, Jennifer M; Anderson, Neil J; Wolff, Peregrine L; Mansfield, Kristin; Bruning, Darren; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica consistently causes severe bronchopneumonia and rapid death of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) under experimental conditions. However, Bibersteinia trehalosi and Pasteurella multocida have been isolated from pneumonic bighorn lung tissues more frequently than M. haemolytica by culture-based methods. We hypothesized that assays more sensitive than culture would detect M. haemolytica in pneumonic lung tissues more accurately. Therefore, our first objective was to develop a PCR assay specific for M. haemolytica and use it to determine if this organism was present in the pneumonic lungs of bighorns during the 2009-2010 outbreaks in Montana, Nevada, and Washington, USA. Mannheimia haemolytica was detected by the species-specific PCR assay in 77% of archived pneumonic lung tissues that were negative by culture. Leukotoxin-negative M. haemolytica does not cause fatal pneumonia in bighorns. Therefore, our second objective was to determine if the leukotoxin gene was also present in the lung tissues as a means of determining the leukotoxicity of M. haemolytica that were present in the lungs. The leukotoxin-specific PCR assay detected leukotoxin gene in 91% of lung tissues that were negative for M. haemolytica by culture. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, an organism associated with bighorn pneumonia, was detected in 65% of pneumonic bighorn lung tissues by PCR or culture. A PCR assessment of distribution of these pathogens in the nasopharynx of healthy bighorns from populations that did not experience an all-age die-off in the past 20 yr revealed that M. ovipneumoniae was present in 31% of the animals whereas leukotoxin-positive M. haemolytica was present in only 4%. Taken together, these results indicate that culture-based methods are not reliable for detection of M. haemolytica and that leukotoxin-positive M. haemolytica was a predominant etiologic agent of the pneumonia outbreaks of 2009-2010.

  2. Genetics and early detection in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Rachel K; Rosas, Ivan O; Hunninghake, Gary M

    2014-04-01

    Genetic studies hold promise in helping to identify patients with early idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Recent studies using chest computed tomograms (CTs) in smokers and in the general population have demonstrated that imaging abnormalities suggestive of an early stage of pulmonary fibrosis are not uncommon and are associated with respiratory symptoms, physical examination abnormalities, and physiologic decrements expected, but less severe than those noted in patients with IPF. Similarly, recent genetic studies have demonstrated strong and replicable associations between a common promoter polymorphism in the mucin 5B gene (MUC5B) and both IPF and the presence of abnormal imaging findings in the general population. Despite these findings, it is important to note that the definition of early-stage IPF remains unclear, limited data exist to definitively connect abnormal imaging findings to IPF, and genetic studies assessing early-stage pulmonary fibrosis remain in their infancy. In this perspective we provide updated information on interstitial lung abnormalities and their connection to IPF. We summarize information on the genetics of pulmonary fibrosis by focusing on the recent genetic findings of MUC5B. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings and suggest a roadmap for the use of genetics in the detection of early IPF.

  3. Transmission patterns of smallpox: systematic review of natural outbreaks in Europe and North America since World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boer Rob

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because smallpox (variola major may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods A systematic review was used to identify papers from the National Library of Medicine, Embase, Biosis, Cochrane Library, Defense Technical Information Center, WorldCat, and reference lists of included publications. Two authors reviewed selected papers for smallpox outbreaks. Results 51 relevant outbreaks were identified from 1,389 publications. The median for the effective first generation reproduction rate (initial R was 2 (range 0–38. The majority outbreaks were small (less than 5 cases and contained within one generation. Outbreaks with few hospitalized patients had low initial R values (median of 1 and were prolonged if not initially recognized (median of 3 generations; outbreaks with mostly hospitalized patients had higher initial R values (median 12 and were shorter (median of 3 generations. Index cases with an atypical presentation of smallpox were less likely to have been diagnosed with smallpox; outbreaks in which the index case was not correctly diagnosed were larger (median of 27.5 cases and longer (median of 3 generations compared to outbreaks in which the index case was correctly diagnosed (median of 3 cases and 1 generation. Conclusion Patterns of spread during Smallpox outbreaks varied with circumstances, but early detection and implementation of control measures is a most important influence on the magnitude of outbreaks. The majority of outbreaks studied in Europe and North America were controlled within a few generations if detected early.

  4. Early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at hospital emergency department

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2015-10-21

    Overcrowding is one of the most crucial issues confronting emergency departments (EDs) throughout the world. Efficient management of patient flows for ED services has become an urgent issue for most hospital administrations. Handling and detection of abnormal situations is a key challenge in EDs. Thus, the early detection of abnormal patient arrivals at EDs plays an important role from the point of view of improving management of the inspected EDs. It allows the EDs mangers to prepare for high levels of care activities, to optimize the internal resources and to predict enough hospitalization capacity in downstream care services. This study reports the development of statistical method for enhancing detection of abnormal daily patient arrivals at the ED, which able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations. The autoregressive moving average (ARMA)-based exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) anomaly detection scheme proposed was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France.

  5. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities.

  6. A decade of aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As an invasion prone location, the St. Louis River Estuary (SLRE) has been a case study for ongoing research to develop the framework for a practical Great Lakes monitoring network for early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). Early detection, however, necessitates finding new invaders before they are common. Here we outline our research (2005 present) approach and findings, including strategies to increase detection efficiency by optimizing specimen collection and identification methods. Initial surveys were designed to over-sample to amass data as the basis for numerical experiments to investigate to the effort required for a given detection probability. Later surveys tested the outcome of implementing these strategies, examined the potential benefits of sampling larval fish instead of adults and explored the prospect of using advanced DNA based methods as an alternative to traditional taxonomy. To date we have identified several previously undetected invertebrate invaders, developed survey design and gear recommendations and have refined the search strategy for systems beyond the SLRE. In addition, because we’ve accumulated such a large body of data we now have the basis to show spatial-temporal trends for native and non-native species in the SLRE. not applicable

  7. An Early Fire Detection Algorithm Using IP Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Perez-Meana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of smoke is the first symptom of fire; therefore to achieve early fire detection, accurate and quick estimation of the presence of smoke is very important. In this paper we propose an algorithm to detect the presence of smoke using video sequences captured by Internet Protocol (IP cameras, in which important features of smoke, such as color, motion and growth properties are employed. For an efficient smoke detection in the IP camera platform, a detection algorithm must operate directly in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT domain to reduce computational cost, avoiding a complete decoding process required for algorithms that operate in spatial domain. In the proposed algorithm the DCT Inter-transformation technique is used to increase the detection accuracy without inverse DCT operation. In the proposed scheme, firstly the candidate smoke regions are estimated using motion and color smoke properties; next using morphological operations the noise is reduced. Finally the growth properties of the candidate smoke regions are furthermore analyzed through time using the connected component labeling technique. Evaluation results show that a feasible smoke detection method with false negative and false positive error rates approximately equal to 4% and 2%, respectively, is obtained.

  8. Improved Detection of Microsatellite Instability in Early Colorectal Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery W Bacher

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability (MSI occurs in over 90% of Lynch syndrome cancers and is considered a hallmark of the disease. MSI is an early event in colon tumor development, but screening polyps for MSI remains controversial because of reduced sensitivity compared to more advanced neoplasms. To increase sensitivity, we investigated the use of a novel type of marker consisting of long mononucleotide repeat (LMR tracts. Adenomas from 160 patients, ranging in age from 29-55 years old, were screened for MSI using the new markers and compared with current marker panels and immunohistochemistry standards. Overall, 15 tumors were scored as MSI-High using the LMRs compared to 9 for the NCI panel and 8 for the MSI Analysis System (Promega. This difference represents at least a 1.7-fold increase in detection of MSI-High lesions over currently available markers. Moreover, the number of MSI-positive markers per sample and the size of allelic changes were significantly greater with the LMRs (p = 0.001, which increased confidence in MSI classification. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the LMR panel for detection of mismatch repair deficient lesions were 100% and 96%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of the MSI Analysis System were 67% and 100%; and for the NCI panel, 75% and 97%. The difference in sensitivity between the LMR panel and the other panels was statistically significant (p<0.001. The increased sensitivity for detection of MSI-High phenotype in early colorectal lesions with the new LMR markers indicates that MSI screening for the early detection of Lynch syndrome might be feasible.

  9. Detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA on small-ruminant farms during a Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, A; van der Plaats, R Q J; de Heer, L; Paauwe, R; Schimmer, B; Vellema, P; van Rotterdam, B J; van Duynhoven, Y T H P

    2012-03-01

    During large Q fever outbreaks in the Netherlands between 2007 and 2010, dairy goat farms were implicated as the primary source of human Q fever. The transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is thought to occur primarily via aerosols, although available data on C. burnetii in aerosols and other environmental matrices are limited. During the outbreak of 2009, 19 dairy goat farms and one dairy sheep farm were selected nationwide to investigate the presence of C. burnetii DNA in vaginal swabs, manure, surface area swabs, milk unit filters, and aerosols. Four of these farms had a positive status during the Coxiella burnetii bulk milk monitoring program in 2009 and additionally reported abortion waves in 2008 or 2009. Eleven farms were reported as having positive bulk milk only, and five selected (control) farms had a bulk milk-negative status in 2009 and no reported Q fever history. Screening by quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed that on farms with a history of abortions related to C. burnetii and, to a lesser extent, on farms positive by bulk milk monitoring, generally higher proportions of positive samples and higher levels of C. burnetii DNA within positive samples were observed than on the control farms. The relatively high levels of C. burnetii DNA in surface area swabs and aerosols sampled in stables of bulk milk-positive farms, including farms with a Q fever-related abortion history, support the hypothesis that these farms can pose a risk for the transmission of C. burnetii to humans.

  10. Natural or deliberate outbreak in Pakistan: how to prevent or detect and trace its origin: biosecurity, surveillance, forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinwari, Zabta Khan; Khalil, Ali Talha; Nasim, Anwar

    2014-08-01

    Over the last few decades biosecurity and biosafety have emerged as a prominent public health concern due to some high-profile accidents. Effective strategies to deal with the outbreak, whether deliberate or non-deliberate requires a multidisciplinary approach and coordinated decision-making by various state departments such as health, forensics, agriculture, environment, intelligence, law and enforcement, etc. In a dynamic global environment and the overwhelming asymmetric threats from the non-state actors, it is of utmost importance to understand the biosecurity issues and initiate a coordinated global effort to cope with biosecurity and biosafety breaches and develop an as effective response mechanism. An attractive choice for the terrorists, state enemies and non-state actors is the use of biological weapons. An unwanted incident may not only bring chaos to the people, but also can inflict severe economic damage industrially and locally as was in the notorious foot-and-mouth disease outbreak. Because of special geopolitical compulsion, Pakistan is one of the hot spots where special action needs to be taken. The current review focuses on the various approaches, technologies that can be used to alleviate the chances of biosafety and biosecurity incident and emphasizes the role of modern technology that can be used in this regard.

  11. Validation of Candidate Serum Ovarian Cancer Biomarkers for Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Su

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We have previously analyzed protein profi les using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectroscopy (SELDI-TOF-MS [Kozak et al. 2003, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100:12343–8] and identified 3 differentially expressed serum proteins for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (OC [Kozak et al. 2005, Proteomics, 5:4589–96], namely, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I, transthyretin (TTR and transferin (TF. The objective of the present study is to determine the efficacy of the three OC biomarkers for the detection of early stage (ES OC, in direct comparison to CA125.Methods: The levels of CA125, apoA-I, TTR and TF were measured in 392 serum samples [82 women with normal ovaries (N, 24 women with benign ovarian tumors (B, 85 women with ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (LMP, 126 women with early stage ovarian cancer (ESOC, and 75 women with late stage ovarian cancer (LSOC], obtained through the GOG and Cooperative Human Tissue Network. Following statistical analysis, multivariate regression models were built to evaluate the utility of the three OC markers in early detection.Results: Multiple logistic regression models (MLRM utilizing all biomarker values (CA125, TTR, TF and apoA-I from all histological subtypes (serous, mucinous, and endometrioid adenocarcinoma distinguished normal samples from LMP with 91% sensitivity (specifi city 92%, and normal samples from ESOC with a sensitivity of 89% (specifi city 92%. MLRM, utilizing values of all four markers from only the mucinous histological subtype showed that collectively, CA125, TTR, TF and apoA-I, were able to distinguish normal samples from mucinous LMP with 90% sensitivity, and further distinguished normal samples from early stage mucinous ovarian cancer with a sensitivity of 95%. In contrast, in serum samples from patients with mucinous tumors, CA125 alone was able to distinguish normal samples from LMP and early stage ovarian cancer with a sensitivity of

  12. Early detection of choroidal neovascularization in age related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tural Galbinur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify factors associated with early detection of choroidal neovascularization CNV in clinical practice.Methods: Seventy six AMD patients who had history of CNV in one eye and presented with CNV in the second eye and evaluated for association with visual acuity (VA at time of presentation. Demographics, clinical data and lesion characteristics were retrospectively collected.Results: Better VA was associated with history of CNV in the fellow eye (p<0.0001, adherence to follow-up every four-months (p=0.015, younger age (p=0.03, smaller lesion (p<0.0001, and non-subfoveal localization (p=0.048. VA of the fellow eye did not correlate with VA at presentation with CNV.Conclusion: these data suggest that experience of CNV, regardless of VA, facilitates early diagnosis in the fellow eye. Adherence to follow-up in the routine clinic setting also facilitates early detection of CNV.

  13. Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for seizure detection and early seizure detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talathi, S. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Epilepsy is common neurological diseases, affecting about 0.6-0.8 % of world population. Epileptic patients suffer from chronic unprovoked seizures, which can result in broad spectrum of debilitating medical and social consequences. Since seizures, in general, occur infrequently and are unpredictable, automated seizure detection systems are recommended to screen for seizures during long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. In addition, systems for early seizure detection can lead to the development of new types of intervention systems that are designed to control or shorten the duration of seizure events. In this article, we investigate the utility of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in designing seizure detection and early seizure detection systems. We propose a deep learning framework via the use of Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) RNNs for seizure detection. We use publicly available data in order to evaluate our method and demonstrate very promising evaluation results with overall accuracy close to 100 %. We also systematically investigate the application of our method for early seizure warning systems. Our method can detect about 98% of seizure events within the first 5 seconds of the overall epileptic seizure duration.

  14. Automated detection of dark and bright lesions in retinal images for early detection of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Usman M; Khan, Shoab A

    2012-10-01

    There is an ever-increasing interest in the development of automatic medical diagnosis systems due to the advancement in computing technology and also to improve the service by medical community. The knowledge about health and disease is required for reliable and accurate medical diagnosis. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common causes of blindness and it can be prevented if detected and treated early. DR has different signs and the most distinctive are microaneurysm and haemorrhage which are dark lesions and hard exudates and cotton wool spots which are bright lesions. Location and structure of blood vessels and optic disk play important role in accurate detection and classification of dark and bright lesions for early detection of DR. In this article, we propose a computer aided system for the early detection of DR. The article presents algorithms for retinal image preprocessing, blood vessel enhancement and segmentation and optic disk localization and detection which eventually lead to detection of different DR lesions using proposed hybrid fuzzy classifier. The developed methods are tested on four different publicly available databases. The presented methods are compared with recently published methods and the results show that presented methods outperform all others.

  15. Dengue disease outbreak definitions are implicitly variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver J. Brady

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases rarely exhibit simple dynamics. Outbreaks (defined as excess cases beyond response capabilities have the potential to cause a disproportionately high burden due to overwhelming health care systems. The recommendations of international policy guidelines and research agendas are based on a perceived standardised definition of an outbreak characterised by a prolonged, high-caseload, extra-seasonal surge. In this analysis we apply multiple candidate outbreak definitions to reported dengue case data from Brazil to test this assumption. The methods identify highly heterogeneous outbreak characteristics in terms of frequency, duration and case burden. All definitions identify outbreaks with characteristics that vary over time and space. Further, definitions differ in their timeliness of outbreak onset, and thus may be more or less suitable for early intervention. This raises concerns about the application of current outbreak guidelines for early warning/identification systems. It is clear that quantitatively defining the characteristics of an outbreak is an essential prerequisite for effective reactive response. More work is needed so that definitions of disease outbreaks can take into account the baseline capacities of treatment, surveillance and control. This is essential if outbreak guidelines are to be effective and generalisable across a range of epidemiologically different settings.

  16. FUMEPOC: Early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently is not feasible using conventional spirometry as a screening method in Primary Care especially among smoking population to detect chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in early stages. Therefore, the FUMEPOC study protocol intends to analyze the validity and reliability of Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer as simpler tool to aid screening and diagnosis of this disease in early stages in primary care surgery. Methods / Design Study design: An observational, descriptive study of diagnostic tests, undertaken in Primary Care and Pneumology Outpatient Care Centre at San Juan Hospital and Elda Hospital. All smokers attending the primary care surgery and consent to participate in the study will undergo a test with Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer. Subsequently, a conventional spirometry will be performed in the hospital and the results will be compared with those of the Vitalograph COPD-6 test. Discussion It is difficult to use the spirometry as screening for early diagnose test in real conditions of primary care clinical practice. The use of a simpler tool, Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer, can help in the early diagnose and therefore, it could improve the clinical management of the disease.

  17. Early detection of invasive plants: principles and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Bradley A.; Geissler, Paul H.; Latham, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants infest an estimated 2.6 million acres of the 83 million acres managed by the National Park Service (NPS) in the United States. The consequences of these invasions present a significant challenge for the NPS to manage the agency’s natural resources “unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” More NPS lands are infested daily despite diligent efforts to curtail the problem. Impacts from invasive species have been realized in most parks, resulting in an expressed need to control existing infestations and restore affected ecosystems. There is a growing urgency in the NPS and other resource management organizations to be proactive. The NPS I&M Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends Program, compiled this document to provide guidance and insight to parks and other natural areas engaged in developing early-detection monitoring protocols for invasive plants. While several rapid response frameworks exist, there is no consistent or comprehensive guidance informing the active detection of nonnative plants early in the invasion process. Early-detection was selected as a primary focus for invasive-species monitoring because, along with rapid response, it is a key strategy for successful management of invasive species. Eradication efforts are most successful on small infestations (that is less than 1 hectare) and become less successful as infestation size increases, to the point that eradication is unlikely for large (that is greater than 1,000 hectares) populations of invasive plants. This document provides guidance for natural resource managers wishing to detect invasive plants early through an active, directed monitoring program. It has a Quick-Start Guide to direct readers to specific chapters and text relevant to their needs. Decision trees and flow charts assist the reader in deciding what methods to choose and when to use them. This document is written in a modular format to accommodate use of

  18. A human-like H1N2 influenza virus detected during an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in swine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rejane; Rech, Raquel Rubia; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Mauricio Egídio; da Silva, Marcia Cristina; Silveira, Simone; Zanella, Janice Reis Ciacci

    2015-01-01

    Passive monitoring for detection of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in pigs has been carried out in Brazil since 2009, detecting mostly the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus. Since then, outbreaks of acute respiratory disease suggestive of influenza A virus infection have been observed frequently in Brazilian pig herds. During a 2010-2011 influenza monitoring, a novel H1N2 influenza virus was detected in nursery pigs showing respiratory signs. The pathologic changes were cranioventral acute necrotizing bronchiolitis to subacute proliferative and purulent bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Lung tissue samples were positive for both influenza A virus and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus based on RT-qPCR of the matrix gene. Two IAVs were isolated in SPF chicken eggs. HI analysis of both swine H1N2 influenza viruses showed reactivity to the H1δ cluster. DNA sequencing was performed for all eight viral gene segments of two virus isolates. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the HA and NA genes clustered with influenza viruses of the human lineage (H1-δ cluster, N2), whereas the six internal gene segments clustered with the A(H1N1)pdm09 group. This is the first report of a reassortant human-like H1N2 influenza virus derived from pandemic H1N1 virus causing an outbreak of respiratory disease in pigs in Brazil. The emergence of a reassortant IAV demands the close monitoring of pigs through the full-genome sequencing of virus isolates in order to enhance genetic information about IAVs circulating in pigs.

  19. Cancer Screening and Early Detection in the 21(st) Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loud, Jennifer T; Murphy, Jeanne

    2017-05-01

    To review the trends in and principles of cancer screening and early detection. Journal articles, United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) publications, professional organization position statements, and evidence-based summaries. Cancer screening has contributed to decreasing the morbidity and mortality of cancer. Efforts to improve the selection of candidates for cancer screening, to understand the biological basis of carcinogenesis, and the development of new technologies for cancer screening will allow for improvements in cancer screening over time. Nurses are well-positioned to lead the implementation of cancer screening recommendations in the 21(st) century through their practice, research, educational efforts, and advocacy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention: Can Your Baby Hear?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-06-15

    This podcast discusses how important it is that every child receives a hearing screening as soon as possible after birth. It also gives specific ways that parents and health providers can find out if a child has a possible hearing loss and where to get further information. (Created 6/5/2007 by the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program, NCBDDD).  Created: 6/15/2007 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.   Date Released: 6/25/2007.

  1. Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s

  2. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-12-22

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  3. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-06-30

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  4. [Scoring system for early detection of critical illness can fail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstrup Christiansen, Lærke; Andreasen, Jo Bønding; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Juhl-Olsen, Peter; Sloth, Erik

    2013-02-18

    A 57-year old male underwent elective aortic valve replacement. The immediate post-operative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged with the lowest possible score on a newly implemented scale for early detection of critical illness. The following day he was readmitted with dyspnoea. The critical illness score was still low despite ultrasonic demonstration of a large pericardial effusion requiring drainage. We are concerned that the widely adopted critical illness scale is not sufficiently sensitive for cardiac surgery patients and advocate the use of point-of-care ultrasound.

  5. Detection of early dental caries with short pulse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Nahoko; Goto, Shigeru [Osada Research Inst., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ohzu, Akira; Arisawa, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Advanced Photon Research Center, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Differences in the optical properties of polarization and photoluminescence between caries lesion and noncaries (sound) enamel have been investigated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 532 nm on the surface of teeth. Significant difference in the polarization property of the scattered light from the surface can be observed with some carious samples. For photoluminescence spectral lines which appear at around 650 nm, the intensity of caries lesion has been approximately two times higher than that of sound one. A discussion is presented in which early are potentially detectable by the pulsed laser. (author)

  6. The time-course of a scrapie outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevenson Emily

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because the incubation period of scrapie has a strong host genetic component and a dose-response relationship, it is possible that changes will occur during an outbreak, especially in the genotypes of cases, age-at-onset of disease and, perhaps, the clinical signs displayed. We investigated these factors for a large outbreak of natural scrapie, which yielded sufficient data to detect temporal trends. Results Cases occurred mostly in two genotypes, VRQ/VRQ and VRQ/ARQ, with those early in the outbreak more likely to be of the VRQ/VRQ genotype. As the epidemic progressed, the age-at-onset of disease increased, which reflected changes in the genotypes of cases rather than changes in the age-at-onset within genotypes. Clinical signs of cases changed over the course of the outbreak. As the epidemic progressed VRQ/VRQ and VRQ/ARQ sheep were more likely to be reported with behavioural changes, while VRQ/VRQ sheep only were less likely to be reported with loss of condition. Conclusion This study of one of the largest scrapie outbreaks in the UK allowed investigation of the effect of PrP genotype on other epidemiological parameters. Our analysis indicated that, although age-at-onset and clinical signs changed over time, the observed changes were largely, but not exclusively, driven by the time course of the PrP genotypes of cases.

  7. Sensors and Instrumentation towards early detection of osteoporosis

    KAUST Repository

    Afsarimanesh, Nasrin

    2016-07-27

    A label-free non-invasive sensing system for detection of C-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (CTX-I) has been developed in order to detect bone loss at an early stage, by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). A planar interdigital sensor was functionalized by immobilizing streptavidin agarose on the sensing area of the sensor to introduce selectivity for the antigen-antibody solution. Different concentrations of CTX-I were tested using the functionalized sensing surface to capture the target molecule. Preliminary results are provided in the paper assisted with the respective equivalent circuit of the working technology on the sensor using Complex Non-linear Least Square (CNLS). The results are encouraging and will be used to develop a complete system for commercialization complementing the existing systems. © 2016 IEEE.

  8. An outbreak in intravenous drug users due to USA300 Latin-American variant community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in France as early as 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, M; Felden, B; Revest, M; Tattevin, P; Augagneur, Y; Donnio, P-Y

    2017-09-02

    Intravenous drug users are at increased risk of Staphylococcus aureus infections. Most cases are related to clones prevalent in the community. We report an outbreak of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections that occurred from 2007 to 2009 in intravenous drug users and their close contacts in Northwestern France. Clinical and molecular investigations suggested that the clones were more similar than those usually isolated in the American continent although none of the patients traveled abroad or had contact with individuals who had traveled to the Americas. Then, a retrospective whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the strains isolated from the first case belong to the USA300 Latin-American variant clone, based on the absence of arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), and the presence of copper and mercury resistance mobile element (COMER), a distinctive feature of the South American variant. Our study shows genetic evidence for introduction of this clone as early as 2007 in France. This report also illustrates the importance of genome sequencing to finely characterize and monitor the emergence of unexpected S. aureus clones among high-risk populations, especially when living in promiscuity.

  9. Outbreaks and Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and save lives. Recent Fungal Outbreaks and Investigations Histoplasmosis in the Dominican Republic Histoplasmosis outbreak among tunnel ... please visit the Fungal Rhizopus Investigation web page. Histoplasmosis in an Illinois Prison Histoplasmosis outbreak at a ...

  10. Disease Outbreak News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MERS-CoV) Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza at the Human-Animal Interface (HAI) Related documents WHO outbreak communication guide 2008 WHO outbreak communications guidelines Outbreak communication: ...

  11. Evaluation of a commercial real-time PCR kit for detection of dengue virus in samples collected during an outbreak in Goiania, Central Brazil, in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, José Eduardo; Tateno, Adriana Fumie; Machado, Adriana Freire; Ramalho, Débora Camillo; de Souza, Vanda Akico Ueda Fick; Guilarde, Adriana Oliveira; de Rezende Feres, Valéria Christina; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Turchi, Marília Dalva; Siqueira, João Bosco; Pannuti, Cláudio Sérgio

    2007-06-01

    In the past 2 decades, dengue has reemerged in Brazil as a significant public health problem. Clinicians demand a diagnostic test with high sensitivity that is applicable during the early symptomatic phase. We aimed to test two distinct molecular methods on samples from suspected dengue cases during an outbreak in Central Brazil. Acute-phase serum specimens from 254 patients suspected of having dengue were collected during 2005 in the city of Goiânia, Central Brazil. Samples were blindly evaluated by real-time and multiplex PCR in addition to routine immunoglobulin M serology and virus culture. Overall, acute dengue was confirmed by serology, multiplex PCR, or virus isolation for 80% of patients (203/254). Another four patients presented real-time PCR-positive results as the unique marker of dengue. Higher real-time PCR positivity levels and viral loads were observed in the early symptomatic phase of disease (< or =5 days) than after this period. Multiplex and real-time PCR assays presented a high kappa agreement (0.85). According to multiplex PCR, 60 samples harbored dengue virus type 3 (DEN-3), 4 samples harbored DEN-2, and 1 sample displayed a pattern compatible with a double infection with DEN-2 and -3. The dengue virus real-time kit was found to be practical and adjustable for high throughput, to display the best performance in the early symptomatic phase of dengue cases, and to be valuable for confirming dengue diagnosis in a timely manner.

  12. Enhancement of visual motion detection thresholds in early deaf people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiell, Martha M; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    In deaf people, the auditory cortex can reorganize to support visual motion processing. Although this cross-modal reorganization has long been thought to subserve enhanced visual abilities, previous research has been unsuccessful at identifying behavioural enhancements specific to motion processing. Recently, research with congenitally deaf cats has uncovered an enhancement for visual motion detection. Our goal was to test for a similar difference between deaf and hearing people. We tested 16 early and profoundly deaf participants and 20 hearing controls. Participants completed a visual motion detection task, in which they were asked to determine which of two sinusoidal gratings was moving. The speed of the moving grating varied according to an adaptive staircase procedure, allowing us to determine the lowest speed necessary for participants to detect motion. Consistent with previous research in deaf cats, the deaf group had lower motion detection thresholds than the hearing. This finding supports the proposal that cross-modal reorganization after sensory deprivation will occur for supramodal sensory features and preserve the output functions.

  13. Enhancement of visual motion detection thresholds in early deaf people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M Shiell

    Full Text Available In deaf people, the auditory cortex can reorganize to support visual motion processing. Although this cross-modal reorganization has long been thought to subserve enhanced visual abilities, previous research has been unsuccessful at identifying behavioural enhancements specific to motion processing. Recently, research with congenitally deaf cats has uncovered an enhancement for visual motion detection. Our goal was to test for a similar difference between deaf and hearing people. We tested 16 early and profoundly deaf participants and 20 hearing controls. Participants completed a visual motion detection task, in which they were asked to determine which of two sinusoidal gratings was moving. The speed of the moving grating varied according to an adaptive staircase procedure, allowing us to determine the lowest speed necessary for participants to detect motion. Consistent with previous research in deaf cats, the deaf group had lower motion detection thresholds than the hearing. This finding supports the proposal that cross-modal reorganization after sensory deprivation will occur for supramodal sensory features and preserve the output functions.

  14. Detection of early glaucomatous progression with octopus cluster trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghizadeh, Farzaneh; Holló, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    To compare the ability of Corrected Cluster Trend Analysis (CCTA) and Cluster Trend Analysis (CTA) with event analysis of Octopus visual field series to detect early glaucomatous progression. One eye of 15 healthy, 19 ocular hypertensive, 20 preperimetric, and 51 perimetric glaucoma (PG) patients were investigated with Octopus normal G2 test at 6-month intervals for 1.5 to 3 years. Progression was defined with significant worsening in any of the 10 Octopus clusters with CCTA, and event analysis criteria, respectively. With event analysis, 9 PG eyes showed localized progression and 1 diffuse mean defect (MD) worsening. With CCTA, progression was indicated in 1 normal, 1 ocular hypertensive, and 1 preperimetric glaucoma eyes due to vitreous floaters, and 28 PG eyes including all 9 eyes with localized progression with event analysis. The locations of CCTA progression matched those found with event analysis in all 9 cases. In 17 of the remaining 19 eyes, progressing clusters matched the locations that were suspicious but not definitive for progression with event analysis. In the eye with diffuse MD worsening, CTA found significant progression for 7 clusters. For global MD progression rate, eyes worsened with CCTA only did not differ from the stable eyes but had significantly smaller progression rates than the eyes progressed with event analysis (P=0.0002). In PG, Octopus CCTA and CTA are clinically useful to identify early progression and areas suspicious for early progression. However, in some eyes with no glaucomatous visual field damage, vitreous floaters may cause progression artifacts.

  15. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Low Energy Hydrogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Müller

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The North-east German Lowlands is a region with one of the highest forest fire risks in Europe. In order to keep damage levels as low as possible, it is important to have an effective early warning system. Such a system is being developed on the basis of a hydrogen sensor, which makes it possible to detect a smouldering forest fire before the development of open flames. The prototype hydrogen sensor produced at the Humboldt University Berlin has a metal/ solid electrolyte/insulator/ semiconductor (MEIS structure, which allows cost-effective production. Due to the low energy consumption, an autarchic working unit could be installed in the forest. Field trials have shown that it is possible to identify a forest fire in its early stages when hydrogen concentrations are still low. A significant change in the signal due to a fire was measured at a distance of about 100m. In view of the potential impacts of climate change, the innovative pre-ignition warning system is an important early diagnosis and monitoring module for the protection of the forests.

  16. Foodborne outbreaks in Canada linked to produce: 2001 through 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, G K; MacDonald, D; Landry, L; Farber, J M

    2013-01-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables have been increasing in occurrence worldwide. Canada has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of fresh fruits and vegetables in the world. In this article, we review the foodborne disease outbreaks linked to produce consumption in Canada from 2001 through 2009. The 27 produce-related outbreaks included an estimated 1,549 cases of illness. Bacterial infection outbreaks represented 66% of the total. Among these, Salmonella was the most frequent agent (50% of outbreaks) followed by Escherichia coli (33%) and Shigella (17%). Cyclospora cayetanensis was the only parasite detected and was associated with seven outbreaks. Among the foodborne viruses, only hepatitis A was implicated in two outbreaks. The food vehicles most commonly implicated in outbreaks were leafy greens and herbs (26% of outbreaks), followed by seed sprouts (11%). Contamination sources and issues related to the future control of fresh produce-related foodborne disease outbreaks also are discussed.

  17. FluBreaks: early epidemic detection from Google flu trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Fahad; Pervaiz, Mansoor; Abdur Rehman, Nabeel; Saif, Umar

    2012-10-04

    The Google Flu Trends service was launched in 2008 to track changes in the volume of online search queries related to flu-like symptoms. Over the last few years, the trend data produced by this service has shown a consistent relationship with the actual number of flu reports collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), often identifying increases in flu cases weeks in advance of CDC records. However, contrary to popular belief, Google Flu Trends is not an early epidemic detection system. Instead, it is designed as a baseline indicator of the trend, or changes, in the number of disease cases. To evaluate whether these trends can be used as a basis for an early warning system for epidemics. We present the first detailed algorithmic analysis of how Google Flu Trends can be used as a basis for building a fully automated system for early warning of epidemics in advance of methods used by the CDC. Based on our work, we present a novel early epidemic detection system, called FluBreaks (dritte.org/flubreaks), based on Google Flu Trends data. We compared the accuracy and practicality of three types of algorithms: normal distribution algorithms, Poisson distribution algorithms, and negative binomial distribution algorithms. We explored the relative merits of these methods, and related our findings to changes in Internet penetration and population size for the regions in Google Flu Trends providing data. Across our performance metrics of percentage true-positives (RTP), percentage false-positives (RFP), percentage overlap (OT), and percentage early alarms (EA), Poisson- and negative binomial-based algorithms performed better in all except RFP. Poisson-based algorithms had average values of 99%, 28%, 71%, and 76% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively, whereas negative binomial-based algorithms had average values of 97.8%, 17.8%, 60%, and 55% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively. Moreover, the EA was also affected by the region's population size

  18. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... meeting of the aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control..., regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...

  19. Visual change detection recruits auditory cortices in early deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Davide; Heimler, Benedetta; Caclin, Anne; Dalmolin, Anna; Giard, Marie-Hélène; Pavani, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    Although cross-modal recruitment of early sensory areas in deafness and blindness is well established, the constraints and limits of these plastic changes remain to be understood. In the case of human deafness, for instance, it is known that visual, tactile or visuo-tactile stimuli can elicit a response within the auditory cortices. Nonetheless, both the timing of these evoked responses and the functional contribution of cross-modally recruited areas remain to be ascertained. In the present study, we examined to what extent auditory cortices of deaf humans participate in high-order visual processes, such as visual change detection. By measuring visual ERPs, in particular the visual MisMatch Negativity (vMMN), and performing source localization, we show that individuals with early deafness (N=12) recruit the auditory cortices when a change in motion direction during shape deformation occurs in a continuous visual motion stream. Remarkably this "auditory" response for visual events emerged with the same timing as the visual MMN in hearing controls (N=12), between 150 and 300 ms after the visual change. Furthermore, the recruitment of auditory cortices for visual change detection in early deaf was paired with a reduction of response within the visual system, indicating a shift from visual to auditory cortices of part of the computational process. The present study suggests that the deafened auditory cortices participate at extracting and storing the visual information and at comparing on-line the upcoming visual events, thus indicating that cross-modally recruited auditory cortices can reach this level of computation.

  20. Outbreak Patterns of the Novel Avian Influenza (H7N9)

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Ya-Nan; Han, Xiao-Pu

    2013-01-01

    The outbreak of novel avian influenza (H7N9) in east China attracted much attention in the spring of 2013. The detection and estimation of spreading situations of H7N9 faces some difficulties since the birds' symptom of H7N9 usually is inapparent. In this paper, we empirically analyze the statistical outbreak patterns of the novel avian influenza and observed several spatial and temporal properties that are similar to the infective diseases. More deeply, using the empirical analysis and modeling studies, we find that the spatio-temporal network that connects the cities with human cases along the order of outbreak timing emerges two-section-power-law edge-length distribution, indicating the picture that several islands with higher and heterogeneous risk straggle in east China. The proposed method is applicable to the analysis on the spreading situation in early stage of disease outbreak using quite limited dataset.

  1. Justification for screening programs for early detection of HBV infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Leźnicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the study was to collect the data on undetected hepatitis B virus (HBV in the frequently hospitalized (at least twice in the last 5 years population of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodship. The study results could be used by occupational health services and local governments to take preventive actions. Material and Methods: The study focused on empirical data derived from hepatitis B Screening Programme in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodship. The study comprised 6332 people tested for hepatitis B virus surface antigen – HBsAg. They had been hospitalized at least twice. The diagnostic survey was based on an anonymous questionnaire, developed for this study. For the statistical analysis the Statistica 10.0 program was used. A level of statistical significance was assumed at a value of α = 0.05. The results showing that the probability test p satisfy the inequality p < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: HBs antigen was detected in 34 patients (0.54%. There was no association between the detected infections and the gender of the respondents. There was no relationship between the detected infections and transfusion of blood and blood products before 1992. Surgical procedures performed in the patients did not increase the risk of hepatitis B infection. Conclusions: Actions aimed at detecting asymptomatic infections should primarily focus on the 35–39 age group. Effective identification of chronically-infected people and application of optimal treatment play a key role in reducing the risk of disease progression in the whole population. Therefore, the implementation of screening programs is warranted for prevention and early detection of hepatitis B. Med Pr 2014;65(6:777–784

  2. Nanotechnology Method Comparison for Early Detection of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wamakshi Bhati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999, cancer has been the leading cause of death under the age of 85 years and the eradication of this disease has been the long sought-after goal of scientists and physicians. Cancer is a disease in which abnormal cells divide uncontrollably. These abnormal cells have the ability to invade and destroy normal body cells, which is life threatening. One of the most important factors in effective cancer treatment is the detection of cancerous tumour cells in an early stage. Nanotechnology brings new hope to the arena of cancer detection research, owing to nanoparticles’ unique physical and chemical properties, giving them the potential to be used in the detection and monitoring of cancer. One such approach is quantum dots based detection which is rapid, easy and economical enabling quick point-of-care screening of cancer markers. QDs have got unique properties which make them ideal for detecting tumours. On the other hand, Gold nanoparticles have been in the bio-imaging spotlight due to their special optical properties. Au-NPs with strong surface-plasmon-enhanced absorption and scattering have allowed them to emerge as powerful imaging labels and contrast agents. This paper includes the comparative study of both the methods. Compared with quantum dots, the gold-nanoparticles are more than 200 times brighter on a particle-to-particle basis, although they are about 60 times larger by volume. Thus, Gold nanoparticles in suspension, offers advantages compared with quantum dots in that the gold appears to be non-toxic and the particles produce a brighter, sharper signal.

  3. Surface engineered biosensors for the early detection of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muhymin

    Cancer commences in the building block of human body which is cells and in most of the cases remains silent at early stage. Diseases are only expressed at molecular and cellular level at primary stages. Recognition of diseases at this micro and nano level might reduce the mortality rate of cancer significantly. This research work aimed to introduce novel electronic biosensors for for identification of cancer at cellular level. The dissertation study focuses on 1) Label-Free Isolation of Metastatic Tumor Cells Using Filter Based Microfluidic device; 2) Nanotextured Polymer Substrates for Enhanced Cancer Cell Isolation and Cell Growth; 3) Nanotextured Microfluidic Channel for Electrical Profiling and Detection of Tumor Cells from Blood; and 4) Single Biochip for the Detection of Tumor Cells by Electrical Profile and Surface Immobilized Aptamer. Standard silicon processing techniques were followed to fabricate all of the biosensors. Nantoextruing and surface functionalizon were also incorporated to elevate the efficiency of the devices. The first approach aimed to detect cancer cells from blood based on their mechanophysical properties. Cancer cells are larger than blood cells but highly elastic in nature. These cells can squeeze through small microchannels much smaller than their size. The cross sectional area of the microchannels was optimized to isolate tumor cells from blood. Nanotextured polymer substrates, a platform inspired from the natural basement membrane was used to enhance the isolation and growth of tumor cells. Micro reactive ion etching was performed to have better control on features of nantoxtured surfaces and did not require any template. Next, electrical measurement of ionic current was performed across single microchannel to detect tumor cells from blood. Later, nanotexturing enhanced the efficiency of the device by selectively altering the translocation profile of cancer cells. Eventually aptamer functionalized nanotextured polymer surface was

  4. Outbreak Caused by blaOXA-72-Producing Acinetobacter baumannii ST417 Detected in Clinical and Environmental Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo-Legorreta, Elsa; Turrubiartes-Martínez, Edgar; Garza-Ramos, Ulises; Niño-Moreno, Perla; Barrios, Humberto; Sánchez-Pérez, Alejandro; Reyna-Flores, Fernando; Tovar-Oviedo, Juana; Magaña-Aquino, Martin; Cevallos, Miguel Angel; Silva-Sanchez, Jesus

    2016-03-01

    We characterized an outbreak of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with clinical and environmental isolates from a tertiary care hospital in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. During a 4-month period, a total of 32 nonrepetitive imipenem-resistant clinical isolates of A. baumannii were collected. All isolates were susceptible to colistin and tigecycline and resistant to cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, imipenem, and meropenem. Genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed a major clone (A). Multilocus sequence type (MLST) analysis was performed, revealing sequence type (ST) 417 (ST417) and 208 (ST208). The blaIMP-, blaVIM-, blaGIM-, blaSIM-, blaNDM-type, and blaOXA-type (blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-51-like, and blaOXA-58-like) genes were screened and showed that the blaOXA-51-like and blaOXA-24-like genes were present in all isolates. Sequencing and southern hybridization were performed, confirming the presence of the blaOXA-72 gene and its plasmid-borne nature. In addition, the blaOXA-72-XerC/XerD-like association was identified. These findings indicate that a clonal spread of blaOXA-72-producing A. baumannii ST417 had occurred throughout the hospital. The ST417 corresponded with a previous ST described in the United States.

  5. Forecasting rodent outbreaks in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leirs, Herwig; Verhagen, Ron; Verheyen, Walter

    1996-01-01

    natalensis rats in Tanzania are significantly affected by the distribution of rainfall during the rainy season. 4. All previous rodent outbreaks in Tanzania were preceded by abundant rainfall early in the rainy season, i.e, towards the end of the year. 5. A flow chart is constructed to assess the likelihood...

  6. Value of routine ultrasound in detecting early joint changes in children with haemophilia using the 'Haemophilia Early Arthropathy Detection with UltraSound' protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foppen, W; van der Schaaf, I C; Fischer, K

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients with haemophilia tend to bleed in large joints even during prophylactic replacement therapy. Detection of early blood-induced joint changes may improve monitoring of treatment. The aim of this study was to explore the value of routine ultrasound in detecting early joint abnorm

  7. Klinefelter syndrome: are we missing opportunities for early detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Leena; Rosoklija, Ilina; Yu, Richard N; Cohen, Laurie E

    2013-10-01

    Klinefelter syndrome is a common condition that remains underdiagnosed, particularly prior to adulthood. Early detection could prevent morbidity and mortality, but the classic phenotype of small testes and tall stature may not be apparent until adolescence, and there is minimal guidance regarding whom to screen. We performed a retrospective study at Boston Children's Hospital in patients with the ICD-9 code for "Klinefelter syndrome" diagnosed prior to age 20 years, and determined age and reason for diagnosis, karyotype, heights, and comorbid conditions. Eighty percent had a 47,XXY karyotype, of whom half were diagnosed at age 11 to 19 years. The most common comorbidities were neurocognitive, including learning disabilities (67%), psychosocial problems (33%), and attention deficit disorder (27%). Subjects were only slightly taller than average in childhood (height standard deviation score = 0.64). These data show that Klinefelter syndrome is associated with long-standing comorbidities that frequently remain under-recognized; a karyotype should be considered in boys with neurocognitive problems.

  8. CADe tools for early detection of breast cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Bottigli, U; Delogu, P; Fantacci, M E; Fauci, F; Forni, G; Golosio, B; Lauria, A; López, E; Magro, R; Masala, G L; Oliva, P; Palmiero, R; Raso, G; Retico, A; Stumbo, S; Tangaro, S

    2004-01-01

    A breast neoplasia is often marked by the presence of microcalcifications and massive lesions in the mammogram: hence the need for tools able to recognize such lesions at an early stage. Our collaboration, among italian physicists and radiologists, has built a large distributed database of digitized mammographic images and has developed a Computer Aided Detection (CADe) system for the automatic analysis of mammographic images and installed it in some Italian hospitals by a GRID connection. Regarding microcalcifications, in our CADe digital mammogram is divided into wide windows which are processed by a convolution filter; after a self-organizing map analyzes each window and produces 8 principal components which are used as input of a neural network (FFNN) able to classify the windows matched to a threshold. Regarding massive lesions we select all important maximum intensity position and define the ROI radius. From each ROI found we extract the parameters which are used as input in a FFNN to distinguish betwee...

  9. Salivary Antimicrobial Peptides in Early Detection of Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guliz N. eGuncu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the pathogenesis of periodontitis, an infection-induced inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, there is a complex interaction between the subgingival microbiota and host tissues. A periodontal diagnostic tool for detecting the initiation and progression of the disease, monitoring the response to therapy, or measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression has been of interest for a long time. The value of various enzymes, proteins, and immunoglobulins, which are abundant constituents of saliva, as potential biomarkers has been recognized and extensively investigated for periodontal diseases. Gingival defensins and cathelicidins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in innate immune response. However, their applicability as salivary biomarkers is still under debate. The present review focuses on proteomic biomarkers and antimicrobial peptides, in particular, to be used at early phases of periodontitis.

  10. Salivary Antimicrobial Peptides in Early Detection of Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güncü, Güliz N; Yilmaz, Dogukan; Könönen, Eija; Gürsoy, Ulvi K

    2015-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of periodontitis, an infection-induced inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, there is a complex interaction between the subgingival microbiota and host tissues. A periodontal diagnostic tool for detecting the initiation and progression of the disease, monitoring the response to therapy, or measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression has been of interest for a long time. The value of various enzymes, proteins, and immunoglobulins, which are abundant constituents of saliva, as potential biomarkers has been recognized and extensively investigated for periodontal diseases. Gingival defensins and cathelicidins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in innate immune response. However, their applicability as salivary biomarkers is still under debate. The present review focuses on proteomic biomarkers and antimicrobial peptides, in particular, to be used at early phases of periodontitis.

  11. Optimizing early upper gastrointestinal cancer detection at endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Andrew M; Uedo, Noriya; Yao, Kenshi; East, James E

    2015-11-01

    Survival rates for upper gastrointestinal cancers are poor and oesophageal cancer incidence is increasing. Upper gastrointestinal cancer is also often missed during examinations; a predicament that has not yet been sufficiently addressed. Improvements in the detection of premalignant lesions, early oesophageal and gastric cancers will enable organ-preserving endoscopic therapy, potentially reducing the number of advanced upper gastrointestinal cancers and resulting in improved prognosis. Japan is a world leader in high-quality diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and the clinical routine in this country differs substantially from Western practice. In this Perspectives article, we review lessons learnt from Japanese gastroscopy technique, training and screening for risk stratification. We suggest a key performance indicator for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with a minimum total procedure time of 8 min, and examine how quality assurance concepts in bowel cancer screening in the UK could be applied to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and improve clinical practice.

  12. Barriers for early detection of cancer amongst Indian rural women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Breast and cervical cancer are the most common causes of cancer mortality among women worldwide, but actually they are largely preventable diseases. Healthcare providers in developing countries regularly see women with advanced, incurable cancers. Health of a rural Indian women and her access to health facility is compromised due to sociocultural, economical, and environmental factors. Aims: To know the problems associated with early detection of cancers in rural women. Settings and Design: Rural area and cross-sectional. Subjects and Methods: Study subject: Women of 35 years and above. Exclusion criteria: Not willing to participate. Sample size: All eligible women of selected villages. Sampling Technique: Random selection of villages. Study duration: 2 months. Study tools: Pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentages, χ2 test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, multivariate analysis. Results: Awareness about symptoms, possibility of early detection, available tests, possibility of cure of disease was low. Main barrier for screening was cognitive, that is, ′don′t know′ answer by 83.99% women for cancer cervix, 84.93%, for cancer breast, and 67.26% for oral cancer. Awareness score was significantly associated with age (χ2 = 17.77, P = 0.001, education (χ2 = 34.62, P = 0.000, and income (χ2 = 16.72, P = 0.002; while attitude score with age (χ2 = 16.27, P = 0.012 and education (χ2 = 25.16, P = 0.003. Practice score was significantly associated with age (χ2 = 11.28, P = 0.023, education (χ2 = 32.27, P = 0.003, and occupation (χ2 = 10.69, P = 0.03. Awareness, attitude, and practice score of women having history of cancer in family or relative was significantly high than women without history. Conclusions: Cognitive barrier was the important barrier which has to be taken care of.

  13. Early Hearing Detection and Vocabulary of Children With Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Sedey, Allison L; Wiggin, Mallene; Chung, Winnie

    2017-08-01

    To date, no studies have examined vocabulary outcomes of children meeting all 3 components of the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) guidelines (hearing screening by 1 month, diagnosis of hearing loss by 3 months, and intervention by 6 months of age). The primary purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of the current EHDI 1-3-6 policy on vocabulary outcomes across a wide geographic area. A secondary goal was to confirm the impact of other demographic variables previously reported to be related to language outcomes. This was a cross-sectional study of 448 children with bilateral hearing loss between 8 and 39 months of age (mean = 25.3 months, SD = 7.5 months). The children lived in 12 different states and were participating in the National Early Childhood Assessment Project. The combination of 6 factors in a regression analysis accounted for 41% of the variance in vocabulary outcomes. Vocabulary quotients were significantly higher for children who met the EHDI guidelines, were younger, had no additional disabilities, had mild to moderate hearing loss, had parents who were deaf or hard of hearing, and had mothers with higher levels of education. Vocabulary learning may be enhanced with system improvements that increase the number of children meeting the current early identification and intervention guidelines. In addition, intervention efforts need to focus on preventing widening delays with chronological age, assisting mothers with lower levels of education, and incorporating adults who are deaf/hard-of-hearing in the intervention process. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Early detection of AD using cortical thickness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjuth, M.; Gravesen, F.; Eskildsen, S. F.; Østergaard, L. R.

    2007-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes cortical atrophy and impaired cognitive functions. The diagnosis is difficult to make and is often made over a longer period of time using a combination of neuropsychological tests, and structural and functional imaging. Due to the impact of early intervention the challenge of distinguishing early AD from normal ageing has received increasing attention. This study uses cortical thickness measurements to characterize the atrophy in nine mild AD patients (mean MMSE-score 23.3 (std: 2.6)) compared to five healthy middle-aged subjects. A fully automated method based on deformable models is used for delineation of the inner and outer boundaries of the cerebral cortex from Magnetic Resonance Images. This allows observer independent high-resolution quantification of the cortical thickness. The cortex analysis facilitates detection of alterations throughout the entire cortical mantle. To perform inter-subject thickness comparison in which the spatial information is retained, a feature-based registration algorithm is developed which uses local cortical curvature, normal vector, and a distance measure. A comparison of the two study groups reveals that the lateral side of the hemispheres shows diffuse thinner areas in the mild AD group but especially the medial side shows a pronounced thinner area which can be explained by early limbic changes in AD. For classification principal component analysis is applied to reduce the high number of thickness measurements (>200,000) into fewer features. All mild AD and healthy middle-aged subjects are classified correctly (sensitivity and specificity 100%).

  15. Concrete bridge deck early problem detection and mitigation using robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucunski, Nenad; Yi, Jingang; Basily, Basily; Duong, Trung; Kim, Jinyoung; Balaguru, Perumalsamy; Parvardeh, Hooman; Maher, Ali; Najm, Husam

    2015-04-01

    More economical management of bridges can be achieved through early problem detection and mitigation. The paper describes development and implementation of two fully automated (robotic) systems for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and minimally invasive rehabilitation of concrete bridge decks. The NDE system named RABIT was developed with the support from Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). It implements multiple NDE technologies, namely: electrical resistivity (ER), impact echo (IE), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and ultrasonic surface waves (USW). In addition, the system utilizes advanced vision to substitute traditional visual inspection. The RABIT system collects data at significantly higher speeds than it is done using traditional NDE equipment. The associated platform for the enhanced interpretation of condition assessment in concrete bridge decks utilizes data integration, fusion, and deterioration and defect visualization. The interpretation and visualization platform specifically addresses data integration and fusion from the four NDE technologies. The data visualization platform facilitates an intuitive presentation of the main deterioration due to: corrosion, delamination, and concrete degradation, by integrating NDE survey results and high resolution deck surface imaging. The rehabilitation robotic system was developed with the support from National Institute of Standards and Technology-Technology Innovation Program (NIST-TIP). The system utilizes advanced robotics and novel materials to repair problems in concrete decks, primarily early stage delamination and internal cracking, using a minimally invasive approach. Since both systems use global positioning systems for navigation, some of the current efforts concentrate on their coordination for the most effective joint evaluation and rehabilitation.

  16. Early detection of influenza like illness through medication sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socan, Maja; Erculj, Vanja; Lajovic, Jaro

    2012-06-01

    Monitoring sales of medications is a potential candidate for an early signal of a seasonal influenza epidemic. To test this theory, the data from a traditional, consultation-oriented influenza surveillance system were compared to medication sales and a predictive model was developed. Weekly influenza-like incidence rates from the National Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System were compared to sales of seven groups of medications (nasal decongestants, medicines for sore throat (MST), antitussives, mucolytics, analgo-antipyretics, non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs (NSAIDs), betalactam antibiotics, and macrolide antibiotics) to determine the correlation of medication sales with the sentinel surveillance system - and therefore their predictive power. Poisson regression and regression tree approaches were used in the statistical analyses. The fact that NSAIDs do not exhibit any seasonality and that prescription of antibiotics requires a visit to the doctor's office makes the two medication groups inappropriate for predictive purposes. The influenza-like illness (ILI) curve is the best matched by the mucolytics and antitussives sales curves. Distinct seasonality is also observed with MST and decongestants. The model including these four medication groups performed best in prediction of ILI incidence rate using the Poisson regression model. Sales of antitussives proved to be the best single predictive variable for regression tree model. Sales of medication groups included in the model were demonstrated to have a predictive potential for early detection of influenza season. The quantitative information on medication sales proves to be a useful supplementary system, complementing the traditional consultation-oriented surveillance system.

  17. GEO-VISUAL APPROACH FOR SPATIAL SCAN STATISTICS: AN ANALYSIS OF DENGUE FEVER OUTBREAKS IN DELHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchi Mala

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There are very few surveillance systems being used to detect disease outbreaks at present. In disease surveillance system, data related to cases and various risk factors are collected and then the collected data is transformed into meaningful information for effective disease control using statistical analysis tools. Disease outbreaks can be detected but for effective disease control, a visualization approach is required. Without appropriate visualization, it is very difficult to interpret the results of analysis. In this work, a method has been developed for geographical representation of the disease surveillance and response system for early detection of disease outbreaks using SaTScan and open source Geographic Information System software. Maps that combine the geographical location of diseases and clusters to enhance the understanding of results of statistical analysis tool are developed using QGIS library which provides many spatial algorithms and native GIS functions. This library is accessed through PyQGIS and PyQt using Python.

  18. Monitoring of all-cause mortality in Belgium (Be-MOMO): a new and automated system for the early detection and quantification of the mortality impact of public health events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Bianca; Wuillaume, Françoise; Van Oyen, Herman; Maes, Sophie

    2010-08-01

    Be-MOMO is the monitoring of all-cause death registry data in Belgium. The new methods are described and the detection and quantification of outbreaks is presented for the period April 2006-March 2007. Sensitivity, specificity and timeliness are illustrated by means of a temporal comparison with known health events. Relevant events are identified from important mortality risks: climate, air pollution and influenza. Baselines and thresholds for deaths by gender, age group, day and week are estimated by the method of Farrington et al. (J R Stat Soc Ser A, 159:547-563, 1996). By adding seasonal terms to the basic model, a complete 5-year reference period can be used, while a reduction of noise allows the application to daily counts. Ignoring two false positives, all flags could be classified into five distinct outbreaks, coinciding with four heat periods and an influenza epidemic. Negative deviations from expected mortality in autumn and winter might reflect a displacement of mortality by the heat waves. Still, significant positive excess was found during five influenza weeks. Correcting for the delay in registration of deaths, outbreaks could be detected as soon as 1-2 weeks after the event. The sensitivity of Be-MOMO to different health threats suggests its potential usefulness in early warning: mortality thresholds and baselines might serve as rapid tools for detecting and quantifying outbreaks, crucial for public health decision-making and evaluation of measures.

  19. Fluorescence spectroscopic detection of early injury-induced atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Alexandra; Perk, Masis; Wen, Yue; Smith, Carol

    1992-08-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used for the detection of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Angioplasty balloon-mediated injury was examined spectroscopically in order to assess the sensitivity of fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of early atherosclerosis. Abdominal aortic balloon angioplasty was performed via femoral artery cutdown in nine White Leghorn roosters (five normal, four atherogenic diet). Roosters were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 week intervals. Fluorescence emission spectra (n equals 114) were recorded from each aortic section (XeCl excimer laser, 308 nm, 1.5 - 2.0 mJ/pulse, 5 Hz). Changes in normalized fluorescence emission intensity were correlated with selected sections of histology. All balloon-injured segments showed intimal fibrous proliferation. For intimal thickness measuring > 70 (mu) , fluorescence emission intensity was decreased at 440 - 460 nm (p Lesions complicated by thrombus also had lower fluorescence emission at 425 - 450 nm when compared to histologically normal aorta (p muscular (abdominal) aorta (p muscular abdominal aorta.

  20. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  1. Early Detection of Lung Cancer Using Neural Network Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Naresh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Effective identification of lung cancer at an initial stage is an important and crucial aspect of image processing. Several data mining methods have been used to detect lung cancer at early stage. In this paper, an approach has been presented which will diagnose lung cancer at an initial stage using CT scan images which are in Dicom (DCM format. One of the key challenges is to remove white Gaussian noise from the CT scan image, which is done using non local mean filter and to segment the lung Otsu’s thresholding is used. The textural and structural features are extracted from the processed image to form feature vector. In this paper, three classifiers namely SVM, ANN, and k-NN are applied for the detection of lung cancer to find the severity of disease (stage I or stage II and comparison is made with ANN, and k-NN classifier with respect to different quality attributes such as accuracy, sensitivity(recall, precision and specificity. It has been found from results that SVM achieves higher accuracy of 95.12% while ANN achieves 92.68% accuracy on the given data set and k-NN shows least accuracy of 85.37%. SVM algorithm which achieves 95.12% accuracy helps patients to take remedial action on time and reduces mortality rate from this deadly disease.

  2. Saliva: an emerging biofluid for early detection of diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Wong, David T

    2009-08-01

    The capability to assess physiological states, detect morbidity initiation and progression, and monitor posttreatment therapeutic outcomes through a noninvasive approach is one of the most desirable goals for healthcare research and delivery. Saliva, a multi-constituent oral fluid, has high potential for the surveillance of general health and disease. To reach the above goal through saliva-based diagnostics, two prerequisites must be fulfilled: (1) discovering biomarker(s) for different diseases among the complicated components of saliva, and (2) advancing sensitivity and specificity of biomarker(s) through persistent development of technologies. Under the support and research blueprint initiated by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), salivary diagnostics has not only steadily progressed with respect to accuracy and availability, but has also bridged up-to-date nanotechnology to expand the areas of application. With collective efforts over several years, saliva has been demonstrated to be a promising bodily fluid for early detection of diseases, and salivary diagnostics has exhibited tremendous potential in clinical applications. This review presents an overview of the value of saliva as a credible diagnostic tool, the discovery of salivary biomarkers, and the development of salivary diagnostics now and in the future.

  3. Molecular characterization of Hepatitis A virus causing an outbreak among Thai navy recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theamboonlers, A; Rianthavorn, P; Jiamsiri, S; Kumthong, S; Silaporn, P; Thongmee, C; Poovorawan, Y

    2009-12-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is a communicable disease, typically transmitted by faecal-oral contamination. HAV outbreaks usually occur in endemic areas. We report an outbreak of HAV from June to July, 2008 among Thai navy recruits who had received training at the Sattahip Navy Base, Chonburi province, Thailand. Upon conclusion of the training, the recruits were deployed to serve at several navy bases across the country. Secondary cases of HAV infection were reported among military personnel from these navy bases. To elucidate origin and distribution of these outbreaks, we characterized the genome and genotype of HAV isolated from the different navy bases. Sera and stool from the subjects were tested for antiHAV IgM, antiHAV IgG and HAV RNA. Subsequently, molecular characterization of HAV was performed by nucleotide sequencing of the VP1-P2A region, BLAST/FASTA and phylogenetic analysis. HAV RNA was detected in specimens obtained from different areas. All isolated strains clustered in the same lineage and belonged to genotype 1A. They shared nearly 100% genome homology indicating a single point source of this outbreak. This study provides essential baseline data as a reference for genetic analysis of HAV strains causing future outbreaks. Early detection of HAV infection and identification of the source by using molecular characterization and prompt preventive measures will hopefully prevent further outbreaks.

  4. Enterotoxigenic profiles and polymerase chain reaction detection of Bacillus cereus group cells and B. cereus strains from foods and food-borne outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Y M; Sheu, S J; Chen, Y L; Tsen, H Y

    1999-10-01

    Bacillus cereus is one of the important food pathogens. Since B. cereus group cells, such as B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis and B. mycoides, share many phenotypical properties and a high level of chromosomal sequence similarity, it is interesting to investigate the virulence profiles for B. cereus group cells, including B. cereus strains isolated from foods and samples associated with food-poisoning outbreaks. For this investigation, the presence of enterotoxin genes, such as those of haemolysin BL, B. cereus enterotoxin T and enterotoxin FM, were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Meanwhile, their enterotoxin activities were assayed using the BCET-RPLA kit, haemolytic patterns on sheep blood agar and their cytotoxicity to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Results showed that there were 12 enterotoxigenic profiles for the 98 B. cereus group strains collected. In addition, if any of the three types of enterotoxins was present in the B. cereus group cells, these cells were shown to be cytotoxic to the CHO cells. Similar enterotoxigenic profiles could be found among strains of B. cereus, B. mycoides and B. thuringiensis. Thus, all B. cereus group strains may be potentially toxigenic and the detection of these cells in foods is important. We thus designed PCR primers, termed Ph1/Ph2, from the sphingomyelinase gene of B. cereus cells. These primers were specific for all B. cereus group strains and could be used for the detection of B. cereus cells contaminated in food samples.

  5. First detection of Leishmania tropica DNA and Trypanosoma species in Sergentomyia sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from an outbreak area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O; Kato, Hirotomo; Puplampu, Naiki; Desewu, Kwame; Odoom, Shirley; Wilson, Michael D; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken; Boakye, Daniel A

    2014-02-01

    Leishmania major and an uncharacterized species have been reported from human patients in a cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) outbreak area in Ghana. Reports from the area indicate the presence of anthropophilic Sergentomyia species that were found with Leishmania DNA. In this study, we analyzed the Leishmania DNA positive sand fly pools by PCR-RFLP and ITS1 gene sequencing. The trypanosome was determined using the SSU rRNA gene sequence. We observed DNA of L. major, L. tropica and Trypanosoma species to be associated with the sand fly infections. This study provides the first detection of L. tropica DNA and Trypanosoma species as well as the confirmation of L. major DNA within Sergentomyia sand flies in Ghana and suggests that S. ingrami and S. hamoni are possible vectors of CL in the study area. The detection of L. tropica DNA in this CL focus is a novel finding in Ghana as well as West Africa. In addition, the unexpected infection of Trypanosoma DNA within S. africana africana indicates that more attention is necessary when identifying parasitic organisms by PCR within sand fly vectors in Ghana and other areas where leishmaniasis is endemic.

  6. First detection of Leishmania tropica DNA and Trypanosoma species in Sergentomyia sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae from an outbreak area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwunonso O Nzelu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmania major and an uncharacterized species have been reported from human patients in a cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL outbreak area in Ghana. Reports from the area indicate the presence of anthropophilic Sergentomyia species that were found with Leishmania DNA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we analyzed the Leishmania DNA positive sand fly pools by PCR-RFLP and ITS1 gene sequencing. The trypanosome was determined using the SSU rRNA gene sequence. We observed DNA of L. major, L. tropica and Trypanosoma species to be associated with the sand fly infections. This study provides the first detection of L. tropica DNA and Trypanosoma species as well as the confirmation of L. major DNA within Sergentomyia sand flies in Ghana and suggests that S. ingrami and S. hamoni are possible vectors of CL in the study area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The detection of L. tropica DNA in this CL focus is a novel finding in Ghana as well as West Africa. In addition, the unexpected infection of Trypanosoma DNA within S. africana africana indicates that more attention is necessary when identifying parasitic organisms by PCR within sand fly vectors in Ghana and other areas where leishmaniasis is endemic.

  7. Disease detection or public opinion reflection? content analysis of tweets, other social media, and online newspapers during the measles outbreak in the Netherlands in 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, L.; Harmsen, I.A.; Broekhuizen, E.; Clijnk, R.; Melker, H. de; Paulussen, T.; Kok, G.; Ruiter, R.; Das, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In May 2013, a measles outbreak began in the Netherlands among Orthodox Protestants who often refuse vaccination for religious reasons. Objective: Our aim was to compare the number of messages expressed on Twitter and other social media during the measles outbreak with the number of

  8. Disease detection or public opinion reflection? Content analysis of tweets, other social media, and online newspapers during the measles outbreak in the Netherlands in 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, L.; Harmsen, I.A.; Broekhuizen, E.; Clijnk, R.; Melker, H. de; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.; Kok, G.J.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Das, H.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In May 2013, a measles outbreak began in the Netherlands among Orthodox Protestants who often refuse vaccination for religious reasons. Objective: Our aim was to compare the number of messages expressed on Twitter and other social media during the measles outbreak with the number of

  9. Disease detection or public opinion reflection? Content analysis of tweets, other social media, and online newspapers during the measles outbreak in the Netherlands in 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, L.; Harmsen, I.A.; Broekhuizen, E.; Clijnk, R.; Melker, H. de; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.; Kok, G.J.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Das, H.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In May 2013, a measles outbreak began in the Netherlands among Orthodox Protestants who often refuse vaccination for religious reasons. Objective: Our aim was to compare the number of messages expressed on Twitter and other social media during the measles outbreak with the number of onli

  10. Disease detection or public opinion reflection? content analysis of tweets, other social media, and online newspapers during the measles outbreak in the Netherlands in 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, L.; Harmsen, I.A.; Broekhuizen, E.; Clijnk, R.; Melker, H. de; Paulussen, T.; Kok, G.; Ruiter, R.; Das, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In May 2013, a measles outbreak began in the Netherlands among Orthodox Protestants who often refuse vaccination for religious reasons. Objective: Our aim was to compare the number of messages expressed on Twitter and other social media during the measles outbreak with the number of onli

  11. Kick Detection at the Bit: Early Detection via Low Cost Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tost, Brian [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE); Rose, Kelly [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Aminzadeh, Fred [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Ante, Magdalene A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Huerta, Nicolas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Formation fluid influxes (i.e. kicks) pose persistent challenges and operational costs during drilling operations. Implications of kicks range in scale but cumulatively result in substantial costs that affect drilling safety, environment, schedule, and infrastructure. Early kick detection presents a low-cost, easily adopted solution for avoiding well control challenges associated with kicks near the bit. Borehole geophysical tools used during the drilling process as part of the logging-while-drilling (LWD) and measurement-while-drilling (MWD) provide the advantage of offering real-time downhole data. LWD/MWD collect data on both the annulus and borehole wall. The annular data are normally treated as background, and are filtered out to isolate the formation measurements. Because kicks will change the local physical properties of annular fluids, bottom-hole measurements are among the first indicators that a formation fluid has invaded the wellbore. This report describes and validates a technique for using the annular portion of LWD/MWD data to facilitate early kick detection using first order principles. The detection technique leverages data from standard and cost-effective technologies that are typically implemented during well drilling, such as MWD/LWD data in combination with mud-pulse telemetry for data transmission.

  12. Outbreaks-of Ebola virus disease in the West African sub-region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osungbade, K O; Oni, A A

    2014-06-01

    Five West African countries, including Nigeria are currently experiencing the largest, most severe, most complex outbreak of Ebola virus disease in history. This paper provided a chronology of outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in the West African sub-region and provided an update on efforts at containing the present outbreak. Literature from Pubmed (MEDLINE), AJOL, Google Scholar and Cochrane database were reviewed. Outbreaks of Ebola, virus disease had frequently occurred mainly in Central and East African countries. Occasional outbreaks reported from outside of Africa were due to laboratory contamination and imported monkeys in quarantine facilities. The ongoing outbreak in West Africa is the largest and first in the sub-region; the number of suspected cases and deaths from this single current outbreak is already about three times the total of all cases and deaths from previous known outbreaks in 40 years. Prevention and control efforts are hindered not only by lack of a known vaccine and virus-specific treatment, but also by weak health systems, poor sanitation, poor personal hygiene and cultural beliefs and practices, including myths and misconceptions about Ebola virus disease--all of which are prevalent in affected countries. Constrained by this situation, the World Health Organisation departed from the global standard and recommended the use of not yet proven treatments to treat or prevent the disease in humans on ethical and evidential grounds. The large number of people affected by the present outbreak in West Africa and the high case-fatality rate calls for accelerated evaluation and development of the investigational medical interventions for life saving and curbing the epidemic. Meanwhile, existing interventions such as early detection and isolation, contact tracing and monitoring, and adherence to rigorous procedures of infection prevention and control should be intensified.

  13. Early detection of biochemically occult autonomous thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusca, N; Virili, C; Cellini, M; Capriello, S; Gargano, L; Salvatori, R; Centanni, M; Santaguida, M G

    2016-12-01

    Autonomously functioning thyroid areas may be associated with subclinical or overt hyperthyroidism, but may exist even in the presence of normal TSH. This study was aimed at comparing the rate of autonomously functioning areas and their cardiac sequelae in patients with nodular goitre studied with the usual and a novel approach. In total 490 adult outpatients with thyroid nodular goitre, living in a mild iodine-deficient area, were selected in our referral centre for thyroid diseases from 2009 to 2014 on the basis of a suspicion of thyroid functional autonomy. They were divided in three groups according to a non-conventional approach (excessive response to thyroxine treatment: group 1) or conventional approach (low/normal TSH with clinical suspicion or low TSH: groups 2 and 3). All patients of the study with the suspicion of thyroid functional autonomy underwent thyroid scan with radioactive iodine (I(131)) uptake (RAIU). The percentage of confirmed thyroid functional autonomy was 319/490, being significantly higher in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2 (81.5 vs 64.7 vs 52.6%; chi-square P < 0.0001). However, the diagnosis with non-conventional approach was made at a significant earlier age (P < 0.0001). Cardiac arrhythmias as well as atrial fibrillation were similarly detected by conventional and non-conventional approaches (chi-square test: P = 0.2537; P = 0.8425). The hyper-responsiveness to thyroxine treatment should induce the suspicion of thyroid functional autonomy at an early stage, allowing to detect autonomous functioning areas in apparently euthyroid patients. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  14. Early detection and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Humbert

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-term prognosis for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH remains poor, despite advances in treatment options that have been made in the past few decades. Recent evidence suggests that World Health Organization functional class I or II patients have significantly better long-term survival rates than patients in higher functional classes, thus providing a rationale for earlier diagnosis and treatment of PAH. However, early diagnosis is challenging and there is frequently a delay between symptom onset and diagnosis. Screening programmes play an important role in PAH detection and expert opinion favours echocardiographic screening of asymptomatic patients who may be predisposed to the development of PAH (i.e. those with systemic sclerosis or sickle cell disease, although current guidelines only recommend annual echocardiographic screening in symptomatic patients. This article reviews the currently available screening programmes, including their limitations, and describes alternative screening approaches that may identify more effectively those patients who require right heart catheterisation for a definitive PAH diagnosis.

  15. Education concerning carcinoma of prostate and its early detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrzejewska, Sylwia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and objectives Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer. Insufficient knowledge of PCa among men causes its low detection. Lack of essential actions in health education and widely understood prophylaxis, the need of the latter are maybe responsible for the increasing mortality rate. According to our assumption, educating men increase their awareness on the need of screening tests and results in increasing reporting to physical examinations. This in turn allows for an early detection of the disease. Material and methods A research was conducted between the years 2003-2009 on the knowledge of PCa among 260 men. They were divided into two groups. Group A – 63 patients treated for carcinoma of prostate and group B – 197 men reporting spontaneously to screening tests. In order to check the adopted hypothesis, we prepared an educational material and test of knowledge – test with a questionnaire. Knowledge was evaluated before (test I) and after the education process (test II). Until 2009, we were monitoring the number of patients from group B reporting to screening tests and their knowledge was once again checked (test III). Two subgroups C and D were created from group B – 117 healthy men and 80 with diagnosed diseases respectively (70 with benign prostatic hyperplasia, 7 with prostatitis, and 3 with carcinoma of prostate). Patients with prostatitis and PCa and 3 patients from group C not reporting to the tests were excluded from further monitoring. Maths statistics with the use of SPSS 12.0 PL program and Statistica 6.0 constituted the base for working out the results. Results We observed a higher knowledge about carcinoma of prostate in group A than in group B (p 40 from groups C and D were interested in health care (p70 a lower level of motivation was observed. The interest was proportional to the level of education, and this was differentiating in an analogical way the motivation to extend knowledge about prostate cancer (pmotivation for

  16. Diagnostic real-time PCR assays for the detection of emetic Bacillus cereus strains in foods and recent food-borne outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, Martina; Messelhäusser, Ute; Busch, Ulrich; Scherer, Siegfried; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2007-03-01

    Cereulide-producing Bacillus cereus can cause an emetic type of food-borne disease that mimics the symptoms provoked by Staphylococcus aureus. Based on the recently discovered genetic background for cereulide formation, a novel 5' nuclease (TaqMan) real-time PCR assay was developed to provide a rapid and sensitive method for the specific detection of emetic B. cereus in food. The TaqMan assay includes an internal amplification control and primers and a probe designed to target a highly specific part of the cereulide synthetase genes. Additionally, a specific SYBR green I assay was developed and extended to create a duplex SYBR green I assay for the one-step identification and discrimination of the two emesis-causing food pathogens B. cereus and S. aureus. The inclusivity and exclusivity of the assay were assessed using a panel of 100 strains, including 23 emetic B. cereus and 14 S. aureus strains. Different methods for DNA isolation from artificially contaminated foods were evaluated, and established real-time assays were used to analyze two recent emetic food poisonings in southern Germany. One of the food-borne outbreaks included 17 children visiting a day care center who vomited after consuming a reheated rice dish, collapsed, and were hospitalized; the other case concerned a single food-poisoning incident occurring after consumption of cauliflower. Within 2 h, the etiological agent of these food poisonings was identified as emetic B. cereus by using the real-time PCR assay.

  17. Geo-spatial distribution of serologically detected bovine Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD serotype outbreaks in Ilesha Baruba, Kwara State-Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Olatunde Olabode

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and distribution of bovine Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD serotypes in Ilesha Baruba, Kwara state-Nigeria. To identify the source of epidemics, geo-spatial analysis was done on the FMD outbreak locations (n=15 using Global Positioning Service (GPS device (EtrexR. Randomly sampled bovine sera (n=64 from herd representatives were subjected to FMD 3ABC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (FMD 3ABC ELISA and solid-phase competitive ELISA (SP-cELISA, for the screening and serotyping of FMD virus, respectively. Through ELISA, the FMD serotypes detected in this study were- serotype O (83%; n=53/64, serotype A (7.8%; n=5/64, serotype vaccine O (1.6%; n=1/64, and serotype vaccine SAT2 (1.6%; n=1/64. Multiple serotypes were observed in two different combinations; these were O and A (4.7%; n=3/64, and O and SAT2 (1.6%; n=1/64. FMD multiple serotype infections were associated with absence of cross-immunity between serotypes and cross reactivity enhanced by clustered herds, highland study area topography, road and river interconnectivity, possible human settlements, activities and traffic. This study provides baseline information on geo-spatial distribution, and identification of prevalent FMD serotypes in Ilesha Baruba, Kwara state-Nigeria.

  18. Cheese-related listeriosis outbreak, Portugal, March 2009 to February 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, R; Almeida, G; Ferreira, V; Santos, I; Silva, J; Mendes, M M; Pita, J; Mariano, G; Mancio, I; Sousa, M M; Farber, J; Pagotto, F; Teixeira, P

    2015-04-30

    In Portugal, listeriosis has been notifiable since April 2014, but there is no active surveillance programme for the disease. A retrospective study involving 25 national hospitals led to the detection of an outbreak that occurred between March 2009 and February 2012. The amount of time between the start of the outbreak and its detection was 16 months. Of the 30 cases of listeriosis reported, 27 were in the Lisbon and Vale do Tejo region. Two cases were maternal/neonatal infections and one resulted in fetal loss. The mean age of the non-maternal/neonatal cases was 59 years (standard deviation: 17); 13 cases were more than 65 years old. The case fatality rate was 36.7%. All cases were caused by molecular serogroup IVb isolates indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotype profiles. Collaborative investigations with the national health and food safety authorities identified cheese as the probable source of infection, traced to a processing plant. The magnitude of this outbreak, the first reported food-borne listeriosis outbreak in Portugal, highlights the importance of having an effective listeriosis surveillance system in place for early detection and resolution of outbreaks, as well as the need for a process for the prompt submission of Listeria monocytogenes isolates for routine laboratory typing.

  19. Epidemiological Investigation of an Outbreak of Chikungunya in Hyderabad and Nalgonda Districts of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, SK; Kadri, SM; Venkatesh, Srinivas; Lal, S; Katyal, RK

    2007-01-01

    After about three decades, Chikungunya infection has re-emerged in India and the first cases were reported in December, 2005. The outbreak has currently affected about 8 states in the country. Although known to be commonly non fatal, since the present outbreak involved a large population, it has been raised as an issue of public health concern and also attracted wide media attention. The clinico-epidemiological and entomological review of the Chikungunya outbreak situation in Hyderabad and Nalgonda Districts of Andhra Pradesh, which started in December 2005, revealed that it is under control. However, preventive efforts need to continue and disease surveillance for early detection of potential outbreaks further strengthening. Given the significantly high House Index, all the three study areas remain at significant risk of outbreaks in the future if appropriate control measures are not put in place. Community support and participation is also crucial for the prevention of future outbreaks and improving the health and well being of population in the districts. PMID:21475442

  20. Bayesian reconstruction of disease outbreaks by combining epidemiologic and genomic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Jombart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen progress in the development of statistically rigorous frameworks to infer outbreak transmission trees ("who infected whom" from epidemiological and genetic data. Making use of pathogen genome sequences in such analyses remains a challenge, however, with a variety of heuristic approaches having been explored to date. We introduce a statistical method exploiting both pathogen sequences and collection dates to unravel the dynamics of densely sampled outbreaks. Our approach identifies likely transmission events and infers dates of infections, unobserved cases and separate introductions of the disease. It also proves useful for inferring numbers of secondary infections and identifying heterogeneous infectivity and super-spreaders. After testing our approach using simulations, we illustrate the method with the analysis of the beginning of the 2003 Singaporean outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS, providing new insights into the early stage of this epidemic. Our approach is the first tool for disease outbreak reconstruction from genetic data widely available as free software, the R package outbreaker. It is applicable to various densely sampled epidemics, and improves previous approaches by detecting unobserved and imported cases, as well as allowing multiple introductions of the pathogen. Because of its generality, we believe this method will become a tool of choice for the analysis of densely sampled disease outbreaks, and will form a rigorous framework for subsequent methodological developments.

  1. Modeling cholera outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Dennis L; Longini, Ira M; Morris, J Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios.

  2. Modeling cholera outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longini, Ira M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios. PMID:23412687

  3. Environmental data analysis and remote sensing for early detection of dengue and malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdelhamid; Rosy, Dilara A.

    2014-06-01

    Malaria and dengue fever are the two most common mosquito-transmitted diseases, leading to millions of serious illnesses and deaths each year. Because the mosquito vectors are sensitive to environmental conditions such as temperature, precipitation, and humidity, it is possible to map areas currently or imminently at high risk for disease outbreaks using satellite remote sensing. In this paper we propose the development of an operational geospatial system for malaria and dengue fever early warning; this can be done by bringing together geographic information system (GIS) tools, artificial neural networks (ANN) for efficient pattern recognition, the best available ground-based epidemiological and vector ecology data, and current satellite remote sensing capabilities. We use Vegetation Health Indices (VHI) derived from visible and infrared radiances measured by satellite-mounted Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) and available weekly at 4-km resolution as one predictor of malaria and dengue fever risk in Bangladesh. As a study area, we focus on Bangladesh where malaria and dengue fever are serious public health threats. The technology developed will, however, be largely portable to other countries in the world and applicable to other disease threats. A malaria and dengue fever early warning system will be a boon to international public health, enabling resources to be focused where they will do the most good for stopping pandemics, and will be an invaluable decision support tool for national security assessment and potential troop deployment in regions susceptible to disease outbreaks.

  4. The Progression and Early detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (PESA) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Jiménez-Borreguero, L Jesús; Peñalvo, José L

    2013-01-01

    The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined.......The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined....

  5. Directly detecting the evolution of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trager, Scott; Faber, SM; Dressler, A; Renzini, A; Bender, R

    2005-01-01

    We describe observations focused on understanding the epochs and timescales of the formation and evolution of early-type galaxies, particularly those in clusters. We show that while early-type cluster galaxies are on average older and closer to coeval than their counterparts in the field, significan

  6. Etiology Detection of A Food-borne Disease Outbreak%一起食源性疾病暴发的病原学检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒芹; 郎中凯

    2012-01-01

    目的 查明一起细菌性食源性疾病暴发的病原学,为突发公共卫生事件处置提供科学依据.方法 按照GB/T4789-2008进行沙门菌等肠道病原菌检测.结果 12份样品中检出7株沙门菌,检出率为58.33%,5份病人肛拭子中分别检出3株丙型副伤寒沙门菌、2株婴儿沙门菌;剩余混合凉菜中检出婴儿沙门菌1株;餐碗物表样中检出丙型副伤寒沙门菌1株;其余样品中均未检出致病菌.结论 此次食源性疾病暴发系聚餐者误食被丙型副伤寒沙门菌或婴儿沙门菌污染的食物或餐具所致.%OBJECTIVE To provide the scientific basis for public health emergency's handlement from finding out the etiology of a bacterial foodborne disease. METHODS We dectected the enteric patheogenic bacteria, including salmonella according to the GB/T4789-2008. RESULTS 7 salmonella were detected from 12 samples and the positive rate was 58.33%. 3 Salmonella paratyphi C and 2 Salmonella infantis were detected from 5 patients' analswab and 1 Salmonella infantis was detected from the remainder of cold dish and 1 Salmonella paratyphi C was detected from used tableware and no pathogenic bacteria was detectde from the other samples. CONCLUSION The foodborne disease outbreak was caused by eating the food, polluted by Salmonella paratyphi C and Salmonella infantis, or using the tableware, polluted by Salmonella paratyphi C and Salmonella infantis.

  7. Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using Molecular Beacons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    exfoliated cells in body fluids is more quantitative than that detected in cancer cells on frozen tissue sections because most cells in tissue sections...the MB and QD detections are more specific and sensitive than cytological method in detecting breast cancer cells. The proposed study will also...Lewis) for the presence of benign, atypical or malignant cells. We will then compare the results of the MB and QD detection with cytological findings

  8. Molecular biomarker set for early detection of ovarian cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-06-16

    Embodiments of the present invention concern methods and compositions related to detection of ovarian cancer, including detection of the stage of ovarian cancer, in some cases. In particular, the invention encompasses use of expression of TFAP2A and in some embodiments CA125 and/or E2F5 to identify ovarian cancer, including detecting mRNA and/or protein levels of the respective gene products. Kits for detection of ovarian cancer are also described.

  9. Long-term follow-up of the TIPS early detection in psychosis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelstad, Wenche Ten Velden; Larsen, Tor K; Auestad, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Early detection in first-episode psychosis confers advantages for negative, cognitive, and depressive symptoms after 1, 2, and 5 years, but longitudinal effects are unknown. The authors investigated the differences in symptoms and recovery after 10 years between regional health care sectors...... with and without a comprehensive program for the early detection of psychosis....

  10. Overview of Early Detection and Treatment Strategies for Suicidal Behavior in Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Susan J.; Kupfer, David J.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to early detection and intervention for the prevention of youth suicide is presented. The approach integrates a proposed model of risk factors with a multithreshold level of early detection. Psychiatric diagnosis, personality traits, psychosocial factors, life events and chronic medical illness, biological factors, and family…

  11. Monitoring of lipoxygenase-related plant emission for early detection of drought stress in greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takayama, K.; Jansen, R.M.C.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Early detection of plant stress is a key to effective plant management for crop production. Drought stress is a common abiotic stress in crop production and early detection of drought stress allows us to improve water usage effi ciency and crop quality by demandbased irrigation. This study demonstra

  12. Early Detection of Epidemic GII-4 Norovirus Strains in UK and Malawi: Role of Surveillance of Sporadic Acute Gastroenteritis in Anticipating Global Epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Allen

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are endemic in the human population, and are recognised as a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Although they are a highly diverse group of viruses, genogroup-II genotype-4 (GII-4 noroviruses are the most frequently identified strains worldwide. The predominance of GII-4 norovirus strains is driven by the periodic emergence of antigenic variants capable of evading herd protection. The global molecular epidemiology of emerging GII-4 strains is largely based on data from outbreak surveillance programmes, but the epidemiology of GII-4 strains among sporadic or community cases is far less well studied. To understand the distribution of GII-4 norovirus strains associated with gastroenteritis in the wider population, we characterised the GII-4 norovirus strains detected during studies of sporadic cases of infectious gastroenteritis collected in the UK and Malawi between 1993 and 2009. Our data shows that GII-4 norovirus strains that have emerged as strains of global epidemic importance have circulated in the community up to 18 years before their recognition as pandemic strains associated with increases in outbreaks. These data may suggest that more comprehensive surveillance programmes that incorporate strains associated with sporadic cases may provide a way for early detection of emerging strains with pandemic potential. This may be of particular relevance as vaccines become available.

  13. Early Detection of Epidemic GII-4 Norovirus Strains in UK and Malawi: Role of Surveillance of Sporadic Acute Gastroenteritis in Anticipating Global Epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David J; Trainor, Eamonn; Callaghan, Anna; O'Brien, Sarah J; Cunliffe, Nigel A; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses are endemic in the human population, and are recognised as a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Although they are a highly diverse group of viruses, genogroup-II genotype-4 (GII-4) noroviruses are the most frequently identified strains worldwide. The predominance of GII-4 norovirus strains is driven by the periodic emergence of antigenic variants capable of evading herd protection. The global molecular epidemiology of emerging GII-4 strains is largely based on data from outbreak surveillance programmes, but the epidemiology of GII-4 strains among sporadic or community cases is far less well studied. To understand the distribution of GII-4 norovirus strains associated with gastroenteritis in the wider population, we characterised the GII-4 norovirus strains detected during studies of sporadic cases of infectious gastroenteritis collected in the UK and Malawi between 1993 and 2009. Our data shows that GII-4 norovirus strains that have emerged as strains of global epidemic importance have circulated in the community up to 18 years before their recognition as pandemic strains associated with increases in outbreaks. These data may suggest that more comprehensive surveillance programmes that incorporate strains associated with sporadic cases may provide a way for early detection of emerging strains with pandemic potential. This may be of particular relevance as vaccines become available.

  14. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

    2014-03-01

    in frequency as well as in the therapeutic problems raised. In the face and oral cavity cancer catagory, lip represents 2% of all cases and 19-25% of the total facial cancer area. Lip cancer is one of the localizations that, when detected early, can benefit from an effective therapy with high chances of healing. In order to achieve a complex treatment, interdisciplinary collaboration is required, only thus being able to determine both the therapeutic methods as well as their association.

  15. ROLE OF ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY IN EARLY DETECTION OF HEA RING IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sree Devi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In the present study about 72 children with complai nts of hearing impairment attending the Outpatient department of Government Ear, Nose a nd Throat Hospital were taken up. These children were chosen randomly and were followed up from consultation stage till the final diagnosis after completion of all the tests. The age range of children was from 1 year to 7 years. 43 Children were males and 29 children were females. All the ch ildren attended the Government E.N.T. Hospital for evaluation and further evaluations were done at the Hearing Aid Centre. Most of the children were from poor socio-economic status (White Ration Card Holders. Average time taken for each child ranged from 60 minutes to 120 minutes since t he physiological tests have to be done for the children under sedation as they are not co-operativ e. The Aims and Objectives of this study are 1. Early detection of hearing impairment in children h as been the main aim of this study. Children of age groups, ranging from 1 – 7 years with a complaint o f hearing impairment are taken up for this study. Main emphasis being on sensori-neural hearing loss with or without speech impairment, cases of external and middle ear conditions are excluded.2. Assessment of the type and degree of hearing loss and knowing probable site of pathology by conductin g a battery of tests- PTA (pure tone audiometry, FFA(Free field Audiometry, Impedance Audiometry, OAE(otoacoustic emissions, and BERA(Brain stem Evoked Response Audiometry.3. Know ing efficacy and accuracy of Electrophysiological tests in children who are othe rwise uncooperative or cannot understand and follow the subjective tests. 4. Comparing the resul ts of Electrophysiological tests and subjective tes ts. 5. Analyzing the data in terms of gender, etiology, type of hearing loss etc. With the advent of the advanced electrophysiological tests of hearing like BERA, OAE, Electrocochleography and Auditory Steady State Response audiometry

  16. Forest dynamics after successive spruce budworm outbreaks in mixedwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Mathieu; Kneeshaw, Daniel; Bergeron, Yves

    2006-09-01

    In order to assess the long-term spatiotemporal influence of the spruce budworm in sub-boreal mixedwood forests, we studied the effect of three successive outbreaks in a region of western Quebec, Canada. We used dendrochronology to detect past outbreaks in three areas (111-185 ha), based on the recruitment age of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and on growth patterns of white spruce (Picea glauca), the two main host species of this defoliating insect. We also used a series of aerial photographs taken between 1935 and 2003 to evaluate overstory mortality and post-outbreak succession patterns in these same areas. Individual outbreaks had a spatially homogenous impact on host species throughout the region, but successive outbreaks differed in intensity: the two outbreaks around 1910 and 1980 caused widespread mortality in the overstory, but an outbreak around 1945 had little impact, probably because the forest mosaic had not yet recuperated from the 1910 outbreak. No clear outbreak was detected in the later part of the 19th century. In portions of the study areas where the 1910 outbreak had a major impact, between 36% and 50% of the stands were reoccupied by balsam fir stands in the period up to the 1980 outbreak (cyclic succession), the rest being at least partly replaced by nonhost species such as Betula spp. Changes in forest composition after the 1910 outbreak were mostly associated with upper-slope positions in all study areas. The 1980 outbreak also had a higher impact than earlier outbreaks in lower-slope positions dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana)-balsam fir mixtures. These results suggest that, at the regional scale, the abundance of mature or over-mature balsam fir stands does not determine the outbreak cycle. When an outbreak occurs, however, its impact will be strongly constrained by forest characteristics such as stand composition and structure, which are themselves influenced by previous disturbances and slope position.

  17. Early detection and intervention in psychosis: an ethical paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlashan, Thomas H

    2005-08-01

    This paper will first posit the rationale for intervention before onset, then outline the current usual practice of treating schizophrenia and the determinants of that practice. Recent developments that permit or demand a change in this practice will then be elaborated. The article concludes with an elaboration of the currently known risks and benefits of early intervention research. The ethics of early intervention are undergoing a paradigm shift, a shift that supports early intervention research as being necessary to bring empirical balance to territory that is currently overpopulated with zealous opinions.

  18. Early findings in outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome among young children caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Romania, January to February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, Emilie; Zaharia, Alina; Zota, Lavinia Cipriana; Severi, Ettore; Mårdh, Otilia; Usein, Codruta; Bălgrădean, Mihaela; Espinosa, Laura; Jansa, Josep; Scavia, Gaia; Rafila, Alexandru; Serban, Amalia; Pistol, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    As at 29 February 2016, 15 cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome with onset between 25 January and 22 February were reported among children between five and 38 months in Romania, and three of them died. Cases were mostly from southern Romania. Six cases tested positive for Escherichia coli O26 by serology. Fruits, vegetables, meat and dairy products were among the possible common food exposures. Investigations are ongoing in Romania to control the outbreak.

  19. Intercostal Artery Laceration: Rare Complication of Thoracentesis and Role of Ultrasound in Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam Mansour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemothorax is a rare but potentially fatal postthoracentesis complication. Early clinical signs may be nonspecific resulting in diagnostic delay. A high index of suspicion is vital for early diagnosis and intervention to avoid further bleeding. Following procedure, early bedside ultrasound findings can be vital for early detection. We report a case of massive hemothorax in a 63-year-old male following therapeutic thoracentesis. Diagnosis was made following highly suggestive sonographic findings prompting thoracotomy and lacerated intercostal artery cauterization.

  20. Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence for early breast cancer biomarker detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Brian T; Zangar, Richard C

    2012-08-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces offer a compelling platform for improving the sensitivity of surface-based fluorescent assays used in disease diagnostics. Through the complementary processes of photonic crystal enhanced excitation and enhanced extraction, a periodic dielectric-based nanostructured surface can simultaneously increase the electric field intensity experienced by surface-bound fluorophores and increase the collection efficiency of emitted fluorescent photons. Through the ability to inexpensively fabricate photonic crystal surfaces over substantial surface areas, they are amenable to single-use applications in biological sensing, such as disease biomarker detection in serum. In this review, we will describe the motivation for implementing high-sensitivity, multiplexed biomarker detection in the context of breast cancer diagnosis. We will summarize recent efforts to improve the detection limits of such assays though the use of photonic crystal surfaces. Reduction of detection limits is driven by low autofluorescent substrates for photonic crystal fabrication, and detection instruments that take advantage of their unique features.

  1. Early detection, early symptom progression and symptomatic remission after ten years in a first episode of psychosis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Haahr, Ulrik; Larsen, Tor K; Auestad, Bjørn; Barder, Helene; Evensen, Julie; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan O; Langeveld, Johannes; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Rossberg, Jan Ivar; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

    2013-02-01

    Poor symptom outcome remains a challenge in psychosis: At least 50% of first-episode patients continue to have positive and/or negative symptoms after ten years. To investigate rates, early predictors and early symptom progression of long-term non-remitted psychosis in an early detection study. Symptomatic remission according to new international criteria was assessed in 174 patients at ten-year follow-up. Remitted and non-remitted patients were compared on early symptom progression, and logistic regression was applied to predict non-remission. At ten years, 50% of patients were in symptomatic remission. Non-remission was predicted by positive symptoms at inclusion and during the first year of treatment. Of individual symptoms only hallucinations were significantly predictive of ten-year non-remission. Early symptom differences were not reflected by differences in treatment. Long-term symptomatic non-remission is associated with early positive symptoms. More assertive intervention may be needed in patients who do not respond robustly in the first year of treatment, whether or not they have been detected "early". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Early detection of positive blood cultures by the acridine orange staining technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, B M; Henry, N K; Washington, J A

    1983-01-01

    Staining 2,205 macroscopically negative blood cultures with acridine orange after 6 to 17 h of inoculation and incubation was as sensitive as an early subculture in detecting positive blood cultures. Of the 179 positive blood cultures, 30 (16.8%) were detected by acridine orange alone, 19 (10.6%) were detected by early subculture alone, 84 (46.9%) were detected by both techniques, and 46 (25.7%) were not detected by either method. The latter group includes cultures that became positive after ...

  3. Dead Bird Clusters as an Early Warning System for West Nile Virus Activity

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    An early warning system for West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks could provide a basis for targeted public education and surveillance activities as well as more timely larval and adult mosquito control. We adapted the spatial scan statistic for prospective detection of infectious disease outbreaks, applied the results to data on dead birds reported from New York City in 2000, and reviewed its utility in providing an early warning of WNV activity in 2001. Prospective geographic cluster analysis of ...

  4. Triple diagnostics for early detection of ambivalent necrotizing fasciitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hietbrink, Falco; Bode, Lonneke G.; Riddez, Louis; Leenen, Luke P H; van Dijk, MR

    2016-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon, rapidly progressive and potential lethal condition. Over the last decade time to surgery decreased and outcome improved, most likely due to increased awareness and more timely referral. Early recognition is key to improve mortality and morbidity.

  5. Early Detection of Heterotopic Ossification for Effective Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    selectively induced in rat model of myocardial infarction . Inflammation. 2001;25(5):293-300. 20. Tögel F, Isaac J, Hu Z, Weiss K, Westenfelder C. Renal SDF...possibility of molecular imaging as a tool for early diagnosis of HO. BODY: To establish an animal model of HO and make molecular probe of SDF-1 were the

  6. Triple diagnostics for early detection of ambivalent necrotizing fasciitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hietbrink, Falco; Bode, Lonneke G.; Riddez, Louis; Leenen, Luke P H; van Dijk, MR

    2016-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon, rapidly progressive and potential lethal condition. Over the last decade time to surgery decreased and outcome improved, most likely due to increased awareness and more timely referral. Early recognition is key to improve mortality and morbidity. How

  7. Guidelines for the early detection of osteoporosis and prediction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early intervention has been shown to reduce the rate of vertebral and hip fractures by 50 - 70%. ... clinical practice to predict fracture risk and to set guidelines for its use. Methods ... interest groups, which included the Society for. Endocrinology ...

  8. Early Detection of Breast Cancer using SVM Classifier Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Rejani, Y Ireaneus Anna

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a tumor detection algorithm from mammogram. The proposed system focuses on the solution of two problems. One is how to detect tumors as suspicious regions with a very weak contrast to their background and another is how to extract features which categorize tumors. The tumor detection method follows the scheme of (a) mammogram enhancement. (b) The segmentation of the tumor area. (c) The extraction of features from the segmented tumor area. (d) The use of SVM classifier. The enhancement can be defined as conversion of the image quality to a better and more understandable level. The mammogram enhancement procedure includes filtering, top hat operation, DWT. Then the contrast stretching is used to increase the contrast of the image. The segmentation of mammogram images has been playing an important role to improve the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. The most common segmentation method used is thresholding. The features are extracted from the segmented breast area. Next stage include,...

  9. Tsunamis: Detection, monitoring, and early-warning technologies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    detection from Open Ocean regions, islands, and coastal waters, and the significant progress made in this area over the years have been addressed. Additionally, a brief description of some theoretically sound physical principles, which have been confirmed... through observations, has been provided because of their potential to be possibly implemented in future for remote detection of tsunamis in the open ocean. The technological advancement made over the years in the field of sea-level measurements which...

  10. [Government actions for the early detection of breast cancer in Latin America. Future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Robledo, Luz María; González-Robledo, María Cecilia; Nigenda, Gustavo; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2010-01-01

    Documentary research carried out in 2009 aims to document the regulatory framework and existing programs for the early detection of breast cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean in order to establish the most important challenges for the containment of the epidemic in the region. The governments of the region have developed diverse efforts and initiatives to confront the rise in mortality due to said cause, including early detection, treatment and research strategies. Despite advances in the early detection of breast cancer, the challenge remains to link efforts to ensure continuity of care (diagnostic confirmation, treatment and monitoring) in order to achieve higher efficiency, effectiveness and benefits for women with this disease.

  11. Modeling cholera outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Dennis L.; Ira M Longini; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating mo...

  12. Modeling cholera outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis L Chao; Longini, Ira M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating mo...

  13. Early detection of dementia in the community under a community-based integrated care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Yohko; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2014-04-01

    Early detection of dementia is recommended in the stages from mild cognitive impairment to early dementia, excluding the asymptomatic stage. The advantages of early detection for patients and their caregivers include early receipt of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies, and early access to appropriate agencies and/or support networks. The disadvantages include psychological damage related to anxiety and depression, and risk of stigmatization and/or social exclusion. The possibility of false positive diagnoses is also problematic. For detection of dementia, various screening tests and questionnaires have been developed. However, none of these techniques are sensitive and specific enough to avoid false positives. Thus, these screening tools are recommended for assessment of the severity of functional decline after sufficient information has been gathered to suspect dementia. In terms of social services, early detection might delay institutionalization. However, implementation of early detection would add a heavy burden on social resources, especially human resources. For effective implementation of early diagnosis and management of dementia, measures are required to improve social and human resources, including the following: improvement of the diagnostic abilities of general practitioners, improvement of necessary care and support systems after diagnosis, and organizing volunteers to support local communities. Under a community-based integrated care system, each community will create a "tailored" system that meets the health needs, health status and values of the community. Promoting social participation and community involvement of the residents should be one of the key strategies to address the shortage of human resources. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Combined Screening for Early Detection of Pre-Eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Park

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the precise pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia remains unknown, this condition continues to be a major cause of maternal and fetal mortality. Early prediction of pre-eclampsia would allow for timely initiation of preventive therapy. A combination of biophysical and biochemical markers are superior to other tests for early prediction of the development of pre-eclampsia. Apart from the use of parameters in first-trimester aneuploidy screening, cell-free fetal DNA quantification is emerging as a promising marker for prediction of pre-eclampsia. This article reviews the current research of the most important strategies for prediction of pre-eclampsia, including the use of maternal risk factors, mean maternal arterial pressure, ultrasound parameters, and biomarkers.

  15. Combined Screening for Early Detection of Pre-Eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Jin; Shim, Sung Shin; Cha, Dong Hyun

    2015-08-04

    Although the precise pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia remains unknown, this condition continues to be a major cause of maternal and fetal mortality. Early prediction of pre-eclampsia would allow for timely initiation of preventive therapy. A combination of biophysical and biochemical markers are superior to other tests for early prediction of the development of pre-eclampsia. Apart from the use of parameters in first-trimester aneuploidy screening, cell-free fetal DNA quantification is emerging as a promising marker for prediction of pre-eclampsia. This article reviews the current research of the most important strategies for prediction of pre-eclampsia, including the use of maternal risk factors, mean maternal arterial pressure, ultrasound parameters, and biomarkers.

  16. Factors Associated to Duration of Hepatitis A Outbreaks: Implications for Control

    OpenAIRE

    Torner Gràcia, Núria; Broner, Sonia Judith; Martinez, Ana; Tortajada, Cecilia; García de Olalla, Patricia; Barrabeig i Fabregat, Irene; Sala, Maria Rosa; Camps, Neus; Minguell, Sofia; Alvarez, Josep; Ferrús, Gloria; Torra, Roser; Godoy i García, Pere; Domínguez García, Àngela; Hepatitis A Surveillance Group of Catalonia

    2012-01-01

    Even though hepatitis A mass vaccination effectiveness is high, outbreaks continue to occur. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between duration and characteristics of hepatitis A outbreaks. Hepatitis A (HA) outbreaks reported between 1991 and 2007 were studied. An outbreak was defined as ≥2 epidemiologically-linked cases with ≥1 case laboratory-confirmed by detection of HA immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Relationships between explanatory variables and outbreak durati...

  17. Early Detection of Breast Cancer by Florescence Molecular Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    and C. G., "Conservative treatment versus mastectomy in early breast cancer: patterns of failure with 15 years of follow-up data. Institut Gustave...as increased tissue density or scarring from prior surgery. Functional imaging, which includes Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission...therapeutic strategies and will enable the effects of treatment to be more closely followed in time scales of hours or days instead of the longer

  18. When can a veterinarian be expected to detect classical swine fever virus among breeding sows in a herd during an outbreak?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, B.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Buist, W.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Kogut, J.; Döpfer, D.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The herd sensitivity (HSe) and herd specificity (Hsp) of clinical diagnosis of an infection with classical swine fever (CSF) virus during veterinary inspection of breeding sows in a herd was evaluated. Data gathered from visits to herds during the CSF outbreak in 1997¿1998 in The Netherlands were us

  19. Field observations during the bluetongue serotype 8 epidemic in 2006 I. Detection of first outbreaks and clinical signs in sheep and cattle in Belgium, France ande the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Backx, A.; Meroc, E.; Gerbier, G.; Staubach, C.; Hendrickx, G.; Spek, van der A.N.; Mintiens, K.

    2008-01-01

    Starting August 2006, a major epidemic of bluetongue (BT) was identified in North-West Europe, affecting The Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Luxemburg and the North of France. It was caused by BT virus serotype 8 (BTV-8), a serotype previously unknown to the European Union (EU). In this outbreak, the

  20. Cholera outbreaks in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Sharma, Naresh C

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is a global health problem as several thousands of cases and deaths occur each year. The unique epidemiologic attribute of the disease is its propensity to occur as outbreaks that may flare-up into epidemics, if not controlled. The causative bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae prevails in the environment and infects humans whenever there is a breakdown in the public health component. The Indian subcontinent is vulnerable to this disease due its vast coastlines with areas of poor sanitation, unsafe drinking water, and overcrowding. Recently, it was shown that climatic conditions also play a major role in the persistence and spread of cholera. Constant change in the biotypes and serotypes of V. cholerae are also important aspects that changes virulence and survival of the pathogen. Such continuous changes increase the infection ability of the pathogen affecting the susceptible population including the children. The short-term carrier status of V. cholerae has been studied well at community level and this facet significantly contributes to the recurrence of cholera. Several molecular tools recognized altering clonality of V. cholerae in relation with the advent of a serogroup or serotype. Rapid identification systems were formulated for the timely detection of the pathogen so as to identify and control the outbreak and institute proper treatment of the patients. The antimicrobials used in the past are no longer useful in the treatment of cholera as V. cholerae has acquired several mechanisms for multiple antimicrobial resistance. This upsurge in antimicrobial resistance directly influences the management of the disease. This chapter provides an overview of cholera prevalence in India, possible sources of infection, and molecular epidemiology along with antimicrobial resistance of V. cholerae.

  1. Understanding Parkinson's disease: detection and early disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, L A

    2000-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, debilitating, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by neuronal loss within the basal ganglia and insufficient levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Symptoms include resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of voluntary movement), and postural disturbances. Exact cause is unknown, but theories surrounding environmental or endogenous toxicities have been suggested. Differential diagnoses include genetic and other neurologic disorders that may share symptoms similar to those seen in PD. Clinical progression has been categorized into three phases of the disease: early, nonfluctuating, and fluctuating. Medications generally offer good symptom relief during the early and nonfluctuating phases of the disease. Classifications of anti-PD medications include anticholinergics, dopamine agonists, amantadine, MAO-B inhibitors, levodopa-carbidopa, and Catechol-o-methyl transferase inhibitors. Surgical intervention may be an option for select patients whose conditions are not well controlled though medical management strategies. Primary care providers often can manage patients in the early stage of PD, but later stages require expert neurologic management. Patient/family education and anticipatory guidance is imperative.

  2. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    During the current seventh cholera pandemic, Africa bore the major brunt of global disease burden. More than 40 years after its resurgence in Africa in 1970, cholera remains a grave public health problem, characterized by large disease burden, frequent outbreaks, persistent endemicity, and high CFRs, particularly in the region of the central African Great Lakes which might act as reservoirs for cholera. There, cases occur year round with a rise in incidence during the rainy season. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera occurs mostly in outbreaks of varying size with a constant threat of widespread epidemics. Between 1970 and 2011, African countries reported 3,221,050 suspected cholera cases to the World Health Organization, representing 46 % of all cases reported globally. Excluding the Haitian epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 86 % of reported cases and 99 % of deaths worldwide in 2011. The number of cholera cases is possibly much higher than what is reported to the WHO due to the variation in modalities, completeness, and case definition of national cholera data. One source on country specific incidence rates for Africa, adjusting for underreporting, estimates 1,341,080 cases and 160,930 deaths (52.6 % of 2,548,227 estimated cases and 79.6 % of 209,216 estimated deaths worldwide). Another estimates 1,411,453 cases and 53,632 deaths per year, respectively (50 % of 2,836,669 estimated cases and 58.6 % of 91,490 estimated deaths worldwide). Within Africa, half of all cases between 1970 and 2011 were notified from only seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, and South Africa. In contrast to a global trend of decreasing case fatality ratios (CFRs), CFRs have remained stable in Africa at approximately 2 %. Early propagation of cholera outbreaks depends largely on the extent of individual bacterial shedding, host and organism characteristics, the likelihood of people coming into contact with

  3. Tsunamis detection, monitoring, and early-warning technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Antony

    2011-01-01

    The devastating impacts of tsunamis have received increased focus since the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004, the most devastating tsunami in over 400 years of recorded history. This professional reference is the first of its kind: it provides a globally inclusive review of the current state of tsunami detection technology and will be a much-needed resource for oceanographers and marine engineers working to upgrade and integrate their tsunami warning systems. It focuses on the two main tsunami warning systems (TWS): International and Regional. Featured are comparative assessments of detection, monitoring, and real-time reporting technologies. The challenges of detection through remote measuring stations are also addressed, as well as the historical and scientific aspects of tsunamis.

  4. Field observations during the bluetongue serotype 8 epidemic in 2006. I. Detection of first outbreaks and clinical signs in sheep and cattle in Belgium, France and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, Armin R W; Backx, Anoek; Meroc, Estelle; Gerbier, Guillaume; Staubach, Christoph; Hendrickx, Guy; van der Spek, Arco; Mintiens, Koen

    2008-10-15

    Starting August 2006, a major epidemic of bluetongue (BT) was identified in North-West Europe, affecting The Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg and the North of France. It was caused by BT virus serotype 8 (BTV-8), a serotype previously unknown to the European Union (EU). In this outbreak, the virus caused clinical disease in a few individual animals within cattle herds, whereas overt clinical disease was usually restricted to sheep. Investigations in Belgium suggested that the first clinical signs of BTV-8 appeared mid July 2006 in a cattle herd, while the first suspicion of a BT-outbreak in Belgium was reported on 17 August 2006. In the first 10 BTV-8 outbreaks in the Netherlands, the owners indicated that the first clinical signs started approximately 12-17 days before a suspicion was reported to the veterinary authorities via a veterinary practitioner. In BTV-8 affected sheep flocks, erosions of the oral mucosa, fever, salivation, facial and mandibular oedema, apathy and tiredness, mortality, oedema of the lips, lameness, and dysphagia were among the most frequent clinical signs recorded. The most prominent clinical signs in BTV-8 affected cattle herds were: crusts/lesions of the nasal mucosa, erosions of lips/crusts in or around the nostrils, erosions of the oral mucosa, salivation, fever, conjunctivitis, coronitis, muscle necrosis, and stiffness of the limbs. Crusts/lesions of nasal mucosa, conjunctivitis, hyperaemic/purple coloration and lesions of the teats, and redness/hypersensitivity of the skin were relatively more seen on outbreak farms with cattle compared to sheep. Mortality, oedema of the head and ears, coronitis, redness of the oral mucosa, erosions/ulceration of tongue mucosa, purple coloration of the tongue and tongue protrusion and dyspneu were relatively more seen on outbreak farms with sheep compared to cattle.

  5. A MECHANISM FOR EARLY DETECTING DDOS ATTACKS BASED ON M/G/R PS QUEUE

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Hong Son

    2016-01-01

    When service system is under DDoS attacks, it is important to detect anomaly signature at starting time of attack for timely applying prevention solutions. However, early DDoS detection is difficult task because the velocity of DDoS attacks is very high. This paper proposes a DDoS attack detection method by modeling service system as M/G/R PS queue and calculating monitoring parameters based on the model in odder to early detect symptom of DDoS attacks. The proposed method is validated by ...

  6. Development and Evaluation of an in-House IgM-Capture ELISA for the Detection of Chikungunya and Its Application to a Dengue Outbreak Situation in Kenya in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasonga, Caroline; Inoue, Shingo; Kimotho, James; Morita, Kouichi; Ongus, Juliette; Sang, Rosemary; Musila, Lillian

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya (CHIK) is a mosquito-borne viral disease. In the 2004 CHIK outbreak in Kenya, diagnosis was delayed because of the lack of accurate diagnostics. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and evaluate an in-house IgM-capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (in-house ELISA) for the detection of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections. Anti-CHIKV antibodies were raised in rabbits, purified and conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. These anti-CHIKV antibodies and cell-culture derived antigen were used to develop the ELISA. To validate the in-house ELISA, 148 patient sera from the 2005 Comoros CHIK outbreak were tested with centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) IgM-capture ELISA (CDC ELISA) and focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT) as reference assays. The in-house ELISA had a sensitivity of 97.6% and specificity of 81.3% compared to the CDC ELISA and a sensitivity of 91.1% and specificity of 96.7% compared to FRNT. Furthermore, 254 clinically suspected dengue patient samples from Eastern Kenya, collected in 2013, were tested for CHIKV IgM using the in-house ELISA. Out of the 254 samples, 26 (10.2%) were IgM positive, and of these 26 samples, 17 were further analyzed by FRNT and 14 (82.4%) were positive. The in-house ELISA was able to diagnose CHIKV infection among suspected dengue cases in the 2013 outbreak.

  7. 76 FR 55915 - Request for Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) The... the CDC on the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The role of the BCCEDCAC is...

  8. Early detection network design and search strategy issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a series of field and related modeling studies (2005-2012) to evaluate search strategies for Great Lakes coastal ecosystems that are at risk of invasion by non-native aquatic species. In developing a network, we should design to achieve an acceptable limit of detect...

  9. Detection of early squats by axle box acceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molodova, M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis discusses a new method for detection of short track irregularities, particularly squats, with axle box acceleration (ABA) measurements. A squat is a surface initiated short track defect, associated with high frequency vibrations of the wheel-rail system. High stresses in the contact

  10. Markers for prediction and early detection of Pneumoconiosis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murray, J

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available /or specificity in detecting changes in response to silica exposure, or susceptibility to silicosis? A prospective cohort study is necessary to answer this question, with annual follow up for at least five years. The biomarkers chosen can be measured in serum...

  11. Use of digital PCR to improve early detection of CLas infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing is a devastating disease of citrus caused by the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Huanglongbing has devastated the Florida citrus industry and is threatening citrus in Texas and California. Detection of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus infections as early as possible is ...

  12. Effect of an early detection programme on duration of untreated psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Svein; Vaglum, Per; Haahr, Ulrik;

    2005-01-01

    It is unclear whether an early detection programme increases or decreases the number of patients with a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), and whether these differ from other patients with a long DUP....

  13. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national program goals and objectives... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical...

  14. Lung Cancer: Early Detection is the Key | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Early Detection is the Key Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Lung cancer survivor Dusty Donaldson helps to spread the word ...

  15. DCP's Early Detection Research Guides Future Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early detection research funded by the NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention has positively steered both public health and clinical outcomes, and set the stage for findings in the next generation of research. |

  16. EPA, NASA, NOAA and USGS Creating Early Warning System to Detect Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that it is developing an early warning indicator system using historical and current satellite data to detect algal blooms. EPA researchers will develop a mobile app to inform water

  17. MidColumbia - Early Detection, Monitoring and Mapping of Invasives with Volunteers

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Project will initiate a program for the early detection, monitoring and mapping of invasive species on McNary and Umatilla NWR's using Refuge volunteers. The initial...

  18. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using MRI hippocampal texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Igel, Christian; Hansen, Naja Liv

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with reduction in hippocampal volume in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, it is unknown whether hippocampal texture changes in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that does not have a change...... in hippocampal volume. We tested the hypothesis that hippocampal texture has association to early cognitive loss beyond that of volumetric changes. The texture marker was trained and evaluated using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database, and subsequently...

  19. Development of Technologies for Early Detection and Stratification of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0814 TITLE: Development of Technologies for Early Detection and Stratification of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL...Development of Technologies for Early Detection and 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0814 Stratification of Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...test can be implemented. We are also working to characterize breast cancer biopsy samples with single cell resolution to discover the nature of the

  20. [Early detection of developmental disorders: the need for a new perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, M

    1988-02-01

    Early detection of abnormality in young children (aged 0-7) in the Netherlands is to be organized on two levels. First, regional cooperation between child-health professionals and institutions will be stimulated in order to form a nationwide network of 'multidisciplinary teams', with the task of coordinating early detection in a specific area. These teams are to advise parents and professionals in those cases where a child's development is suspected of being 'at risk'. The second part of the program is a campaign to promote the idea of early detection among the population. The aim is to develop the 'signalizing' and diagnostic abilities of parents, teachers and child-health professionals through education and training. The subject of early detection seemed and still seems to be a focus of different interests, and of conflicts of competence between different groups and schools of professionals and different institutions. In this article some of the main conflicting issues are discussed. One of the important problems concerning early detection is the question of defining normality and abnormality. It is concluded that in the case of early detection of both somatic and psychosomatic disorder there can be no such thing as an absolute scientific rationality, as is often suggested. Theoretical frameworks underlying methods of early detection are influenced by social, cultural and historical factors, and thus form a social construction. Finally a protocol-approach is being suggested, a method that might clear some of the problems concerning the content and organizational procedures of the Dutch system for early detection.

  1. Immunodiagnosis as an aid for early detection of Fasciola gigantica by glutathione S-transferase (GST)

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, S.; Mukhopadhayay, S. K.; Ganguly, S.; Jana, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, effort to isolate purified GST from Fasciola gigantica homogenate and its early detection for confirmation of infection has been successful. In this study, immunoprotection studies with GST and antibody titer post-infection has revealed GST to be an immunogenic protein with high sensitivity to detect anti-Fasciola antibody as early as two weeks post-infection in large ruminants.

  2. Probing Alzheimers Disease Pathology and Early Detection at the NSLS with Infrared, XRF, and DEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong,Z.; Bennett, D.; Chapman, D.; Chen, J.; Connor, D.; Dilmanian, A.; Faulconer, L.; Kao, T.; Leskovjan, A.; et al

    2008-01-01

    We explored diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) in both planar and computed tomography (CT) modes for early detection of beta amyloid deposition, a hallmark feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since amyloid plaques precede clinical symptoms by years, their early detection is of great interest. These findings were correlated with results from synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic imaging and X-ray fluorescence microscopy, to determine the secondary structure of the amyloid beta protein and metal concentration in the amyloid plaques, respectively.

  3. Speckle Tracking Based Strain Analysis Is Sensitive for Early Detection of Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangbo An; Jingjing Wang; Hao Li; Zhizhen Lu; Yan Bai; Han Xiao; Youyi Zhang; Yao Song

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathological process of many cardiac diseases. However, early detection of cardiac hypertrophy is difficult by the currently used non-invasive method and new approaches are in urgent need for efficient diagnosis of cardiac malfunction. Here we report that speckle tracking-based strain analysis is more sensitive than conventional echocardiography for early detection of pathological cardiac hypertrophy in the isoproterenol (ISO) mouse model. Pathological hypertrophy...

  4. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national program goals and objectives... for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early...

  5. Research Progress of MicroRNA in Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-Hua Wang; Cong-Jian Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This review aimed to update the progress ofmicroRNA (miRNA) in early detection of ovarian cancer.We discussed the current clinical diagnosis methods and biomarkers of ovarian cancer, especially the methods of miRNA in early detection of ovarian cancer.Data Sources: We collected all relevant studies about miRNA and ovarian cancer in PubMed and CNKI from 1995 to 2015.Study Selection: We included all relevant studies concerning miRNA in early detection of ovarian cancer, and excluded the duplicated articles.Results: miRNAs play a key role in various biological processes of ovarian cancer, such as development, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and metastasis, and these phenomena appear in the early-stage.Therefore, miRNA can be used as a new biomarker for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer, intervention on miRNA expression of known target genes, and potential target genes can achieve the effect of early prevention.With the development ofnanoscience and technology, analysis methods ofmiRNA are also quickly developed, which may provide better characterization of early detection of ovarian cancer.Conclusions: In the near future, miRNA therapy could be a powerful tool for ovarian cancer prevention and treatment, and combining with the new analysis technology and new nanomaterials, point-of-care tests for miRNA with high throughput, high sensitivity, and strong specificity are developed to achieve the application of diagnostic kits in screening of early ovarian cancer.

  6. Multiple Biomarker Panels for Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Peripheral Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting breast cancer at early stages can be challenging. Traditional mammography and tissue microarray that have been studied for early breast cancer detection and prediction have many drawbacks. Therefore, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tools for early detection of breast cancer due to a number of factors and challenges. In the paper, we presented a five-marker panel approach based on SVM for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood and show how to use SVM to model the classification and prediction problem of early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood. We found that the five-marker panel can improve the prediction performance (area under curve in the testing data set from 0.5826 to 0.7879. Further pathway analysis showed that the top four five-marker panels are associated with signaling, steroid hormones, metabolism, immune system, and hemostasis, which are consistent with previous findings. Our prediction model can serve as a general model for multibiomarker panel discovery in early detection of other cancers.

  7. Early detection of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J W; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Fourkala, E-O

    2013-01-01

    Background:Recent reports from cancer screening trials in high-risk populations suggest that autoantibodies can be detected before clinical diagnosis. However, there is minimal data on the role of autoantibody signatures in cancer screening in the general population.Methods:Informative p53 peptides...... were identified in sera from patients with colorectal cancer using an autoantibody microarray with 15-mer overlapping peptides covering the complete p53 sequence. The selected peptides were evaluated in a blinded case-control study using stored serum from the multimodal arm of the United Kingdom...... samples). The four most informative peptides identified 25.8% of colorectal cancer patients with a specificity of 95%. The median lead time was 1.4 (range 0.12-3.8) years before clinical diagnosis.Conclusion:Our findings suggest that in the general population, autoantibody signatures are detectable during...

  8. Embedded Sensor System for Early Pathology Detection in Building Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Escudero Cascon

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Structure pathology detection is an important security task in building construction, which is performed by an operator by looking manually for damages on the materials. This activity could be dangerous if the structure is hidden or difficult to reach. On the other hand, embedded devices and wireless sensor networks (WSN are becoming popular and cheap, enabling the design of an alternative pathology detection system to monitor structures based on these technologies. This article introduces a ZigBee WSN system, intending to be autonomous, easy to use and with low power consumption. Its functional parts are fully discussed with diagrams, as well as the protocol used to collect samples from sensor nodes. Finally, several tests focused on range and power consumption of our prototype are shown, analysing whether the results obtained were as expected or not.

  9. Embedded Sensor System for Early Pathology Detection in Building Construction

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Santiago J Barro

    2009-01-01

    Structure pathology detection is an important security task in building construction, which is performed by an operator by looking manually for damages on the materials. This activity could be dangerous if the structure is hidden or difficult to reach. On the other hand, embedded devices and wireless sensor networks (WSN) are becoming popular and cheap, enabling the design of an alternative pathology detection system to monitor structures based on these technologies. This article introduces a ZigBee WSN system, intending to be autonomous, easy to use and with low power consumption. Its functional parts are fully discussed with diagrams, as well as the protocol used to collect samples from sensor nodes. Finally, several tests focused on range and power consumption of our prototype are shown, analysing whether the results obtained were as expected or not.

  10. Towards the Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    tissue types. For example, it is difficult to distinguish a ductal carcinoma in-situ from a phyllodes tumor based on E alone (since the ratio is about...cancer, it is less effective in younger women (≤ 40 years), usually because the higher density of their breasts can obscure tumors . While the...to breast cancer detection (see [2] for example) utilizes the fact that breast tumors tend to be significantly stiffer than the surrounding tissue [3

  11. Early Detection of Breast Cancer by Fluorescence Molecular Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    development of appropriate fluorescence imaging methods for highly reliable and quantitative fluorescence imaging ii ) the establishment and imaging of...Tomography (FMT) is a relatively new optical tomographic imaging approach that capitalizes on the strengths of molecular imaging. It bases detection...The large boxes on Fig.5 b,c indicate the detector FOV. Fig.5 b,c depict FMT ( tomo - synthesis) images in color, obtained with an empirical

  12. Using ductoscopy to detect breast mass at an early stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Carol A

    2002-11-01

    Using a new procedure termed fiberoptic ductoscopy, a surgeon can visualize a patient's breast mammary ducts directly with a 0.9-mm scope. Eighty-five percent of breast cancers are thought to originate in the epithelial lining of the mammary ducts. The hope is that this new technique will allow surgeons to detect breast cancer in high-risk patients before a mass is felt or seen via mammography.

  13. Early Detection of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Haider, Mohammad Sabbir; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Karmakar, Polash Chandra; Nasreen, Sharifa; Muneer, Syeda Mah-E; Homaira, Nusrat; Goswami, Doli Rani; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Husain, Mohammad Mushtuq; Jamil, Khondokar Mahbuba; Khatun, Selina; Ahmed, Mujaddeed; Chakraborty, Apurba; Fry, Alicia; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Bresee, Joseph; Azim, Tasnim; Alamgir, A.S.M.; Brooks, Abdullah; Hossain, Mohamed Jahangir; Klimov, Alexander; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    To explore Bangladesh’s ability to detect novel influenza, we examined a series of laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases. During June–July 2009, event-based surveillance identified 30 case-patients (57% travelers); starting July 29, sentinel sites identified 252 case-patients (1% travelers). Surveillance facilitated response weeks before the spread of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection to the general population. PMID:22257637

  14. Early Detection and Localization of Downhole Incidents in Managed Pressure Drilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willersrud, Anders; Imsland, Lars; Blanke, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    , distributed pressure measurements from wired pipe, and statistical change detection methods. Using statistical change detection methods, it is possible to detect the incidents and their location at a very early stage when small changes in operating parameters are covered in measurement noise. The method has......Downhole incidents such as kick, lost circulation, pack-off, and hole cleaning issues are important contributors to downtime in drilling. In managed pressure drilling (MPD), operations margins are typically narrower, implying more frequent incidents and more severe consequences. Detection...... and handling of symptoms of downhole drilling contingencies at an early stage are therefore crucial for the reliability and safety of MPD operations. In this paper we describe a method for early detection and localization of such incidents, based on a fit for purpose model of the downhole pressure hydraulics...

  15. Early Detection and Localization of Downhole Incidents in Managed Pressure Drilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willersrud, Anders; Imsland, Lars; Blanke, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Downhole incidents such as kick, lost circulation, pack-off, and hole cleaning issues are important contributors to downtime in drilling. In managed pressure drilling (MPD), operations margins are typically narrower, implying more frequent incidents and more severe consequences. Detection...... and handling of symptoms of downhole drilling contingencies at an early stage are therefore crucial for the reliability and safety of MPD operations. In this paper we describe a method for early detection and localization of such incidents, based on a fit for purpose model of the downhole pressure hydraulics......, distributed pressure measurements from wired pipe, and statistical change detection methods. Using statistical change detection methods, it is possible to detect the incidents and their location at a very early stage when small changes in operating parameters are covered in measurement noise. The method has...

  16. Prescription Surveillance and Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing to Identify Pathogens during Outbreaks of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Sugiura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Syndromic surveillance, including prescription surveillance, offers a rapid method for the early detection of agents of bioterrorism and emerging infectious diseases. However, it has the disadvantage of not considering definitive diagnoses. Here, we attempted to definitively diagnose pathogens using polymerase chain reaction (PCR immediately after the prescription surveillance system detected an outbreak. Specimens were collected from 50 patients with respiratory infections. PCR was used to identify the pathogens, which included 14 types of common respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Infectious agents including M. pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, rhinovirus, enterovirus, and parainfluenza virus were detected in 54% of patients. For the rapid RSV diagnosis kit, sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 85%. For the rapid adenovirus diagnosis kit, no positive results were obtained; therefore, sensitivity could not be calculated and specificity was 100%. Many patients were found to be treated for upper respiratory tract infections without the diagnosis of a specific pathogen. In Japan, an outbreak of M. pneumoniae infection began in 2011, and our results suggested that this outbreak may have included false-positive cases. By combining syndromic surveillance and PCR, we were able to rapidly and accurately identify causative pathogens during a recent respiratory infection outbreak.

  17. An Attempt of Early Detection of Poor Outcome after Whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Sebastien; Wang, Danping; Lecompte, Jennyfer; Blancho, Sophie; Sandoz, Baptiste; Feydy, Antoine; Lindberg, Pavel; Adrian, Julien; Chiarovano, Elodie; de Waele, Catherine; Vidal, Pierre-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The main concern with whiplash is that a large proportion of whiplash patients experience disabling symptoms or whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) for months if not years following the accident. Therefore, identifying early prognostic factors of WAD development is important as WAD have widespread clinical and economic consequences. In order to tackle that question, our study was specifically aimed at combining several methods of investigation in the same WAD patients at the acute stage and 6 months later. Our longitudinal, open, prospective, multi-center study included 38 whiplash patients, and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status with the whiplash group. Whiplash patients were evaluated 15-21 days after road accident, and 6 months later. At each appointment, patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation, a full clinical neurological examination, neurophysiological and postural tests, oto-neurological tests, cervical spine cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tractography (DTI). At 6 months, whiplash patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the results of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as having either favorable or unfavorable progression [an unfavorable classification corresponding to the presence of post-concussion symptom (PCS)] and we searched retrospectively for early prognostic factors of WAD predicting the passage to chronicity. We found that patients displaying high level of catastrophizing at the acute stage and/or post-traumatic stress disorder associated with either abnormalities in head or trunk kinematics, abnormal test of the otolithic function and at the Equitest or a combination of these syndromes, turned to chronicity. This study suggests that low-grade whiplash patients should be submitted as early as possible after the trauma to neuropsychological and motor control tests in a specialized consultation. In addition, they should be evaluated by a neuro

  18. An attempt of early detection of poor outcome after whiplash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien LAPORTE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main concern with whiplash is that a large proportion of whiplash patients experience disabling symptoms or whiplash associated disorders (WAD for months if not years following the accident. Therefore, identifying early prognostic factors of WAD development is important as WAD have widespread clinical and economic consequences.In order to tackle that question, our study was specifically aimed at combining several methods of investigation in the same WAD patients at the acute stage and six months later. Our longitudinal, open, prospective, multi-center study included 38 whiplash patients, and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status with the whiplash group. Whiplash patients were evaluated 15 to 21 days after road accident, and 6 months later. At each appointment, patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation, a full clinical neurological examination, neurophysiological and postural tests, oto-neurological tests, cervical spine cord Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI with tractography (DTI. At 6-month, whiplash patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the results of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as having either favourable or unfavourable progression (an unfavourable classification corresponding to the presence of Post-Concussion Symptom PCS and we searched retrospectively for early prognostic factors of WAD predicting the passage to chronicity. We found that patients displaying high level of catastrophizing at the acute stage and /or post-traumatic stress disorder associated with either abnormalities in head or trunk kinematics, abnormal test of the otolithic function and at the Equitest or a combination of these syndromes, turned to chronicity. That is, the association of a neuropsychological disorder with a somatic one was sufficient to explain the passage to chronicity. This study suggests that low-grade whiplash patients should be submitted as early as possible

  19. An Attempt of Early Detection of Poor Outcome after Whiplash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Sebastien; Wang, Danping; Lecompte, Jennyfer; Blancho, Sophie; Sandoz, Baptiste; Feydy, Antoine; Lindberg, Pavel; Adrian, Julien; Chiarovano, Elodie; de Waele, Catherine; Vidal, Pierre-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The main concern with whiplash is that a large proportion of whiplash patients experience disabling symptoms or whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) for months if not years following the accident. Therefore, identifying early prognostic factors of WAD development is important as WAD have widespread clinical and economic consequences. In order to tackle that question, our study was specifically aimed at combining several methods of investigation in the same WAD patients at the acute stage and 6 months later. Our longitudinal, open, prospective, multi-center study included 38 whiplash patients, and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status with the whiplash group. Whiplash patients were evaluated 15–21 days after road accident, and 6 months later. At each appointment, patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation, a full clinical neurological examination, neurophysiological and postural tests, oto-neurological tests, cervical spine cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tractography (DTI). At 6 months, whiplash patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the results of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as having either favorable or unfavorable progression [an unfavorable classification corresponding to the presence of post-concussion symptom (PCS)] and we searched retrospectively for early prognostic factors of WAD predicting the passage to chronicity. We found that patients displaying high level of catastrophizing at the acute stage and/or post-traumatic stress disorder associated with either abnormalities in head or trunk kinematics, abnormal test of the otolithic function and at the Equitest or a combination of these syndromes, turned to chronicity. This study suggests that low-grade whiplash patients should be submitted as early as possible after the trauma to neuropsychological and motor control tests in a specialized consultation. In addition, they should be evaluated by a neuro

  20. Enterovirus 71 Outbreak, Brunei

    OpenAIRE

    AbuBakar, Sazaly; Sam, I-Ching; Yusof, Jaliha; Lim, Meng Keang; Misbah, Suzana; ,; Hooi, Poh-Sim

    2009-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) outbreaks occur periodically in the Asia-Pacific region. In 2006, Brunei reported its first major outbreak of EV71 infections, associated with fatalities from neurologic complications. Isolated EV71 strains formed a distinct lineage with low diversity within subgenogroup B5, suggesting recent introduction and rapid spread within Brunei.

  1. Anthrax Outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Apurba; Khan, Salah Uddin; Hasnat, Mohammed Abul; Parveen, Shahana; Islam, M. Saiful; Mikolon, Andrea; Chakraborty, Ranjit Kumar; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Ara, Khorsed; Haider, Najmul; Zaki, Sherif R.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.; Hossain, M. Jahangir

    2012-01-01

    During August 2009–October 2010, a multidisciplinary team investigated 14 outbreaks of animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh to identify the etiology, pathway of transmission, and social, behavioral, and cultural factors that led to these outbreaks. The team identified 140 animal cases of anthrax and 273 human cases of cutaneous anthrax. Ninety one percent of persons in whom cutaneous anthrax developed had history of butchering sick animals, handling raw meat, contact with animal skin, or were present at slaughtering sites. Each year, Bacillus anthracis of identical genotypes were isolated from animal and human cases. Inadequate livestock vaccination coverage, lack of awareness of the risk of anthrax transmission from animal to humans, social norms and poverty contributed to these outbreaks. Addressing these challenges and adopting a joint animal and human health approach could contribute to detecting and preventing such outbreaks in the future. PMID:22492157

  2. Early Detection System of Vascular Disease and Its Application Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Markers of imaging, structure, and function reflecting vascular damage, integrating a long time accumulation effect of traditional and unrecognized cardiovascular risk factors, can be regarded as surrogate endpoints of target organ damage before the occurrence of clinical events. Prevention of cardiovascular disease requires risk stratification and treatment of traditional risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. However, traditional risk stratification is not sufficient to provide accurate assessment of future cardiovascular events. Therefore, vascular injury related parameters obtained by ultrasound or other noninvasive devices, as a surrogate parameter of subclinical cardiovascular disease, can improve cardiovascular risk assessment and optimize the preventive treatment strategy. Thus, we will summarize the research progress and clinical application of early assessment technology of vascular diseases in the present review.

  3. Protracted outbreak of S. Enteritidis PT 21c in a large Hamburg nursing home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domke Paul-Gerhard

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During August 2006, a protracted outbreak of Salmonella (S. Enteritidis infections in a large Hamburg nursing home was investigated. Methods A site visit of the home was conducted and food suppliers' premises tested for Salmonella. Among nursing home residents a cohort study was carried out focusing on foods consumed in the three days before the first part of the outbreak. Instead of relying on residents' memory, data from the home's patient food ordering system was used as exposure data. S. Enteritidis isolates from patients and suspected food vehicles were phage typed and compared. Results Within a population of 822 nursing home residents, 94 case patients among residents (1 fatality and 17 among staff members were counted 6 through 29 August. The outbreak peaked 7 through 9 August, two days after a spell of very warm summer weather. S. Enteritidis was consistently recovered from patients' stools throughout the outbreak. Among the food items served during 5 through 7 August, the cohort study pointed to afternoon cake on all three days as potential risk factors for disease. Investigation of the bakery supplying the cake yielded S. Enteritidis from cakes sampled 31 August. Comparison of the isolates by phage typing demonstrated both isolates from patients and the cake to be the exceedingly rare phage type 21c. Conclusion Cake (various types served on various days contaminated with S. Enteritidis were the likely vehicle of the outbreak in the nursing home. While the cakes were probably contaminated with low pathogen dose throughout the outbreak period, high ambient summer temperatures and failure to keep the cake refrigerated led to high pathogen dose in cake on some days and in some of the housing units. This would explain the initial peak of cases, but also the drawn out nature of the outbreak with cases until the end of August. Suggestions are made to nursing homes, aiding in outbreak prevention. Early outbreak detection is

  4. Application of nanotechnology in cancers prevention, early detection and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha P Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of nanotechnology in medical science is a rapidly developing area. New opportunities of diagnosis, imaging and therapy have developed due to recent rapid advancement by nanotechnology. The most common areas to be affected are diagnostic, imaging and targeted drug delivery in gastroenterology, oncology, cardiovascular medicine, obstetrics and gynecology. Mass screening with inexpensive imaging might be possible in the near future with the help of nanotechnology. This review paper provides an overview of causes of cancer and the application of nanotechnology in cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  5. Application of nanotechnology in cancers prevention, early detection and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shraddha P; Patel, Parshottambhai B; Parekh, Bhavesh B

    2014-01-01

    Use of nanotechnology in medical science is a rapidly developing area. New opportunities of diagnosis, imaging and therapy have developed due to recent rapid advancement by nanotechnology. The most common areas to be affected are diagnostic, imaging and targeted drug delivery in gastroenterology, oncology, cardiovascular medicine, obstetrics and gynecology. Mass screening with inexpensive imaging might be possible in the near future with the help of nanotechnology. This review paper provides an overview of causes of cancer and the application of nanotechnology in cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  6. Fluorescence video endoscopic system for early cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, A. Charles; Dunn, J. B.; Paspa, Paul M.; Doiron, Daniel R.; Balchum, Oscar J.

    1990-06-01

    A video system is being developed to allow the detection of cancerous lesions that are too small to be accurately identified visually or with x-ray. The system makes use of standard endoscopes and provides a video display of both the color image and a false color fluorescence image, with automated switching between the two views. Excitation of the fluorescence marker, Heinatoporphyrin Derivative (HpD) , or it ' 5 purified form , diheinatoporphyrin ether! ester (DHE) , is provided by a krypton ion laser operating in the violet. A brief discussion of fluorescence diagnostic theory and a description of the prototype system, its clinical use , and performance is reviewed.

  7. First-episode psychosis patients recruited into treatment via early detection teams versus ordinary pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Jan O; Friis, Svein; Joa, Inge;

    2007-01-01

    Within an early detection sector, to compare the 1- and 2-year course and outcome of first-episode psychosis patients coming into the treatment system via active outreach detection teams (DTs) versus those achieving help via ordinary referral channels (not-DT)....

  8. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  9. The Effect of Early Visual Deprivation on the Development of Face Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Dywan, Jane; Le Grand, Richard; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    The expertise of adults in face perception is facilitated by their ability to rapidly detect that a stimulus is a face. In two experiments, we examined the role of early visual input in the development of face detection by testing patients who had been treated as infants for bilateral congenital cataract. Experiment 1 indicated that, at age 9 to…

  10. Early Detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Asymptomatic Patients Assessed by Carotid Duplex and Coronary Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsi Chen

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Carotid duplex may detect subclinical vascular atherosclerosis in more than half of asymptomatic patients without coronary artery calcification detected by coronary computed tomography. These findings have important implications for early-stage atherosclerosis screening and implementation of primary preventive intervention.

  11. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  12. Sampling design for aquatic invasive species early detection in Great Lakes ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2006-2012, we evaluated a pilot aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection monitoring program in Lake Superior that was designed to detect newly introduced fishes. We established survey protocols for three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay) and ...

  13. Sampling design for early detection of aquatic invasive species in Great Lakes ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated a pilot adaptive monitoring program for aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection in Lake Superior. The monitoring program is designed to detect newly-introduced fishes, and encompasses the lake’s three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thund...

  14. Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Young isiZulu-Speaking Children in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Nola J.; Wetherby, Amy M.; Stronach, Sheri T.; Njongwe, Nonyameko; Kauchali, Shuaib; Grinker, Richard R.

    2017-01-01

    Culturally appropriate tools are needed for detecting symptoms of autism spectrum disorder in young South African children. The objectives of this study were to (1) adapt and translate into isiZulu existing measures for detecting early signs of autism spectrum disorder, (2) use the measures to characterize and compare behavioural profiles of young…

  15. SNIPE: A New Method to Identify Imaging Biomarker for Early Detection of Alzheimer’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coupé, Pierrick; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Manjón, José V.

    While the automatic detection of AD has been widely studied, the problem of the prediction of AD (or its early detection) has been less investigated. This might be explained by the fact that the prediction problem is clearly more challenging since the anatomical changes are more subtle. However...

  16. Improving early detection of exotic or emergent oyster diseases in France: identifying factors associated with shellfish farmer reporting behaviour of oyster mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, C; Osta Amigo, A; Mandard, Y V; Peroz, C; Renault, T

    2014-09-01

    Farmers' vigilance is essential for the detection of epidemics, including potential emerging diseases, in marine shellfish. A field study was conducted to investigate oyster farmers' reporting practices and behaviour, and to identify factors influencing the reporting process of oyster mortality, with the ultimate aim of improving early detection of unexplained oyster mortality outbreaks. A retrospective case-control study of oyster farmers from Charente-Maritime (France) was designed, based on interviews with 27 non-reporting and 89 reporting farmers, further split into 40 formerly-reporting and 49 currently-reporting farmers. Information about farmer and farm characteristics, farming practices, farm health history and related financial compensation on the farm, knowledge of the mortality reporting system and reporting behaviour was collected. Sampling design was considered in the calculations and farmers' reporting behaviour was modelled using an ordinal logistic regression (continuation-ratio model). Notification procedures were fairly well known among farmers and the reporting system was well accepted overall. Nevertheless, a lack of awareness of the aims of the reporting system was revealed, which contributed to late reporting. Factors identified as driving a farmer's decision to report oyster mortality concerned their lack of awareness of mortality reporting (production type, farm size, location of the production cycle, accessibility of the leasing grounds) and willingness to report (possibility and extent of financial compensation, a feeling of not being involved, whether it was first year of reporting). Overall classification performance of the model built in this study was 64%. In particular, financial compensation for oyster production losses appeared to be a clear incentive for reporting, but was countered by a habituation effect combined with a lack of awareness of the aims of the reporting system: oyster farmers looking for benefits for themselves in

  17. PHI in the Early Detection of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchsova, Radka; Topolcan, Ondrej; Windrichova, Jindra; Hora, Milan; Dolejsova, Olga; Pecen, Ladislav; Kasik, Petr; Novak, Jaroslav; Casova, Miroslava; Smejkal, Jiri

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate changes in the serum levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA), %free PSA and -2proPSA biomarkers, and prostate health index (PHI) in the diagnostic algorithm of early prostate cancer. The Immunoanalytical Laboratory of the University Hospital in Pilsen examined sera from 263 patients being treated at the Hospital's Urology Department with suspected prostate cancer who had undergone biopsies and were divided into a benign and malignant group. The monitored biomarkers were measured using chemiluminescence. All statistical analyses were calculated using the SAS software. We found statistically significantly increased levels of -2proPSA, PHI and PSA and decreased levels of %freePSA in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer by prostate biopsy vs. patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (median values: -2proPSA: 16 vs. 21 ng/l, PHI: 35 vs. 62, total PSA: 7.2 vs. 7.7 μg/l and %free PSA: 16.7 vs. 11.7%). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed the best performance for PHI compared to other markers. The assessment of -2proPSA and the calculation of PHI appear to be of great benefit for a more accurate differential diagnosis of benign hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Early afterglow detection in the Swift observations of GRB 050801

    CERN Document Server

    De Pasquale, M; Page, M J; Burrows, D N; Blustin, A J; Zane, S; Mason, K O; Roming, P W A; Palmer, D; Gehrels, N; Zhang, B; Pasquale, Massimiliano De

    2007-01-01

    We present results of Swift optical, UV and X-ray observations of the afterglow of GRB 050801. The source is visible over the full optical, UV and X-ray energy range of the Swift UVOT and XRT instruments.Both optical and X-ray lightcurves exhibit a broad plateau (\\Delta t/t ~ 1) during the first few hundred seconds after the gamma-ray event. We investigate the multiwavelength spectral and timing properties of the afterglow, and we suggest that the behaviour at early times is compatible with an energy injection by a newly born magnetar with a period of a few tenths of a millisecond, which keeps the forward shock refreshed over this short interval by irradiation. Reverse shock emission is not observed. Its suppression might be due to GRB ejecta being permeated by high magnetic fields, as expected for outflows powered by a magnetar.Finally, the multiwavelength study allows a determination of the burst redshift, z=1.56.

  19. Predictive algorithms for early detection of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermarocchi, Stefano; Bini, Silvia; Martini, Ferdinando; Berton, Marianna; Lavini, Anna; Gusson, Elena; Marchini, Giorgio; Padovani, Ezio Maria; Macor, Sara; Pignatto, Silvia; Lanzetta, Paolo; Cattarossi, Luigi; Baraldi, Eugenio; Lago, Paola

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate sensitivity, specificity and the safest cut-offs of three predictive algorithms (WINROP, ROPScore and CHOP ROP) for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A retrospective study was conducted in three centres from 2012 to 2014; 445 preterms with gestational age (GA) ≤ 30 weeks and/or birthweight (BW) ≤ 1500 g, and additional unstable cases, were included. No-ROP, mild and type 1 ROP were categorized. The algorithms were analysed for infants with all parameters (GA, BW, weight gain, oxygen therapy, blood transfusion) needed for calculation (399 babies). Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was identified in both eyes in 116 patients (26.1%), and 44 (9.9%) had type 1 ROP. Gestational age and BW were significantly lower in ROP group compared with no-ROP subjects (GA: 26.7 ± 2.2 and 30.2 ± 1.9, respectively, p algorithms are a reliable tool for early identification of infants requiring referral to an ophthalmologist, for reorganizing resources and reducing stressful procedures to preterm babies. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA as a potential tool for early cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parr Ryan L

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recent surge in mitochondrial research has been driven by the identification of mitochondria-associated diseases and the role of mitochondria in apoptosis. Both of these aspects have identified mitochondrial analysis as a vital component of medical research. Moreover, mitochondria have been implicated in the process of carcinogenesis because of their vital role in energy production, nuclear-cytoplasmic signal integration and control of metabolic pathways. Interestingly, at some point during neoplastic transformation, there is an increase in reactive oxygen species, which damage the mitochondrial genome. This accelerates the somatic mutation rate of mitochondrial DNA. It has been proposed that these mutations may serve as an early indication of potential cancer development and may represent a means for tracking tumour progression. The purpose of this review is to explore the potential utility that these mutations may afford for the identification and monitoring of neoplasia and malignant transformation where appropriate body fluids or non-invasive tissue access is available for mitochondrial DNA recovery. Specifically, prostate, breast, colorectal, skin and lung cancers are discussed.

  1. Dinitrogen oxide detection for process failure early warning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, J E; Stuetz, R M; Morton, S; Stephenson, T

    2002-01-01

    A number of experiments were conducted in order to establish whether the concentration of N2O in the off-gas from an activated sludge pilot plant could be used as a indicator for monitoring the nitrification process and as an early indication of ammonia appearing in the plant effluent. A strong correlation was found between ammonia shock loads and the concentration of N20 in the off-gas from the aeration tank for ammonia shock loads and dissolved oxygen depletion. When subjecting the experimental setup to doses of a nitrification inhibitor (allylthiourea) a similar pattern was seen with a correlation between nitrite build up in the aeration tank and concentration increase of N2O in the off-gas from the aeration tank. The results from this work suggest the concentration and the changes in the concentration of N2O in the exhaust gas from a nitrifying process may be a useful parameter for monitoring nitrifying activated sludge processes.

  2. Early detection of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J W; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Fourkala, E-O

    2013-01-01

    Background:Recent reports from cancer screening trials in high-risk populations suggest that autoantibodies can be detected before clinical diagnosis. However, there is minimal data on the role of autoantibody signatures in cancer screening in the general population.Methods:Informative p53 peptides...... were identified in sera from patients with colorectal cancer using an autoantibody microarray with 15-mer overlapping peptides covering the complete p53 sequence. The selected peptides were evaluated in a blinded case-control study using stored serum from the multimodal arm of the United Kingdom...... Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening where women gave annual blood samples. Cases were postmenopausal women who developed colorectal cancer following recruitment, with 2 or more serum samples preceding diagnosis. Controls were age-matched women with no history of cancer.Results:The 50¿640 women...

  3. Early automatic detection of Parkinson's disease based on sleep recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sorensen, Helge B D; Nikolic, Miki;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Idiopathic rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is most likely the earliest sign of Parkinson's Disease (PD) and is characterized by REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) and consequently increased muscle activity. However, some muscle twitching in normal subjects occurs...... the number of outliers during REM sleep was used as a quantitative measure of muscle activity. RESULTS: The proposed method was able to automatically separate all iRBD test subjects from healthy elderly controls and subjects with periodic limb movement disorder. CONCLUSION: The proposed work is considered...... during REM sleep. PURPOSE: There are no generally accepted methods for evaluation of this activity and a normal range has not been established. Consequently, there is a need for objective criteria. METHOD: In this study we propose a full-automatic method for detection of RSWA. REM sleep identification...

  4. Preprocessing: A Step in Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about half of the raw cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. Therefore we focus on the cervical borders, so that we have a geometric boundary on the relevant image area. Our novel technique eliminates the SR, identifies the region of interest and makes the cervigram ready for segmentation algorithms.

  5. Preprocessing for Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about half of the raw cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. Therefore we focus on the cervical borders, so that we have a geometric boundary on the relevant image area. Our novel technique eliminates the SR, identifies the region of interest and makes the cervigram ready for segmentation algorithms.

  6. A new Screening Tool for Detecting Early Atheroslerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charlie W.Shaeffer; Palm Spring CA; Thach Nguyen

    2006-01-01

    @@ In a study published in the current issue of the Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, Ang and co-investigators used the highresolution 64-slice CT coronary angiography to detect coronary lesions in a group of patients with atypical angina.1 The clinical data of these patients were also used to calculate their risk according the Framingham and PROCAM scoring system.2,3 As the cohort is composed with a majority of low risk patients with atypical angina, only a small minority of the patients were classified as having medium and high risk. The results showed that MDCT uncovered 18% either significant lesions (>50% stenosis) or calcifications (>400Agatston units)in the low risk patients and 33% in the medium and high risk subgroups.

  7. Early detection of breast and cervical cancer among indigenous communities in Morelos, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Campero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the perception in relation to when and how to perform actions for the early detection of breast and cervical cancer among women and health care providers in communities with a high percentage of indigenous population in Morelos, Mexico. Materials and methods. Ten health providers and 58 women users of health services were interviewed which have a first level of attention in five communities. The analysis was developed under the approach of the Grounded Theory. Results. Providers are poorly informed about current regulations and specific clinical indications for the detection of cervical and breast cancer. Few propitiate health literacy under intercultural sensitization. The users have imprecise or wrong notions of the early detection. Conclusions. The need for training in adherence to norms is evident. It is urgent to assume a culturally relevant approach to enable efficient communication and promote health literacy for early detection of these two cancers.

  8. [Early detection of breast and cervical cancer among indigenous communities in Morelos, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campero, Lourdes; Atienzo, Erika E; Marín, Eréndira; de la Vara-Salazar, Elvia; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca; González, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the perception in relation to when and how to perform actions for the early detection of breast and cervical cancer among women and health care providers in communities with a high percentage of indigenous population in Morelos, Mexico. Ten health providers and 58 women users of health services were interviewed which have a first level of attention in five communities. The analysis was developed under the approach of the Grounded Theory. Providers are poorly informed about current regulations and specific clinical indications for the detection of cervical and breast cancer. Few practice health literacy under intercultural sensitization. The users have imprecise or wrong notions of the early detection. The need for training in adherence to norms is evident. It is urgent to assume a culturally relevant approach to enable efficient communication and promote health literacy for early detection of these two cancers.

  9. Detection of the reemerging agent Burkholderia mallei in a recent outbreak of glanders in the United Arab Emirates by a newly developed fliP-based polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Holger C; Joseph, Marina; Tomaso, Herbert; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Witte, Angela; Kinne, Joerg; Hagen, Ralph M; Wernery, Renate; Wernery, Ulrich; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2006-04-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the flagellin P (fliP)-I S407A genomic region of Burkholderia mallei was developed for the specific detection of this organism in pure cultures and clinical samples from a recent outbreak of equine glanders. Primers deduced from the known fliP-IS407A sequence of B. mallei American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 23344(T) allowed the specific amplification of a 989-bp fragment from each of the 20 B. mallei strains investigated, whereas other closely related organisms tested negative. The detection limit of the assay was 10 fg for purified DNA of B. mallei ATCC 23344(T). B. mallei DNA was also amplified from various tissues of horses with a generalized B. mallei infection. The developed PCR assay can be used as a simple and rapid tool for the specific and sensitive detection of B. mallei in clinical samples.

  10. Characterizing early detection of language difficulties in children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Julie; Flamant, Cyril; Boussicault, Gerald; Berlie, Isabelle; Gascoin, Géraldine; Branger, Bernard; N'Guyen The Tich, Sylvie; Rozé, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    The optimal age for assessing language difficulties in premature children remains unclear. To determine the most predictive and earliest screening tool for later language difficulties on children born preterm. A prospective population-based study in the Loire Infant Follow-up Team LIFT SUBJECTS: All children born language items of Brunet Lezine test at 24months, and the "Epreuves de Repérage des Troubles du Langage" (ERTL) at 4years. After 5years, the kindergarten teacher evaluated the vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation capacities of the child in comparison with the classroom performances. Among 1957 infants enrolled at discharge, 947 were assessed by their teacher with 12.2% (n=116) of language difficulties. Full data at all time points were available for 426 infants. The area under curve of the receiver operator characteristic curve obtained for the ASQ communication scale at 18months was significantly lower (0.65±0.09) than that obtained at 24months (0.77±0.08) and the languages items of Brunet Lezine test at 24months (0.77±0.08), and the ERTL at 4years (0.76±0.09). The optimal cut-off value for ASQ communication at 24months is ≤45 [sensitivity of 0.79 (95%CI: 0.70-0.86); specificity of 0.63 (95%CI: 0.59-0.66)]. The Ages & Stages Questionnaire communication scale at 24 corrected months appears as an acceptable test at an early time point to identify preterm children at risk of later language difficulties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quick control of bubonic plague outbreak in Uttar Kashi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Veena; Rana, U V S; Jain, S K; Kumar, Kaushal; Pal, I S; Arya, R C; Ichhpujani, R L; Lal, Shiv; Agarwal, S P

    2004-12-01

    A localized outbreak of bubonic plague occurred in village Dangud (population 332), district Uttar Kashi, Uttaranchal, India in the second week of October 2004. 8 cases were considered outbreak associated based on their clinical and epidemiological characteristics; 3 (27.3%) of them died within 48 hours of developing illness. All the 3 fatal cases and five surviving cases had enlargement of inguinal lymph nodes. None of them had pneumonia. The age of the cases ranged from 23-70 years and both sexes were affected. No such illness was reported from adjoining villages. The outbreak was fully contained within two weeks of its onset by supervised comprehensive chemoprophylaxis using tetracycline. A total of approximately 1250 persons were given chemoprophylaxis in three villages. There was no clear history of rat fall in the village. No flea was found on rodents or animals. 16 animal serum samples were found to be negative for antibodies against F-1 antigen of Y. pestis. However, Y. pestis was isolated from two rodents (Rattus rattus and Mus musculus) trapped in the village. One case and three animal sera showed borderline sero-positivity against rickettsial infection. The diagnosis of plague was confirmed by detection of four fold rise of antibody titre against F-1 antigen of Yersinia pestis in paired sera of three cases (one of the WHO approved criteria of diagnosis of confirmed plague). This outbreak and the occurrence of earlier outbreaks of plague in Surat (Gujarat) and Beed (Maharashtra) in 1994 and in district Shimla (Himachal Pradesh) in 2002 confirm that plague infection continue to exist in sylvatic foci in many parts of India which is transmitted to humans occasionally. Thus, there is a strong need for the States to monitor the plague activity in known sylvatic foci regularly and have a system of surveillance to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment of cases to control the disease. This investigation highlights that with high index of suspicion the

  12. A color discriminating broad range cell staining technology for early detection of cell transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagiv Idit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced diagnostic tools stand today at the heart of successful cancer treatment. CellDetect® is a new histochemical staining technology that enables color discrimination between normal cells and a wide variety of neoplastic tissues. Using this technology, normal cells are colored blue/green, while neoplastic cells color red. This tinctorial difference coincides with clear morphological visualization properties, mainly in tissue samples. Here we show that the CellDetect® technology can be deployed to distinguish normal cells from transformed cells and most significantly detect cells in their early pre-cancerous transformed state. Materials and Methods: In tissue culture, we studied the ability of the CellDetect® technology to color discriminate foci in a number of two stage transformation systems as well as in a well defined cellular model for cervical cancer development, using HPV16 transformed keratinocytes. Results: In all these cellular systems, the CellDetect® technology was able to sensitively show that all transformed cells, including pre-cancerous HPV 16 transformed cells, are colored red, whereas normal cells are colored blue/green. The staining technology was able to pick up: (i early transformation events in the form of small type 1 foci (non-invasive, not piled up small, with parallel alignment of cells, and (ii early HPV16 transformed cells, even prior to their ability to form colonies in soft agar. The study shows the utility of the CellDetect® technology in early detection of transformation events.

  13. Early detection monitoring for larval dreissenid mussels: How much plankton sampling is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Bollens, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    The development of quagga and zebra mussel (dreissenids) monitoring programs in the Pacific Northwest provides a unique opportunity to evaluate a regional invasive species detection effort early in its development. Recent studies suggest that the ecological and economic costs of a dreissenid infestation in the Pacific Northwest of the USA would be significant. Consequently, efforts are underway to monitor for the presence of dreissenids. However, assessments of whether these efforts provide for early detection are lacking. We use information collected from 2012 to 2014 to characterize the development of larval dreissenid monitoring programs in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington in the context of introduction and establishment risk. We also estimate the effort needed for high-probability detection of rare planktonic taxa in four Columbia and Snake River reservoirs and assess whether the current level of effort provides for early detection. We found that the effort expended to monitor for dreissenid mussels increased substantially from 2012 to 2014, that efforts were distributed across risk categories ranging from high to very low, and that substantial gaps in our knowledge of both introduction and establishment risk exist. The estimated volume of filtered water required to fully census planktonic taxa or to provide high-probability detection of rare taxa was high for the four reservoirs examined. We conclude that the current level of effort expended does not provide for high-probability detection of larval dreissenids or other planktonic taxa when they are rare in these reservoirs. We discuss options to improve early detection capabilities.

  14. Detection of a huge explosion in the early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cusumano, G; Chincarini, G; Panaitescu, A; Burows, D N; La Parola, V; Sakamoto, T; Campana, S; Mineo, T; Tagliaferri, G; Angelini, L; Barthelemy, S; Beardmore, A P; Boyd, P T; Cominsky, L; Gronwall, C; Fenimore, E E; Gehrels, N; Giommi, P; Goad, M; Hurley, K; Kennea, J A; Mason, K O; Marshall, F; Mészáros, P; Nousek, J A; Osborne, J P; Palmer, D M; Roming, P W A; Wells, A; White, N E; Zhang, B

    2005-01-01

    Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of high energy photons that can last from about 10 milliseconds to 10 minutes. Their origin and nature have puzzled the scientific community for about 25 years until 1997, when the first X-ray afterglows of long (> 2 s duration) bursts were detected and the first optical and radio counterparts were found. These measurements established that long GRBs are typically at high redshift (z 1.6) and are in sub-luminous star-forming host galaxies. They are likely produced in core-collapse explosions of a class of massive stars that give rise to highly relativistic jets (collapsar model). Internal inhomogeneities in the velocity field of the relativistic expanding flow lead to collisions between fast moving and slow moving fluid shells and to the formation of internal shock waves. These shocks are believed to produce the observed prompt emission in the form of irregularly shaped and spaced pulses of gamma-rays, each pulse corresponding to a distinct internal collision. The ex...

  15. Early Damage Detection in Composites during Fabrication and Mechanical Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Chandarana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fully integrated monitoring systems have shown promise in improving confidence in composite materials while reducing lifecycle costs. A distributed optical fibre sensor is embedded in a fibre reinforced composite laminate, to give three sensing regions at different levels through-the-thickness of the plate. This study follows the resin infusion process during fabrication of the composite, monitoring the development of strain in-situ and in real time, and to gain better understanding of the resin rheology during curing. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors and electrical strain gauges are bonded to the plate after fabrication. This is followed by progressive loading/unloading cycles of mechanical four point bending. The strain values obtained from the optical fibre are in good agreement with strain data collected by surface mounted strain gauges, while the sensing regions clearly indicate the development of compressive, neutral, and tensile strain. Acoustic emission event detection suggests the formation of matrix (resin cracks, with measured damage event amplitudes in agreement with values reported in published literature on the subject. The Felicity ratio for each subsequent loading cycle is calculated to track the progression of damage in the material. The methodology developed here can be used to follow the full life cycle of a composite structure, from manufacture to end-of-life.

  16. Interferon-Gamma Release Assay: An Effective Tool to Detect Early Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yin

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection before the formation of tissue cysts is vital for treatment, as drugs available for toxoplasmosis cannot kill bradyzoites contained in the cysts. However, current methods, such as antibody-based ELISA, are ineffective for detection of early infection. Here, we developed an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA, measuring the IFN-γ released by T lymphocytes stimulated by Toxoplasma antigen peptides in vitro, for the detection of T. gondii infection in mice. Splenocytes isolated from infected mice were stimulated by peptides derived from dense granule proteins GRA4 and GRA6 and rhoptry protein ROP7, and released IFN-γ was measured by ELISA. Results showed that both acute and chronic infection could be detected by IGRA. More importantly, IGRA detected infection as early as the third day post infection; while serum IgM and IgG were detected 9 days and 13 days post infection, respectively. Our findings demonstrated that an IGRA-positive and ELISA-negative sample revealed an early infection, indicating the combination of IGRA and ELISA can be employed for the early diagnosis of T. gondii infection in human beings, cats and livestock.

  17. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), ВТН (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were

  18. A Mass Spectrometric Analysis Method Based on PPCA and SVM for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Ji, Yanju; Zhao, Ling; Ji, Mengying; Ye, Zhuang; Li, Suyi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surfaced-enhanced laser desorption-ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) technology plays an important role in the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, the raw MS data is highly dimensional and redundant. Therefore, it is necessary to study rapid and accurate detection methods from the massive MS data. Methods. The clinical data set used in the experiments for early cancer detection consisted of 216 SELDI-TOF-MS samples. An MS analysis method based on probabilistic principal components analysis (PPCA) and support vector machine (SVM) was proposed and applied to the ovarian cancer early classification in the data set. Additionally, by the same data set, we also established a traditional PCA-SVM model. Finally we compared the two models in detection accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Results. Using independent training and testing experiments 10 times to evaluate the ovarian cancer detection models, the average prediction accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the PCA-SVM model were 83.34%, 82.70%, and 83.88%, respectively. In contrast, those of the PPCA-SVM model were 90.80%, 92.98%, and 88.97%, respectively. Conclusions. The PPCA-SVM model had better detection performance. And the model combined with the SELDI-TOF-MS technology had a prospect in early clinical detection and diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  19. A Mass Spectrometric Analysis Method Based on PPCA and SVM for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Surfaced-enhanced laser desorption-ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS technology plays an important role in the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, the raw MS data is highly dimensional and redundant. Therefore, it is necessary to study rapid and accurate detection methods from the massive MS data. Methods. The clinical data set used in the experiments for early cancer detection consisted of 216 SELDI-TOF-MS samples. An MS analysis method based on probabilistic principal components analysis (PPCA and support vector machine (SVM was proposed and applied to the ovarian cancer early classification in the data set. Additionally, by the same data set, we also established a traditional PCA-SVM model. Finally we compared the two models in detection accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Results. Using independent training and testing experiments 10 times to evaluate the ovarian cancer detection models, the average prediction accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the PCA-SVM model were 83.34%, 82.70%, and 83.88%, respectively. In contrast, those of the PPCA-SVM model were 90.80%, 92.98%, and 88.97%, respectively. Conclusions. The PPCA-SVM model had better detection performance. And the model combined with the SELDI-TOF-MS technology had a prospect in early clinical detection and diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  20. National Outbreak Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) is a web-based platform designed to support reporting to CDC by local, state, and territorial health departments in the...

  1. Disease detection or public opinion reflection? Content analysis of tweets, other social media, and online newspapers during the measles outbreak in The Netherlands in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollema, Liesbeth; Harmsen, Irene Anhai; Broekhuizen, Emma; Clijnk, Rutger; De Melker, Hester; Paulussen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Ruiter, Robert; Das, Enny

    2015-05-26

    In May 2013, a measles outbreak began in the Netherlands among Orthodox Protestants who often refuse vaccination for religious reasons. Our aim was to compare the number of messages expressed on Twitter and other social media during the measles outbreak with the number of online news articles and the number of reported measles cases to answer the question if and when social media reflect public opinion patterns versus disease patterns. We analyzed measles-related tweets, other social media messages, and online newspaper articles over a 7-month period (April 15 to November 11, 2013) with regard to topic and sentiment. Thematic analysis was used to structure and analyze the topics. There was a stronger correlation between the weekly number of social media messages and the weekly number of online news articles (Psocial media messages) than between the weekly number of social media messages and the weekly number of reported measles cases (P=.003 and P=.048 for tweets and other social media messages, respectively), especially after the summer break. All data sources showed 3 large peaks, possibly triggered by announcements about the measles outbreak by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment and statements made by well-known politicians. Most messages informed the public about the measles outbreak (ie, about the number of measles cases) (93/165, 56.4%) followed by messages about preventive measures taken to control the measles spread (47/132, 35.6%). The leading opinion expressed was frustration regarding people who do not vaccinate because of religious reasons (42/88, 48%). The monitoring of online (social) media might be useful for improving communication policies aiming to preserve vaccination acceptability among the general public. Data extracted from online (social) media provide insight into the opinions that are at a certain moment salient among the public, which enables public health institutes to respond immediately and appropriately

  2. Disease Detection or Public Opinion Reflection? Content Analysis of Tweets, Other Social Media, and Online Newspapers During the Measles Outbreak in the Netherlands in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, Irene Anhai; Broekhuizen, Emma; Clijnk, Rutger; De Melker, Hester; Paulussen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Ruiter, Robert; Das, Enny

    2015-01-01

    Background In May 2013, a measles outbreak began in the Netherlands among Orthodox Protestants who often refuse vaccination for religious reasons. Objective Our aim was to compare the number of messages expressed on Twitter and other social media during the measles outbreak with the number of online news articles and the number of reported measles cases to answer the question if and when social media reflect public opinion patterns versus disease patterns. Methods We analyzed measles-related tweets, other social media messages, and online newspaper articles over a 7-month period (April 15 to November 11, 2013) with regard to topic and sentiment. Thematic analysis was used to structure and analyze the topics. Results There was a stronger correlation between the weekly number of social media messages and the weekly number of online news articles (Pmeasles cases (P=.003 and P=.048 for tweets and other social media messages, respectively), especially after the summer break. All data sources showed 3 large peaks, possibly triggered by announcements about the measles outbreak by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment and statements made by well-known politicians. Most messages informed the public about the measles outbreak (ie, about the number of measles cases) (93/165, 56.4%) followed by messages about preventive measures taken to control the measles spread (47/132, 35.6%). The leading opinion expressed was frustration regarding people who do not vaccinate because of religious reasons (42/88, 48%). Conclusions The monitoring of online (social) media might be useful for improving communication policies aiming to preserve vaccination acceptability among the general public. Data extracted from online (social) media provide insight into the opinions that are at a certain moment salient among the public, which enables public health institutes to respond immediately and appropriately to those public concerns. More research is required to develop

  3. Detection of OvHV-2 from an outbreak of sheep associated malignant catarrhal fever from crossbred cattle of Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod Kumar, N; Sreedevi, B; Karthik, A; Vijaya Lakshmi, S; Geetha Reddy, A; Sreenivasulu, D

    2014-12-01

    An outbreak of sheep associated malignant catarrhal fever in crossbred cattle in a village of Andhra Pradesh, southern India, affected thirteen adult cows and two calves from a population of forty animals. All the affected animals were died between December and January 2013-14. The clinical and gross postmortem findings were typical of MCF in Indian crossbred cattle. Migrating sheep flocks were suspected source of infection for the cattle. The diagnosis was confirmed by heminested PCR in all the affected cattle and the suspected sheep flock. The PCR provided evidence of ovine herpes virus type 2.

  4. Health education for early detection of breast cancer in blind women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the knowledge of blind women about the risk factors for breast cancer and whether they look for early detection of this cancer. Methods: a quasi-experimental study with 72 blind women distributed in focus groups. Data were collected through interviews. Results: few participants had knowledge about one or more risk factors for breast cancer, but most practiced early detection. Health education was developed using breast kits and demonstration of breast self-examination. It was obtained qualitative improvement of knowledge of the participants about breast cancer, its risk factors and early detection practices. In addition, participants demonstrated breast self-examination confidently. Conclusion: we need to develop in a harder manner educational activities to clarify about breast cancer risk factors and the importance of periodically carrying out breast self-examination, clinical examination and mammography.

  5. AVENUES TO EARLY DETECTION OF ORAL PREMALIGNANT AND MALIGNANT LESIONS: A REVIEW OF THE CURRENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Muzaffar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : In spite of the advances in the therapy for management of Oral Cancer the prognosis still remains poor. The survival of these patients is highly dependent on the early detection of these lesions and subsequent, prompt treatment. Scalpel biopsy though considered to be the gold standard for diagnosis is invasive and associated with high morbidity and as such is reserved for evaluating highly suspicious lesions. There is a need to devise tests which are non-invasive, highly specific and sensitive and cost effective too. Various diagnostic tests used nowadays for early detection of malignancy include brush biopsy, toluidine blue staining, Lab On a Chip, Saliva based Oral Cancer Diagnosis, Laser Capture Micro dissection, Spectral Cytopathology, A multispectral digital microscope (MDM, Optical coherence tomography, Oral Auto fluorescence. In this review an attempt has been made to examine the role of these tests and technologies and assess their role in early detection of malignancies.

  6. A case of early detection of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyu Mori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the jaws is an adverse reaction associated with the use of bisphosphonates. Although the diagnosis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ is based on symptomatology, it is often detected late because the patients become symptomatic only after osteonecrosis is well established. We describe a case of early oral BRONJ detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI accidentally. Head MRI revealed low signal of T1-weight images in left mandibula. Patient had been treated with minodronate for osteoporosis during 18 months. Based on the MRI findings and medication history, early stage BRONJ could be considered. Therefore minodronate was switched to teriparatide. Thereafter mandible pares-thesias, odontalgia and exposed bone were not observed. This case suggests that MRI is useful for the early detection of BRONJ.

  7. Targeting Premalignant Lesions: Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0032 TITLE: Targeting Premalignant Lesions : Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention...2015 – 31 Mar 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0032 Targeting Premalignant Lesions : Implications for Early Breast...carcinoma. In this study, we aimed to identify peptides that specifically recognize premalignant lesions in the mammary tissue. To achieve this goal, we

  8. Cancer: improving early detection and prevention. A community practice randomised trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, A J; O'Connor, G. T.; Keller, A.; Carney, P A; Levy, D; Whaley, F. S.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To test the impact of physician education and facilitator assisted office system interventions on cancer early detection and preventive services. DESIGN--A randomised trial of two interventions alone and in combination. SETTING AND SUBJECTS--Physicians in 98 ambulatory care practices in the United States. INTERVENTIONS--The education intervention consisted of a day long physician meeting directed at improving knowledge, attitudes, and skills relevant to cancer prevention and early ...

  9. The first canine visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in Campinas, State of São Paulo Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Paula Bruno von Zuben

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Early detection of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL outbreak in animals is crucial for controlling this disease in non-endemic areas. Methods Epidemiological surveillance (2009-2012 was performed in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Results In 2009, Leishmania chagasi was positively identified in four dogs. Entomological research and three serological studies (2010-2012 were undertaken as monitoring measures; these approaches revealed a moderate prevalence of Leishmania present in 4% of the canine population. Nyssomyia whitmani and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the predominant species identified. Conclusions Detection of an AVL outbreak in dogs in an area with an evolving natural landscape containing sand flies is crucial for control programs.

  10. Efficacy of light based detection systems for early detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders: Systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy-Kantharaj, Yashoda-Bhoomi; Rakesh, Nagaraju; Janardhan-Reddy, Sujatha; Sahu, Shashikant

    2016-01-01

    Background Earlier detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) is essential for dental professionals to improve patient survival rates. The aim of this systematic review is to to evaluate the effectiveness of devices that utilise the principles of chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence as adjuncts in the detection of OSCC and OPMD. Material and Methods The electronic retrieval systems and databases searched for relevant articles were PubMed [MEDLINE] and Science direct. The search was for limited articles published in English or with an English abstract and articles published during the period from January 2005 to April 2014. Clinical trials utilized ViziLite, Microlux TM/DL and Visual Enhanced Light scope (VELscope) for early detection of OPMD and OSCC. Results Twenty primary studies published satisfied our criteria for selection - 10 utilised chemiluminescence and 10 tissue autofluorescence. Senstivity of Vizilite for detecting OSCC nad OPMD ranged from 77.1 % to 100% and specificity was low that ranged from 0% to 27.8%.Most have shown that chemiluminescence increases the brightness and margins of oral mucosal white lesions and thus assist in identification of mucosal lesions not considered under Conventional visual examination. However, it preferentially detects leukoplakia and may fail to spot red patches. Clinical trials demonstrated that sensitivity of VELscope in detecting malignancy and OPMD ranged from 22 % to 100 % and specificity ranged from 16 % to 100%. Most studies concluded that VELscope can help the experienced clinician to find oral precursor malignant lesions. But it couldnot differentiate between dysplasia and benign inflammatory conditions. Conclusions Both devices are simple, non-invasive test of the oral mucosa but are suited for clinicians with sufficient experience and training. More clinical trials in future should be conducted to establish optical imaging as an efficacious adjunct

  11. Strategic approach to control of viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: report from a regional consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M R; El Bushra, H E; Opoka, M; Formenty, P; Velayudhan, R; Eremin, S

    2013-10-01

    The viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a growing public health threat in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Nearly all of them are of zoonotic origin. VHF often cause outbreaks with high fatalities and, except for yellow fever, currently there are no specific treatment or vaccination options available. In response to this growing threat, the Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean of the World Health Organization convened a technical consultation in Tehran on 27-30 November 2011 to review the current gaps in prevention and control of VHF outbreaks in the Region. The meeting recommended a number of strategic public health approaches for prevention and control of VHF outbreaks through synergizing effective collaboration between the human and animal health sectors on areas that involve better preparedness, early detection and rapid response. Implementation of these approaches would require working together with vision, commitment and a sense of purpose involving partnerships and cooperation from all relevant sectors.

  12. Serum/plasma DNA methylation pattern and early detection of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arootin Gharibiyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. With its fatality rate reduced significantly if diagnosed early, developing cost-effective, noninvasive methods of early detection is highly investigated. Currently, mammography with magnetic resonance imaging is considered the optimal method of early detection in women who are at a significantly raised risk of developing breast cancer. Due to environmental effects and life-style changes in recent years, elevation of the risk of cancer incidents in lower risk populations is observed and therefore, the development of a relatively easy-performed and low-cost method for early detection of cancer in general and breast cancer in particular is needed. Serum-based analysis techniques have been quite popular subject of research recently as they can be performed with low technical knowledge, become automated and are cheap. In the present article, we have reviewed the literature related to the use of DNA methylation-detection based techniques for diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer using serum or plasma circulating tumor DNA and their power as a future biomarker. A reference to all genes that is reported to be differentially methylated in breast cancer accompanies the article.

  13. 2014 CODEPEH recommendations: Early detection of late onset deafness, audiological diagnosis, hearing aid fitting and early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, Jose Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as the key element to define the educational and inclusive prognosis of the deaf child, because it allows taking advantage of the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between deaf people who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or improper intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge on the part of every childcare professional. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planed to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the CODEPEH would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring of children's auditory health. Consequently, CODEPEH has drafted the recommendations included in the present document. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  14. Mosquito vector indicators and virus detection during Chikungunya fever outbreak in Dongguan,Guangdong province%一起基孔肯雅热暴发的蚊媒监控及其病毒检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段金花; 蔡松武; 吴德; 刘文华; 吴军; 周惠琼; 邹钦

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析基孔肯雅热流行与诱蚊诱卵指数的关系,调查白纹伊蚊成幼虫感染基孔肯雅病毒状况.方法 基孔肯雅热流行期间,通过诱蚊诱卵器和布雷图指数调查蚊虫密度和采集蚊虫,用实时荧光PCR和细胞分离2种方法对野外捕获的白纹伊蚊体内病毒进行检测.结果 确认基孔肯雅热暴发流行后,启动包括应急灭蚊的综合控制措施1周后,疫情得到有效控制,布雷图指数和诱蚊诱卵指数下降到5以下;采集的蚊样品按照时间和地点分成27份进行病毒检测,成蚊标本都显示病毒阴性,有3份乙醇浸泡处理的蚊幼虫标本为可疑阳性,占总幼虫标本(24份)的12.5%.细胞培养分离病毒均为阴性.该社区共报告病例253例,应急控制在22d结束.结论 基孔肯雅热暴发流行时,诱蚊诱卵器法作为应急灭蚊安全、有效、简便易行的评价方法,尤其在成蚊控制效果评价和捕获成蚊检测带病毒指数上有优势,流行期间白纹伊蚊对基孔肯雅病毒的感染率、传播率有待进一步研究.%Objective To analyze the association between prevalence of Chikungunya fever and Mosq-ovitrap index (MOI) and to investigate the infection with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in larval and adult Aedes albopictus. Methods Mosquitoes were collected by mosq-ovitrap and the mosquito density was also determined by Breteau index (BI) during Chikungunya fever outbreak. CHIKV was detected in the Ae. Albopictus samples collected in the field by real-time fluorescence PCR and cell culture for isolation. Results Comprehensive emergency control measures were taken for anti-mosquito purpose after the confirmation of Chikungunya fever outbreak. After one week of emergency management, the epidemic situation was effectively controlled, as shown by the fact that both MOI and BI were lower than 5. The collected mosquito samples were divided into 27 groups according to collection time and location, and then CHIKV

  15. RED Alert – Early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Alina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-13

    This is the PDF of a presentation for a webinar given by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED). First, there is an overview of LANL biosurveillance tools. Then, information is given about RED Alert. Next, a demonstration is given of a component prototype. RED Alert is an analysis tool that can provide early warning or detection of the re-emergence of an infectious disease at the global level, but through a local lens.

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging detects Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract early after cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiman Xie; Min Fang; Linjiang Zhou; Shanghua Fan; Jianying Liu; Hongbo Quan; Man Luo; Dongying Qiu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and time window of early detection of Wallerian degeneration in the corticospinal tract after middle cerebral artery infarction, 23 patients were assessed using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging at 3.0T within 14 days after the infarction. The fractional anisotropy values of the affected corticospinal tract began to decrease at 3 days after onset and decreased in all cases at 7 days. The diffusion coefficient remained unchanged. Experimental findings indicate that diffusion tensor imaging can detect the changes associated with Wallerian degeneration of the corticospinal tract as early as 3 days after cerebral infarction.

  17. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Malignant Mesothelioma: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tomasetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma (MM is a rare and aggressive tumour of the serosal cavities linked to asbestos exposure. Improved detection methods for diagnosing this type of neoplastic disease are essential for an early and reliable diagnosis and treatment. Thus, focus has been placed on finding tumour markers for the non-invasive detection of MM. Recently, some blood biomarkers have been described as potential indicators of early and advanced MM cancers. The identification of tumour biomarkers alone or in combination could greatly facilitate the surveillance procedure for cohorts of subjects exposed to asbestos, a common phenomenon in several areas of western countries.

  18. Application of SVM classifier in thermographic image classification for early detection of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszkiewicz, Witold; Cichosz, Paweł; Jagodziński, Dariusz; Matysiewicz, Mateusz; Neumann, Łukasz; Nowak, Robert M.; Okuniewski, Rafał

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the application of machine learning algorithms for early detection of breast cancer on the basis of thermographic images. Supervised learning model: Support vector machine (SVM) and Sequential Minimal Optimization algorithm (SMO) for the training of SVM classifier were implemented. The SVM classifier was included in a client-server application which enables to create a training set of examinations and to apply classifiers (including SVM) for the diagnosis and early detection of the breast cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of SVM classifier were calculated based on the thermographic images from studies. Furthermore, the heuristic method for SVM's parameters tuning was proposed.

  19. A simulation study comparing aberration detection algorithms for syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Painter Ian

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The usefulness of syndromic surveillance for early outbreak detection depends in part on effective statistical aberration detection. However, few published studies have compared different detection algorithms on identical data. In the largest simulation study conducted to date, we compared the performance of six aberration detection algorithms on simulated outbreaks superimposed on authentic syndromic surveillance data. Methods We compared three control-chart-based statistics, two exponential weighted moving averages, and a generalized linear model. We simulated 310 unique outbreak signals, and added these to actual daily counts of four syndromes monitored by Public Health – Seattle and King County's syndromic surveillance system. We compared the sensitivity of the six algorithms at detecting these simulated outbreaks at a fixed alert rate of 0.01. Results Stratified by baseline or by outbreak distribution, duration, or size, the generalized linear model was more sensitive than the other algorithms and detected 54% (95% CI = 52%–56% of the simulated epidemics when run at an alert rate of 0.01. However, all of the algorithms had poor sensitivity, particularly for outbreaks that did not begin with a surge of cases. Conclusion When tested on county-level data aggregated across age groups, these algorithms often did not perform well in detecting signals other than large, rapid increases in case counts relative to baseline levels.

  20. A Novel Arc Fault Detector for Early Detection of Electrical Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arc faults can produce very high temperatures and can easily ignite combustible materials; thus, they represent one of the most important causes of electrical fires. The application of arc fault detection, as an emerging early fire detection technology, is required by the National Electrical Code to reduce the occurrence of electrical fires. However, the concealment, randomness and diversity of arc faults make them difficult to detect. To improve the accuracy of arc fault detection, a novel arc fault detector (AFD is developed in this study. First, an experimental arc fault platform is built to study electrical fires. A high-frequency transducer and a current transducer are used to measure typical load signals of arc faults and normal states. After the common features of these signals are studied, high-frequency energy and current variations are extracted as an input eigenvector for use by an arc fault detection algorithm. Then, the detection algorithm based on a weighted least squares support vector machine is designed and successfully applied in a microprocessor. Finally, an AFD is developed. The test results show that the AFD can detect arc faults in a timely manner and interrupt the circuit power supply before electrical fires can occur. The AFD is not influenced by cross talk or transient processes, and the detection accuracy is very high. Hence, the AFD can be installed in low-voltage circuits to monitor circuit states in real-time to facilitate the early detection of electrical fires.

  1. Speckle Tracking Based Strain Analysis Is Sensitive for Early Detection of Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiangbo; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Hao; Lu, Zhizhen; Bai, Yan; Xiao, Han; Zhang, Youyi; Song, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathological process of many cardiac diseases. However, early detection of cardiac hypertrophy is difficult by the currently used non-invasive method and new approaches are in urgent need for efficient diagnosis of cardiac malfunction. Here we report that speckle tracking-based strain analysis is more sensitive than conventional echocardiography for early detection of pathological cardiac hypertrophy in the isoproterenol (ISO) mouse model. Pathological hypertrophy was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of ISO. Physiological cardiac hypertrophy was established by daily treadmill exercise for six weeks. Strain analysis, including radial strain (RS), radial strain rate (RSR) and longitudinal strain (LS), showed marked decrease as early as 3 days after ISO injection. Moreover, unlike the regional changes in cardiac infarction, strain analysis revealed global cardiac dysfunction that affects the entire heart in ISO-induced hypertrophy. In contrast, conventional echocardiography, only detected altered E/E', an index reflecting cardiac diastolic function, at 7 days after ISO injection. No change was detected on fractional shortening (FS), E/A and E'/A' at 3 days or 7 days after ISO injection. Interestingly, strain analysis revealed cardiac dysfunction only in ISO-induced pathological hypertrophy but not the physiological hypertrophy induced by exercise. Taken together, our study indicates that strain analysis offers a more sensitive approach for early detection of cardiac dysfunction than conventional echocardiography. Moreover, multiple strain readouts distinguish pathological cardiac hypertrophy from physiological hypertrophy.

  2. Speckle Tracking Based Strain Analysis Is Sensitive for Early Detection of Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiangbo; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Hao; Lu, Zhizhen; Bai, Yan; Xiao, Han; Zhang, Youyi; Song, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathological process of many cardiac diseases. However, early detection of cardiac hypertrophy is difficult by the currently used non-invasive method and new approaches are in urgent need for efficient diagnosis of cardiac malfunction. Here we report that speckle tracking-based strain analysis is more sensitive than conventional echocardiography for early detection of pathological cardiac hypertrophy in the isoproterenol (ISO) mouse model. Pathological hypertrophy was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of ISO. Physiological cardiac hypertrophy was established by daily treadmill exercise for six weeks. Strain analysis, including radial strain (RS), radial strain rate (RSR) and longitudinal strain (LS), showed marked decrease as early as 3 days after ISO injection. Moreover, unlike the regional changes in cardiac infarction, strain analysis revealed global cardiac dysfunction that affects the entire heart in ISO-induced hypertrophy. In contrast, conventional echocardiography, only detected altered E/E’, an index reflecting cardiac diastolic function, at 7 days after ISO injection. No change was detected on fractional shortening (FS), E/A and E’/A’ at 3 days or 7 days after ISO injection. Interestingly, strain analysis revealed cardiac dysfunction only in ISO-induced pathological hypertrophy but not the physiological hypertrophy induced by exercise. Taken together, our study indicates that strain analysis offers a more sensitive approach for early detection of cardiac dysfunction than conventional echocardiography. Moreover, multiple strain readouts distinguish pathological cardiac hypertrophy from physiological hypertrophy. PMID:26871457

  3. Descriptive epidemiology of a cholera outbreak in Kaduna State, Northwest Nigeria, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, Ibrahim Baffa; Yahaya, Mohammed; Aisha, Abubakar Ahmed; Zainab, Ahmed Datti; Ummulkhulthum, Bajoga; Nguku, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Cholera is an acute gastrointestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae, which may lead to severe dehydration and death if not treated. This analysis is aimed at highlighting the magnitude, pattern and trend of cholera outbreak that occurred in Kaduna State in 2014. We obtained the 2014 cholera line-list from the Kaduna State Disease Surveillance and Notification officer (DSNO). We described the outbreaks in time, place and person using Epi-info 7 and Health Mapper. A total of 1468 case-patients and 54 deaths were recorded, giving a case fatality rate (CFR) of 3.68%. Female case-patients were 809(55.08%). The median age for case-patients was 15 years, with an age range of 0.04-90 years. Age specific case fatality rate (ASCFR) is highest among the > 60 years. Seven (30%) out of the 23 local government areas (LGAs) in Kaduna State were affected by the cholera outbreak in 2014. Igabi LGA has the highest attack rate (150.46 per 100,000 population) while Chikun LGA has the lowest attack rate (12.22 per 100,000 population). Chikun LGA records the highest CFR (17.54%). Cholera infection spread across LGAs sharing the same borders. The outbreak started from the first epidemic week of 2014 and lasted over 33 weeks. Our analysis revealed a protracted cholera outbreak that gradually increases in magnitude throughout the first half of 2014 and spread within contiguous LGAs. We recommended the strengthening of the state's diseases surveillance system towards timely detection and early response to disease outbreaks in the future.

  4. 一起炭疽疫情中炭疽病原检测方法的应用与评价%Evaluation of the methods applied for the detection of Bacillus anthracis in anthrax outbreak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧娟; 梁旭东; 海岩; 李忠延; 袁海涛; 郭长山; 东晓晖; 魏建春

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析总结一起炭疽疫情中应急检测的经验与问题,为炭疽疾病预防控制提供参考依据.方法 采集报告的疑似皮肤炭疽患者皮损渗出液和静脉血标本,与病例相关的病死动物和土壤标本,渗出液采集采用载玻片直接蘸取和无菌棉签擦取2种方法,用涂片镜检、直接分离培养和肉汤增菌后分离培养细菌以及炭疽芽胞杆菌毒力基因PCR扩增方法检测病原,分析检测结果.结果 共采集标本57份,病例标本占91.23%,病死牛肉及剖牛处土壤标本占8.77%.病例标本采集时间距发病时间最短1d,最长23 d,平均6.62 d.29例疑似皮肤炭疽患者在采样时其中16例(占55.17%)已使用抗生素类药物治疗,4例(占13.79%)未曾使用抗生素.从2例未使用抗生素的患者皮损渗出液和1份病死牛肉中分离到炭疽芽胞杆菌,分离阳性率为5.26%;其中1例患者皮损渗出液涂片镜检阳性;全部标本PCR扩增结果均为阴性.结论 标本炭疽芽胞杆菌阳性检出率较低,与采样方法和采样时机关系较大,应加强部门间的沟通协作和人群的健康教育,做到疫情早报告、早确诊、早控制.%Objective To analyze and summarize the experience and problems in emergent detection of Bacillus anthracis in anthrax outbreak for providing a basis for anthrax prevention and control. Methods The study collected lesions exudates and blood samples from suspected cases, as well as related animal samples and soil samples. The lesions were collected by slides and sterile cotton swabs. Smear microscopy, direct culture and broth enrichment were used to isolate and foster virulence genes. The virulence genes were amplified by PCR for detection of pathogens. Results Fifty-seven specimens were collected. 91.23% of the specimens came from B. anthracis cases and the other 8.77% came from cattle and soil. The time window between disease outbreak and collection of case specimens was 1 day at least

  5. [Vaginal sonography: a screening method for early detection of ovarian tumors and endometrial cancers?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmers, R; Völksen, M; Rath, W; Kuhn, W

    1989-01-01

    In total we performed a vaginosonographic measurement of 212 patients with or without a postmenopausal bleeding. Altogether 424 ovaries were sonographically examined. An endometrial thickness greater than 4 mm was histologically clarified by means of a curettage and all detectable ovarian tumors by means of a laparotomia. In total we found seven asymptomatic endometrial carcinomas, one cervical carcinoma and two ovarian cancers. The vaginosonography showed to be a very sensitive and acceptable method for the early detection of postmenopausal ovarian and endometrial tumors.

  6. Toward Early-Warning Detection of Gravitational Waves from Compact Binary Coalescence

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, K.; Cariou, R.; Chapman, A.; Crispin-Ortuzar, M.; Fotopoulos, N.; Frei, M.; Hanna, C.; Kara, E.; Keppel, D.; Liao, L; Privitera, S.; A Searle; Singer, L.; Weinstein, A.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid detection of compact binary coalescence (CBC) with a network of advanced gravitational-wave detectors will offer a unique opportunity for multi-messenger astronomy. Prompt detection alerts for the astronomical community might make it possible to observe the onset of electromagnetic emission from (CBC). We demonstrate a computationally practical filtering strategy that could produce early-warning triggers before gravitational radiation from the final merger has arrived at the detectors.

  7. Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    According to the College Board's review of data from the Organization of Economic Co-Operation and Development, the U.S. ranks 12th out of 36 nations in terms of postsecondary attainment among citizens 25 to 34 years old. Completion is the mantra since President Barack Obama challenged higher education by setting an ambitious goal for 60 percent…

  8. Early non-destructive biofouling detection and spatial distribution: Application of oxygen sensing optodes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, N.M.

    2015-06-11

    Biofouling is a serious problem in reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF) applications, reducing membrane performance. Early detection of biofouling plays an essential role in an adequate anti-biofouling strategy. Presently, fouling of membrane filtration systems is mainly determined by measuring changes in pressure drop, which is not exclusively linked to biofouling. Non-destructive imaging of oxygen concentrations (i) is specific for biological activity of biofilms and (ii) may enable earlier detection of biofilm accumulation than pressure drop. The objective of this study was to test whether transparent luminescent planar O2 optodes, in combination with a simple imaging system, can be used for early non-destructive biofouling detection. This biofouling detection is done by mapping the two-dimensional distribution of O2 concentrations and O2 decrease rates inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS). Results show that at an early stage, biofouling development was detected by the oxygen sensing optodes while no significant increase in pressure drop was yet observed. Additionally, optodes could detect spatial heterogeneities in biofouling distribution at a micro scale. Biofilm development started mainly at the feed spacer crossings. The spatial and quantitative information on biological activity will lead to better understanding of the biofouling processes, contributing to the development of more effective biofouling control strategies.

  9. Early non-destructive biofouling detection and spatial distribution: Application of oxygen sensing optodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, N M; Staal, M; Siddiqui, A; Borisov, S M; Bucs, Sz S; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2015-10-15

    Biofouling is a serious problem in reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF) applications, reducing membrane performance. Early detection of biofouling plays an essential role in an adequate anti-biofouling strategy. Presently, fouling of membrane filtration systems is mainly determined by measuring changes in pressure drop, which is not exclusively linked to biofouling. Non-destructive imaging of oxygen concentrations (i) is specific for biological activity of biofilms and (ii) may enable earlier detection of biofilm accumulation than pressure drop. The objective of this study was to test whether transparent luminescent planar O2 optodes, in combination with a simple imaging system, can be used for early non-destructive biofouling detection. This biofouling detection is done by mapping the two-dimensional distribution of O2 concentrations and O2 decrease rates inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS). Results show that at an early stage, biofouling development was detected by the oxygen sensing optodes while no significant increase in pressure drop was yet observed. Additionally, optodes could detect spatial heterogeneities in biofouling distribution at a micro scale. Biofilm development started mainly at the feed spacer crossings. The spatial and quantitative information on biological activity will lead to better understanding of the biofouling processes, contributing to the development of more effective biofouling control strategies.

  10. Laboratory-based prospective surveillance for community outbreaks of Shigella spp. in Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María R Viñas

    model for surveillance and can be applied to other pathogens, implemented by other networks, and scaled up to national and international levels for early detection and control of outbreaks.

  11. Laboratory-based prospective surveillance for community outbreaks of Shigella spp. in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, María R; Tuduri, Ezequiel; Galar, Alicia; Yih, Katherine; Pichel, Mariana; Stelling, John; Brengi, Silvina P; Della Gaspera, Anabella; van der Ploeg, Claudia; Bruno, Susana; Rogé, Ariel; Caffer, María I; Kulldorff, Martin; Galas, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    networks, and scaled up to national and international levels for early detection and control of outbreaks.

  12. Laboratory-Based Prospective Surveillance for Community Outbreaks of Shigella spp. in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, María R.; Tuduri, Ezequiel; Galar, Alicia; Yih, Katherine; Pichel, Mariana; Stelling, John; Brengi, Silvina P.; Della Gaspera, Anabella; van der Ploeg, Claudia; Bruno, Susana; Rogé, Ariel; Caffer, María I.; Kulldorff, Martin; Galas, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    surveillance and can be applied to other pathogens, implemented by other networks, and scaled up to national and international levels for early detection and control of outbreaks. PMID:24349586

  13. Early fault detection in automotive ball bearings using the minimum variance cepstrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choon-Su; Choi, Young-Chul; Kim, Yang-Hann

    2013-07-01

    Ball bearings in automotive wheels play an important role in a vehicle. They enable an automobile to run and simultaneously support the vehicle. Once faults are generated, even if they are small, they often grow fast even under normal driving condition and cause vibration and noise. Therefore, it is critical to detect faults as early as possible to prevent bearings from generating harsh noise and vibration. How early faults can be detected is associated with how well a detecting method finds the information of early faults from measured signal. Incipient faults are so small that the fault signal is inherently buried by noise. Minimum variance cepstrum (MVC) has been introduced for the observation of periodic impulse signal under noisy environments. We are particularly focusing on the definition of MVC that goes back to the original definition by Bogert et al. in comparison with the recently prevalent definition of cepstral analysis. In this work, the MVC is, therefore, obtained by liftering a logarithmic power spectrum, and the lifter bank is designed by the minimum variance algorithm. Furthermore, it is also shown how efficient the method is for detecting periodic fault signal made by early faults by using automotive ball bearings, with which an automobile is equipped under running conditions. We were able to detect incipient faults in 4 out of 12 normal bearings which passed acceptance test as well as in bearings that were recalled due to noise and vibration. In addition, we compared the results of the proposed method with results obtained using other older well-established early fault detection methods that were chosen from 4 groups of methods which were classified by the domain of observation. The results demonstrated that MVC determined bearing fault periods more clearly than other methods under the given condition.

  14. Environmental triggers of Past Ebola Outbreaks in Africa, 1981 - 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartevelle, S.; NguyRobertson, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    Ebola virus, especially its most common and lethal form, Zaire Ebolavirus, has eluded scientists nearly 50 years. What is its primary host? Why does it go dormant to suddenly to reappear full force years later? What are the driving forces behind its intriguing dynamic? It has been surmised that local environmental factors (such as droughts, seasons) might be at play behind the on-and-off Ebola outbreak outbursts. However, so far, no clear lead has been demonstrated making Ebola a constant hidden lethal menace lurking in the environment for many African communities. We have analyzed long-term time-series of three environmental variables that influence the controlling factor behind the cycle of Ebola virus outbreaks: (i) vegetation health, as determined from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) collected by AVHRR and MODIS satellite sensors, and the weather variables (ii) temperature and (iii) precipitation from the Climate Forecast System ver. 2. Time series data were averaged monthly and spatially over a 100 km grid around past known outbreak locations. Seasonal effects were removed from these time series before applying statistical analyses identifying causal linkages between NDVI, temperature, precipitation and Ebola outbreaks. Likewise, possible tipping-points prior to outbreaks (i.e., early warning signals of an upcoming outbreak) were identified. Our results indicate that there is a causal dynamic link between outbreaks and the three environmental variables examined months prior to an outbreak. This was likely due to an abnormal change in the local precipitation pattern which influence NDVI values and to a lesser extent temperature. Furthermore, our results provide evidence that these factors demonstrate early warning signals of a dynamical system at a tipping-point, prior to a future outbreak. These tipping-point or early warning models may open new ways to furthermore develop forecast models of future Ebola outbreaks. [US Government — Approved

  15. Fresh Produce-Associated Listeriosis Outbreaks, Sources of Concern, Teachable Moments, and Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Danisha; Kathariou, Sophia

    2016-02-01

    Foodborne transmission of Listeria monocytogenes was first demonstrated through the investigation of the 1981 Maritime Provinces outbreak involving coleslaw. In the following two decades, most listeriosis outbreaks involved foods of animal origin, e.g., deli meats, hot dogs, and soft cheeses. L. monocytogenes serotype 4b, especially epidemic clones I, II, and Ia, were frequently implicated in these outbreaks. However, since 2008 several outbreaks have been linked to diverse types of fresh produce: sprouts, celery, cantaloupe, stone fruit, and apples. The 2011 cantaloupe-associated outbreak was one of the deadliest foodborne outbreaks in recent U.S. history. This review discusses produce-related outbreaks of listeriosis with a focus on special trends, unusual findings, and potential paradigm shifts. With the exception of sprouts, implicated produce types were novel, and outbreaks were one-time events. Several involved serotype 1/2a, and in the 2011 cantaloupe-associated outbreak, serotype 1/2b was for the first time conclusively linked to a common-source outbreak of invasive listeriosis. Also in this outbreak, for the first time multiple strains were implicated in a common-source outbreak. In 2014, deployment of whole genome sequencing as part of outbreak investigation validated this technique as a pivotal tool for outbreak detection and speedy resolution. In spite of the unusual attributes of produce-related outbreaks, in all but one of the investigated cases (the possible exception being the coleslaw outbreak) contamination was traced to the same sources as those for outbreaks associated with other vehicles (e.g., deli meats), i.e., the processing environment and equipment. The public health impact of farm-level contamination remains uncharacterized. This review highlights knowledge gaps regarding virulence and other potentially unique attributes of produce outbreak strains, the potential for novel fresh produce items to become unexpectedly implicated in outbreaks

  16. Aberrant p16 promoter hypermethylation in bronchial mucosae as a biomarker for the early detection of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Guang-shun; HOU Ai-rong; LI Long-yun; GAO Yan-ning; CHENG Shu-jun

    2006-01-01

    @@ Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death in the world and its mortality could be greatly reduced by diagnosis and treatment in its early stages. Effective tools for the early detection of lung cancer and its high risk factors remain a major challenge. Biomarkers that detect lung cancer in its early stages or identify its pretumour lesions,enabling early therapeutic intervention, would be invaluable to improve its dismal prognosis.

  17. Role of EEG as Biomarker in the Early Detection and Classification of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Kamal Al-Qazzaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The early detection and classification of dementia are important clinical support tasks for medical practitioners in customizing patient treatment programs to better manage the development and progression of these diseases. Efforts are being made to diagnose these neurodegenerative disorders in the early stages. Indeed, early diagnosis helps patients to obtain the maximum treatment benefit before significant mental decline occurs. The use of electroencephalogram as a tool for the detection of changes in brain activities and clinical diagnosis is becoming increasingly popular for its capabilities in quantifying changes in brain degeneration in dementia. This paper reviews the role of electroencephalogram as a biomarker based on signal processing to detect dementia in early stages and classify its severity. The review starts with a discussion of dementia types and cognitive spectrum followed by the presentation of the effective preprocessing denoising to eliminate possible artifacts. It continues with a description of feature extraction by using linear and nonlinear techniques, and it ends with a brief explanation of vast variety of separation techniques to classify EEG signals. This paper also provides an idea from the most popular studies that may help in diagnosing dementia in early stages and classifying through electroencephalogram signal processing and analysis.

  18. Role of EEG as Biomarker in the Early Detection and Classification of Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Ali, Sawal Hamid Bin MD.; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Islam, Md. Shabiul; Escudero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The early detection and classification of dementia are important clinical support tasks for medical practitioners in customizing patient treatment programs to better manage the development and progression of these diseases. Efforts are being made to diagnose these neurodegenerative disorders in the early stages. Indeed, early diagnosis helps patients to obtain the maximum treatment benefit before significant mental decline occurs. The use of electroencephalogram as a tool for the detection of changes in brain activities and clinical diagnosis is becoming increasingly popular for its capabilities in quantifying changes in brain degeneration in dementia. This paper reviews the role of electroencephalogram as a biomarker based on signal processing to detect dementia in early stages and classify its severity. The review starts with a discussion of dementia types and cognitive spectrum followed by the presentation of the effective preprocessing denoising to eliminate possible artifacts. It continues with a description of feature extraction by using linear and nonlinear techniques, and it ends with a brief explanation of vast variety of separation techniques to classify EEG signals. This paper also provides an idea from the most popular studies that may help in diagnosing dementia in early stages and classifying through electroencephalogram signal processing and analysis. PMID:25093211

  19. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; A. H. M. Kamal; Ali, K.S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F

    2002-01-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  20. Early detection of COPD in primary care--the Copenhagen COPD Screening Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Backer, Vibeke; Gottlieb, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is among the leading causes of death in the world, and further increases in the prevalence and mortality are predicted. Delay in diagnosing COPD appears frequently even though current consensus guidelines emphasize the importance of early detection...

  1. Early detection of fires by means of thermography; Frueherkennung von Braenden mit Thermografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Matthias; Doeppner, Joerg; Pohl, Gisbert; Mahler, Guido; Dammass, Gunnar; Wendland, Georg [InfraTec GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the physical and technical fundamentals of an early detection of fires by means of thermal imaging. Hereupon, the technical implementation of these fundamentals into a modular automatic monitoring system by thermography is described. The authors report on practical experiences of this monitoring system.

  2. Cross-Cultural Evaluation of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Darren; Young, Robyn; Angelica, Maria; Gallegos, Juarez; Salazar, Carlos, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    A Spanish translation of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC-SP) was administered to 115 children aged 15-73 months in Mexico. In Phase 1, children with Autistic Disorder (AD), a non-Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) diagnosis or typical development were assessed with the ADEC-SP by a clinician blind to the child's diagnostic…

  3. Measuring Pragmatic Skills: Early Detection of Infants at Risk for Communication Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocquyt, Mie; Mommaerts, Maurice Yves; Dewart, Hazel; Zink, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Background: For the early detection of children who are at risk of communication problems, we need appropriate assessment instruments. Two Dutch-language standardised screening instruments are available: the Dutch version of the Non Speech Test (NNST) and the Dutch version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (N-CDIs). These…

  4. Early Detection and Outpatient Management of Alcoholism: A Curriculum for Medical Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Henrietta N.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A course in the early detection and outpatient management of alcoholism for medical residents is discussed. Unlike other courses on alcoholism that have emphasized changes in physicians' attitudes, this course was designed to promote changes in residents' practice behavior and to foster the development of necessary clinical skills. (MLW)

  5. EPA guidance on the early detection of clinical high risk states of psychoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultze-Lutter, F; Michel, C; Schmidt, S J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this guidance paper of the European Psychiatric Association is to provide evidence-based recommendations on the early detection of a clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis in patients with mental problems. To this aim, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies reporting on conversion rat...

  6. How does early detection by screening affect disease progression?: Modeling estimated benefits in prostate cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth); G. Draisma (Gerrit); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Simulation models are essential tools for estimating benefits of cancer screening programs. Such models include a screening-effect model that represents how early detection by screening followed by treatment affects disease-specific survival. Two commonly used screening-effec

  7. Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    10-1-0422 TITLE: Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early PRINCIPAL...DATES COVERED 1 July 2010 - 30 June 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Photoacoustic ...upon request). Aim 2) Prioritize ovarian cancer-associated surface proteins for their utility as molecular photoacoustic imaging targets and

  8. Serial cranial ultrasonography or early MRI for detecting preterm brain injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, Annemarie; Raets, Marlou M A; Ecury-Goossen, Ginette M; Govaert, Paul; Feijen-Roon, Monique; Reiss, Irwin K M; Smit, Liesbeth S; Lequin, Maarten H; Dudink, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate detection ability and feasibility of serial cranial ultrasonography (CUS) and early MRI in preterm brain injury. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Level III neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS: 307 infants, born below 29 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Serial CUS a

  9. Early detection of drought stress in grass swards with imaging spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of an experimental imaging spectroscopy system with high spatial (0.28-1.45 mm2) and spectral (5-13 nm) resolution was explored for early detection of drought stress in grass. A climate chamber experiment was conducted with nine Lolium perenne L. mini swards with drought stress treatme

  10. 77 FR 71193 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on...

  11. 75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal...

  12. Progress towards design elements for a Great Lakes-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  13. Early Detection of Lung Cancer : “A Role for Serum Biomarkers?”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Broodman (Ingrid)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractLung cancer has the highest mortality rate among cancer patients in the world, in particular because most patients are only diagnosed at an advanced and non-curable stage. Computed tomography (CT) screening on high-risk individuals has shown that early detection could reduce the mort

  14. Allostatic Load Assessment for Early Detection of Stress in the Workplace in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Sayed Ali

    2016-06-01

    CONCLUSION: Female gender and the old age of the Egyptian workforce under study are at higher risk of chronic diseases. Using an alternative way -for example, the cut-point method- instead of the risk quartiles for dichotomization of markers used in ALI calculation could be more precise for early detection of stress among healthy individuals.

  15. Early detection of non-native fishes using next-generation DNA sequencing of fish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy based on next-generation DNA sequencing to investigate potential efficiencies. Our approach was to intensively sample a Great Lakes non-nati...

  16. Utility of Pamphlets in Promoting Knowledge and Positive Attitudes about Two Early Cancer Detection Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    Informational pamphlets about breast self-examination (BSE) and testicular self-examination (TSE) are widely distributed in health care settings, but the pamphlets' effectiveness in promoting knowledge and positive attitudes about these early cancer detection procedures is largely unknown. A study compared pamphlets with alternative methods of…

  17. Rapid and early detection of salmonella serotypes with hyperspectral microscope and multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to evaluate hyperspectral microscope images for early and rapid detection of Salmonella serotypes: S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, S. Infantis, S. Kentucky, and S. Typhimurium at incubation times of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours. Images were collected by an acousto-optical tunab...

  18. PCR real time assays for the early detection of BKV-DNA in immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Katia; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Gaffi, Gianni; Trappolini, Silvia; Leoni, Pietro; Paggi, Alessandra Mataloni; Della Vittoria, Agnese; Scalise, Giorgio; Varaldo, Pietro Emanuele; Menzo, Stefano

    2007-07-01

    Testing for viral BKV-DNA in urine is a non-invasive early detection and monitoring tool in the diagnostic of BKV-related pathologies: quantitative analysis by Real-Time PCR can provide useful information in addition to cytologic analysis, although our study suggests that high BKV viruria is not necessarily associated with kidney or bladder damage.

  19. Bayesian Thought in Early Modern Detective Stories: Monsieur Lecoq, C. Auguste Dupin and Sherlock Holmes

    CERN Document Server

    Kadane, Joseph B

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the maxims used by three early modern fictional detectives: Monsieur Lecoq, C. Auguste Dupin and Sherlock Holmes. It find similarities between these maxims and Bayesian thought. Poe's Dupin uses ideas very similar to Bayesian game theory. Sherlock Holmes' statements also show thought patterns justifiable in Bayesian terms.

  20. UWB based low-cost and non-invasive practical breast cancer early detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasarveswari, V.; Khatun, S.; Fakir, M. M.; Jusoh, M.; Ali, S.

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of women death worldwide. Breast tumor is an early stage of cancer that locates in cells of a human breast. As there is no remedy, early detection is crucial. Towards this, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) is a prominent candidate. It is a wireless communication technology which can achieve high bandwidth with low power utilization. UWB is suitable to be used for short range communication systems including breast cancer detection since it is secure, non-invasive and human health friendly. This paper presents the low-cost and non-invasive early breast cancer detection strategy using UWB sensor (or antenna). Emphasis is given here to detect breast tumor in 2D and 3D environments. The developed system consisted of hardware and software. Hardware included UWB transceiver and a pair of home-made directional sensor/antenna. The software included feed-forward back propagation Neural Network (NN) module to detect the tumor existence, size and location along with soft interface between software and hardware. Forward scattering technique was used by placing two sensors diagonally opposite sides of a breast phantom. UWB pulses were transmitted from one side of phantom and received from other side, controlled by the software interface in PC environment. Collected received signals were then fed into the NN module for training, testing and validation. The system exhibited detection efficiency on tumor existence, location (x, y, z), and size were approximately 100%, (78.17%, 70.66%, 92.46%), 85.86% respectively. The proposed UWB based early breast cancer detection system could be more practical with low-cost, user friendly and non-harmful features. This project may help users to monitor their breast health regularly at their home.