WorldWideScience

Sample records for early organ development

  1. The development of functional network organization in early childhood and early adolescence: A resting-state fNIRS study

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    Lin Cai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood (7–8 years old and early adolescence (11–12 years old constitute two landmark developmental stages that comprise considerable changes in neural cognition. However, very limited information from functional neuroimaging studies exists on the functional topological configuration of the human brain during specific developmental periods. In the present study, we utilized continuous resting-state functional near-infrared spectroscopy (rs-fNIRS imaging data to examine topological changes in network organization during development from early childhood and early adolescence to adulthood. Our results showed that the properties of small-worldness and modularity were not significantly different across development, demonstrating the developmental maturity of important functional brain organization in early childhood. Intriguingly, young children had a significantly lower global efficiency than early adolescents and adults, which revealed that the integration of the distributed networks strengthens across the developmental stages underlying cognitive development. Moreover, local efficiency of young children and adolescents was significantly lower than that of adults, while there was no difference between these two younger groups. This finding demonstrated that functional segregation remained relatively steady from early childhood to early adolescence, and the brain in these developmental periods possesses no optimal network configuration. Furthermore, we found heterogeneous developmental patterns in the regional nodal properties in various brain regions, such as linear increased nodal properties in the frontal cortex, indicating increasing cognitive capacity over development. Collectively, our results demonstrated that significant topological changes in functional network organization occurred during these two critical developmental stages, and provided a novel insight into elucidating subtle changes in brain functional networks across

  2. The development of functional network organization in early childhood and early adolescence: A resting-state fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lin; Dong, Qi; Niu, Haijing

    2018-04-01

    Early childhood (7-8 years old) and early adolescence (11-12 years old) constitute two landmark developmental stages that comprise considerable changes in neural cognition. However, very limited information from functional neuroimaging studies exists on the functional topological configuration of the human brain during specific developmental periods. In the present study, we utilized continuous resting-state functional near-infrared spectroscopy (rs-fNIRS) imaging data to examine topological changes in network organization during development from early childhood and early adolescence to adulthood. Our results showed that the properties of small-worldness and modularity were not significantly different across development, demonstrating the developmental maturity of important functional brain organization in early childhood. Intriguingly, young children had a significantly lower global efficiency than early adolescents and adults, which revealed that the integration of the distributed networks strengthens across the developmental stages underlying cognitive development. Moreover, local efficiency of young children and adolescents was significantly lower than that of adults, while there was no difference between these two younger groups. This finding demonstrated that functional segregation remained relatively steady from early childhood to early adolescence, and the brain in these developmental periods possesses no optimal network configuration. Furthermore, we found heterogeneous developmental patterns in the regional nodal properties in various brain regions, such as linear increased nodal properties in the frontal cortex, indicating increasing cognitive capacity over development. Collectively, our results demonstrated that significant topological changes in functional network organization occurred during these two critical developmental stages, and provided a novel insight into elucidating subtle changes in brain functional networks across development. Copyright

  3. The Development of Multiple Intelligence Capabilities for Early Childhood Development Center, Local Administration Organization in Chaiyaphum Province

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    Siphai, Sunan; Supandee, Terdsak; Raksapuk, Chunpit; Poopayang, Piangkhae; Kratoorerk, Sangsan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to promote multiple intelligence capabilities for Early Childhood Care Center of a Sub-district Administration Organization in Chaiyaphum Province. The sample applied were 61 children aging between 3 and 5 years old at Child Development Center, Tambon Ban Kok, Amphoe Chaturus, Chaiyaphum Province, who were selected…

  4. Organic cation rhodamines for screening organic cation transporters in early stages of drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, Malachy C; Oli, Angus; Esimone, Charles O; Agu, Remigius U

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of rhodamine-123, rhodamine-6G and rhodamine B as non-radioactive probes for characterizing organic cation transporters in respiratory cells. Fluorescent characteristics of the compounds were validated under standard in vitro drug transport conditions (buffers, pH, and light). Uptake/transport kinetics and intracellular accumulation of the compounds were investigated. Uptake/transport mechanisms were investigated by comparing the effect of pH, temperature, concentration, polarity, OCTs/OCTNs inhibitors/substrates, and metabolic inhibitors on the cationic dyes uptake in Calu-3 cells. Fluorescence stability and intensity of the compounds were altered by buffer composition, light, and pH. Uptake of the dyes was concentration-, temperature- and pH-dependent. OCTs/OCTNs inhibitors significantly reduced intracellular accumulation of the compounds. Whereas rhodamine-B uptake was sodium-dependent, pH had no effect on rhodamine-123 and rhodamine-6G uptake. Transport of the dyes across the cells was polarized: (AP→BL>BL→AP transport) and saturable: {V max =14.08±2.074, K m =1821±380.4 (rhodamine-B); V max =6.555±0.4106, K m =1353±130.4 (rhodamine-123) and V max =0.3056±0.01402, K m =702.9±60.97 (rhodamine-6G)}. The dyes were co-localized with MitoTracker®, the mitochondrial marker. Cationic rhodamines, especially rhodamine-B and rhodamine- 6G can be used as organic cation transporter substrates in respiratory cells. During such studies, buffer selection, pH and light exposure should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Impact of Ocean Acidification on Reproduction, Early Development and Settlement of Marine Organisms

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    Elizabeth A. Bailey

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the impact of warming and acidifying on oceans on the early development life history stages of invertebrates although difficult, is essential in order to anticipate the severity and consequences of future climate change. This review summarises the current literature and meta-analyses on the early life-history stages of invertebrates including fertilisation, larval development and the implications for dispersal and settlement of populations. Although fertilisation appears robust to near future predictions of ocean acidification, larval development is much more vulnerable and across invertebrate groups, evidence indicates that the impacts may be severe. This is especially for those many marine organisms which start to calcify in their larval and/or juvenile stages. Species-specificity and variability in responses and current gaps in the literature are highlighted, including the need for studies to investigate the total effects of climate change including the synergistic impact of temperature, and the need for long-term multigenerational experiments to determine whether vulnerable invertebrate species have the capacity to adapt to elevations in atmospheric CO2 over the next century.

  6. FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENT OF SOME ORGANS OF AIRBREATHING CATFISH (CLARIIDAE IN EARLY ONTOGENESIS

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    A. V. Pirog

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Airbreathing catfish (CLARIIDAE - is one of the most promising specie of artificial breeding. However, for the reproduction of this specie it is required to conduct appropriate studies. In particular, it is necessary to review the features of morphogenesis during early ontogeny of this type of fish. We investigated prelarvae of airbreathing catfish (CLARIIBAE in 2,3 and 4 days of life. In the embryos, the spinal cord was formed on the 2nd day of life. At this stage, organs of vision were sufficiently developed. On the 4th day, we found hyaline cartilage at the base of the gill arch, arcs were covered with gill filaments; we also discovered fully formed mesonephros, renal corpuscles, renal tubules and intratubular liquid in the kidneys. The heart of the embryo consisted of atrium and voluminous ventricle.Methods. The research of development of airbreathing catfish in early ontogenesis has been carried out on the basis of "RENTOP Agro-5" Ltd. under the conditions of RAS in the Krasnodar region in the spring – summer period of years 2013-14. For morphological analysis we used serial histological sections on prelarvae of 40 airbreathing catfish at age 2, 3 and 4 days developing normally and atypically. The research combines some complex biological methods: ichthyologic, histological, physiological. Materials for the research were handled with the methods of classical histology. Viewing and imaging of the sections were made using Mikmed 6 microscope with a digital camera for imaging and computer analysis.Results. The finding of the study has been the analysis of the morphological structure of airbreathing catfish during early ontogeny, which can contribute to improving the biotechnology of breeding of airbreathing catfish under RAS.Main conclusions. First, in the early ontogenesis of airbreathing catfish we have discovered heterochrony in the development of basic systems: rapidly developing central nervous system and the digestive system

  7. Effects of marine persistent organic pollutants on early life development and metamorphosis of echinoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs Anselmo, H.M.R.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents the development of three new bioassays for the detection of compounds disrupting the early development of echinoid larvae from hatching to metamorphosis, and the interference with cellular efflux pumps. These assays come in addition to the already existing sea urchin

  8. The development of functional network organization in early childhood and early adolescence: A resting-state fNIRS study

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Cai; Qi Dong; Haijing Niu

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood (7–8 years old) and early adolescence (11–12 years old) constitute two landmark developmental stages that comprise considerable changes in neural cognition. However, very limited information from functional neuroimaging studies exists on the functional topological configuration of the human brain during specific developmental periods. In the present study, we utilized continuous resting-state functional near-infrared spectroscopy (rs-fNIRS) imaging data to examine topological ...

  9. Organ In Vitro Culture: What Have We Learned about Early Kidney Development?

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    Aleksandra Rak-Raszewska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When Clifford Grobstein set out to study the inductive interaction between tissues in the developing embryo, he developed a method that remained important for the study of renal development until now. From the late 1950s on, in vitro cultivation of the metanephric kidney became a standard method. It provided an artificial environment that served as an open platform to study organogenesis. This review provides an introduction to the technique of organ culture, describes how the Grobstein assay and its variants have been used to study aspects of mesenchymal induction, and describes the search for natural and chemical inducers of the metanephric mesenchyme. The review also focuses on renal development, starting with ectopic budding of the ureteric bud, ureteric bud branching, and the generation of the nephron and presents the search for stem cells and renal progenitor cells that contribute to specific structures and tissues during renal development. It also presents the current use of Grobstein assay and its modifications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering today. Together, this review highlights the importance of ex vivo kidney studies as a way to acquire new knowledge, which in the future can and will be implemented for developmental biology and regenerative medicine applications.

  10. Early Programming by Protein Intake: The Effect of Protein on Adiposity Development and the Growth and Functionality of Vital Organs

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    Veronica Luque

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the role of protein intake on metabolic programming early in life. The observations that breastfeeding in infancy reduces the risk of being overweight and obese later in life and the differences in the protein content between formula milk and human milk have generated the early protein hypothesis. The present review focuses on a mechanistic approach to programmed adiposity and the growth and development of other organs by protein intake in infancy, which may be mediated by branched-chain amino acids, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 via the mammalian target of rapamycin. Observational studies and clinical trials have shown that lowering the protein content in infant and follow-on formulas may reduce the risk of becoming obese later in life. The recent body of evidence is currently being translated into new policies. Therefore, the evolution of European regulatory laws and recommendations by expert panels on the protein content of infant and follow-on formulas are also reviewed. Research gaps, such as the critical window for programming adiposity by protein intake, testing formulas with modified amino acids, and the long-term consequences of differences in protein intake on organ functionality among well-nourished infants, have been identified.

  11. Early changes within the lymphocyte population are associated with the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in trauma patients.

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    Manson, Joanna; Cole, Elaine; De'Ath, Henry D; Vulliamy, Paul; Meier, Ute; Pennington, Dan; Brohi, Karim

    2016-06-07

    Early survival following severe injury has been improved with refined resuscitation strategies. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is common among this fragile group of patients leading to prolonged hospital stay and late mortality. MODS after trauma is widely attributed to dysregulated inflammation but the precise mechanics of this response and its influence on organ injury are incompletely understood. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between early lymphocyte responses and the development of MODS during admission. During a 24-month period, trauma patients were recruited from an urban major trauma centre to an ongoing, observational cohort study. Admission blood samples were obtained within 2 h of injury and before in-hospital intervention, including blood transfusion. The study population was predominantly male with a blunt mechanism of injury. Lymphocyte subset populations including T helper, cytotoxic T cells, NK cells and γδ T cells were identified using flow cytometry. Early cytokine release and lymphocyte count during the first 7 days of admission were also examined. This study demonstrated that trauma patients who developed MODS had an increased population of NK dim cells (MODS vs no MODS: 22 % vs 13 %, p < 0.01) and reduced γδ-low T cells (MODS vs no MODS: 0.02 (0.01-0.03) vs 0.09 (0.06-0.12) × 10^9/L, p < 0.01) at admission. Critically injured patients who developed MODS (n = 27) had higher interferon gamma (IFN-γ) concentrations at admission, compared with patients of matched injury severity and shock (n = 60) who did not develop MODS (MODS vs no MODS: 4.1 (1.8-9.0) vs 1.0 (0.6-1.8) pg/ml, p = 0.01). Lymphopenia was observed within 24 h of injury and was persistent in those who developed MODS. Patients with a lymphocyte count of 0.5 × 10(9)/L or less at 48 h, had a 45 % mortality rate. This study provides evidence of lymphocyte activation within 2 h of injury, as demonstrated by

  12. Organs-on-Chips in Drug Development: The Importance of Involving Stakeholders in Early Health Technology Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkamp, Heleen H.T.; van der Meer, Andries Dirk; Hummel, J. Marjan; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Mummery, Christine Lindsay; Passier, Petrus Christianus Johannes Josephus; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2016-01-01

    Organs-on-chips are three-dimensional, microfluidic cell culture systems that simulate the function of tissues and organ subunits. Organ-on-chip systems are expected to contribute to drug candidate screening and the reduction of animal tests in preclinical drug development and may increase

  13. A genetic screen for modifiers of UFO meristem activity identifies three novel FUSED FLORAL ORGANS genes required for early flower development in Arabidopsis.

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    Levin, J Z; Fletcher, J C; Chen, X; Meyerowitz, E M

    1998-06-01

    In a screen to identify novel genes required for early Arabidopsis flower development, we isolated four independent mutations that enhance the Ufo phenotype toward the production of filamentous structures in place of flowers. The mutants fall into three complementation groups, which we have termed FUSED FLORAL ORGANS (FFO) loci. ffo mutants have specific defects in floral organ separation and/or positioning; thus, the FFO genes identify components of a boundary formation mechanism(s) acting between developing floral organ primordia. FFO1 and FFO3 have specific functions in cauline leaf/stem separation and in first- and third-whorl floral organ separation, with FFO3 likely acting to establish and FFO1 to maintain floral organ boundaries. FFO2 acts at early floral stages to regulate floral organ number and positioning and to control organ separation within and between whorls. Plants doubly mutant for two ffo alleles display additive phenotypes, indicating that the FFO genes may act in separate pathways. Plants doubly mutant for an ffo gene and for ufo, lfy, or clv3 reveal that the FFO genes play roles related to those of UFO and LFY in floral meristem initiation and that FFO2 and FFO3 may act to control cell proliferation late in inflorescence development.

  14. Surgeon Participation in Early Accountable Care Organizations.

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    Resnick, Matthew J; Graves, Amy J; Buntin, Melinda B; Richards, Michael R; Penson, David F

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to characterize the landscape of surgeon participation in early accountable care organizations (ACOs) and to identify specialty-, organization-, and market-specific factors associated with ACO participation. Despite rapid deployment of alternative payment models (APMs), little is known about the prevalence of surgeon participation, and key drivers behind surgeon participation in APMs. Using data from SK&A, a research firm, we evaluated the near universe of US practices to characterize ACO participation among 125,425 US surgeons in 2015. We fit multivariable logistic regression models to characterize key drivers of ACO participation, and more specifically, the interaction between ACO affiliation and organizational structure. Of 125,425 US surgeons, 27,956 (22.3%) participated in at least 1 ACO program in 2015. We observed heterogeneity in participation by subspecialty, with trauma and transplant reporting the highest rate of ACO enrollment (36% for both) and plastic surgeons reporting the lowest (12.9%) followed by ophthalmology (16.0%) and hand (18.6%). Surgeons in group practices and integrated systems were more likely to participate relative to those practicing independently (aOR 1.57, 95% CI 1.50, 1.64; aOR 4.87, 95% CI 4.68, 5.07, respectively). We observed a statistically significant interaction (P organization. Model-derived predicted probabilities revealed that, within each specialty, surgeons in integrated health systems had the highest predicted probabilities of ACO and those practicing independently generally had the lowest. We observed considerable variation in ACO enrollment among US surgeons, mediated at least in part by differences in practice organization. These data underscore the need for development of frameworks to characterize the strategic advantages and disadvantages associated with APM participation.

  15. Early development of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822), focusing on the ontogeny of selected organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.G.M.; Wuertz, S.; Mekkawy, Imam A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Kirschbaum, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic development of Clarias gariepinus was studied from oocyte activation to the end of endogenous feeding (164 h post-fertilization, 164 h-PF). The ontogeny of the eyes, the ear, the heart, the digestive tract and the notochord were described histologically: (i) eyes were not pigmented at

  16. Accounting organizing development tendencies

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    G.I. Lyakhovich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of accounting takes place under the influence of many factors. The study pays special attention to the impact of technological determinants on the process of organizing accountin. The carried-out analysis of scientists’ works allowed to determine the principal tendencies in the development of accounting organizing; these tendencies were expanded taking into account the development of technologies and innovations. It was found out the particular element, which undergo changes in the organization of accounting and the factors that prevent their further development for every tendency (the use of cloud technologies; a wide use of expert systems; a social media strategy in accounting; mobility among accounting personnel; outsourcing of accounting services, Internet things. The paper substantiates the shifts in functional duties of an accountant (the exclusion of data recording and intensification of analytical functions as a result of application of modern information and computer technologies. It was established that the amounts of accountants’ work with primary instruments will be reduced taking into account the possibilities of automatic preparation of such documents. The author substantiates the importance of the good knowledge in the field of information technologies while training accountants.

  17. [Early stages of development of Trypanosoma rotatorium (Mayer, 1843) from peripheral blood and internal organs of Anurans Bufo bufo (Linnaeus) and Rana sp. (Anura)].

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    Malysheva, M N

    2014-01-01

    The data on the fauna of trypanosomes of Anura of the Leningrad Province are given. The initial development stages of Trypanosoma rotatorium in peripheral blood and internal organs of the frog are described for the first time.

  18. Telomere lengthening early in development.

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    Liu, Lin; Bailey, Susan M; Okuka, Maja; Muñoz, Purificación; Li, Chao; Zhou, Lingjun; Wu, Chao; Czerwiec, Eva; Sandler, Laurel; Seyfang, Andreas; Blasco, Maria A; Keefe, David L

    2007-12-01

    Stem cells and cancer cells maintain telomere length mostly through telomerase. Telomerase activity is high in male germ line and stem cells, but is low or absent in mature oocytes and cleavage stage embryos, and then high again in blastocysts. How early embryos reset telomere length remains poorly understood. Here, we show that oocytes actually have shorter telomeres than somatic cells, but their telomeres lengthen remarkably during early cleavage development. Moreover, parthenogenetically activated oocytes also lengthen their telomeres, thus the capacity to elongate telomeres must reside within oocytes themselves. Notably, telomeres also elongate in the early cleavage embryos of telomerase-null mice, demonstrating that telomerase is unlikely to be responsible for the abrupt lengthening of telomeres in these cells. Coincident with telomere lengthening, extensive telomere sister-chromatid exchange (T-SCE) and colocalization of the DNA recombination proteins Rad50 and TRF1 were observed in early cleavage embryos. Both T-SCE and DNA recombination proteins decrease in blastocyst stage embryos, whereas telomerase activity increases and telomeres elongate only slowly. We suggest that telomeres lengthen during the early cleavage cycles following fertilization through a recombination-based mechanism, and that from the blastocyst stage onwards, telomerase only maintains the telomere length established by this alternative mechanism.

  19. Organizers in Development.

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    Anderson, Claire; Stern, Claudio D

    2016-01-01

    An "organizer" is formally defined as a region, or group of cells in an embryo that can both induce (change the fate) and pattern (generate an organized set of structures) adjacent embryonic cells. To date, about four such regions have been demonstrated: the primary or Spemann organizer (Hensen's node in amniotes), the notochord, the zone of polarizing activity of the limb bud, and the mid-hindbrain boundary. Here we review the evidence for these and compare them with a few other regions which have been proposed to represent other organizers and we speculate on why so few such regions have been discovered. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Organizing the early detection of cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamdavaa, N.

    1995-01-01

    In early detection and diagnosing cancers: 1. organizing the preventive different examinations among the population in the servicing sphere, involving the family doctors to them. 2.Discharging the patients from hospitals after making the complex analysis to negate cancers and consulting with gynaecologist regardless the diagnosis of female in-patients aged over 20 who were hospitalized. 3.Making the analysis to negate cancers to the in-patients with indefinite diagnosis for the period of 14 days since their hospitalization and also the in-patients, who were shivered indefinitely.4.Making the analysis to negate cancers to all persons, who are first visited at out-patient clinics in the given year, who aged over 40, consulting the female patient, who aged over 25 with gynaecologist and making the USV examination to the persons, who were ill with infectious hepatitis now virus carriers at least 2 times for year

  1. [Overview of organic agriculture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao Mei; Yu, Hong Jun; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Wei Jie

    2016-04-22

    This paper introduced the concepts of organic agriculture as defined by different international organizations, origin and theoretical development of organic agriculture, as well as its developing trajectory in China (i.e. a late start followed by rapid growth compared to developed countries). The differences between domestic and international organic agriculture were illustrated by scale, crop types, production standards, inputs and planting techniques. Constraints limiting improvements to organic agriculture in aspects of standards, technology, marketing, certification, environmental pollution, enterprise reputation, and national policies were discussed. Future directions and strategies for developing healthy organic agriculture in China were provided.

  2. Regulation of fertilization and early seed development.

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    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Doughty, James

    2014-04-01

    Plant reproduction meetings often deal either with pre-fertilization processes such as flowering and pollen biology or post-fertilization processes such as embryogenesis and seed development. The Biochemical Society Focused Meeting entitled 'Regulation of Fertilization and Early Seed Development' was organized to close this gap and to discuss mechanistic similarities and future research directions in the reproductive processes shortly before, during and after fertilization. As an outcome of the workshop, invited speakers and a few selected oral communication presenters contributed focused reviews and technical articles for this issue of Biochemical Society Transactions. We provide here a short overview of the contents and highlights of the various articles.

  3. Cognitive Development in Early Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Chari; Elkind, David

    Some studies of early readers are discussed. It is pointed out that study of early readers has relevance for practical and theoretical issues in psychology and education. Of interest in this document are the following questions: (1) Are there any special talents or traits distinguishing early from non-early readers? (2) Do children who read early…

  4. Potential climatic impact of organic haze on early Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenkopf, Christa A; Freedman, Miriam A; Beaver, Melinda R; Toon, Owen B; Tolbert, Margaret A

    2011-03-01

    We have explored the direct and indirect radiative effects on climate of organic particles likely to have been present on early Earth by measuring their hygroscopicity and cloud nucleating ability. The early Earth analog aerosol particles were generated via ultraviolet photolysis of an early Earth analog gas mixture, which was designed to mimic possible atmospheric conditions before the rise of oxygen. An analog aerosol for the present-day atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan was tested for comparison. We exposed the early Earth aerosol to a range of relative humidities (RHs). Water uptake onto the aerosol was observed to occur over the entire RH range tested (RH=80-87%). To translate our measurements of hygroscopicity over a specific range of RHs into their water uptake ability at any RH 100%, we relied on the hygroscopicity parameter κ, developed by Petters and Kreidenweis. We retrieved κ=0.22 ±0.12 for the early Earth aerosol, which indicates that the humidified aerosol (RH 100%). In regions where the haze was dominant, it is expected that low particle concentrations, once activated into cloud droplets, would have created short-lived, optically thin clouds. Such clouds, if predominant on early Earth, would have had a lower albedo than clouds today, thereby warming the planet relative to current-day clouds. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  5. College and Career Development Organizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    National High School Center, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The National High School Center has created a college and career development organizer to synthesize and organize an increasingly complicated and crowded field of college and career readiness initiatives. The organizer, composed of three strands, can be used to map the efforts of state education agencies (SEAs) and local education agencies (LEAs)…

  6. Trends in organization development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allegro, J.T.; Steensma, H.O.; Allegro, J.T.; Steensma, H.O.

    1985-01-01

    Organisation Development (OD) is an extraordinarly complex phenomenon of human society in which in the last few years there have been some interesting developments. Without making any claim to completeness the following topics would seem to have been a focus of interest in recent research on the

  7. Glossary of Organization Development Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krepner-Tregoe and Associates, Inc., Princeton, NJ.

    Ranging from Action Sequence to Zero Defects, this Kepner-Tregoe glossary defines 194 terms (including some specifically Kepner-Tregoe) relevant to the fields of management development, organization development, and industrial training. (LY)

  8. Characterization of the cell polarity gene crumbs during the early development and maintenance of the squid-vibrio light organ symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyer, Suzanne M; Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A C; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J

    2017-11-01

    The protein Crumbs is a determinant of apical-basal cell polarity and plays a role in apoptosis of epithelial cells and their protection against photodamage. Using the squid-vibrio system, a model for development of symbiotic partnerships, we examined the modulation of the crumbs gene in host epithelial tissues during initiation and maintenance of the association. The extracellular luminous symbiont Vibrio fischeri colonizes the apical surfaces of polarized epithelia in deep crypts of the Euprymna scolopes light organ. During initial colonization each generation, symbiont harvesting is potentiated by the biochemical and biophysical activity of superficial ciliated epithelia, which are several cell layers from the crypt epithelia where the symbionts reside. Within hours of crypt colonization, the symbionts induce the cell death mediated regression of the remote superficial ciliated fields. However, the crypt cells directly interacting with the symbiont are protected from death. In the squid host, we characterized the gene and encoded protein during light organ morphogenesis and in response to symbiosis. Features of the protein sequence and structure, phylogenetic relationships, and localization patterns in the eye supported assignment of the squid protein to the Crumbs family. In situ hybridization revealed that the crumbs transcript shows opposite expression at the onset of symbiosis in the two different regions of the light organ: elevated levels in the superficial epithelia were attenuated whereas low levels in the crypt epithelia were turned up. Although a rhythmic association in which the host controls the symbiont population over the day-night cycle begins in the juvenile upon colonization, cycling of crumbs was evident only in the adult organ with peak expression coincident with maximum symbiont population and luminescence. Our results provide evidence that crumbs responds to symbiont cues that induce developmental apoptosis and to symbiont population

  9. The Development of Organized Rehearsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weist, Richard M.; Crawford, Jack

    1977-01-01

    In a study of development of organization strategies in rehearsal processes, children in the first, third, and fifth grades were exposed to a memory task which involved multiple overt rehearsal and recall phases. (SB)

  10. NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OF ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT

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    Денис Антонович БУШУЕВ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear behavior of organizations in development projects is considered. The nonlinear behavior is initiated in the growth of organizations and requires a restructuring of governance in identifying dysfunctions. Such a restructuring is needed in the area of soft components, determining the organizational levels of competence in the management of projects, programs, portfolios and heads of the Project Management Office. An important component of the strategic development of the organization is the proposed concept for formation and management of development programs in the context according to their life cycle. It should take into account the non-linear behavior of the soft components of the system and violation of functional processes of the organization. The specific management syndromes of projects and programs are considered. Such as syndromes time management project linked to the singular points of the project. These syndromes are "shift to the right", "point of no return", "braking at the end of the project" and others.

  11. Self-Organization of Stem Cell Colonies and of Early Mammalian Embryos: Recent Experiments Shed New Light on the Role of Autonomy vs. External Instructions in Basic Body Plan Development

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    Hans-Werner Denker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available “Organoids”, i.e., complex structures that can develop when pluripotent or multipotent stem cells are maintained in three-dimensional cultures, have become a new area of interest in stem cell research. Hopes have grown that when focussing experimentally on the mechanisms behind this type of in vitro morphogenesis, research aiming at tissue and organ replacements can be boosted. Processes leading to the formation of organoids in vitro are now often addressed as self-organization, a term referring to the formation of complex tissue architecture in groups of cells without depending on specific instruction provided by other cells or tissues. The present article focuses on recent reports using the term self-organization in the context of studies on embryogenesis, specifically addressing pattern formation processes in human blastocysts attaching in vitro, or in colonies of pluripotent stem cells (“gastruloids”. These morphogenetic processes are of particular interest because, during development in vivo, they lead to basic body plan formation and individuation. Since improved methodologies like those employed by the cited authors became available, early embryonic pattern formation/self-organization appears to evolve now as a research topic of its own. This review discusses concepts concerning the involved mechanisms, focussing on autonomy of basic body plan development vs. dependence on external signals, as possibly provided by implantation in the uterus, and it addresses biological differences between an early mammalian embryo, e.g., a morula, and a cluster of pluripotent stem cells. It is concluded that, apart from being of considerable biological interest, the described type of research needs to be contemplated carefully with regard to ethical implications when performed with human cells.

  12. The Future of Our Organizations: Students and Early Career Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushko, Oksana; Wang, Sherry C.; Warrior, Anitra M.

    2012-01-01

    This response focuses on the significance of ethnic minority psychology organizations and other related membership structures to early career psychologists (ECPs) and counseling psychology students. We discuss not only reasons for why students and ECPs may not be joining professional organizations, but also strategies for recruiting, supporting,…

  13. Organic chemistry in a CO2 rich early Earth atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Benjamin; Carrasco, Nathalie; Millan, Maëva; Vettier, Ludovic; Szopa, Cyril

    2017-12-01

    The emergence of life on the Earth has required a prior organic chemistry leading to the formation of prebiotic molecules. The origin and the evolution of the organic matter on the early Earth is not yet firmly understood. Several hypothesis, possibly complementary, are considered. They can be divided in two categories: endogenous and exogenous sources. In this work we investigate the contribution of a specific endogenous source: the organic chemistry occurring in the ionosphere of the early Earth where the significant VUV contribution of the young Sun involved an efficient formation of reactive species. We address the issue whether this chemistry can lead to the formation of complex organic compounds with CO2 as only source of carbon in an early atmosphere made of N2, CO2 and H2, by mimicking experimentally this type of chemistry using a low pressure plasma reactor. By analyzing the gaseous phase composition, we strictly identified the formation of H2O, NH3, N2O and C2N2. The formation of a solid organic phase is also observed, confirming the possibility to trigger organic chemistry in the upper atmosphere of the early Earth. The identification of Nitrogen-bearing chemical functions in the solid highlights the possibility for an efficient ionospheric chemistry to provide prebiotic material on the early Earth.

  14. DEVELOPING A VIRTUAL ORGANIZATION: SERENDIPITY OR STRATEGY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Gregor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of how virtual organizations that yield strategic advantage are formed. The study uses grounded theory to investigate the organizational processes and structure that facilitate the formation of a successful virtual organization. We present a case study of one virtual organization, a university in Australia, which has gained strategic advantage from alliances supported by information and communication technologies (ICT. The university is now the fastest growing university in Australia in terms of international student enrolments. The case study suggests that this commercial success is based on responsiveness to environmental conditions and organizational factors that include a long history as a distance education provider (an early form of virtualization, sophisticated information communication technologies, and a culture of innovation and risk-taking. The development processes observed included evolutionary growth, decisive actions and management leadership at opportune moments, and examples of technological and entrepreneurial innovations led by individuals. Significant decision making occurred outside formal strategic planning processes.

  15. ECR-MAPK regulation in liver early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiu-Ju; Zhuo, Hexian

    2014-01-01

    Early growth is connected to a key link between embryonic development and aging. In this paper, liver gene expression profiles were assayed at postnatal day 22 and week 16 of age. Meanwhile another independent animal experiment and cell culture were carried out for validation. Significance analysis of microarrays, qPCR verification, drug induction/inhibition assays, and metabonomics indicated that alpha-2u globulin (extracellular region)-socs2 (-SH2-containing signals/receptor tyrosine kinases)-ppp2r2a/pik3c3 (MAPK signaling)-hsd3b5/cav2 (metabolism/organization) plays a vital role in early development. Taken together, early development of male rats is ECR and MAPK-mediated coordination of cancer-like growth and negative regulations. Our data represent the first comprehensive description of early individual development, which could be a valuable basis for understanding the functioning of the gene interaction network of infant development.

  16. ECR-MAPK Regulation in Liver Early Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Ju Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early growth is connected to a key link between embryonic development and aging. In this paper, liver gene expression profiles were assayed at postnatal day 22 and week 16 of age. Meanwhile another independent animal experiment and cell culture were carried out for validation. Significance analysis of microarrays, qPCR verification, drug induction/inhibition assays, and metabonomics indicated that alpha-2u globulin (extracellular region-socs2 (-SH2-containing signals/receptor tyrosine kinases-ppp2r2a/pik3c3 (MAPK signaling-hsd3b5/cav2 (metabolism/organization plays a vital role in early development. Taken together, early development of male rats is ECR and MAPK-mediated coordination of cancer-like growth and negative regulations. Our data represent the first comprehensive description of early individual development, which could be a valuable basis for understanding the functioning of the gene interaction network of infant development.

  17. Transforming early childhood education for sustainable development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the ways in which early childhood education needs to be transformed for sustainable development. These ways include teaching children environmental security through play, personal hygiene, appropriate waste use and disposal, and nature awareness. It was recommended that early childhood ...

  18. Stable isotopic investigations of early development in extant and fossil chambered cephalopods I. Oxygen isotopic composition of eggwater and carbon isotopic composition of siphuncle organic matter in Nautilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Kimberley C.; DeNiro, Michael J.; Ward, Peter D.

    1985-12-01

    Eggwaters from the chambered cephalopod Nautilus are depleted in both 18O and deuterium relative to ambient seawater. Eggwaters from six other species, including the related chambered cephalopod Sepia, do not show such depletion. These observations indicate that the previously observed step towards more positive δ 18O values in calcium carbonate laid down after Nautilus hatches, relative to carbonate precipitated prior to hatching, can be explained by equilibration of the carbonate with water in the egg before hatching and with seawater after hatching. The presence of an oxygen isotope difference between eggwater and seawater for Nautilus and its absence for Sepia suggest that hatching will be recorded in the δ 18O values of shell carbonates for some but not all extinct and extant chambered cephalopods. The δ 13C values of the organic fraction of the siphuncle in Nautilus do not show any consistent pattern with regard to the time of formation before or after hatching. This observation suggests that the minimum in δ 13C values previously observed for calcium carbonate precipitated after Nautilus hatches is not caused by a change in food sources once the animal becomes free-swimming, as has been suggested.

  19. Early development of the aplacophoran mollusc Chaetoderma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    The early development of the trochophore larva of the aplacophoran Chaetoderma nitidulum (Mollusca: Caudofoveata = Chaetodermomorpha) is described using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and using fluorescence staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy of the muscle system...

  20. Early development of the human pelvic diaphragm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Wijnandus Franciscus Robertus Maria

    2006-01-01

    The last decade an increasing interest in the pelvic floor can be observed in medical sciences. The lack of data on the development of the human pelvic floor is striking. The early development of the human pelvic diaphragm was studied. Materials and methodsUse was made of 38 human embryos and

  1. Lessons from early experience in reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W.

    1976-09-01

    This paper deals with several issues in U.S. reactor development and demonstration experience. The focus is on the period between 1946 and 1963 during which the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) guided early reactor research and development (R and D) and conducted the Power Reactor Demonstration Program

  2. Early executive function predicts reasoning development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E; Burchinal, Margaret R

    2013-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is a core cognitive skill that distinguishes humans from all other species and contributes to general fluid intelligence, creativity, and adaptive learning capacities. Yet its origins are not well understood. In the study reported here, we analyzed large-scale longitudinal data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test predictors of growth in analogical-reasoning skill from third grade to adolescence. Our results suggest an integrative resolution to the theoretical debate regarding contributory factors arising from smaller-scale, cross-sectional experiments on analogy development. Children with greater executive-function skills (both composite and inhibitory control) and vocabulary knowledge in early elementary school displayed higher scores on a verbal analogies task at age 15 years, even after adjusting for key covariates. We posit that knowledge is a prerequisite to analogy performance, but strong executive-functioning resources during early childhood are related to long-term gains in fundamental reasoning skills.

  3. Early Childhood Development and E-Learning in Africa: The Early Childhood Development Virtual University Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the development and evaluation of the graduate-level Early Childhood Development Virtual University (ECDVU) programme in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2001 through to 2004. It outlines the history of the ECDVU and the establishing of a Sub-Saharan programme for future leaders in the early childhood field guided by the key principle…

  4. Electrical energy sources for organic synthesis on the early earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyba, Christopher; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    It is pointed out that much of the contemporary origin-of-life research uses the original estimates of Miller and Urey (1959) for terrestrial energy dissipation by lightning and coronal discharges being equal to 2 x 10 to the 19th J/yr and 6 x 10 to the 19th J/yr, respectively. However, data from experiments that provide analogues to naturally-occurring lightning and coronal discharges indicate that lightning energy yields for organic synthesis (nmole/J) are about one order of magnitude higher than the coronal discharge yields. This suggests that, on early earth, organic production by lightning may have dominated that due to coronal emission. New values are recommended for lightning and coronal discharge dissipation rates on the early earth, 1 x 10 to the 18th J/yr and 5 x 10 to the 17th J/yr, respectively.

  5. Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in…

  6. Early and Late Rate of Force Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Jesper L; Zebis, Mette K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (<100 ms) and later phases (>200 ms) of rising muscle...

  7. Early blindness alters the spatial organization of verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini, Roberto; Mattioni, Stefania; Collignon, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    Several studies suggest that serial order in working memory (WM) is grounded on space. For a list of ordered items held in WM, items at the beginning of the list are associated with the left side of space and items at the end of the list with the right side. This suggests that maintaining items in verbal WM is performed in strong analogy to writing these items down on a physical whiteboard for later consultation (The Mental Whiteboard Hypothesis). What drives this spatial mapping of ordered series in WM remains poorly understood. In the present study we tested whether visual experience is instrumental in establishing the link between serial order in WM and spatial processing. We tested early blind (EB), late blind (LB) and sighted individuals in an auditory WM task. Replicating previous studies, left-key responses were faster for early items in the list whereas later items facilitated right-key responses in the sighted group. The same effect was observed in LB individuals. In contrast, EB participants did not show any association between space and serial position in WM. These results suggest that early visual experience plays a critical role in linking ordered items in WM and spatial representations. The analogical spatial structure of WM may depend in part on the actual experience of using spatially organized devices (e.g., notes, whiteboards) to offload WM. These practices are largely precluded to EB individuals, who instead rely to mnemonic devices that are less spatially organized (e.g., recordings, vocal notes). The way we habitually organize information in the external world may bias the way we organize information in our WM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-07

    The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis of Organics in the Early Solar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Natasha M.; Manning, S.; Nuth, J. A., III

    2007-10-01

    It is unknown what process or processes made the organics that are found or detected in extraterrestrial materials. One process that forms organics are Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) reactions. Fischer-Tropsch type synthesis produces complex hydrocarbons by hydrogenating carbon monoxide via surface mediated reactions. The products of these reactions have been well-studied using `natural’ catalysts [1] and calculations of the efficiency of FTT synthesis in the Solar Nebula suggest that these types of reactions could make significant contributions to material near three AU [2]. We use FTT synthesis to coat Fe-silicate amorphous grains with organic material to simulate the chemistry in the early Solar Nebula. These coatings are composed of macromolecular organic phases [3]. Previous work also showed that as the grains became coated, Haber-Bosch type reactions took place resulting in nitrogen-bearing organics [4]. Our experiments consist of circulating CO, N2, and H2 gas through Fe- amorphous silicate grains that are maintained at a specific temperature in a closed system. The gases are passed through an FTIR spectrometer and are measured to monitor the reaction progress. Samples are analyzed using FTIR, and GCMS (including pyrolysis) and extraction techniques are used to analyze the organic coatings. These experiments show that these types of reactions are an effective means to produce complex hydrocarbons. We present the analysis of the produced organics (solid and gas phase) and the change in the production rate of several compounds as the grains become coated. Organics generated by this technique could represent the carbonaceous material incorporated in comets and meteorites. References: [1] Hayatsu and Anders 1981. Topics in Current Chemistry 99:1-37. [2] Kress and Tielens 2001. MAPS 36:75-91. [3] Johnson et al. 2004. #1876. 35th LPSC. [4] Hill and Nuth 2003. Astrobiology 3:291-304. This work was supported by a grant from NASA.

  10. QCD development in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, N. A., E-mail: gromov@dm.komisc.ru [Komi Science Center of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Mathematics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The high-energy limit of Quantum Chromodynamics is generated by the contraction of its gauge groups. Contraction parameters are taken identical with those of the Electroweak Model and tend to zero when energy increases. At the infinite energy limit all quarks lose masses and have only one color degree of freedom. The limit model represents the development of Quantum Chromodynamics in the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of several milliseconds.

  11. Diagnosing Organization-Environment "Fit": Implications for Organization Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarro, John J.

    1974-01-01

    This article has attempted to: (1) describe several dimensions of organization-environment fit; (2) describe some concepts which can be used in diagnosing the degree to which a school system's organization matches the demands and needs of its environment; (3) present some implications of such a diagnosis for OD [organizational development]…

  12. APECS: A Network for Polar Early Career Scientist Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderlin, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Researchers (APECS) is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in the polar regions, alpine regions and the wider Cryosphere. APECS is a scientific, non-profit organization with free individual membership that aims to stimulate research collaborations and develop effective future leaders in polar research, education, and outreach. APECS grew out of the 4th International Polar Year (2007-08), which emphasized the need to stimulate and nurture the next generation of scientists in order to improve the understanding and communication of the polar regions and its global connections. The APECS organizational structure includes a Council and an elected Executive Committee that are supported by a Directorate. These positions are open to all individual members through a democratic process. The APECS Directorate is funded by the Norwegian Research Council, the University of Tromsø and the Norwegian Polar Institute and is hosted by the University of Tromsø. Early career scientists benefit from a range of activities hosted/organized by APECS. Every year, numerous activities are run with partner organizations and in conjunction with major polar conferences and meetings. In-person and online panels and workshops focus on a range of topics, from developing field skills to applying for a job after graduate school. Career development webinars are hosted each fall and topical research webinars are hosted throughout the year and archived online (http://www.apecs.is). The APECS website also contains abundant information on polar news, upcoming conferences and meetings, and job postings for early career scientists. To better respond to members' needs, APECS has national/regional committees that are linked to the international overarching organization. Many of these committees organize regional meetings or

  13. Cometary delivery of organic molecules to the early earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyba, Christopher F.; Thomas, Paul J.; Sagan, Carl; Brookshaw, Leigh

    1990-01-01

    It has long been speculated that earth accreted prebiotic organic molecules important for the origins of life from impacts of carbonaceous asteroids and comets during the period of heavy bombardment 4.5 x 10 to the 9th to 3.8 x 10 to the 9th years ago. A comprehensive treatment of comet-asteroid interaction with the atmosphere, surface impact, and resulting organic pyrolysis demonstrates that organics will not survive impacts at velocities greater than about 10 kilometers per second and that even comets and asteroids as small as 100 meters in radius cannot be aerobraked to below this velocity in 1-bar atmospheres. However, for plausible dense (10-bar carbon dioxide) early atmospheres, it is found that 4.5 x 10 to the 9th years ago earth was accreting intact cometary organics at a rate of at least about 10 to the 6th to 10 to the 7th kilograms per year, a flux that thereafter declined with a half-life of about 10 to the 8th years. These results may be put in context by comparison with terrestrial oceanic and total biomasses, about 3 x 10 to the 12th kilograms and about 6 x 10 to the 14th kilograms, respectively.

  14. Self-organizing periodicity in development: organ positioning in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Neha; Heisler, Marcus G

    2018-02-08

    Periodic patterns during development often occur spontaneously through a process of self-organization. While reaction-diffusion mechanisms are often invoked, other types of mechanisms that involve cell-cell interactions and mechanical buckling have also been identified. Phyllotaxis, or the positioning of plant organs, has emerged as an excellent model system to study the self-organization of periodic patterns. At the macro scale, the regular spacing of organs on the growing plant shoot gives rise to the typical spiral and whorled arrangements of plant organs found in nature. In turn, this spacing relies on complex patterns of cell polarity that involve feedback between a signaling molecule - the plant hormone auxin - and its polar, cell-to-cell transport. Here, we review recent progress in understanding phyllotaxis and plant cell polarity and highlight the development of new tools that can help address the remaining gaps in our understanding. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Association of Polar Early Career Scientists: a model for experiential learning in professional development for students and early career researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A. C.; Hindshaw, R. S.; Fugmann, G.; Mariash, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists was established by early career researchers during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year as an organization for early career researchers in the polar and cryospheric sciences. APECS works to promote early career researchers through soft-skills training in both research and outreach activities, through advocating for including early career researchers in all levels of the scientific process and scientific management, and through supporting a world-wide network of researchers in varied fields. APECS is lead by early career researchers; this self-driven model has proved to be an effective means for developing the leadership, management, and communication skills that are essential in the sciences, and has shown to be sustainable even in a community where frequent turn-over is inherent to the members. Since its inception, APECS has reached over 5,500 members in more than 80 countries, and we have placed more than 50 early career researchers on working groups and steering committees with organizations around the world in the last two years alone. The close partnerships that APECS has with national and international organizations exposes members to both academic and alternative career paths, including those at the science-policy interface. This paper describes APECS's approach to experiential learning in professional development and the best practices identified over our nearly ten years as an organization.

  16. Activated ovarian endothelial cells promote early follicular development and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedem, Alon; Aelion-Brauer, Anate; Guo, Peipei; Wen, Duancheng; Ding, Bi-Sen; Lis, Raphael; Cheng, Du; Sandler, Vladislav M; Rafii, Shahin; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-09-19

    New data suggests that endothelial cells (ECs) elaborate essential "angiocrine factors". The aim of this study is to investigate the role of activated ovarian endothelial cells in early in-vitro follicular development. Mouse ovarian ECs were isolated using magnetic cell sorting or by FACS and cultured in serum free media. After a constitutive activation of the Akt pathway was initiated, early follicles (50-150 um) were mechanically isolated from 8-day-old mice and co-cultured with these activated ovarian endothelial cells (AOEC) (n = 32), gel (n = 24) or within matrigel (n = 27) in serum free media for 14 days. Follicular growth, survival and function were assessed. After 6 passages, flow cytometry showed 93% of cells grown in serum-free culture were VE-cadherin positive, CD-31 positive and CD 45 negative, matching the known EC profile. Beginning on day 4 of culture, we observed significantly higher follicular and oocyte growth rates in follicles co-cultured with AOECs compared with follicles on gel or matrigel. After 14 days of culture, 73% of primary follicles and 83% of secondary follicles co-cultured with AOEC survived, whereas the majority of follicles cultured on gel or matrigel underwent atresia. This is the first report of successful isolation and culture of ovarian ECs. We suggest that co-culture with activated ovarian ECs promotes early follicular development and survival. This model is a novel platform for the in vitro maturation of early follicles and for the future exploration of endothelial-follicular communication. In vitro development of early follicles necessitates a complex interplay of growth factors and signals required for development. Endothelial cells (ECs) may elaborate essential "angiocrine factors" involved in organ regeneration. We demonstrate that co-culture with ovarian ECs enables culture of primary and early secondary mouse ovarian follicles.

  17. Early androgen exposure and human gender development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Spencer, Debra

    2015-01-01

    During early development, testosterone plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain and has enduring influences on behavior. Testosterone exerts these influences at times when the testes are active, as evidenced by higher concentrations of testosterone in developing male than in developing female animals. This article critically reviews the available evidence regarding influences of testosterone on human gender-related development. In humans, testosterone is elevated in males from about weeks 8 to 24 of gestation and then again during early postnatal development. Individuals exposed to atypical concentrations of testosterone or other androgenic hormones prenatally, for example, because of genetic conditions or because their mothers were prescribed hormones during pregnancy, have been consistently found to show increased male-typical juvenile play behavior, alterations in sexual orientation and gender identity (the sense of self as male or female), and increased tendencies to engage in physically aggressive behavior. Studies of other behavioral outcomes following dramatic androgen abnormality prenatally are either too small in their numbers or too inconsistent in their results, to provide similarly conclusive evidence. Studies relating normal variability in testosterone prenatally to subsequent gender-related behavior have produced largely inconsistent results or have yet to be independently replicated. For studies of prenatal exposures in typically developing individuals, testosterone has been measured in single samples of maternal blood or amniotic fluid. These techniques may not be sufficiently powerful to consistently detect influences of testosterone on behavior, particularly in the relatively small samples that have generally been studied. The postnatal surge in testosterone in male infants, sometimes called mini-puberty, may provide a more accessible opportunity for measuring early androgen exposure during typical development. This

  18. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establi......BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand...... the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. RESULTS: Our analysis shows...... that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we...

  19. Development of Life on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable

  20. Brain anatomical networks in early human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yong; Shi, Feng; Smith, Jeffrey Keith; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2011-02-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that human brain networks have economic small-world topology and modular organization, enabling efficient information transfer among brain regions. However, it remains largely unknown how the small-world topology and modular organization of human brain networks emerge and develop. Using longitudinal MRI data of 28 healthy pediatric subjects, collected at their ages of 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years, we analyzed development patterns of brain anatomical networks derived from morphological correlations of brain regional volumes. The results show that the brain network of 1-month-olds has the characteristically economic small-world topology and nonrandom modular organization. The network's cost efficiency increases with the brain development to 1 year and 2 years, so does the modularity, providing supportive evidence for the hypothesis that the small-world topology and the modular organization of brain networks are established during early brain development to support rapid synchronization and information transfer with minimal rewiring cost, as well as to balance between local processing and global integration of information. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. How Early Hormones Shape Gender Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Beltz, Adriene M.

    2015-01-01

    Many important psychological characteristics show sex differences, and are influenced by sex hormones at different developmental periods. We focus on the role of sex hormones in early development, particularly the differential effects of prenatal androgens on aspects of gender development. Increasing evidence confirms that prenatal androgens have facilitative effects on male-typed activity interests and engagement (including child toy preferences and adult careers), and spatial abilities, but relatively minimal effects on gender identity. Recent emphasis has been directed to the psychological mechanisms underlying these effects (including sex differences in propulsive movement, and androgen effects on interest in people versus things), and neural substrates of androgen effects (including regional brain volumes, and neural responses to mental rotation, sexually arousing stimuli, emotion, and reward). Ongoing and planned work is focused on understanding the ways in which hormones act jointly with the social environment across time to produce varying trajectories of gender development, and clarifying mechanisms by which androgens affect behaviors. Such work will be facilitated by applying lessons from other species, and by expanding methodology. Understanding hormonal influences on gender development enhances knowledge of psychological development generally, and has important implications for basic and applied questions, including sex differences in psychopathology, women’s underrepresentation in science and math, and clinical care of individuals with variations in gender expression. PMID:26688827

  2. Coastal Marsh Longevity, Ecological Succession, and Organic Carbon Dynamics During Early Holocene Sea-Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, L.; Schreiner, K. M.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Tornqvist, T. E.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal marsh environments perform essential ecosystem services, including nutrient filtering, soil organic matter storage, and storm surge abatement, yet much is still unknown about their formation and fate under periods of sea-level change. During the early Holocene (7-10 ka), rapid sea-level rise in coastal Louisiana was one of the primary controls over marsh development and longevity. Here, we investigate plant community composition and succession and soil organic matter storage in early Holocene coastal marshes in Louisiana using bulk elemental ratios, lignin phenol biomarkers and stable isotopes from peat layers. Sediment cores were collected in southeastern Louisiana and contain a record of an early Holocene transgressive sea-level sequence 16-25 m below present sea-level. The sedimentary record consists of an immature paleosol overlain by basal peat that accumulated in an estuarine marsh, overlain by marine lagoonal muds. A re-established marsh peat is present 1-4 m above the initial transition to marine conditions, indicating a sequence of marsh development, sea-level rise and onset of marine conditions, and then further marsh development as the rate of relative sea-level rise decelerated. Plant community composition in coastal marshes was determined through cupric oxide oxidation and lignin-phenol and non-lignin-phenol biomarker abundances. The degradation state of soil organic matter and the specific source of stabilized organic matter within the sedimentary peats were determined through lignin-phenol biomarker ratios. Organic matter sources ranged from terrestrial to marine over the course of sea-level rise, and different sites showed different amounts of marine organic matter influence and different levels of terrestrial organic matter degradation. These results have important implications for reconstructing the response of coastal marshes and their plant communities to accelerated rates of sea-level rise projected through 2100.

  3. Early development of grateloupia turuturu (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaoge; Jiang, Chunmei; Wang, Shasha; Wei, Xiaojiao; Zhao, Fengjuan

    2012-03-01

    Grateloupia turuturu is a commercial red alga with potential value in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. To supplement information on its life history and verify whether carpospores can be used for seedling culture, early development of G. turuturu was investigated under culture conditions (27°C, 10-13 μol/(m2·s) in irradiance, photoperiod 10:14 h L:D). Three physiological stages were recognized by continuous microscopic observation: division stage, discoid crust stage, and juvenile seedling stage. At the beginning of the division stage, the carpospores developed germ tubes into which the carpospore protoplasm was evacuated, and then the carpospore protoplasm in the germ tubes began to divide continuously until discoid crusts formed. Finally, upright thalli appeared on the discoid crusts and developed into juvenile seedlings. It took about 60 days for carpospores to develop into juvenile seedlings. The growth parameters, including germination rate for carpospores and discoid crust diameter, were recorded. These results contribute more information on the life cycle, and at the same time are of great significance in the scaling-up of artificial seedling cultures of G. turuturu.

  4. Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) Sunsetted/For Reference ... page is not being updated . The Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) began as the ...

  5. Development Internal Problems of Shanghay Cooperation Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Y. Kolegova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main internal problems of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Particular attention is paid to the conflict of interests of the participating countries, as well as identifying obstacles to strengthen the organization and increase its influence in the international arena. The international organizations are created by the states to meet mutual problems in the course of interstate relations requiring regular cooperation mechanism. Given the background of the Organization, it is important to emphasize that the main reason for the establishment of the Shanghai organization was the need for the united front against the strengthening of the region at the turn of centuries against dangerous trends of terrorism, extremism, separatism, the growth of organized crime. Despite the conflict of interests and the internal and external development challenges thirteen-year history of evolution of the SCO, to some extent proves its effectiveness, moreover, there are the preconditions for its consistent transition to a more comprehensive organization.

  6. Early Vascular Ageing - A Concept in Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Nilsson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a prevalent condition in the elderly, often associated with metabolic disturbance and type 2 diabetes. For a number of years, research dedicated to understand atherosclerosis dominated, and for many good reasons, this pathophysiological process being proximal to the CVD events. In recent years, research has been devoted to an earlier stage of vascular pathology named arteriosclerosis (arterial stiffness) and the new concept of early vascular ageing (EVA), developed by a group of mostly European researchers. This overview describes recent developments in research dedicated to EVA and new emerging aspects found in studies of families at high cardiovascular risk. There are new aspects related to genetics, telomere biology and the role of gut microbiota. However, there is still no unifying definition available of EVA and no direct treatment, but rather only recommendations for conventional cardiovascular risk factor control. New interventions are being developed - not only new antihypertensive drugs, but also new drugs for vascular protection - the selective angiotensin-II (AT2) agonist Compound 21 (C21). Human studies are eagerly awaited. Even new functional food products could have the potential to positively influence cardiometabolic regulation, to be confirmed.

  7. Process Consultation: Its Role in Organization Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Edgar H.

    This volume focuses on the process by which the consultant builds readiness for organizational development (OD) programs, actually conducts training, and works with the key individuals of an organization as part of an OD program. Part I describes in some detail the human processes in organizations--communication, functional roles of group members,…

  8. Contemporary Organized Crime. : Developments, Challenges and Responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelen, Hans; Siegel, Dina

    2017-01-01

    This is the third publication (after Siegel et al. (eds.) (2003) Global Organized Crime. Trends and Developments; and Siegel and Nelen (eds.) (2008). Organized Crime: Culture, Markets and Policies) in which the most relevant papers that were presented during seminars of the Centre for Information

  9. Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wächter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT, the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean.

    Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS. A new generation of TWS should not only be able to realise multi-sensor monitoring for tsunami detection. Moreover, these systems have to be capable to form a collaborative communication infrastructure of distributed tsunami warning systems in order to implement regional, ocean-wide monitoring and warning strategies.

    In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS and in the EU-funded FP6 project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS, a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS have been successfully incorporated.

    In the FP7 project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC, new developments in ICT (e.g. complex event processing (CEP and event-driven architecture (EDA are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems.

  10. Mechanical origins of rightward torsion in early chick brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Taber, Larry

    2015-03-01

    During early development, the neural tube of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This torsional deformation is one of the major organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Previous studies suggested that bending is mainly due to differential growth, however, the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops rightwards that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is lacking, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. Moreover, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model and a 3D printed physical model are employed to help interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, and further reveals that the asymmetric development in one organ can induce the asymmetry of another developing organ through mechanics, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''. Z.C. is supported by the Society in Science - Branco Weiss fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich. L.A.T acknowledges the support from NIH Grants R01 GM075200 and R01 NS070918.

  11. The development of storytelling in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Storytelling is an important aspect of child's language competence, which largely depends on her/his understanding and expression of a decontextualised content and develops rapidly in the period between the second and sixth year of life. The purpose of this study was to examine age differences in children's storytelling in the period between the third and sixth year of age. In addition, we considered the effect of gender on storytelling of children of different ages. The sample included 156 children aged from 3 to 6 years, who were divided into 3 age groups, namely children, aged 3, 4 and 5 years. Child's storytelling competence was assessed with the Little Glove Storytelling Test. Children's stories told by a standard set of illustrations, were analyzed in terms of criteria, designed to assess the developmental level of the stories. The criteria refer to the words, included in the story, the grammatical structure and the content of the story. The obtained results suggested that several important changes in the development of storytelling occur within the period of early childhood. The 5-years-old children told longer stories with a more complex grammatical structure and a coherent content as the 3-years-old children. Children's achievements on the individual criteria for assessing the developmental level of the stories progressed relatively steadily through all three age groups. The results also showed that gender had no significant effect on the storytelling of children of different ages.

  12. Nutrition and brain development in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-04-01

    Presented here is an overview of the pathway from early nutrient deficiency to long-term brain function, cognition, and productivity, focusing on research from low- and middle-income countries. Animal models have demonstrated the importance of adequate nutrition for the neurodevelopmental processes that occur rapidly during pregnancy and infancy, such as neuron proliferation and myelination. However, several factors influence whether nutrient deficiencies during this period cause permanent cognitive deficits in human populations, including the child's interaction with the environment, the timing and degree of nutrient deficiency, and the possibility of recovery. These factors should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future research. Certain types of nutritional deficiency clearly impair brain development, including severe acute malnutrition, chronic undernutrition, iron deficiency, and iodine deficiency. While strategies such as salt iodization and micronutrient powders have been shown to improve these conditions, direct evidence of their impact on brain development is scarce. Other strategies also require further research, including supplementation with iron and other micronutrients, essential fatty acids, and fortified food supplements during pregnancy and infancy. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  13. Organization Development: A Case Study in Blockages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Martin

    1981-01-01

    Organization Development is a management science that defines and solves organizational problems. Procedures include: (1) diagnosis of problem; (2) gathering of data related to problem; (3) obtaining feedback; (4) developing various change strategies; (5) developing an action plan; and (6) implementing the plan. (CJ)

  14. Developing leadership talent in healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Wendy; Hejna, William

    2009-01-01

    Effective initiatives for developing and retaining leadership talent are built around five supporting elements: Identification of key leader competencies. Effective job design. A strong focus on leadership recruitment, development, and retention. Leadership training and development throughout all levels of the organization. Ongoing leadership assessment and performance management.

  15. Early Parental Depression and Child Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, James F.; Keefe, Heather A.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of early maternal and paternal depression on child expressive language at age 24 months and the role that parent-to-child reading may play in this pathway. Participants and methods: The 9-month and 24-month waves from a national prospective study of children and their families, the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  16. The early inflorescence of Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrates positional effects in floral organ growth and meristem patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plackett, Andrew R G; Powers, Stephen J; Phillips, Andy L; Wilson, Zoe A; Hedden, Peter; Thomas, Stephen G

    2018-06-01

    Linear modelling approaches detected significant gradients in organ growth and patterning across early flowers of the Arabidopsis inflorescence and uncovered evidence of new roles for gibberellin in floral development. Most flowering plants, including the genetic model Arabidopsis thaliana, produce multiple flowers in sequence from a reproductive shoot apex to form a flower spike (inflorescence). The development of individual flowers on an Arabidopsis inflorescence has typically been considered as highly stereotypical and uniform, but this assumption is contradicted by the existence of mutants with phenotypes visible in early flowers only. This phenomenon is demonstrated by mutants partially impaired in the biosynthesis of the phytohormone gibberellin (GA), in which floral organ growth is retarded in the first flowers to be produced but has recovered spontaneously by the 10th flower. We presently lack systematic data from multiple flowers across the Arabidopsis inflorescence to explain such changes. Using mutants of the GA 20-OXIDASE (GA20ox) GA biosynthesis gene family to manipulate endogenous GA levels, we investigated the dynamics of changing floral organ growth across the early Arabidopsis inflorescence (flowers 1-10). Modelling of floral organ lengths identified a significant, GA-independent gradient of increasing stamen length relative to the pistil in the wild-type inflorescence that was separable from other, GA-dependent effects. It was also found that the first flowers exhibited unstable organ patterning in contrast to later flowers and that this instability was prolonged by exogenous GA treatment. These findings indicate that the development of individual flowers is influenced by hitherto unknown factors acting across the inflorescence and also suggest novel functions for GA in floral patterning.

  17. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes G. Wittig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  18. Development of global cortical networks in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Otobe, Takayuki; Nakano, Tamami; Go, Tohshin; Konishi, Yukuo; Taga, Gentaro

    2010-04-07

    Human cognition and behaviors are subserved by global networks of neural mechanisms. Although the organization of the brain is a subject of interest, the process of development of global cortical networks in early infancy has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we explored developmental changes in these networks from several days to 6 months after birth by examining spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity, using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy. We set up 94 measurement channels over the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions of the infant brain. The obtained signals showed complex time-series properties, which were characterized as 1/f fluctuations. To reveal the functional connectivity of the cortical networks, we calculated the temporal correlations of continuous signals between all the pairs of measurement channels. We found that the cortical network organization showed regional dependency and dynamic changes in the course of development. In the temporal, parietal, and occipital regions, connectivity increased between homologous regions in the two hemispheres and within hemispheres; in the frontal regions, it decreased progressively. Frontoposterior connectivity changed to a "U-shaped" pattern within 6 months: it decreases from the neonatal period to the age of 3 months and increases from the age of 3 months to the age of 6 months. We applied cluster analyses to the correlation coefficients and showed that the bilateral organization of the networks begins to emerge during the first 3 months of life. Our findings suggest that these developing networks, which form multiple clusters, are precursors of the functional cerebral architecture.

  19. Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee and other marginalized countries. Early childhood development research has traditionally focused on single-intervention initiatives and non-refugee populations. This project will generate evidence to support effective, integrated and scalable early childhood ...

  20. A stochastic model for early placental development.

    KAUST Repository

    Cotter, Simon L

    2014-08-01

    In the human, placental structure is closely related to placental function and consequent pregnancy outcome. Studies have noted abnormal placental shape in small-for-gestational-age infants which extends to increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. The origins and determinants of placental shape are incompletely understood and are difficult to study in vivo. In this paper, we model the early development of the human placenta, based on the hypothesis that this is driven by a chemoattractant effect emanating from proximal spiral arteries in the decidua. We derive and explore a two-dimensional stochastic model, and investigate the effects of loss of spiral arteries in regions near to the cord insertion on the shape of the placenta. This model demonstrates that disruption of spiral arteries can exert profound effects on placental shape, particularly if this is close to the cord insertion. Thus, placental shape reflects the underlying maternal vascular bed. Abnormal placental shape may reflect an abnormal uterine environment, predisposing to pregnancy complications. Through statistical analysis of model placentas, we are able to characterize the probability that a given placenta grew in a disrupted environment, and even able to distinguish between different disruptions.

  1. The early research and development of ebselen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnham, Michael J; Sies, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    Ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one; PZ-51, DR-3305), is an organoselenium compound with glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-like, thiol-dependent, hydroperoxide reducing activity. As an enzyme mimic for activity of the selenoenzyme GPx, this compound has proved to be highly useful in research on mechanisms in redox biology. Furthermore, the reactivity of ebselen with protein thiols has helped to identify novel, selective targets for inhibitory actions on several enzymes of importance in pharmacology and toxicology. Importantly, the selenium in ebselen is not released and thus is not bioavailable, ebselen metabolites being excreted in bile and urine. As a consequence, initial concerns about selenium toxicity, fortunately, were unfounded. Potential applications in medical settings have been explored, notably in brain ischemia and stroke. More recently, there has been a surge in interest as new medical applications have been taken into consideration. The first publication on the biochemical effects of ebselen appeared 30 years ago (Müller et al.), which prompted the authors to retrace the early development from their perspective. It is a fascinating example of fruitful interaction between research-oriented industry and academia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Parental Obesity and Early Childhood Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Edwina H; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. Upstate KIDS (2008-2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12-2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11-2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13-2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08-2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09-7.85). Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Development Professionals at Religiously Based Nonprofit Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Pinder

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of why a fundraising professional would choose to leave his or her employer is critical to the ongoing success of religiously based nonprofit organizations as they work to achieve their mission. Without continuity in the donor relationship, donors will likely leave the organization or become disenfranchised. This study focuses on development professionals at Seventh-Day Adventist institutions across North America. The results of this study are applicable to other religiously based nonprofit organizations. The present article reveals the reasons affecting employee retention and proposes approaches to mitigate the loss of valuable employees. Data were gathered using a structured online survey and analyzed for its descriptive outcomes.

  4. Developing early algebraic reasoning in a mathematical community of inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Jodie Margaret Roberta

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the development of early algebraic reasoning in mathematical communities of inquiry. Under consideration is the different pathways teachers take as they develop their own understanding of early algebra and then enact changes in their classroom to facilitate algebraic reasoning opportunities. Teachers participated in a professional development intervention which focused on understanding of early algebraic concepts, task development, modification, and enactment, and clas...

  5. Development of Methods of Innovative Projects’ Management in Developer Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papelniuk Oksana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the author studies the conceptual scheme of life cycle of innovative developer project and offers methods of innovative projects' management according to the stages of its lifecycle. The author describes algorithm of the organization of management system of innovative projects in the developer organization representing set of stages and methods. The offered algorithm allows developer organizations achieve one of the main of their objectives, which is the creation of a special environment of comfortable accommodation with the emphasis on ecological compatibility and energy efficiency.

  6. Organic agriculture in a development policy perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik; Halberg, Niels; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    Farmers growing food with high eco-efficiency may be seen cultivating peace by reducing competition among nations for oil and as producers of other public goods: biodiverse landscapes and ecosystem services with more soil fertility, less water use and less pollution. How does Organic agriculture...... (OA) fare globally on eco-efficiency? Are most African farmers eco-efficient – or may eco-efficient farmers be found everywhere? As OA develops throughout the planet, what does Denmark do beyond Europe? Is organic farming part of our development policy? Do we dilligently share our comparative...

  7. Cloud Computing and Agile Organization Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan GHILIC-MICU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 3rd millennium economy, defined by globalization and continuous reduction of natural resources, the economic organization becomes the main actor in the phenomenon of transfor-mation and adaptation to new conditions. Even more, the economic environment, which is closely related to the social environment, undergoes complex metamorphoses, especially in the management area. In this dynamic and complex social and environmental context, the econom-ic organization must possess the ability to adapt, becoming a flexible and agile answer to new market opportunities. Considering the spectacular evolution of information and communica-tions technology, one of the solutions to ensure organization agility is cloud computing. Just like the development of any science requires adaptation to theories and instruments specific to other fields, a cloud computing paradigm for the agile organization must appeal to models from management, cybernetics, mathematics, structuralism and information theory (or information systems theory.

  8. Debris flow early warning systems in Norway: organization and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleivane, I.; Colleuille, H.; Haugen, L. E.; Alve Glad, P.; Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    In Norway, shallow slides and debris flows occur as a combination of high-intensity precipitation, snowmelt, high groundwater level and saturated soil. Many events have occurred in the last decades and are often associated with (or related to) floods events, especially in the Southern of Norway, causing significant damages to roads, railway lines, buildings, and other infrastructures (i.e November 2000; August 2003; September 2005; November 2005; Mai 2008; June and Desember 2011). Since 1989 the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) has had an operational 24 hour flood forecasting system for the entire country. From 2009 NVE is also responsible to assist regions and municipalities in the prevention of disasters posed by landslides and snow avalanches. Besides assisting the municipalities through implementation of digital landslides inventories, susceptibility and hazard mapping, areal planning, preparation of guidelines, realization of mitigation measures and helping during emergencies, NVE is developing a regional scale debris flow warning system that use hydrological models that are already available in the flood warning systems. It is well known that the application of rainfall thresholds is not sufficient to evaluate the hazard for debris flows and shallow slides, and soil moisture conditions play a crucial role in the triggering conditions. The information on simulated soil and groundwater conditions and water supply (rain and snowmelt) based on weather forecast, have proved to be useful variables that indicate the potential occurrence of debris flows and shallow slides. Forecasts of runoff and freezing-thawing are also valuable information. The early warning system is using real-time measurements (Discharge; Groundwater level; Soil water content and soil temperature; Snow water equivalent; Meteorological data) and model simulations (a spatially distributed version of the HBV-model and an adapted version of 1-D soil water and energy balance

  9. Parents' Role in the Early Head Start Children's Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Cecelia Smalls

    2014-01-01

    The development of language during a child's early years has been linked to parental involvement. While Early Head Start (EHS) researchers have theorized that parental involvement is an important factor in language development, there has been little research on how parents view their roles in the language development process. The purpose of this…

  10. The Development of Self-Regulation across Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; McClelland, Megan M.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of 3 and…

  11. Funding opportunities for investigators in the early stages of career development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumandea, C Amelia; Balke, C William

    2009-03-10

    Many sources of advice and guidance are available to the early career investigator. Generally, mentors serve as the primary source of information, although program and review officers are the most underutilized resources. This article organizes these opportunities to enable early career investigators to plot a rational trajectory for career success. A list of the major agencies that provide grant support for early career investigators is included. In addition, funding opportunities are organized on the basis of the stage in career development pathway and the type of terminal degree.

  12. Lessons for Staff Developers from an Organization Development Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, James A.

    1990-01-01

    A case study of an organization development intervention in a large New York State school district describes to staff developers the complex process of discovering and responding to organizational needs. The discussion focuses on understanding the problem; frameworks for diagnosis and intervention; and implementing the intervention strategy.…

  13. Early nodulins in root nodule development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.

    1990-01-01

    The symbiotic interaction between bacteria of the genus Rhizobium and leguminous plants leads to the formation of root nodules, which are specific nitrogen-fixing organs on the roots of plants. Bacteria enter the root by infection threads, and concomitantly cell

  14. Constructivist Early Education for Moral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Rheta; Hildebrandt, Carolyn; Zan, Betty

    2000-01-01

    Examines role that constructivist teachers play in fostering moral development in young children. Traces development of perspective taking, autonomy, and self- regulation, and examines effects of different teaching and parenting practices on children's character development. Provides suggestions for teachers to promote optimal moral development by…

  15. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity of…

  16. Investigational drugs in early development for treating dengue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesetti, Hemalatha; Khanna, Navin; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam

    2016-09-01

    Dengue has emerged as the most significant arboviral disease of the current century. A drug for dengue is an urgent unmet need. As conventional drug discovery efforts have not produced any promising clinical candidates, there is a shift toward re-positioning pre-existing drugs for dengue to fast-track dengue drug development. This article provides an update on the current status of recently completed and ongoing dengue drug trials. All dengue drug trials described in this article were identified from a list of >230 trials that were returned upon searching the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform web portal using the search term 'dengue' on December 31(st), 2015. None of the handful of drugs tested so far has yielded encouraging results. Early trial experience has served to emphasize the challenge of drug testing in the short therapeutic time window available, the need for tools to predict 'high-risk' patients early on and the limitations of the existing pre-clinical model systems. Significant investment of efforts and resources is a must before the availability of a safe, effective and inexpensive dengue drug becomes a reality. Currently, supportive fluid therapy remains the only option available for dengue treatment.

  17. Psychological preconditions of game activity development in the early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriya Spitsyna; Ekaterina Saraykina

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted for detection the psychological preconditions of game activity development at early age and interrelation of game formation with the development of subject actions, informative activity and procedural game.

  18. Food allergies developing after solid organ transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, J M; Nicholas, S K; Davis, C M

    2015-12-01

    The development of food allergy is an increasingly recognized form of morbidity after solid organ transplant. It occurs more commonly in liver transplant recipients, although it has also been reported in heart, lung, kidney, and intestinal transplants. Pediatric transplant recipients are more likely to develop symptoms compared to adults, and reports of frequency vary widely from 5% to 38% in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed in the literature, although no single mechanism can yet account for all reported observations. As food allergy can have at worst potentially fatal consequences, and at best require lifestyle adjustment through food avoidance, it is important for recipients to be aware of the donor's food allergies and particularly in pediatrics, the possibility of completely de novo allergies. This review explores the recent reports surrounding food allergy after solid organ transplant, including epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, and implications for practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Developments in early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G H Y; Hui, C L M; Wong, D Y; Tang, J Y M; Chang, W C; Chan, S K W; Lee, E H M; Xu, J Q; Lin, J J X; Lai, D C; Tam, W; Kok, J; Chung, D W S; Hung, S F; Chen, E Y H

    2012-09-01

    The year 2011 marked the 10-year milestone of early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong. Since 2001, the landscape of early psychosis services has changed markedly in Hong Kong. Substantial progress has been made in the areas of early intervention service implementation, knowledge generation, and public awareness promotion. Favourable outcomes attributable to the early intervention service are supported by solid evidence from local clinical research studies; early intervention service users showed improved functioning, ameliorated symptoms, and decreased hospitalisation and suicide rates. Continued development of early intervention in Hong Kong over the decade includes the introduction and maturation of several key platforms, such as the Hospital Authority Early Assessment Service for Young People with Psychosis programme, the Psychosis Studies and Intervention Unit by the University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Early Psychosis Intervention Society, the Jockey Club Early Psychosis Project, and the postgraduate Psychological Medicine (Psychosis Studies) programme. In this paper, we reviewed some of the major milestones in local service development with reference to features of the Hong Kong mental health system. We describe chronologically the implementation and consolidation of public early intervention services as well as recent progresses in public awareness work that are tied in with knowledge generation and transfer, and outline the prospects for early intervention in the next decade and those that follow.

  20. Validity and Psychometric Properties of the Early Development Instrument in Canada, Australia, United States, and Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Magdalena; Brinkman, Sally A.; Duku, Eric K.

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing support from international organizations and the research community for stepping beyond infant or child mortality as the most common child level social indicator and progressing towards an international measure of child development. The Early Development Instrument (EDI) is a teacher-completed measure of children's…

  1. Sex Role Development in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Michele Andrisin

    1983-01-01

    Research involving adolescent identification with and development of sex roles is reviewed in the areas of cognitive skills and personality traits, theories of sex role development, and minority group adolescent sex role development. Emerging issues and educational implications in these areas are discussed. (CJ)

  2. Development of organic MRI contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yuichiro; Karasawa, Satoru; Koga, Noboru

    2008-01-01

    Described are trends of the development in the title since those agents with target properties are awaited for specific organ and regional MRI. The contrast agents alter the relaxation time of water proton to yield the enhanced contrast between organs and tissues with different water volumes. Nowadays Gd-complexes and nano-particle of superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe(III)) are widely used for enhancing in clinic. Among organic compounds with paramagnetic spin, those possessing nitroxide radical like TEMPO- and PROXYL-radicals have been subject to development by their derivatization. High spin molecules conceivably affect the relaxivity, which, however, is found smaller per spin of synthesized triplet complexes than doublet ones. This has lead to basic approach for molecules restricting water movement due to their hydrogen bond like DNA as a model, for introducing many radicals in high molecular weight compounds, and their polymer, as one of which authors have developed a derivative of hyperbranched polymer (HPS)-TEMPO having the similar relaxivity to gadolinium-diethylenetiamine pentaacetid acid (Gd-DTPA) (R.T.)

  3. Review of History and Recent Development of Organic Farming Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The history of the organic farming worldwide was reviewed in this paper. The development of the organic farming worldwide had gone through three stages, emergence, expansion, and growth. The contributors and their thoughts during the different development stages of the organic farming were briefly introduced. And the development status of the organic farming worldwide was reviewed from the aspects of land area under organic management, land area under organic management in percentage of total agricultural area, and world markets for organic products. Besides, the main existing problems for the further development of the world's organic farming, as well as the development status, problems and strategies of the Chinese organic farming were discussed.

  4. Early psychosis workforce development: Core competencies for mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F; Killackey, Eoin; Francey, Shona; Mulcahy, Dianne

    2017-08-09

    The aim of this study was to identify the core competencies required of mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field, which could function as an evidence-based tool to support the early psychosis workforce and in turn assist early psychosis service implementation and strengthen early psychosis model fidelity. The Delphi method was used to establish expert consensus on the core competencies. In the first stage, a systematic literature search was conducted to generate competency items. In the second stage, a panel consisting of expert early psychosis clinicians from around the world was formed. Panel members then rated each of the competency items on how essential they are to the clinical practice of all early psychosis clinicians. In total, 1023 pieces of literature including textbooks, journal articles and grey literature were reviewed. A final 542 competency items were identified for inclusion in the questionnaire. A total of 63 early psychosis experts participated in 3 rating rounds. Of the 542 competency items, 242 were endorsed as the required core competencies. There were 29 competency items that were endorsed by 62 or more experts, and these may be considered the foundational competencies for early psychosis practice. The study generated a set of core competencies that provide a common language for early psychosis clinicians across professional disciplines and country of practice, and potentially are a useful professional resource to support early psychosis workforce development and service reform. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Organizing the HIV vaccine development effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, Yegor; Snow, William

    2013-09-01

    To describe and compare the diverse organizational structures and funding mechanisms applied to advance HIV preventive vaccine research and development and to help explain and inform evolving infrastructures and collaborative funding models. On the basis of models that have been tried, improved or abandoned over three decades, the field seems to have settled into a relatively stable set of diverse initiatives, each with its own organizational signature. At the same time, this set of organizations is forging cross-organizational collaborations, which promise to acquire newly emergent beneficial properties. Strong motivation to expedite HIV vaccine R&D has driven a diversity of customized and inventive organizational approaches, largely government and foundation funded. Although no one approach has proven a panacea, the field has evolved into a constellation of often overlapping organizations that complement or reinforce one another. The Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise, a responsive, rapidly evolving loose infrastructure, is an innovative collaboration to catalyze that evolution.

  6. Medical students' professional identity development in an early nursing attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, Esther; Derksen, Els; Prevoo, Mathieu; Laan, Roland; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Koopmans, Raymond

    Objectives The importance of early clinical experience for medical training is well documented. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that assess the influence of very early nursing attachments on the professional development and identity construction of medical students. Working as an

  7. Medical students' professional identity development in an early nursing attachment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, E.; Derksen, E.; Prevoo, M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Bolhuis, S.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The importance of early clinical experience for medical training is well documented. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that assess the influence of very early nursing attachments on the professional development and identity construction of medical students. Working as an

  8. Developing Prosocial Behaviors in Early Adolescence with Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Annis L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the alarming rise of early adolescence aggression in Hong Kong, it is the pioneer evidence-based outcome study on Anger Coping Training (ACT) program for early adolescence with reactive aggression to develop their prosocial behaviors. This research program involved experimental and control groups with pre- and post-comparison using a …

  9. Chaos, Poverty, and Parenting: Predictors of Early Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that distal family risk factors like poverty and maternal education are strongly related to children's early language development. Yet, few studies have examined these risk factors in combination with more proximal day-to-day experiences of children that might be critical to understanding variation in early language. Young…

  10. Alberta Learning: Early Development Instrument Pilot Project Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Wanda; Harris-Lorenze, Elayne

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI) was designed by McMaster University to measure the outcomes of childrens early years as they influence their readiness to learn at school. The EDI was piloted in several Canadian cities in recent years through two national initiatives. Building on these initiatives, Alberta Learning piloted the EDI as a…

  11. Early Speech Motor Development: Cognitive and Linguistic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation examines developmental changes in orofacial movements occurring during the early stages of communication development. The goals were to identify developmental trends in early speech motor performance and to determine how these trends differ across orofacial behaviors thought to vary in cognitive and linguistic…

  12. Apoptotic cell elimination during early tooth development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matalová, Eva; Míšek, Ivan; Chovancová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 7 (2003), s. 34 ISSN 0001-7213. [Congress of the European Association of Veterinary Anatomists/24./. 21.07.2002-25.07.2002, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/02/P112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : tooth development Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry

  13. EARLY POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from a 50:50 ratio (53/47 per cent). Minimum ... back became progressively darker and the vibrissae lengthened to about 8-9 mm. On day 6 ... of grey developed around the eyes by day 8, when the belly had a slight white tinge from the short ...

  14. Early developments in solar cooling equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    A brief description of a development program to design, fabricate and field test a series of solar operated or driven cooling devices, undertaken by the Marshall Space Flight Center in the context of the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974, is presented. Attention is given to two basic design concepts: the Rankine cycle principle and the use of a dessicant for cooling.

  15. Pharmacometrics in early clinical drug development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacometrics, the science of quantitative clinical pharmacology, has been recognized as one of the main research fields able to improve efficiency in drug development, and to reduce attrition rates on the route from drug discovery to approval. This field of drug research, which builds heavily on

  16. Development of sorbent therapy for multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Pan Jilun; Yu Yaoting

    2007-01-01

    As a syndrome, multiple organ dysfunction (MODS) is defined as an altered organ function in the setting of sepsis, septic shock or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and is the most common cause of death in intensive care units. Endotoxin, a constituent of cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria, plays an important role in the initiation and development of MODS. The cytokines, especially tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), are early regulators of the immune response and can induce the release of secondary cytokines. To remove endotoxin and TNF-alpha from patients with MODS, the adsorption method has proven to be most effective. In this review, we provide various methods of removal of endotoxins and TNF-alpha using different adsorbents. (topical review)

  17. On Organization of Information: Approach and Early Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Asaf; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Iverson, David; Shafto, Michael; Olson, Leonard

    2009-01-01

    In this report we describe an approach for organizing information for presentation and display. "e approach stems from the observation that there is a stepwise progression in the way signals (from the environment and the system under consideration) are extracted and transformed into data, and then analyzed and abstracted to form representations (e.g., indications and icons) on the user interface. In physical environments such as aerospace and process control, many system components and their corresponding data and information are interrelated (e.g., an increase in a chamber s temperature results in an increase in its pressure). "ese interrelationships, when presented clearly, allow users to understand linkages among system components and how they may affect one another. Organization of these interrelationships by means of an orderly structure provides for the so-called "big picture" that pilots, astronauts, and operators strive for.

  18. Plasticity during Early Brain Development Is Determined by Ontogenetic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Lidzba, Karen; Pavlova, Marina A; Wilke, Marko; Staudt, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Two competing hypotheses address neuroplasticity during early brain development: the "Kennard principle" describes the compensatory capacities of the immature developing CNS as superior to those of the adult brain, whereas the "Hebb principle" argues that the young brain is especially sensitive to insults. We provide evidence that these principles are not mutually exclusive. Following early brain lesions that are unilateral, the brain can refer to homotopic areas of the healthy hemisphere. This potential for reorganization is unique to the young brain but available only when, during ontogenesis of brain development, these areas have been used for the functions addressed. With respect to motor function, ipsilateral motor tracts can be recruited, which are only available during early brain development. Language can be reorganized to the right after early left hemispheric lesions, as the representation of the language network is initially bilateral. However, even in these situations, compensatory capacities of the developing brain are found to have limitations, probably defined by early determinants. Thus, plasticity and adaptivity are seen only within ontogenetic potential; that is, axonal or cortical structures cannot be recruited beyond early developmental possibilities. The young brain is probably more sensitive and vulnerable to lesions when these are bilateral. This is shown here for bilateral periventricular white matter lesions that clearly have an impact on cortical architecture and function, thus probably interfering with early network building. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Behavior-Based Early Language Development on a Humanoid Robot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varshavskaya, Paulina

    2002-01-01

    We are exploring the idea that early language acquisition could be better modelled on an artificial creature by considering the pragmatic aspect of natural language and of its development in human infants...

  20. Early bilingualism, language attainment, and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berken, Jonathan A; Gracco, Vincent L; Klein, Denise

    2017-04-01

    The brain demonstrates a remarkable capacity to undergo structural and functional change in response to experience throughout the lifespan. Evidence suggests that, in many domains of skill acquisition, the manifestation of this neuroplasticity depends on the age at which learning begins. The fact that most skills are acquired late in childhood or in adulthood has proven to be a limitation in studies aimed at determining the relationship between age of acquisition and brain plasticity. Bilingualism, however, provides an optimal model for discerning differences in how the brain wires when a skill is acquired from birth, when the brain circuitry for language is being constructed, versus later in life, when the pathways subserving the first language are already well developed. This review examines some of the existing knowledge about optimal periods in language development, with particular attention to the attainment of native-like phonology. It focuses on the differences in brain structure and function between simultaneous and sequential bilinguals and the compensatory mechanisms employed when bilingualism is achieved later in life, based on evidence from studies using a variety of neuroimaging modalities, including positron emission tomography (PET), task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and structural MRI. The discussion concludes with the presentation of recent neuroimaging studies that explore the concept of nested optimal periods in language development and the different neural paths to language proficiency taken by simultaneous and sequential bilinguals, with extrapolation to general notions of the relationship between age of acquisition and ultimate skill performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. World Health Organization guideline development: an evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sinclair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research in 2007 showed that World Health Organization (WHO recommendations were largely based on expert opinion, rarely used systematic evidence-based methods, and did not follow the organization's own "Guidelines for Guidelines". In response, the WHO established a "Guidelines Review Committee" (GRC to implement and oversee internationally recognized standards. We examined the impact of these changes on WHO guideline documents and explored senior staff's perceptions of the new procedures. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the AGREE II guideline appraisal tool to appraise ten GRC-approved guidelines from nine WHO departments, and ten pre-GRC guidelines matched by department and topic. We interviewed 20 senior staff across 16 departments and analyzed the transcripts using the framework approach. Average AGREE II scores for GRC-approved guidelines were higher across all six AGREE domains compared with pre-GRC guidelines. The biggest changes were noted for "Rigour of Development" (up 37.6%, from 30.7% to 68.3% and "Editorial Independence" (up 52.7%, from 20.9% to 73.6%. Four main themes emerged from the interviews: (1 high standards were widely recognized as essential for WHO credibility, particularly with regard to conflicts of interest; (2 views were mixed on whether WHO needed a single quality assurance mechanism, with some departments purposefully bypassing the procedures; (3 staff expressed some uncertainties in applying the GRADE approach, with departmental staff concentrating on technicalities while the GRC remained concerned the underlying principles were not fully institutionalized; (4 the capacity to implement the new standards varied widely, with many departments looking to an overstretched GRC for technical support. CONCLUSIONS: Since 2007, WHO guideline development methods have become more systematic and transparent. However, some departments are bypassing the procedures, and as yet neither the GRC, nor the quality assurance

  2. Resource Prospector (RP) - Early Prototyping and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D.; Colaprete, A.; Quinn, J.; Bluethmann, B.; Trimble, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Resource Prospector (RP) is an In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission under study by the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate's (HEOMD) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Division. The mission, currently planned to launch in 2020, will demonstrate extraction of oxygen from lunar regolith to validate ISRU capability. The mission will address key Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) for robotic and human exploration to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and ultimately Mars, as well as meet the strategic goals of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), offered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG). In this roadmap, the use of local resources is specifically addressed relating to human exploration. RP will provide knowledge to inform the selection of future mission destinations, support the development of exploration systems, and reduce the risk associated with human exploration. Expanding human presence beyond low-Earth orbit to asteroids and Mars will require the maximum possible use of local materials, so-called in-situ resources. The moon presents a unique destination to conduct robotic investigations that advance ISRU capabilities, as well as providing significant exploration and science value. Lunar regolith contains useful resources such as oxygen, water, silicon, and light metals, like aluminum and titanium. Oxygen can be separated from the regolith for life support (breathable air), or used to create rocket propellant (oxidizer). Regolith can be used to protect against radiation exposure, be processed into solar cells, or used to manufacture construction materials such as bricks and glass. RP will characterize the constituents and distribution of water and other volatiles at the poles of the Moon, enabling innovative uses of local resources, in addition to validating ISRU capabilities. This capability, as well as a deeper understanding of regolith, will be valuable in the

  3. Early Careerist Interest and Participation in Health Care Leadership Development Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jon M; Temple, April

    2015-01-01

    Health care organizations are increasingly embracing leadership development programs. These programs include a variety of specific activities, such as formally structured leadership development, as well as mentoring, personal development and coaching, 360-degree feedback, and job enlargement, in order to increase the leadership skills of managers and high-potential staff. However, there is a lack of information on how early careerists in health care management view these programs and the degree to which they participate. This article reports on a study undertaken to determine how early careerists working in health care organizations view leadership development programs and their participation in such programs offered by their employers. Study findings are based on a survey of 126 early careerists who are graduates of an undergraduate health services administration program. We found varying levels of interest and participation in specific leadership development activities. In addition, we found that respondents with graduate degrees and those with higher compensation were more likely to participate in selected leadership development program activities. Implications of study findings for health care organizations and early careerists in the offering of, and participation in, leadership development programs are discussed.

  4. A computational investigation of adsorption of organics on mineral surfaces: Implications for organics delivery in the early solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaduzzaman, A. M.; Zega, T. J.; Laref, Slimane; Runge, K.; Deymier, P. A.; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2014-12-01

    The adsorption of simple organic compounds onto minerals that are known to occur in the early solar nebula such as olivine, spinel and water-ice, is examined using first-principles density functional theory. The calculations show that electron-rich organics and organics containing cyanide, amine and carboxylic functional groups can strongly bind to low-index surfaces of olivine and spinel. Based on the surface coverage as obtained from these calculations, it can be inferred that an estimated amount of 1013 kg of organics could have been delivered to early Earth via direct adsorption mechanisms, thereby providing an endogenous source of planetary organics. In addition, adsorption of organic compounds on magnesite, a carbonate phase believed to have formed via aqueous processes on asteroidal bodies, is also studied. The adsorption behavior of the organics is observed to be similar in both cases, i.e., for minerals that formed during the earliest stages of nebular evolution through condensation (spinel and olivine) or other processes and for those that formed via hydration processes on asteroidal bodies (magnesite). These results suggest that direct incorporation via adsorption is an important delivery mechanism of organics to both asteroidal bodies and terrestrial planets.

  5. Advancing Early Childhood Development: from Science to Scale 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Prof Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course. PMID:27717614

  6. Interpretations of integration in early accountable care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreindler, Sara A; Larson, Bridget K; Wu, Frances M; Carluzzo, Kathleen L; Gbemudu, Josette N; Struthers, Ashley; VAN Citters, Aricca D; Shortell, Stephen M; Nelson, Eugene C; Fisher, Elliott S

    2012-09-01

    It is widely hoped that accountable care organizations (ACOs) will improve health care quality and reduce costs by fostering integration among diverse provider groups. But how do implementers actually envision integration, and what will integration mean in terms of managing the many social identities that ACOs bring together? Using the lens of the social identity approach, this qualitative study examined how four nascent ACOs engaged with the concept of integration. During multiday site visits, we conducted interviews (114 managers and physicians), observations, and document reviews. In no case was the ACO interpreted as a new, overarching entity uniting disparate groups; rather, each site offered a unique interpretation that flowed from its existing strategies for social-identity management: An independent practice association preserved members' cherished value of autonomy by emphasizing coordination, not "integration"; a medical group promoted integration within its employed core, but not with affiliates; a hospital, engaging community physicians who mistrusted integrated systems, reimagined integration as an equal partnership; an integrated delivery system advanced its careful journey towards intergroup consensus by presenting the ACO as a cultural, not structural, change. The ACO appears to be a model flexible enough to work in synchrony with whatever social strategies are most context appropriate, with the potential to promote alignment and functional integration without demanding common identification with a superordinate group. "Soft integration" may be a promising alternative to the vertically integrated model that, though widely assumed to be ideal, has remained unattainable for most organizations. © 2012 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  7. Organizations' Ways of Employing Early Retirees: The Role of Age-Based HR Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Mulders, Jaap; Henkens, Kène; Schippers, Joop

    2015-06-01

    We examine whether from an organizational perspective it is possible to distinguish different ways of employing early retirees and explore how the employment of early retirees is related to the application of 4 age-based human resource (HR) policies, namely demotion, offering training opportunities to older workers, offering early retirement, and allowing flexible working hours. We perform a latent class analysis on a sample of 998 Dutch organizations in order to categorize them based on 3 dimensions of their employment of early retirees. We then run a multinomial logistic regression to relate the employment of early retirees to the 4 age-based HR policies. We distinguish 4 types of organizations based on their way of employing early retirees: nonusers (52.6%), users for mainly standard work (20.8%), users for mainly nonstandard work (9.8%), and users for standard and nonstandard work (16.7%). We find that organizations that apply demotion, offer early retirement, and allow flexible working hours are more likely to be users for mainly standard work. Also, organizations that do not offer early retirement are less likely to employ early retirees. Age-based HR policies, especially demotion, offering early retirement, and allowing flexible working hours, are conducive to the employment of early retirees for mainly standard work. Broader implementation of these policies may provide opportunities for older workers to make a more gradual transition from work to retirement. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Monitoring and Evaluation of an Early Childhood Development Programme: Implications for Leadership and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Sarah; Papatheodorou, Theodora; James, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to discuss preliminary findings from a participatory monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework, used in a community-based early childhood development (ECD) programme in KwaZulu-Natal South Africa, and their implications for leadership and management. The purposes of the M&E were for LETCEE, the implementing organization,…

  9. Self-organized criticality and urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Batty

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban society is undergoing as profound a spatial transformation as that associated with the emergence of the industrial city two centuries ago. To describe and measure this transition, we introduce a new theory based on the concept that large-scale, complex systems composed of many interacting elements, show a surprising degree of resilience to change, holding themselves at critical levels for long periods until conditions emerge which move the system, often abruptly, to a new threshold. This theory is called ‘self-organized criticality’; it is consistent with systems in which global patterns emerge from local action which is the hallmark of self-organization, and it is consistent with developments in system dynamics and their morphology which find expression in fractal geometry and weak chaos theory. We illustrate the theory using a unique space–time series of urban development for Buffalo, Western New York, which contains the locations of over one quarter of a million sites coded by their year of construction and dating back to 1773, some 60 years before the city began to develop. We measure the emergence and growth of the city using urban density functions from which measures of fractal dimension are used to construct growth paths of the way the city has grown to fill its region. These phase portraits suggest the existence of transitions between the frontier, the settled agricultural region, the centralized industrial city and the decentralized postindustrial city, and our analysis reveals that Buffalo has maintained itself at a critical threshold since the emergence of the automobile city some 70 years ago. Our implied speculation is: how long will this kind of urban form be maintained in the face of seemingly unstoppable technological change?

  10. Radioactive sulphur metabolism in rat organism in the early stages of dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genesina, T.I.; Dmitriev, I.M.; Fedorov, Yu.A.; Chopovskaya, T.I.

    1978-01-01

    Metabolism disturbances in animal organs have been investigated at early stages of experimental dental caries by means of radioactive 35 S injected in the form of sodium sulfate. Changes in sulfate metabolism were detected directly not only in solid dental tissues but in the whole organism of animals

  11. Parametric Cost and Schedule Modeling for Early Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-02

    Research NoteNational Security Rep rt PARAMETRIC MODELING FOR EARLY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT COST AND SCHEDULE Chuck...Alexander NSR_11x17_Cover_CostModeling_v8.indd 1 11/20/17 3:15 PM PARAMETRIC COST AND SCHEDULE MODELING FOR EARLY  TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Chuck...COST AND SCHEDULE MODELING FOR EARLY  TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT iii Contents Figures

  12. Dynamic changes in the interchromosomal interaction of early histone gene loci during development of sea urchin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Masaya; Ochiai, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi T; Hayashi, Sayaka; Yamamoto, Takashi; Awazu, Akinori; Sakamoto, Naoaki

    2017-12-15

    The nuclear positioning and chromatin dynamics of eukaryotic genes are closely related to the regulation of gene expression, but they have not been well examined during early development, which is accompanied by rapid cell cycle progression and dynamic changes in nuclear organization, such as nuclear size and chromatin constitution. In this study, we focused on the early development of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and performed three-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization of gene loci encoding early histones (one of the types of histone in sea urchin). There are two non-allelic early histone gene loci per sea urchin genome. We found that during the morula stage, when the early histone gene expression levels are at their maximum, interchromosomal interactions were often formed between the early histone gene loci on separate chromosomes and that the gene loci were directed to locate to more interior positions. Furthermore, these interactions were associated with the active transcription of the early histone genes. Thus, such dynamic interchromosomal interactions may contribute to the efficient synthesis of early histone mRNA during the morula stage of sea urchin development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. [Organization development of the public health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Holger; Klein, Jürgen

    2002-05-15

    Changes in the German health care system require changes in health care institutions. Organizational development (OD) techniques can help them to cope successfully with their changing environment. OD is defined as a collective process of learning aiming to induce intended organizational change. OD is based on social science methods and conducted by process-oriented consultants. In contrast to techniques of organizational design, OD is characterized by employee participation. One of the most important elements of OD is the so-called "survey-feedback-technique". Five examples illustrate how the survey-feedback-technique can be used to facilitate organisational learning. OD technique supports necessary change in health care organizations. It should be used more frequently.

  14. Function of JARID2 in bovines during early embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone lysine modifications are important epigenetic modifications in early embryonic development. JARID2, which is a member of the jumonji demethylase protein family, is a regulator of early embryonic development and can regulate mouse development and embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation by modifying histone lysines. JARID2 can affect early embryonic development by regulating the methylation level of H3K27me3, which is closely related to normal early embryonic development. To investigate the expression pattern of JARID2 and the effect of JARID2-induced H3K27 methylation in bovine oocytes and early embryonic stages, JARID2 mRNA expression and localization were detected in bovine oocytes and early embryos via qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence in the present study. The results showed that JARID2 is highly expressed in the germinal vesicle (GV, MII, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell and blastocyst stages, but the relative expression level of JARID2 in bovine GV oocytes is significantly lower than that at other oocyte/embryonic stages (p < 0.05, and JARID2 is expressed primarily in the nucleus. We next detected the mRNA expression levels of embryonic development-related genes (OCT4, SOX2 and c-myc after JARID2 knockdown through JARID2-2830-siRNA microinjection to investigate the molecularpathwayunderlying the regulation of H3K27me3 by JARID2 during early embryonic development. The results showed that the relative expression levels of these genes in 2-cell embryos weresignificantly higher than those in the blastocyst stage, and expression levels were significantly increased after JARID2 knockdown. In summary, the present study identified the expression pattern of JARID2 in bovine oocytes and at each early embryonic stage, and the results suggest that JARID2 plays a key role in early embryonic development by regulating the expression of OCT4, SOX2 and c-myc via modification of H3K27me3 expression. This work provides new data for improvements in the

  15. Integrated and Early Childhood Education: Preparation for Social Development. Theme A: Relevant Provision for Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axton, J. H. M.

    Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…

  16. Early Brain and Child Development: Connections to Early Education and Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Judith T.

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of young children spend time in settings outside of the home, and the nature of those settings directly impacts the child's health and development. The ecobiodevelopmental framework of early brain and child development serve as the backdrop for establishing quality. This article describes the use of quality rating systems,…

  17. Promoting equity through integrated early child development and nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Care for Child Development: an intervention in support of responsive caregiving and early child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J E; Richter, L M; Daelmans, B

    2018-01-01

    An estimated 43% of children younger than 5 years of age are at elevated risk of failing to achieve their human potential. In response, the World Health Organization and UNICEF developed Care for Child Development (CCD), based on the science of child development, to improve sensitive and responsive caregiving and promote the psychosocial development of young children. In 2015, the World Health Organization and UNICEF identified sites where CCD has been implemented and sustained. The sites were surveyed, and responses were followed up by phone interviews. Project reports provided information on additional sites, and a review of published studies was undertaken to document the effectiveness of CCD for improving child and family outcomes, as well as its feasibility for implementation in resource-constrained communities. The inventory found that CCD had been integrated into existing services in diverse sectors in 19 countries and 23 sites, including child survival, health, nutrition, infant day care, early education, family and child protection and services for children with disabilities. Published and unpublished evaluations have found that CCD interventions can improve child development, growth and health, as well as responsive caregiving. It has also been reported to reduce maternal depression, a known risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and poor child health, growth and development. Although CCD has expanded beyond initial implementation sites, only three countries reported having national policy support for integrating CCD into health or other services. Strong interest exists in many countries to move beyond child survival to protect and support optimal child development. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals depend on children realizing their potential to build healthy and emotionally, cognitively and socially competent future generations. More studies are needed to guide the integration of the CCD approach under different conditions. Nevertheless

  19. Early Markers of Vulnerable Language Skill Development in Galactosaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Fiona M.; Coman, David J.; Syrmis, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    There are no known biomedical or genetic markers to identify which infants with galactosaemia (GAL) are most at risk of poor language skill development, yet pre-linguistic communicative "red flag" behaviours are recognised as early identifiers of heightened vulnerability to impaired language development. We report on pre-linguistic…

  20. Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study--"Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention"--was to explore and describe the perceptions and beliefs of Salvadoran mothers of low socioeconomic status regarding the language development of their young children in order to identify cultural variations in…

  1. Development of Early Warning Methods for Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur

    This thesis concerns the development of methods that can provide, in realtime, an early warning for an emerging blackout in electric power systems. The blackout in E-Denmark and S-Sweden on September 23, 2003 is the main motivation for the method development. The blackout was caused by occurrence...

  2. Understanding Emotional Development: Helping Early Childhood Providers Better Support Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicole Megan

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to provide early childhood providers with a concise overview of emerging emotional development in young children (birth-5), the important role of primary caregivers, and the link between parenting, emotional development, and behavior. Specific suggestions that have been shared with urban Head Start mothers are offered,…

  3. The NASA Astrobiology Institute: early history and organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Baruch S.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) was established as a means to advance the field of astrobiology by providing a multidisciplinary, multi-institution, science-directed program, executed by universities, research institutes, and NASA and other government laboratories. The scientific community and NASA defined the science content at several workshops as summarized in the NASA Astrobiology Roadmap. Teams were chosen nationwide, following the recommendations of external review groups, and the research program began in 1998. There are now 16 national Teams and five international affiliated and associated astrobiology institutions. The NAI has attracted an outstanding group of scientific groups and individuals. The Institute facilitates the involvement of the scientists in its scientific and management vision. Its goal is to support basic research and allow the scientists the freedom to select their projects and alter them as indicated by new research. Additional missions include the education of the public, the involvement of students who will be the astrobiologists of future generations, and the development of a culture of collaboration in NAI, a "virtual institute," spread across many sites nationally and internationally.

  4. Time Development in the Early History of Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Bearden, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the time development of empirical networks usually investigate late stages where lasting connections have already stabilized. Empirical data on early network history are rare but needed for a better understanding of how social network topology develops in real life. Studying students who...... are beginning their studies at a university with no or few prior connections to each other offers a unique opportunity to investigate the formation and early development of link patterns and community structure in social networks. During a nine week introductory physics course, first year physics students were...... asked to identify those with whom they communicated about problem solving in physics during the preceding week. We use these students' self reports to produce time dependent student interaction networks. We investigate these networks to elucidate possible effects of different student attributes in early...

  5. Organic Marketing Initiatives and Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Otto; Sanders, Jürn; Midmore, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Over recent decades, organic farmers have come together to form collective marketing initiatives. To begin with, such schemes were often essential as the only means of finding markets for organic products, but farmers today participate in them to pool ideas, capital and skills, and to collectively increase added value of products and market power in the supply chain. However, Organic Marketing Initiatives (OMIs) are not only initiated and managed by farmers but also by consumers, processors o...

  6. Functional brain networks develop from a "local to distributed" organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien A Fair

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The mature human brain is organized into a collection of specialized functional networks that flexibly interact to support various cognitive functions. Studies of development often attempt to identify the organizing principles that guide the maturation of these functional networks. In this report, we combine resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI, graph analysis, community detection, and spring-embedding visualization techniques to analyze four separate networks defined in earlier studies. As we have previously reported, we find, across development, a trend toward 'segregation' (a general decrease in correlation strength between regions close in anatomical space and 'integration' (an increased correlation strength between selected regions distant in space. The generalization of these earlier trends across multiple networks suggests that this is a general developmental principle for changes in functional connectivity that would extend to large-scale graph theoretic analyses of large-scale brain networks. Communities in children are predominantly arranged by anatomical proximity, while communities in adults predominantly reflect functional relationships, as defined from adult fMRI studies. In sum, over development, the organization of multiple functional networks shifts from a local anatomical emphasis in children to a more "distributed" architecture in young adults. We argue that this "local to distributed" developmental characterization has important implications for understanding the development of neural systems underlying cognition. Further, graph metrics (e.g., clustering coefficients and average path lengths are similar in child and adult graphs, with both showing "small-world"-like properties, while community detection by modularity optimization reveals stable communities within the graphs that are clearly different between young children and young adults. These observations suggest that early school age children and adults

  7. Functional brain networks develop from a "local to distributed" organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Damien A; Cohen, Alexander L; Power, Jonathan D; Dosenbach, Nico U F; Church, Jessica A; Miezin, Francis M; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E

    2009-05-01

    The mature human brain is organized into a collection of specialized functional networks that flexibly interact to support various cognitive functions. Studies of development often attempt to identify the organizing principles that guide the maturation of these functional networks. In this report, we combine resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI), graph analysis, community detection, and spring-embedding visualization techniques to analyze four separate networks defined in earlier studies. As we have previously reported, we find, across development, a trend toward 'segregation' (a general decrease in correlation strength) between regions close in anatomical space and 'integration' (an increased correlation strength) between selected regions distant in space. The generalization of these earlier trends across multiple networks suggests that this is a general developmental principle for changes in functional connectivity that would extend to large-scale graph theoretic analyses of large-scale brain networks. Communities in children are predominantly arranged by anatomical proximity, while communities in adults predominantly reflect functional relationships, as defined from adult fMRI studies. In sum, over development, the organization of multiple functional networks shifts from a local anatomical emphasis in children to a more "distributed" architecture in young adults. We argue that this "local to distributed" developmental characterization has important implications for understanding the development of neural systems underlying cognition. Further, graph metrics (e.g., clustering coefficients and average path lengths) are similar in child and adult graphs, with both showing "small-world"-like properties, while community detection by modularity optimization reveals stable communities within the graphs that are clearly different between young children and young adults. These observations suggest that early school age children and adults both have

  8. Heterochrony and Early Left-Right Asymmetry in the Development of the Cardiorespiratory System of Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soldt, Benjamin J.; Metscher, Brian D.; Poelmann, Robert E.; Vervust, Bart; Vonk, Freek J.; Müller, Gerd B.; Richardson, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Snake lungs show a remarkable diversity of organ asymmetries. The right lung is always fully developed, while the left lung is either absent, vestigial, or well-developed (but smaller than the right). A ‘tracheal lung’ is present in some taxa. These asymmetries are reflected in the pulmonary arteries. Lung asymmetry is known to appear at early stages of development in Thamnophis radix and Natrix natrix. Unfortunately, there is no developmental data on snakes with a well-developed or absent left lung. We examine the adult and developmental morphology of the lung and pulmonary arteries in the snakes Python curtus breitensteini, Pantherophis guttata guttata, Elaphe obsoleta spiloides, Calloselasma rhodostoma and Causus rhombeatus using gross dissection, MicroCT scanning and 3D reconstruction. We find that the right and tracheal lung develop similarly in these species. By contrast, the left lung either: (1) fails to develop; (2) elongates more slowly and aborts early without (2a) or with (2b) subsequent development of faveoli; (3) or develops normally. A right pulmonary artery always develops, but the left develops only if the left lung develops. No pulmonary artery develops in relation to the tracheal lung. We conclude that heterochrony in lung bud development contributes to lung asymmetry in several snake taxa. Secondly, the development of the pulmonary arteries is asymmetric at early stages, possibly because the splanchnic plexus fails to develop when the left lung is reduced. Finally, some changes in the topography of the pulmonary arteries are consequent on ontogenetic displacement of the heart down the body. Our findings show that the left-right asymmetry in the cardiorespiratory system of snakes is expressed early in development and may become phenotypically expressed through heterochronic shifts in growth, and changes in axial relations of organs and vessels. We propose a step-wise model for reduction of the left lung during snake evolution. PMID:25555231

  9. Heterochrony and early left-right asymmetry in the development of the cardiorespiratory system of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soldt, Benjamin J; Metscher, Brian D; Poelmann, Robert E; Vervust, Bart; Vonk, Freek J; Müller, Gerd B; Richardson, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Snake lungs show a remarkable diversity of organ asymmetries. The right lung is always fully developed, while the left lung is either absent, vestigial, or well-developed (but smaller than the right). A 'tracheal lung' is present in some taxa. These asymmetries are reflected in the pulmonary arteries. Lung asymmetry is known to appear at early stages of development in Thamnophis radix and Natrix natrix. Unfortunately, there is no developmental data on snakes with a well-developed or absent left lung. We examine the adult and developmental morphology of the lung and pulmonary arteries in the snakes Python curtus breitensteini, Pantherophis guttata guttata, Elaphe obsoleta spiloides, Calloselasma rhodostoma and Causus rhombeatus using gross dissection, MicroCT scanning and 3D reconstruction. We find that the right and tracheal lung develop similarly in these species. By contrast, the left lung either: (1) fails to develop; (2) elongates more slowly and aborts early without (2a) or with (2b) subsequent development of faveoli; (3) or develops normally. A right pulmonary artery always develops, but the left develops only if the left lung develops. No pulmonary artery develops in relation to the tracheal lung. We conclude that heterochrony in lung bud development contributes to lung asymmetry in several snake taxa. Secondly, the development of the pulmonary arteries is asymmetric at early stages, possibly because the splanchnic plexus fails to develop when the left lung is reduced. Finally, some changes in the topography of the pulmonary arteries are consequent on ontogenetic displacement of the heart down the body. Our findings show that the left-right asymmetry in the cardiorespiratory system of snakes is expressed early in development and may become phenotypically expressed through heterochronic shifts in growth, and changes in axial relations of organs and vessels. We propose a step-wise model for reduction of the left lung during snake evolution.

  10. Heterochrony and early left-right asymmetry in the development of the cardiorespiratory system of snakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J van Soldt

    Full Text Available Snake lungs show a remarkable diversity of organ asymmetries. The right lung is always fully developed, while the left lung is either absent, vestigial, or well-developed (but smaller than the right. A 'tracheal lung' is present in some taxa. These asymmetries are reflected in the pulmonary arteries. Lung asymmetry is known to appear at early stages of development in Thamnophis radix and Natrix natrix. Unfortunately, there is no developmental data on snakes with a well-developed or absent left lung. We examine the adult and developmental morphology of the lung and pulmonary arteries in the snakes Python curtus breitensteini, Pantherophis guttata guttata, Elaphe obsoleta spiloides, Calloselasma rhodostoma and Causus rhombeatus using gross dissection, MicroCT scanning and 3D reconstruction. We find that the right and tracheal lung develop similarly in these species. By contrast, the left lung either: (1 fails to develop; (2 elongates more slowly and aborts early without (2a or with (2b subsequent development of faveoli; (3 or develops normally. A right pulmonary artery always develops, but the left develops only if the left lung develops. No pulmonary artery develops in relation to the tracheal lung. We conclude that heterochrony in lung bud development contributes to lung asymmetry in several snake taxa. Secondly, the development of the pulmonary arteries is asymmetric at early stages, possibly because the splanchnic plexus fails to develop when the left lung is reduced. Finally, some changes in the topography of the pulmonary arteries are consequent on ontogenetic displacement of the heart down the body. Our findings show that the left-right asymmetry in the cardiorespiratory system of snakes is expressed early in development and may become phenotypically expressed through heterochronic shifts in growth, and changes in axial relations of organs and vessels. We propose a step-wise model for reduction of the left lung during snake evolution.

  11. Developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was to uncover the concept of quality improvement, the supporting and the inhibiting factors within the quality improve and the quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten. The study was a qualitative research. The subjects in the study were kindergarten principals, kindergarten teachers and parents. The data were gathered by means of observation, interview and documentation. For the data analysis, the researcher selected the qualitative descriptive data analysis method. The results of the study were as follows. First, the concept of educational quality improvement in the early childhood mentoring institutions/ kindergarten has been improveed from the vision, the mission and the objectives and the concept includes the aspects of planning, process and output which has synergy from one to another. The planning has been formulated in the curriculum, the syllabus and the daily activity plan. Second, the approach, the strategy and the technique of quality improvement has maximized the well-qualified schools’ resources, have been supported by the sufficient facilities and have been funded by the sufficient budget. Third, the supporting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions/kindergarten have been the increasing awareness within the society toward the significance of early childhood mentoring institutions, the massive socialization conducted by the Office of Education through the provision of training programs in relation to the early childhood mentoring institution/kindergarten management and the human resources empowerment toward developing the quality of early childhood mentoring institutions. Fourth, the inhibiting factors within the quality improvement of early childhood mentoring institutions have been the lack of society care and participation, the less quality human resources that early childhood mentoring institutions have, the fund limitation, the

  12. Morphological development and allometric growth patterns of Acipenser persicus Borodin, 1897 (Actinopterygii, Acipenseridae during early development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Eagderi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological development and allometric growth patterns of reared Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, were studied from hatching to 50 days post-hatching (dph. The larvae were sampled, their left sides photographed and seven morphometric characters, including total length, head length, tail length, trunk length, snout length, caudal peduncle and predorsal length were measured. Allometric growth patterns were calculated as a power function of total length and described using the growth coefficient to find important steps in early life history. The total length of the newly hatched larvae and fry were 10.59±0.8 and 38.8±2.9 mm at 1 and 50 dph, respectively. Morphogenesis and differentiation were the highest rates during the first 11 days of early development, i.e. endogenous feeding period. There were higher growth rate of head, snout and tail regions compared with those of other organs from the hatch up to yolk sac absorption, followed by positive or almost isometric patterns, after the begin of exogenous feeding, showing priority to enhance the feeding and swimming capabilities. This study confirmed that most of morphological changes of this species are occurred from hatching until the onset of exogenous feeding i.e. during the lecithotrophic phase.

  13. Early Career Boot Camp: a novel mechanism for enhancing early career development for psychologists in academic healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran-Tuller, Kelly; Robiner, William N; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; Otey-Scott, Stacie; Wryobeck, John; King, Cheryl; Sanders, Kathryn

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a pilot mentoring program for Early Career Psychologists (ECPs) working in Academic Health Centers (AHCs) and synthesize the lessons learned to contribute to future ECP and AHC career development training programs. The authors describe an early career development model, named the Early Career Boot Camp. This intensive experience was conducted as a workshop meant to build a supportive network and to provide mentorship and survival tools for working in AHCs. Four major components were addressed: professional effectiveness, clinical supervision, strategic career planning, and academic research. Nineteen attendees who were currently less than 5 years post completion of doctoral graduate programs in psychology participated in the program. The majority of boot camp components were rated as good to excellent, with no component receiving below average ratings. Of the components offered within the boot camp, mentoring and research activities were rated the strongest, followed by educational activities, challenges in AHCS, and promotion and tenure. The article describes the purpose, development, implementation, and assessment of the program in detail in an effort to provide an established outline for future organizations to utilize when mentoring ECPs.

  14. Early Learning Foundations. Indiana's Early Learning Development Framework Aligned to the Indiana Academic Standards, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Foundations" (English/language arts, mathematics, social emotional skills, approaches to play and learning, science, social studies, creative arts, and physical health and growth) are Indiana's early learning development framework and are aligned to the 2014 Indiana Academic Standards. This framework provides core elements that…

  15. NEW TRENDS IN ORGANIZATION INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţ MITROI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An organization’s architecture is the rigorous description of its structure that includes organization components (entities, their features, as well as the relationships among them. This description must be comprehensive and include organization goals, mechanisms, and rules, internal and external processes, as well as technology. The architecture must be structured by layers and the interaction among these contributes to achieving organization goals. In this respect, specialized literature provides several approaches depending on the perspective taken on an organization: the management/owner perspective, organization process designer view or process administrator view. One of these is actually the mix of business process view and information view, with the following components for the latter in most cases: data architecture, application architecture, technological resources architecture.

  16. Organic geochemistry of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event in Hawsker Bottoms, Yorkshire, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, K. L.; Sepúlveda, J.; Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; Gröcke, D. R.; Summons, R. E.

    2014-03-01

    A comprehensive organic geochemical investigation of the Hawsker Bottoms outcrop section in Yorkshire, England has provided new insights about environmental conditions leading into and during the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (T-OAE; ∼183 Ma). Rock-Eval and molecular analyses demonstrate that the section is uniformly within the early oil window. Hydrogen index (HI), organic petrography, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions, and tricyclic terpane ratios mark a shift to a lower relative abundance of terrigenous organic matter supplied to the sampling locality during the onset of the T-OAE and across a lithological transition. Unlike other ancient intervals of anoxia and extinction, biomarker indices of planktonic community structure do not display major changes or anomalous values. Depositional environment and redox indicators support a shift towards more reducing conditions in the sediment porewaters and the development of a seasonally stratified water column during the T-OAE. In addition to carotenoid biomarkers for green sulfur bacteria (GSB), we report the first occurrence of okenane, a marker of purple sulfur bacteria (PSB), in marine samples younger than ∼1.64 Ga. Based on modern observations, a planktonic source of okenane's precursor, okenone, would require extremely shallow photic zone euxinia (PZE) and a highly restricted depositional environment. However, due to coastal vertical mixing, the lack of planktonic okenone production in modern marine sulfidic environments, and building evidence of okenone production in mat-dwelling Chromatiaceae, we propose a sedimentary source of okenone as an alternative. Lastly, we report the first parallel compound-specific δC13 record in marine- and terrestrial-derived biomarkers across the T-OAE. The δC13 records of short-chain n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and long-chain n-alkanes all encode negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs), and together, they support an injection of isotopically light

  17. The nucleolus in the mouse oocyte is required for the early step of both female and male pronucleus organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OGUSHI, Sugako; SAITOU, Mitinori

    2010-10-01

    During oocyte growth in the ovary, the nucleolus is mainly responsible for ribosome biogenesis. However, in the fully-grown oocyte, all transcription ceases, including ribosomal RNA synthesis, and the nucleolus adopts a specific monotonous fibrillar morphology without chromatin. The function of this inactive nucleolus in oocytes and embryos is still unknown. We previously reported that the embryo lacking an inactive nucleolus failed to develop past the first few cleavages, indicating the requirement of a nucleolus for preimplantation development. Here, we reinjected the nucleolus into oocytes and zygotes without nucleoli at various time points to examine the timing of the nucleolus requirement during meiosis and early embryonic development. When we put the nucleolus back into oocytes lacking a nucleolus at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage and at second metaphase (MII), these oocytes were fertilized, formed pronuclei with nucleoli and developed to full term. When the nucleolus was reinjected at the pronucleus (PN) stage, most of the reconstructed zygotes cleaved and formed nuclei with nucleoli at the 2-cell stage, but the rate of blastocyst formation and the numbers of surviving pups were profoundly reduced. Moreover, the zygotes without nucleoli showed a disorder of higher chromatin organization not only in the female pronucleus but also, interestingly, in the male pronucleus. Thus, the critical time point when the nucleolus is required for progression of early embryonic development appears to be at the point of the early step of pronucleus organization.

  18. Review Of Development And Characteristics Of Organic Agriculture In Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Petljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, an ever increasing interest of both foreign and domestic academic and general public for organic agriculture can be observed. Organic agriculture, as a new agricultural production system, enables full utilization of farming potentials while satisfying social and economic needs and preserving natural ecosystem and environment. Act on Organic Production of Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs provides an elementary strategic frame for agricultural production development in Republic of Croatia. This article gives an overview of organic agriculture legislation in Croatia and detailed analysis of development periods of organic agriculture. Special emphasis is put on structure of organic production which highlights data on organic plant and animal production in Croatia. The paper provides a comparison between levels of organic agriculture development in the world (with the special emphasis on Europe and in Croatia, as well as the overview of main obstacles towards more significant development of organic agriculture in Republic of Croatia.

  19. Early development of synchrony in cortical activations in the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolen, N; Dereymaeker, A; Räsänen, O; Jansen, K; Vervisch, J; Matic, V; Naulaers, G; De Vos, M; Van Huffel, S; Vanhatalo, S

    2016-05-13

    Early intermittent cortical activity is thought to play a crucial role in the growth of neuronal network development, and large scale brain networks are known to provide the basis for higher brain functions. Yet, the early development of the large scale synchrony in cortical activations is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the early intermittent cortical activations seen in the human scalp EEG show a clear developmental course during the last trimester of pregnancy, the period of intensive growth of cortico-cortical connections. We recorded scalp EEG from altogether 22 premature infants at post-menstrual age between 30 and 44 weeks, and the early cortical synchrony was quantified using recently introduced activation synchrony index (ASI). The developmental correlations of ASI were computed for individual EEG signals as well as anatomically and mathematically defined spatial subgroups. We report two main findings. First, we observed a robust and statistically significant increase in ASI in all cortical areas. Second, there were significant spatial gradients in the synchrony in fronto-occipital and left-to-right directions. These findings provide evidence that early cortical activity is increasingly synchronized across the neocortex. The ASI-based metrics introduced in our work allow direct translational comparison to in vivo animal models, as well as hold promise for implementation as a functional developmental biomarker in future research on human neonates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Family Concepts in Early Learning and Development Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Sanchez, Claudia; Lee, Angela M.; Casillas, Nicole; Hansen, Caitlynn

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the use of concepts related to families, parents, and the home in 51 state-level early learning and development standards documents. Guidelines from six national family involvement, engagement, and school-partnership models were used to create the Family Involvement Models Analysis Chart (FIMAC), which served as…

  1. Ovarian activity and early embryonic development in the rusty bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive pattern of the female rusty bat, Pipistrellus rusticus, was investigated by means of a histological examination of the ovarian follicles as well as early embryonic development. Bats were collected from two localities in Limpopo Province. Female rusty bats are seasonal monestrous breeders, initiating ...

  2. Rethinking Early Learning and Development Standards in the Ugandan Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2013-01-01

    Concerns that the African child is being tailored to be a "global child," alongside other homogenizing and dominating projections, such as early learning and development standards (ELDS), have increased. African communities need to be assured that global standards and global indicators will not further homogenize nations and thereby risk…

  3. Early development and larval behaviour of a minnow, Barbus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chubbyhead barb, Barbus anoplus, underwent a population explosion in the early phases of filling of Lake be Roux on the Orange River. This successful colonization was possibly related to the survival strategy of the young stages of this minnow. It is suggested that some of the development traits of B. anoplus enabled ...

  4. Nutrition, Health and Safety in Early Childhood Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the nutrition, health and safety status in Early Childhood Development (ECD) programmes and its impact thereof on the quality of care and education in Harare primary schools as perceived by the school heads, ECD teachers and parents. The study is part of a larger study on assessing the quality of ...

  5. Identification of the Social Development in Early Childhood in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Asif; Sarwar, Muhammad; Khan, Naeemullah

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the social development in early childhood years. It was delimited to eight private schools of Lahore City from the area of Faisal Town and Shadman. Forty students (male and female) were randomly selected as the sample. Five students from Nursery, Prep and grade one were selected from each school. A checklist…

  6. Early Journals and Their Influences on the Development of Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Lorraine; Carter, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This examination of early gerontology journals identifies the multidisciplinary backgrounds of contributors, methods of investigation, nascent theory development, and formative themes and controversies. Through use of content, thematic, and critical analyses of second year issues of "The Gerontologist," "Educational Gerontology," "Research on…

  7. Regionalism and Development in Early Nineteenth Century Spanish America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Douglas

    An understanding of regionalism in early 19th century Spanish America is crucial to any understanding of this region's economic development. Regionalism became the barrier to the kind of integrated national economy that some writers claim could have been implemented had it not been for the imposition of dependency by external forces. This…

  8. Developing Early Undergraduate Research at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…

  9. Predictors of Early versus Later Spelling Development in Danish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined phoneme awareness, phonological short term memory, letter knowledge, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) as longitudinal predictors of spelling skills in an early phase (Grade 2) and a later phase (Grade 5) of development in a sample of 140 children learning to spell in the…

  10. Early molecular events in the development of the diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monkemann, H.; Vriese, A.S. de; Blom, H.J.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Heil, S.G.; Schild, H.H.; Golubnitschaja, O.

    2002-01-01

    Oxidative damage to DNA has been well documented in cardiac cells isolated from diabetic patients and rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM). This study evaluates possible molecular mechanisms for early events in the development of DM-induced cardiomyopathy. Methods: To analyze the

  11. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  12. The Importance of Play in Early Childhood Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the study leading to this paper, the task was to determine the possibility of the Department of Technical Education at the University of Zimbabwe in-servicing Early Childhood Development (ECD) teachers in Design and Technology (D&T) through short and long-term courses. Such courses would specifically relate to the ...

  13. Career Planning and Development for Early-Career Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early career development can be looked at as being of two major phases. The first phase is the formal educational process leading to an awarded degree, postdoctoral training, and potentially formal certification in a scientific discipline. The second phase is the informal educa...

  14. Psychologically Inspired Sensory-Motor Development in Early Robot Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Lee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We present an implementation of a model of very early sensory-motor development, guided by results from developmental psychology. Behavioural acquisition and growth is demonstrated through constraint-lifting mechanisms initiated by global state variables. The results show how staged competence can be shaped by qualitative behaviour changes produced by anatomical, computational and maturational constraints.

  15. Development of the Life Story in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Kristina L.; Pillemer, David B.

    2018-01-01

    Life span developmental psychology proposes that the ability to create a coherent life narrative does not develop until early adolescence. Using a novel methodology, 10-, 12-, and 14-year-old participants were asked to tell their life stories aloud to a researcher. Later, participants separated their transcribed narratives into self-identified…

  16. HIV Infection: Transmission, Effects on Early Development, and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Describes the modes of transmission of HIV and the course of the disease in infants and toddlers. Information is provided on its effects on early development, medical screening and treatments, therapies, psychosocial assistance, and interventions, including nutritional therapy, occupational and physical therapies, and speech and language therapy.…

  17. Black Female Faculty Success and Early Career Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tamara Bertrand; Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a number of Black female junior scholars have participated in an early career professional development program designed to address socialization issues through individual and small group mentoring. This descriptive qualitative study investigated scholars' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of a research…

  18. Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, Sam V

    2015-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development.

  19. Model of Early Support of Child Development in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Anna Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The development of a child, especially a child with a disability, is conditional upon the initiation of rehabilitation measures immediately after the problem has been identified. The quality of the reaction is conditioned by the functioning of the therapeutic team. The main purpose of the research was the diagnosis of early support system for…

  20. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.

    2008-01-01

    into the crop can be helped by diversification within the crop, allowing complementation and compensation among plants. Although the problems of breeding cereals for organic farming systems are large, there is encouraging progress. This lies in applications of ecology to organic crop production, innovations......The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local......, in European OA. Currently, the effort is determined, partly, by the outcomes from trials that compare varieties under OA and CA (conventional agriculture) conditions. The differences are sufficiently large and important to warrant an increase in appropriate breeding. The wide range of environments within OA...

  1. Does copepods influence dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus early development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Mateus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Good knowledge on the development of early life stages is essential for successful conservation programs of threatened fish species. Diet and rearing system affects early life survival and juvenile quality. Copepods are the natural food of fish larvae in the wild possessing high nutritional value, when compared with live feeds used in aquaculture (rotifers and artemia, and a wide range of size classes. Rearing systems with low water column disturbance and low larval densities enhanced the survival of fragile fish larvae. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of the introduction of copepods in the diet of early dusky grouper larvae reared in controlled mesocosm systems using larval development and juvenile quality as indicators. Two feeding protocols were tested, one composed only by rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis, brine shrimp (Artemia spp. and dry feed and the other supplemented with copepods (Paracartia grani from mouth opening (2 day after hatching - DAH to 8 DAH. Feeding behavior, growth, survival, skeletal malformations and digestive enzymes activity was assessed at different developmental stages. The addition of copepods to the early larvae diet of dusky grouper resulted in faster development and higher survival rates. Larvae fed with copepods improved their development. At 20 DAH all larvae reared at the mesocosm with copedods were already at the stage of post-flexion while in the system without copepods this stage was attained later. At 25 DAH only 64% of the larvae were in post flexion in the mesoscosm without copepods. At 30 DAH larvae supplemented with copepods attained an acidic digestion (high specific activity of pepsin earlier than at the system without copepods. In this last system alkaline digestion (trypsin specific activity, characteristic of early larval stages, was significantly higher reinforcing the faster development of larvae fed with copepods. In both systems the incidence of skeletal malformations was low.

  2. Early postnatal docosahexaenoic acid levels and improved preterm brain development

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Emily W.Y.; Chau, Vann; Barkovich, A. James; Ferriero, Donna M.; Miller, Steven P.; Rogers, Elizabeth E.; Grunau, Ruth E.; Synnes, Anne R.; Xu, Duan; Foong, Justin; Brant, Rollin; Innis, Sheila M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Preterm birth has a dramatic impact on polyunsaturated fatty acid exposures for the developing brain. This study examined the association between postnatal fatty acid levels and measures of brain injury and development, as well as outcomes. Methods A cohort of 60 preterm newborns (24?32 weeks GA) was assessed using early and near-term MRI studies. Red blood cell fatty acid composition was analyzed coordinated with each scan. Outcome at a mean of 33 months corrected age was assessed...

  3. Evolutionary origins and early development of number processing

    CERN Document Server

    Geary, David C; Mann Koepke, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The first volume in this ground-breaking series focuses on the origins and early development of numerical cognition in non-human primates, lower vertebrates, human infants, and preschool children. The text will help readers understand the nature and complexity of these foundational quantitative concepts and skills along with evolutionary precursors and early developmental trajectories. Brings together and focuses the efforts and research of multiple disciplines working in math cognition.The contributors bring vast knowledge and experience to bear on resolving extant

  4. Incidences and Risk Factors of Organ Manifestations in the Early Course of Systemic Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Veronika K; Wirz, Elina G; Allanore, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    risk factors associated with incident renal crisis. CONCLUSION: In SSc patients presenting early after RP onset, approximately half of all incident organ manifestations occur within 2 years and have a simultaneous rather than a sequential onset. These findings have implications for the design of new...

  5. Organizations Concerned with Early Care and Education in Illinois: A Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early Childhood Research & Practice, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Several sectors and levels of organizations, agencies, and projects are involved in promoting and providing education, care, and intervention services for young children and their families in Illinois. State government entities involved in matters of early care and education include the Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE), the Department of…

  6. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareri, Dominic S; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-06-01

    Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one's social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic S. Fareri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation, can drastically impact one’s social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction.

  8. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareri, Dominic S.; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-01-01

    Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one’s social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. PMID:27174149

  9. Early Microbes Modify Immune System Development and Metabolic Homeostasis-The "Restaurant" Hypothesis Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Michael J; Frank, Daniel N; Friedman, Jacob E

    2017-01-01

    The developing infant gut microbiome affects metabolism, maturation of the gastrointestinal tract, immune system function, and brain development. Initial seeding of the neonatal microbiota occurs through maternal and environmental contact. Maternal diet, antibiotic use, and cesarean section alter the offspring microbiota composition, at least temporarily. Nutrients are thought to regulate initial perinatal microbial colonization, a paradigm known as the "Restaurant" hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that early nutritional stresses alter both the initial colonizing bacteria and the development of signaling pathways controlled by microbial mediators. These stresses fine-tune the immune system and metabolic homeostasis in early life, potentially setting the stage for long-term metabolic and immune health. Dysbiosis, an imbalance or a maladaptation in the microbiota, can be caused by several factors including dietary alterations and antibiotics. Dysbiosis can alter biological processes in the gut and in tissues and organs throughout the body. Misregulated development and activity of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, driven by early dysbiosis, could have long-lasting pathologic consequences such as increased autoimmunity, increased adiposity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This review will focus on factors during pregnancy and the neonatal period that impact a neonate's gut microbiome, as well as the mechanisms and possible links from early infancy that can drive increased risk for diseases including obesity and NAFLD. The complex pathways that connect diet, the microbiota, immune system development, and metabolism, particularly in early life, present exciting new frontiers for biomedical research.

  10. Early Microbes Modify Immune System Development and Metabolic Homeostasis—The “Restaurant” Hypothesis Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Nash

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The developing infant gut microbiome affects metabolism, maturation of the gastrointestinal tract, immune system function, and brain development. Initial seeding of the neonatal microbiota occurs through maternal and environmental contact. Maternal diet, antibiotic use, and cesarean section alter the offspring microbiota composition, at least temporarily. Nutrients are thought to regulate initial perinatal microbial colonization, a paradigm known as the “Restaurant” hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that early nutritional stresses alter both the initial colonizing bacteria and the development of signaling pathways controlled by microbial mediators. These stresses fine-tune the immune system and metabolic homeostasis in early life, potentially setting the stage for long-term metabolic and immune health. Dysbiosis, an imbalance or a maladaptation in the microbiota, can be caused by several factors including dietary alterations and antibiotics. Dysbiosis can alter biological processes in the gut and in tissues and organs throughout the body. Misregulated development and activity of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, driven by early dysbiosis, could have long-lasting pathologic consequences such as increased autoimmunity, increased adiposity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. This review will focus on factors during pregnancy and the neonatal period that impact a neonate’s gut microbiome, as well as the mechanisms and possible links from early infancy that can drive increased risk for diseases including obesity and NAFLD. The complex pathways that connect diet, the microbiota, immune system development, and metabolism, particularly in early life, present exciting new frontiers for biomedical research.

  11. Early Microbes Modify Immune System Development and Metabolic Homeostasis—The “Restaurant” Hypothesis Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Michael J.; Frank, Daniel N.; Friedman, Jacob E.

    2017-01-01

    The developing infant gut microbiome affects metabolism, maturation of the gastrointestinal tract, immune system function, and brain development. Initial seeding of the neonatal microbiota occurs through maternal and environmental contact. Maternal diet, antibiotic use, and cesarean section alter the offspring microbiota composition, at least temporarily. Nutrients are thought to regulate initial perinatal microbial colonization, a paradigm known as the “Restaurant” hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that early nutritional stresses alter both the initial colonizing bacteria and the development of signaling pathways controlled by microbial mediators. These stresses fine-tune the immune system and metabolic homeostasis in early life, potentially setting the stage for long-term metabolic and immune health. Dysbiosis, an imbalance or a maladaptation in the microbiota, can be caused by several factors including dietary alterations and antibiotics. Dysbiosis can alter biological processes in the gut and in tissues and organs throughout the body. Misregulated development and activity of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, driven by early dysbiosis, could have long-lasting pathologic consequences such as increased autoimmunity, increased adiposity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This review will focus on factors during pregnancy and the neonatal period that impact a neonate’s gut microbiome, as well as the mechanisms and possible links from early infancy that can drive increased risk for diseases including obesity and NAFLD. The complex pathways that connect diet, the microbiota, immune system development, and metabolism, particularly in early life, present exciting new frontiers for biomedical research. PMID:29326657

  12. Germination and early plant development of ten plant species ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano titanium dioxide (nTiO2) or nano cerium oxide (nCeO2) (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L) to examine potential effects on germination and early seedling development. We modified a standard test protocol developed for soluble chemicals (OPPTS 850.4200) to determine if such an approach might be useful for screening engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and whether there were differences in response across a range of commercially important plant species to two common metal oxide ENMs. Eight of 10 species responded to nTiO2, and 5 species responded to nCeO2. Overall, it appeared that early root growth may be a more sensitive indicator of potential effects from ENM exposure than germination. The observed effects did not always relate to the exposure concentration, indicating that mass-based concentration may not fully explain developmental effects of these two ENMs. The results suggest that nTiO2 and nCeO2 have different effects on early plant growth of agronomic species, which may alter the timing of specific developmental events during their life cycle. In addition, standard germination tests, which are commonly used for toxicity screening of new materials, may not detect the subtle but potentially more important changes associated with early growth and development in terrestrial plants. Engineered nanoparticles (ENMs) have been recognized as valuable components of new technologies and are current

  13. The development of organized visual search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Adam J.; Goksun, Tilbe; Chatterjee, Anjan; Zelonis, Sarah; Mehta, Anika; Smith, Sabrina E.

    2013-01-01

    Visual search plays an important role in guiding behavior. Children have more difficulty performing conjunction search tasks than adults. The present research evaluates whether developmental differences in children's ability to organize serial visual search (i.e., search organization skills) contribute to performance limitations in a typical conjunction search task. We evaluated 134 children between the ages of 2 and 17 on separate tasks measuring search for targets defined by a conjunction of features or by distinct features. Our results demonstrated that children organize their visual search better as they get older. As children's skills at organizing visual search improve they become more accurate at locating targets with conjunction of features amongst distractors, but not for targets with distinct features. Developmental limitations in children's abilities to organize their visual search of the environment are an important component of poor conjunction search in young children. In addition, our findings provide preliminary evidence that, like other visuospatial tasks, exposure to reading may influence children's spatial orientation to the visual environment when performing a visual search. PMID:23584560

  14. Fathers' sensitive parenting and the development of early executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R; Willoughby, Michael; Blair, Clancy; Gustafsson, Hanna C; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Cox, Martha J

    2014-12-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of 620 families residing in rural, predominately low-income communities, this study examined longitudinal links between fathers' sensitive parenting in infancy and toddlerhood and children's early executive functioning, as well as the contribution of maternal sensitive parenting. After accounting for the quality of concurrent and prior parental care, children's early cognitive ability, and other child and family factors, fathers' and mothers' sensitive and supportive parenting during play at 24 months predicted children's executive functioning at 3 years of age. In contrast, paternal parenting quality during play at 7 months did not make an independent contribution above that of maternal care, but the links between maternal sensitive and supportive parenting and executive functioning seemed to operate in similar ways during infancy and toddlerhood. These findings add to prior work on early experience and children's executive functioning, suggesting that both fathers and mothers play a distinct and complementary role in the development of these self-regulatory skills.

  15. [Advances in early childhood development: from neurons to big scale programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rizzoli-Córdoba, Antonio; Alonso-Cuevas, Aranzazú; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia

    Early childhood development (ECD) is the basis of countries' economic and social development and their ability to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Gestation and the first three years of life are critical for children to have adequate physical, psychosocial, emotional and cognitive development for the rest of their lives. Nurturing care and protection of children during gestation and early childhood are necessary for the development of trillions of neurons and trillions of synapses necessary for development. ECD requires access to good nutrition and health services from gestation, responsive caregiving according to the child's developmental stage, social protection and child welfare, and early stimulation and learning opportunities. Six actions are recommended to improve national ECD programs: expand political will and funding; create a supportive, evidence-based policy environment; build capacity through inter-sectoral coordination; ensure fair and transparent governance of programs and services; increase support for multidisciplinary research; and promote the development of leaders. Mexico has made significant progress under the leadership of the Health Ministry, but still faces significant challenges. The recent creation of a national inter-sectoral framework to enable ECD with support of international organizations and the participation of civil society organizations can help overcome these challenges. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Early vocabulary development in children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimaa, Taina; Kunnari, Sari; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Lonka, Eila

    2018-01-01

    Children with unilateral cochlear implants (CIs) may have delayed vocabulary development for an extended period after implantation. Bilateral cochlear implantation is reported to be associated with improved sound localization and enhanced speech perception in noise. This study proposed that bilateral implantation might also promote early vocabulary development. Knowledge regarding vocabulary growth and composition in children with bilateral CIs and factors associated with it may lead to improvements in the content of early speech and language intervention and family counselling. To analyse the growth of early vocabulary and its composition during the first year after CI activation and to investigate factors associated with vocabulary growth. The participants were 20 children with bilateral CIs (12 boys; eight girls; mean age at CI activation = 12.9 months). Vocabulary size was assessed with the Finnish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) Infant Form and compared with normative data. Vocabulary composition was analysed in relation to vocabulary size. Growth curve modelling was implemented using a linear mixed model to analyse the effects of the following variables on early vocabulary growth: time, gender, maternal education, residual hearing with hearing aids, age at first hearing aid fitting and age at CI activation. Despite clear vocabulary growth over time, children with bilateral CIs lagged behind their age norms in receptive vocabulary during the first 12 months after CI activation. In expressive vocabulary, 35% of the children were able to catch up with their age norms, but 55% of the children lagged behind them. In receptive and expressive vocabularies of 1-20 words, analysis of different semantic categories indicated that social terms constituted the highest proportion. Nouns constituted the highest proportion in vocabularies of 101-400 words. The proportion of verbs remained below 20% and the proportion of function words and

  17. Networking and professional development among teachers of Early Childhood Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Mérida Serrano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the professional development of 24 teachers involved in the Early Childhood Education-CPD Centre for Teachers-University Network ([blind review]. Collaborative research-action is carried out with teachers and pupils of Early Childhood Education, an adviser from the Continuing Professional Development (CPD Centre for Teachers, researchers, and teacher training undergraduates from the University of [blind review] ([blind review]. Taking a qualitative approach, through interviews, focus groups, and research journals, the benefits obtained by the teachers through their involvement in the [blind review] network are identified: (1 Their colleagues offer them emotional support and provide examples of good practices; (2 The teacher training undergraduates provide technological resources and the possibility of calmly observing what goes on in the classroom; (3 The researchers foster processes of reflection about practice and endorse the validity of the Project Approach; (4 The adviser provides continuing professional development.

  18. Fibroblast growth factor signaling is required for early somatic gonad development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerberg, Dena M; Sano, Kaori; Draper, Bruce W

    2017-09-01

    The vertebrate ovary and testis develop from a sexually indifferent gonad. During early development of the organism, primordial germ cells (the gamete lineage) and somatic gonad cells coalesce and begin to undergo growth and morphogenesis to form this bipotential gonad. Although this aspect of development is requisite for a fertile adult, little is known about the genetic regulation of early gonadogenesis in any vertebrate. Here, we provide evidence that fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling is required for the early growth phase of a vertebrate bipotential gonad. Based on mutational analysis in zebrafish, we show that the Fgf ligand 24 (Fgf24) is required for proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis of the early somatic gonad, and as a result, most fgf24 mutants are sterile as adults. Additionally, we describe the ultrastructural elements of the early zebrafish gonad and show that distinct somatic cell populations can be identified soon after the gonad forms. Specifically, we show that fgf24 is expressed in an epithelial population of early somatic gonad cells that surrounds an inner population of mesenchymal somatic gonad cells that are in direct contact with the germ cells, and that fgf24 is required for stratification of the somatic tissue. Furthermore, based on gene expression analysis, we find that differentiation of the inner mesenchymal somatic gonad cells into functional cell types in the larval and early juvenile-stage gonad is dependent on Fgf24 signaling. Finally, we argue that the role of Fgf24 in zebrafish is functionally analogous to the role of tetrapod FGF9 in early gonad development.

  19. A Case Study of Idea Work in the Early Phases of Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv; Clausen, Christian; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2009-01-01

    development. Based on our case we will point out four central findings: 1) Early idea work is a complex process and interlinked with many other activities both inside and outside the organization. 2) Ideas evolve,combine and change over time. 3) Idea work involves a wide range of actors. 4) Carrying ideas......Focus in this paper is on the early innovation activities, in particular idea work. Based on a case study from industrial practice on the development of a new circulator (the Alpha Pro circulator) we aim at getting a better understanding of the work with ideas in the early phases of product...... through demands continuous mobilization of support among a range of actors. We suggest that the actors involved in idea work and their interaction such as negotiating different understandings of what constitutes a qualified idea as well as the continuous mobilization of support to their ideas among...

  20. WIN Bulgaria - organization with history and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsokova, L.

    2011-01-01

    The report presents information about the establishing, activities and perspectives of WIN Global and WIN Bulgaria - the history of the association, structure, organization, goals and tasks. The social involvement is expressed by issuing of declarations, opinions, memoranda and other documents on important problems in the nuclear area, connected with the power plan, waste management facilities etc

  1. Archaeal remains dominate marine organic matter from the early Albian oceanic anoxic event 1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuypers, M.M.M.; Blokker, P.; Hopmans, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    The sources for both soluble and insoluble organic matter of the early Albian (∼112 Myr) oceanic anoxic event (OAE) 1b black shales of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) site 1049C (North Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Florida) and the Ravel section of the Southeast France Basin (SEFB) were...... in C/C ratios was used to estimate that up to ∼40% of the organic matter of the SEFB and up to ∼80% of the organic matter of ODP site 1049C preserved in the black shales is derived from archaea. Furthermore, it is shown that, even though there are apparent similarities (high organic carbon (OC) content......, distinct lamination, C-enrichment of OC) between the black shales of OAE1b and the Cenomanian/Turonian (∼94 Myr) OAE, the origin of the organic matter (archaeal versus phytoplanktonic) and causes for C-enrichment of OC are completely different....

  2. Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

  3. Characteristics of effective professional development for early career science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Shirley; Campbell, Sandra; Johnson, Sally; Stylianidou, Fani

    2011-04-01

    The research reported here set out to investigate the features in schools and science departments that were seen as effective in contributing to the continuing professional development (CPD) of early career science teachers. Ten schools took part in the study, selected on the basis of their reputation for having effective CPD practices. To gain different perspectives from within the organisations we conducted interviews with senior members of staff, heads of science departments and early career teachers. A thematic analysis of the interviews is presented, drawing on findings from across the 10 schools, and exemplified in more detail by a vignette to show specific features of effective CPD practice. The study has revealed a wealth of practice across the 10 schools, which included a focus on broadening experience beyond the classroom, having an open, sharing, non-threatening culture and systemic procedures for mentoring and support that involved ring-fenced budgets. The schools also deployed staff judiciously in critical roles that model practice and motivate early career science teachers. Early career teachers were concerned primarily with their overall development as teachers, though some science specific examples such as observing practical work and sessions to address subject knowledge were seen as important.

  4. Market development of organic products in Europe: conditions and role of Organic Marketing Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Schmit, Otto; Fontguyon, Guy de; Sans, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The contribution presents some of the main results of a European program of investigation (titled Organic Marketing Initiatives – OMIs – and Rural Development). Firstly, consumer behavior, as well as attitudes, expectations, motives and buying barriers concerning organic food are explored. Then, authors give a brief overview of the organic market analysis of 18 European countries, based on a Delphi inquiry. Finally, the third part highlights the role of OMIs in the organic market development ...

  5. Glycoconjugates distribution during developing mouse spinal cord motor organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojoudi, Elham; Ebrahimi, Vahid; Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan, Alireza; Fazel, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the distribution and changes of glycoconjugates particularly their terminal sugars by using lectin histochemistry during mouse spinal cord development. Formalin-fixed sections of mouse embryo (10-16 fetal days) were processed for lectin histochemical method. In this study, two groups of horseradish peroxidase-labeled specific lectins were used: N-acetylgalactosamine, including Dolichos biflorus, Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), Vicia villosa, Glycine max as well as focuse-binding lectins, including tetragonolobus, Ulex europaeus, and Orange peel fungus (OFA). All sections were counterstained with alcian blue (pH 2.5). Our results showed that only WFA and OFA reacted strongly with the floor plate cells from early to late embryonic period of developing spinal cord. The strongest reactions were related to the 14, 15, and 16 days of tissue sections incubated with OFA and WFA lectins. The present study demonstrated that cellular and molecular differentiation of the spinal cord organizers is a wholly regulated process, and α-L-fucose, α-D-GalNAc, and α/β-D-GalNAc terminal sugars play a significant role during the prenatal spinal cord development.

  6. [Dental caries and early childhood development: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, F Loreto; Sanz, B Javier; Mejía, L Gloria

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between dental caries and early childhood development in 3-year-olds from Talca, Chile. A pilot study with a convenience sample of 3-year-olds from Talca (n = 39) who attend public healthcare centers. Child development was measured by the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI), a screening tool used nationally among pre-school children to assess language development, fine motor skills and coordination areas. Dental caries prevalence was evaluated by decayed, missing, filled teeth (DFMT) and decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces (DFMS) ceo-d and ceo-s indexes. The children were divided into two groups according to the PDIscore: those with a score of 40 or more were considered developmentally normal (n = 32), and those with a score below 40 were considered as having impaired development (n = 7). The severity of caries (DMFT) was negatively correlated with PDI (r = -0.82), and children with the lowest TEPSI score had the highest DFMT values. The average DMFT in children with normal development was 1.31, and 3.57 for those with impaired development. This pilot study indicates that the severity of dental caries is correlated with early childhood development. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  7. Early development of Chondrus ocellatus holm (Gigartinaceae, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aihua; Wang, Jicheng; Duan, Delin

    2006-06-01

    Chondrus is an economically important red algae widely used for food and biochemical purpose. It early development is crucial for the culture and seedling propagation. We chose tetraspores and carpospores of Chondrus ocellatus as examples for experiment of the culture, induction and release in laboratory condition, aiming to understand early development of C. ocellatus and to apply in seedling production. Mature C. ocellatus were collected in Qingdao, China, from Nov. to Dec. 2004. After the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte were brushed and washed with sterilized seawater, the algal materials were treated in 1.5% KI for 20 min, then were dried for 1h to stimulate the releasing of spores. After the spores released overnight, it were cultured in PES medium, incubated at 18 °C, 10±2 μmol/(m2·s1) in 12∶12h (light: dark). The observation and recording under microscope were carried out. Continuous observation of the early development showed that both tetraspore and carpospore are similar to each other. In general, three stages of the early development were shown being division, discoid crust and seedling stages. To the division stage, the most obvious feature was the increasing of cell number; during the discoid crust stage, the discoid crust had a three-dimensional axis, and it began to differentiate into two types of cells: the basal cells and the apical cells; and to the seedling stage, several protuberances-like appeared on the discoid crusts and formed juvenile seedlings. Carpospores and tetraspores exhibited a similar development process that included division stage, discoid crust stage and seedling stage.

  8. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  9. Social conversational skills development in early implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerzoni, Letizia; Murri, Alessandra; Fabrizi, Enrico; Nicastri, Maria; Mancini, Patrizia; Cuda, Domenico

    2016-09-01

    Social conversational skills are a salient aspect of early pragmatic development in young children. These skills include two different abilities, assertiveness and responsiveness. This study investigated the development of these abilities in early implanted children and their relationships with lexical development and some language-sensitive variables. Prospective, observational, nonrandomized study. Participants included 28 children with congenital profound sensorineural hearing loss. The mean age at device activation was 13.3 months (standard deviation [SD] ±4.2). The Social-Conversational Skills Rating Scale was used to evaluate assertiveness and responsiveness. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Words and Sentences form) was used to analyze the lexical development. The device experience was 12 months for each child, and the mean age at testing was 25.9 months (SD ±4.6). Assertiveness and responsiveness scores were within the normal range of normal-hearing age-matched peers. Age at cochlear implant activation exerted a significant impact, with the highest scores associated to the youngest patients. The residual correlations between assertiveness and responsiveness with the lexical development were positive and strongly significant (r = 0.69 and 0.73, respectively). Preoperative hearing threshold demonstrated an associated significant coefficient on the assertiveness score. Age at diagnosis and maternal education level were not correlated with the social conversational skills. Early-implanted children developed social conversational skills that are similar to normal-hearing peers matched for age 1 year after device activation. Social conversational skills and lexical development were strongly correlated, but the present study design cannot specify the direction of this relationship. Children with better preoperative residual hearing exhibited better assertive ability. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2098-2105, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological

  10. Recent developments in persufflation for organ preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Catherine G; Papas, Klearchos K

    2018-06-01

    To summarize current literature and recent findings on the potential of humidified oxygenated gas perfusion (persufflation) as an alternative method for improved organ preservation. Although there are some conflicting data, the majority of the evidence suggests that persufflation, by enhancing oxygenation, can improve preservation and even rescue organs, including organs with prior exposure to warm ischemia. In some cases, persufflation produced better results than hypothermic machine perfusion. The timing of persufflation is of importance; benefits of persufflation appear to increase as the timing of its administration postprocurement decreases. This may be particularly true for tissues that are more sensitive to ischemia, such as the pancreas prior to islet isolation. Combining oxygen persufflation with nitric oxide and addition of pulsatile flow may provide further benefits and amplify its effects on improving transplant outcomes. Persufflation is a promising, relatively simple, preservation technique that enables improved oxygenation, which provides protection and improvement in the graft condition during preservation and prior to transplantation. More detailed studies are needed to optimize persufflation and evaluate its short and long-term effects in vivo.

  11. Leadership for democracy : developing democratic organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Dorczak, Roman

    2014-01-01

    What seems to be one of the core values that shapes our understanding of the main goals of educational institutions is development. It should be discussed on at least four different levels: individual, group, organizational and social. Individual human development should be seen as the most important precondition for all the other types or levels of development. Using L. Kohlberg’s theory of socio-moral development, the paper discusses necessary organizational changes in schools necessary to ...

  12. Lexically-based learning and early grammatical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieven, E V; Pine, J M; Baldwin, G

    1997-02-01

    Pine & Lieven (1993) suggest that a lexically-based positional analysis can account for the structure of a considerable proportion of children's early multiword corpora. The present study tests this claim on a second, larger sample of eleven children aged between 1;0 and 3;0 from a different social background, and extends the analysis to later in development. Results indicate that the positional analysis can account for a mean of 60% of all the children's multiword utterances and that the great majority of all other utterances are defined as frozen by the analysis. Alternative explanations of the data based on hypothesizing underlying syntactic or semantic relations are investigated through analyses of pronoun case marking and of verbs with prototypical agent-patient roles. Neither supports the view that the children's utterances are being produced on the basis of general underlying rules and categories. The implications of widespread distributional learning in early language development are discussed.

  13. Early childhood obesity is associated with compromised cerebellar development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer L; Couch, Jessica; Schwenk, Krista; Long, Michelle; Towler, Stephen; Theriaque, Douglas W; He, Guojun; Liu, Yijun; Driscoll, Daniel J; Leonard, Christiana M

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study investigating commonalities between Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS-a genetic imprinting disorder) and early-onset obesity of unknown etiology (EMO) we measured total cerebral and cerebellar volume on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. Individuals with PWS (N = 16) and EMO (N = 12) had smaller cerebellar volumes than a control group of 15 siblings (p = .02 control vs. EMO; p = .0005 control vs. PWS), although there was no difference among the groups in cerebral volume. Individuals with PWS and EMO also had impaired cognitive function: general intellectual ability (GIA): PWS 65 +/- 25; EMO 81 +/- 19; and Controls 112 +/- 13 (p cognitive development, these results raise the possibility that early childhood obesity retards both cerebellar and cognitive development.

  14. Early life developmental effects of marine persistent organic pollutants on the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs Anselmo, H.M.R.; Koerting, L.; Devito, S.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Dubbeldam, M.; Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Murk, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    A new 16-day echinoid early life stage (ELS) bioassay was developed to allow for prolonged observation of possible adverse effects during embryogenesis and larval development of the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Subsequently, the newly developed bioassay was applied to study the effects of key

  15. Early mathematics development and later achievement: Further evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray; Dahl, Sarah

    2006-05-01

    There is a growing international recognition of the importance of the early years of schooling as well as an interest being shown in the relationship of early education to later achievement. This article focuses on a cohort of English pupils who have been tracked through primary school during the first five years of the new National Numeracy Strategy. It reports a limited longitudinal study of young children's early mathematical development, initially within three testing cycles: at the mid-point and towards the end of their reception year (at five years-of-age) and again at the mid-point of Year 1 (at six years-ofage). These cycles were located within the broader context of progress through to the end of Key Stage 1 (at seven years) and Key Stage 2 (at eleven years) on the basis of national standardised assessment tests (SATs). Results showed that children who bring into school early mathematical knowledge do appear to be advantaged in terms of their mathematical progress through primary school. Numerical attainment increases in importance across the primary years and practical problem solving remains an important element of this. This finding is significant given the current emphasis on numerical calculation in the English curriculum. It is concluded that without active intervention, it is likely that children with little mathematical knowledge at the beginning of formal schooling will remain low achievers throughout their primary years and, probably, beyond.

  16. Characterization of the onset of embryonic control and early development in the bovine embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, F.L.

    1988-01-01

    Bovine embryos were used to determine if morphological and molecular features of early development are similar to in vivo recovered bovine embryos and to determine at what level early bovine development is regulated. Radiolabeling of IVP embryos and in vivo recovered embryos with 35 S-methionine for SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals that these embryos are equivalent. Few differences in protein profiles are observed between 1- and early 4-cell embryos. A change in protein profiles begins at the mid 4-cell stage and continues into the 8-cell stage. Few differences in protein profiles are observed between 1- and early 4-cell embryos. A change in protein profiles begins at the mid 4-cell stage and continues into the 8-cell stage. Few differences in protein profiles are observed between late 8-cells and morulae. This transition is α-amanitin sensitive therefore due to de novo embryonic transcription. Embryonic transcription is partially responsible for terminating the post-transcriptionally regulated period of early bovine development. Argentophillic nucleolar organizing regions (Ag-NORs) indicate onset of nucleolar activation. Ag-NORs were absent in 2- and 4-cell IVP embryos and rarely occurred in 8-cell IVP embryos cultured in vitro. IVP 1- and 2-cell embryos cultured to blastocysts in sheep oviducts demonstrated Ag-NORs. Thus the lack of nucleolar activation of IVP embryos cultured in vitro is culture induced between the 2- and 8-cell stage

  17. European Tips on Tourism development in the Caucasus in Early ХХ Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Tamarashvili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents tips, recommendations, advice by the Europeans. Their consideration was important for further development of tourism in the Caucasus. Namely, for the development of the organization, established in early 20th century “Caucasus Tourism Promotion Committee" and its relation with the countries with well-developed tourism, such as: Austria, Hungary, Germany, France, Bosnia and Herzegovina and etc. Using archive sources, we can consider the issues, concerning foreign tourism experience, types of advertisement in XX century, means of information, transport, tourist accommodation, tourism infrastructure, etc

  18. Test the Artifact - Develop the Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus

    2006-01-01

    perspective is applied to data acquired by the qualitative methodsof participant observation and semi-structured open-ended interviews. Conclusions: The achievement of fit between IT technology and work processes in healthcare involves the establishment of new organizational structures that cut across...... the existingdivisionalized hospital organization and a detailed alignment of artefact, functionalityand work process. This process can be furthered by supporting ‘communities of practice',i.e. informal groups of engaged clinicians. A sociotechnical perspective is beneficial to theanalysis of such processes....

  19. Presynaptic proteoglycans: sweet organizers of synapse development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yoo Sung; Kim, Eunjoon

    2013-08-21

    Synaptic adhesion molecules control neuronal synapse development. In this issue of Neuron, Siddiqui et al. (2013) and de Wit et al. (2013) demonstrate that LRRTM4, a postsynaptic adhesion molecule, trans-synaptically interacts with presynaptic heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) to promote synapse development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    India , Indonesia, and South Africa with a view toward possible membership. The member countries rely on the OECD Secretariat in Paris to collect...science and technology, internet, tax and anti-bribery standards, gender , green growth; public management; and globalization and development. One... inequality that arises from necessary economic adjustments. In addition, the initiative will address the needs and issues of developing countries

  1. Importance of Career Development for Individuals and Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Serbes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Career development and planning is very significant to carry the organizations from current to the higher levels as well as professional and personal developments of the individuals. In terms of career, it can be said that the individuals and the organizations who invest in the career development can keep up with the others in the market. This paper tries to shed a light upon the importance of career development and shows basic traits of the career development.

  2. Development of new organic materials by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nho, Y. C.; Kang, P. H.; Choi, J. H.; and others

    2012-01-15

    The aims of this project is to develop the high-performance industrial and biomedical new materials and finally contribute to the advancement of the national radiation technology industry. In the 1st project, we have developed the radiation-based new therapeutic agents such as hydrogel patch, paste, naganol, nanoparticles and nano fibers containing natural medicinal materials for the treatment of atomic dermatitis and diabetic ulcer. Also, we have developed the separator, the polymer gel electrolyte, and proton exchange membranes for lithium secondary battery and fuel cell by radiation. In the 2nd project, we have developed the advanced composite materials such as silicon carbide fibers, carbon fiber reinforced plastics, low dielectric materials for semiconductor and adhesive technology. In the 3rd project, the crucial radiation-induced surface modification technologies for the fabrication of the advanced biosensors/chips and electronic devices have been successfully developed.

  3. Development of new organic materials by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nho, Y. C.; Kang, P. H.; Choi, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this project is to develop the high-performance industrial and biomedical new materials and finally contribute to the advancement of the national radiation technology industry. In the 1st project, we have developed the radiation-based new therapeutic agents such as hydrogel patch, paste, naganol, nanoparticles and nano fibers containing natural medicinal materials for the treatment of atomic dermatitis and diabetic ulcer. Also, we have developed the separator, the polymer gel electrolyte, and proton exchange membranes for lithium secondary battery and fuel cell by radiation. In the 2nd project, we have developed the advanced composite materials such as silicon carbide fibers, carbon fiber reinforced plastics, low dielectric materials for semiconductor and adhesive technology. In the 3rd project, the crucial radiation-induced surface modification technologies for the fabrication of the advanced biosensors/chips and electronic devices have been successfully developed

  4. Early childhood development: impact of national human development, family poverty, parenting practices and access to early childhood education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T D; Luchters, S; Fisher, J

    2017-05-01

    This study was to describe and quantify the relationships among family poverty, parents' caregiving practices, access to education and the development of children living in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Early childhood development was assessed in four domains: language-cognitive, physical, socio-emotional and approaches to learning. Countries were classified into three groups on the basis of the Human Development Index (HDI). Overall, data from 97 731 children aged 36 to 59 months from 35 LAMIC were included in the after analyses. The mean child development scale score was 4.93 out of a maximum score of 10 (95%CI 4.90 to 4.97) in low-HDI countries and 7.08 (95%CI 7.05 to 7.12) in high-HDI countries. Family poverty was associated with lower child development scores in all countries. The total indirect effect of family poverty on child development score via attending early childhood education, care for the child at home and use of harsh punishments at home was -0.13 SD (77.8% of the total effect) in low-HDI countries, -0.09 SD (23.8% of the total effect) in medium-HDI countries and -0.02 SD (6.9% of the total effect) in high-HDI countries. Children in the most disadvantaged position in their societies and children living in low-HDI countries are at the greatest risk of failing to reach their developmental potential. Optimizing care for child development at home is essential to reduce the adverse effects of poverty on children's early development and subsequent life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Early drainage mitigates methane and nitrous oxide emissions from organically amended paddy soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tariq, Azeem; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; de Tourdonnet, Stephane

    2017-01-01

    Elevated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly of methane (CH4) from flooded rice production systems contribute to global warming. Different crop management strategies, such as drainage of paddy soils and climate-smart residue management, are essential in order to mitigate GHG emissions from...... flooded rice systems, but they often conflict with practical management preferences.The aim of this study was to assess the potential of early-season drainage for mitigating CH4 and N2O emissions from soils with and without added organic amendments in relation to native soil organic carbon (SOC). Rice...

  6. An Embodied Account of Early Executive-Function Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottwald, Janna M.; Achermann, Sheila; Marciszko, Carin; Lindskog, Marcus; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2016-01-01

    The importance of executive functioning for later life outcomes, along with its potential to be positively affected by intervention programs, motivates the need to find early markers of executive functioning. In this study, 18-month-olds performed three executive-function tasks—involving simple inhibition, working memory, and more complex inhibition—and a motion-capture task assessing prospective motor control during reaching. We demonstrated that prospective motor control, as measured by the peak velocity of the first movement unit, is related to infants’ performance on simple-inhibition and working memory tasks. The current study provides evidence that motor control and executive functioning are intertwined early in life, which suggests an embodied perspective on executive-functioning development. We argue that executive functions and prospective motor control develop from a common source and a single motive: to control action. This is the first demonstration that low-level movement planning is related to higher-order executive control early in life. PMID:27765900

  7. Strength-based leadership coaching in organizations an evidence-based guide to positive leadership development

    CERN Document Server

    MacKie, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Positive organizational psychology, with its focus on the identification and development of strengths, is a natural ally to executive development and leadership coaching. However, this approach is only just beginning to come to the attention of organizations and consequently, the research base for strength-based coaching is in its early stages of development. Strength-based Leadership Coaching in Organizations reviews strength-based approaches to positive leadership development and evaluates the evidence for their effectiveness, critically assesses their apparent distinctiveness and considers how strengths can be reliably assessed and developed in their organizational context. This book reviews key areas of leader and team development are reviewed and outlines and describes a model of strengths development in organizations. The application of strength-based leadership coaching will be discussed from the managerial and external perspective within the context of career stage, seniority, role challenges and orga...

  8. Development of new organic materials by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nho, Young Chang; Kang, Phil Hyun; Choi, Jae Hak

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this project is to develop the high-performance industrial and biomedical new materials and finally contribute to the advancement of the national radiation technology industry. In the 1st project, we carried out the radiation-based new research to apply long-term moisturizing effects and effective natural herbal extracts on the atopic wounds using gamma-ray irradiation. Also, we have developed the separator and the polymer gel electrolyte for lithium secondary battery by radiation. In the 2nd project, we have developed the advanced composite materials such as silicon carbide fibers, carbon fiber reinforced plastics, low dielectric materials for semiconductor and adhesive technology for TFT-LCD panel by radiation. In the 3rd project, we have developed the various radiation-based techniques for the surface modification of polymers and ceramics, biomolecules immobilization and patterning, prevention of biomolecule's non-specific adhesion, and surface modification of carbon nanotubes

  9. Development of emotions as organized by culture

    OpenAIRE

    Trommsdorff, Gisela

    2006-01-01

    Emotions can be seen as both biologically prepared and socio-culturally shaped. Evidence on cultural differences in manifestations of emotion abound; however, the role of culture in emotion development has not yet been systematically studied and integrated in a theory on the socialization of emotions. Emotion development includes the understanding of emotions and their meaning, appraisal of emotion-evoking situations, knowledge of appropriate emotion expression, and regulation of emotions. Em...

  10. Excess iron: considerations related to development and early growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    What effects might arise from early life exposures to high iron? This review considers the specific effects of high iron on the brain, stem cells, and the process of erythropoiesis and identifies gaps in our knowledge of what molecular damage may be incurred by oxidative stress that is imparted by high iron status in early life. Specific areas to enhance research on this topic include the following: longitudinal behavioral studies of children to test associations between iron exposures and mood, emotion, cognition, and memory; animal studies to determine epigenetic changes that reprogram brain development and metabolic changes in early life that could be followed through the life course; and the establishment of human epigenetic markers of iron exposures and oxidative stress that could be monitored for early origins of adult chronic diseases. In addition, efforts to understand how iron exposure influences stem cell biology could be enhanced by establishing platforms to collect biological specimens, including umbilical cord blood and amniotic fluid, to be made available to the research community. At the molecular level, there is a need to better understand stress erythropoiesis and changes in iron metabolism during pregnancy and development, especially with respect to regulatory control under high iron conditions that might promote ineffective erythropoiesis and iron-loading anemia. These investigations should focus not only on factors such as hepcidin and erythroferrone but should also include newly identified interactions between transferrin receptor-2 and the erythropoietin receptor. Finally, despite our understanding that several key micronutrients (e.g., vitamin A, copper, manganese, and zinc) support iron's function in erythropoiesis, how these nutrients interact remains, to our knowledge, unknown. It is necessary to consider many factors when formulating recommendations on iron supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins in early embryonic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a large subgroup of the TGF-β family of secreted growth factors, control fundamental events in early embryonic development, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. The plethora of dose-dependent cellular processes regulated by BMP signalling demand a tight regulation of BMP activity. Over the last decade, a number of proteins have been identified that bind BMPs in the extracellular space and regulate the interaction of BMPs with their cognate receptors, including the secreted BMP antagonist Chordin. In the early vertebrate embryo, the localized secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip establishes a functional BMP signalling gradient that is required for the determination of the dorsoventral or back to belly body axis. In particular, inhibition of BMP activity is essential for the formation of neural tissue in the development of vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. Here we review recent studies that have provided new insight into the regulation of BMP signalling in the extracellular space. In particular, we discuss the recently identified Twisted gastrulation protein that modulates, in concert with metalloproteinases of the Tolloid family, the interaction of Chordin with BMP and a family of proteins that share structural similarities with Chordin in the respective BMP binding domains. In addition, genetic and functional studies in zebrafish and frog provide compelling evidence that the secreted protein Sizzled functionally interacts with the Chd BMP pathway, despite being expressed ventrally in the early gastrula-stage embryo. These intriguing discoveries may have important implications, not only for our current concept of early embryonic patterning, but also for the regulation of BMP activity at later developmental stages and tissue homeostasis in the adult.

  12. Widespread disruption of functional brain organization in early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie M Adriaanse

    Full Text Available Early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD patients present a different clinical profile than late-onset AD patients. This can be partially explained by cortical atrophy, although brain organization might provide more insight. The aim of this study was to examine functional connectivity in early-onset and late-onset AD patients. Resting-state fMRI scans of 20 early-onset (<65 years old, 28 late-onset (≥65 years old AD patients and 15 "young" (<65 years old and 31 "old" (≥65 years old age-matched controls were available. Resting-state network-masks were used to create subject-specific maps. Group differences were examined using a non-parametric permutation test, accounting for gray-matter. Performance on five cognitive domains were used in a correlation analysis with functional connectivity in AD patients. Functional connectivity was not different in any of the RSNs when comparing the two control groups (young vs. old controls, which implies that there is no general effect of aging on functional connectivity. Functional connectivity in early-onset AD was lower in all networks compared to age-matched controls, where late-onset AD showed lower functional connectivity in the default-mode network. Functional connectivity was lower in early-onset compared to late-onset AD in auditory-, sensory-motor, dorsal-visual systems and the default mode network. Across patients, an association of functional connectivity of the default mode network was found with visuoconstruction. Functional connectivity of the right dorsal visual system was associated with attention across patients. In late-onset AD patients alone, higher functional connectivity of the sensory-motor system was associated with poorer memory performance. Functional brain organization was more widely disrupted in early-onset AD when compared to late-onset AD. This could possibly explain different clinical profiles, although more research into the relationship of functional connectivity and cognitive

  13. Research to support development of organic food and farming

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Christine; Alrøe, Hugo; Kristensen, Erik Steen

    2006-01-01

    Agriculture and organic agriculture in particular are developing rapidly, due not only to technological change but also to changes in agricultural policy and public expectation. Research allows new knowledge to be developed and is thus vital for the future of organic agriculture. We can ask the question, what is the purpose of research on organic farming? Is it to increase yield and productivity, to compare it with other forms of agriculture, or to quantify its environmental and social impact...

  14. The Proteomic Signature of Aspergillus fumigatus During Early Development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagas, Steven E.; Jain, Mohit Raja; Li, Hong; Perlin, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic fungus that causes a range of diseases in humans including invasive aspergillosis. All forms of disease begin with the inhalation of conidia, which germinate and develop. Four stages of early development were evaluated using the gel free system of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation to determine the full proteomic profile of the pathogen. A total of 461 proteins were identified at 0, 4, 8, and 16 h and fold changes for each were established. Ten proteins including the hydrophobin rodlet protein RodA and a protein involved in melanin synthesis Abr2 were found to decrease relative to conidia. To generate a more comprehensive view of early development, a whole genome microarray analysis was performed comparing conidia to 8 and 16 h of growth. A total of 1871 genes were found to change significantly at 8 h with 1001 genes up-regulated and 870 down-regulated. At 16 h, 1235 genes changed significantly with 855 up-regulated and 380 down-regulated. When a comparison between the proteomics and microarray data was performed at 8 h, a total of 22 proteins with significant changes also had corresponding genes that changed significantly. When the same comparison was performed at 16 h, 12 protein and gene combinations were found. This study, the most comprehensive to date, provides insights into early pathways activated during growth and development of A. fumigatus. It reveals a pathogen that is gearing up for rapid growth by building translation machinery, generating ATP, and is very much committed to aerobic metabolism. PMID:21825280

  15. Clinical assessment of early language development: a simplified short form of the Mandarin communicative development inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soli, Sigfrid D; Zheng, Yun; Meng, Zhaoli; Li, Gang

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a practical mean for clinical evaluation of early pediatric language development by establishing developmental trajectories for receptive and expressive vocabulary growth in children between 6 and 32 months of age using a simple, time-efficient assessment tool. Simplified short form versions of the Words and Gestures and Words and Sentences vocabulary inventories in the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventory [1] were developed and used to assess early language development in developmentally normal children from 6 to 32 months of age during routine health checks. Developmental trajectories characterizing the rate of receptive and expressive vocabulary growth between 6 and 32 months of age are reported. These trajectories allow the equivalent age corresponding to a score to be determined after a brief structured interview with the child's parents that can be conducted in a busy clinical setting. The simplified short forms of the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventories can serve as a clinically useful tool to assess early child language development, providing a practical mean of objectively assessing early language development following early interventions to treat young children with hearing impairment as well as speech and language delays. Objective evidence of language development is essential for achievement of effective (re)habilitation outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. NATIONAL PAYMENT SYSTEM ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT FUNDAMENTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Zaytseva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of national payment systems (NPS is determined with such main factors as globalization of economic relations, application of newest information technologies, structural changes in the banking sphere and growth of the role of central banks. NPS should be considered as integral functional and institutional component of the country’s monetary system. Among main criteria that determine NPS development possibility there are its integrity, stability and flexibility. NPS may be regarded at as structure composed of the basic, organizational and regulating blocks.

  17. Embryology of Early Jurassic dinosaur from China with evidence of preserved organic remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisz, Robert R; Huang, Timothy D; Roberts, Eric M; Peng, ShinRung; Sullivan, Corwin; Stein, Koen; LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Shieh, DarBin; Chang, RongSeng; Chiang, ChengCheng; Yang, Chuanwei; Zhong, Shiming

    2013-04-11

    Fossil dinosaur embryos are surprisingly rare, being almost entirely restricted to Upper Cretaceous strata that record the late stages of non-avian dinosaur evolution. Notable exceptions are the oldest known embryos from the Early Jurassic South African sauropodomorph Massospondylus and Late Jurassic embryos of a theropod from Portugal. The fact that dinosaur embryos are rare and typically enclosed in eggshells limits their availability for tissue and cellular level investigations of development. Consequently, little is known about growth patterns in dinosaur embryos, even though post-hatching ontogeny has been studied in several taxa. Here we report the discovery of an embryonic dinosaur bone bed from the Lower Jurassic of China, the oldest such occurrence in the fossil record. The embryos are similar in geological age to those of Massospondylus and are also assignable to a sauropodomorph dinosaur, probably Lufengosaurus. The preservation of numerous disarticulated skeletal elements and eggshells in this monotaxic bone bed, representing different stages of incubation and therefore derived from different nests, provides opportunities for new investigations of dinosaur embryology in a clade noted for gigantism. For example, comparisons among embryonic femora of different sizes and developmental stages reveal a consistently rapid rate of growth throughout development, possibly indicating that short incubation times were characteristic of sauropodomorphs. In addition, asymmetric radial growth of the femoral shaft and rapid expansion of the fourth trochanter suggest that embryonic muscle activation played an important role in the pre-hatching ontogeny of these dinosaurs. This discovery also provides the oldest evidence of in situ preservation of complex organic remains in a terrestrial vertebrate.

  18. Human Resource Development in Changing Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Manuel; Wueste, Richard A.

    This book is intended to help managers and human resource professionals understand organizational change and manage its effects on their own development and that of their subordinates. The following topics are covered in 11 chapters: organizational change, employee motivation, new managerial roles, human performance systems, upward and peer…

  19. Scrum in the Traditional Development Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis; Friis Sommer, Anita

    2015-01-01

    During the last couple of years, the application of Scrum as a project management framework has been broadened from initially belonging to the software domain. Now companies within the field of traditional product development are starting to implement Scrum in an attempt to improve...

  20. Fathers’ Sensitive Parenting and the Development of Early Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R.; Willoughby, Michael; Blair, Clancy; Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Cox, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of 620 families residing in rural, predominately low-income communities, this study examined longitudinal links between fathers’ sensitive parenting in infancy and toddlerhood and children’s early executive functioning, as well as the contribution of maternal sensitive parenting. After accounting for the quality of concurrent and prior parental care, children’s early cognitive ability, and other child and family factors, fathers’ and mothers’ sensitive and supportive parenting during play at 24-months predicted children’s executive functioning at 3-years of age. In contrast, paternal parenting quality during play at 7-months did not make an independent contribution above that of maternal care, but the links between maternal sensitive and supportive parenting and executive functioning seemed to operate in similar ways during infancy and toddlerhood. These findings add to prior work on early experience and children’s executive functioning, suggesting that both fathers and mothers play a distinct and complementary role in the development of these self-regulatory skills. PMID:25347539

  1. Studies of volatiles and organic materials in early terrestrial and present-day outer solar system environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid; Chyba, Christopher F.; Khare, B. N.

    1991-01-01

    A review and partial summary of projects within several areas of research generally involving the origin, distribution, chemistry, and spectral/dielectric properties of volatiles and organic materials in the outer solar system and early terrestrial environments are presented. The major topics covered include: (1) impact delivery of volatiles and organic compounds to the early terrestrial planets; (2) optical constants measurements; (3) spectral classification, chemical processes, and distribution of materials; and (4) radar properties of ice, hydrocarbons, and organic heteropolymers.

  2. The System Dynamics Model for Development of Organic Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Črtomir; Škraba, Andrej; Kljajić, Miroljub; Pažek, Karmen; Bavec, Martina; Bavec, Franci

    2008-10-01

    Organic agriculture is the highest environmentally valuable agricultural system, and has strategic importance at national level that goes beyond the interests of agricultural sector. In this paper we address development of organic farming simulation model based on a system dynamics methodology (SD). The system incorporates relevant variables, which affect the development of the organic farming. The group decision support system (GDSS) was used in order to identify most relevant variables for construction of causal loop diagram and further model development. The model seeks answers to strategic questions related to the level of organically utilized area, levels of production and crop selection in a long term dynamic context and will be used for simulation of different policy scenarios for organic farming and their impact on economic and environmental parameters of organic production at an aggregate level.

  3. Regional early development and eruption of permanent teeth: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mullahi, A M; Bakathir, A; Al Jahdhami, S

    2017-02-01

    Early development and eruption of permanent teeth are rarely reported in scientific literature. Early eruption of permanent teeth has been reported to occur due to local factors such as trauma or dental abscesses in primary teeth, and in systemic conditions. Congenital diffuse infiltrating facial lipomatosis (CDIFL) is a rare condition that belongs to a group of lipomatosis tumours. In this disorder, the mature adipocytes invade adjacent soft and hard tissues in the facial region. Accelerated tooth eruption is one of the dental anomalies associated with CDIFL. A 3-year-old boy presented with a swelling of the lower lip localised early development and eruption of permanent teeth and dental caries involving many primary teeth. The planned treatment included biopsy of the swollen lower lip to confirm the diagnosis, surgical reduction and reconstruction of lip aesthetics. The management of the carious primary teeth included preventative and comprehensive dental care and extractions. These procedures were completed under general anaesthesia due to the child's young age and poor cooperation. The lip biopsy showed features of CDIFL such as the presence of infiltrating adipose tissue, prominent number of nerve bundles and thickened vessels. The high recurrence rate of CDIFL mandates long-term monitoring during the facial growth period of the child. Follow-up care by the paediatric dentist and maxillofacial surgeon has been required to manage all aspects of this congenital malformation. This rare disorder has many implications affecting child's facial aesthetics, psychological well being, developing occlusion and risk of dental caries. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed for management of this condition.

  4. The quantum defect: Early history and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, A.R.; Inokuti, M.

    1997-01-01

    The notion of the quantum defect is important in atomic and molecular spectroscopy and also in unifying spectroscopy with collision theory. In the latter context, the quantum defect may be viewed as an ancestor of the phase shift. However, the origin of the term open-quotes quantum defectclose quotes does not seem to be explained in standard textbooks. It occurred in a 1921 paper by Schroedinger, preceding quantum mechanics, yet giving the correct meaning as an index of the short-range interactions with the core of an atom. We present the early history of the quantum-defect idea, and sketch its recent developments. copyright 1997 American Association of Physics Teachers

  5. Retinoic acid synthesis and functions in early embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Richard Kin Ting

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retinoic acid (RA is a morphogen derived from retinol (vitamin A that plays important roles in cell growth, differentiation, and organogenesis. The production of RA from retinol requires two consecutive enzymatic reactions catalyzed by different sets of dehydrogenases. The retinol is first oxidized into retinal, which is then oxidized into RA. The RA interacts with retinoic acid receptor (RAR and retinoic acid X receptor (RXR which then regulate the target gene expression. In this review, we have discussed the metabolism of RA and the important components of RA signaling pathway, and highlighted current understanding of the functions of RA during early embryonic development.

  6. Life cycle assessment of nanoadsorbents at early stage technological development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazemi, Ali; Bahramifar, Nader; Heydari, Akbar

    2018-01-01

    the process of the functionalization of nanoadsorbents leads to the increase of the adsorption capacity of nanoadsorbents, it is also paired with a significant enhancement of negative environmental impacts. The results of t-test comparing the cradle-to-use life cycle impacts of studied impact categories for 1...... in the control and removal of environmental pollutants. This application is still an emerging technology at the early stages of development. Hence, the heart of this study enables an environmental assessment of nanoadsorbents as an emerging product. In addition, the environmental impacts of synthesized...

  7. Comparison of early gestational development between natural and stimulated pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, M. O.; Yoon, T. K.; Cha, G. Y.

    1990-01-01

    In order to assess the difference in growth and development between the stimulated and natural pregnancies, we compared the sonographic measurement of early embryos from the fifth to seventh gestational week, in terms of mean size of gestational sac, crown rump length, fetal heart rate and yolk sac size between 26 ovulation stimulated pregnancies and 38 natural pre gnancies. The two groups were compared by multiple regression analysis, The data suggest that there is attend that embryos smaller in stimulated pregnancies though significant statistical differences was not proved

  8. A comparative analysis of early child health and development services and outcomes in countries with different redistributive policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Meta; Hopkins, Jessica; Biscaro, Anne; Srikanthan, Cinntha; Feller, Andrea; Bremberg, Sven; Verkuijl, Nienke; Flapper, Boudien; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth Lee; Williams, Robin

    2013-11-06

    The social environment is a fundamental determinant of early child development and, in turn, early child development is a determinant of health, well-being, and learning skills across the life course. Redistributive policies aimed at reducing social inequalities, such as a welfare state and labour market policies, have shown a positive association with selected health indicators. In this study, we investigated the influence of redistributive policies specifically on the social environment of early child development in five countries with different political traditions. The objective of this analysis was to highlight similarities and differences in social and health services between the countries and their associations with other health outcomes that can inform better global early child development policies and improve early child health and development. Four social determinants of early child development were selected to provide a cross-section of key time periods in a child's life from prenatal to kindergarten. They included: 1) prenatal care, 2) maternal leave, 3) child health care, and 4) child care and early childhood education. We searched international databases and reports (e.g. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, World Bank, and UNICEF) to obtain information about early child development policies, services and outcomes. Although a comparative analysis cannot claim causation, our analysis suggests that redistributive policies aimed at reducing social inequalities are associated with a positive influence on the social determinants of early child development. Generous redistributive policies are associated with a higher maternal leave allowance and pay and more preventive child healthcare visits. A decreasing trend in infant mortality, low birth weight rate, and under five mortality rate were observed with an increase in redistributive policies. No clear influence of redistributive policies was observed on breastfeeding and immunization

  9. Heterochromatin Reorganization during Early Mouse Development Requires a Single-Stranded Noncoding Transcript

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Casanova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The equalization of pericentric heterochromatin from distinct parental origins following fertilization is essential for genome function and development. The recent implication of noncoding transcripts in this process raises questions regarding the connection between RNA and the nuclear organization of distinct chromatin environments. Our study addresses the interrelationship between replication and transcription of the two parental pericentric heterochromatin (PHC domains and their reorganization during early embryonic development. We demonstrate that the replication of PHC is dispensable for its clustering at the late two-cell stage. In contrast, using parthenogenetic embryos, we show that pericentric transcripts are essential for this reorganization independent of the chromatin marks associated with the PHC domains. Finally, our discovery that only reverse pericentric transcripts are required for both the nuclear reorganization of PHC and development beyond the two-cell stage challenges current views on heterochromatin organization.

  10. Current Situations and Countermeasures of Organic Tobacco Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Current situations of organic tobacco development at both home and abroad,indicating that organic tobacco is one of the innovation directions for sustainable,healthy,environmental protection and low carbon development of modern tobacco industry.On the basis of foreign cultivation technical system for organic agriculture,the cultivation technical system for organic tobacco is summed up as follows:first,keep the diversity and continuity of space and time;second,ensure closeness of nutrient cycle;third,improve self-regulatory system and protection ability of crops.Then,the development trend of organic tobacco is analyzed and corresponding measures are put forward:establish production base and assessment system for organic tobacco;establish technical system for production of organic tobacco;establish and perfect evaluation system for management,production and supervision of organic tobacco;strengthen popularization of production and concept of organic tobacco;improve management of organic tobacco purchase,industry commerce handover,and redrying.

  11. Developing ethical competence in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Arnetz, Bengt; Hansson, Mats G; Westerholm, Peter; Höglund, Anna T

    2007-11-01

    Increased work complexity and financial strain in the health care sector have led to higher demands on staff to handle ethical issues. These demands can elicit stress reactions, that is, moral distress. One way to support professionals in handling ethical dilemmas is education and training in ethics. This article reports on a controlled prospective study evaluating a structured education and training program in ethics concerning its effects on moral distress. The results show that the participants were positive about the training program. Moral distress did not change significantly. This could be interpreted as competence development, with no effects on moral distress. Alternatively, the result could be attributed to shortcomings of the training program, or that it was too short, or it could be due to the evaluation instrument used. Organizational factors such as management involvement are also crucial. There is a need to design and evaluate ethics competence programs concerning their efficacy.

  12. Medical students' professional identity development in an early nursing attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Derksen, Els; Prevoo, Mathieu; Laan, Roland; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Koopmans, Raymond

    2010-07-01

    The importance of early clinical experience for medical training is well documented. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that assess the influence of very early nursing attachments on the professional development and identity construction of medical students. Working as an assistant nurse while training to be a doctor may offer valuable learning experiences, but may also present the student with difficulties with respect to identity and identification issues. The aim of the present study was to describe first-year medical students' perceptions of nurses, doctors and their own future roles as doctors before and after a nursing attachment. A questionnaire containing open questions concerning students' perceptions of nurses, doctors and their own future roles as doctors was administered to all Year 1 medical students (n=347) before and directly after a 4-week nursing attachment in hospitals and nursing homes. We carried out two confirmatory focus group interviews. We analysed the data using qualitative and quantitative content analyses. The questionnaire was completed by 316 students (response rate 91%). Before starting the attachment students regarded nurses as empathic, communicative and responsible. After the attachment students reported nurses had more competencies and responsibilities than they had expected. Students' views of doctors were ambivalent. Before and after the attachment, doctors were seen as interested and reliable, but also as arrogant, detached and insensible. However, students maintained positive views of their own future roles as doctors. Students' perceptions were influenced by age, gender and place of attachment. An early nursing attachment engenders more respect for the nursing profession. The ambivalent view of doctors needs to be explored further in relation to students' professional development. It would seem relevant to attune supervision to the age and gender differences revealed in this study.

  13. Development of immune organs and functioning in humans and test animals: Implications for immune intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuper, C Frieke; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Cnossen, Hilde; Houben, Geert; Garthoff, Jossie; Wolterbeek, Andre

    2016-09-01

    A healthy immune status is mostly determined during early life stages and many immune-related diseases may find their origin in utero and the first years of life. Therefore, immune health optimization may be most effective during early life. This review is an inventory of immune organ maturation events in relation to developmental timeframes in minipig, rat, mouse and human. It is concluded that time windows of immune organ development in rodents can be translated to human, but minipig reflects the human timeframes better; however the lack of prenatal maternal-fetal immune interaction in minipig may cause less responsiveness to prenatal intervention. It is too early to conclude which immune parameters are most appropriate, because there are not enough comparative immune parameters. Filling these gaps will increase the predictability of results observed in experimental animals, and guide future intervention studies by assessing relevant parameters in the right corresponding developmental time frames. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Development of a Sub-Surface Monitoring System for Organic Contamination in Soils and Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Huntley

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem when dealing with environmental contamination is the early detection and subsequent surveillance of the contamination. This paper describes the potential of sub-surface sensor technology for the early detection of organic contaminants in contaminated soils, sediments, and landfill sites. Rugged, low-power hydrocarbon sensors have been developed, along with a data-logging system, for the early detection of phase hydrocarbons in soil. Through laboratory-based evaluation, the ability of this system to monitor organic contamination in water-based systems is being evaluated. When used in conjunction with specific immunoassays, this can provide a sensitive and low-cost solution for long-term monitoring and analysis, applicable to a wide range of field applications.

  15. Determinants of early child development in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, Ingeborg G; Svensen, Erling; Lyngmo, Britt A; Mduma, Estomih; Hinderaker, Sven G

    2018-01-01

    It has been estimated that more than 200 million children under the age of five do not reach their full potential in cognitive development. Much of what we know about brain development is based on research from high-income countries. There is limited evidence on the determinants of early child development in low-income countries, especially rural sub-Saharan Africa. The present study aimed to identify the determinants of cognitive development in children living in villages surrounding Haydom, a rural area in north-central Tanzania. This cohort study is part of the MAL-ED (The Interactions of Malnutrition & Enteric Infections: Consequences for Child Health and Development) multi-country consortium studying risk factors for ill health and poor development in children. Descriptive analysis and linear regression analyses were performed. Associations between nutritional status, socio-economic status, and home environment at 6 months of age and cognitive outcomes at 15 months of age were studied. The third edition of the Bayley Scales for Infant and Toddler Development was used to assess cognitive, language and motor development. There were 262 children enrolled into the study, and this present analysis included the 137 children with data for 15-month Bayley scores. Univariate regression analysis, weight-for-age and weight-for-length z-scores at 6 months were significantly associated with 15-month Bayley gross motor score, but not with other 15-month Bayley scores. Length-for-age z-scores at 6 months were not significantly associated with 15-month Bayley scores. The socio-economic status, measured by a set of assets and monthly income was significantly associated with 15-month Bayley cognitive score, but not with language, motor, nor total 15-month Bayley scores. Other socio-economic variables were not significantly associated with 15-month Bayley scores. No significant associations were found between the home environment and 15-month Bayley scores. In multivariate

  16. Early Development of the Gut Microbiota and Immune Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pilar Francino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increase in human microbiome research brought about by the rapidly evolving “omic” technologies has established that the balance among the microbial groups present in the human gut, and their multipronged interactions with the host, are crucial for health. On the other hand, epidemiological and experimental support has also grown for the ‘early programming hypothesis’, according to which factors that act in utero and early in life program the risks for adverse health outcomes later on. The microbiota of the gut develops during infancy, in close interaction with immune development, and with extensive variability across individuals. It follows that the specific process of gut colonization and the microbe-host interactions established in an individual during this period have the potential to represent main determinants of life-long propensity to immune disease. Although much remains to be learnt on the progression of events by which the gut microbiota becomes established and initiates its intimate relationships with the host, and on the long-term repercussions of this process, recent works have advanced significatively in this direction.

  17. Development of children’s early understanding of numeric structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyeva, Marina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the base-10 structure of multi-digit numbers is one of the critical aspects in early mathematics learning. It has been documented that children from different countries vary in their use of base-10 representations. Questions concerning potential sources of this variability have been debated for decades. One commonly posited explanation is that some languages provide explicit cues about the structure of multi-digit numbers, facilitating the development of base-10 representations. In the present study, we tested this view against an alternative view, positing that variability in children’s learning of numeric structure may reflect differences in their experiences with numbers. The study examined kindergartners and first-graders from four countries: Taiwan, South Korea, the USA, and Russia. Results showed that the use of base-10 representations by American first-graders increased dramatically over the last decades, following changes in curricular guidelines. First-graders across the four countries showed some differences in performance (however, not consistent with the language account, whereas kindergartners performed comparably despite the differences in their languages. The results suggest that the nature of early math instruction may be critical for children’s developing understanding of numeric structure.

  18. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS MARKET IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kharchenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the development of new and improvement of existing theoretical and methodological basis of forming and developing the market of organic products, its correspondence to the present-day situation, determination of problems and ways of their solving, introduction in practical activity of Ukrainian enterprises. The main objective of the article is to determine the specific features of forming and developing organic products market in Ukraine, and the perspective directions of its development based on analysis and practice of functioning of such markets in the world. The environmentally sound products market in the world is being analyzed, some information on the countries with the most commodity turnover of organic products, structure of international market of organic products, volumes of sales of organic products in the European countries is provided. As a result of studying the modern trends of economic development the authors reach a conclusion on problems of standard introduction, investigate the European norms and requirements for organic products. The conducted research allows distinguishing the basic features of Ukrainian market of organic products: it quickly grows, which makes it especially appealing for the participants of market relations, however entry into this market requires considerable capital investments and is characterized by high risk; criteria for qualifying products as environmentally sound products are unstructured and unclear. The potential for growth of organic products market in Ukraine is examined.

  19. Early Vocabulary Development of Australian Indigenous Children: Identifying Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M. Farrant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to increase our understanding of the factors involved in the early vocabulary development of Australian Indigenous children. Data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children were available for 573 Indigenous children (291 boys who spoke English (M=37.0 months, SD=5.4 months, at wave 3. Data were also available for 86 children (51 boys who spoke an Indigenous language (M=37.1 months, SD=6.0 months, at wave 3. As hypothesised, higher levels of parent-child book reading and having more children’s books in the home were associated with better English vocabulary development. Oral storytelling in Indigenous language was a significant predictor of the size of children’s Indigenous vocabulary.

  20. Modeling and managing risk early in software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Thomas, William M.; Hetmanski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of the software development process, we need to be able to build empirical multivariate models based on data collectable early in the software process. These models need to be both useful for prediction and easy to interpret, so that remedial actions may be taken in order to control and optimize the development process. We present an automated modeling technique which can be used as an alternative to regression techniques. We show how it can be used to facilitate the identification and aid the interpretation of the significant trends which characterize 'high risk' components in several Ada systems. Finally, we evaluate the effectiveness of our technique based on a comparison with logistic regression based models.

  1. Impact of Vitamin D on development of early childhood caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Rahim, A.; Ali, S.; Iqbal, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the levels of vitamin D in children with early childhood caries and children with healthy sound dentition. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of study: The study was conducted at Islamic International Medical College from September 2015 to March 2016. Material and Methods: Eighty children, between 2-8 years of age, were recruited after fulfilling a questionnaire from their parents or caregiver. The sample population was divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of children suffering from dental caries and was comprised of 60 patients. Group 2 consisted of children with sound healthy teeth and was comprised of 20 children. Questions assessing ch s socioeconomic background, dietary habits particularly frequency of sweet and milk intake, outdoor activity and dental hygiene related behavior were included. The diagnosis of childhood caries was based on oral health diagnostic criteria defined by World Health Organization (WHO). Overall total caries score (decayed missing filled teeth index) was obtained. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) was measured from serum samples of the children participating in this study using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Correlation analysis was done with Pearson correlation and t-test was applied. Results: Results have established association of Vitamin D levels in children with early childhood caries. Pearson correlation and t-test have revealed that total decayed, missing, filled primary teeth (dmft) caries score was also associated with 25(OH) D concentrations less than 30ng/ml, decreased oral hygiene, lower monthly income, increased sugar consumption, decreased milk intake and decrease outdoor activities. This cross-sectional study showed that carries and lower serum vitamin D are closely related with each other. Conclusion: Data from this cross-sectional study showed that dental caries and lower serum vitamin D were closely related. Improving children's vitamins D status may be an

  2. Development of Organ-Specific Donor Risk Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, Ray; Israni, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival using various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. We will review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The Kidney Donor Risk Index has a potential role in devel...

  3. The Development of Customary International Law by International Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odermatt, Jed

    2017-01-01

    In his Fourth Report on the Identification of Customary International Law (2016), Special Rapporteur Michael Wood confirmed that ‘[i]n certain cases, the practice of international organizations also contributes to the expression, or creation, of rules of customary international law.......’ That the practice of international organizations can be relevant when identifying customary international law is relatively uncontroversial. The practice of states within international organizations such as the UN General Assembly, for example, may contribute to the development of custom. Yet, there is little...... discussion about whether and how the practice of international organizations as such may contribute to the development of customary international law. This contribution discusses the organization that is the most capable of contributing to the development of customary international law in its own right...

  4. Organic marketing initiatives and rural development - lessons learned for the organic industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Kujala, Jouni

    2005-01-01

    Kujala J, Kristensen NH, (2005): Organic marketing initiatives and rural development - lessons learned for the organic industry. Article in "Organic farming for a new millennium - status and future challenges". Published by Nordic Association of Agricultural Scientists (NJF). Swedish University...... of Agricultural Sciences Alnarp, Sweden. NJF-Seminar 369, June 15-17, 2005. Electronic version available at www.njf.nu. ISSN 1653-2015...

  5. Usability challenges in an Ethiopian software development organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teka, Degif; Dittrich, Yvonne; Kifle, Mesfin

    2016-01-01

    Usability and user centered design (UCD) are central to software development. In developing countries, the gap between IT development and the local use situation is larger than in western countries. However, usability is neither well addressed in software practice nor at the policy making level...... in Ethiopia. Software practitioners focus on functional requirements, meeting deadlines and budget. The software development industry in Ethiopia is in its early stage. The article aims at understanding usability practices in an Ethiopian software development company. Developers, system analysts, product...... configuration, their experience, cultural knowledge and common sense regarding the users' situation guided the design. Prototypes and fast delivery of working versions helped in getting user feedback even if early user focus proved to be a challenge as communication between developers and users suffered from...

  6. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang-Woon; Choe, Changyong; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Jae-Ik; Yoon, Sook-Young; Cho, Young-Woo; Han, Sunkyu; Tak, Hyun-Min; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2012-01-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50 μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5 μM fluoxetine for 6 h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetine (5 μM) over 24 h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5 μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K + channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ∼ 30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Highlights: ► Short-term exposure of 2-cells to fluoxetine enhances mouse blastocyst formation. ► The enhancive effect of fluoxetine is resulted from CaMKII activation

  7. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang-Woon [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, Changwon 630-723 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Changyong [National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Cheonan 330-801 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-Jin [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Ik [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju 660-702 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sook-Young [Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center, CHA University, Seoul 135-081 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young-Woo; Han, Sunkyu; Tak, Hyun-Min; Han, Jaehee [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dawon, E-mail: dawon@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50 μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5 μM fluoxetine for 6 h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetine (5 μM) over 24 h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5 μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K{sup +} channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ∼ 30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Highlights: ► Short-term exposure of 2-cells to fluoxetine enhances mouse blastocyst formation. ► The enhancive effect of fluoxetine is resulted from Ca

  8. Persistent organic pollutants in early pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafeiadi, Marina; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Fthenou, Eleni; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2017-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of diverse substances, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides that are resistant to biodegradation and ubiquitously present in our environment. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals such as POPs has been linked to type 2 diabetes and metabolic disturbances in epidemiological and animal studies, but little is known about POPs exposure during pregnancy and the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which exposure to current low levels of different POPs in the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with GDM risk in 939 women from the "Rhea" pregnancy cohort in Crete, Greece. Concentrations of several PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in first trimester maternal serum by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. We defined total PCBs as the sum of all congeners, nondioxin-like PCBs as the sum of PCB 153, 138, 170 and 180, and dioxin-like PCBs as the sum of PCB 118 and 156. Pregnant women were screened for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) between 24 and 28weeks of gestation, and GDM was defined by the criteria proposed by Carpenter and Coustan. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models. Of the 939 women, 68 (7%) developed GDM. Serum concentrations of POPs were higher in women with GDM. Women in the medium and high tertiles of PCBs had 3.90 (95% CI: 1.37, 11.06) and 3.60 (95% CI: 1.14, 11.39) fold respectively higher odds of developing GDM compared to women in the lowest tertile of PCB exposure after adjusting for pre-pregnancy BMI and several other confounders. Odds of GDM for women in the medium and high tertiles of dioxin-like PCBs was 5.63 (95% CI: 1.81, 17.51) and 4.71 (95% CI: 1.38, 16.01) and for nondioxin-like PCBs 2.36 (95% CI: 0.89, 6.23) and 2.26 (95% CI: 0.77, 6

  9. Teacher Activist Organizations and the Development of Professional Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Rand; Carl, Nicole Mittenfelner

    2015-01-01

    Teacher professional agency refers to the ability of teachers to control their work within structural constraints. In this paper, we show how teacher activist organizations can assist in the development of professional agency. We focus on a teacher activist organization in a large urban district in the United States and identify three…

  10. Student Organizations as Avenues for Leader Learning and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Valerie I; Alonso, Nicole; Farago, Pamela; Schettino, Gaynell; Tacchi, Kelcie; Bragger, Jennifer D

    2017-09-01

    This chapter describes theory and research demonstrating that the experiences students have within student organizations, and the people with whom they interact within those organizations, are powerful triggers for leader learning and development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  11. The Significance of Student Organizations to Leadership Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, David M; Collins, Jasmine D

    2017-09-01

    Student organizations have existed for almost as long as educational institutions have. This chapter examines the historical role of student organizations in developing leadership capacity in students, as well as their current roles on high school and collegiate campuses in creating transformational environments for student leadership learning and growth. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  12. Use of Graphic Organizers in a Language Teachers' Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Starting from 2009 academic year, the instructional coaches in a school district in a northwest American city began to provide Workshop II (pseudonym) to elementary school English teachers. This study aims to discuss the use of graphic organizers in English teachers' professional development. Different types of graphic organizers such as…

  13. Origin and early development of the chicken adenohypophysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSanchez-Arrones

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The adenohypophysis (ADH is an important endocrine organ involved in the regulation of many physiological processes. The late morphogenesis of this organ at neural tube stages is well known: the epithelial ADH primordium is recognized as an invagination of the stomodeal roof (Rathke’s pouch, whose walls later thicken and differentiate as the primordium becomes pediculated, and then fully separated from the stomodeum. The primordium attaches to the pial surface of the basal hypothalamus, next to the neurohypophyseal field (NH; future posterior pituitary, from which it was previously separated by migrating prechordal plate cells. Once the NH evaginates, the ADH surrounds it and jointly forms with it the pituitary gland. In contrast, little is known about the precise origin of the ADH precursors at neural plate stages and how the primordium reaches the stomodeum. For that reason, we produced in the chicken a specific ADH fate map at early neural plate stages, which was amplified with gene markers. By means of experiments labelling the mapped presumptive ADH, we were able to follow the initial anlage into its transformation into Rathke’s pouch. The ADH origin was corroborated to be strictly extraneural, i.e., to lie at stage HH4/5 outside of the anterior neural plate within the pre-placodal field. The ADH primordium is fully segregated from the anterior neural border cells and the neighboring olfactory placodes both in terms of precursor cells and molecular profile from head fold stages onwards. The placode becomes visible as a molecularly characteristic ectodermal thickening from stage HH10 onwards. The onset of ADH genoarchitectonic regionalization into intermediate and anterior lobes occurs at closed neural tube stages.

  14. DIALOG: Fostering Early Career Development Across the Aquatic Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Susan Weiler, PhD

    2004-11-14

    year increasing numbers of graduates take advantage of the opportunity to be part of this international collection, and more scientists, employers and administrators use this resource to identify recent graduates and get an overview of their work. Dissertation abstracts are submitted on line and immediately posted on the ASLO web site in a format that can be searched by year, name, and key words (www.aslo.org/phd.html). In addition to the recognition, program participants receive a compilation of abstracts, a directory, and a demographic profile of their cohort. An electronic distribution list keeps recent grads informed about job opportunities, resources, recent advances across the aquatic sciences, and-other research and professional news. Finally, the interdisciplinary symposium offers a unique opportunity for grads to get to know each other and share common experiences, and address the challenges and opportunities facing new professionals. The DIALOG Program is a long-term investment in human resources and science infrastructure. The most interesting and important questions in aquatic and other sciences are increasingly interdisciplinary and this program brings together scientists from across the full spectrum of biologically relevant aquatic science. The DIALOG database will become increasingly useful as more graduates participate. While the full impact of the program will probably not be realized for many years, there have already been many tangible results. Several interdisciplinary (including some international) research collaborations have been started; an international student exchange program has been set up at two institutions; several workshops and meeting sessions have been organized; and the entire group continues to communicate about research, education, and science policy issues via an electronic distribution list. The goal of the DIALOG symposium is to foster cross-disciplinary and international understanding and interactions at an early career stage

  15. Early motor development and cognitive abilities among Mexican preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Valencia, Erika; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Schnaas, Lourdes

    2017-07-18

    Psychomotricity plays a very important role in children's development, especially for learning involving reading-writing and mathematical calculations. Evaluate motor development in children 3 years old and its relationship with their cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years. Based on a cohort study, we analyzed the information about motor performance evaluated at 3 years old by Peabody Motor Scale and cognitive abilities at 5 years old. The association was estimated using linear regression models adjusted by mother's intelligence quotient, sex, Bayley mental development index at 18 months, and quality of the environment at home (HOME scale). 148 children whose motor performance was determined at age 3 and was evaluated later at age 5 to determine their cognitive abilities. Cognitive abilities (verbal, quantitative, and memory) measured by McCarthy Scales. Significant positive associations were observed between stationary balance at age 3 with verbal abilities (β = 0.67, p = .04) and memory (β = 0.81, p = .02) at 5 years. Grasping and visual-motor integration were significant and positively associated with quantitative abilities (β = 0.74, p = .005; β = 0.61, p = .01) and memory (β = 2.11, p = .001; β = 1.74, p = .004). The results suggest that early motor performance contributes to the establishment of cognitive abilities at 5 years. Evaluation and early motor stimulation before the child is faced with formal learning likely helps to create neuronal networks that facilitate the acquisition of academic knowledge.

  16. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  17. Developing an inventor support service which performs early stage market and manufacturing evaluations. [Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    American businesses are learning the difficult high cost lesson of ignoring production and market factors (producibility, unit product cost (UPC), marketability, etc) during the engineering design phase of product development. Studies have shown that the Japanese spend three times as long as Americans in the design feasibility and decision process of new product introductions and one third the amount of time in the implementation of those products. There is a 20 to 1 cost benefit on effort applied in the design phase versus the production phase of the product life cycle. The number one goal of this project was to establish an organization that has, as one of its purposes, the providing of services responsive to the needs of independent inventors. The number two goal was to demonstrate the value of providing marketing and manufacturing counsel at an early stage in the product development process. The first study goal was met by providing the materials and information necessary to establish an evaluation team and an organization to handle such evaluations. The second study goal was met by demonstrating the impact of early market analysis and manufacturing considerations on product design and therefore on the description of the invention for four different inventions. These inventions were selected at various stages of development. Regardless of stage of development, the marketing and manufacturing reviews resulted in significant changes in design and/or market positioning.

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Organization Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Organization Development Interventions on Organizational Leadership and Management Practice: A Case Of Green Earth Program (GEP) ... Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa.

  19. World Trade Organization Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fergusson, Ian F

    2008-01-01

    The World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Development Round of multilateral trade negotiations resumed in 2007 after being suspended in July 2006 after key negotiating groups failed to break a deadlock on agricultural tariffs and subsidies...

  20. Developing the Practice of Organization Design in Arts Management Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolsteeg, Johan

    2013-01-01

    This research contributes to the development of organization design, interpreted as the use of creative processes in solving organizational dilemmas, specifically the element of project management. Looking at problem articulation, process variabality, prototyping and commissionership from a design

  1. INNOVATION - A STRATEGIC RESOURCE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Polyakov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses issues arising from the need to translate the Russian economy to innovative development. Essence and meaning of concepts such as innovation, innovation process, innovation management solution, the investment in relation to business organizations.

  2. A Proposal to Build an Education Research and Development Program: The Kamehameha Early Education Project Proposal. Technical Report #3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Ronald; And Others

    This report summarizes the programmatic features of a proposal for the Kamehameha Early Education Project (KEEP), a program aimed at the development, demonstration, and dissemination of methods for improving the education of Hawaiian and part-Hawaiian children. A brief description of the proposed project goals, structure, organization, and…

  3. Effects of social conditions during early development on stress response and personality traits in great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naguib, M.; Floercke, C.; Oers, van K.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental conditions during early development play a crucial role in shaping an organism's phenotype. To test how social group size affects stress response and behavioral characteristics, we used great tits (Parus major) from selection lines for exploratory behavior, a proxy for an avian

  4. Born a bit too early: A study of early planned birth and child development at school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Bentley

    2017-04-01

    Early (<39 weeks gestation planned birth is associated with an increased risk of poor development in children starting school. Given the timing of planned birth is modifiable, delaying birth for an additional week or more may improve child development. Strategies and interventions to inform more judicious decision making, weighing all the risks and benefits for early planned birth are required to ensure optimal child health and development.

  5. Development of a Soil Organic Carbon Baseline for Otjozondjupa, Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Nijbroek, R.; Kempen, B.; Mutua, J.; Soderstrom, M.; Piikki, K.; Hengari, S.; Andreas, A.

    2017-01-01

    Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) has been piloted in 14 countries and will be scaled up to over 120 countries. As a LDN pilot country, Namibia developed sub-national LDN baselines in Otjozondjupa Region. In addition to the three LDN indicators (soil organic carbon, land productivity and land cover change), Namibia also regards bush encroachment as an important form of land degradation. We collected 219 soil profiles and used Random Forest modelling to develop the soil organic carbon stock ba...

  6. GENESIS OF METHODOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT BY DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.N. Varlamova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In clause the genesis of methodology of management of development of organizations as sets of the used methodological approaches and methods is investigated. The results of the comparative analysis of the methodological approaches to management of organizational development are submitted. The traditional methodological approaches are complemented strategic experiment and methodology case studies. The approaches to formation of new methodology and technique of research of sources of competitive advantages of organization are considered.

  7. The Roles of Knowledge Management for the Development of Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge is the most important factor of production, next to labor, land and capital. It is about managing and sharing knowledge for the development of an organization. In the competitive business world, knowledge management (KM) has become more essential for the sustainable development of organizations. In the 21st century knowledge and KM become the most professional element in many fields of knowledge, such as, education, cognitive science, health, sociology, management science, informati...

  8. Theme and variations: The development of differences in Polynesian socio-political organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. van Bakel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the development of differences in the socio-political organization on the various Polynesian islands. Such differences were observed by early European visitors. Most of their descriptions date from the last quarter of the eighteenth century, but a few sources date back to the early seventeenth century, including the journals of the Dutch voyagers Schouten and Le Maire, Tasman, and somewhat later Roggeveen. The voyagers’ logs and journals often contain lengthy and detailed descriptions of the Polynesian peoples and cultures they encountered. And, though they often did not understand what they observed, they carefully described what they saw — or what they thought they saw.

  9. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda M; Daelmans, Bernadette; Lombardi, Joan; Heymann, Jody; Boo, Florencia Lopez; Behrman, Jere R; Lu, Chunling; Lucas, Jane E; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dua, Tarun; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Stenberg, Karin; Gertler, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2017-01-07

    Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children. Effective and feasible programmes to support early child development are now available. All sectors, particularly education, and social and child protection, must play a role to meet the holistic needs of young children. However, health provides a critical starting point for scaling up, given its reach to pregnant women, families, and young children. Starting at conception, interventions to promote nurturing care can feasibly build on existing health and nutrition services at limited additional cost. Failure to scale up has severe personal and social consequences. Children at elevated risk for compromised development due to stunting and poverty are likely to forgo about a quarter of average adult income per year, and the cost of inaction to gross domestic product can be double what some countries currently spend on health. Services and interventions to support early childhood development are essential to realising the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda M; Daelmans, Bernadette; Lombardi, Joan; Heymann, Jody; Boo, Florencia Lopez; Behrman, Jere R; Lu, Chunling; Lucas, Jane E; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dua, Tarun; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Stenberg, Karin; Gertler, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2018-01-01

    Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children. Effective and feasible programmes to support early child development are now available. All sectors, particularly education, and social and child protection, must play a role to meet the holistic needs of young children. However, health provides a critical starting point for scaling up, given its reach to pregnant women, families, and young children. Starting at conception, interventions to promote nurturing care can feasibly build on existing health and nutrition services at limited additional cost. Failure to scale up has severe personal and social consequences. Children at elevated risk for compromised development due to stunting and poverty are likely to forgo about a quarter of average adult income per year, and the cost of inaction to gross domestic product can be double what some countries currently spend on health. Services and interventions to support early childhood development are essential to realising the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27717610

  11. Women, "Star Trek," and the early development of fannish vidding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Coppa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the practices and aesthetics of vidding were structured by the relationship of Star Trek's female fans to that particular televisual text. Star Trek fandom was the crucible within which vidding developed because Star Trek's narrative impelled female fans to take on two positions often framed as contradictory in mainstream culture: the desiring body, and the controlling voice of technology. To make a vid, to edit footage to subtext-revealing music, is to unite these positions: to put technology at the service of desire. Although the conflict between desire and control was particularly thematized in Star Trek, most famously through the divided character of Spock, the practices of vidding are now applied to other visual texts. This essay examines the early history of vidding and demonstrates, through the close reading of particular vids made for Star Trek and Quantum Leap, how vidding heals the wounds created by the displacement and fragmentation of women on television.

  12. Improving Latino Children's Early Language and Literacy Development: Key Features of Early Childhood Education within Family Literacy Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngok; Zuniga, Stephen; Howes, Carollee; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Parrish, Deborah; Quick, Heather; Manship, Karen; Hauser, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Noting the lack of research on how early childhood education (ECE) programmes within family literacy programmes influence Latino children's early language and literacy development, this study examined key features of ECE programmes, specifically teacher-child interactions and child engagement in language and literacy activities and how these…

  13. Ethnic Group Differences in Early Head Start Parents Parenting Beliefs and Practices and Links to Children's Early Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keels, Micere

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study were used to examine the extent to which several factors mediate between- and within-ethnic-group differences in parenting beliefs and behaviors, and children's early cognitive development (analysis sample of 1198 families). The findings indicate that Hispanic-, European-, and…

  14. Formation of modern theoretical regulations about organization concerning management development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhalinska I.V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the scientific concepts about an organization as the entity of management concerning management development. The author studies the principal theoretical regulations about an organization within the most spread schools of management and context of development of other managerial concepts in particular, strategic management. It is found out that an organization and its development had not considered as the factor of an effective activity before. Researches paid their attention to single aspects of organization activity where the aspects allowed to increase economic efficiency. However, the objective complication of conditions of enterprises’ activities caused the necessity of scientific research of adequate models of functioning and development of organizations, which currently cannot be provided by traditional management concepts. Thus, theoretical and practical prerequisites arise for a separate scientific set of researches within the science of management such as the theory of an organization. The article describes the main classified approaches to the models of an organization. The paper researches the challenges in present management, and those ones, which have caused the crisis in modern management. It is singled out the following actual aspects of modern organizational processes as the all-round use of modern information and computer systems, the development of integration and in cooperation in management, the appearance of new management technologies, the use of new assessment criteria for organization activity, striving for organizational shifts and innovations. Due to the generalization of the study results, the authors single out such key aspects in the development of the science of management, as the crisis of traditional management influences upon practical activity of modern organizations; the achievements of traditional management schools are becoming necessary, but not determinant factors of organization

  15. Preventing Stress in Organizations How to Develop Positive Managers

    CERN Document Server

    Donaldson-Feilder, Emma; Yarker, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Preventing Stress in Organizations:How to Develop Positive Managersoffers an innovative, evidence-based approach to help managers prevent and reduce workplace stress in their staff.Provides information on the critical skills managers must develop in order to prevent stress in their staff, and the key ongoing behaviours that promote a healthy work environmentShows practitioners in occupational psychology, HR, Health and Safety and related professions how positive management can be integrated into an organization???s existing practices and processesServes as an essential guide for managers thems

  16. Smith River Rancheria's Development of an Energy Organization Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.G Buehler & Associates

    2007-08-27

    Smith River Rancheria (SRR), for some time, has had a strong commitment to attaining energy selfsufficiency, to reduce overall energy costs and concurrently initiate economic development within the community. Early on it was recognized that the development of an energy organization was important and for this reason was made part of the SRR's strategic review not only for economic development but also the reduction of energy costs. Towards this end, SRR retained Werner G. Buehler of W.G. Buehler & Associates to investigate the many phases or steps required to establish such an energy organization and determine, if in fact, it could benefit the Tribe. The basic phases are delineated as: (1) Identify potential sources of wholesale power and transmission paths; (2) Evaluating the various forms of energy organizations; (3) Determining the benefits (and disadvantages) of each form of organization; (4) Gathering costs to organize and operate the selected form or energy organization; (5) Performing an economic analysis of forming and operating an energy organization; and (6) Develop an implementation plan.

  17. An ortholog of LEAFY in Jatropha curcas regulates flowering time and floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin; Fu, Qiantang; Song, Yaling; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-11-21

    Jatropha curcas seeds are an excellent biofuel feedstock, but seed yields of Jatropha are limited by its poor flowering and fruiting ability. Thus, identifying genes controlling flowering is critical for genetic improvement of seed yield. We isolated the JcLFY, a Jatropha ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY (LFY), and identified JcLFY function by overexpressing it in Arabidopsis and Jatropha. JcLFY is expressed in Jatropha inflorescence buds, flower buds, and carpels, with highest expression in the early developmental stage of flower buds. JcLFY overexpression induced early flowering, solitary flowers, and terminal flowers in Arabidopsis, and also rescued the delayed flowering phenotype of lfy-15, a LFY loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant. Microarray and qPCR analysis revealed several flower identity and flower organ development genes were upregulated in JcLFY-overexpressing Arabidopsis. JcLFY overexpression in Jatropha also induced early flowering. Significant changes in inflorescence structure, floral organs, and fruit shape occurred in JcLFY co-suppressed plants in which expression of several flower identity and floral organ development genes were changed. This suggests JcLFY is involved in regulating flower identity, floral organ patterns, and fruit shape, although JcLFY function in Jatropha floral meristem determination is not as strong as that of Arabidopsis.

  18. Effects of helium ions of an early embryo on postembryonic leaf development in Brassica napus L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Noboru [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Minami, Harufumi [Tokyo Metropolitan Agricultural Experiment Station, Tachikawa, Tokyo (Japan); Shikazono, Naoya; Tanaka, Atsushi; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-12-01

    We examined postembryonic effects after helium ion and gamma ray irradiation of an isolated whole flower (a flower with pedicel) of Brassica napus through a flower organ culture, and estimated the effects of irradiation on embryogenesis in sexual reproductive stages. The whole flowers were irradiated with 30 Gy of helium ions and gamma rays in the early globular embryo and/or torpedo embryo stages. The helium ion and gamma ray irradiation of early globular embryos caused some drastic malformations in the first true leaves. Those malformations were classified into four types: cup-shaped, funnel-shaped, shrunk and the other varied leaves. The types were observed in 40% of plants that developed first true leaves. Both cup-shaped and funnel-shaped types were observed in over 15%. On the other hand, the irradiation of gamma rays of torpedo embryos caused sectors lacking chlorophyll in first true leaves. (author)

  19. Were Ocean Impacts an Important Mechanism to Deliver Meteoritic Organic Matter to the Early Earth? Some Inferences from Eltanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyte, Frank T.; Gersonde, Rainer; Kuhn. Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    Several workers have addressed the potential for extraterrestrial delivery of volatles, including water and complex organic compounds, to the early Earth. For example, Chyba and Sagan (1992) argued that since impacts would destroy organic matter, most extraterrestrial organics must be delivered in the fine-fractions of interplanetary dust. More recent computer simulations (Pierazzo and Chyba, 1999), however, have shown that substantial amounts of amino acids may survive the impacts of large (km-sized) comets and that this may exceed the amounts derived from IDPs or Miller-Urey synthesis in the atmosphere. Once an ocean developed on the early Earth, impacts of small ,asteroids and comets into deep-ocean basins were potentially common and may have been the most likely events to deliver large amounts of organics. The deposits of the late Pliocene impact of the Eltanin asteroid into the Bellingshausen Sea provide the only record of a deep-ocean (approx. 5 km) impact that can be used to constrain models of these events. This impact was first discovered in 1981 as an Ir anomaly in sediment cores collected by the USNS Eltanin in 1965 (Kyte et al., 1981). In 1995, Polarstem expedition ANT XII/4 made the first geological survey of the suspected impact region. Three sediment cores sampled around the San Martin seamounts (approx. 57.5S, 91 W) contained well-preserved impact deposits that include disturbed ocean sediments and meteoritic impact ejecta (Gersonde et al., 1997). The latter is composed of shock- melted asteroidal materials and unmelted meteorites. In 2001, the FS Polarstem returned to the impact area during expedition ANT XVIII/5a. At least 16 cores were recovered that contain ejecta deposits. These cores and geophysical data from the expedition can be used to map the effects of the impact over a large region of the ocean floor.

  20. Napping facilitates word learning in early lexical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Myers, Kyle; Foster, Russell; Plunkett, Kim

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the role that night-time sleep and daytime naps play in early cognitive development. Our aim was to investigate how napping affects word learning in 16-month-olds. Thirty-four typically developing infants were assigned randomly to nap and wake groups. After teaching two novel object-word pairs to infants, we tested their initial performance with an intermodal preferential looking task in which infants are expected to increase their target looking time compared to a distracter after hearing its auditory label. A second test session followed after approximately a 2-h delay. The delay contained sleep for the nap group or no sleep for the wake group. Looking behaviour was measured with an automatic eye-tracker. Vocabulary size was assessed using the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory. A significant interaction between group and session was found in preferential looking towards the target picture. The performance of the nap group increased after the nap, whereas that of the wake group did not change. The gain in performance correlated positively with the expressive vocabulary size in the nap group. These results indicate that daytime napping helps consolidate word learning in infancy. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Structural and Maturational Covariance in Early Childhood Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiujuan; Li, Gang; Lu, Zhaohua; Gao, Wei; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Gilmore, John H

    2017-03-01

    Brain structural covariance networks (SCNs) composed of regions with correlated variation are altered in neuropsychiatric disease and change with age. Little is known about the development of SCNs in early childhood, a period of rapid cortical growth. We investigated the development of structural and maturational covariance networks, including default, dorsal attention, primary visual and sensorimotor networks in a longitudinal population of 118 children after birth to 2 years old and compared them with intrinsic functional connectivity networks. We found that structural covariance of all networks exhibit strong correlations mostly limited to their seed regions. By Age 2, default and dorsal attention structural networks are much less distributed compared with their functional maps. The maturational covariance maps, however, revealed significant couplings in rates of change between distributed regions, which partially recapitulate their functional networks. The structural and maturational covariance of the primary visual and sensorimotor networks shows similar patterns to the corresponding functional networks. Results indicate that functional networks are in place prior to structural networks, that correlated structural patterns in adult may arise in part from coordinated cortical maturation, and that regional co-activation in functional networks may guide and refine the maturation of SCNs over childhood development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Recent psychological explanations of infant development and scales of early mental development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews early infant measures based on standardised scales of development – both traditional ones and those based on Piaget's sensory-motor theory – and assesses their validity in predicting later mental development. The extremely low predictive power of test scores based on these measures in infancy has provided additional support for discontinuity theories of mental development from infancy to childhood. Conversely, the constructs implicit in earlier measures have been thoroughly criticised, and the search for valid measures of infant development that would reflect a construct similar to mental abilities in childhood has begun. At the outset, research was mostly influenced by the information processing theory. Two broad measures of information processing have been shown to be the most relevant indicators of an infant's mental development, namely habituation and dishabituation. Recent mental scales, such as the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, thus include items that measure the efficiency of an infant's information processing. Examples of such items are presented and interpreted, as are items reflecting the development of object permanence, the only early sensory-motor measure that shows better predictive effectiveness when compared to traditional developmental test scores. Several newly-developed indicators of infants' mental development, which utilize other measures than those derived from the information-processing approach, are surveyed (understanding causal relations, joint attention behaviours, representation of number, and their possible application within the context of potential items for early mental scales is discussed. Finally, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, currently one of the best measures of early development, and presently undergoing a standardisation procedure in Slovenia, is evaluated, with analyses of some items from the Mental scale presented within the text.

  3. Fungal decomposition of terrestrial organic matter accelerated Early Jurassic climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieńkowski, Grzegorz; Hodbod, Marta; Ullmann, Clemens V.

    2016-08-01

    Soils - constituting the largest terrestrial carbon pool - are vulnerable to climatic warming. Currently existing uncertainties regarding carbon fluxes within terrestrial systems can be addressed by studies of past carbon cycle dynamics and related climate change recorded in sedimentary successions. Here we show an example from the Early Jurassic (early Toarcian, c. 183 mya) marginal-marine strata from Poland, tracking the hinterland response to climatic changes through a super-greenhouse event. In contrast to anoxia-related enhanced carbon storage in coeval open marine environments, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentrations in the Polish successions are substantially reduced during this event. Increasing temperature favoured fungal-mediated decomposition of plant litter - specifically of normally resistant woody tissues. The associated injection of oxidized organic matter into the atmosphere corresponds to abrupt changes in standing vegetation and may have contributed significantly to the amplified greenhouse climate on Earth. The characteristic Toarcian signature of multiple warm pulses coinciding with rapidly decreasing carbon isotope ratios may in part be the result of a radical reduction of the terrestrial carbon pool as a response to climate change.

  4. Development and functional organization of spinal locomotor circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole

    2011-01-01

    The coordination and timing of muscle activities during rhythmic movements, like walking and swimming, are generated by intrinsic spinal motor circuits. Such locomotor networks are operational early in development and are found in all vertebrates. This review outlines and compares recent advances...

  5. Development of methodology for early detection of BWR instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandro Petruzzi; Shin Chin; Kostadin Ivanov; Asok Ray; Fan-Bill Cheung

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The objective of the work presented in this paper research, which is supported by the US Department of Energy under the NEER program, is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology in order to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, based on the US NRC coupled code TRACE/PARCS, is being utilized as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The concept of the methodology is based on the fact that nonlinear systems show bifurcation, which is a change in the qualitative behavior as the system parameters vary. Some of these parameters may change on their own accord and account for the anomaly, while certain parameters can be altered in a controlled fashion. The non-linear, non-autonomous BWR system model considered in this research exhibits phenomena at two time scales. Anomalies occur at the slow time scale while the observation of the dynamical behavior, based on which inferences are made, takes place at the fast time scale. It is assumed that: (i) the system behavior is stationary at the fast time scale; and (ii) any observable non-stationary behavior is associated with parametric changes evolving at the slow time scale. The goal is to make inferences about evolving anomalies based on the asymptotic behavior derived from the computer simulation. However, only sufficient changes in the slowly varying parameter may lead to detectable difference in the asymptotic behavior. The need to detect such small changes in parameters and hence early detection of an anomaly motivate the utilized stimulus-response approach. In this approach, the model

  6. Helping organizations help others: organization development as a facilitator of social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Neil M

    2011-01-01

    This article explores organization development (OD) interventions and their likelihood of increasing social change outcomes in public agencies. The central argument of this work is that public and nonprofit organizations can deliver better social outcomes by systematically engaging in OD interventions. An in-depth survey was conducted in 3 agencies of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania at the end of the gubernatorial administration of Tom Ridge (1995-2002). During his administration, Governor Ridge led the agencies of Pennsylvania government through a large-scale change effort to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery to the citizens of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The change effort was a remarkable event for the Commonwealth because no other governor in the history of the state had attempted to conceptualize and deliver a comprehensive large-scale change management initiative. The successes and setbacks served as a fertile context to shed light on the following research question: Do OD interventions increase the likelihood that public organizations will deliver better social outcomes? This question is important in that public organizations may need to engage in organization development activities to improve their internal operations, which in turn may help them provide exemplary social outcomes to those whom they serve. In short, organization development interventions might allow public organizations to help themselves to help others.

  7. Early aspirin use and the development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miae; Bergmark, Brian A; Zelniker, Thomas A; Mehra, Mandeep R; Stewart, Garrick C; Page, Deborah S; Woodcome, Erica L; Smallwood, Jennifer A; Gabardi, Steven; Givertz, Michael M

    2017-12-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). Little is known about the influence of aspirin on clinical expression of CAV. We followed 120 patients with OHT at a single center for a median of 7 years and categorized them by the presence or absence of early aspirin therapy post-transplant (aspirin treatment ≥6 months in the first year). The association between aspirin use and time to the primary end-point of angiographic moderate or severe CAV (International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation grade ≥2) was investigated. Propensity scores for aspirin treatment were estimated using boosting models and applied by inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Despite a preponderance of risk factors for CAV among patients receiving aspirin (male sex, ischemic heart disease as the etiology of heart failure, and smoking), aspirin therapy was associated with a lower rate of moderate or severe CAV at 5 years. Event-free survival was 95.9% for patients exposed to aspirin compared with 79.6% for patients without aspirin exposure (log-rank p = 0.005). IPTW-weighted Cox regression revealed a powerful inverse association between aspirin use and moderate to severe CAV (adjusted hazard ratio 0.13; 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.59), which was directionally consistent for CAV of any severity (adjusted hazard ratio 0.50; 95% confidence interval 0.23-1.08). This propensity score-based comparative observational analysis suggests that early aspirin exposure may be associated with a reduced risk of development of moderate to severe CAV. These findings warrant prospective validation in controlled investigations. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Water Resources Drought Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B. P. T.; Chen, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    Signs of impending drought are often vague and result from hydrologic uncertainty. Because of this, determining the appropriate time to enforce water supply restrictions is difficult. This study proposes a drought early warning index (DEWI) that can help water resource managers to anticipate droughts so that preparations can be made to mitigate the impact of water shortages. This study employs the expected-deficit-rate of normal water supply conditions as the drought early warning index. An annual-use-reservoir-based water supply system in southern Taiwan was selected as the case study. The water supply simulation was based on reservoir storage at the evaluation time and the reservoir inflow series to cope with the actual water supply process until the end of the hydrologic year. A variety of deficits could be realized during different hydrologic years of records and assumptions of initial reservoir storage. These deficits are illustrated using the Average Shortage Rate (ASR) and the value of the ASR, namely the DEWI. The ASR is divided into 5 levels according to 5 deficit-tolerance combinations of each kind of annual demand. A linear regression model and a Neuro-Fuzzy Computing Technique model were employed to estimate the DEWI using selected factors deduced from supply-demand traits and available information, including: rainfall, reservoir inflow and storage data. The chosen methods mentioned above are used to explain a significant index is useful for both model development and decision making. Tests in the Tsengwen-Wushantou reservoir system showed this DEWI to perform very well in adopting the proper mitigation policy at the end of the wet season.

  9. Role of nanotechnology in development of artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, G Z; Klanrit, P; Kasimatis, M; Seifalian, A M

    2015-02-01

    Improvements in our understanding of the interactions between implants and cells have directed attention towards nanoscale technologies. To date, nanotechnology has played a helping hand in the development of synthetic artificial organs and regenerative medicine. This includes the production of smart nanocomposite materials; fluorescent nanoparticles like Quantum Dots (QD) and magnetic nano particles (MNP) for stem cell tracking; and carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene for enhancement of material properties. The scope of this paper includes the role of nanoparticles in the development of nanomaterials; the chemical surface modifications possible to improve implant function and an overview of the performance of nano-engineered organs thus far. This includes implants developed for aesthetic purposes like nasal and auricular scaffolds, plastic and reconstructive surgical constructs (i.e. dermal grafts), hollow organs for cardiothoracic applications; and last but not least, orthopedic implants. The five-year outlook for nano-enhanced artificial organs is also discussed, highlighting the key research and development areas, available funds and the hurdles we face in accomplishing progression from prototypes on the laboratory bench to off-the-shelf products for the consumer market. Ultimately, this review aims to delineate the advantages of incorporating nanotechnology, as an individual entity or as a part of a construct for the development of tissue engineering scaffolds and/or artificial organs, and unravel the mechanisms of tissue cell-biomaterial interactions at the nanoscale, allowing for better progress in the development and optimization of unique nanoscale surface features for a wide range of applications.

  10. Origins and early development of human body knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body knowledge is responsible for on-line control and movement of one's own body and may also contribute to the perception of others' moving bodies; visuo-spatial body knowledge specifies detailed structural descriptions of the spatial attributes of the human body; and lexical-semantic body knowledge contains language-based knowledge about the human body. In the first chapter of this Monograph, we outline the evidence for these three hypothesized levels of human body knowledge, then review relevant literature on infants' and young children's human body knowledge in terms of the three-level framework. In Chapters II and III, we report two complimentary series of studies that specifically investigate the emergence of visuo-spatial body knowledge in infancy. Our technique is to compare infants'responses to typical and scrambled human bodies, in order to evaluate when and how infants acquire knowledge about the canonical spatial layout of the human body. Data from a series of visual habituation studies indicate that infants first discriminate scrambled from typical human body picture sat 15 to 18 months of age. Data from object examination studies similarly indicate that infants are sensitive to violations of three-dimensional human body stimuli starting at 15-18 months of age. The overall pattern of data supports several conclusions about the early development of human body knowledge: (a) detailed visuo-spatial knowledge about the human body is first evident in the second year of life, (b) visuo-spatial knowledge of human faces and human bodies are at least partially independent in infancy and (c) infants' initial

  11. Organic Analysis of Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Products and Ordinary Chondrite Meteorites by Stepwise Pyrolysis-GCMS: Organics in the Early Solar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic generation of complex organic compounds, in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system, is hypothesized by some to occur via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. In its simplest form, FT synthesis involves the low temperature (300degC) produces FT products that include lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. We have begun to experimentally investigate FT synthesis in the context of abiotic generation of organic compounds in the early solar nebula. It is generally thought that the early solar nebula included abundant hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases and nano-particulate matter such as iron and metal silicates that could have catalyzed the FT reaction. The effect of FT reaction temperature, catalyst type, and experiment duration on the resulting products is being investigated. These solid organic products are analyzed by thermal-stepwise pyrolysis-GCMS and yield the types and distribution of hydrocarbon compounds released as a function of temperature. We show how the FT products vary by reaction temperature, catalyst type, and experimental duration and compare these products to organic compounds found to be indigenous to ordinary chondrite meteorites. We hypothesize that the origin of organics in some chondritic meteorites, that represent an aggregation of materials from the early solar system, may at least in part be from FT synthesis that occurred in the early solar nebula.

  12. Delays in early neuropsychic development: Approaches to diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Zavadenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The population frequency of neuropsychic developmental delays in infants is estimated at nearly 10%; that of global intellectual disability (mental retardation is at 1-3%. Delayed development is denned as a substantial retardation as compared to the standard indicators in any of the basic spheres: motor, communicative, cognitive, adaptive-behavioral, and socioemotional ones. Global developmental delay is characterized by a significant lag in two or more spheres. The use of current diagnostic techniques, such as the Bayley or Griffiths scales, can provide an objective quantitative assessment of both an infant's overall development and indicators in individual spheres. At the preliminary examination stage, it is expedient to carry out a Denver developmental screening test that may be directly used in a doctor's consulting room. The causes of global developmental delay/intellectual disability in infants may be perinatal central nervous system (CNS lesions; brain malformations; intrauterine infections; intrauterine intoxications; early-onset psychoneurological diseases (neuroinfections, CNS injuries, epilepsies, autism spectrum disorders, etc.; congenital hypothyroidism; genetic diseases. Among all genetic causes of global developmental delay/intellectual disability, there are chromosomal anomalies (25-30%, monogenic diseases (metabolic diseases, neuroectodermal syndromes, diseases with predominant grey and white matter involvement. The diagnostic possibilities of current genetic methods are considered.

  13. Quantitative regularities of development of endogenous infection in irradiated organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    A statistical analysis of data from the literature and the author's own experimental results are reviewed to show the functional relationships between the radiation dose and the development of endogenous infection in irradiated organisms. A direct linear dependence was found between the dose of radiation and the severity of endogenous infection at doses causing death from the ''bone marrow'' syndrome in acute radiation sickness. In case of death from the ''intestinal'' syndrome, an inverse linear dependence can be observed between the radiation dose and the culture yield of microbes from internal organs. In this case, the pathological effect on the organism is due to bacterial endotoxins formed during the disintegration of microbial cells in the organism. Endogenous infection and endotoxinaemia essentially aggravate the progress of acute radiation disease. The importance of endogenous infection for the death of the organism is minimized in irradiation at doses causing death ''under the ray''. (author)

  14. Social Constructionism in the Context of Organization Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celiane Camargo-Borges

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The world faces rapid changes that call for new epistemologies and methodologies that can generate innovative forms of “being” and “doing” within organizations. This article investigates conceptual and practical resources from the social constructionist perspective that can be useful in realizing the transformation of organizations. Initially, a global context of the world in change is described, explaining the consequences for organizations; then social constructionism is introduced as a postmodern epistemology and offered as a potential approach to the organizational development field in supporting research and intervention. Some perspectives for action and knowledge production are offered in the context of an organization. Finally, some resources with examples will be articulated; these new frameworks for action can be effective for organizations coping in times of change.

  15. Adopting of Agile methods in Software Development Organizations: Systematic Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Abdalhamid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of agile methods in the software development organization is considered as a powerful solution to deal with the quickly changing and regularly developing business environment and fully-educated customers with constantly rising expectation, such as shorter time periods and an extraordinary level of response and service. This study investigates the adoption of agile approaches in software development organizations by using systematic mapping. Six research questions are identified, and to answer these questions a number of research papers have been reviewed in electronic databases. Finally, 25 research papers are examined and answers to all research questions are provided.

  16. Advanced organic analysis and analytical methods development: FY 1995 progress report. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the work performed during FY 1995 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in developing and optimizing analysis techniques for identifying organics present in Hanford waste tanks. The main focus was to provide a means for rapidly obtaining the most useful information concerning the organics present in tank waste, with minimal sample handling and with minimal waste generation. One major focus has been to optimize analytical methods for organic speciation. Select methods, such as atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, were developed to increase the speciation capabilities, while minimizing sample handling. A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to improve separation capabilities while minimizing additional waste generation. In addition, considerable emphasis has been placed on developing a rapid screening tool, based on Raman and infrared spectroscopy, for determining organic functional group content when complete organic speciation is not required. This capability would allow for a cost-effective means to screen the waste tanks to identify tanks that require more specialized and complete organic speciation to determine tank safety

  17. Development of photocatalysts for selective and efficient organic transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Shamsa; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Adhikari, Bimalendu; Shah, Afzal

    2015-07-01

    One of the main goals of organic chemists is to find easy, environmentally friendly, and cost effective methods for the synthesis of industrially important compounds. Photocatalysts have brought revolution in this regard as they make use of unlimited source of energy (the solar light) to carry out the synthesis of organic compounds having otherwise complex synthetic procedures. However, selectivity of the products has been a major issue since the beginning of photocatalysis. The present article encompasses state of the art accomplishments in harvesting light energy for selective organic transformations using photocatalysts. Several approaches for the development of photocatalysts for selective organic conversions have been critically discussed with the objective of developing efficient, selective, environmental friendly and high yield photocatalytic methodologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Information Visualization for Agile Development in Large‐Scale Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoor, Numan; Shahzad, Umar

    2012-01-01

    Context: Agile/lean development has been successful situations where small teams collaborate over long periods of time with project stakeholders. Unclear is how such teams plan and coordinate their work in such situations where inter-dependencies with other projects exist. In large organizations, scattered teams and complex team structure makes it difficult for every stakeholder to have a clear understanding of project information. These factors make it difficult for large‐scale organizations...

  19. Dual odontogenic origins develop at the early stage of rat maxillary incisor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriangkrai, Rungarun; Iseki, Sachiko; Eto, Kazuhiro; Chareonvit, Suconta

    2006-03-01

    Developmental process of rat maxillary incisor has been studied through histological analysis and investigation of tooth-related gene expression patterns at initial tooth development. The tooth-related genes studied here are fibroblast growth factor-8 (Fgf-8), pituitary homeobox gene-2 (Pitx-2), sonic hedgehog (Shh), muscle segment homeobox-1 (Msx-1), paired box-9 (Pax-9) and bone morphogenetic protein-4 (Bmp-4). The genes are expressed in oral epithelium and/or ectomesenchyme at the stage of epithelial thickening to the early bud stage of tooth development. Both the histological observation and tooth-related gene expression patterns during early stage of maxillary incisor development demonstrate that dual odontogenic origins aligned medio-laterally in the medial nasal process develop, subsequently only single functional maxillary incisor dental placode forms. The cascade of tooth-related gene expression patterns in rat maxillary incisor studied here is quite similar to those of the previous studies in mouse mandibular molar, even though the origins of oral epithelium and ectomesenchyme involved in development of maxillary incisor and mandibular molar are different. Thus, we conclude that maxillary incisor and mandibular molar share a similar signaling control of Fgf-8, Pitx-2, Shh, Msx-1, Pax-9 and Bmp-4 genes at the stage of oral epithelial thickening to the early bud stage of tooth development.

  20. TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC FARMING IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina AGAPIEVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to follow trends in the development of organic farming in Bulgaria, and to identify the factors’ strength and direction of their impact on organic production of agricultural products. The study covers the period from 2003 to 2013 and is based on information from official statistics of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, and the author's own research. There are distinct rates of increase in both areas and organic agricultural production in Bulgaria. While in 2003 the areas under organic management are 8,364 ha by 2013 they numbered 56, 287 ha. Bulgaria has a high potential for production and export of organic agricultural products fresh and processed, but significantly lags behind other European countries. However, there is increasing momentum in organic farming, driven by a group of economic, market, social and legislative initiatives. The main reason for this growth is consumer demand of organic products in Bulgaria. In general, the motivations of Bulgarian consumers of organic products are related to the benefits for health and the environment, to the improvement of food quality and to the support of local small farmers, communities and markets.

  1. Scrambled eggs: mechanical forces as ecological factors in early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Steven W

    2003-01-01

    Many ecological interactions involve, at some level, mechanical forces and the movements or structural deformations they produce. Although the most familiar examples involve the functional morphology of adult structures, all life history stages (not just the adults) are subject to the laws of physics. Moreover, the success of every lineage depends on the success of every life history stage (again, not just the adults). Therefore, insights gained by using mechanical engineering principles and techniques to study ecological interactions between gametes, embryos, larvae, and their environment are essential to a well-rounded understanding of development, ecology, and evolution. Here I draw on examples from the literature and my own research to illustrate ways in which mechanical forces in the environment shape development. These include mechanical forces acting as selective factors (e.g., when coral gamete size and shape interact with turbulent water flow to determine fertilization success) and as developmental cues (e.g., when plant growth responds to gravity or bone growth responds to mechanical loading). I also examine the opposite cause-and-effect relationship by considering examples in which the development of organisms impacts ecologically relevant mechanical forces. Finally, I discuss the potential for ecological pattern formation as a result of feedback loops created by such bidirectional interactions between developmental processes and mechanical forces in the environment.

  2. [Early Intervention and Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study with Psychologically Stressed Mother-Child-Dyad during Early Childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwönitzer, Annabel; Ziegenhain, Ute; Bovenschen, Ina; Pillhofer, Melanie; Spangler, Gottfried; Gerlach, Jennifer; Gabler, Sandra; Kindler, Heinz; Fegert, Jörg M; Künster, Anne Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Early intervention programs aiming at developing parents’ relationship and parenting skills and supporting young families have become increasingly established in Germany throughout the last decade. The present longitudinal study analyzed 53 children and their mothers receiving early intervention due to their psychosocially highly challenging life situations and personal circumstances. The children were examined at birth and at an age of twelve months as well as between ages two and four. The results revealed that the child’s cognitive development could be predicted by both maternal sensitivity and mother’s psychosocial stress. However, the amount, type, and intensity of early intervention did not have any effect on the child’s development. In terms of the effectiveness of early interventions the results implicate that interventions seems to be offered in an unspecific manner and does not contribute to an improvement of the child’s developmental status.

  3. Skin carcinomas in organ-transplant recipients : from early oncogenic events to therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Ymke Grete Leontien de

    2008-01-01

    Skin carcinomas develop at a high rate in organ-transplant recipients who are kept on immune suppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection. The present study dealt with a broad range of aspects of this elevated carcinoma risk, starting from the earliest oncogenic events to the ultimate therapy.

  4. Third sector organizations in rural development: a transaction cost perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. VALENTINOV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, rural development is supported by third sector organizations, such as nongovernmental organizations, farmer associations, and cooperatives. This essay develops a transaction cost explanation of these organizations’ role in rural areas. Since the traditional transaction cost theory is concerned with the choice of governance mechanisms within the for-profit sector, this essay adopts an alternative conceptualization of the notion of transaction cost by building on the theory of the division of labor. This theory regards transaction cost as a constraint on the division of labor causing the replacement of exchange with self-sufficiency. The proposed transaction cost explanation of rural third sector organizations consists of two arguments: 1 third sector organizations embody partial reliance on self-sufficiency; and 2 rural areas exhibit rurality-specific transaction cost acting as a constraint on the division of labor and thus creating a niche for third sector organizations. The essay concludes with suggesting a research program on developing an economic theory of the rural third sector.;

  5. Vocational Preferences of Early Adolescents: Their Development in Social Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondracek, Fred W.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Reitzle, Matthias; Wiesner, Margit

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the timing of early vocational preferences in young adolescents from former East Germany and West Germany. Results suggested that as the memory of the Communist system fades and as younger adolescents have had less exposure to it, East-West differences tend to disappear. The formation of early vocational preferences was…

  6. How Early Child Care Affects Later Development. Science Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Are there Long-Term Effects of Early Child Care?" (J. Belsky, D. L. Vandell, M. Burchinal, K. A. Clarke-Stewart, K. McCartney, M. T. Owen, M. T., and The NICHD Early Child Care Research Network).…

  7. Gamification - Environmental and Sustainable Development Organizations Could Do More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, C. R.; Miller, C. A.; Kilaru, V.; French, R. A.; Costanza, R.; Brookes, A.

    2013-12-01

    The use of digital games to foster sustainable development and environmental goals has grown over the last 10 years. Innovative thinking and the origins of 'serious games,' 'games for change' and 'gamification' are partly rooted in movies and science fiction. Existing games illustrate a spectrum of approaches: for example, World Food Programme's FoodForce and University of Washington's Foldit. Environmental organizations globally (e.g. US EPA) have dabbled with game development and gamification, but have only touched the tip of the iceberg, particularly when compared to the success of the commercial gaming industry. We explore: 1) the intersection of environmental organization mission statements in the context of gamification efforts , 2) some examples of existing games, from simple to complex, 3) business model approaches (e.g. game development partnerships with academia, private industry, NGOs, etc.), 4) barriers, and 5) benefits of a more concerted and technologically-advanced approach to gamification for environmental organizations.

  8. Feasibility of an Online Professional Development Program for Early Intervention Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Chiu, Caya; Kemp, Peggy; Aldersey, Heather Michelle; Turnbull, Ann P.; Lindeman, David P.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports findings from 2 studies situated within a larger scope of design research on a professional development program, "Early Years," for Part C early intervention practitioners, working with families in home and community settings. Early Years includes online modules and onsite mentor coaching, and its development has…

  9. Regulation of protein synthesis during sea urchin early development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelso, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Fertilization of the sea urchin egg results in a 20-40 fold increase in the rate of protein synthesis. The masked message hypothesis proposes that mRNAs are masked or unavailable for translation in the egg. We devised an in vivo assay to test this hypothesis. Our results show that masked mRNAs limit protein synthesis in the unfertilized egg. In addition, we show that protein synthesis is also regulated at the level of translational machinery. Following fertilization is a period of rapid cell divisions. This period, known as the rapid cleavage stage, is characterized by the transient synthesis of a novel set of proteins. The synthesis of these proteins is programmed by maternal mRNAs stored in the unfertilized egg. To study the behavior of these mRNAs, we prepared a cDNA library from polysomal poly (A+) RNA from 2-hour embryos. [ 32 P] labeled probes, prepared from the cDNA library, were used to monitor the levels of individual mRNAs in polysomes at fertilization and during early development

  10. Early embryonic development and transplantation in tree shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Zhen YAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As a novel experimental animal model, tree shrews have received increasing attention in recent years. Despite this, little is known in regards to the time phases of their embryonic development. In this study, surveillance systems were used to record the behavior and timing of copulations; embryos at different post-copulation stages were collected and cultured in vitro; and the developmental characteristics of both early-stage and in vitro cultured embryos were determined. A total of 163 females were collected following effective copulation, and 150 were used in either unilateral or bilateral oviduct embryo collections, with 307 embryos from 111 females obtained (conception rate=74%. Among them, 237 embryos were collected from 78 females, bilaterally, i.e., the average embryo number per female was 3.04; 172 fertilized eggs collected from 55 females, bilaterally, were cultured for 24-108 h in vitro for developmental observations; finally, 65 embryos from 23 bilateral cases and 70 embryos from 33 unilateral cases were used in embryo transplantation.

  11. Interpersonal Development, Stability, and Change in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This goal of this research was to explore the development of the interpersonal system mapped by the interpersonal circumplex in early adulthood (Ages 18-22). Method This study uses the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders sample (N = 250; 53% Female). Participants completed the Revised Interpersonal Adjective Scales (Wiggins, Trapnell, & Phillips, 1988) in their freshman, sophomore, and senior years of college. Estimates of structural, rank-order, mean, individual, and ipsative stability were calculated for the broad interpersonal dimensions of Dominance and Affiliation, and also the lower-order octant scales. Additionally, the interpersonal profile parameters of differentiation and prototypicality were calculated at each wave and explored longitudinally, and also used as predictors of interpersonal stability. Results We found excellent structural and high rank-order and ipsative stability in the interpersonal scales over this time period. Mean increases on the Affiliation axis, but not on the Dominance axis, were found to mask differential rates of change among the octant scales, along with significant individual variation in the rates of change. Interpersonal differentiation and prototypicality were related to higher stability in overall interpersonal style. Conclusions Results point to evidence of both stability and nuanced change, illuminating some of the features of the structural variables that can be derived from interpersonal circumplex profiles. PMID:22224462

  12. The early growth and development study: a prospective adoption design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ge, Xiaojia; Scaramella, Laura V; Conger, Rand D; Reid, John B; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2007-02-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children (N=359 triads) that was initiated in 2003. The primary study aims are to examine how family processes mediate or moderate the expression of genetic influences in order to aid in the identification of specific family processes that could serve as malleable targets for intervention. Participants in the study are recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States, following the birth of a child. Assessments occur at 6-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: infant and toddler temperament, social behavior, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, psychopathology, competence, stress, and substance use; adoptive parenting and marital relations; and prenatal exposure to drugs and maternal stress. Preliminary analyses suggest the representativeness of the sample and minimal confounding effects of current trends in adoption practices, including openness and selective placement. Future plans are described.

  13. Sustainable Organic Farming For Environmental Health A Social Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijun Rijwan Susanto

    2015-05-01

    consider the loss that may be experienced by others as the principles for profit has become very prominent. As a result the development of organic agriculture simply stuck into a commercial activity which would be a criticism of the founders One of the factors that led to the involvement of the government regulated organic farming is because of the bickering about what is called organic agricultural products and because many nonorganic products sold as organic products Organic farmers have difficulty in finding locally based seed for organic farming certification of organic farming has changed it is not just the assurance processes into a tradable commodity 3 The Benefits of Organic Farming in Support for Environmental Health organic farming gives a positive impact on public health because it does not cause environmental pollution water air soil by the residues of chemical fertilizers and synthetic chemical pesticides. Besides organic farming also healthy communities through the provision of agricultural products that are free of pesticides and chemical fertilizer residues 4 The Social Development Model of Sustainable Organic Farming Sustainable agriculture organic farming seeks acre balance of three long-term goals namely a Social-cultural to create quality of life to satisfy personal and community needs for health food safety and happines b Environment to Enhance utilization of soil water air and other resourches limited c Economics to be profitable market forces. These objectives can be achieved if supported by organizational-oriented good governance principles of sustainable agriculture. Sustainable agriculture is the implementation of the principles of sustainable development. Sustainable development will be achieved if conducted prior social development within the broad scope of stakeholders 5 The Policy Recomendation for Organic Farming a National Strategic Agenda The Program Go Organic must be forwarded with the 2010 program Go Organic 2020 where the formulation of

  14. Prenatal PCBs disrupt early neuroendocrine development of the rat hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Cunningham, Stephanie L.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2011-01-01

    of the POA by prenatal EDC exposures is already evident as early as the day after birth, effects that may change the trajectory of postnatal development and compromise adult reproductive function.

  15. Early decomposer assemblages of soil organisms in litterbags with vetch and rye roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Slavka; Christensen, Søren; Petersen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    and predatory nematodes (the intraguild predator) protozoa (the intraguild prey) and bacteria (the common prey). The much higher fungal biomass in rye than in vetch litterbags was not reflected in the biomass of the fungal feeders. Due to the generally lower intrinsic rate of increase of the fungivores, as well...... as of the omnivores and predators, in comparison with the bacterial feeders, they were not able to generate dense populations at this early stage of decomposition....... relationship to flagellated protozoa. This suggests that these nematodes controlled the protozoan biomass constituting a lower fraction of the bacterivore biomass in vetch compared to in rye. Such intraguild predator-prey relationship is therefore indicated for microbivorous organisms among bacterivorous...

  16. Report of evaluation of organization. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    Various activities of JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) from December in 2003 to July in 2004 are evaluated on management, practice and progressing of development of research by the committee on organization evaluation. The report includes abstract, purpose of evaluation, evaluation items, deliberation process, total results of evaluation, development of projects, the spread of results, international cooperation, management system, effort to safety, responsibility of explanation, live together with community and other suggestions. Main projects consists of practice of FBR, development of uranium enrichment, nuclear fuel reprocessing and MOX fuel processing technology, reopening of MONJU, development of high-level radioactive waste and environmental protection policy. (S.Y.)

  17. Supporting Usability Engineering in Small Software Development Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornoe, Nis; Stage, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Despite an interest and use of different usability engineering methods small software development organizations find it challenging to implement usability engineering into the software development process. We present the results from a study about usability engineering in practice. Through a series...... of semistructured interviews we want to get an understanding of how usability is implemented into the organizations and how it’s practiced in reality. We found that the developers found it problematic to combine agile software development methods with classic usability engineering methods. A lack of solid usability...... engineering expertise and not least experience seems to be a main obstacle for a successful implementation of usability engineering into current software development practices. They are requesting methods and procedures that fit better with their current practices and strategies to implement usability...

  18. Early-Stage Investigators and Institutional Interface: Importance of Organization in the Mentoring Culture of Today's Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Spero M

    2016-09-01

    Mentors have an active role in teaching mentees to scan their academic environments for the resources to advance their research careers, to assess the gaps between what's available and needed to succeed, and to develop strategies to fill these gaps. Yet achieving instrumentality is a necessary, but insufficient condition by which to accomplish the desired endpoints. Mentors and mentees must recognize that the organizations to which they belong are cultural in nature: characterized by vision, values, norms, systems, symbols, language, assumptions, beliefs, and habits. Understanding the collective behaviors and assumptions of peers and leaders in terms of the shared perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of organizational membership is essential to success. Institutions, in turn, must examine the extent to which they offer action possibilities: opportunities that promote the developmental trajectories of early stage investigators-in-training. Lack of awareness of the possible dissonance of this reality adversely affects many young faculty members.

  19. Investigation of normal organ development with fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    The understanding of the presentation of normal organ development on fetal MRI forms the basis for recognition of pathological states. During the second and third trimesters, maturational processes include changes in size, shape and signal intensities of organs. Visualization of these developmental processes requires tailored MR protocols. Further prerequisites for recognition of normal maturational states are unequivocal intrauterine orientation with respect to left and right body halves, fetal proportions, and knowledge about the MR presentation of extrafetal/intrauterine organs. Emphasis is laid on the demonstration of normal MR appearance of organs that are frequently involved in malformation syndromes. In addition, examples of time-dependent contrast enhancement of intrauterine structures are given. (orig.)

  20. Investigation of normal organ development with fetal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-10-15

    The understanding of the presentation of normal organ development on fetal MRI forms the basis for recognition of pathological states. During the second and third trimesters, maturational processes include changes in size, shape and signal intensities of organs. Visualization of these developmental processes requires tailored MR protocols. Further prerequisites for recognition of normal maturational states are unequivocal intrauterine orientation with respect to left and right body halves, fetal proportions, and knowledge about the MR presentation of extrafetal/intrauterine organs. Emphasis is laid on the demonstration of normal MR appearance of organs that are frequently involved in malformation syndromes. In addition, examples of time-dependent contrast enhancement of intrauterine structures are given. (orig.)

  1. Pronoia in the Military Organization of the Byzantine Empire at Early Palaeologian Period (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotovskiy Vladimir A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the author disclosed the role of pronoia in the military organization of the Byzantine Empire at early Palaeologian period. The concrete cases of the award allow recognizing the proniarety as the Byzantine military institution dealing exclusively with the military leadership. The grant of pronoia was a replacement for traditional rewards of military commanders of noble origin. However, in some cases it was identified that compulsory military service was a function of power which was granted to the proniares in addition to the tax quota. Holders of pronoia were not only the Romans military commanders but also the mercenaries. Such awards could reduce the costs of imperial treasury for direct payments. In the case of proniares-Byzantines, depending on posotis, we can talk about the conferring upon pronoia the representatives of various levels of the military leadership. The pronoias granted as a reward or the compensation for losses incurred as a result of the performance of official engagements, could be transferred to the commanders of low levels which were recruited from among stratiotes (obviously, dekarhes. Definition of the role of pronoia in military practice of the early palaeologian period which would be possible in the identification of the proportion of pronoiares and strateia contingents and the correlation of victories and defeats, won by them, is impossible in practice.

  2. Development sites, feeding modes and early stages of seven European Palloptera species (Diptera, Pallopteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheray, Graham E

    2014-12-19

    Two hundred and ninety-eight rearing records and 87 larvae and puparia were obtained of seven species of Palloptera Fallén (Diptera, Pallopteridae), mainly in Scotland during 2012-2013. The third stage larva and puparium of each species were assessed morphologically and development sites and feeding modes investigated by rearing, observation and feeding tests. Early stages appear to be distinguished by the swollen, apico-lateral margins of the prothorax which are coated in vestiture and a poorly developed anal lobe with few spicules. Individual pallopteran species are separated by features of the head skeleton, locomotory spicules and the posterior respiratory organs. Five species can be distinguished by unique character states. Observations and feeding tests suggest that the frequently cited attribute of zoophagy is accidental and that saprophagy is the primary larval feeding mode with autumn/winter as the main period of development. Food plants were confirmed for flowerhead and stem developing species and rain is important for maintaining biofilms on which larvae feed. Due to difficulties in capturing adults, especially males, the distribution and abundance of many pallopteran species is probably underestimated. Better informed estimates are possible if early stages are included in biodiversity assessments. To facilitate this for the species investigated, a key to the third stage larva and puparium along with details on finding them, is provided. 

  3. Developing and testing an Early Warning System for Non Indigenous Species and Ballast Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaletti, Erika; Garaventa, Francesca; David, Matej; Castriota, Luca; Kraus, Romina; Luna, Gian Marco; Silvestri, Cecilia; Forte, Cosmo; Bastianini, Mauro; Falautano, Manuela; Maggio, Teresa; Rak, Giulietta; Gollasch, Stephan

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the methodological approach used for the development of an Early Warning System (EWS) for Non Indigenous Species (NIS) and ballast water management and summarizes the results obtained. The specific goals of the EWS are firstly to warn vessels to prevent loading of ballast water when critical biological conditions occur in ports and surrounding areas i.e. mass development or blooms of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens (HAOP). Secondly, to warn environmental and health authorities when NIS or pathogens are present in ports or surrounding areas to enable an early response and an implementation of remediation measures. The EWS is designed to be used for implementing various parallel obligations, by taking into consideration different legal scopes, associated information and decision-making needs. The EWS was elaborated, tested in the Adriatic Sea and illustrated by two case studies. Although the EWS was developed with an Adriatic Sea focus, it is presented in a format so that it may be used as a model when establishing similar systems in other locations. The role of the various actors is discussed and recommendations on further developments of the EWS are presented. It was concluded that the EWS is a suitable tool to reduce the spread of potentially harmful and ballast water mediated species.

  4. Geographical Basis for Development of Organic Olive Grow in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Čuka

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional agriculture is among the biggest polluters of the environment. Overuse of synthetic pesticides, herbicides and mineral fertilisers have caused soil exhaustion, erosion, unbalance in the ecosystem, and their harmful effect on human health has been proven. This is why the author tried to point to the importance of development of organic agriculture, and olive growing as a traditional agricultural sector in coastal Croatia.The main intention is to show the basic geographical aspects of coastal Croatia and to explain the ways it can influence the development of organic olive farming. It is specially emphasized that organically produced food must be incorporated in Croatian tourist offer. It will stimulate a bigger interest for Croatia as an attractive tourist destination in the world tourist market and will simplify the sale of organically produced food. Development of organic olive farming will also contribute to the revitalisation of small villages where a strong presence of negative processes, such as deagrarisation, deruralisation and demographic regression is evident.

  5. Development of a culture of sustainability in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Bernardo; West, Daniel J; Costell, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the concept of sustainability in health care organizations and the key managerial competencies and change management strategies needed to implant a culture of sustainability. Competencies and management development strategies needed to engrain this corporate culture of sustainability are analyzed in this document. This paper draws on the experience of the authors as health care executives and educators developing managerial competencies with interdisciplinary and international groups of executives in the last 25 years, using direct observation, interviews, discussions and bibliographic evidence. With a holistic framework for sustainability, health care managers can implement strategies for multidisciplinary teams to respond to the constant change, fine-tune operations and successfully manage quality of care. Managers can mentor students and provide in-service learning experiences that integrate knowledge, skills, and abilities. Further empirical research needs to be conducted on these interrelated innovative topics. Health care organizations around the world are under stakeholders' pressure to provide high quality, cost-effective, accessible and sustainable services. Professional organizations and health care providers can collaborate with university graduate health management education programs to prepare competent managers in all the dimensions of sustainability. The newly designated accountable care organizations represent an opportunity for managers to address the need for sustainability. Sustainability of health care organizations with the holistic approach discussed in this paper is an innovative and practical approach to quality improvement that merits further development.

  6. Delineation of early brain development from fetuses to infants with diffusion MRI and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Minhui; Dubois, Jessica; Yu, Qinlin; Mukherjee, Pratik; Huang, Hao

    2018-04-12

    Dynamic macrostructural and microstructural changes take place from the mid-fetal stage to 2 years after birth. Delineating brain structural changes during this early developmental period provides new insights into the complicated processes of both typical brain development and the pathological mechanisms underlying various psychiatric and neurological disorders including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Decades of histological studies have identified strong spatial and functional gradients of maturation in human brain gray and white matter. The recent improvements in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, especially diffusion MRI (dMRI), relaxometry imaging, and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) have provided unprecedented opportunities to non-invasively quantify and map the early developmental changes at whole brain and regional levels. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding early brain structural development during the second half of gestation and the first two postnatal years using modern MR techniques. Specifically, we review studies that delineate the emergence and microstructural maturation of white matter tracts, as well as dynamic mapping of inhomogeneous cortical microstructural organization unique to fetuses and infants. These imaging studies converge into maturational curves of MRI measurements that are distinctive across different white matter tracts and cortical regions. Furthermore, contemporary models offering biophysical interpretations of the dMRI-derived measurements are illustrated to infer the underlying microstructural changes. Collectively, this review summarizes findings that contribute to charting spatiotemporally heterogeneous gray and white matter structural development, offering MRI-based biomarkers of typical brain development and setting the stage for understanding aberrant brain development in neurodevelopmental disorders. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Analysis of the early development in first and backcross generations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the performance difference of reciprocal hybrids and backcrosses between Paralichthys olivaceus and Paralichthys dentatus. The fertilization and hatching rates, combined fitness measure, early developmental characteristics and chromosome number were analyzed. The crosses of P. olivaceus ...

  8. Remembering New Words: Integrating Early Memory Development into Word Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcik, Erica H.

    2013-01-01

    In order to successfully acquire a new word, young children must learn the correct associations between labels and their referents. For decades, word-learning researchers have explored how young children are able to form these associations. However, in addition to learning label-referent mappings, children must also remember them. Despite the importance of memory processes in forming a stable lexicon, there has been little integration of early memory research into the study of early word lear...

  9. The early development of brain white matter: a review of imaging studies in fetuses, newborns and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, J; Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Kulikova, S; Poupon, C; Hüppi, P S; Hertz-Pannier, L

    2014-09-12

    Studying how the healthy human brain develops is important to understand early pathological mechanisms and to assess the influence of fetal or perinatal events on later life. Brain development relies on complex and intermingled mechanisms especially during gestation and first post-natal months, with intense interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Although the baby's brain is organized early on, it is not a miniature adult brain: regional brain changes are asynchronous and protracted, i.e. sensory-motor regions develop early and quickly, whereas associative regions develop later and slowly over decades. Concurrently, the infant/child gradually achieves new performances, but how brain maturation relates to changes in behavior is poorly understood, requiring non-invasive in vivo imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two main processes of early white matter development are reviewed: (1) establishment of connections between brain regions within functional networks, leading to adult-like organization during the last trimester of gestation, (2) maturation (myelination) of these connections during infancy to provide efficient transfers of information. Current knowledge from post-mortem descriptions and in vivo MRI studies is summed up, focusing on T1- and T2-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and quantitative mapping of T1/T2 relaxation times, myelin water fraction and magnetization transfer ratio. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chelated mineral supplements for Nelore: quality and early embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pasa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Pasa C., Hatamoto-Zervoudakis L.K., Zervoudakis J.T. & Soares L. [Chelated mineral supplements for Nelore: quality and early embryonic development.] Suplementos minerais quelatados para vacas Nelore: qualidade e desenvolvimento embrionário inicial. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(1:29-34, 2014. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, Av. Fernando Corrêa da Costa, 2367, Bairro Boa Esperança, Cuiabá, MT 78060-900, Brasil. E-mail: pasa_camila@hotmail.com The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality and early development of embryos produced with oocytes of cows supplemented with copper, zinc and selenium in a non-chelated and chelated. The experiment was conducted in Cuiabá-MT during the months April to July 2009. We used 24 adult Nellore multiparous, aged, average weights of the initial 36 months, 395 kg and mean body condition score 4.8, respectively randomly divided into 2 groups: control group (CG, supplemented with conventional mineral and Supplemented Group (GS, animals supplemented with zinc, copper and selenium chelated. Each group was kept in a paddock of Brachiaria brizantha cv Marandu received 1 kg of animal per day. chelated mineral supplementation (GS and conventional mineral (GC delivered via the protein supplement was given during a period of 99 days with daily average 1kg/cabeça. During the experimental period were two follicular aspirations, one to 59 days and another at 99 days of supplementation. Every two weeks the animals were weighed and ECC evaluated. oocytes viable (grades I, II and III were used for in vitro production of embryos. The experiment was completely randomized and data were analyzed by ANOVA and a significance level of 10%. There was no effect (p> 0.10 of supplementation with chelated minerals on the percentage of cleaved oocytes, total embryos produced, percentage of produced

  11. Investing in Early Human Development: Timing and Economic Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Orla; Harmon, Colm P.; Heckman, James J.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Policy discussions to ameliorate socioeconomic (SES) inequalities are increasingly focused on investments in early childhood. Yet such interventions are costly to implement, and clear evidence on the optimal time to intervene to yield a high economic and social return in the future is meagre. The majority of successful early childhood interventions start in the preschool years. However socioeconomic gradients in cognitive skills, socio-emotional functioning and health can be observed by age three, suggesting that preventative programmes starting earlier in childhood may be even more effective. We discuss the optimal timing of early childhood intervention with reference to recent research in developmental neuroscience. We motivate the need for early intervention by providing an overview of the impact of adverse risk factors during the antenatal and early childhood periods on outcomes later in life. We provide a brief review of the economic rationale for investing early in life and propose the “antenatal investment hypothesis”. We conclude by discussing a suite of new European interventions that will inform this optimal timing debate. PMID:19213617

  12. EARLY TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WHIT INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES IN THE ADVISORY INSTITUTION FOR DEVELOPMENT IN BITOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljana NAUMOVSKA

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1985-1995, 38 children with intracranal hemorrhages were treated in the Advisory Institution for Development in Bitola.Out of them:· or 44.7% were no consequences;· or 18.4% were with mute paresis;· or 36.8% were with cerebral paralysesTreatment in the Advisory Institution commences on the 15 day or within the first month of the child at the most. By using the Gunzberg defektology method the organization of the psycho-motor coordination, speech and knowledge functions are assessed. This diagnosis is necessary in order to begin with an early neuropsyhiatric habilitation treatment.Our Advisory Institution uses the method of conscious development synthesis which requires maximum involvement of the parent in the habilitation, rehabilitation and reeducation treatment.Parents are motivated and educated to participate through frequent visits to Advisory Institution by a defectologist-somatopead.

  13. The behavior of larval zebrafish reveals stressor-mediated anorexia during early vertebrate development

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Yeh, Chen-Min; Treviño, Mario; Ryu, Soojin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between stress and food consumption has been well documented in adults but less so in developing vertebrates. Here we demonstrate that an encounter with a stressor can suppress food consumption in larval zebrafish. Furthermore, we provide indication that food intake suppression cannot be accounted for by changes in locomotion, oxygen consumption and visual responses, as they remain unaffected after exposure to a potent stressor. We also show that feeding reoccurs when basal levels of cortisol (stress hormone in humans and teleosts) are re-established. The results present evidence that the onset of stress can switch off the drive for feeding very early in vertebrate development, and add a novel endpoint for analyses of metabolic and behavioral disorders in an organism suitable for high-throughput genetics and non-invasive brain imaging. PMID:25368561

  14. Early successful orchidopexy does not prevent from developing azoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Hadziselimovic

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The incidence of Ad spermatogonia (stem cells for fertility was assessed in 20 cryptorchid patients, all of whom had a successful orchidopexy in childhood but developed azoospermia following puberty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From a cohort of 231 patients who had a semen analysis following successful orchidopexy 20 patients (9% had azoospermia. The patients were classified into 2 groups according to the time of surgery: A = < 21 months of age (n = 5, mean = 10.7 ± 8.6 months and B = during childhood (n = 15, mean = 10.1 ± 3 years. Nine of the 20 patients (45% had bilateral cryptorchidism: A = 1 and B = 8. Testicular biopsies were performed during orchidopexy and analyzed with semi-thin technique. The number of Ad spermatogonia and entire number of germ cells was determined. The patients' semen analyses were evaluated at least twice; FSH and testosterone plasma values were estimated. RESULTS: In group A, all patients had germ cells at the time of surgery (mean = 1.04 ± 1.4 germ cells per tubular cross section; only 6 patients in group B (40% had no germ cells (mean = 0.17 ± 0.4; A vs. B, p = 0.0133. Importantly, Ad spermatogonia were absent in the entire study population. The plasma FSH of 16 patients (80% was abnormal [median = 16.35 IU/L (Interquartile range of sample - IQR 9.075-27.85 95% CI, 3-53] while the plasma testosterone of all the patients was normal. CONCLUSIONS: The most severe cause of infertility in cryptorchid patients cannot be mitigated by an early successful surgery alone.

  15. The Kinesin Adaptor Calsyntenin-1 Organizes Microtubule Polarity and Regulates Dynamics during Sensory Axon Arbor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Halloran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Axon growth and branching, and development of neuronal polarity are critically dependent on proper organization and dynamics of the microtubule (MT cytoskeleton. MTs must organize with correct polarity for delivery of diverse cargos to appropriate subcellular locations, yet the molecular mechanisms regulating MT polarity remain poorly understood. Moreover, how an actively branching axon reorganizes MTs to direct their plus ends distally at branch points is unknown. We used high-speed, in vivo imaging of polymerizing MT plus ends to characterize MT dynamics in developing sensory axon arbors in zebrafish embryos. We find that axonal MTs are highly dynamic throughout development, and that the peripheral and central axons of sensory neurons show differences in MT behaviors. Furthermore, we show that Calsyntenin-1 (Clstn-1, a kinesin adaptor required for sensory axon branching, also regulates MT polarity in developing axon arbors. In wild type neurons the vast majority of MTs are directed in the correct plus-end-distal orientation from early stages of development. Loss of Clstn-1 causes an increase in MTs polymerizing in the retrograde direction. These misoriented MTs most often are found near growth cones and branch points, suggesting Clstn-1 is particularly important for organizing MT polarity at these locations. Together, our results suggest that Clstn-1, in addition to regulating kinesin-mediated cargo transport, also organizes the underlying MT highway during axon arbor development.

  16. Environmental opportunities questionnaire: development of a measure of the environment supporting early motor development in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doralp, Samantha; Bartlett, Doreen J

    2013-09-01

    The development and testing of a measure evaluating the quality and variability in the home environment as it relates to the motor development of infants during the first year of life. A sample of 112 boys and 95 girls with a mean age of 7.1 months (SD 1.8) and GA of 39.6 weeks (SD 1.5) participated in the study. The measurement development process was divided into three phases: measurement development (item generation or selection of items from existing measurement tools), pilot testing to determine acceptability and feasibility to parents, and exploratory factor analysis to organize items into meaningful concepts. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were also determined. The environmental opportunities questionnaire (EOQ) is a feasible 21-item measure comprised of three factors including opportunities in the play space, sensory variety and parental encouragement. Overall, test-retest reliability was 0.92 (CI 0.84-0.96) and the internal consistency is 0.79. The EOQ emphasizes quality of the environment and access to equipment and toys that have the potential to facilitate early motor development. The preliminary analyses reported here suggest more work could be done on the EOQ to strengthen its use for research or clinical purposes; however, it is adequate for use in its current form. Implications for Rehabilitation New and feasible 21-item questionnaire that enables identification of malleable environmental factors that serve as potential points of intervention for children that are not developing typically. Therapeutic tool for use by therapists to inform and guide discussions with caregivers about potential influences of environmental, social and attitudinal factors in their child's early development.

  17. Intentional Design of Student Organizations to Optimize Leadership Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainella, Felicia C

    2017-09-01

    This chapter addresses how a group's organizational structure can promote or hinder the leadership capacity of its members. The information in this chapter provides insight into structuring student organizations in a way to maximize all members' leadership development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  18. Development of a Soil Organic Carbon Baseline for Otjozondjupa, Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijbroek, R.; Kempen, B.; Mutua, J.; Soderstrom, M.; Piikki, K.; Hengari, S.; Andreas, A.

    2017-01-01

    Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) has been piloted in 14 countries and will be scaled up to over 120 countries. As a LDN pilot country, Namibia developed sub-national LDN baselines in Otjozondjupa Region. In addition to the three LDN indicators (soil organic carbon, land productivity and land cover

  19. Some Unintended Consequences of "Top Down" Organization Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bernard J.; Ramsey, V. Jean

    1978-01-01

    An organizational development consultant is expected to perform a thorough and unbiased diagnosis of the organization's functioning. This is an account of a case study of the effect of top management influence on the consultant's awareness and definition of problems. (Author/MLF)

  20. Culturing Reality: How Organic Chemistry Graduate Students Develop into Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Bodner, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Although one of the presumed aims of graduate training programs is to help students develop into practitioners of their chosen fields, very little is known about how this transition occurs. In the course of studying how graduate students learn to solve organic synthesis problems, we were able to identify some of the key factors in the epistemic…

  1. Role of Women Organizations in Community Development: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper analysed the role of women organizations in the development of rural communities in Orlu Agricultural zone of Imo state. Six communities were purposively selected from three Local Government Areas of the Zone for the study. Semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 120 randomly selected ...

  2. Developing a new service for organizing social events in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Titikshya

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a new service concept for people living in Finland by using service design methods. In this busy world, people frequently have no time to organize events on their own. Therefore, service design tools and methodology will be used as foundational pillars for the case company in this thesis in developing solutions for this issue, as well as bringing customer satisfaction from service delivery. This service concept is designed to save time and simplify the...

  3. Becoming organisms: the organisation of development and the development of organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, Laura Nuño

    2010-01-01

    Despite the radical importance of embryology in the development of organicism, developmental biology remains philosophically underexplored as a theoretical and empirical resource to clarify the nature of organisms. This paper discusses how embryology can help develop the organisational definition of the organism as a differentiated, functionally integrated, and autonomous system. I distinguish two conceptions of development in the organisational tradition that yield two different conceptions of the organism: the life-history view claims that organisms can be considered as such during their whole ontogeny; the constitutive view distinguishes two periods in the life history, a period of generation and a period of self-maintenance of a constitutive organisation. Arguing in favour of the constitutive view, it will be claimed that the organisational criteria for the definition of organism (i.e., differentiation, functional integration, and autonomy) can only be applied to the developmental system when it has entered the period of self-maintenance of a constitutive organisation. Under the light of current research in developmental biology, it is possible to make explicit how organisms come to be as organisms. To this end, I explore key ontogenetic events that help us clarify the core aspects of animal organisation and allow us to identify the developmental stage that marks the ontological transition between an organism in potency and an organism in actuality. The structure of this ontogenetic unfolding parallels the conceptual structure of the very notion of organism; the generation of the being of a particular organism parallels its definition.

  4. Time development in the early history of social networks: link stabilization, group dynamics, and segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, Jesper; Bearden, Ian G

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the time development of empirical networks usually investigate late stages where lasting connections have already stabilized. Empirical data on early network history are rare but needed for a better understanding of how social network topology develops in real life. Studying students who are beginning their studies at a university with no or few prior connections to each other offers a unique opportunity to investigate the formation and early development of link patterns and community structure in social networks. During a nine week introductory physics course, first year physics students were asked to identify those with whom they communicated about problem solving in physics during the preceding week. We use these students' self reports to produce time dependent student interaction networks. We investigate these networks to elucidate possible effects of different student attributes in early network formation. Changes in the weekly number of links show that while roughly half of all links change from week to week, students also reestablish a growing number of links as they progress through their first weeks of study. Using the Infomap community detection algorithm, we show that the networks exhibit community structure, and we use non-network student attributes, such as gender and end-of-course grade to characterize communities during their formation. Specifically, we develop a segregation measure and show that students structure themselves according to gender and pre-organized sections (in which students engage in problem solving and laboratory work), but not according to end-of-coure grade. Alluvial diagrams of consecutive weeks' communities show that while student movement between groups are erratic in the beginning of their studies, they stabilize somewhat towards the end of the course. Taken together, the analyses imply that student interaction networks stabilize quickly and that students establish collaborations based on who is immediately

  5. Effects of early changes in organ dysfunctions on the outcomes of critically ill patients in need of renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Maccariello

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury usually develops in critically ill patients in the context of multiple organ dysfunctions. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of changes in associated organ dysfunctions over the first three days of renal replacement therapy on the outcomes of patients with acute kidney injury. METHODS: Over a 19-month period, we evaluated 260 patients admitted to the intensive care units of three tertiary-care hospitals who required renal replacement therapy for > 48 h. Organ dysfunctions were evaluated by SOFA score (excluding renal points on the first (D1 and third (D3 days of renal replacement therapy. Absolute (A-SOFA and relative (D-SOFA changes in SOFA scores were also calculated. RESULTS: Hospital mortality rate was 75%. Organ dysfunctions worsened (A-SOFA>0 in 53%, remained unchanged (A-SOFA=0 in 17% and improved (A-SOFA<0 in 30% of patients; and mortality was lower in the last group (80% vs. 84% vs. 61%, p=0.003. SOFA on D1 (p<0.001, SOFA on D3 (p<0.001, A-SOFA (p=0.019 and D-SOFA (p=0.016 were higher in non-survivors. However, neither A-SOFA nor D-SOFA discriminated survivors from non-survivors on an individual basis. Adjusting for other covariates (including SOFA on D1, A-SOFA and D-SOFA were associated with increased mortality, and patients in whom SOFA scores worsened or remained unchanged had poorer outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to baseline values, early changes in SOFA score after the start of renal replacement therapy were associated with hospital mortality. However, no prognostic score should be used as the only parameter to predict individual outcomes.

  6. The Development of Prosocial Behaviour in Early Childhood: Contributions of Early Parenting and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kate E.; Berthelsen, Donna

    2017-01-01

    This research considers the role of parenting practices and early self-regulation, on children's prosocial behaviour when they begin school. Data for 4007 children were drawn from "Growing Up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children" (LSAC). The analyses explored relations between self-reported parenting practices for…

  7. Can We Measure the Transition to Reading? General Outcome Measures and Early Literacy Development From Preschool to Early Elementary Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott McConnell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the extent to which existing measures met standards for a continuous suite of general outcome measures (GOMs assessing children’s early literacy from preschool through early elementary school. The study assessed 316 children from age 3 years (2 years prekindergarten through Grade 2, with 8 to 10 measures of language, alphabetic principle, phonological awareness, and beginning reading. We evaluated measures at each grade group against six standards for GOMs extracted from earlier work. We found that one measure of oral language met five or six standards at all grade levels, and several measures of phonological awareness and alphabetic principle showed promise across all five grade levels. Results are discussed in relation to ongoing research and development of a flexible and seamless system to assess children’s academic progress across time for effective prevention and remediation, as well as theoretical and empirical analyses in early literacy, early reading, and GOMs.

  8. Modern leadership and management methods for development organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samosudova Natalia V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article represents an overview of the basic theoretical concepts of leadership and management in the framework of the organization. The main scientific approaches to leadership are described in conjunction with various leadership styles and their correlation with different levels of effectiveness as a result of the organization’s activity. Certain characteristics applicable to leaders and managers are mentioned. Attitude and obligations of a modern construction project manager are discussed, along with the challenges the construction industry represents these days. Ideas about methods of complex analysis for further research and identifying leadership tactics and their impact on the success of the development organization are suggested.

  9. Development of Organ-Specific Donor Risk Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, Ray; Israni, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival using various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. We will review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The Kidney Donor Risk Index has a potential role in developing new kidney allocation algorithms. The Liver Donor Risk Index allows for greater appreciation of the importance of donor factors, particularly for hepatitis C-positive recipients; as the donor risk index increases, rates of allograft and patient survival among these recipients decrease disproportionately. Use of livers with high donor risk index is associated with increased hospital costs independent of recipient risk factors, and transplanting livers with high donor risk index into patients with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores Donor Risk Index has limited this practice. Significant regional variation in donor quality, as measured by the Liver Donor Risk Index, remains in the United States. We also review other potential indices for liver transplant, including donor-recipient matching and the retransplant donor risk index. While substantial progress has been made in developing donor risk indices to objectively assess donor variables that affect transplant outcomes, continued efforts are warranted to improve these indices to enhance organ allocation policies and optimize allograft survival. PMID:22287036

  10. Development of organ-specific donor risk indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkina, Sanjeev K; Asrani, Sumeet K; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, W Ray; Israni, Ajay K

    2012-04-01

    Because of the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival with various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. Here we review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and the liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The KDRI has a potential role in developing new kidney allocation algorithms. The LDRI allows a greater appreciation of the importance of donor factors, particularly for hepatitis C virus-positive recipients; as the donor risk index increases, the rates of allograft and patient survival among these recipients decrease disproportionately. The use of livers with high donor risk indices is associated with increased hospital costs that are independent of recipient risk factors, and the transplantation of livers with high donor risk indices into patients with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores indices for liver transplantation, including donor-recipient matching and the retransplant donor risk index. Although substantial progress has been made in developing donor risk indices to objectively assess donor variables that affect transplant outcomes, continued efforts are warranted to improve these indices to enhance organ allocation policies and optimize allograft survival. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  11. Recent developments in organic redox flow batteries: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, P.; Shah, A. A.; Sanz, L.; Flox, C.; Morante, J. R.; Xu, Q.; Mohamed, M. R.; Ponce de León, C.; Walsh, F. C.

    2017-08-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) have emerged as prime candidates for energy storage on the medium and large scales, particularly at the grid scale. The demand for versatile energy storage continues to increase as more electrical energy is generated from intermittent renewable sources. A major barrier in the way of broad deployment and deep market penetration is the use of expensive metals as the active species in the electrolytes. The use of organic redox couples in aqueous or non-aqueous electrolytes is a promising approach to reducing the overall cost in long-term, since these materials can be low-cost and abundant. The performance of such redox couples can be tuned by modifying their chemical structure. In recent years, significant developments in organic redox flow batteries has taken place, with the introduction of new groups of highly soluble organic molecules, capable of providing a cell voltage and charge capacity comparable to conventional metal-based systems. This review summarises the fundamental developments and characterization of organic redox flow batteries from both the chemistry and materials perspectives. The latest advances, future challenges and opportunities for further development are discussed.

  12. Dynamics of learner affective development in early FLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Mihaljević Djigunović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Affective learner factors were first considered as a cause of success in language learning. This was followed by a change in approach and recently authors (e.g., Edelenbos, Johnstone, & Kubanek, 2006 have considered them an important outcome, especially in early foreign language learning (FLL. Current research into affective learner factors in early FLL tries to catch the developmental aspects too, and studies are emerging that take a contextual view as well. This paper describes a study on affective characteristics of young FL learners that combines the developmental and contextual perspectives. Using the case study methodology the author analyses the affective profiles of three young learners of English as a foreign language who were followed for 4 years. The analyses are done taking into account their immediate language learning environment, home support, out-of-school exposure to English and language achievement. The findings suggest that affective learner factors contribute to the dynamic complexity of early FLL.

  13. Older Siblings Affect Gut Microbiota Development in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    .006) at 18 months. Further, having older siblings was associated with increased relative abundance of several bacterial taxa at both 9 and 18 months of age. Compared to the effect of having siblings, presence of household furred pets and early life infections had less pronounced effects on the gut microbiota....... Gut microbiota characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first three years of life. Conclusions: Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which...... could contribute to the substantiation of the hygiene hypothesis. However, no associations were found between gut microbiota and atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during early childhood and thus further studies are required to elucidate whether sibling-associated gut microbial changes...

  14. WHAT ARE THE BARRIERS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC FARMING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afagh VEISI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the main barriers to development of organic farming system in Kermanshah Province, Iran. Statistical population in this study consisted of all farmers in Kermanshah province, Iran. Applying stratified random sampling method, 137 farmers were selected as a sample. The main instrument in this study was questionnaire which its validity was confirmed by the panel of experts and its reliability was established by Cronbach's Alpha coefficient. Data was analyzed by SPSSWin16 software. Principal component analysis was used as main statistical technique to analyze the data. The results of factor analysis revealed that 4 factors including “Infrastructural”, “technical-managerial”, “economic-financial” and “educational” explained 42.36 percent of the variance. Results of this study have applications for agriculture development policy- makers for development of organic farming in Iran.

  15. Developing a Security Metrics Scorecard for Healthcare Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrefaey, Heba; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In healthcare, information security is a key aspect of protecting a patient's privacy and ensuring systems availability to support patient care. Security managers need to measure the performance of security systems and this can be achieved by using evidence-based metrics. In this paper, we describe the development of an evidence-based security metrics scorecard specific to healthcare organizations. Study participants were asked to comment on the usability and usefulness of a prototype of a security metrics scorecard that was developed based on current research in the area of general security metrics. Study findings revealed that scorecards need to be customized for the healthcare setting in order for the security information to be useful and usable in healthcare organizations. The study findings resulted in the development of a security metrics scorecard that matches the healthcare security experts' information requirements.

  16. Development of the destruction technology for radioactive organic solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Park, H.S.; Lee, K.W. [and others

    1999-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Technology development for nuclear fuel cycle waste treatment'. 1. Organic waste decomposition technology development A. Destruction technology for organic wastes using Ag(2)-mediated electrochemical oxidation B. Recovery and regeneration technology for the spent chemicals used in the MEO process 2. Radioactive metal waste recycling technology A. Surface decontamination processes B. Decontamination waste treatment technology 3. Volume reduction technology nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) technology A. Estimation of the amount of radwastes and the optimum volume reduction methodology of domestic NFC B. Pretreatment of spent fuel cladding by electrochemical decontamination C. Hot cell process technology for the treatment of NFC wastes 4. Design and fabrication of the test equipment of volume reduction and reuse of alpha contaminated wastes 5. Evaluation on environmental compatibility of NFC A. Development of evaluation methodology on environmental friendliness of NFC B. Residual activity assessment of recycling wastes. (author). 321 refs., 54 tabs., 183 figs.

  17. Development of the destruction technology for radioactive organic solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Park, H.S.; Lee, K.W.

    1999-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Technology development for nuclear fuel cycle waste treatment'. 1. Organic waste decomposition technology development A. Destruction technology for organic wastes using Ag(2)-mediated electrochemical oxidation B. Recovery and regeneration technology for the spent chemicals used in the MEO process 2. Radioactive metal waste recycling technology A. Surface decontamination processes B. Decontamination waste treatment technology 3. Volume reduction technology nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) technology A. Estimation of the amount of radwastes and the optimum volume reduction methodology of domestic NFC B. Pretreatment of spent fuel cladding by electrochemical decontamination C. Hot cell process technology for the treatment of NFC wastes 4. Design and fabrication of the test equipment of volume reduction and reuse of alpha contaminated wastes 5. Evaluation on environmental compatibility of NFC A. Development of evaluation methodology on environmental friendliness of NFC B. Residual activity assessment of recycling wastes. (author). 321 refs., 54 tabs., 183 figs

  18. The Moon as a recorder of organic evolution in the early solar system: a lunar regolith analog study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthewman, Richard; Court, Richard W; Crawford, Ian A; Jones, Adrian P; Joy, Katherine H; Sephton, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    The organic record of Earth older than ∼3.8 Ga has been effectively erased. Some insight is provided to us by meteorites as well as remote and direct observations of asteroids and comets left over from the formation of the Solar System. These primitive objects provide a record of early chemical evolution and a sample of material that has been delivered to Earth's surface throughout the past 4.5 billion years. Yet an effective chronicle of organic evolution on all Solar System objects, including that on planetary surfaces, is more difficult to find. Fortunately, early Earth would not have been the only recipient of organic matter-containing objects in the early Solar System. For example, a recently proposed model suggests the possibility that volatiles, including organic material, remain archived in buried paleoregolith deposits intercalated with lava flows on the Moon. Where asteroids and comets allow the study of processes before planet formation, the lunar record could extend that chronicle to early biological evolution on the planets. In this study, we use selected free and polymeric organic materials to assess the hypothesis that organic matter can survive the effects of heating in the lunar regolith by overlying lava flows. Results indicate that the presence of lunar regolith simulant appears to promote polymerization and, therefore, preservation of organic matter. Once polymerized, the mineral-hosted newly formed organic network is relatively protected from further thermal degradation. Our findings reveal the thermal conditions under which preservation of organic matter on the Moon is viable.

  19. Collective action as a way to develop Organic Farming in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen Ghazaryan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Armenia is a landlocked country which gained its independence about 24 years ago. A big portion of population (44.2% is still involved in agriculture and mostly consists of smallholder farmers. More than 20% of Armenia’s GDP comes from agriculture. The government considers organic agriculture as a priority area in the country’s agro-food policy as well as part of sustainable development. However, organic farming is still on its early stages of development just like in other Eastern European, Caucasian and Central Asian countries. Yet, the country already has an organic certification body which is recognized both in the US and the EU, organic supermarket in the capital city and a growing demand for organic products. Those smallholder farmers and especially the organic producers face difficulties accessing markets, gathering necessary information, meeting quality control and food safety requirements, certifying their production as organic or fair trade, accessing credits and so on. Researchers believe that smallholder agriculture can play an important role in reducing global poverty as a vast number of world’s poor are rural households that are involved in agriculture. Armenian smallholders are no exception and they face most of the same challenges and problems that peasants from other parts of the world do. This paper studies one of the ways that these challenges can be overcome, that is, collective action which has proved to be successful in many cases. Although collective action can be very useful and helpful for smallholder farmers and there is even a small successful example from the organic sector in Armenia, it is not a panacea. Organizing a collective action is not an easy task and its success depends on many factors such as small group size, clearly defined boundaries, shared norms, past successful experiences and others.

  20. Human iPSC-Derived Endothelial Cells and Microengineered Organ-Chip Enhance Neuronal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Sances

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Human stem cell-derived models of development and neurodegenerative diseases are challenged by cellular immaturity in vitro. Microengineered organ-on-chip (or Organ-Chip systems are designed to emulate microvolume cytoarchitecture and enable co-culture of distinct cell types. Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs share common signaling pathways with neurons early in development, but their contribution to human neuronal maturation is largely unknown. To study this interaction and influence of microculture, we derived both spinal motor neurons and BMECs from human induced pluripotent stem cells and observed increased calcium transient function and Chip-specific gene expression in Organ-Chips compared with 96-well plates. Seeding BMECs in the Organ-Chip led to vascular-neural interaction and specific gene activation that further enhanced neuronal function and in vivo-like signatures. The results show that the vascular system has specific maturation effects on spinal cord neural tissue, and the use of Organ-Chips can move stem cell models closer to an in vivo condition. : Sances et al. combine Organ-Chip technology with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived spinal motor neurons to study the maturation effects of Organ-Chip culture. By including microvascular cells also derived from the same patient line, the authors show enhancement of neuronal function, reproduction of vascular-neuron pathways, and specific gene activation that resembles in vivo spinal cord development. Keywords: organ-on-chip, spinal cord, iPSC, disease modeling, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, microphysiological system, brain microvascular endothelial cells, spinal motor neurons, vasculature, microfluidic device

  1. Early outcomes of liver transplants in patients receiving organs from hypernatremic donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Mohammad Bagher; Firoozifar, Mohammad; Ghaffaripour, Sina; Sahmeddini, Mohammad Ali; Eghbal, Mohammad Hossien

    2013-12-01

    Uncorrected hypernatremia in organ donors has been associated with poor graft or patient survival during liver transplants. However, recent studies have found no association between the donor serum sodium and transplant outcome. This study sought to show the negative effect donor hypernatremia has on initial liver allograft function. This is the first study to investigate international normalized ratio and renal factors of patients with normal and those with hypernatremic donor livers. This study was conducted at the Shiraz Transplant Research Center in Shiraz, Iran, between May 2009, and July 2011. Four hundred seven consecutive adult orthotopic liver transplants were performed at the University of Shiraz Medical Center. There were 93 donors in the group with hypernatremia with terminal serum sodium of 155 mEq/L or greater (group 1), and 314 with terminal serum sodium less than 155 mEq/L (group 2). Posttransplant data after 5 days showed that aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, international normalized ratio, and kidney function did not differ between the groups. Hypernatremia is the most important complication after brain death. Previous studies have suggested donor hypernatremia results in a greater incidence of early postoperative graft dysfunction in liver transplant and is considered one of the extended criteria donor. However, in recent years, this hypothesis has been questioned. Our study shows no difference between patients' initial results of liver and kidney functioning with normal and hypernatremic donor livers. This is the first study to investigate international normalized ratio as a fundamental factor in defining early allograft dysfunction and renal factors between patients with normal and hypernatremic donor's livers.

  2. Self-Organization in Integrated Conservation and Development Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Simão Seixas

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a cooking metaphor to explore key elements (i.e., ingredients for a great meal that contribute to self-organization processes in the context of successful community-based conservation (CBC or integrated conservation and development projects (ICDP. We pose two major questions: (1 What are the key factors that drive peoples' and/or organizations' willingness to take responsibilities and to act? (2 What contributes to community self-organization? In other words, how conservation-development projects originate, evolve, survive or disappear? In order to address these questions we examine trigger events and catalytic elements in several cases among the Equator Prize finalists and short-listed nominees, from both the 2002 and 2004 awards. The Prize recognizes efforts in integrating biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction. We use secondary data in our analysis, including data from several technical reports and scientific papers written about the Equator Prize finalists and short-listed nominees. We observed common ingredients in most projects including: (1 involvement and commitment of key players (including communities, (2 funding, (3 strong leadership, (4 capacity building, (5 partnership with supportive organizations and government, and (6 economic incentives (including alternative livelihood options. We also observed that CBC and ICDP initiatives opportunistically evolve in a multi-level world, in which local communities establish linkages with people and organizations at different political levels, across different geographical scales and for different purposes. We conclude that there is no right 'recipe' to promote community self-organization but often a mix of some of these six ingredients need to come together for 'success' and that one or two ingredients are not sufficient to ensure success. Also the existence of these six ingredients does not guarantee a great meal - the 'chef's' creativity also is critical. That is

  3. REVOLUTA and WRKY53 connect early and late leaf development in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Yakun; Huhn, Kerstin; Brandt, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    As sessile organisms, plants have to continuously adjust growth and development to ever-changing environmental conditions. At the end of the growing season, annual plants induce leaf senescence to reallocate nutrients and energy-rich substances from the leaves to the maturing seeds. Thus, leaf se...... of WRKY53 in response to oxidative stress, and mutations in HD-ZIPIII genes strongly delay the onset of senescence. Thus, a crosstalk between early and late stages of leaf development appears to contribute to reproductive success.......As sessile organisms, plants have to continuously adjust growth and development to ever-changing environmental conditions. At the end of the growing season, annual plants induce leaf senescence to reallocate nutrients and energy-rich substances from the leaves to the maturing seeds. Thus, leaf...... senescence is a means with which to increase reproductive success and is therefore tightly coupled to the developmental age of the plant. However, senescence can also be induced in response to sub-optimal growth conditions as an exit strategy, which is accompanied by severely reduced yield. Here, we show...

  4. Positive Home Environment and Behaviour Development in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalekshmi, N. B.; Dharma Raja, B. William

    2011-01-01

    Early adolescence is a period of transition when the individual changes physically and psychologically from a child to an adult. This transition involves physical, cognitive and socio- emotional changes. The developmental changes that occur during this period cause varying degree of disturbance. The changes they undergo sometimes results in…

  5. Sustaining Care: Cultivating Mindful Practice in Early Years Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    The practitioner's own self is a resource in early childhood education and care (ECEC). It is proposed that an experiential training focusing on the "professional self" helps to raise awareness of how psychological dispositions may impair or enhance quality of provision. A key concept in such training is emotional labour, explored with…

  6. Early Home Language Use and Later Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between early patterns of home language use (age 4.5 years) and vocabulary growth (ages 4.5 to 12 years) in English and Spanish for 180 Spanish-speaking language minority learners followed from ages 4.5 to 12 years. Standardized measures of vocabulary were administered to children from ages 4.5 to…

  7. Do Fine Motor Skills Contribute to Early Reading Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian; Pufke, Eva; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2018-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how fine motor skills (FMS) relate to early literacy skills, especially over and above cognitive variables. Moreover, a lack of distinction between FMS, grapho-motor and writing skills may have hampered previous work. Method: In Germany, kindergartners (n = 144, aged 6;1) were recruited before beginning formal…

  8. Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

  9. Early Development of Graphical Literacy through Knowledge Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yongcheng; Scardamalia, Marlene; Hong, Huang-Yao; Zhang, Jianwei

    2010-01-01

    This study examined growth in graphical literacy for students contributing to an online, multimedia, communal environment as they advanced their understanding of biology, history and optics. Their science and history studies started early in Grade 3 and continued to the end of Grade 4; students did not receive instruction in graphics production,…

  10. Boarding Neurath's Boat : The Early Development of Quine's Naturalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, Sander

    W.V. Quine is arguably the intellectual father of contemporary naturalism, the idea that there is no distinctively philosophical perspective on reality. Yet even though Quine has always been a science-minded philosopher, he did not adopt a fully naturalistic perspective until the early 1950s. In

  11. Boarding Neurath's Boat : The Early Development of Quine's Naturalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, Sander

    2017-01-01

    W.V. Quine is arguably the intellectual father of contemporary naturalism, the idea that there is no distinctively philosophical perspective on reality. Yet even though Quine has always been a science-minded philosopher, he did not adopt a fully naturalistic perspective until the early 1950s. In

  12. Discontinuities in Early Development of the Understanding of Physical Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschersleben, Gisa; Henning, Anne; Daum, Moritz M.

    2013-01-01

    Research on early physical reasoning has shown surprising discontinuities in developmental trajectories. Infants possess some skills that seem to disappear and then re-emerge in childhood. It has been suggested that prediction skills required in search tasks might cause these discontinuities (Keen, 2003). We tested 3.5- to 5-year-olds'…

  13. Early herding practices revealed through organic residue analysis of pottery from the early Neolithic rock shelter of Mala Triglavca, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucija Šoberl

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A collection of pottery from the early Neolithic site of Mala Triglavca was analysed with the aim of obtaining insights into vessel use and early animal domestication and husbandry practices in the Adriatic region. Total lipid extracts were submitted to gas chromatography (GC, GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and GC-combustion-isotope ratio MS (GC-C-IRMS in order to obtain molecular and stable carbon isotope signatures as the basis for determining the nature and origins of the residues. The extracts were dominated by degraded animal fats. The majority (70% of the total lipid extracts displayed intact triacylglycerol distributions attributable to ruminant adipose and dairy fats, which were subsequently confirmed through C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acid δ13C values.

  14. Highly resolved early Eocene food webs show development of modern trophic structure after the end-Cretaceous extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Dunne, Jennifer A.; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Williams, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Generalities of food web structure have been identified for extant ecosystems. However, the trophic organization of ancient ecosystems is unresolved, as prior studies of fossil webs have been limited by low-resolution, high-uncertainty data. We compiled highly resolved, well-documented feeding interaction data for 700 taxa from the 48 million-year-old latest early Eocene Messel Shale, which contains a species assemblage that developed after an interval of protracted environmental and biotal c...

  15. Trends in Organic Farming Development in Bulgaria: Applying Circular Economy Principles to Sustainable Rural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Dimitar K.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the development of organic farming in Bulgaria through the viewpoint of its links to circular economy concept and its potential to contribute to sustainable rural development. The significant increase in the number of organic operators and areas is analyzed in the context of stable growth in the European sector and worldwide and the increase in consumer demand. Main indicators reported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the Republic of Bulgaria and the support provided by the National Rural Development Program are used to present the characteristics of organic production and agricultural holdings. The advantages of Bulgaria are underlined as a country offering the necessary conditions, along with the main problems in production and marketing. Recommendations are provided for organic sector encouragement as a sustainable business model and an entrepreneurial initiative for sustainable rural development putting a special accent on networking and capacity building activities in connection to potential solutions and policy development.

  16. Fast track developments, Gulf of Mexico -- options and organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Carruth, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The pressure continues to compress the 'idea to barrel' time period -- to get oil and gas from a discovery into the pipeline as quickly, cheaply and safely as possible. This paper discusses the range of development options presently available in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) to meet these goals, and a project organizational structure that allows for maximum implementation efficiency. The structural options range from a standard 4-pile to a single, freestanding caisson, and the spectrum of 'minimum structures' in between. Developments in water depths of 100 feet and 200 feet are addressed, as are each system's associated costs, relative risks and startup times. Project organization is also addressed in terms of an effective in-house and out-of-house project organizational structure, the necessary attributes of the key members of this organization, and the most effective types of contracting

  17. Effects of child development accounts on early social-emotional development: an experimental test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Sherraden, Michael; Kim, Youngmi; Clancy, Margaret

    2014-03-01

    This study, based on Oklahoma's statewide Child Development Accounts (CDAs) program, presents findings from the first experimental test of the hypothesis that creating lifelong savings accounts for children at birth promotes their long-term well-being. To examine the effects of CDAs, an innovative social policy to encourage lifelong saving and asset building for long-term development, on parent-reported social-emotional development in early childhood. A statewide randomized experiment of CDAs was conducted in 2008, drawing a probability sample of 7328 children from all infants born in two 3-month periods in Oklahoma (April 1 through June 30 and August 1 through October 31, 2007). After agreeing to participate in the experiment, caregivers of 2704 infants completed a baseline survey and were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 1358) and control groups (n = 1346). Approximately 84% of participants completed a follow-up survey in the spring of 2011. The intervention offered CDAs, built on the existing Oklahoma 529 college-savings plan, to treatment participants. It also provided additional financial incentives and information. The primary outcome-child social-emotional development-is measured by scores from a 17-item version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional. Caregivers completed it in the 3-year follow-up survey. Lower scores indicate better functioning. The CDAs have positive effects on social-emotional development for children at approximately age 4 years. The nonweighted treatment-control difference is -1.56 (90% CI, -2.87 to -0.22; P = .06), but the weighted difference is nonsignificant. The effects appear to be greater for disadvantaged subsamples, such as low-income households (weighted mean difference, -2.21; 90% CI, -4.01 to -0.42; P = .04). As a complement to other early education and health interventions, CDAs may improve social-emotional development in early childhood. Their effects may be explained as a mediating

  18. Extrafloral nectaries of annatto ( Bixa orellana L.: anatomy, nectar composition and activity during organ development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Marques de Miranda

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to anatomically characterize the extrafloral nectaries (EFNs of annatto (Bixa orellana and determine the composition of its nectar in order to better understand their structure and function during organ development. Standard light and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used for anatomical analysis, and test-strips and a refractometer for determining nectar composition. Both receptacle and stem EFNs were found to possess similar anatomy and nectar composition, and to secrete from early to advanced developmental stages of the organs to which they are associated. EFNs consisting of uniseriate epidermis, nectariferous parenchyma and subnectariferous parenchyma were found located where vascular tissue is immersed. Some layers of nectariferous parenchyma exhibited sclerification and cells with phenolic compounds or calcium oxalate druses were present. Nectar exuded by stomata was acidic, diluted and found to contain sugar. The anatomical and histochemical features of annatto EFNs ensure their integrity and nectar secretion function during the development of buds, flowers and fruits.

  19. PERSPECTIVE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC FARMING IN LUBUSKIE VOIVODSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagoda ZBOROWSKA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of the development of organic farming in lubuskie voivodship. Presented in it analysis of changes in this production sector in recent years and identified critical factors for growth for this area of production in the nearest term. In analysis used statistic data coming from public statistics and public institutions dealing with agricul-tural production sector in Poland.

  20. Personalized Development of Human Organs using 3D Printing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image. The image is sliced and printed using a specific material into thin layers, and successive layering of the material produces a 3D model. It has already been used for printing surgical models for preoperative planning and in constructing personalized prostheses for patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve the development of functional human organs and tissues, to overcome limitations of o...

  1. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…

  2. Pronoia in the Military Organization of the Byzantine Empire at Early Palaeologian Period. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Alekseevich Zolotovskiy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the author disclosed the role of pronoia in the military organization of the Byzantine Empire at early Palaeologian period. The concrete cases of the award allow recognizing the proniarety as the Byzantine military institution dealing exclusively with the military leadership. The grant of pronoia was a replacement for traditional rewards of military commanders of noble birth. However, in some cases it was identified that compulsory military service was a function of power which was granted to the proniares in addition to the tax quota. Holders of pronoia were not only the Romans military commanders but also the mercenaries. Such awards could reduce the costs of imperial treasury for direct payments. In the case of proniares-Byzantines, depending on posotis, we can talk about the conferring upon pronoia the representatives of various levels of the military leadership. The pronoias granted as a reward or the compensation for losses incurred as a result of the performance of official engagements, could be transferred to the commanders of low levels which were recruited from among stratiotes (obviously, dekarhes.

  3. Exploring the geochemical distribution of organic carbon in early land plants: a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Geoffrey D; Fletcher, Ian W; Tardio, Sabrina; Hack, Ethan

    2018-02-05

    Terrestrialization depended on the evolution of biosynthetic pathways for biopolymers including lignin, cutin and suberin, which were concentrated in specific tissues, layers or organs such as the xylem, cuticle and roots on the submillimetre scale. However, it is often difficult, or even impossible especially for individual cells, to resolve the biomolecular composition of the different components of fossil plants on such a scale using the well-established coupled techniques of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Here, we report the application of techniques for surface analysis to investigate the composition of Rhynia gwynne-vaughanii X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of two different spots (both 300 µm × 600 µm) confirmed the presence of carbon. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) revealed 'chemical maps' (imaging mode with 300 nm resolution) of aliphatic and aromatic carbon in the intact fossil that correlate with the vascular structures observed in high-resolution optical images. This study shows that imaging ToF-SIMS has value for determining the location of the molecular components of fossil embryophytes while retaining structural information that will help elucidate how terrestrialization shaped the early evolution of land plant cell wall biochemistry.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The Rhynie cherts: our earliest terrestrial ecosystem revisited'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. The meteoritic record of presolar and early solar system organic chemistry. [Abstract only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, John R.; Pizzarello, Sandra

    1994-01-01

    Carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen isotopic analyses of various classes of organic compounds done in collaboration with Epstein and Krishnamurthy (Caltech) have shown these compounds to be enriched to varying degrees in the heavier isotopes. These results, in particular the large deuterium enrichments, have been interpreted as indicating an interstellar origin for the meteorite compounds or their precursors. Such isotopic fractionations, of hydrogen especially, are characteristic of low temperature ion-molecule reactions in cold interstellar clouds. There is also evidence from the large corresponding suites of alpha-amino and alpha-hydroxy acids found in meteorites suggesting that aqueous phase chemistry on the meteorite parent body played an important role in the formation of these compounds. These data support the hypothesis that interstellar compounds survived in the solar nebula at a radial distance corresponding to the asteroid belt, were incorporated into the parent body in icy, volatile-rich, planetesinals, and underwent further reactions during a period of aqueous activity within the early parent body to give the present suite of meteorite compounds. This formation hypothesis will be discussed and the results of recent isotopic and molecular analyses bearing on it will be presented.

  5. Toward Development of Pluripotent Porcine Stem Cells by Road Mapping Early Embryonic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkov, Stoyan; Freude, Kristine; Mashayekhi-Nezamabadi, Kaveh

    2017-01-01

    The lack in production of bona fide porcine pluripotent stem cells has definitely been hampered by a lack of research into porcine embryo development. Embryonic development in mammals is the extraordinary transition of a single-celled fertilized zygote into a complex fetus, which occurs...... in the uterus of the maternal adult during the early stages of gestation. Biomedical pig models could serve as genetic backgrounds for establishment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or other pluripotent stem cells (such as iPSC), which may be used to model and study diseases in vitro. This chapter provides...... insight into the current knowledge of pluripotent states in the developing pig embryo and the current status in establishment of bona fide porcine ESC (pESC) and piPSCs. It reflects the potential causes underlying the difficulty in establishing pluripotent stem cells and reviews recent data on global...

  6. Practical process research and development a guide for organic chemists

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Neal G

    2014-01-01

    Designed to provide a comprehensive, step-by-step approach to organic process research and development in the pharmaceutical, fine chemical, and agricultural chemical industries, this book describes the steps taken, following synthesis and evaluation, to bring key compounds to market in a cost-effective manner. It describes hands-on, step-by-step, approaches to solving process development problems, including route, reagent, and solvent selection; optimising catalytic reactions; chiral syntheses; and ""green chemistry."" Second Edition highlights:  Reflects the current thinking in chemical p

  7. Knowledge Management for Nuclear Research and Development Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    This publication elaborates on the role of nuclear knowledge management in a research and development (R and D) context, and on the importance of facilitating innovation and future development of nuclear technologies for nuclear power, its associated fuel cycles and nuclear applications in medicine, industry and agriculture. It highlights aspects including transferring and preserving knowledge, exchanging information, establishing and supporting cooperative networks, and training the next generation of nuclear experts. It concludes with basic concepts, trends and key drivers for nuclear knowledge management to R and D project managers and other workers from nuclear R and D organizations.

  8. Knowledge Management for Nuclear Research and Development Organizations (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication elaborates on the role of nuclear knowledge management in a research and development (R&D) context, and on the importance of facilitating innovation and future development of nuclear technologies for nuclear power, its associated fuel cycles, and nuclear applications in medicine, industry and agriculture. It highlights aspects such as transferring and preserving knowledge, exchanging information, establishing and supporting cooperative networks, and training the next generation of nuclear experts. It concludes with basic concepts, trends and key drivers for nuclear knowledge management for R&D project managers and other workers from nuclear R&D organizations.

  9. Profiling of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath as a strategy to find early predictive signatures of asthma in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Smolinska

    Full Text Available Wheezing is one of the most common respiratory symptoms in preschool children under six years old. Currently, no tests are available that predict at early stage who will develop asthma and who will be a transient wheezer. Diagnostic tests of asthma are reliable in adults but the same tests are difficult to use in children, because they are invasive and require active cooperation of the patient. A non-invasive alternative is needed for children. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs excreted in breath could yield such non-invasive and patient-friendly diagnostic. The aim of this study was to identify VOCs in the breath of preschool children (inclusion at age 2-4 years that indicate preclinical asthma. For that purpose we analyzed the total array of exhaled VOCs with Gas Chromatography time of flight Mass Spectrometry of 252 children between 2 and 6 years of age. Breath samples were collected at multiple time points of each child. Each breath-o-gram contained between 300 and 500 VOCs; in total 3256 different compounds were identified across all samples. Using two multivariate methods, Random Forests and dissimilarity Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis, we were able to select a set of 17 VOCs which discriminated preschool asthmatic children from transient wheezing children. The correct prediction rate was equal to 80% in an independent test set. These VOCs are related to oxidative stress caused by inflammation in the lungs and consequently lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, we showed that VOCs in the exhaled breath predict the subsequent development of asthma which might guide early treatment.

  10. STRATEGIES FOR ORGANIZING JOBS IN TERMS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OPREA MIHAELA CIOPI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the production process, the objectives of sustainable development are: the protecting human health and the environment, the technological restructuring and maintaining the risks under control, waste management, reducing losses. On this line, an important role have the strategies of management that aimed at better organizing of jobs, for assuring labor safety and ergonomics conditions, indicating priorities, understanding the performance indicators, better visibility of workflow and support, using the standards and increasing the visual control, providing feedback. To achieve these objectives can be successfully implemented a number of strategies such as: Kaizen, 5S and Maintenance autonomous, which will be developed in this paper

  11. Personalized development of human organs using 3D printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image. The image is sliced and printed using a specific material into thin layers, and successive layering of the material produces a 3D model. It has already been used for printing surgical models for preoperative planning and in constructing personalized prostheses for patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve the development of functional human organs and tissues, to overcome limitations of organ transplantation created by the lack of organ donors and life-long immunosuppression. We hypothesized a precision medicine approach to human organ fabrication using 3D printed technology, in which the digital volumetric data would be collected by imaging of a patient, i.e. CT or MRI images followed by mathematical modeling to create a digital 3D image. Then a suitable biocompatible material, with an optimal resolution for cells seeding and maintenance of cell viability during the printing process, would be printed with a compatible printer type and finally implanted into the patient. Life-saving operations with 3D printed implants were already performed in patients. However, several issues need to be addressed before translational application of 3D printing into clinical medicine. These are vascularization, innervation, and financial cost of 3D printing and safety of biomaterials used for the construct. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [The development of organization of medical social care of adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicherin, L P; Nagaev, R Ia

    2014-01-01

    The model of the subject of the Russian Federation is used to consider means of development of health protection and health promotion in adolescents including implementation of the National strategy of activities in interest of children for 2012-2017 approved by decree No761 of the President of Russia in June 1 2012. The analysis is carried out concerning organization of medical social care to this group of population in medical institutions and organizations of different type in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Nowadays, in 29 territories medical social departments and rooms, 5 specialized health centers for children, 6 clinics friendly to youth are organized. The analysis of manpower support demonstrates that in spite of increasing of number of rooms and departments of medical social care for children and adolescents decreasing of staff jobs both of medical personnel and psychologists and social workers occurs. The differences in priorities of functioning of departments and rooms of medical social care under children polyclinics, health centers for children and clinics friendly to youth are established. The questionnaire survey of pediatricians and adolescents concerning perspectives of development of adolescent service established significant need in development of specialized complex center. At the basis of such center problems of medical, pedagogical, social, psychological, legal profile related to specific characteristics of development and medical social needs of adolescents can be resolved. The article demonstrates organizational form of unification on the functional basis of the department of medical social care of children polyclinic and clinic friendly to youth. During three years, number of visits of adolescents to specialists of the center increases and this testifies awareness of adolescents and youth about activities of department of medical social care. The most percentage of visits of adolescents to specialists was made with prevention purpose. Among

  13. Private sector accountable care organization development: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck McAlearney, Ann; Hilligoss, Brian; Song, Paula H

    2017-03-01

    To explore accountable care organizations (ACOs) as they develop in the private sector, including their motivation for development, perspectives from consumers regarding these emerging ACOs, and the critical success factors associated with ACO development. Comprehensive organizational case studies of 4 full-risk private sector ACOs that included in-person interviews with providers and administrators and focus groups with local consumers. Sixty-eight key informant interviews conducted during site visits, supplemented by document collection and telephone interviews, and 5 focus groups were held with 52 consumers associated with the study ACOs. We found 3 main motivators for private sector ACO development: 1) opportunity to improve quality and efficiency, 2) potential to improve population health, and 3) belief that payment reform is inevitable. With respect to consumer perspectives, consumers were unaware they received care from an ACO. From the perspectives of ACO stakeholders, these ACOs noted that they prefer to focus on patients' relationships with providers and typically do not emphasize the ACO name or entity. Critical success factors for private sector ACO development included provider engagement, strategic buy-in, prior experience managing risk, IT infrastructure, and leadership, all meant to shift the culture to a focus on value instead of volume. These organizations perceived that pursuing an accountable care strategy allowed them to respond to policy changes anticipated to impact the way healthcare is delivered and reimbursed. Increased understanding of factors that have been important for more mature private sector ACOs may help other healthcare organizations as they strive to enhance value and advance in their ACO journeys.

  14. Organic-inorganic semiconductor devices and 3, 4, 9, 10 perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride: an early history of organic electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, S R

    2003-01-01

    The demonstration, over 20 years ago, of an organic-inorganic heterojunction (OI HJ) device along with investigations of the growth and physical properties of the archetypal crystalline molecular organic semiconductor 3, 4, 9, 10 perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride are discussed. Possible applications of OI HJ devices are introduced and the dramatic change in conductive properties of these materials when exposed to high-energy ion beams is described. The past and future prospects for hybrid organic-on-inorganic semiconductor structures for use in electronic and photonic applications are also presented

  15. Equity and Quality? Challenges for Early Childhood and Primary Education in Ethiopia, India and Peru. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 55. Studies in Early Childhood Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, Martin; Ames, Patricia; Vennam, Uma; Abebe, Workneh; Streuli, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Part of the "Studies in Early Transitions" series, this Working Paper draws on interviews and observations carried out as part of "Young Lives", a 15-year longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam based at the University of Oxford's Department of International Development. This paper focuses…

  16. Sordaria macrospora, a model organism to study fungal cellular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh, Ines; Nowrousian, Minou; Kück, Ulrich

    2010-12-01

    During the development of multicellular eukaryotes, the processes of cellular growth and organogenesis are tightly coordinated. Since the 1940s, filamentous fungi have served as genetic model organisms to decipher basic mechanisms underlying eukaryotic cell differentiation. Here, we focus on Sordaria macrospora, a homothallic ascomycete and important model organism for developmental biology. During its sexual life cycle, S. macrospora forms three-dimensional fruiting bodies, a complex process involving the formation of different cell types. S. macrospora can be used for genetic, biochemical and cellular experimental approaches since diverse tools, including fluorescence microscopy, a marker recycling system and gene libraries, are available. Moreover, the genome of S. macrospora has been sequenced and allows functional genomics analyses. Over the past years, our group has generated and analysed a number of developmental mutants which has greatly enhanced our fundamental understanding about fungal morphogenesis. In addition, our recent research activities have established a link between developmental proteins and conserved signalling cascades, ultimately leading to a regulatory network controlling differentiation processes in a eukaryotic model organism. This review summarizes the results of our recent findings, thus advancing current knowledge of the general principles and paradigms underpinning eukaryotic cell differentiation and development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Medical staff organization in nursing homes: scale development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Paul R; Karuza, Jurgis; Intrator, Orna; Zinn, Jacqueline; Mor, Vincent; Caprio, Thomas; Caprio, Anthony; Dauenhauer, Jason; Lima, Julie

    2009-09-01

    To construct a multidimensional self-report scale to measure nursing home (NH) medical staff organization (NHMSO) dimensions and then pilot the scale using a national survey of medical directors to provide data on its psychometric properties. Instrument development process consisting of the proceedings from the Nursing Home Physician Workforce Conference and focus groups followed by cognitive interviews, which culminated in a survey of a random sample of American Medical Directors Association (AMDA) affiliated medical directors. Analyses were conducted on surveys matched to Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) data from freestanding nonpediatric nursing homes. A total of 202 surveys were available for analysis and comprised the final sample. Dimensions were identified that measured the extent of medical staff organization in nursing homes and included staff composition, appointment process, commitment (physiciancohesion; leadership turnover/capability), departmentalization (physician supervision, autonomy and interdisciplinary involvement), documentation, and informal dynamics. The items developed to measure each dimension were reliable (Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.81 to 0.65).Intercorrelations among the scale dimensions provided preliminary evidence of the construct validity of the scale. This report, for the first time ever, defines and validates NH medical staff organization dimensions, a critical first step in determining the relationship between physician practice and the quality of care delivered in the NH.

  18. Early Writing Development: Kindergarten Teachers' Beliefs about Emergent Writing in Qatari Preschool Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maadadi, Fatima; Ihmeideh, Fathi

    2016-01-01

    Writing often begins during the very early years of childhood; however, some children first learn writing when they begin attending school. Teachers' beliefs about early writing development can influence when and how children learn to write. The purpose of this study was to determine kindergarten teachers' beliefs about the development of…

  19. Perceptions and Attitudes of Early Childhood Teachers in Korea about Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunhye; Kim, Heejin; Yu, Sunyoung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the perceptions and attitudes of Korean early childhood teachers about education for sustainable development (ESD). A total of 301 Korean early childhood teachers participated in a survey which was purposefully developed for this research. The survey focused on three areas of interest: understanding of concepts about…

  20. Attentional and affective biases for attractive females emerge early in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennels, Jennifer Lynn; Verba, Stephanie Ann

    2017-01-01

    Predominant experience with females early in development results in infants developing an attractive, female-like facial representation that guides children's attention toward and affective preferences for attractive females. When combined with increased interest in the other sex at puberty, these early emerging biases might help explain the robust prosocial and financial biases men exhibit toward attractive women during adulthood.

  1. First-Time Mothers' Knowledge and Beliefs Regarding Early Communication Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vicki; Pearce, Wendy M.; Devine, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Limited literature exists in the Australian context about first-time mothers' knowledge of early communication milestones, their strategies to facilitate speech and language development and understanding of the relationship between early communication skills and future development. A cross-sectional online survey was administered to 53 first-time…

  2. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. An Ounce of Prevention Fund Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounce of Prevention Fund.

    Recent research has provided great insight into the impact of early experience on brain development. It is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring…

  3. Definition of technology development missions for early space station satellite servicing, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The testbed role of an early manned space station in the context of a satellite servicing evolutionary development and flight demonstration technology plan which results in a satellite servicing operational capability is defined. A satellite servicing technology development mission (a set of missions) to be performed on an early manned space station is conceptually defined.

  4. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations. Large space structures, phase 2, midterm review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.

  5. Early assessment of medical devices in development for company decision making : An exploration of best practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markiewicz, Katarzyna; Van Til, Janine; IJzerman, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    To improve successful development and clinical use of medical technologies, it is suggested that manufacturers should start collecting evidence on devices effectiveness and eficiency early in their development. The aim of this study was to explore whether and how Dutch manufacturers perform an early

  6. Biomarkers in early phase development of central nervous system drugs : a conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Jeroen-Paul van der

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide a conceptual framework for the use of Central Nervous System (CNS) biomarkers in early phase clinical drug development. In the Introduction the current use of biomarkers in early CNS drug development is discussed. A conceptual framework for the

  7. Early Childhood Development Policy and Programming in India: Critical Issues and Directions for Paradigm Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Adarsh; Sen, Rekha Sharma; Gulati, Renu

    2008-01-01

    The critical importance of the early childhood years and the rights perspective to human development has made policy and programming for early childhood development an imperative for every nation. In India, poverty, changing economic and social structures resulting in the breakdown of traditional coping mechanisms and family care systems, and the…

  8. Building the blocks of executive functioning: differentiating early developing processes contributing to executive functioning skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandell, D.J.; Ward, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    The neural processes that underlie executive function begin to develop in infancy. However, it is unclear how the behavior manifested by these processes are related or if they can be differentiated early in development. This study seeks to examine early emerging executive functioning skills in

  9. Teachers' Perceptions of Professional Development in Chilean State-Funded Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Mariel; Ford, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on professional development in Chilean state-funded early childhood education. Based on a multiple-case study design and drawing on qualitative methods we explored teachers' perspectives on professional development at two early childhood educational centers. Two centers' directors and four early…

  10. State of Early Child Development Research, Practice, and Policy for Most Vulnerable Children: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mary Eming

    2017-01-01

    Interventions to enhance development of children ages 0-6 have profound benefits for children, families, and societies. The benefits are well documented, recognized internationally, and supportive of policies and programs targeting early child development (ECD). Intervening in the early years is a critical first step toward alleviating poverty,…

  11. Wound Status Early Outcome Sensor and 3D Construct Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    1.35 Fyn  94 83 0.11 0.04 0.74 0.99 Milk   Fat  Globule Membrane  Protein 1.35 Milk   Fat  Globule Membrane  Protein 1413 1240 0.02 0.03 11.06 14.94 PGP9.5...reproducible in biological replicates, which indicates the possibility of random bias for certain proteins with iTRAQ channel specificity. Raw spectrum...public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Early identification of the specific proteins , which indicate delayed

  12. Development of the retinotopic organization in Salmo gairdneri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinganaud, G.

    1987-01-01

    The progression of the retinotopic organization in the optic nerve projections to the contralateral thalamus and tectum was studied in Salmo gairdneri from hatching stage to 3 month old stage. After quadratic lesions of the temporal, dorsal, nasal, or ventral retina, the animals were separated in two groups: one used for Fink and Heimer method or electron microscopic observation and the other one for radioautography after injection in the operated eye of [ 14 C] or [ 3 H]proline. The analysis of the projections of each retinal quadrant revealed: (1) Projections to thalamus and pretectum are ignorganized and appear progressively during development. On the contrary in tectum and corpus geniculatum, the visual projections are retinotopically organized since hatching. (2) In the whole retino-tectal system, two subsystems develop differently: the naso-ventral retina reaches precociously its permanent target (the posterior tectum), the temporo-dorsal part of the retina links to the anterior tectum and shifts laterally during the first month after hatching, from medial to antero-lateral for temporal projections. The shifting of projections is correlated with development of the medial fascicle of the optic tract. So it appears that the pathways play an important role in the spatio-temporal ordered pattern of terminations of retinal fibers on the tectal surface during development. (author)

  13. Early numerical foundations of young children's mathematical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Felicia W; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C

    2015-04-01

    This study focused on the relative contributions of the acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) and knowledge of quantitative symbols to young children's early mathematical learning. At the beginning of preschool, 191 children (Mage=46 months) were administered tasks that assessed ANS acuity and explicit knowledge of the cardinal values represented by number words, and their mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of the school year. Children's executive functions, intelligence, and preliteracy skills and their parents' educational levels were also assessed and served as covariates. Both the ANS and cardinality tasks were significant predictors of end-of-year mathematics achievement with and without control of the covariates. As simultaneous predictors and with control of the covariates, cardinality remained significantly related to mathematics achievement, but ANS acuity did not. Mediation analyses revealed that the relation between ANS acuity and mathematics achievement was fully mediated by cardinality, suggesting that the ANS may facilitate children's explicit understanding of cardinal value and in this way may indirectly influence early mathematical learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early Career Hire Rapid Training and Development Program: Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Betsy N.; Solish, Benjamin S.; Halatek, Lauren; Rieber, Richard R.

    2009-01-01

    The aging of the industrialized workforce, particularly in the aerospace industry, has resulted in a very large generation gap in the workforce. The disproportionate size of Baby Boomers, increasing longevity and declining birth rates has made this phenomenon a reality that no organization can ignore. It is now critical that aerospace organizations prepare themselves for this watershed transformation in the workforce and take the initiative to prepare the incoming workforce with the skills and knowledge necessary to stay at the forefront. Last year the Jet Propulsion Laboratory launched a pioneering training program, known as Phaeton, to provide the knowledge, practice, experience, mentoring opportunities, and project life cycle exposure to our incoming generation of engineers. After 14 months of operation, now is the time to discuss the preliminary results of this new program.

  15. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ORGANIC AQUACULTURE. CASE STUDY: ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture contribute ever more to the production of aquatic food worldwide, even if the sustainable limits for majority of wild fish stocks, are now almost reached or even exceeded. In the EU, aquaculture is an important economic activity in many coastal and continental regions. Aquaculture plays an important role in terms of access to food resources and it is necessary to use its potential to contribute to sustainable development, food security, economic growth and employment. In this regard, starting from EU aquaculture objectives, the paper intend to make an analysis of the national situation of aquaculture and its current potential. The paper presented the progress of Romanian investments in aquaculture, identifying needs and opportunities for the Romanian aquaculture development. Taking into consideration the natural resources available and the growth of global request of organic product, the development of ecologic aquaculture might represent o niche market for local producers.

  16. Development of radiation resistant organic composites for cryogenic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, S.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of the radiation induced degradation of the mechanical properties in composite materials have been studied and based on the mechanism the radiation resistant organic composites for fusion magnet have been developing. It was found that the degradation was brought by the change of the fracture mode from tensile (or flexural) to shear failure. Consequently the intrinsic parameter which control the degradation was concluded to be the interlaminar shear strength. To develop the radiation resistant composites, therefore, means to develop the composites showing the radiation resistant interlaminar shear strength. The mechanism was confirmed using three dimensional fabric reinforced plastics which do not have the interlaminar area. The roles of matrix in the composites were also revealed. The effects of dose quality and irradiated temperature on the radiation induced degradation were also discussed and the selection standards of the components for radiation resistant composites were proposed

  17. Organized Activity Participation and Relational Aggression: The Role of Positive Youth Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisman, Andria B; Stoddard, Sarah A; Bauermeister, José A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2018-02-01

    Relational aggression among early adolescents is a pervasive problem that negatively influences the health and well-being of youth. Strength-based approaches such as positive youth development (PYD) are a promising way to reduce risk of detrimental outcomes such as relational aggression. Participation in organized activities is a key way that youth build assets related to PYD. Yet, few researchers have examined empirically assets related to PYD as a mechanism by which organized activity participation may help reduce risk of relational aggression. In this study, we used structural equation modeling to investigate if assets associated with PYD mediate the relationship between organized activity participation and relational aggression using survey data from a diverse, school-based sample of early adolescents (N = 196; mean age = 12.39 years; SD = 0.52; 60% female; 45% African American, 27% White, 21% multiracial, and 7% other, 71% economically disadvantaged). We tested 2 competing models, 1 with decomposed PYD factors and 1 with an integrated PYD factor. Our results suggest that PYD better fit as an integrated versus decomposed construct, providing support for the notion that youth benefit most from assets related to PYD when they operate collectively. Our results also provide support for PYD-related factors as a mechanism by which participation may reduce risk of relational aggression. Limitations of this study, and implications for prevention are discussed.

  18. Early evidence of San material culture represented by organic artifacts from Border Cave, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Francesco; Backwell, Lucinda; Villa, Paola; Degano, Ilaria; Lucejko, Jeannette J; Bamford, Marion K; Higham, Thomas F G; Colombini, Maria Perla; Beaumont, Peter B

    2012-08-14

    Recent archaeological discoveries have revealed that pigment use, beads, engravings, and sophisticated stone and bone tools were already present in southern Africa 75,000 y ago. Many of these artifacts disappeared by 60,000 y ago, suggesting that modern behavior appeared in the past and was subsequently lost before becoming firmly established. Most archaeologists think that San hunter-gatherer cultural adaptation emerged 20,000 y ago. However, reanalysis of organic artifacts from Border Cave, South Africa, shows that the Early Later Stone Age inhabitants of this cave used notched bones for notational purposes, wooden digging sticks, bone awls, and bone points similar to those used by San as arrowheads. A point is decorated with a spiral groove filled with red ochre, which closely parallels similar marks that San make to identify their arrowheads when hunting. A mixture of beeswax, Euphorbia resin, and possibly egg, wrapped in vegetal fibers, dated to ∼40,000 BP, may have been used for hafting. Ornaments include marine shell beads and ostrich eggshell beads, directly dated to ∼42,000 BP. A digging stick, dated to ∼39,000 BP, is made of Flueggea virosa. A wooden poison applicator, dated to ∼24,000 BP, retains residues with ricinoleic acid, derived from poisonous castor beans. Reappraisal of radiocarbon age estimates through bayesian modeling, and the identification of key elements of San material culture at Border Cave, places the emergence of modern hunter-gatherer adaptation, as we know it, to ∼44,000 y ago.

  19. The development and current status of Intensive Care Unit management of prospective organ donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kathleen Menzel Ellis

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Management of deceased organ donors should focus first on maintaining adequate perfusion to all organ systems through adherence to standard critical care guidelines, early referral to OPOs, and family support. Furthermore, several specific DMGs and strategies have been recently shown to improve both the rates and outcomes of organ transplantation.

  20. Quantifying brain development in early childhood using segmentation and registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabar, P.; Bhatia, K. K.; Murgasova, M.; Hajnal, J. V.; Boardman, J. P.; Srinivasan, L.; Rutherford, M. A.; Dyet, L. E.; Edwards, A. D.; Rueckert, D.

    2007-03-01

    In this work we obtain estimates of tissue growth using longitudinal data comprising MR brain images of 25 preterm children scanned at one and two years. The growth estimates are obtained using segmentation and registration based methods. The segmentation approach used an expectation maximisation (EM) method to classify tissue types and the registration approach used tensor based morphometry (TBM) applied to a free form deformation (FFD) model. The two methods show very good agreement indicating that the registration and segmentation approaches can be used interchangeably. The advantage of the registration based method, however, is that it can provide more local estimates of tissue growth. This is the first longitudinal study of growth in early childhood, previous longitudinal studies have focused on later periods during childhood.

  1. The Development of Winged Angels in Early Christian Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Martin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The first representations of angels in Early Christian art showed a being visually indistinguishable from man. This study undertakes to explain the sudden apperarance of winged angels in the late fourth century within its religious and historical contexts The model for winged angels was Nike, an unusual choice given that Victory was conceived of as a female, while angels were decidedly male.Las primeras representaciones de angeles en el art paleocristianno fueron de un ser visualmente indiferenciado del hombre. Este estudio pretende explicar la aparicion subita de angeles con alas, a fines del siglo IV, dentro de ese particular contexto historicoreligioso. El modelo de angel con alas fue Nike, una eleccion inusual si se tiene en cuenta que la Victoria fue concebida como mujer, mientras que los angeles eran indudablemente masculinos.

  2. Early development of executive functions: a differential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Sastre-Riba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of executive functions is essential in explaining differential and normative developmental trends. Executive functions must be studied from an early age given their consequential effects on mental flexibility, monitoring information, planning, and cognitive control. We propose a differential study in alternative developmental courses through observing typical babies, Down syndrome babies, and babies with risk-factors at birth (due to low weight or to congenital hypothyroidism. Applymg Systematic Observational Methodology, spontaneous babies' activity was registered. The results indicated that: a Typical babies showed better shifting and action flexibility in order to obtain a goal, thus better results; b Among the higher risk-babies, the lower efficacy in executive functioning was observed in underweight babies. Those with hypothyroidism were more in line with the typical babies; c Underweight babies showed a good level of combining actions but they obtained inferior results; d Down syndrome babies displayed more executive functioning difficulty, lower flexibility, high perseveration and less error detection.

  3. Theory-inspired development of organic electro-optic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, Larry R., E-mail: dalton@chem.washington.ed [Department of Chemistry, Bagley Hall 202D, Box 351700, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1700 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Bagley Hall 202D, Box 351700, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1700 (United States)

    2009-11-30

    Real-time, time-dependent density functional theory (RTTDDFT) and pseudo-atomistic Monte Carlo-molecular dynamics (PAMCMD) calculations have been used in a correlated manner to achieve quantitative definition of structure/function relationships necessary for the optimization of electro-optic activity in organic materials. Utilizing theoretical guidance, electro-optic coefficients (at telecommunication wavelengths) have been increased to 500 pm/V while keeping optical loss to less than 2 dB/cm. RTTDDFT affords the advantage of permitting explicit treatment of time-dependent electric fields, both applied fields and internal fields. This modification has permitted the quantitative simulation of the variation of linear and nonlinear optical properties of chromophores and the electro-optic activity of materials with optical frequency and dielectric permittivity. PAMCMD statistical mechanical calculations have proven an effective means of treating the full range of spatially-anisotropic intermolecular electrostatic interactions that play critical roles in defining the degree of noncentrosymmetric order that is achieved by electric field poling of organic electro-optic materials near their glass transition temperatures. New techniques have been developed for the experimental characterization of poling-induced acentric order including a modification of variable angle polarization absorption spectroscopy (VAPAS) permitting a meaningful correlation of theoretical and experimental data related to poling-induced order for a variety of complex organic electro-optic materials.

  4. Theory-inspired development of organic electro-optic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, Larry R.

    2009-01-01

    Real-time, time-dependent density functional theory (RTTDDFT) and pseudo-atomistic Monte Carlo-molecular dynamics (PAMCMD) calculations have been used in a correlated manner to achieve quantitative definition of structure/function relationships necessary for the optimization of electro-optic activity in organic materials. Utilizing theoretical guidance, electro-optic coefficients (at telecommunication wavelengths) have been increased to 500 pm/V while keeping optical loss to less than 2 dB/cm. RTTDDFT affords the advantage of permitting explicit treatment of time-dependent electric fields, both applied fields and internal fields. This modification has permitted the quantitative simulation of the variation of linear and nonlinear optical properties of chromophores and the electro-optic activity of materials with optical frequency and dielectric permittivity. PAMCMD statistical mechanical calculations have proven an effective means of treating the full range of spatially-anisotropic intermolecular electrostatic interactions that play critical roles in defining the degree of noncentrosymmetric order that is achieved by electric field poling of organic electro-optic materials near their glass transition temperatures. New techniques have been developed for the experimental characterization of poling-induced acentric order including a modification of variable angle polarization absorption spectroscopy (VAPAS) permitting a meaningful correlation of theoretical and experimental data related to poling-induced order for a variety of complex organic electro-optic materials.

  5. Development of a Simple Clinical Risk Score for Early Prediction of Severe Dengue in Adult Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing-Kit Lee

    Full Text Available We aimed to develop and validate a risk score to aid in the early identification of laboratory-confirmed dengue patients at high risk of severe dengue (SD (i.e. severe plasma leakage with shock or respiratory distress, or severe bleeding or organ impairment. We retrospectively analyzed data of 1184 non-SD patients at hospital presentation and 69 SD patients before SD onset. We fit a logistic regression model using 85% of the population and converted the model coefficients to a numeric risk score. Subsequently, we validated the score using the remaining 15% of patients. Using the derivation cohort, two scoring algorithms for predicting SD were developed: models 1 (dengue illness ≤4 days and 2 (dengue illness >4 days. In model 1, we identified four variables: age ≥65 years, minor gastrointestinal bleeding, leukocytosis, and platelet count ≥100×109 cells/L. Model 1 (ranging from -2 to +6 points showed good discrimination between SD and non-SD, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.848 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.771-0.924. The optimal cutoff value for model 1 was 1 point, with a sensitivity and specificity for predicting SD of 70.3% and 90.6%, respectively. In model 2 (ranging from 0 to +3 points, significant predictors were age ≥65 years and leukocytosis. Model 2 showed an AUC of 0.859 (95% CI, 0.756-0.963, with an optimal cutoff value of 1 point (sensitivity, 80.3%; specificity, 85.8%. The median interval from hospital presentation to SD was 1 day. This finding underscores the importance of close monitoring, timely resuscitation of shock including intravenous fluid adjustment and early correction of dengue-related complications to prevent the progressive dengue severity. In the validation data, AUCs of 0.904 (95% CI, 0.825-0.983 and 0.917 (95% CI, 0.833-1.0 in models 1 and 2, respectively, were achieved. The observed SD rates (in both cohorts were 50% for those with a score of ≥2 points

  6. Early Chilhood, Characteristic and Creative-Social Development

    OpenAIRE

    Subur, Subur

    2017-01-01

    Every child born, not only has talent and creative potential, but also has social tendency. Talent and creative and social potential are important capital to determine child future. Talent and creativity can develop optimally when they are coached intensely and professionally. Well-developed talent will be very helpful for children future. Every parent wants to have creative and sociable child but, not all parents understand how to develop their children’s creative and social potential. There...

  7. Sleep and Development in Genetically Tractable Model Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Matthew S; Biron, David

    2016-05-01

    Sleep is widely recognized as essential, but without a clear singular function. Inadequate sleep impairs cognition, metabolism, immune function, and many other processes. Work in genetic model systems has greatly expanded our understanding of basic sleep neurobiology as well as introduced new concepts for why we sleep. Among these is an idea with its roots in human work nearly 50 years old: sleep in early life is crucial for normal brain maturation. Nearly all known species that sleep do so more while immature, and this increased sleep coincides with a period of exuberant synaptogenesis and massive neural circuit remodeling. Adequate sleep also appears critical for normal neurodevelopmental progression. This article describes recent findings regarding molecular and circuit mechanisms of sleep, with a focus on development and the insights garnered from models amenable to detailed genetic analyses. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Early Gesture Provides a Helping Hand to Spoken Vocabulary Development for Children with Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçaliskan, Seyda; Adamson, Lauren B.; Dimitrova, Nevena; Baumann, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) children refer to objects uniquely in gesture (e.g., point at a cat) before they produce verbal labels for these objects ("cat"). The onset of such gestures predicts the onset of similar spoken words, showing a strong positive relation between early gestures and early words. We asked whether gesture plays the…

  9. Deiodinase knockdown during early zebrafish development affects growth, development, energy metabolism, motility and phototransduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enise Bagci

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1 and type 2 (D2 increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3 decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray, biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO and knockdown of D3 (D3MO both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct

  10. Participation of the Olfactory Bulb in Circadian Organization during Early Postnatal Life in Rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Navarrete

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence indicates that during pre-visual stages of development in mammals, circadian regulation is still not under the control of the light-entrainable hypothalamic pacemaker, raising the possibility that the circadian rhythmicity that occurs during postnatal development is under the control of peripheral oscillators, such as the main olfactory bulb (MOB. We evaluated the outcome of olfactory bulbectomy on the temporal pattern of core body temperature and gross locomotor activity in newborn rabbits. From postnatal day 1 (P1, pups were randomly assigned to one of the following conditions: intact pups (INT, intact pups fed by enteral gavage (INT+ENT, sham operated pups (SHAM, pups with unilateral lesions of the olfactory bulb (OBx-UNI, and pups with bilateral lesions of the olfactory bulb (OBx-BI. At the beginning of the experiment, from P1-8, the animals in all groups were fed at 11:00, from P9-13 the feeding schedule was delayed 6 h (17:00, and finally, from P14-15 the animals were subjected to fasting conditions. The rabbit pups of the INT, INT+ENT, SHAM and OBx-UNI groups exhibited a clear circadian rhythmicity in body temperature and locomotor activity, with a conspicuous anticipatory rise hours prior to the nursing or feeding schedule, which persisted even during fasting conditions. In addition, phase delays in the nursing or feeding schedule induced a clear phase shift in both parameters. In contrast, the OBx-BI group exhibited atypical rhythmicity in both parameters under entrained conditions that altered the anticipatory component, as well as deficient phase control of both rhythms. The present results demonstrate that the expression of circadian rhythmicity at behavioral and physiological levels during early stages of rabbit development largely depends on the integrity of the main olfactory bulb.

  11. Hiring, Developing, and Organizing Individual Employees for New Product Development versus Product-related Service Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Præst; Schleimer, Stephanie

    should be hired. For the latter case, these employees’ individual careers must be developed internally once hired. The paper therefore carries important implication for the innovation management literature and related human resource practices at different organizational levels.......This study examines how manufacturing firms should organize their human resources by maximizing the value of individual employees for different forms of innovations. In particular, it examines the hiring, developing, and structural organization of human resources for optimizing different innovation...... the value of human resource hiring and developing practices for new product development success; organizations will find it more beneficial to invest predominantly in employees with the highest possible educational level, whilst for product-related service innovations; employees with more general skills...

  12. Early Lexical Development in Spanish-Speaking Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Maldonado, Donna; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The development of a new parent report instrument, Inventario del Desarollo de Habilidades Communicativas, is reported and 5 studies carried out with the instrument for 328 children aged 8 months to 2 years/7 months are presented. Among the findings are similar trajectories of development for Spanish- and English-speaking children and for children…

  13. Early postnatal development, parental care and interaction in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    behavioural development which is the object of this note. A litter of three (two males and one female) was born in cap- tivity in February 1976. The pups were weighed and measured every day for the first 19 days, thereafter inter- mittently until Day 43 and once more on Day 86. Physical and behavioural development.

  14. The neonatal brain : early connectome development and childhood cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keunen, K.

    2017-01-01

    The human brain is a vastly complex system that develops rapidly during human gestation. Its developmental pace is unprecedented in any other period of human development. By the time of normal birth the brain's layout verges on the adult human brain. All major structures have come into place,

  15. Development in the Organization of Episodic Memories in Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eChen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic elements of autobiographical or episodic memory are established in early childhood, although the exact age at which memories gain episodic status is still under contention. The self-memory system proposed that adults use lifetime periods to group episodic memories together into life story chapters. Two studies examined at what point in development children or adolescents begin to take advantage of lifetime-period chapters to organize their episodic memories. The results of Study 1 with 8- to 12-year-olds revealed that the ability to provide life story chapters began to emerge as early as 8 years of age. In Study 2 with adolescents aged 12 to 21, this ability continued to develop into late adolescence among New Zealand European and New Zealand Chinese adolescents; however, cultural differences also existed in the specificity of memories. New Zealand Chinese adolescents narrated fewer life story chapters containing specific memories than New Zealand European adolescents. These findings support and extend current theories of episodic memory by specifying that pre-adolescents are starting to organize their episodic memories into lifetime periods, but this achievement is not fully realized until later in adolescence.

  16. Development in the organization of episodic memories in middle childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; McAnally, Helena Margaret; Reese, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The basic elements of autobiographical or episodic memory are established in early childhood, although the exact age at which memories gain episodic status is still under contention. The self-memory system proposed that adults use "lifetime periods" to group episodic memories together into chapters of the life story - an evolving and internalized account of significant life events that are self-defining. Two studies examined at what point in development children or adolescents begin to take advantage of lifetime-period chapters to organize their episodic memories. The results of Study 1 with 8- to 12-year-olds revealed that the ability to provide life story chapters began to emerge as early as 8 years of age. In Study 2 with adolescents aged 12-21, this ability continued to develop into late adolescence among New Zealand European (NZE) and New Zealand Chinese (NZC) adolescents; however, cultural differences also existed in the specificity of memories. NZC adolescents narrated fewer life story chapters containing specific memories than NZE adolescents. These findings support and extend current theories of episodic memory by specifying that pre-adolescents are starting to organize their episodic memories into lifetime periods, but this achievement is not fully realized until later in adolescence.

  17. The zinc finger transcription factor 191 is required for early embryonic development and cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianzhong; Chen Xia; Yang Hua; Wang Shuiliang; Guo Baoyu; Yu Long; Wang Zhugang; Fu Jiliang

    2006-01-01

    Human zinc finger protein 191 (ZNF191/ZNF24) was cloned and characterized as a SCAN family member, which shows 94% identity to its mouse homologue zinc finger protein 191 (Zfp191). ZNF191 can specifically interact with an intronic polymorphic TCAT repeat (HUMTH01) in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. Allelic variations of HUMTH01 have been stated to have a quantitative silencing effect on TH gene expression and to correlate with quantitative and qualitative changes in the binding by ZNF191. Zfp191 is widely expressed during embryonic development and in multiple tissues and organs in adult. To investigate the functions of Zfp191 in vivo, we have used homologous recombination to generate mice that are deficient in Zfp191. Heterozygous Zfp191 +/- mice are normal and fertile. Homozygous Zfp191 -/- embryos are severely retarded in development and die at approximately 7.5 days post-fertilization. Unexpectedly, in Zfp191 -/- and Zfp191 +/- embryos, TH gene expression is not affected. Blastocyst outgrowth experiments and the RNA interference-mediated knockdown of ZNF191 in cultured cells revealed an essential role for Zfp191 in cell proliferation. In further agreement with this function, no viable Zfp191 -/- cell lines were obtained by derivation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from blastocysts of Zfp191 +/- intercrosses or by forced homogenotization of heterozygous ES cells at high concentrations of G418. These data show that Zfp191 is indispensable for early embryonic development and cell proliferation

  18. Collaborative Plant Breeding for Organic Agricultural Systems in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Goldringer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Because organic systems present complex environmental stress, plant breeders may either target very focused regions for different varieties, or create heterogeneous populations which can then evolve specific adaptation through on-farm cultivation and selection. This often leads to participatory plant breeding (PPB strategies which take advantage of the specific knowledge of farmers. Participatory selection requires increased commitment and engagement on the part of the farmers and researchers. Projects may begin as researcher initiatives with farmer participation or farmer initiatives with researcher participation and over time evolve into true collaborations. These projects are difficult to plan in advance because by nature they change to respond to the priorities and interests of the collaborators. Projects need to provide relevant information and analysis in a time-frame that is meaningful for farmers, while remaining scientifically rigorous and innovative. This paper presents two specific studies: the first was a researcher-designed experiment that assessed the potential adaptation of landraces to organic systems through on-farm cultivation and farmer selection. The second is a farmer-led plant breeding project to select bread wheat for organic systems in France. Over the course of these two projects, many discussions among farmers, researchers and farmers associations led to the development of methods that fit the objectives of those involved. This type of project is no longer researcher-led or farmer-led but instead an equal collaboration. Results from the two research projects and the strategy developed for an ongoing collaborative plant breeding project are discussed.

  19. Developing a Climate Change Boundary Organization: the Montana Adaptation Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, C. L.; Brooks, S.; Armstrong, T.; Bryan, B.

    2016-12-01

    Small-population large-area states like Montana are often challenged by a need to offer timely and relevant climate-change information that addresses diverse and widely dispersed stakeholder groups. In Montana, filling the gap between science and various types of decision-makers has motivated development of the first Montana Climate Assessment (MCA1), to be released in 2017 with a focus on climate-change impacts for agricultural, water and forestry sectors. To sustain and build on the MCA1 effort, we are also in the process of creating a Boundary Organization (defined by the National Academy of Sciences) called the Montana Adaptation Exchange (the Exchange); this entity will facilitate the flow of information across the boundaries between science, knowledge and implementation. In Montana, the Exchange brings scientists and practitioners together to seek solutions related to climate-change adaptation and other pressing environmental and social-economic challenges. The Montana Adaptation Exchange (1) is a collaborative partnership of members from the science and practitioner communities under a shared governance and participatory model; (2) presents research that has been vetted by the scientific community at large and represents the current state of knowledge; (3) allows for revision and expansion of assessments like the MCA; (4) communicates relevant, often technical, research and findings to a wide variety of resource managers and other stakeholders; (5) develops and maintains an extensive online database that organizes, regularly updates, and makes research data products readily available; and (6) offers an online portal and expert network of affiliated researchers and climate adaptation specialists to provide effective customer support. Boundary organizations, such as the Montana Adaptation Exchange, offer a scalable path to effectively move from "science to knowledge to action" while also allowing stakeholder needs to help inform research agendas.

  20. Insights to develop privacy policy for organization in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmaini, E.; Kusumasari, T. F.; Lubis, M.; Lubis, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, the increased utilization of shared application in the network needs not only dictate to have enhanced security but also emphasize the need to balance its privacy protection and ease of use. Meanwhile, its accessibility and availability as the demand from organization service put privacy obligations become more complex process to be handled and controlled. Nonetheless, the underlying principles for privacy policy exist in Indonesian current laws, even though they spread across various article regulations. Religions, constitutions, statutes, regulations, custom and culture requirements still become the reference model to control the activity process for data collection and information sharing accordingly. Moreover, as the customer and organization often misinterpret their responsibilities and rights in the business function, process and level, the essential thing to be considered for professionals on how to articulate clearly the rules that manage their information gathering and distribution in a manner that translates into information system specification and requirements for developers and managers. This study focus on providing suggestion and recommendation to develop privacy policy based on descriptive analysis of 791 respondents on personal data protection in accordance with political and economic factor in Indonesia.

  1. Organizations' ways of employing early retirees: the role of age-based HR policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Mulders, J.; Henkens, K.; Schippers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: We examine whether from an organizational perspective it is possible to distinguish different ways of employing early retirees and explore how the employment of early retirees is related to the application of 4 age-based human resource (HR) policies, namely demotion, offering

  2. Organizations' Ways of Employing Early Retirees : The Role of Age-Based HR Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Mulders, Jaap; Henkens, Kène; Schippers, Joop

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: We examine whether from an organizational perspective it is possible to distinguish different ways of employing early retirees and explore how the employment of early retirees is related to the application of 4 age-based human resource (HR) policies, namely demotion, offering

  3. Early Years Educators at Play: A Research-Based Early Childhood Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Sultan; Kelley, Michael F.; Millinger, Jenny; Adams, Korbi

    2016-01-01

    Every culture has developed some version of performance art. Children especially appreciate performance; their innate openness, forgiveness, and self-love make them delightful performers and audience members. Every time they engage with performance art, children are learning about storytelling, history, sociability, artistry, and physicality.…

  4. Interleukin-23 in early disease development in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Hvid, M; Johansen, C

    2015-01-01

    randomized to methotrexate (MTX) plus adalimumab (ADA; n = 75) or MTX plus placebo-ADA (PLA; n = 76). Plasma samples were obtained at baseline and at months 3, 6, and 12 together with values for C-reactive protein (CRP), the 28-joint Disease Activity Score based on CRP (DAS28CRP), scores on the Clinical......OBJECTIVES: To investigate the levels of interleukin (IL)-23 in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) and the effect of anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF)-α treatment on IL-23 levels. METHOD: Treatment-naïve eRA patients from the OPERA cohort were included (n = 151). Patients were...... Disease Activity Index (CDAI) and the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI), visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain/fatigue/physician global and total Sharp/van der Heijde score (TSS). IL-23 was measured at each time point. RESULTS: IL-23 levels decreased significantly in the ADA group from 20.6 pg...

  5. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Adriana P S; Rodrigues, Ricardo V; Sampaio, Luís A; Romano, Luis A; Tesser, Marcelo B

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

  6. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA P.S. OTERO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20 from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching. Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm, but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm. From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

  7. Intellectual development in preschool children with early treated congenital hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min Kyoung; Yoon, Jong Seo; So, Chul Hwan; Lee, Hae Sang; Hwang, Jin Soon

    2017-06-01

    Delayed treatment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a common cause of mental retardation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate intellectual outcomes in preschool children with treated CH. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 43 children (age range: 13 to 60 days of life; 22 girls and 21 boys) diagnosed with CH. Children aged 5 to 7 years were examined using the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children or the Korean Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. The patients started treatment between 13 and 60 days of age. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ) of patients tested at age 5 to 7 years was 103.14±11.68 (IQ range: 76-126). None had intellectual disability (defined as an IQ scale IQ (FSIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) scores between the 2 groups. FSIQ, PIQ, and VIQ scores were not significantly correlated with initial dose of L-T4, initial fT4, age at treatment in multivariate analysis. IQ scores of subjects with early treated CH diagnosed through a neonatal screening test were within normal range, regardless of etiology, thyroid function, initial dose of levothyroxine, and age at start of treatment.

  8. Self-organized criticality in developing neuronal networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Tetzlaff

    Full Text Available Recently evidence has accumulated that many neural networks exhibit self-organized criticality. In this state, activity is similar across temporal scales and this is beneficial with respect to information flow. If subcritical, activity can die out, if supercritical epileptiform patterns may occur. Little is known about how developing networks will reach and stabilize criticality. Here we monitor the development between 13 and 95 days in vitro (DIV of cortical cell cultures (n = 20 and find four different phases, related to their morphological maturation: An initial low-activity state (≈19 DIV is followed by a supercritical (≈20 DIV and then a subcritical one (≈36 DIV until the network finally reaches stable criticality (≈58 DIV. Using network modeling and mathematical analysis we describe the dynamics of the emergent connectivity in such developing systems. Based on physiological observations, the synaptic development in the model is determined by the drive of the neurons to adjust their connectivity for reaching on average firing rate homeostasis. We predict a specific time course for the maturation of inhibition, with strong onset and delayed pruning, and that total synaptic connectivity should be strongly linked to the relative levels of excitation and inhibition. These results demonstrate that the interplay between activity and connectivity guides developing networks into criticality suggesting that this may be a generic and stable state of many networks in vivo and in vitro.

  9. Organizing complexity: the hopeful dreams and harsh realities of interdisciplinary collaboration at the rand corporation in the early cold war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Historians argue that in the early Cold War an interdisciplinary research culture defined the RAND Corporation. However, a significant epistemological gap divided the members of RAND's Social Science Division (SSD) from the rest of the organization. While the social scientists used qualitative methods, most RAND researchers embraced quantified approaches and derided the social sciences as unscientific. This encouraged RAND's social scientists to develop a political-military simulation that embraced everything-politics, culture, and psychology-that RAND's other analysts largely ignored. Yet the fact that the SSD embraced gaming, a heuristic practiced throughout RAND, suggests that the political simulation was nonetheless inspired by social scientists' engagement with their colleagues. This indicates that the concept of interdisciplinarity should move beyond its implication of collaboration to incorporate instances in which research agendas are defined against but also shaped by colleagues in other disciplines. Such a rethinking of the term may make it possible to trace how varieties of interdisciplinary interaction historically informed knowledge production. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Training Process of the Organization Development and Training Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Melissa S.

    2004-01-01

    The Organization Development and Training Office provides training and development opportunities to employees at NASA Glenn Research Center, as a division of the Office of Human Resources and Workforce Planning. Center-wide required trainings, new employee trainings, workshops and career development programs are organized by the OD&TO staff. They also arrange all academic, non-academic, headquarters, fellowship and learning center sponsored courses. They also service organizations wishing to work more effectively by facilitating teambuilding exercises. Equal Opportunity programs and upward mobility programs such as the STEP and GO programs for administrative staff. In working with my mentor I am very involved with Cuyahoga Community College classes, mandatory supervisory training and administrative staff workshops. My largest tasks are in the secretarial training category. The Supporting Organizations And Relationships workshop for administrative personnel, commonly known as SOAR, began last year and continued this summer with follow-up workshops. Months before a workshop or class is brought to Glenn, a need has to be realized. In this case, administrative staff did not feel they had an opportunity to receive relevant training and develop skills through teambuilding, networking and communication. A Statement of work is then created as several companies are contacted about providing the training. After the company best suited to meet the target group s needs is selected, the course is announced with an outline of all pertinent information. A reservation for a facility is made and applications or nominations, depending on the announcement s guidelines, are received from interested employees. Confirmations are sent to participants and final preparations are made but there are still several concluding steps. A training office staff member also assists the facilitator with setting up the facility and introducing the class. After the class, participants evaluations are

  11. Early Childhood Education: The Biological Bases: Malnutrition and Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Merrill S.

    1972-01-01

    Malnutrition, contrasted with hunger, is defined as a state of impaired functional ability or development resulting from an inadequate supply of essential nutrients or calories to meet long-term biologic needs. (Author/MB)

  12. Reliability of organic mouthwash in comparison to chlorhexidine mouthwash on Streptococcus mutans in early phase of orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitish Abrol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that there are no differences in Streptococcus mutans count in the early phase of orthodontic treatment between organic and chlorhexidine mouthwash. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients were divided into two groups: Group I: Organic mouthwash and Group II: Chlorhexidine mouthwash. The gingival index (GI, plaque index (PI, gingival bleeding index, pocket depths, and level of S. mutans counts were calculated at the different intervals of time. Paired t-test in SPSS software was used for statistical evaluations. Results: There was a significant difference in the values of GI, PI, gingival bleeding index, and pocket depth as well as in the level of streptococcal count (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Null hypothesis is rejected. This study indicates that organic mouthwash showed the lesser level of S. mutans count as compared to chlorhexidine mouthwash hence it is recommended to use organic mouthwash.

  13. International Organizations: the Main Factors of Emergence and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev S. Voronkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author argues that the emergence of the first permanent intergovernmental (IIGO and non-governmental (INGO organizationsin the second half of the XIX-th century was due to common causes. He tries to justify the need to consider them not as independent objects of study, but as the phenomenon, caused by the high level of internationalization of economic life of states and of socio-economic consequences of the industrial revolution, reached in this period. The emergence of IIGOs, based on international treaty, was accompanied by establishment of a large number of INGOs operating in similar fields of human activity, which performed supplementary functions and regulated areas of cooperation and public needs, not covered by interstate agreements. The article presents the main factors that in later stages of internationalization and development of contemporary international relations gave the impetus to emergence and development of international organizations, including the military-technological revolution, that gave birth to mass destruction weapons and avalanche-like growth of the number of human and material losses during wars and military conflicts, the Cold War between world communism and world capitalism, the collapse of the colonial system and formation ofa new main contradiction of the world politics between the "Club of rich countries" and states of the "global periphery", beginning of development of regional integration processes and, finally, the emergence of global problems. The article emphasizes that both IIGOs and INGOs evolved from the supportive tools in implementation of multilateral interaction of sovereign states towards becoming an integral part of contemporary international relations, fulfilling many vital functions of modern human society and its citizens. Given the involvement of the overwhelming majority of modern sovereign states and tens of thousands of civil society organizations in activity of numerical IIGOs and INGOs

  14. Early-Career Professional Development Training for Stakeholder-Relevant, Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, D. H.; Bamzai, A.; Mcpherson, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    There are many challenges to conducting inter- or multi-disciplinary research because basic research, applied research, management processes, disciplines, and even sub-disciplines have been "siloed" for so long that many research and management professionals find it difficult to communicate common interests and research needs. It is clear that the next generation of researchers must overcome these disciplinary biases and engage in more open dialogue with other disciplines and the management community in order to be better positioned to collaborate, speak a common language, and understand each other's needs. The U.S. Department of the Interior's South Central Climate Science Center recently conducted a professional development workshop for 28 early-career researchers involved in climate-related research across the South-Central U.S. The participants consisted of graduate students, postdocs, and junior faculty representing 17 different natural and social science disciplines and seven Universities/Institutions. The workshop provided the participants with guidance and instruction on how to overcome the identified challenges in conducting "actionable" research and how to better navigate multi-institutional and multi- or inter-disciplinary research. The workshop was comprised of: (1) a series of instructional presentations organized into themed sessions; (2) two keynote addresses to provide a broader perspective; (3) a real-world case study activity; (4) individual and group projects/presentations; and (5) field trips. In addition, we purposely created informal opportunities for participants to network, which met the goal of facilitating interdisciplinary interactions. An overview of the workshop experience will be provided, including a focus on those aspects leading to its ultimate success and recommendations for how to develop and implement a similar early-career workshop for your own purposes.

  15. Temperature effects on early season cotton growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.R.; Hodges, H.F.; Reddy, V.R.

    1992-01-01

    Temperature is a primary environmental factor controlling growth and developmental rates of plants, yet little specific information is available regarding cotton (Gossypium hisutum L.) responses to temperature. Information covering a wide range of temperatures would be useful for predicting both developmental and growth rates in cotton. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in naturally lit, temperature- and CO 2 -controlled cabinets from soon after emergence until 56 d after emergence (DAE). The cabinets were maintained at 20/12, 25/17, 30/22, 35/27, and 40/32C day/night cycles. Plant heights, number of nodes, and leaf areas were determined weekly throughout the experiment, and dry weight measurements were obtained at three intervals. Mainstem elongation, leaf area growth, and biomass accumulation rates were very sensitive to temperature about 3 wk after emergence. Prior to that time, they were relatively insensitive to temperature. The temperature optimum for stem elongation, leaf area expansion, and biomass accumulation was 30/22 C. Developmental rates, as depicted by number of mainstem nodes produced, number of fruiting branches, and fruiting branch nodes, were not as sensitive to temperatures above 30/22 C as were growth rates. Four times as many fruiting branches were produced at 30/22 C as at 20/12 C; whereas more vegetative branches were produced at low temperatures. All flower buds abscised from plants grown at 40/32 C. Essentially, all bolls and squares were retained at 30/22 C while a 10% boll and square loss was observed at 35/27 C during the early reproductive period. Less time was required for this cultivar to produce squares at any temperature, suitable for growing cotton, than was suggested by previous experiments

  16. Intellectual development in preschool children with early treated congenital hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kyoung Seo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeDelayed treatment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH is a common cause of mental retardation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate intellectual outcomes in preschool children with treated CH.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 43 children (age range: 13 to 60 days of life; 22 girls and 21 boys diagnosed with CH. Children aged 5 to 7 years were examined using the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children or the Korean Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence.ResultsThe patients started treatment between 13 and 60 days of age. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ of patients tested at age 5 to 7 years was 103.14±11.68 (IQ range: 76–126. None had intellectual disability (defined as an IQ <70. Twenty-one subjects were treated with a low dose (6.0–9.9 µg/kg/day and 22 with a high dose of levothyroxine (10.0–16.0 µg/kg/day. There was no significant difference in the mean full-scale IQ (FSIQ, verbal IQ (VIQ, and performance IQ (PIQ scores between the 2 groups. FSIQ, PIQ, and VIQ scores were not significantly correlated with initial dose of L-T4, initial fT4, age at treatment in multivariate analysis.ConclusionIQ scores of subjects with early treated CH diagnosed through a neonatal screening test were within normal range, regardless of etiology, thyroid function, initial dose of levothyroxine, and age at start of treatment.

  17. Use Case Evaluation (UCE): A Method for Early Usability Evaluation in Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Jan; Høegh, Rune Thaarup; Hornbæk, K.

    2007-01-01

    t is often argued that usability problems should be identified as early as possible during software development, but many usability evaluation methods do not fit well in early development activities. We propose a method for usability evaluation of use cases, a widely used representation of design...... ideas produced early in software development processes. The method proceeds by systematic inspection of use cases with reference to a set of guidelines for usable design. To validate the method, four evaluators inspected a set of use cases for a health care application....

  18. Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsen, Silver

    2009-01-01

    My dissertation, "Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy" demonstrates how increased crown authority, and an expanded market combine with the mixed agency of the romantic comedy daughter to further encourage early modern economic growth. The triumph of rebelling daughter over blocking father has…

  19. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: What Happened Next

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Peter; Urban, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an update on what has happened over recent months with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's proposal for an International Early Learning Study, and review responses to the proposed International Early Learning Study, including the concerns that have been raised about this new venture in…

  20. Building the Leadership Capacity of Early Childhood Directors: An Evaluation of a Leadership Development Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talan, Teri N.; Bloom, Paula J.; Kelton, Robyn E.

    2014-01-01

    While there is consensus among policymakers and practitioners about the importance of strong leadership in early childhood education, there is scant research on effective models of leadership development for administrators of early childhood programs, particularly those working in the child care sector. This is cause for concern because the…

  1. Low maternal free thyroxine concentrations during early pregnancy are associated with impaired psychomotor development in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V. J.; Kuijpens, J. L.; van Baar, A. L.; Verkerk, G.; van Son, M. M.; de Vijlder, J. J.; Vulsma, T.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Drexhage, H. A.; Vader, H. L.

    1999-01-01

    Maternal thyroid function during early pregnancy is an important determinant of early fetal brain development because the fetal thyroid is unable to produce any T4 before 12-14 weeks' gestation. Overt maternal hypothyroidism as seen in severe iodine-deficient areas is associated with severely

  2. Creating, Constructing, and Cultivating Professional Development within a Reggio-Inspired Early Childhood Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the professional development system of an early childhood education program which was influenced by the Reggio Emilia Approach to early learning. This multi-site program thrived within low-income, inner-city communities of Chicago. Literature connected to the program's historical context of the Settlement House and the Reggio…

  3. Republic of Kiribati Early Childhood Development : SABER and NSA-ECD Country Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) subsector, including programs and policies that affect young children in the Republic of Kiribati. This was a collaborative effort between UNICEF and the World Bank Group; it combines the World Bank Group’s Systems Approach for Better Education Results SABER-ECD framework, which includes analysis of early learningan...

  4. Development of Early Handwriting: Visual-Motor Control during Letter Copying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldarelli, Jennifer E.; Kahrs, Björn A.; Hunt, Sarah C.; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of handwriting for school readiness and early academic progress, prior research on the development of handwriting has focused primarily on the product rather than the process by which young children write letters. In contrast, in the present work, early handwriting is viewed as involving a suite of perceptual, motor, and…

  5. Accelerating the Early Numeracy Development of Kindergartners with Limited Working Memory Skills through Remedial Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Sylke W. M.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Young children with limited working memory skills are a special interest group among all children that score below average on early numeracy tests. This study examines the effect of accelerating the early numeracy development of these children through remedial education, by comparing them with children with typically working memory…

  6. Fired Up by Commitment, Example, and Values: How High-Performance Organizations Develop Leadership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kersh, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Each year, organizations big and small, public and private spend tremendous resources on programs to develop leaders that will guide those organizations to success, preferably extraordinary success...

  7. Parental Factors Influencing the Development of Early Childhood Caries in Developing Nations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayanjot Kaur Rai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEarly childhood caries (ECC is one of the most prevalent and chronic conditions of childhood. Various factors including biological and dietary factors along with an overlay of parental social factors have been found to be associated with the progression of ECC. The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize available literature and to identify parent-level proximal and distal risk factors associated with the development of ECC in developing nations.MethodsStudies conducted in developing nations, published between 2005 and 2017 in English, that included children younger than 6 years and examined ECC were included. The outcome of interest were parental risk factors, which included parental knowledge, behavior, attitudes, sense of coherence (SOC, stress, socioeconomic status (SES, education, and breastfeeding duration. The studies were retrieved from MEDLINE, Ovid Medline, and PubMed.ResultsThe search yielded 325 studies, of which 18 were considered eligible for inclusion in this review. Ten studies found maternal education, and seven studies found parental education to be significantly associated with ECC. SES was significantly associated with ECC in 13 studies in the form of annual household income and occupation level. Four studies observed the significant association between oral health knowledge and attitudes with ECC, whereas only two studies found maternal attitude to be associated with ECC. Breastfeeding duration was a significant risk factor in four studies. One study each found significant associations of SOC, parental distress, and secondary smoke with ECC.ConclusionTo date, most of the researches done in developing countries have reported distal parental factors such as income and education being significant risk factors in caries development compared to proximal risk factors in low-income groups. Only a few studies analyzed the psychosocial and behavioral factors. Interventions could be designed to improve

  8. RISK FACTORS AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN BORN WITH AN ASSISTED FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena MILICHEVIKJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the researches conducted in the area of risk factors and difficulties in the early development of children born after assisted conception, to systematize current knowledge in this field and allocate the factors of importance for the early intervention.In order to evaluate the published data on risk factors and early development of children born after assisted conception, an extensive literature search was conducted to identify the published papers related to the obstetric and neonatal outcome of pregnancies after assisted repro­duction technology, the incidence of multiple pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery, the neonatal status, the mean gestational age, the average birth weight, the neuro-developmental outcomes and early cognitive and motor development. The research identified the following factors as the most important for the early intervention: increased rates of multiple gestations, prematurity, delivery by cesarean section, lower average gestational development and average birth weight, small fetal development for gestational age and low Apgar score, related to the an increased risk of developing neurological problems, such as the cerebral palsy.Accepting this research results, it can be concluded that all of these information should be available for couples seeking an Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART treatment.The success of the early intervention is directly related to the early detection and assessment that precedes this treatment, creating individual programs and evaluation of the effects of the treatment.

  9. Development of technology performance specifications for volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, C.; Schutte, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Office of Technology Development (OTD) within the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management of the Department of Energy has a mission to deliver needed and usable technologies to its customers. The primary customers are individuals and organizations performing environmental characterization and remediation, waste cleanup, and pollution prevention at DOE sites. DOE faces a monumental task in cleaning up the dozen or so major sites and hundreds of smaller sites that were or are used to produce the US nuclear weapons arsenal and to develop nuclear technologies for national defense and for peaceful purposes. Contaminants and waste materials include the radionuclides associated with nuclear weapons, such as plutonium and tritium, and more common pollutants and wastes of industrial activity such as chromium, chlorinated solvents, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Quite frequently hazardous wastes regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency are co-mingled with radioactive wastes regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to yield a open-quotes mixed waste,close quotes which increases the cleanup challenges from several perspectives. To help OTD and its investigators meet DOE's cleanup goal, technology performance specifications are being implemented for research and development and DT ampersand E projects. Technology performance specifications or open-quotes performance goalsclose quotes describe, quantitatively where possible, the technology development needs being addressed. These specifications are used to establish milestones, evaluate the status of ongoing projects, and determine the success of completed projects

  10. Family-School Connectedness and Children's Early Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Zewelanji N.; Mashburn, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which teacher ratings of the frequency of parent-teacher contacts and quality of parent-teacher relationships in prekindergarten were associated with teachers' perceptions of the quality of their relationship with children and children's social development. Participants were a diverse sample of 2966 four-year-olds…

  11. The Role of Early Visual Attention in Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jennifer B.; Luyster, Rhiannon J.; Yim, Jung Yeon; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Faces convey important information about the social environment, and even very young infants are preferentially attentive to face-like over non-face stimuli. Eye-tracking studies have allowed researchers to examine which features of faces infants find most salient across development, and the present study examined scanning of familiar (i.e.,…

  12. Early Development of Entrepreneurial Qualities: the Role of Initial Education

    OpenAIRE

    Isobel van der Kuip; Ingrid Verheul

    2003-01-01

    This study attempts to create a better understanding of the role of entrepreneurship education in developing entrepreneurial qualities. Theory and practice are confronted. The paper discusses the extent to which entrepreneurship can be taught, and the way in which it should be taught. The focus is on the phase of initial education.

  13. Early development of artificially spawned southern mullet, Liza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-08-02

    Aug 2, 1988 ... of egg incubation and rearing of the L. richardsonii larvae are given in Bok (1989) and will not be discussed in this paper. Larvae were sampled on a regular basis to observe growth and development. They were immobilized by a sudden temperature drop to ca 4°C (placing a petri dish with live larvae into a ...

  14. Early life environment and the developing cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idris, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The dynamics of cardiovascular system development in childhood are still largely unknown. Despite its known sensitivity to small perturbations, it has not been fully elucidated how the cardiovascular system evolves and responds to different stimuli and how these impact the future

  15. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-expression; and (ii) Supports the emerging communication skills of infants and toddlers by providing daily...) Provides each child with opportunities for success to help develop feelings of competence, self-esteem, and... to help children gain the skills and confidence necessary to be prepared to succeed in their present...

  16. A Review of Peer Social Development in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goin, Robin P.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the literature on young children's peer social development. Addresses implications of social learning theory and empirical research. Discusses recurring themes, including child/peer versus child/adult interactions, incorporation of toys and games, influence of mothers, and gender peer preferences. Considers areas lacking empirical support…

  17. Developing Self-Esteem in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawl, Jeree

    2012-01-01

    Jeree Pawl, PhD, former clinical professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Francisco and past director of the Infant-Parent Program located at San Francisco General Hospital responds to questions about how parents and caregivers can support the development of self-esteem in very young children. Contrary to the idea that…

  18. Xeroderma Pigmentosum With Early And Rapid Development Of Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Arghyaprasum

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of xeroderma pigmentosum in a 9 year old developing multiple tumours over a short period of 6 months is reported. The tumours showed two different types of malignancies-squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Two other siblings exhibited cutaneous lesions of xeroderma pigmentosum without any malignant change.

  19. Accelerating Early Language Development with Multi-Sensory Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn, Piia M.; Kakkuri, Irma; Karvonen, Pirkko; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a multi-sensory intervention on infant language skills. A programme titled "Rhyming Game and Exercise Club", which included kinaesthetic-tactile mother-child rhyming games performed in natural joint attention situations, was intended to accelerate Finnish six- to eight-month-old infants' language development. The…

  20. Palaeoredox indicators from the organic-rich Messinian early post-evaporitic deposits of the Apennines (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampalmieri, G.; Iadanza, A.; Cipollari, P.; Cosentino, D.; Lo Mastro, S.

    2009-04-01

    Bottom redox conditions in marine and lacustrine ancient basins are often inferred by the occurrence of peculiar sedimentological structures and microfaunal assemblages. The co-occurrence, in such environments, of authigenic uranium, framboidal pyrite, barite and Fe-Mn nodules and encrustations, provides a good constraint for palaeo reconstructions. Authigenic uranium is a common constituent of hydrocarbon source rocks: it forms at the sediment-water interface under oxygen-deficient conditions and accumulates together with organic matter (OM). Its precipitation is triggered by the reduction of the soluble U6+ion in seawater to insoluble U4+. With respect to black shales, uranium content has even been used to estimate the TOC. Also authigenic pyrite forms under anoxic conditions and replaces organic matter: 1) the increase in pyrite content and in organic matter are directly correlated; 2) the size distribution of framboidal pyrite (consistent with sulphate-reducing bacterial activity) is considered a measure of redox conditions within the sediment. Barite is an authigenic mineral related to Corg content, since its organic precipitation is triggered by sulphate-reduction processes occurring in decaying OM-bearing microenvironments. Finally, also Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide are typical indicators of redox conditions. About 6 My ago the Mediterranean Sea underwent a giant event of concentration referred to as Messinian Salinity Crisis, which can be roughly subdivided into an evaporitic and a post evaporitic phase. The post evaporitic phase (p-ev; 5.61-5.33 Ma) developed in a context of humid conditions and can be further distinguished into two steps: p-ev1 (early post evaporitic phase) and p-ev2 (late post evaporitic phase). Previous works focused on pev2, which is interpreted to represent the establishment of brackish water conditions (Lago-Mare biofacies). In other respects, the palaeoenvironment of p-ev1 deposits, mostly represented by resedimented evaporitic deposits or