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Sample records for early ophthalmologic examination

  1. Early Experience with Technology-Based Eye Care Services (TECS): A Novel Ophthalmologic Telemedicine Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maa, April Y; Wojciechowski, Barbara; Hunt, Kelly J; Dismuke, Clara; Shyu, Jason; Janjua, Rabeea; Lu, Xiaoqin; Medert, Charles M; Lynch, Mary G

    2017-04-01

    The aging population is at risk of common eye diseases, and routine eye examinations are recommended to prevent visual impairment. Unfortunately, patients are less likely to seek care as they age, which may be the result of significant travel and time burdens associated with going to an eye clinic in person. A new method of eye-care delivery that mitigates distance barriers and improves access was developed to improve screening for potentially blinding conditions. We present the quality data from the early experience (first 13 months) of Technology-Based Eye Care Services (TECS), a novel ophthalmologic telemedicine program. With TECS, a trained ophthalmology technician is stationed in a primary care clinic away from the main hospital. The ophthalmology technician follows a detailed protocol that collects information about the patient's eyes. The information then is interpreted remotely. Patients with possible abnormal findings are scheduled for a face-to-face examination in the eye clinic. Any patient with no known ocular disease who desires a routine eye screening examination is eligible. Technology-Based Eye Care Services was established in 5 primary care clinics in Georgia surrounding the Atlanta Veterans Affairs hospital. Four program operation metrics (patient satisfaction, eyeglass remakes, disease detection, and visit length) and 2 access-to-care metrics (appointment wait time and no-show rate) were tracked. Care was rendered to 2690 patients over the first 13 months of TECS. The program has been met with high patient satisfaction (4.95 of 5). Eyeglass remake rate was 0.59%. Abnormal findings were noted in 36.8% of patients and there was >90% agreement between the TECS reading and the face-to-face findings of the physician. TECS saved both patient (25% less) and physician time (50% less), and access to care substantially improved with 99% of patients seen within 14 days of contacting the eye clinic, with a TECS no-show rate of 5.2%. The early experience with

  2. Effectiveness of a 40-minute Ophthalmologic Examination Teaching Session on Medical Student Learning

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    Wirachin Hoonpongsimanont

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emergency physicians are among the few specialists besides ophthalmologists who commonly perform ophthalmologic examinations using the slit lamp and other instruments. However, most medical schools in the United States do not require an ophthalmology rotation upon completion. Teaching procedural skills to medical students can be challenging due to limited resources and instructor availability. Our study assesses the effectiveness of a 40-minute hands-on teaching session on ophthalmologic examination for medical students using only two instructors and low-cost equipment. Methods: We performed an interventional study using a convenience sample of subjects. Pre- and post-workshop questionnaires on students’ confidence in performing ophthalmologic examination were administered. We used a paired t-test and Wilcoxon rank test to analyze the data. Results: Of the 30 participants in the study, the mean age was 25 and the majority were first-year medical students. The students’ confidence in performing every portion of the ophthalmologic exam increased significantly after the teaching session. We found that the average confidence level before the teaching session were below 2 on a 1-5 Likert scale (1 being the least confident. Confidence levels in using the slit lamp had the highest improvement among the skills taught (2.17 95% CI [1.84-2.49]. Students reported the least improvement in their confidence in assessing extraocular movements (0.73, 95% CI [0.30-1.71] and examining pupillary function (0.73, 95% CI [0.42-1.04]. We observed the biggest difference in median confidence level in the use of the tonometer (4 with a p-value of <0.05. Conclusion: A 40-minute structured hands-on training session can significantly improve students’ confidence levels in ophthalmologic skills.

  3. Measuring the differences in work ratios between pediatric and adult ophthalmologic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Joo; Chang, Jee Ho; Kim, Seung Hoon; Park, Song Hee; Kim, Sunghoon

    2017-06-01

    To assess the differences in work needed for pediatric and adult ophthalmologic examinations. Seven ophthalmology residents conducted slit-lamp and refraction examinations on children 3-7 years of age and adults 20-69 years of age. The examiners reported the magnitude estimate (ME) of their work in relation to two references (cross-reference ME): average adult examination and average pediatric examination. The examination time was also measured. For the slit-lamp examination, 50 children and 58 adults were recruited. The ME was 1.45 (95% CI, 1.30-1.62) times higher for the pediatric examinations than for the adult examinations when the reference was an average adult case. With respect to time, the pediatric examinations took 1.22 (95% CI, 1.06-1.41) times longer than the adult examinations. For the refraction examinations, 58 children and 96 adults were recruited. The ME was 1.35 (95% CI, 1.21-1.52) times higher for the pediatric examinations. The pediatric examination took 1.32 (95% CI, 1.16-1.50) times longer than the adult examination. The cross-reference ME ratios measuring the pediatric over adult examinations against both the pediatric and adult reference cases were equivalent in both the slit-lamp and the refraction examinations; however, the ME and time ratios of the pediatric over the adult examinations were not equivalent for the slit-lamp or for the refraction examinations. The cross-reference ME showed that pediatric ophthalmologic examinations require more work than the adult examination with validity and reliability. The time estimate was insufficient as a single indicator for work estimation. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Skin manifestations in sulfur mustard exposed victims with ophthalmologic complications: Association between early and late phase

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    Somayeh Hejazi, MD

    Full Text Available Context: Sulfur mustard (SM was used during the Iraq-Iran war (1980–1988. Exposed veterans continue to suffer from its ocular, skin, and respiratory complications. Objective: We aimed to evaluate associations between early (at the time of acute exposure and decades later skin manifestations in individuals with severe ophthalmologic complications secondary to sulfur mustard exposure. Materials and methods: One hundred forty-nine veterans with severe ocular injuries were evaluated for acute and chronic skin complications. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between early and late skin manifestations. Results: Late skin complaints were observed in nearly all survivors who had early skin lesions (131 out of 137; 95.62%. Seven out of 12 patients (58.33% who did not have early skin lesions ultimately developed late skin complications. There was a significant relationship between the presence of lesions at the time of exposure and developing late skin complaints (two-sided Fisher's exact test, OR = 15.59, p < 0.001. There was an association between having at least one early skin lesion and occurrence of late skin complications. Survivors with blisters at the time of chemical exposure were more likely to complain of itching (95% CI: 3.63–25.97, p < 0.001, burning (OR = 11.16; 95% CI: 2.97–41.89, p < 0.001, pigmentation changes (OR = 10.17; 95% CI: 2.54–40.75, p = 0.001, dryness (OR = 6.71, 95% CI: 1.22–37.01, p = 0.03 or cherry angioma (OR = 2.59; 95% CI:1.21–5.55, p = 0.01 during the late phase. Using multivariate logistic models, early blisters remained significantly associated with latent skin complaints. Of note, the genitalia and great flexure areas were the most involved anatomical sites for both early and late skin lesions in SM exposed survivors. Conclusion: According to this study, the presence of blisters at the time of exposure to SM is the most important predictor of developing

  5. Ophthalmology in North America: Early Stories (1491-1801

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    Christopher T Leffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available New World plants, such as tobacco, tomato, and chili, were held to have beneficial effects on the eyes. Indigenous healers rubbed or scraped the eyes or eyelids to treat inflammation, corneal opacities, and even eye irritation from smoke. European settlers used harsh treatments, such as bleeding and blistering, when the eyes were inflamed or had loss of vision with a normal appearance (gutta serena. In New Spain, surgery for corneal opacity was performed in 1601 and cataract couching in 1611. North American physicians knew of contralateral loss of vision after trauma or surgery (sympathetic ophthalmia, which they called “sympathy.” To date, the earliest identified cataract couching by a surgeon trained in the New World was performed in 1769 by John Bartlett of Rhode Island. The American Revolution negatively affected ophthalmology, as loyalist surgeons were expelled and others were consumed with wartime activities. After the war, cataract extraction was imported to America in earnest and academic development resumed. Charles F Bartlett, the son of John, performed cataract extraction but was also a “rapacious privateer.” In 1801, a doctor in the frontier territory of Kentucky observed anticholinergic poisoning by Datura stramonium (Jimsonweed and suggested that this agent be applied topically to dilate the pupil before cataract extraction. John Warren at Harvard preferred couching in the 1790s, but, after his son returned from European training, recommended treating angle closure glaucoma by lens extraction. Other eye procedures described or advertised in America before the 19th century included enucleation, resection of conjunctival lesions or periocular tumors, treatment of lacrimal fistula, and fitting of prosthetic eyes.

  6. Procedural aspects of the organization of the comprehensive European Board of Ophthalmology Diploma examination

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    Danny G.P. Mathysen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive European Board of Ophthalmology Diploma (EBOD examination is one of 38 European medical specialty examinations. This review aims at disclosing the specific procedures and content of the EBOD examination. It is a descriptive study summarizing the present organization of the EBOD examination. It is the 3rd largest European postgraduate medical assessment after anaesthesiology and cardiology. The master language is English for the Part 1 written test (knowledge test with 52 modified type X multiple-choice questions (in the past the written test was also available in French and German. Ophthalmology training of minimum 4 years in a full or associated European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS member state is a prerequisite. Problem-solving skills are tested in the Part 2 oral assessment, which is a viva of 4 subjects conducted in English with support for native language whenever feasible. The comprehensive EBOD examination is one of the leading examinations organized by UEMS European Boards or Specialist Sections from the point of number of examinees, item banking, and item contents.

  7. The importance of timely ophthalmologic examination in preterm infants at risk of retinopathy occurrence

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    Knežević Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a multifactorial disease in premature infants. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of ROP in children treated at the Center of Neonatology, Pediatric Clinic, Clinical Center in Kragujevac, Serbia. Methods. The study covered all children with birth weight below 2,000 g and/or gestational age below the 37th week, who from June 2006 to December 2009 underwent ophthalmological examination for ROP. The results of fundoscopy were classified in accordance with the International Classification of ROP. The treatment of infants and those with ROP was conducted in accordance with the early treatment of ROP study recommendations. We analyzed gestational age, birth weight and postconceptional age in two groups: healthy infants and those with severe form of ROP. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 16. Results. A total of 478 children met the criteria of screening for ROP. Severe stage of ROP, which required laser treatment, had 102 (21.3% children. Out of the infants with severe ROP 14 (13.7% of the infants with APD had aggressive posterior disease, while two (0.4% remained blind. The differences in the mean values of gestational age between the healthy and the children with severe form of the disease were statistically significant (p < 0.0005. The mean value of gestational age for the healthy children was 33.33 ± 2.28 weeks and for the seek infants 30.66 ± 2.79 weeks. The mean value of the weight in healthy children was 1.981 ± 407 g, and in sick children 1.535 ± 434 g which was statistically significant (p < 0.0005. Multivariate binary logistic regression showed that the occurrence of the disease depends on body weight and gestational age. Conclusion. The incidence of severe forms of ROP was 21.3%. Aggressive form of ROP was present in 13.7% of the children. The cut-off value for body weight was 1.740 g, and for gestational age 32.5 weeks.

  8. Ophthalmologic abnormalities among deaf students in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... syndrome (0.6%) and Ushers syndrome (0.6%). Refractive error was the most common (7.9%). Conclusion: Since these deaf students use their sight to compensate for the deafness, routine ophthalmologic examination should be carried out on them so that ophthalmologic abnormalities are detected early and treatment ...

  9. Can children undergoing ophthalmologic examinations under anesthesia be safely anesthetized without using an IV line?

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    Vigoda M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Michael M Vigoda, Azeema Latiff, Timothy G Murray, Jacqueline L Tutiven, Audina M Berrocal, Steven GayerBascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAPurpose: To document that with proper patient and procedure selection, children undergoing general inhalational anesthesia for ophthalmologic exams (with or without photos, ultrasound, laser treatment, peri-ocular injection of chemotherapy, suture removal, and/or replacement of ocular prosthesis can be safely anesthetized without the use of an intravenous (IV line. Children are rarely anesthetized without IV access placement. We performed a retrospective study to determine our incidence of IV access placement during examinations under anesthesia (EUA and the incidence of adverse events that required intraoperative IV access placement.Methods: Data collected from our operating room (OR information system includes but is not limited to diagnosis, anesthesiologist, surgeon, and location of IV catheter (if applicable, patient’s date of birth, actual procedure, and anesthesia/procedure times. We reviewed the OR and anesthetic records of children (>1 month and <10 years who underwent EUAs between January 1, 2003 and May 31, 2009. We determined the percentage of children who were anesthetized without IV access placement, as well as the incidence of any adverse events that required IV access placement, intraoperatively.Results: We analyzed data from 3196 procedures performed during a 77-month period. Patients’ ages ranged from 1 month to 9 years. Overall, 92% of procedures were performed without IV access placement. Procedure duration ranged from 1–39 minutes. Reasons for IV access placement included parental preference for antinausea medication and/or attending preference for IV access placement. No child who underwent anesthesia without an IV line had an intraoperative adverse event requiring insertion of an IV line.Conclusion: Our data suggest that for

  10. Vincenz Fukala (1847-1911): versatile surgeon and early historian of ophthalmology.

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    Schmidt, Dieter; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Vincenz Fukala is best known for his technique of discission and linear extraction of the lens in young, highly myopic eyes--the technique adopted by Harold Ridley in preparation for lens implantation in young patients. He was Polish and trained in Vienna under Karl Ferdinand. von Arlt. Fukala practiced first in Pilsen (1889-1894), but returned to Vienna in 1895. He studied trachoma in Egypt in 1872. His research on scrofulous eye disease led him twice to the United States, in 1891 and 1892. Fukala also developed highly successful, pioneering techniques for the treatment of ectropion in blepharitis, of trachoma, and of shallow sockets following enucleation. In glaucoma, he recommended early iridectomy of the fellow eye when the first eye has gone blind. He was also an expert on the history of ancient European texts and of Arabic ophthalmology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ophthalmologic Baseline Characteristics and 2-Year Ophthalmologic Safety Profile of Pramipexole IR Compared with Ropinirole IR in Patients with Early Parkinson’s Disease

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    William Seiple

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parkinson’s disease (PD progressively affects dopaminergic neurotransmission and may affect retinal dopaminergic functions and structures. Objective. This 2-year randomized, open-label, parallel-group, flexible-dose study, NCT00144300, evaluated ophthalmologic safety profiles of immediate-release (IR pramipexole and ropinirole in patients with early idiopathic PD with ≤6 months’ prior dopamine agonist exposure and without preexisting major eye disorders. Methods. Patients received labeled IR regimens of pramipexole (n=121 or ropinirole (n=125 for 2 years. Comprehensive ophthalmologic assessments (COA included corrected acuity, Roth 28-color test, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure, computerized visual field test, fundus photography, and electroretinography. Results. At baseline, we observed retinal pigmentary epithelium (RPE hypopigmentation not previously reported in PD patients. The estimated relative risk of 2-year COA worsening with pramipexole versus ropinirole was 1.07 (95% CI: 0.71–1.60. Mean changes from baseline in Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating System parts II+III total scores (pramipexole: 1 year, −4.1±8.9, and 2 years, −0.7±10.1, and ropinirole: 1 year, −3.7±8.2, and 2 years, −1.7±10.5 and Hoehn–Yahr stage distribution showed therapeutic effects on PD symptoms. Safety profiles were consistent with labeling. Conclusions. The risk of retinal deterioration did not differ in early idiopathic PD patients receiving pramipexole versus ropinirole. RPE hypopigmentation at baseline was not previously reported in this population. This trial is registered with NCT00144300.

  12. Encouraging Subspecialty Practice by Constructively Influencing Trainees Early in their Careers Will Improve Advocacy for Neuro-Ophthalmology among Nigerian Ophthalmologists

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    Ogun, Olufunmilola A.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the current knowledge, attitude, and perception of Nigerian ophthalmologists toward neuro-ophthalmology; identify barriers to the uptake of neuro-ophthalmology as a desired subspecialty; and make recommendations to improve interest in neuro-ophthalmology training. This was a cross-sectional survey of ophthalmology consultants and trainees from the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria, who were attending a national ophthalmology conference. All consenting respondents voluntarily completed a validated self-administered questionnaire. There were 107 respondents comprising 56 males and 51 females. Majority (54.2%) of respondents were aged 40 years and younger. Almost half (47.8%) worked at tertiary level, public health institutions. Only 10.3% worked in private practice. Neuro-ophthalmology exposure was short and occurred mainly during residency (65.7%), while 15% had no exposure at all. Most (80.4%) indicated only nominal interest in neuro-ophthalmology, while only 4.6% indicated a desire to specialize in the field. Financial constraint was the main obstacle to the pursuit of subspecialty training. A total of 86% of respondents admitted that full (34%) or partial (52%) Funding would motivate them to pursue the training. Among respondents desiring part sponsorship, more than half were willing to augment such sponsorship with personal funds. In conclusion, career interest in neuro-ophthalmology is very low among Nigerian ophthalmologists. Late and limited exposure to neuro-ophthalmology during medical training may be contributing factors. Early exposure to neuro-ophthalmology during medical school rotations, coupled with the provision of sponsored subspecialty training opportunities, will serve to increase enrollment in the field. PMID:29349319

  13. Evaluation of adding item-response theory analysis for evaluation of the European Board of Ophthalmology Diploma examination.

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    Mathysen, Danny G P; Aclimandos, Wagih; Roelant, Ella; Wouters, Kristien; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Ringens, Peter J; Hawlina, Marko; Tassignon, Marie-José

    2013-11-01

    To investigate whether introduction of item-response theory (IRT) analysis, in parallel to the 'traditional' statistical analysis methods available for performance evaluation of multiple T/F items as used in the European Board of Ophthalmology Diploma (EBOD) examination, has proved beneficial, and secondly, to study whether the overall assessment performance of the current written part of EBOD is sufficiently high (KR-20≥ 0.90) to be kept as examination format in future EBOD editions. 'Traditional' analysis methods for individual MCQ item performance comprise P-statistics, Rit-statistics and item discrimination, while overall reliability is evaluated through KR-20 for multiple T/F items. The additional set of statistical analysis methods for the evaluation of EBOD comprises mainly IRT analysis. These analysis techniques are used to monitor whether the introduction of negative marking for incorrect answers (since EBOD 2010) has a positive influence on the statistical performance of EBOD as a whole and its individual test items in particular. Item-response theory analysis demonstrated that item performance parameters should not be evaluated individually, but should be related to one another. Before the introduction of negative marking, the overall EBOD reliability (KR-20) was good though with room for improvement (EBOD 2008: 0.81; EBOD 2009: 0.78). After the introduction of negative marking, the overall reliability of EBOD improved significantly (EBOD 2010: 0.92; EBOD 2011:0.91; EBOD 2012: 0.91). Although many statistical performance parameters are available to evaluate individual items, our study demonstrates that the overall reliability assessment remains the only crucial parameter to be evaluated allowing comparison. While individual item performance analysis is worthwhile to undertake as secondary analysis, drawing final conclusions seems to be more difficult. Performance parameters need to be related, as shown by IRT analysis. Therefore, IRT analysis has

  14. Nordic research in ophthalmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Zetterström, Charlotta; Ehlers, Niels

    2003-01-01

    Ophthalmology, eye research, cornea, catarcat, paediatric ophthalmology, glaucoma, diabetic eye disease, age-related macular degeneration, ophthalmic oncology......Ophthalmology, eye research, cornea, catarcat, paediatric ophthalmology, glaucoma, diabetic eye disease, age-related macular degeneration, ophthalmic oncology...

  15. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades

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    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  16. Optical coherence tomography--a new imaging method in ophthalmology.

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    Svorenova, I; Strmen, P; Olah, Z

    2010-01-01

    An improvement of examination methods in ophthalmology, technical digitalisation and knowledge of validity of examinations in various diseases contributes to early diagnostics, thereby leading to an opportunity for early treatment of eye disorders. Standard introduction of the so-called optical coherence tomography into the ophthamological clinical practice facilitated new options for a detailed analysis of pathological processes in the particular layers of the retina (Fig. 2, Ref. 5). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  17. Ophthalmologic complications of systemic disease.

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    Klig, Jean E

    2008-02-01

    The human eye, as an organ, can offer critical clues to the presence of systemic disease. This article discusses the various ophthalmologic manifestations of systemic disease that can be evident on examination by an emergency department provider, as well as some findings that can be discerned with specialty consultation. The following topics are reviewed with respect to potential ocular signs and complications: syphilis, herpes zoster, Lyme disease, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Reiter's syndrome, Kawasaki's disease, temporal arteritis, endocarditis, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Indications for emergent ophthalmologic consultation are also emphasized.

  18. The Relationship between Peripheral Nerve Conduction Velocity and Ophthalmological Findings in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Early Diabetic Retinopathy

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    Azusa Ito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV is an indicator of neuronal damage in the distal segment of the peripheral nerves. Here, we determined the association between NCV and other systemic and ocular clinical findings, in type 2 diabetes patients with early diabetic retinopathy (DR. Methods. This study included 42 eyes of 42 type 2 diabetes patients (median age: 54 years with no DR or with mild nonproliferative DR. Standard statistical techniques were used to determine associations between clinical findings. Results. Sural sensory conduction velocity (SCV and tibial motor conduction velocity (MCV were significantly lower in mild nonproliferative DR patients than patients with no DR (P=0.008 and P=0.01, resp.. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses revealed that sural SCV and tibial MCV were independent factors contributing to the presence of mild nonproliferative DR (OR 0.83, P=0.012 and OR 0.69 P=0.02, resp.. Tibial MCV was correlated with choroidal thickness (CT (P=0.01, and a multiple regression analysis revealed that age, tibial MCV, and carotid intima-media thickness were independent associating factors with CT (P=0.035, P=0.015, and P=0.008, resp.. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that reduced NCV may be closely associated with early DR in type 2 diabetes patients. Thus, reduced nerve conduction is a potential early biomarker of DR.

  19. Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology / Jan-Jun 2014 / Vol 1 | Issue 1. I. Nigerian Journal of ... Inquiries about advertising should be sent to Medknow. Publications ... reproduce articles/information from this journal, please ... BUSINESS EDITOR.

  20. The visual difficulties of selected artists and limitations of ophthalmological care during the 19th and early 20th centuries (an AOS thesis).

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    Ravin, James G

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effects of eye diseases on several important artists who have been given little attention from a medical-historical viewpoint. The examples chosen demonstrate problems artists have had to face from different types of eye disease, including cataract, glaucoma, and retinal diseases. The ophthalmological care provided is described in terms of scientific knowledge at the time. Investigation of primary and secondary source material. Discussion with art historians and ophthalmic historians. Examination of work by the artists. Artists can be markedly affected by ocular diseases that change their ability to see the world. The individuals described here worked during the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. Homer Martin suffered from cataracts, and his works reveal changes in details and color as he aged. Henri Harpignies, who had an extremely long career, undoubtedly had cataracts and may also have had macular degeneration. Angle-closure glaucoma blinded Jules Chéret. Auguste Ravier suffered from neovascular glaucoma in one eye and was able to work with his remaining eye, which developed a cataract. Louis Valtat suffered from what was in all likelihood open-angle glaucoma, but specific changes due to this disease are not apparent in his work. Roger Bissière developed glaucoma and did well following filtration surgery. George Du Maurier lost one eye from what was probably a retinal detachment and later suffered from a central retinal problem in the other eye. Diseases of the eye may profoundly influence artists by altering their perception of the world. The specific effects may vary, depending on the disease, its severity, and the psychology of the artist. Cataracts typically affect an artist's ability to depict color and detail. The effect of glaucoma generally depends on whether central vision is preserved. Disease that affects the center of the retina has a substantial effect on an artist's ability to depict fine details. Ophthalmological

  1. The polaroid suppression test in a pediatric population with ophthalmologic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, JWR; Kingma, C; Verhoeff, K; Grootendorst, RJ; de Faber, JTHN

    Purpose: The Polaroid suppression test (PST) is a new method for early detection of amblyogenic factors by screening for suppression. The apparatus can elicit suppression with the use of Polaroid filters. The aim of the present study was to examine a population of children with known ophthalmologic

  2. Tests for malingering in ophthalmology

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    Ali Ihsan Incesu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Simulation can be defined as malingering, or sometimes functional visual loss (FVL. It manifests as either simulating an ophthalmic disease (positive simulation, or denial of ophthalmic disease (negative simulation. Conscious behavior and compensation or indemnity claims are prominent features of simulation. Since some authors suggest that this is a manifestation of underlying psychopathology, even conversion is included in this context. In today’s world, every ophthalmologist can face with simulation of ophthalmic disease or disorder. In case of simulation suspect, the physician’s responsibility is to prove the simulation considering the disease/disorder first, and simulation as an exclusion. In simulation examinations, the physician should be firm and smart to select appropriate test(s to convince not only the subject, but also the judge in case of indemnity or compensation trials. Almost all ophthalmic sensory and motor functions including visual acuity, visual field, color vision and night vision can be the subject of simulation. Examiner must be skillful in selecting the most appropriate test. Apart from those in the literature, we included all kinds of simulation in ophthalmology. In addition, simulation examination techniques, such as, use of optical coherence tomography, frequency doubling perimetry (FDP, and modified polarization tests were also included. In this review, we made a thorough literature search, and added our experiences to give the readers up-to-date information on malingering or simulation in ophthalmology.

  3. Lasers in Ophthalmology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    In recent years,lasers have entered every fieldof medicine and especially so in ophthalmol-ogy.The scientific basis of lasers in ophthal-mology is based on three mechanisms:1.Photothermal effectLasers:argon,krypton,dye and diodeA thermal effect is generated when laserenergy is absorbed by pigment leading to in-creased vibration and therefore heat content.A

  4. Avaliação oftalmológica tardia em portadores de retinopatia diabética Delay in ophthalmologic examination of diabetic retinopathy patients

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    Otacílio de Oliveira Maia Júnior

    2007-02-01

    asymptomatic diabetic patients. All were eligible to retinal panphotocoagulation in at least one eye. Duration and type of the disease as well as time of the first ophthalmic examination were established. RESULTS: Of the 44 patients, 6 (13.7% had diabetes type 1 and 38 (86.3% had diabetes type 2. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy was present in 24 (54.5% and severe or very severe non proliferative retinopathy was present in 20 (45.5%. Best visual acuity ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 (mean 0.83 ± 0.17 according to the Snellen chart. The time interval between diagnosis of diabetes and the first ophthalmic examination ranged from 7 to 19.5 years (13.2 ± 5.12 for diabetes type 1 and from 3 months to 18 years (5.2± 4.81 for diabetes type 2. CONCLUSION: Advanced diabetic retinopathy may be detected at different times of the ophthalmic examination in both types of diabetes. Although the mean interval between the diagnosis and the first examination is 13 years for diabetes type 1 and 5 years for diabetes type 2, this severe kind of retinopathy occurred as early as three months after diagnosis of diabetes. This points to the need for an earlier ophthalmic examination in the case of this disease.

  5. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

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    Silverman RH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald H Silverman1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via cilio-destruction, tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. Keywords: ophthalmic ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, ultrafast imaging, Doppler imaging 

  6. Examining Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Park, Lora E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study of 150 adolescents ("M" age = 13.05 years) examined the associations between appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) and psychological adjustment during early adolescence, and evaluated three types of other-gender peer experiences (other-gender friendship, peer acceptance, and romantic relationships) as…

  7. Trends in impact factors of ophthalmology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainer, Igor; Mimouni, Francis; Blumenthal, Eytan Z; Mimouni, Michael

    2016-09-01

    To test whether there is an association between the growth in the number of ophthalmic journals in the past years and their mean and maximum impact factor (IF) as a common sign of scientific proliferation. Using data from the 2013 Journal Citation Report database a study of the major clinical medical fields was conducted to assess the correlation between the number of journals and maximum IF in a given field in the year 2013. In the field of ophthalmology, we examined the correlation between year, number of journals, mean IF and maximum IF in the field of ophthalmology throughout the years 2000-2013. In the major medical fields, a positive correlation was found between the number of journals and the maximum IF (quadratic R2 = 0.71, Pjournals and mean IF (R2 = 0.84, Pjournals and maximum IF (R2 = 0.71, Pjournals in the field of ophthalmology. In the future, the formation of additional ophthalmology journals is likely to further increase the IFs of existing journals.

  8. Fibrin glue in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda Anita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Suturing is a time consuming task in ophthalmology and suture induced irritation and redness are frequent problems. Postoperative wound infection and corneal graft rejection are examples of possible suture related complications. To prevent these complications, ophthalmic surgeons are switching to sutureless surgery. A number of recent developments have established tissue adhesives like cyanoacrylate glue and fibrin glue as attractive alternatives to sutures. A possible and promising new application for tissue adhesives is to provide a platform for tissue engineering. Currently, tissue glue is being used for conjunctival closure following pterygium and strabismus surgery, forniceal reconstruction surgery, amniotic membrane transplantation, lamellar corneal grafting, closure of corneal perforations and descematoceles, management of conjunctival wound leaks after trabeculectomy, lid surgery, adnexal surgery and as a hemostat to minimise bleeding. The purpose of this review is to discuss the currently available information on fibrin glue.

  9. Neuro-ophthalmology update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Konrad P; Straumann, Dominik

    2014-07-01

    This review summarizes the most relevant articles from the field of neuro-ophthalmology published in the Journal of Neurology from January 2012 to July 2013. With the advent of video-oculography, several articles describe new applications for eye movement recordings as a diagnostic tool for a wide range of disorders. In myasthenia gravis, anti-Kv1.4 and anti-Lrp4 have been characterized as promising novel autoantibodies for the diagnosis of hitherto 'seronegative' myasthenia gravis. Several articles address new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to neuromyelitis optica, which further sharpen its profile as a distinct entity. Additionally, 4-aminopyridine has become a standard therapeutic for patients with cerebellar downbeat nystagmus. Finally, revised diagnostic criteria have been proposed for chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy based on a careful literature review over the last decade.

  10. Ophthalmic examination in early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder causing irreversible deterioration in memory and loss of self-care ability, which is seriously affecting the quality of life. There is no cure for Alzheimer's disease. Medication only can control the progression of the disease. Early diagnosis and control of disease progress is of great significance in improving the quality of life of the patients and reducing the burden of family and society. Ophthalmic examination is seen as a window which can “see” brain directly, and some changes in the eye can reflect the changes of the brain most directly. This paper reviews the ophthalmic examination of Alzheimer's disease, including optical coherence tomography(OCT, visual field, contrast sensitivity and eye movements, et al. We hope to provide a new idea for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Ophthalmologic survey of atomic bomb survivors in Japan, 1949. Atomic bomb radiation cataract case report with histopathologic study. Medical examination of Hiroshima patients with radiation cataracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, D.G.; Martin, S.F.; Kimura, S.J.; Ikui, Hiroshi; Fillmore, P.G.

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports dealing with the delayed effects of radiation on the eyes of survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first study, 1000 persons who were listed as having been in the open and within two kilometers of the hypocenter at the time of the explosion were selected at random from the census files of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission for study. In addition, 231 others, comprising the total available number of surviving persons listed at present in the census files as having been within one kilometer of the hypocenter, were examined, as were several hundred others who were contacted through newspaper publicity, referrals from local ophthalmologists, or through hearsay. The survey resulted in bringing in persons having, or having had, a variety of ocular conditions. Those connected with the atomic bomb included the following diagnoses; multiple injuries of eyes and eyelids; keratoconjunctivitis from ultraviolet and ionizing radiations; thermal burn of the cornea and of the retina; retinitis proliferans; and radiation cataracts. The cataracts were the only delayed manifestations of ocular injury from the atomic bomb. The second paper is a case report of a histopathologic study of atomic bomb radiation cataract. The third paper presents the results of medical examinations of survivors having radiation induced cataracts. 32 references, 8 figures. (DMC)

  12. Biochemical Measurements of Free Opsin in Macular Degeneration Eyes: Examining the 11-CIS Retinal Deficiency Hypothesis of Delayed Dark Adaptation (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneken, Anne; Neikirk, Thomas; Johnson, Jennifer; Kono, Masahiro

    2017-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that delayed dark adaptation in patients with macular degeneration is due to an excess of free unliganded opsin (apo-opsin) and a deficiency of the visual chromophore, 11 -cis retinal, in rod outer segments. A total of 50 human autopsy eyes were harvested from donors with and without macular degeneration within 2-24 hrs. postmortem. Protocols were developed which permitted dark adaptation of normal human eyes after death and enucleation. Biochemical methods of purifying rod outer segments were optimized and the concentration of rhodopsin and apo-opsin was measured with UV-visible scanning spectroscopy. The presence of apo-opsin was calculated by measuring the difference in the rhodopsin absorption spectra before and after the addition of 11 -cis retinal. A total of 20 normal eyes and 16 eyes from donors with early, intermediate and advanced stages of macular degeneration were included in the final analysis. Dark adaptation was achieved by harvesting whole globes in low light, transferring into dark (light-proof) canisters and dissecting the globes using infrared light and image converters for visualization. Apo-opsin was readily detected in positive controls after the addition of 11 -cis retinal. Normal autopsy eyes showed no evidence of apo-opsin. Eyes with macular degeneration also showed no evidence of apo-opsin, regardless of the severity of disease. Methods have been developed to study dark adaptation in human autopsy eyes. Eyes with age-related macular degeneration do not show a deficiency of 11 -cis retinal or an excess of apo-opsin within rod outer segments.

  13. Neuro-ophthalmology | Bekibele | Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 3 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Ultrasound examination in diagnostic of early congenital syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zavadovskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A peculiarity of the congenital syphilis of recent years is an increase of the number of cases of latent forms of the disease, marked with osteopathy. With the help of an examination of 50 children with early congenital syphilis, the following ultrasonic signs of a musculoskeletal system lesion were revealed: osteochondritis 90%, osteosclerosis 80%, and periostitis 30%.The comparison of the nature of a musculoskeletal system lesion with serological data of the specific process activity showed that complex manifestations of lesions with periostitis being a component were of the greatest clinical significance.

  15. Intracranial Aneurysms of Neuro-Ophthalmologic Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micieli, Jonathan A; Newman, Nancy J; Barrow, Daniel L; Biousse, Valérie

    2017-12-01

    Intracranial saccular aneurysms are acquired lesions that often present with neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms and signs. Recent advances in neurosurgical techniques, endovascular treatments, and neurocritical care have improved the optimal management of symptomatic unruptured aneurysms, but whether the chosen treatment has an impact on neuro-ophthalmologic outcomes remains debated. A review of the literature focused on neuro-ophthalmic manifestations and treatment of intracranial aneurysms with specific relevance to neuro-ophthalmologic outcomes was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Cavernous sinus aneurysms were not included in this review. Surgical clipping vs endovascular coiling for aneurysms causing third nerve palsies was compared in 13 retrospective studies representing 447 patients. Complete recovery was achieved in 78% of surgical patients compared with 44% of patients treated with endovascular coiling. However, the complication rate, hospital costs, and days spent in intensive care were reported as higher in surgically treated patients. Retrospective reviews of surgical clipping and endovascular coiling for all ocular motor nerve palsies (third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerves) revealed similar results of complete resolution in 76% and 49%, respectively. Improvement in visual deficits related to aneurysmal compression of the anterior visual pathways was also better among patients treated with clipping than with coiling. The time to treatment from onset of visual symptoms was a predictive factor of visual recovery in several studies. Few reports have specifically assessed the improvement of visual deficits after treatment with flow diverters. Decisions regarding the choice of therapy for intracranial aneurysms causing neuro-ophthalmologic signs ideally should be made at high-volume centers with access to both surgical and endovascular treatments. The status of the patient, location of the aneurysm, and experience of the treating physicians

  16. Neuro-ophthalmology as a career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitze, Arielle; Al-Zubidi, Nagham; Lam, Peter; Yalamanchili, Sushma; Lee, Andrew G

    2014-10-01

    This essay was written to discuss the reasoning behind the personal decisions made by 2 current neuro-ophthalmology fellows to pursue neuro-ophthalmology as a career. It is meant to enlighten the reader about what role neuro-ophthalmologists play in clinical practice, what makes neuro-ophthalmology unique to all other sub-specialties, and how this contributes to making neuro-ophthalmology not only one of the most medically interesting, yet rewarding sub-specialties in ophthalmology.

  17. Teaching of ophthalmology in undergraduate curricula: a survey of Australasian and Asian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jennifer C; Sherwin, Trevor; McGhee, Charles N J

    2007-01-01

    Despite established international guidelines on preferred teaching components for ophthalmology in undergraduate curricula, with increasingly less specialty-based undergraduate teaching within curricula, teaching of core ophthalmology knowledge and skills may become marginalized. This survey aims to evaluate the current state of undergraduate ophthalmology teaching in Australasia and proximate Asian medical schools. A questionnaire was developed to determine the content and extent of ophthalmology teaching in the undergraduate medical curriculum. The questionnaire was sent to 25 medical schools throughout Australasia and Asia. Nineteen of the 25 questionnaires were returned (76% response rate). Ophthalmology teaching programmes ranged from 2 to 20 days: five (26%) medical schools having one ophthalmology attachment; six schools (32%) two attachments; and the remainder three or more. Only seven of the schools taught all 13 ophthalmology topics recommended in current curriculum guidelines. Ocular examination (100%), lens and cataract (95%) and ocular manifestations of systemic disease (95%) were the most commonly taught topics, with intraocular tumours only covered by 10 schools (53%). Students in 14 schools (74%) attended ophthalmology operating theatre, but only two schools (11%) offered attendance at optometry clinics. Ten schools (53%) required a pass in ophthalmology to complete the academic year. Ophthalmology may increasingly be a small, or even absent, component of undergraduate medical curricula. Despite established international ophthalmology curriculum guidelines, this survey highlights significant lack of uniformity in their implementation.

  18. Systematic and Engaging Early Literacy: Examining the Effects of Paraeducator Implemented Early Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Gary E.; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Culatta, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of explicit and engaging supplemental early literacy instruction on at-risk kindergarten children's literacy development. Sixty-three kindergarten-aged children who had been ranked in the lowest 20th percentile on basic literacy skills participated in this study (38 treatment). Results reveal that children who…

  19. [Ophthalmological symptoms of measles and their treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végh, Mihály; Hári-Kovács, András; Roth, Hans-Walter; Facskó, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Measles, caused by the Morbilli virus, is a highly (about 95 %) contagious disease affecting primarily children, but without proper immunisation, adults can also be infected. The leading symptoms of the disease are high fever that presents after an incubation period of 9-10 days and the red rash that begins several days after the fever starts. Beyond specific generalized symptoms, measles may have ocular symptoms. The most commonly occurring conjunctivitis, the so-called "red eye symptom", is not characteristic only for measles infection, however, by taking the generalized symptoms it can suggest the diagnosis at the beginning of the disease. Conjunctivitis of varying severity is noticed in the half of the cases without using ophthalmological instrumentation. Using ophthalmological instrumentation, the mild forms of conjunctivitis can be diagnosed, by meticulous ophthalmological examination, further eye diseases can be discovered. The viral conjunctivitis can progress to keratitis and bacterial superinfection can occur. If the infection presents in childhood it can affect the posterior segment. The fight against measles is very effective in Hungary since the vaccination has been introduced, and the lack of vaccination is also the primary cause of the risk to the disease. In the diagnosis, symptomatic treatment of the disease and the curbing of possible mass infections, the practicing physician (general practitioner) has a key role. The correct care of the infected patient in Hungary is provided by a methodological letter, professional information and legal guides. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(39): 1523-1527.

  20. Neuro-ophthalmology | Bekibele | Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transactions of the Ophthalmological Society of Nigeria: Proceedings of the annual OSN Conference, Jos, Nigeria, August 25–28, 2015. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...

  1. Early studies of instant-fMRI for routine examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Yuuki; Harada, Kuniaki; Nagahama, Hiroshi; Akatsuka, Yoshihiro; Shinozaki, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Authors are developing a low-burden, short-time acquisition method of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 3T machine, named ''Instant-fMRI'', aiming for its application to routine examinations, of which results of early studies on identification of the language hemisphere are reported. Subjects were 10 healthy volunteers (8 males, 2 females, mean age 34.2 y, 8 right-handers) and 5 right-hander patients with brain tumor (4 males, 1 female, mean age 50 y). The machine was GE Signa HDx 3.0T ver. 14, using 8 channel head coil. For Instant-fMRI, T1-weighted imaging sequence for mapping was in fast spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (fSPGR) mode (scan time: 1 min 44 sec) and fMRI sequence, in GRE-EPI (scan time: 1 min), which thus required only about 3 min in total. Reference was defined to be the anterior-posterior commissure line, to which parallel sections involving centriciput and cerebellum were acquired. Rest (30 sec)-task (shiritori language game, 30 sec) cycle was to be one in instant-fMRI in contrast to three in the conventional fMRI. Volunteers received both instant-fMRI and conventional fMRI and patients, the former alone. Data were analyzed by GE Brain Wave PA. Right and left hemisphere of the left and right hander, respectively, was identified to be activated by instant-fMRI in 9 of 10 volunteers and in all patients, and by the conventional fMRI, in all volunteers. The instant-fMRI can be a useful examination of other brain functions as well as identifying the language field when acquisition parameters for desired diagnostic purpose are optimized. (T.T.)

  2. [Adaptive optics for ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, M

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive optics is a technology enhancing the visual performance of an optical system by correcting its optical aberrations. Adaptive optics have already enabled several breakthroughs in the field of visual sciences, such as improvement of visual acuity in normal and diseased eyes beyond physiologic limits, and the correction of presbyopia. Adaptive optics technology also provides high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the retina that may eventually help to detect the onset of retinal conditions at an early stage and provide better assessment of treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Ophthalmologic Findings in Patients with Neuro-metabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Narjes; Golnik, Karl; Shahriari, Mansoor; Karimzadeh, Parvaneh; Jabbehdari, Sayena

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to present the ophthalmic manifestations of neuro-metabolic disorders. Patients who were diagnosed with neuro-metabolic disorders in the Neurology Department of Mofid Pediatric Hospital in Tehran, Iran, between 2004 and 2014 were included in this study. Disorders were confirmed using clinical findings, neuroimaging, laboratory data, and genomic analyses. All enrolled patients were assessed for ophthalmological abnormalities. A total of 213 patients with 34 different neuro-metabolic disorders were included. Ophthalmological abnormalities were observed in 33.5% of patients. Abnormal findings in the anterior segment included Kayser-Fleischer rings, congenital or secondary cataracts, and lens dislocation into the anterior chamber. Posterior segment (i.e., retina, vitreous body, and optic nerve) evaluation revealed retinitis pigmentosa, cherry-red spots, and optic atrophy. In addition, strabismus, nystagmus, and lack of fixation were noted during external examination. Ophthalmological examination and assessment is essential in patients that may exhibit neuro-metabolic disorders.

  4. Smartphones in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chhablani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential usefulness of smartphones in the medical field is evolving everyday. This article describes various tools available on smartphones, largely focusing on the iPhone, for the examination of an ophthalmic patient, for patient and physician education, as well as reference tools for both ophthalmologists and vision researchers. Furthermore, the present article discusses how smartphones can be used for ophthalmic photography and image management, and foremost, the usefulness of the applications such as the Eye Handbook for the ophthalmologist and interested students, patients, physicians, and researchers, currently available in the iPhone.

  5. Ophthalmologic identification of cerebral malaria in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrosa, Catarina Areias

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the clinical presentation of malarial retinopathy in an adult, emphasizing the importance of this diagnosis for the clinical suspicion and prognosis of cerebral malaria. Methods: A 39-year-old caucasian man presented with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, acidemia and acute renal failure, developing severe encephalopathy. The diagnosis of malaria was done and after systemic stabilization, the patient noticed a central scotoma in the left eye. Ophthalmological examination revealed retinal features of malarial retinopathy. Results: At one-month follow-up, the patient had improved his systemic condition and the left eye scotoma had disappeared. Visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes and on examination almost all lesions had regressed. Conclusion: Malarial retinopathy is a diagnostic factor and a prognosis indicator of severe infection, usually with brain involvement. The knowledge of the ophthalmological features associated with severe malaria, which is more frequent in children but can also occur in adults, becomes imperative in order to reduce the risk of neurologic sequelae and associated mortality.

  6. Breaking bad news: A communication competency for ophthalmology training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilkert, Sarah M; Cebulla, Colleen M; Jain, Shelly Gupta; Pfeil, Sheryl A; Benes, Susan C; Robbins, Shira L

    As the ophthalmology accreditation system undergoes major changes, training programs must evaluate residents in the 6 core competencies, including appropriately communicating bad news. Although the literature is replete with recommendations for breaking bad news across various non-ophthalmology specialties, no formal training programs exist for ophthalmology. There are many valuable lessons to be learned from our colleagues regarding this important skill. We examine the historic basis for breaking bad news, explore current recommendations among other specialties, and then evaluate a pilot study in breaking bad news for ophthalmology residents. The results of this study are limited by a small number of residents at a single academic center. Future studies from multiple training programs should be conducted to further evaluate the need and efficacy of formal communication skills training in this area, as well as the generalizability of our pilot training program. If validated, this work could serve as a template for future ophthalmology resident training and evaluation in this core competency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Examining Understandings of Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, Aimee V.; Kallemeyn, Leanne; Phillips, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The importance of parent involvement in children's development and learning is increasingly recognized in the research literature and in federal and state policies; however, no unified definition of parent involvement exists. This study examined different understandings and definitions of parent involvement in a sample of administrators of…

  8. An Aid to Neuro-Ophthalmology

    OpenAIRE

    Akram, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Muhammad Shoaib AkramDepartment of Ophthalmology, King Fahad Military Hospital, Khamis Mushyat, Saudi ArabiaNeuro-ophthalmology is a very interesting field. Localizing a lesion in various pathways can be challenging, particularly for beginners. One needs a solid foundation of the neuro-anatomy of visual pathways to enhance understanding. The author aims to provide medical students and residents with the basic concepts of neuro-ophthalmology. This text attempts to simplify the complex problems...

  9. Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye ... and Planned Giving Ophthalmic Business Council Orbital Gala Orbital Gala Overview Why Attend ...

  10. The application of laser plasma in ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yujiang; Luo Le; Sun Yabing

    2000-01-01

    The production and development of laser plasma are introduced, and the contribution of laser biomedicine and laser plasma technology to ophthalmology is analyzed. The latest three progresses (laser photocoagulation, photo-refractive keratotomy and laser iridectomy) of laser plasma applications in ophthalmology are presented

  11. Ophthalmology research protocol, Hiroshima - Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R J; Fujino, Tadashi; Nefzger, M D

    1964-05-21

    Several large ophthalmic studies have been made at ABCC. However, all preceded the final identification and definition of the Master Sample which unifies the three present major research studies, and T57D estimates were not available. For these reasons it seemed highly desirable to undertake another ophthalmic study which would both relate to the present program and utilize available dose information. Consequently, in 1962 a consultant in ophthalmology, Dr. P.J. Leinfelder visited ABCC to acquaint himself with the ABCC program and facilities, and he prepared the broad plan for this study. The present document describes the detailed working program which developed from this initial plan. For the period 1963 to 1964, investigation will be directed towards detection and evaluation of the following possible late effects of exposure to ionizing radiation: lens opacities; accelerated aging; and decreased acuity. 43 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  12. Importância do exame oftalmológico na doença de von Hippel-Lindau The importance of the ophthalmological examination in von Hippel-Lindau disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL é uma síndrome tumoral autossômica dominante. Esses tumores incluem hemangioblastoma da retina e sistema nervoso central (CSN, carcinoma de células renais, feocromocitoma, tumores de pâncreas, cistoadenoma de rins, pâncreas e epidídimo. Os sintomas mais comuns são perda da visão, aumento da pressão intracraniana, déficits neurológicos, aumento da pressão arterial sistêmica paradoxal e dor local. Relatamos o caso de um paciente com perda de visão e história de hemangiomas cerebelares cujo diagnóstico de VHL foi feito após exame oftalmológico.Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease is an autossomical, dominant inherited tumour syndrom. These tumours may include haemangioblastoma in the retina and central nervous system (CNS, renal cell carcinoma, phaeochromocytoma, islet cell tumours of the pancreas, cystadenoma in the kidney, pancreas, and epididymis. The most common symptoms include: loss of vision, raised intracranial pressure, neurological deficits, paroxysmal raised blood pressure and local pain. We report herein a 29-year-old man with visual loss and cerebellar haemangioblastoma that despite neurological manifestations the diagnosis of VHL was established after the ophthalmological examanination.

  13. General Information | Bekibele | Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Caring for academic ophthalmology in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandić, Zdravko; Vatavuk, Zoran

    2004-06-01

    Like any other area of academic medicine in Croatia, academic ophthalmology has always been limited by or has depended on the factors outside the profession itself: during the communist regime, it was mostly political and ideological correctness of academic ophthalmologists, and today during the social and economic transition, it is the lack of finances, planning, and sophisticated technology. The four university eye clinics, which are the pillars of academic ophthalmology in Croatia, provide health care to most difficult cases, educate students, residents, and specialists, and do research. On the other hand, they lack equipment, room, and financial recognition. This ever growing imbalance between requirements imposed on academic ophthalmology today and its possibilities make it less and less attractive, especially in comparison with private practice. The possible solution lies in increasing the independence of ophthalmology from pharmaceutical industry and politics, especially in research and financial aspects.

  15. The clinical neuro-ophthalmology of vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashii, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    To diagnose a patient with a failing visual system, it is necessary to localize the site of the lesion in the system, and identify the etiology that has produced it. Physicians do not see diseases but just their manifestations. Clinical neuro-ophthalmology provides the basic principles on how to progress from manifestations to the diseases they indicate. The Frank B. Walsh Neuro-Ophthalmology Society (the Walsh Society) that originated in 1969 in the United States has been the center of clinical neuro-ophthalmology case studies throughout the world. In Japan, the Ronald M. Burde Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology Study Group (the RMB Society) was organized in 2001 to establish and promote a clinicopathologic conference in the style of the Walsh Society. On this occasion, Prof. Burde was invited to the Annual Japanese Ophthalmological Society meeting. Based on some illustrative cases presented at the annual meetings of the RMB society, this review was carried out to present the current knowledge of clinical neuro-ophthalmology. (author)

  16. Orange fiber laser for ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, M.; Kojima, K.; Hayashi, K.

    2007-02-01

    For the light source of photocoagulators for ophthalmology, orange laser is more suitable than green laser because of low scattering loss by the crystalline lens, and low absorption by xanthophylls in the retina. We developed two orange fiber lasers (580 nm and 590 nm) to investigate the effect depending on the difference in the range of orange. The 580nm laser is composed of a 1160 nm fiber laser and a Periodically Polled Lithium Niobate (PPLN) crystal for second harmonic generation. The 1160 nm fiber laser beam is focused into the MgO-doped PPLN crystal whose length is 30 mm with 3-pass configuration. Continuous-wave 1.3 W output power of 580 nm was obtained with 5.8 W input power of 1160nm for the first time. The conversion efficiency was 22%. The band width of the second harmonic was 0.006 nm (FWHM). The 590 nm laser is almost the same as 580 nm laser source. In this case we used a Raman shift fiber to generate 1180 nm, and the output power of 590 nm was 1.4 W. We developed an evaluation model of photocoagulator system using these two laser sources. A 700 mW coagulation output power was obtained with this orange fiber laser photocoagulator system. This is enough power for the eye surgery. We have the prospect of the maintenance-free, long-life system that is completely air-cooled. We are planning to evaluate this photocoagulator system in order to investigate the difference between the two wavelengths at the field test.

  17. Novel use of smart tablet computer for ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Tian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To identify and categorize ophthalmology-relevant apps for the iPad tablet computer as a source for ophthalmic practices on the Apple's App Store.METHODS: The Apple's App Store was searched for ophthalmology-relevant apps from January 2013 to August 2013. Eligible apps were identified and downloaded into the iPad tablet computers, and then categorized according to the apps' initial contents and our using experiences. Methods about how to use the iPad's built-in functions of instant video call(FaceTime®and automatic data storage technology(iCloud®were also described together with the apps. Other operating systems of Microsoft's Window Phone and Google's Android were also searched for ophthalmology-relevant apps.RESULTS: The keywords for searching on the Apple's App Store were “ophthalmology” and “eye”. And we could found 111 eligible apps with the former keyword, and 452 ones with the latter one. The integrated uses of the iPad tablet computer were then categorized into five aspects. Based on our clinical practice, we finally summarized the advantages and disadvantages of the iPad tablet computer for ophthalmic practices. However, ophthalmology-relevant apps were found to be very limited in number on the other two platforms.CONCLUSION: The integrated use of self built-in apps and third-party apps can facilitate our clinical work in examination, telemedicine, reference, disease education and literature searching. More studies are needed to verify its validation and reliability in the professional fields, especially eye examinations.

  18. An Examination of Classroom Social Environment on Motivation and Engagement of College Early Entrant Honors Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    This study set out to examine the relationships between the classroom social environment, motivation, engagement and achievement of a group of early entrant Honors students at a large urban university. Prior research on the classroom environment, motivation, engagement and high ability students was examined, leading to the assumption that the…

  19. Does the Length of Fielding Period Matter? Examining Response Scores of Early Versus Late Responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigman Richard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the potential effects of a shortened fielding period on an employee survey’s item and index scores and respondent demographics. Using data from the U.S. Office of Personnel Management’s 2011 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey, we investigate whether early responding employees differ from later responding employees. Specifically, we examine differences in item and index scores related to employee engagement and global satisfaction. Our findings show that early responders tend to be less positive, even after adjusting their weights for nonresponse. Agencies vary in their prevalence of late responders, and score differences become magnified as this proportion increases. We also examine the extent to which early versus late responders differ on demographic characteristics such as grade level, supervisory status, gender, tenure with agency, and intention to leave, noting that nonminorities and females are the two demographic characteristics most associated with responding early.

  20. Early detection of abnormality by a logistic analysis of atomic bomb survivor's serially performed examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Toyoda, Shigeki; Morikawa, Akira.

    1986-01-01

    It is important to establish a method of using periodic medical examination results for disease screening. A method is described of logistically analyzing results from four or more periodic examinations for the early detection of abnormality. This method was applied to 308 patients who died of gastric cancer and 3,002 normal controls. The logistic analysis showed that the ability to differentiate normal from abnormal findings was better when using the results of the periodic examinations than when using the data of the one particular examination. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. The polaroid suppression test in a pediatric population with ophthalmologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Jan Willem R; Kingma, C; Verhoeff, K; Grootendorst, R J; de Faber, J T H N

    2003-04-01

    The Polaroid suppression test (PST) is a new method for early detection of amblyogenic factors by screening for suppression. The apparatus can elicit suppression with the use of Polaroid filters. The aim of the present study was to examine a population of children with known ophthalmologic disorders using the PST to determine the rate of false-negative results of the PST. Six hundred four children, varying in age between 3 and 15 years (mean, 7.9) were examined using the PST. Ophthalmologic disorders ranged from strabismus and amblyopia to refractive disorders. Mean testing time for the PST was 43 seconds. The PST could not be administered to 34 children (5.6%); 443 children (73.3%) had abnormal results; and 127 children (22.2%) showed no suppression. The suppression in constant strabismus was detected in almost all cases. The sensitivity for accommodative forms of strabismus was lower, but amblyopia was never missed in these cases. In children with normal eye alignment, only 2.7% with an interocular acuity difference of more than 0.1 logMAR had no suppression. Of all 119 children with clinical defined amblyopia, only 1 (0.8%) did not have suppression. Overall sensitivity of the PST for strabismus and/or abnormal interocular acuity difference was 96.2% and specificity was 41.1%. The PST has great potential as a visual screening tool in young children. Only few children with amblyogenic factors were missed. Thus, the test can differentiate those children at risk for amblyopia from normally sighted children. Because specificity is lower, all children showing suppression with the PST in a screening situation should have further examination by the health care worker before being referred to the ophthalmologist.

  2. Kinetic examination of the thyroid for an early detection of localized autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Kissel, H.J.; Schnabel, K.

    1980-01-01

    Early diagnosis of localised thyroid autonomy can in many cases be of high importance for the patient. By manifesting accelerated radioiodine kinetics in suspicious lobes or regions of the thyroid, autonomies of the thyroid can be detected early and definitely. Examination covered 50 euthyroidic patients showing only an asymmetric thyroidal configuration in the scintiscan. Unilateral determining of the radioiodine kinetics at the Auger-camera helped to find out if, and in how many cases, there is really an accelerated iodine metabolism in the thyroids represented asymmetrically. Fire of the examinated patients showed, compared with the opposite side, both increased iodine uptake and accelerated iodine output in the lobes which are seen more clearly in the scintiscan. This might be an indication of a very early stage of thyroidal autonomy. (orig.) [de

  3. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, B.; Walstra, G.; Lindeboom, J.; Teunisse, S.; Jonker, C.

    2000-01-01

    Dementia screening instruments, such as the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), measure a variety of cognitive functions. However, memory impairment generally is the first sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It seems logical, therefore, to use only memory-related items for the early detection of

  4. Increased knowledge of thalassemia promotes early carrier status examination among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Broto Dewanto

    2016-04-01

    A higher thalassemia knowledge score causes medical students to be willing to undergo thalassemia carrier status examination at an earlier point in timing. A well-organized educational program focusing on thalassemia and early screening in young adults may enhance the thalassemia prevention program.

  5. General ophthalmology | Bekibele | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transactions of the Ophthalmological Society of Nigeria: Proceedings of the annual OSN Conference, Jos, Nigeria, August 25–28, 2015. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...

  6. General ophthalmology | Bekibele | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proceedings from the Ophthalmological Society of Nigeria Conference, 2014. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  7. Cryotherapy in ophthalmology. Kryotherapie in der Augenheilkunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, M. (Medizinische Akademie Dresden (Germany))

    1993-01-01

    Ophthalmology is the only medical field in which all of the six known therapeutic applications of low temperature are used. The most important indications are discussed with reference to the corresponding device technology developed at the Department of Cryomedicine of the Dresden Academy of Medicine. (orig.)

  8. Acquisition and retrieval of ophthalmology academic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how to search and access ophthalmology information based on specialized websites and resources by introducing the database, search engines, electronic journals, electronic books and so on. Hope to help ophthalmic practitioners to carry out scientific research and clinical practice.

  9. Competency based ophthalmology training curriculum for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The establishment of a credible, defensible and acceptable “formal competency based ophthalmology training curriculum for undergraduate medical and dental students” is fundamental to program recognition, monitoring and evaluation. The University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences (UZ-CHS) has ...

  10. DIABETIC RETINOPATHY SCREENING THROUGH TELE-OPHTHALMOLOGY IN A PRIMARY CARE CENTER IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosses, Ana PO; Jornada Ben, A.; Souza, Camila Furtado de; Araújo, Aline Lutz de; Szortika, Adriana; Locatelli, Franciele; Carvalho, Gabriela de; Neumann, Cristina Rolim

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major cause of blindness and its prevalence varies between 15 and 20%. Brazilian people face limited access to ophthalmological services, so strategies in telemedicine to monitor retinal status may help to early diagnose patients developing DR. Objectives: To determine

  11. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tereshchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatment and monitoring.Results: In 2003-2011 454 fields in Kaluga, tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions were made. 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP were performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3-ports vitrectomy — 72, lensvitrectomy — 14. the total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%.Conclusion: the ophthalmologic help system for premature infants in Central region of Russia combines all directions from de-tailed diagnostic to hich-technology treatment. It allows to reproduce one all over the Russian Federation territory.

  12. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tereshchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatment and monitoring.Results: In 2003-2011 454 fields in Kaluga, tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions were made. 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP were performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3-ports vitrectomy — 72, lensvitrectomy — 14. the total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%.Conclusion: the ophthalmologic help system for premature infants in Central region of Russia combines all directions from de-tailed diagnostic to hich-technology treatment. It allows to reproduce one all over the Russian Federation territory.

  13. [Differentiating early dementia from major depression with the Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, M; Torralva, T; López, P; Marengo, J; Cetkovich, M; Manes, F

    In clinical practice it is often difficult to establish whether cognitive impairment is secondary to an affective disorder or a dementing process. To describe the cognitive performance on the Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) of patients with early dementia and depression. 77 patients with early dementia (53 Alzheimer disease; 24 frontotemporal dementia), 17 patients with major depression and 54 healthy volunteers were tested with the Spanish version of the ACE. Alzheimer disease and frontotemporal dementia groups were significantly lower than the control group and the major depression group. When the major depression group was compared with the control group no significant differences were found. The cognitive performance in the ACE is different in patients with early dementia and patient with depression.

  14. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness

    OpenAIRE

    Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of seventy-two Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized tha...

  15. The gamma knife in ophthalmology. Part One--Uveal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygledowska-Promieńska, Dorota; Jurys, Małgorzata; Wilczyński, Tomasz; Drzyzga, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    The Gamma Knife was designed by Lars Leksell in the early 1950's. It gave rise to a new discipline of medicine--stereotactic radiosurgery. Primarily dedicated to neurosurgery, the Gamma Knife has become an alternative, widely used surgery technique. According to Elekta's statistics, approximately 60,000 people are treated with Leksell Gamma Knife every year and it is the most extensively studied stereotactic radiosurgery system in the world. The Leksell Gamma Knife can also be used in ophthalmology. The gamma ray beam concentration enables effective treatment of uveal melanoma, choroidal hemangioma, orbital tumors or even choroidal neovascularization. The virtue of Leksell Gamma Knife is its extreme precision, non-invasiveness and the possibility of outpatient treatment, which significantly reduces costs and diminishes post-operative complications. Innovative solutions shorten a single session to a minimum, which is very comfortable and safe for both staff and patients. Advantages and possible side effects of gamma knife radiosurgery are well-documented in the professional literature. The objective of this review is to present the recognized applications of Leksell Gamma Knife in ophthalmology.

  16. A comparison of ultrasound and clinical examination in the detection of flexor tenosynovitis in early arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abouqal Redouane

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tenosynovitis is widely accepted to be common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and postulated to be the first manifestation of RA, but its true prevalence in early disease and in particular the hand has not been firmly established. The aims of this study were first to investigate the frequency and distribution of finger flexor tenosynovitis using ultrasound in early arthritis, second to compare clinical examination with ultrasound (US using the latter as the gold standard. Methods 33 consecutive patients who had who were initially diagnosed with polyarthritis and suspected of polyarthritis and clinical suspicion of inflammatory arthritis of the hands and wrists were assessed during consecutive, routine presentations to the rheumatology outpatient clinic. We scanned a total of 165 finger tendons and subsequent comparisons were made using clinical examination. Results Flexor tenosynovitis was found in 17 patients (51.5% on ultrasound compared with 16 (48.4% of all patients on clinical examination. Most commonly damaged joint involved on US was the second finger followed by the third, fifth, and fourth. Both modalities demonstrated more pathology on the second and third metacarpophalangeal (MCP compared with the fourth and fifth MCP. A joint-by-joint comparison of US and clinical examination demonstrated that although the sensitivity, specificities and positive predictive values of clinical examination were relatively high, negative predictive value of clinical examination was low (0.23. Conclusions Our study suggest that clinical examination can be a valuable tool for detecting flexor disease in view of its high specificity and positive predictive values, but a negative clinical examination does not exclude inflammation and an US should be considered. Further work is recommended to standardize definitions and image acquisition for peritendinous inflammation for ultrasound.

  17. [Citation analysis of originals in Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lian

    2002-09-01

    To evaluate the academic level and the popularity of Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology. According to the information of Chinese science and technology papers and citation database (CSTPC), I statistically analyzed the amount and distribution of the originals in Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology cited by the journals included by CSTPC. The originals of Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology were high-qualified and influential, and their authors were all over the country. With the unique style and character, Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology is the main medical core periodical and one of the most important information resources in the field of ophthalmology in China.

  18. Perspective of ophthalmology residents in the United States about residency programs and competency in relation to the International Council of Ophthalmology guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Nizar Saleh; Radwan, Ahmed E; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the perspective of ophthalmology residents in the US about their residency programs and compare the competency of residency programs to international competency levels set by the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO). A cross-sectional web-based survey extracted from the ICO published competency standards was sent to program directors of ophthalmology residency programs in the US to forward it to current PGY-3, 4 residents, and residency graduates from 2011 to 2014. Eighty-seven responses were received, comprising 61 residents and 26 graduates. Most respondents were highly satisfied with their programs (93.6%). Clinic-based training was rated satisfactorily. Insufficient exposure to low-vision rehabilitation (38.5%), refraction and contact lenses prescription (38.5%), and vitreo-retinal surgeries (38.5%) was reported. Respondents were satisfied with their overall surgical experiences, with the vast majority (>83%) rating case volume, complexity, and variety as satisfactory or better. A significant group stated they had insufficient exposure to extra-capsular cataract extraction (26.3%), refractive surgery (19.7%), and orbital surgery (64.5%). All graduates surveyed passed their Ophthalmic Knowledge Assessment Program (OKAP) examinations, and 72% felt their residency programs adequately prepared them for the examinations. All respondents reported insufficient training in certain nonclinical areas, such as practice management, staffing, and administration skills. Ophthalmology residents in the US express high levels of satisfaction with their residency training programs. While most programs adequately address most ICO core objectives, certain curriculum modifications should be considered.

  19. [Organizational ethics: a study in ophthalmologic clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Maria Aparecida; Scarpi, Marinho Jorge

    2005-01-01

    Research on the field of organizational ethics to investigate to which extent ophthalmologic clinics, inserted in the competitive atmosphere, in the condition of organizations in search of survival, subordinate ethics to competitiveness in the managerial praxis, that is, in the administrative sphere. Kohlberg is taken as theoretical reference, approaching the theme of ethical subordination to competitiveness. The instrument to evaluate moral behaviors of organizations, elaborated by Licht, is applied. The quantitative method is used, adopting analytic instruments, such as Q of Yule and non parametric tests, when dealing with the data of 41 ophthalmologic clinics. The results of the research seem to indicate that administrators of ophthalmologic clinics of greater performance subordinate ethical principles to competitiveness, seeking to assure the survival of the company and, when confronted with the instrument to evaluate their moral behavior, proposed by Kohlberg, have a significantly smaller presence in the postconventional stage than administrators of ophthalmologic clinics with a smaller performance. One may affirm, according to non parametric tests, at the level of significance of 0.05, that the levels of moral development of the two groups differ significantly. The obtained results are according to the literature, especially concerning the "paradox of the ethical subordination and competitiveness". They also suggest that the warrant of the survival of the company tends to reduce the perception of the groups in power regarding the problems that happen in the community, and that a reduction of the ethical values subordinated to competition occurs, and such reduction provokes growing feelings of economical disputes in the social sphere.

  20. Examination of Conservatism in Early/Latent Fatality Estimation in Level 3 PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung-yeop; Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Due to the computational model driven-nature of the work, there exist various sources of uncertainty in level 3 PRA. They are related with source release, environmental transport and deposition, human behavior involved in dosimetry, health effect and risk assessment. For instance, a total of 376 parameters have been considered in Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty Assessment Using COSYMA and the details on the number of parameters in each analysis are listed in Table 1. In 2012, the report of NPP accident consequence simulation was distributed by the Korean Federation for Environmental Movement (KFEM). They insisted that Kori Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident would lead to 48,000 early fatalities and 850,000 cancer fatalities in Busan and Hanbit NPP accident would lead to 550,000 cancer fatalities in Seoul. This report exemplifies the misuse of collective dose, that is effective dose multiplied by population and time. Even though very low effective dose is considered, collective dose could give over-conservative estimate when high population and long time period is multiplied. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) forewarned about the misuse of collective dose, in their ICRP Publication 103, such as applying it to simplified calculation of fatality and risk. As part of investigation of conservatism in early and latent fatality estimation, the existing methods of early and latent fatality calculation was reviewed and the results from the use of the existing methodology were examined in this study. The method of early and latent fatality estimation in level 3 PRA was investigated and the conservatism in the result was examined in this study. For the purpose of estimating both early and latent fatality, appropriate dose distributions among the affected population are found to be important. This study showed that large conservatism may be involved in the estimated fatality if the distribution of population dose as a function of

  1. Examination of Conservatism in Early/Latent Fatality Estimation in Level 3 PRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-yeop; Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Due to the computational model driven-nature of the work, there exist various sources of uncertainty in level 3 PRA. They are related with source release, environmental transport and deposition, human behavior involved in dosimetry, health effect and risk assessment. For instance, a total of 376 parameters have been considered in Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty Assessment Using COSYMA and the details on the number of parameters in each analysis are listed in Table 1. In 2012, the report of NPP accident consequence simulation was distributed by the Korean Federation for Environmental Movement (KFEM). They insisted that Kori Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident would lead to 48,000 early fatalities and 850,000 cancer fatalities in Busan and Hanbit NPP accident would lead to 550,000 cancer fatalities in Seoul. This report exemplifies the misuse of collective dose, that is effective dose multiplied by population and time. Even though very low effective dose is considered, collective dose could give over-conservative estimate when high population and long time period is multiplied. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) forewarned about the misuse of collective dose, in their ICRP Publication 103, such as applying it to simplified calculation of fatality and risk. As part of investigation of conservatism in early and latent fatality estimation, the existing methods of early and latent fatality calculation was reviewed and the results from the use of the existing methodology were examined in this study. The method of early and latent fatality estimation in level 3 PRA was investigated and the conservatism in the result was examined in this study. For the purpose of estimating both early and latent fatality, appropriate dose distributions among the affected population are found to be important. This study showed that large conservatism may be involved in the estimated fatality if the distribution of population dose as a function of

  2. Crowdsourcing: an overview and applications to ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueyang; Mudie, Lucy; Brady, Christopher J

    2016-05-01

    Crowdsourcing involves the use of the collective intelligence of online communities to produce solutions and outcomes for defined objectives. The use of crowdsourcing is growing in many scientific areas. Crowdsourcing in ophthalmology has been used in basic science and clinical research; however, it also shows promise as a method with wide-ranging applications. This review presents current findings on the use of crowdsourcing in ophthalmology and potential applications in the future. Crowdsourcing has been used to distinguish normal retinal images from images with diabetic retinopathy; the collective intelligence of the crowd was able to correctly classify 81% of 230 images (19 unique) for US$1.10/eye in 20 min. Crowdsourcing has also been used to distinguish normal optic discs from abnormal ones with reasonable sensitivity (83-88%), but low specificity (35-43%). Another study used crowdsourcing for quick and reliable manual segmentation of optical coherence tomography images. Outside of ophthalmology, crowdsourcing has been used for text and image interpretation, language translation, and data analysis. Crowdsourcing has the potential for rapid and economical data processing. Among other applications, it could be used in research settings to provide the 'ground-truth' data, and in the clinical settings to relieve the burden of image processing on experts.

  3. Therapeutic application of lasers in ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misiuk-Hojlo, M.; Krzyzanowska-Berkowska, P.; Hill-Bator, A.

    2007-01-01

    Lasers have found application in diverse branches of medicine. In ophthalmology, laser technology has various therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The purpose of this article is to review the major therapeutic applications of lasers in different eye disorders. The effects of lasers on biological tissues and different laser techniques as well as the indications for laser therapy in various parts of the eye are discussed. Lasers are used to treat glaucoma and many vascular disorders of the retina. Laser treatment may be useful in preventing the development of neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy, BRVO, or CRVO. Laser techniques are also available for the treatment of the exudative form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and some malignant and benign intraocular tumors and in retina abnormalities which predispose to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Corneal laser surgery is the most frequently applied laser procedure in ophthalmology. PRK, LASIK, and LASEK are used to correct errors in vision such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. Laser photocoagulation is also helpful in cataract surgery. Nowadays, lasers have become so universal that it is difficult to imagine ophthalmology without them. We are still witnessing rapid advances in the development of laser techniques, especially in plastic surgery, cataract extraction, and ocular imaging. (authors)

  4. History and development of ophthalmology in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chih Hou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Western medicine was first introduced to Taiwan by medical missionaries in the mid-19th century. Modernization of medicine was systematically transplanted to Taiwan in the Japanese colonial period, and ophthalmology was established third among hospital departments, following internal medicine and surgery. Dr Hidetaka Yamaguchi, an ophthalmologist, was the first head of the Taihoku Hospital, later known as National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH; Taipei, Taiwan. Ophthalmologists during the colonial period conducted studies on tropical and infectious eye diseases. After World War II, ophthalmologists at NTUH played an important role in medical education, residency training, studies, and teaching. Dr Yan-Fei Yang established the Taiwan Ophthalmological Society in 1960 and instituted its official journal in 1962. Dr Ho-Ming Lin established the Department of Ophthalmology at the Tri-Service General Hospital in the 1950s and the Veterans General Hospital in the 1960s. Taiwan ophthalmologists eradicated trachoma by 1971. Cataract surgery and penetrating keratoplasty were initially performed in the 1960s. Currently, there are about 1600 ophthalmologists in Taiwan conducting an estimated 120,000 cataract surgeries and 600 corneal transplantations annually. Many subspecialty societies have been established recently that serve to educate Taiwanese ophthalmologists and to connect with international ophthalmic societies. Taiwan ophthalmologists continue to contribute to the advancement of ophthalmic knowledge globally.

  5. Funding models for outreach ophthalmology services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Angus W; Mulholland, Will; Taylor, Hugh R

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to describe funding models used and compare the effects of funding models for remuneration on clinical activity and cost-effectiveness in outreach eye services in Australia. Cross-sectional case study based in remote outreach ophthalmology services in Australia. Key stake-holders from eye services in nine outreach regions participated in the study. Semistructured interviews were conducted to perform a qualitative assessment of outreach eye services' funding mechanisms. Records of clinical activity were used to statistically compare funding models. Workforce availability (supply of ophthalmologists), costs of services, clinical activity (surgery and clinic consultation rates) and waiting times. The supply of ophthalmologists (full-time equivalence) to all remote regions was below the national average (up to 19 times lower). Cataract surgery rates were also below national averages (up to 10 times lower). Fee-for-service funding significantly increased clinical activity. There were also trends to shorter waiting times and lower costs per attendance. For outreach ophthalmology services, the funding model used for clinician reimbursement may influence the efficiency and costs of the services. Fee-for-service funding models, safety-net funding options or differential funding/incentives need further exploration to ensure isolated disadvantaged areas prone to poor patient attendance are not neglected. In order for outreach eye health services to be sustainable, remuneration rates need to be comparable to those for urban practice. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  6. Infant Motor Delay and Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examinations in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakenaka, Yuhei; Kotani, Haruko; Yasumitsu-Lovell, Kahoko; Suzuki, Keita; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities of early motor development have been reported in autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, intellectual developmental disorder, developmental coordination disorder, and other Early Symptomatic Syndromes Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examinations (ESSENCE). However, few studies have been conducted with a view to following up a clinically representative cohort of children coming for assessment of motor delay before age two years. We performed a prospective clinical cohort study to examine whether or not early motor delay is often an indication of ESSENCE. The sample comprised a one-year cohort of all children who came to a Japanese neurodevelopmental center before their second birthday because of delayed or abnormal gross motor development. The children were followed up from the ESSENCE viewpoint. Of the 30 children, 28 (18 boys and 10 girls) (93%) were given diagnoses subsumed under the ESSENCE umbrella. Of the 15 children with an identified or strongly suspected etiology, 13 (8 boys and 5 girls) (87%) had ESSENCE disorders or symptoms. Of the 15 children without a known etiology, all had ESSENCE disorders or symptoms. This study indicated that the vast majority of children with motor delay or abnormality in the first two years of life meet criteria for a disorder within the group of ESSENCE at follow-up; this means that young children, presenting with motor problems always need a broad clinical assessment, not just related to motor function, and systematic follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Feedback of final year ophthalmology postgraduates about their residency ophthalmology training in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: This study documents a survey of final-year ophthalmology postgraduate students on the subject of their residency training. A similar survey conducted 7 years ago published in IJO had concluded that the residency program was not up to expectations in many centers. Our study aimed to see if ophthalmology training and student perceptions differed since then. Materials and Methods: For our study, we added a few questions to the same questionnaire used in the article "which is the best method to learn ophthalmology? Resident doctors′ perspective of ophthalmology training" published in IJO, Vol. 56 (5. Results: Forty-nine students (62.02% returned completed forms. Most students desired an orientation program on entering residency, and wished to undergo diagnostic training initially. Case-presentation with demonstration and Wet-lab learning were most preferred. There was a big difference between the number of surgeries students actually performed and the number they felt would have been ideal. Conclusion: On the whole, the students still felt the need for improved training across all aspects of ophthalmology.

  8. Ophthalmological findings in Cameroonian boxers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagmeni G

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Giles Kagmeni,1,2 Georges Nguefack-Tsague,3 Steve Robert Ebana Mvogo,2 Come Ebana Mvogo2,4 1Eye Department, University Teaching Hospital Yaoundé (UTHY, 2Eye Department, University of Yaoundé I, 3Public Health Department, University of Yaoundé I, 4Eye Department, Central Hospital Yaoundé, Cameroon Background: The purpose of this prospective, noncomparative consecutive study was to examine active and retired amateur boxers in order to evaluate the nature and incidence of ocular pathologic conditions related to the boxing practice. Results: A total of 35 boxers were included in this study. The mean age of the boxers was 28.09±7.57 years (range 18–52 years. Sixteen (45.7% boxers had >5 years of boxing experience. Fifteen (42.85% of the boxers reported wearing protective equipment in the bouts and sparring rounds. The number of bouts ranged from 3 to 103, with a median of 20 (interquartile range [IQR] =7–44. The percentages of wins varied from 25% to 100%, with a median of 68.29% (IQR =50.00–79.54. Most of the eye injuries recorded were minor injuries (66.66%, with subconjunctival hemorrhage being the most common (24.24%. Lid scars were the second most common lesion, accounting for 18.18% of all lesions. Sight-threatening eye lesions accounted for 33.34% of injuries and included cataracts (12.12%, lens dislocation (3.03%, pseudoexfoliation syndrome (3.03%, unilateral glaucoma (3.03%, retinal detachment (3.03%, vitreous opacity (6.06%, and lattice degeneration (3.03%. Conclusion: Boxing-related ocular traumas are common in Cameroon, and ocular surface lesions are the most common injury reported. Severe lesions are indications for premature retirement from boxing practice. Keywords: boxer, subconjunctival hemorrhage, traumatic cataract

  9. Career choices for ophthalmology made by newly qualified doctors in the United Kingdom, 1974–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldacre Michael J

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The paper aims to report trends in career choices for ophthalmology among UK medical graduates. Methods Postal questionnaire surveys were undertaken of qualifiers from all UK medical schools in nine qualification years since 1974. Data were analysed by univariate cross-tabulation. The significance of comparisons between groups of doctors were calculated by the use of chi-squared tests and adjusted residuals. Results Ophthalmology was the first choice of long term career for 2.3% of men and 1.5% of women one year after qualification; 2.0% of men and 1.4% of women three years after; and 1.8% of men and 1.2% of women at five years. Comparing early choices with eventual destinations, 64% who chose ophthalmology in year one, 84% in year three, and 92% in year five eventually practised in the specialty. The concordance between year one choice and eventual destination was higher for ophthalmology than for most other specialties. 'Enthusiasm for and commitment to the specialty' was the most important single factor in influencing career choice. The prospect of good working hours and conditions was also an important influence: it influenced career choice a great deal for a higher percentage of those who chose ophthalmology (66% in the third year than those who made other surgical choices (23%. Conclusion Those choosing ophthalmology show a high level of commitment to it. Their commitment is strengthened by the prospect of attractive hours and working conditions. Many doctors who become ophthalmologists have already made their choice by the end of their first post-qualification year.

  10. Ophthalmology resident surgical competency: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binenbaum, Gil; Volpe, Nicholas J

    2006-07-01

    To describe the prevalence, management, and career outcomes of ophthalmology residents who struggle with surgical competency and to explore related educational issues. Fourteen-question written survey. Fifty-eight program directors at Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education-accredited, United States ophthalmology residency programs, representing a total of 2179 resident graduates, between 1991 and 2000. Study participants completed a mailed, anonymous survey whose format combined multiple choice and free comment questions. Number of surgically challenged residents, types of problems identified, types of remediation, final departmental decision at the end of residency, known career outcomes, and residency program use of microsurgical skills laboratories and applicant screening tests. One hundred ninety-nine residents (9% overall; 10% mean per program) were labeled as having trouble mastering surgical skills. All of the programs except 2 had encountered such residents. The most frequently cited problems were poor hand-eye coordination (24%) and poor intraoperative judgment (22%). Most programs were supportive and used educational rather than punitive measures, the most common being extra practice-laboratory time (32%), scheduling cases with the best teaching surgeon (23%), and counseling (21%). Nearly one third (31%) of residents were believed to have overcome their difficulties before graduation. Other residents were encouraged to pursue medical ophthalmology (22%) or to obtain further surgical training through a fellowship (21%) or a supervised practice setting (12%); these residents were granted a departmental statement of satisfactory completion of residency for Board eligibility. Twelve percent were asked to leave residency. Of reported career outcomes, 92% of residents were practicing ophthalmology, 65% as surgical and 27% as medical ophthalmologists. Ninety-eight percent of residency programs had microsurgical practice facilities, 64% had a formal

  11. Finlay y la oftalmología Finlay and ophthalmology

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    Elsa Lisset Arredondo Torres

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica acerca de la personalidad y la obra del científico camagüeyano Carlos Juan Finlay Barré, para ampliar y profundizar los conocimientos de médicos generales y oftalmólogos. En síntesis, se describe la vida de quien realizó trascendentales contribuciones a la medicina universal. Como sus descubrimientos sobre la fiebre amarilla irradian un conocimiento científico tan elevado, es necesario escudriñar sus aportes a la oftalmología. Se destacan algunos de los aportes más relevantes y de forma precisa se hace referencia a varios estudios realizados por él, así como la descripción de su técnica para la cirugía de catarata.A bibliographical revision on Carlos Juan Finlay Barré’s life and work was carried out to widen and deepen knowledge on general medicine and ophthalmology. In short, the life of man who made significant contributions to universal medicine is herein described. As his discoveries about the yellow fever have provided prominent scientific knowledge, so it is necessary to examine his contributions to ophthalmology. Some of his more relevant contributions and studies are also pointed out, as well as the description of his technique for cataract surgery.

  12. A Critical Examination of Education Reforms Implemented in the Early Years of the Turkish Republic

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    Kaya Yılmaz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of fundamental reforms in different spheres of Turkey’s institutions were swiftly implemented in a top-down manner in the early years of the Turkish Republic under Atatürk’s leadership. The purpose of this article is to critically examine the alphabet and language reforms put into practice in the years between the 1920s and 1930s. Since an analysis of socio-cultural and socio-political context is fundamental to understanding any reform initiatives, the article examines the alphabet and language reforms within the larger social, cultural, and political context within which they were carried out. In order to evaluate these reforms from a broader perspective, the article also scrutinizes the assumptions, beliefs, ideologies, and goals of those politicians or reformers who implemented them.

  13. Ophthalmologic correlates of disease severity in children and adolescents with Wolfram syndrome.

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    Hoekel, James; Chisholm, Smith Ann; Al-Lozi, Amal; Hershey, Tamara; Tychsen, Lawrence

    2014-10-01

    To describe an ophthalmic phenotype in children at relatively early stages of Wolfram syndrome. Quantitative ophthalmic testing of visual acuity, color vision, automated visual field sensitivity, optic nerve pallor and cupping, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed in 18 subjects 5-25 years of age. Subjects were also examined for presence or absence of afferent pupillary defects, cataracts, nystagmus, and strabismus. Subnormal visual acuity was detected in 89% of subjects, color vision deficits in 94%, visual field defects in 100%, optic disk pallor in 94%, abnormally large optic nerve cup:disk ratio in 33%, thinned RNFL in 100%, afferent pupillary defects in 61%, cataracts in 22%, nystagmus in 39%, and strabismus in 39% of subjects. RNFL thinning (P Wolfram United Rating Scale. Children and adolescents with Wolfram syndrome have multiple ophthalmic markers that correlate with overall disease severity. RNFL thickness measured by OCT may be the most reliable early marker. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of Addenbrooke's cognitive examination for detecting early dementia in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hidenori; Terada, Seishi; Honda, Hajime; Ata, Toshie; Takeda, Naoya; Kishimoto, Yuki; Oshima, Etsuko; Ishihara, Takeshi; Kuroda, Shigetoshi

    2011-01-30

    There is a clear need for brief, but sensitive and specific, cognitive screening instruments for dementia. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the Japanese version of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) in identifying early dementia in comparison with the conventional Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Standard tests for evaluating dementia screening tests were applied. A total of 201 subjects (Alzheimer's disease (AD)=65, frontotemporal dementia (FTD)=24, vascular dementia=26, dementia with Lewy bodies=11, mild cognitive impairment (MCI)=13, and controls=62) participated in this study. The reliability of the ACE was very good (alpha coefficient=0.82). In our patient series, the sensitivity for diagnosing dementia with an ACE score of ≤74 was 0.889 with a specificity of 0.987, and the sensitivity of an ACE score of ≤80 was 0.984 with a specificity of 0.867. The Japanese version of the ACE is a very accurate instrument for the detection of early dementia, and should be widely used in clinical practice. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experiences with E-learning in Ophthalmology

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Dutt Bandhu; Swati Raje

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: E-learning is the use of internet for the purpose of education. E-learning in medical education is at a nascent stage in our country. The present study was carried out with the purpose of introducing e-learning to third year medical students in the subject of Ophthalmology and taking feedback on their attitude towards the new methodology of teaching and evaluating. Materials and Methods: E-learning was introduced to the seventh semester students of MBBS in the subject of Ophthal...

  16. The initial ultrasonographic examination of hands and feet joints in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

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    Monika Ponikowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim was to assess of the morphology, intensity, and activity of changes in the first ultrasonographic (US examination of hands and feet in patients with early arthritis (lasting up to 12 months who were ultimately diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. An attempt was made to demonstrate a correlation between the intensity of lesions in US and selected laboratory parameters. Material and methods : Ultrasonographic examination was performed using a LOGIC GE 500 device on a group of 60 patients with arthritis (46 women, 14 men aged 18–80, previously untreated. In total, 3120 hand and feet joints were examined. The assessment focused on the presence of joint effusion, synovial proliferation and power Doppler signals (assessed on a semi-quantitative scale. Each patient underwent laboratory tests, necessary for making a diagnosis. In order to analyze the correlations between changes in US and laboratory parameters, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, reactive protein test (CRP, rheumatoid factor (RF, and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs were used. Results : In the study group, the average duration of arthritis symptoms until the first US examination was 5.6 months. Among the 3120 examined hand and foot joints, deviations from the norm appeared in 1093 joints, synovial hypertrophy was found in 471 joints (grade 1 synovial hypertrophy was reported most frequently, while presence of signal in Power Doppler was revealed in 261 joints (grade 1 was observed most frequently. A statistically significant correlation was found between the intensity of changes in Power Doppler and CRP concentration. Conclusions : In patients with increased concentrations of CRP, we may expect arthritis of higher intensity, therefore, in order to prevent the progression of destructive changes, it is necessary to quickly implement effective disease-modifying antirheumatic treatment. The conducted research showed that the activity of joint

  17. Robotic-assisted surgery in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Smet, Marc D; Naus, Gerrit J L; Faridpooya, Koorosh; Mura, Marco

    2018-05-01

    Provide an overview of the current landscape of robotics in ophthalmology, including the pros and cons of system designs, the clinical development path, and the likely future direction of the field. Robots designed for eye surgery should meet certain basic requirements. Three designs are currently being developed: smart surgical tools such as the steady hand, comanipulation devices and telemanipulators using either a fixed or virtual remote center of motion. Successful human intraocular surgery is being performed using the Preceyes surgical system. Another telemanipulation robot, the da Vinci Surgical System, has been used to perform a pterygium repair in humans and was successful in ex-vivo corneal surgery despite its nonophthalmic design. Apart from Preceyes' BV research platform, none of the currently eye-specific systems has reached a commercial stage. Systems are likely to evolve from robotic assistance during specific procedural steps to semiautonomous surgery, as smart sensors are introduced to enhance the basic functionalities of robotic systems. Robotics is still in its infancy in ophthalmology but is rapidly reaching a stage wherein it will be introduced into everyday ophthalmic practice. It will most likely be introduced first for demanding vitreo-retinal procedures, followed by anterior segment applications.

  18. Office-based deep sedation for pediatric ophthalmologic procedures using a sedation service model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Kirk; Tomlinson, Matthew; Koh, Jeffrey; Wheeler, David

    2012-01-01

    Aims. (1) To assess the efficacy and safety of pediatric office-based sedation for ophthalmologic procedures using a pediatric sedation service model. (2) To assess the reduction in hospital charges of this model of care delivery compared to the operating room (OR) setting for similar procedures. Background. Sedation is used to facilitate pediatric procedures and to immobilize patients for imaging and examination. We believe that the pediatric sedation service model can be used to facilitate office-based deep sedation for brief ophthalmologic procedures and examinations. Methods. After IRB approval, all children who underwent office-based ophthalmologic procedures at our institution between January 1, 2000 and July 31, 2008 were identified using the sedation service database and the electronic health record. A comparison of hospital charges between similar procedures in the operating room was performed. Results. A total of 855 procedures were reviewed. Procedure completion rate was 100% (C.I. 99.62-100). There were no serious complications or unanticipated admissions. Our analysis showed a significant reduction in hospital charges (average of $1287 per patient) as a result of absent OR and recovery unit charges. Conclusions. Pediatric ophthalmologic minor procedures can be performed using a sedation service model with significant reductions in hospital charges.

  19. Office-Based Deep Sedation for Pediatric Ophthalmologic Procedures Using a Sedation Service Model

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    Kirk Lalwani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. (1 To assess the efficacy and safety of pediatric office-based sedation for ophthalmologic procedures using a pediatric sedation service model. (2 To assess the reduction in hospital charges of this model of care delivery compared to the operating room (OR setting for similar procedures. Background. Sedation is used to facilitate pediatric procedures and to immobilize patients for imaging and examination. We believe that the pediatric sedation service model can be used to facilitate office-based deep sedation for brief ophthalmologic procedures and examinations. Methods. After IRB approval, all children who underwent office-based ophthalmologic procedures at our institution between January 1, 2000 and July 31, 2008 were identified using the sedation service database and the electronic health record. A comparison of hospital charges between similar procedures in the operating room was performed. Results. A total of 855 procedures were reviewed. Procedure completion rate was 100% (C.I. 99.62–100. There were no serious complications or unanticipated admissions. Our analysis showed a significant reduction in hospital charges (average of $1287 per patient as a result of absent OR and recovery unit charges. Conclusions. Pediatric ophthalmologic minor procedures can be performed using a sedation service model with significant reductions in hospital charges.

  20. An Examination of Reciprocal Associations Between Social Preference, Popularity, and Friendship during Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Miriam T; Bowker, Julie C

    2018-04-03

    Getting along with peers becomes increasingly important to health and well-being during early adolescence (10-14 years). Young adolescents may succeed with peers when they are well-liked by and popular among the larger peer group (or at the group-level of social complexity). They might also fare well with peers when they are able to form numerous mutual and high quality friendships (at the dyadic-level of social complexity). Theory emphasizes the interrelatedness of different types of peer experiences, but few longitudinal studies have examined the interplay among and between group- and dyadic-level peer experiences in the same study. As a result, it is not known whether group-level peer experiences are predictors of dyadic-level peer experiences, and/or vice versa. To address this limitation, this study examined the prospective and reciprocal relations between four indices of peer experiences, preference (or being highly liked and not disliked by peers), popularity (or having a reputation as popular), friendship quantity (or having many mutual friends), and friendship or relationship quality, during early adolescence. Participants were 271 adolescents (49% girls; M age  = 11.52 years) who completed peer nominations of preference and popularity, a self-report measure of friendship quality, and nominated friends at two waves (Wave 1: November, Grade 6; Wave 2: October, Grade 7). Structural equation modeling indicated that friendship quantity predicted increases in preference and popularity and that friendship quality predicted increases in friendship quantity. Initial popularity was associated with decreases in preference. The importance of these findings for future research is discussed along with study limitations.

  1. Neuro-ophthalmology and neuro-otology update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Daniel R; Zee, David S

    2015-12-01

    This review summarizes topical papers from the fields of neuro-ophthalmology and neuro-otology published from August 2013 to February 2015. The main findings are: (1) diagnostic criteria for pseudotumor cerebri have been updated, and the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial evaluated the efficacy of acetazolamide in patients with mild vision loss, (2) categorization of vestibular disorders through history and ocular motor examination is particularly important in the acute vestibular syndrome, where timely distinction between a central or peripheral localization is essential, (3) the newly described "sagging eye syndrome" provides a mechanical explanation for an isolated esodeviation that increases at distance in the aging population and (4) eye movement recordings better define how cerebellar dysfunction and/or sixth nerve palsy may play a role in other patients with esodeviations that increase at distance.

  2. Ethical and deontological dominants in ophthalmology

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    O. M. Panko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article the ethical and deontological dominants as scientific and practical strategy that prevents the medical errors, and humanization doctor-patient relationship through a formation of culture of communication are presented. Ophthalmology as a branch of practical and scientific medicine requires special relationship between doctor and patient, and because of this it also requires particular ethical and deontological interpretation. Formal signs of ethics laws concerning ophthalmic practice aren’t worth anything in case of unskilled diagnosis and treatment. Possibility of errors on the part of the doctor-ophthalmologist while aiding a patient is of a special importance. In planed and in urgent cases irreparable flaws are not excluded. Consideration should be given, in particular, to the errors in the initial examination, insufficient amount of additional methods of examination, overdiagnosis, errors in determining the treatment strategy (conservative or surgical and others. Identification and analysis of the errors in order to prevent them is the ethical imperative in medical practice and effective way to improve clinical medicine. The author of the article describes the causes of errors, indicating that they are objective and subjective. The first are related to the change of views on the treatment of a certain disease. The complex of therapeutic measures, that was considered the most rational until recently, can be proven as wrong from the perspective of the latest achievements of science. Mistakes made by doctors in their communication with patients as a result of not following the basic deontological principles are also included here. In addition, the classification of medical errors on deontological, diagnostic, therapeutic is made and their essence is analyzed in the article. The violation of the principles of appropriate behavior of the doctor in treating the patient, that is not following the ethics of medical practice by the

  3. [Basic research in ophthalmology in Germany and its international context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlötzer-Schrehardt, U; Cursiefen, C

    2017-09-01

    Experimental basic research provides the foundations for the elucidation of pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for ophthalmological diseases. The objective of this contribution is to provide an overview of the international interconnection of basic research in ophthalmology in Germany. The international context of ophthalmological research conducted in Germany is presented by means of personal experiences and data published by the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG), the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the European Union (EU). Due to the lack of organized databases this article lays no claim to completeness. Basic research in ophthalmology in Germany is mainly conducted in university eye departments and is mainly related to the etiology, pathophysiology and therapy development for various ophthalmic diseases. It is primarily funded by the DFG, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the EU plays an increasingly important role. Thus, ophthalmological research is integrated into numerous European research networks and beyond that into many international interconnections and relationships. In Germany, both clinical and basic research in ophthalmology is integrated into many international networks and is only functionally viable in an international context; however, given the increasing impact of ophthalmological research in Asian countries, future strategies require a continued focus on career development, research infrastructure, working environment and international cooperation.

  4. Low-level therapy in ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankov, O. P.

    1999-07-01

    Extremely slow introduction of low-level laser therapy into the practice of ophthalmologists is restricted by the lack of good methodological recommendation and modern equipment adopted to the needs of ophthalmology. The most perspective is considered to be further improvement of the methods and the elaboration of the medical equipment, working in several wave bands, combined with magnetotherapy and working with the use of various modes of the modulation of the intensity of the luminous flux. It may be asserted that unlike the mode of continuous radiation, in some cases, the effectiveness of the treatment increases when the modulated light with the frequency of one to a few tens HZ is used. Moreover, the methods are being elaborated, when the modulation frequency of laser light and the biorhythms of man physiologic parameters are synchronized. Very perspective seems the computerization of the treatment process with the simultaneous electrophysiological control of the condition of visual functions.

  5. Application of OCT angiography in ophthalmology

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    Ai-Ping Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography angiography(OCTAis a new technology of angiography in recent years. In addition to the advantages of traditional OCT, it can observe blood flow in different retinal and choroidal segmentation slab. By using the pseudo-color, abnormal vascular structure can be distinguished from normal vascular structure of the retina. Dye injection is not needed with OCTA, which is different from fundus fluorescein angiography(FFAand indocyanine green angiography(ICGA. OCTA provides more and more accurate blood flow information. However, like other biometric technology, OCTA has its limitations and shortcomings. This review will analyze and summarize the operating principle of OCTA, its application in ophthalmology, as well as its advantages and limitations.

  6. Neuro-ophthalmological manifestations of neurosyphilis in 22 cases

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    Xiao-Juan Fan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the characteristics of neurological ophthalmology manifestation of patients with neurosyphilis.METHODS: Retrospective and nonrandomized case analysis were used. Totally 22 cases of 39 eyes were included. They were 17 males and 5 females, aged from 34 to 65 years old. The average age were 49.6 years old. RESULTS: The optic nerve atrophy presented in 11 cases of 22 eyes. One eye of them accompanied by left eye oculomotor nerve palsy; 5 eyes in 3 cases expressed as optic neuritis acute phase; neuroretinitis appeared in 4 cases of 6 eyes; 1 case of 2 eyes expressed as chorioretinitis accompanied by optic disc edema; central retinal artery occlusion were found in 1 case of 1 eye. Argyll-Robertson pupil was as only manifestation in 2 cases of 3 eyes. In all cases, Argyll-Robertson pupil signs can be seen in 19 eyes. Treponema pallidum particle agglutination test(TPPAwere positive in all 22 cases. Syphilis rapid plasma reactin test(RPRwere positive in 19 of 21 cases. All patients underwent lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid were detected for RPR, cerebrospinal fluid protein, white blood cell count. Cerebrospinal fluid RPR were positive in 13 cases. Cerebrospinal fluid protein were greater than 450mg/L in 18 cases. Cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count were greater than 5/mm3 in 13 cases. CONCLUSION: Neurosyphilis involving neuro-ophthalmology often occurs in middle-aged men and subacute onset. Both eyes can suffered from optic nerve disease simultaneously or sequencely. A few can be expressed as other cranial nerve palsy, which may lead to misdiagnosis. Considering medical history, clinical manifestations, ophthalmic examination, serum and cerebrospinal fluid laboratory tests can improve the diagnostic rate.

  7. Experiences with E-learning in Ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Dutt Bandhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: E-learning is the use of internet for the purpose of education. E-learning in medical education is at a nascent stage in our country. The present study was carried out with the purpose of introducing e-learning to third year medical students in the subject of Ophthalmology and taking feedback on their attitude towards the new methodology of teaching and evaluating. Materials and Methods: E-learning was introduced to the seventh semester students of MBBS in the subject of Ophthalmology. The topics were converted to web friendly format and used for teaching and evaluating. Feedback was taken from the students on completion of the term on their attitudes towards e-learning and their views on the scope of e-learning in medical education. Results: All the students agreed on the usefulness of e-learning in medical education. Eleven students (27.5% found the medium of e-learning to be interesting, 15 (37.5% considered it to be easy and accessible, 10 (25% found it to be fast and easy, 4 (10% considered it to be a medium which can give updated information. Twenty-three (57.5% students considered that e-learning should be a medium of instruction in all the subjects, 15 (37.5% students considered its usefulness in clinical subjects only. Twenty-eight students (70% desired that e-learning should be used to provide important notes, questions, MCQs on all topics. Conclusions: E-learning is well accepted as a medium of instruction by medical students.

  8. Essential pre-treatment imaging examinations in patients with endoscopically-diagnosed early gastric cancer

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    Tokunaga Mari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been no reports discussing which imaging procedures are truly necessary before treatment of endoscopically-diagnosed early gastric cancer (eEGC. The aim of this pilot study was to show which imaging examinations are essential to select indicated treatment or appropriate strategy in patients with eEGC. Methods In 140 consecutive patients (95 men, 45 women; age, 66.4 +/- 11.3 years [mean +/- standard deviation], range, 33-90 with eEGC which were diagnosed during two years, the pre-treatment results of ultrasonography (US and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT of the abdomen, barium enema (BE and chest radiography (CR were retrospectively reviewed. Useful findings that might affect indication or strategy were evaluated. Results US demonstrated useful findings in 13 of 140 patients (9.3%: biliary tract stones (n = 11 and other malignant tumors (n = 2. Only one useful finding was demonstrated on CT (pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous tumor but not on US (0.7%; 95% confidential interval [CI], 2.1%. BE demonstrated colorectal carcinomas in six patients and polyps in 10 patients, altering treatment strategy (11.4%; 95%CI, 6.1-16.7%. Of these, only two colorectal carcinomas were detected on CT. CR showed three relevant findings (2.1%: pulmonary carcinoma (n = 1 and cardiomegaly (n = 2. Seventy-nine patients (56% were treated surgically and 56 patients were treated by endoscopic intervention. The remaining five patients received no treatment due to various reasons. Conclusions US, BE and CR may be essential as pre-treatment imaging examinations because they occasionally detect findings which affect treatment indication and strategy, although abdominal contrast-enhanced CT rarely provide additional information.

  9. Coping with Early Stage Breast Cancer:Examining the Influence of Personality Traits and Interpersonal Closeness

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    Emanuela eSaita

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of seventy-two Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire, interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale, and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale. We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit. Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed.

  10. The Utility of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Version Three in Early-Onset Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamin, Marwa; Holloway, Guy; Bak, Thomas H; Pal, Suvankar

    2016-01-01

    Early-onset dementia (EOD) is defined as functionally relevant cognitive decline with age of onset at less than 65 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of the recently validated third version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-III) in predicting dementia diagnoses in EOD. ACE-III scores of EOD patients were compared to those of healthy controls (HC) and individuals with subjective memory impairment (SMI). The study included 71 EOD patients (Alzheimer's disease, n = 31; primary progressive aphasia, n = 11; behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia, n = 18, and posterior cortical atrophy, n = 11); there were 28 HC and 15 individuals with SMI. At a cut-off score of 88/100, the ACE-III displayed high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing EOD from HC (91.5 and 96.4%) and SMI (91.5 and 86.7%). The ACE-III is a reliable cognitive screening tool in EOD. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Against the Unchallenged Discourse of Homelessness: Examining the Views of Early Childhood Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated views about children experiencing homelessness held by preservice teachers in an early childhood education program. Thirteen early childhood preservice teachers were actively involved in class discussion, reading, doing class assignments, and visiting homeless shelters as community-based field experience. They were asked to…

  12. An Examination of Family and School Factors Related to Early Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Jessica L.; Barrett, Courtenay; Jensen, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    Early delinquency has received considerably less scholarly attention than adolescent delinquency. Early delinquency is of great concern to school social workers, as it may lead to problematic behaviors in adolescence and future involvement with the juvenile justice system. Using an ecological framework, authors used data from the Fragile Families…

  13. Literature systematic review on the ophthalmological side effects of interferons

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    Yara Dadalti Fragoso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Interferons alpha and beta have been used worldwide for a few decades, altering the natural history of several severe diseases including hepatitis C, cancer and immune-mediated conditions such as multiple sclerosis. The adverse events profile of interferons is well established, but only isolated reports of ophthalmological complications of interferon therapy have been published. The objective of this study was to carry out a literature systematic review on the subject, bringing to light the need for careful ophthalmological monitoring of patients undergoing interferon treatment. Nearly 500 cases of ophthalmological complications related to interferon have been reported. The most frequent findings were soft exudates, hemorrhages and retina ischemia.

  14. The invention of gonioscopy by Alexios Trantas and his contribution to ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantzis, G; Georgalas, I; Tsiamis, C; El-Hindy, N; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E

    2015-01-01

    Gonioscopy is a technique used to examine structures in the anterior chamber angle (the fluid filled space inside the eye between the iris and the innermost layer of the cornea, the endothelium). It is an essential tool in ophthalmic practice, particularly in the diagnosis of glaucoma. In 1899, the Greek ophthalmologist Alexios Trantas was the first to visualise the angle in vivo and coined the term 'gonioscopy'. He made a number of other important contributions to ophthalmology.

  15. Achados oftalmológicos em pacientes com múltiplas deficiências Ophthalmologic findings in multiple handicapped patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Remígio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar os achados oftalmológicos em portadores de múltiplas deficiências. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 274 usuários do Sistema Único de Saúde atendidos no Departamento de Oftalmologia Pediátrica e Estrabismo da Fundação Altino Ventura (FAV, no período de junho a setembro de 2004. RESULTADOS: A freqüência dos pacientes quanto ao gênero foi de 58,5% para o masculino e 41,5% para o feminino. A variação das idades foi de 0,1 a 20 anos com mediana de 5. A maioria (61,3% dos pacientes apresentava boa acuidade visual, contudo 38,7% apresentava baixa de visão (PURPOSE: To report the visual findings in patients with multiple handicaps. METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-four patients cared for at the Pediatric and Strabismus Ophthalmology Department of the "Fundação Altino Ventura" - Brazilian National Health System, were examined from June to September 2004. Age varied from 0.1 to 20 years with a median of 5. RESULTS: The majority of the patients (61.3% presented good visual acuity; however low visual acuity (< 20/80 was observed in 38.7% of the patients. Heterotropias were observed in 66 patients (24.0%; astigmatism (53.2% and hyperopia (29.0% were more frequent. CONCLUSION: Children with multiple handicaps need an early ophthalmologic diagnosis and treatment for better global development. The integration of a multidisciplinary team with pediatricians, pediatric ophthalmologists and specialists in low vision, may assure a better visual rehabilitation.

  16. [Hypercoagulable workup in ophthalmology. When and what].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Negrete, F J; Casas-Lleras, P; Pérez-López, M; Rebolleda, G

    2009-07-01

    Most ophthalmologic disorders secondary to hypercoagulabe state are due to the confluence of congenital and adquired factors. A systematic workup is mandatory. Most of congenital coagulation disorders cause venous trombosis and are inherited autosomal dominantly. In order of frequency these are factor V Leiden mutation (activated protein C resistance), G20210A mutation of the prothrombin gen and protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III deficiencies. Sickle cell anemia can determine arerial and venous thrombosis. In relation with arterial occlusion, the markers most frequently involved are homcysteine fasting levels and the markers of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Both of them can also determine venous thrombosis. Several acquired factors can lead to hypoercoagulable state, especially hyperhomocysteinemia, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, hepatic disease, alcohol and tobacco intake, oral contraceptives, immobilization, surgeries and malignancies. In central venous occlusion is only necessary to rule out hyperhomocysteinemia and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in young patients without known risk factors. In central artery occlusion, hypercoagulable workup is only recommended for patients less than 50 years-old with unknown emboli source. In this cases protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III deficiencies, homocystein, sickle cell disease and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome will ruled out. In non arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy hypercoagulable work up is not necessary. In amaurosis fugax without known emboli source, it is recommended to rule out etiologies of arterial occlusion, especially antithrombin III deficiencies, homocystein, sickle cell disease and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

  17. Danish Ophthalmology - from start to 1865.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, Mogens

    2016-03-01

    This short paper mentioned the medical treatment using the 'holy' springs, the first 'eye doctor' in Denmark, the first picture of spectacles which was found in Viborg Cathedral of the high priest before he performs circumcisio praeputii on Jesus Christ, further cataract reclination in Denmark from around year zero and cataract extraction in 1667 in Denmark on a goose by Francisco Borri and on humans by the Danish Georg Heuermann in 1755. Epidemic military eye diseases in 1807, 1856 and 1865 are also described in this study. From 1856, a new ophthalmological period started in Denmark with the first eye hospital (lazaret only for eye diseases), and in 1864, patients with eye diseases were transported from the few beds in the surgical departments in the municipal hospital to the first civil eye department in Denmark, the eye hospital Sct. Annae in Copenhagen. The new scientific period started with Jacob Christian Bentz (ophthalmia granulosa, joint editor of the Danish Medical Journal) and Heinrich Lehmann. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Lasers in ophthalmology: achievements and new directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstocea, Benone D.; Apostol, Silvia; Gafencu, Otilia L.

    1995-03-01

    The main characteristics of the laser radiations are: directivity, monochromaticity and spatially and temporally coherence. Using the aggregation state as a criterion for classification, we describe solid, liquid and gaseous active media. Concerning the methods used to realize the population inversion, we also describe: optically, electrically and high energy particles pumped lasers. Depending on the laser media and the mode of excitation, a laser may operate in multiple ways: the continuous-wave operation, the long-pulsed operation, the Q-switched mode of operation and the mode-locked operation. The interaction of laser radiations with the living matter is based upon four main effects: the thermal, mechanical, electrical and biological effect. The main field of therapeutical use of lasers are: the management of lid tumors and intraocular tumors, dacryocystorhinostomy, the treatment of diabetic retinopathy, thromboembolic retinal syndromes, inflammatory choriretinal disease, chorioroetinal degenerations, retinal angimatosis, retinal breaks and retinal detachment, corneal diseases, glaucoma, lens diseases. Laser has also nontherapeutical applications in diagnosis and prognosis of ophthalmologic diseases.

  19. Tele-ophthalmology for diabetic retinopathy screening: 8 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja-Ríos, A; Bonaque-González, S; Serrano-García, M; Cabrera-López, F; Abreu-Reyes, P; Marrero-Saavedra, M D

    2017-02-01

    To describe the results of a diabetic retinopathy screening program implemented in a primary care area. A retrospective study was conducted using data automatically collected since the program began on 1 January 2007 until 31 December 2015. The number of screened diabetic patients has progressively increased, from 7,173 patients in 2007 to 42,339 diabetic patients in 2015. Furthermore, the ability of family doctors to correctly interpret retinographies has improved, with the proportion of retinal images classified as normal having increased from 55% in 2007 to 68% at the end of the study period. The proportion of non-evaluable retinographies decreased to 7% in 2015, having peaked at 15% during the program. This was partly due to a change in the screening program policy that allowed the use of tropicamide. The number of severe cases detected has declined, from 14% with severe non-proliferative and proliferativediabetic retinopathy in the initial phase of the program to 3% in 2015. Diabetic eye disease screening by tele-ophthalmology has shown to be a valuable method in a growing population of diabetics. It leads to a regular medical examination of patients, helps ease the workload of specialised care services and favours the early detection of treatable cases. However, the results of implementing a program of this type are not immediate, achieving only modest results in the early years of the project that have improved over subsequent years. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Timing of examinations affects school performance differently in early and late chronotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Zerbini, Giulia; Siersema, Anne; Pieper, Amy; Merrow, Martha; Hut, Roelof A.; Roenneberg, Till; Kantermann, Thomas

    Circadian clocks of adolescents typically run lateincluding sleep timesyet adolescents generally are expected at school early in the morning. Due to this mismatch between internal (circadian) and external (social) times, adolescents suffer from chronic sleep deficiency, which, in turn, affects

  1. COMPUTER LEARNING SIMULATOR WITH VIRTUAL REALITY FOR OPHTHALMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria V. Gribova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A toolset of a medical computer learning simulator for ophthalmology with virtual reality and its implementation are considered in the paper. The simulator is oriented for professional skills training for students of medical universities. 

  2. MR detection of retinal hemorrhages: correlation with graded ophthalmologic exam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavers, Angela J.; Allbery, Sandra M.; Stagner, Anna M.; Hejkal, Thomas W.; Lyden, Elizabeth R.; Haney, Suzanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Dilated fundoscopic exam is considered the gold standard for detecting retinal hemorrhage, but expertise in obtaining this exam is not always immediately available. MRI can detect retinal hemorrhages, but correlation of the grade or severity of retinal hemorrhage on dilated fundoscopic exam with retinal hemorrhage visibility on MRI has not been described. To determine the value of standard brain protocol MRI in detecting retinal hemorrhage and to determine whether there is any correlation with MR detection of retinal hemorrhage and the dilated fundoscopic exam grade of hemorrhage. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 77 children <2 years old who were seen for head trauma from April 2007 to July 2013 and had both brain MRI and dilated fundoscopic exam or retinal camera images. A staff pediatric radiologist and radiology resident reviewed the MR images. Retinal hemorrhages were graded by a chief ophthalmology resident on a 12-point scale based on the retinal hemorrhage type, size, location and extent as seen on review of retinal camera images and detailed reports by ophthalmologists. Higher scores indicated increased severity of retinal hemorrhages. There was a statistically significant difference in the median grade of retinal hemorrhage examination between children who had retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI and children who did not have retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI (P = 0.02). When examination grade was categorized as low-grade (1-4), moderate-grade (5-8) or high-grade (>8) hemorrhage, there was a statistically significant association between exam grade and diagnosis based on MRI (P = 0.008). For example, only 14% of children with low-grade retinal hemorrhages were identified on MRI compared to 76% of children with high-grade hemorrhages. MR detection of retinal hemorrhage demonstrated a sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 63%. Retinal hemorrhage was best seen on the gradient

  3. [Clinical and therapeutic differences in neuro-ophthalmological involvement secondary to syphilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Burillo, J A; Gil-Perez, D; Alarcia-Alejos, R; Hernando-Quintana, N; Garcia-Rubio, S; Martin-Martinez, J

    2014-09-16

    INTRODUCTION. There are many forms of neuro-ophthalmological involvement secondary to syphilis, and not all of them are well known. Our aim is to determine the clinical and therapeutic differences in these patients. CASE REPORTS. Our sample included eight patients diagnosed with an ocular and neuro-ophthalmological disorder due to syphilis over the years 2012 and 2013. Five of them presented uveitis, pan-eveitis being the most frequent, with three cases. Two cases presented papilloedema and another displayed retrobulbar optic neuropathy. A total of 62.5% were diagnosed with neurosyphilis, the presence of which was related with compromise of the optic nerve (p = 0.035). None of them gave positive for VDRL in cerebrospinal fluid and they were diagnosed by the presence of FTA antibodies together with high protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid, lymphocytic pleocytosis or intrathecal synthesis of antibodies. In the absence of uveitis, diagnosis was delayed by a mean time of 2.6 months (p = 0.047). All the patients, except one who required a vitrectomy, progressed favourably with intravenous antibiotic therapy. CONCLUSIONS. In cases of neuro-ophthalmological compromise, whether inflammatory or non-inflammatory, the physician must bear syphilis in mind as a potential causation in order to avoid delays in the diagnosis, since early well-tailored treatment can prevent permanent loss of sight.

  4. Clinical trials in Brazilian journals of ophthalmology: where we are.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Rodrigo Pessoa Cavalcanti; Leal, Franz Schubert; Gonçalves, Fauze Abdulmassih; Amorim, Fernando Henrique Ramos; Felix, João Paulo Fernandes; Arieta, Carlos Eduardo Leite

    2013-01-01

    To compare clinical trials published in Brazilian journals of ophthalmology and in foreign journals of ophthalmology with respect to the number of citations and the quality of reporting [by applying the Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement writing standards]. The sample of this systematic review comprised the two Brazilian journals of ophthalmology indexed at Science Citation Index Expanded and six of the foreign journals of ophthalmology with highest Impact Factor® according ISI. All clinical trials (CTs) published from January 2009 to December 2010 at the Brazilians journals and a 1:1 randomized sample of the foreign journals were included. The primary outcome was the number of citations through the end of 2011. Subgroup analysis included language. The secondary outcome included likelihood of citation (cited at least once versus no citation), and presence or absence of CONSORT statement indicators. The citation counts were statistically significantly higher (Pjournals of ophthalmology still are low when compared with the foreign journals of ophthalmology with highest Impact Factor®.

  5. Social Anxiety and Aggression in Early Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Roles of Empathic Concern and Perspective Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batanova, Milena D.; Loukas, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Guided by a social information processing perspective, this study examined the unique and interactive contributions of social anxiety and two distinct components of empathy, empathic concern and perspective taking, to subsequent relational and overt aggression in early adolescents. Participants were 485 10- to 14-year old middle school students…

  6. On Becoming Batman: An Ethnographic Examination of Hero Imagery in Early-Career Residential Life Emergency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Danielle K.

    2016-01-01

    Emergency response is an essential function of all residential life staff, but particularly for resident assistants serving on the front line. This organizational ethnography examined the role that professional identity played for early-career residential life practitioners engaged in emergency management. The data elucidated heroism as a…

  7. Technology and Early Science Education: Examining Generalist Primary School Teachers' Views on Tacit Knowledge Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hast, Michael

    2017-01-01

    For some time a central issue has occupied early science education discussions--primary student classroom experiences and the resulting attitudes towards science. This has in part been linked to generalist teachers' own knowledge of science topics and pedagogical confidence. Recent research in cognitive development has examined the role of…

  8. Examining the Distinctiveness and the Socio-Emotional Correlates of Anxious-Withdrawal and Unsociability during Early Adolescence in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Findley-Van Nostrand, Danielle; Bowker, Julie C.; Markovic, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the distinctiveness of and the correlates associated with anxious-withdrawal and unsociability during early adolescence in Finland (N = 384; 12-14 years; 53% girls). As expected, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that anxious-withdrawal and unsociability were distinct and moderately positively correlated constructs. Only…

  9. Young Learners: An Examination of the Psychometric Properties of the Early Literacy Knowledge and Skills Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Man Ching Esther

    2015-01-01

    The Early Literacy Knowledge and Skills (ELKS) instrument was informed by the work of Ferreiro and Teberosky based on the notion that young children could be differentiated according to levels of sophistication in their understanding of the rules of written language. As an initial step to evaluate the instrument for teaching purposes, the present…

  10. Examination of Work Environment Factors Relating to Burnout Syndrome of Early Childhood Educators in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentzou, Konstantina

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood education is a profession which requires the professional staff to spend considerable time in intense involvement with other people. The pressure from the demands this profession has can create a sense of physical and emotional exhaustion that often leads to burnout. Thus, previous research has linked perceptions of the work…

  11. An Examination of Locus of Control, Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognitive Awareness in Preservice Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedel, Emine Ferda

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the locus of control, epistemological beliefs and metacognitive awareness levels of preservice early childhood education teachers and to determine the interrelations among these variables. 206 teacher candidates have been asked to fill out Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, Central Epistemological Beliefs…

  12. Confidence in Their Own Ability: Postgraduate Early Childhood Students Examining Their Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cologon, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores reflections of a group of postgraduate early childhood students in relation to their self-reported attitudes towards inclusive education. Participant self-reported attitudes towards inclusive education were measured using an adapted version of the Attitudes Toward Inclusive Education Scale (ATIES) and an adapted version of the…

  13. Early Steps to School Success (ESSS): Examining Pathways Linking Home Visiting and Language Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iruka, Iheoma U.; Brown, Deborah; Jerald, Judith; Blitch, Kimberly

    2018-01-01

    Background: Improving the home environment and parenting practices to support children's early development and learning is a key focus of many. Home visiting is one potential strategy to improve the home environment and parenting; however, more data about current programmatic efforts is needed, especially for children with multiple risks living in…

  14. Music Education from Birth to Five: An Examination of Early Childhood Educators' Music Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Jonathan; Evrard, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Children from birth to five are generally enthusiastic about music. However, because many early-childhood educators (ECEs) feel that they have insufficient knowledge to foster musical development, music education practices are not equivalent across ECEs. This study aimed to identify and determine the frequency of music activities used by ECEs. In…

  15. Analysis based on the passrate of the 2013 ICO examinations taken by worldwide examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To find out the weaknesses of the cultivation of the Chinese ophthalmology physicians and the gap between Chinese and the international ophthalmology physicians, so that provide the advice on the future cultivation of the Chinese ophthalmology physicians. METHODS: The passrate of the 2013 ICO examinations taken by worldwide examiners by common statistical methods was analyzed. RESULTS:The results indicated that the test scores of Chinese candidates' were lower than that of the international average level, there was a obvious gap existed between Chinese and other countries' ophthalmology physicians. It showed that Chinese candidates were not quite adaptable to this examination, basic science and clinical level needed to be improved. CONCLUSION: It may shows that the effects on the mid-anaphase of our country's ophthalmology residency training are not so good, which area we should pay more attentions.

  16. A secure and synthesis tele-ophthalmology system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhuo; Wu, Yongdong; Deng, Robert H; Yu, Shengsheng; Yao, Haixia; Zhao, Zhigang; Ngoh, Lek Heng; Han, Lim Tock; Poh, Eugenie W T

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes a secure and synthesis ophthalmology telemedicine system, referred to as TeleOph. Under a Secure Socket Layer (SSL) channel, patient prerecorded data can be safely transferred via the Internet. With encrypted videoconference and white-board, the system not only supports hospital-to-clinic consultation, but also supplies hospital-tohospital joint discussion. Based on Directshow technology (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA), video cameras connected to the computer by firewire can be captured and controlled to sample video data. By using TWAIN technology, the system automatically identifies networked still cameras (on fundus and slitlamp devices) and retrieves images. All the images are stored in a selected format (such as JPEG, DICOM, BMP). Besides offline-transferring prerecorded data, the system also supplies online sampling of patient data (real-time capturing from remote places). The system was deployed at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore and Ang Mo Kio, Singapore, where 100 patients were enrolled in the system for examination. TeleOph can be successfully used for patient consultation, and hospital joint discussion. Meanwhile, TeleOph can supply both offline and online sampling of patient data.

  17. A Prospective Examination of Emotional Clarity, Stress Responses, and Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the proposal that difficulty understanding one's emotional experiences (i.e., deficits in emotional clarity) would interfere with the formulation of adaptive responses to interpersonal stress, which would then predict depressive symptoms. This process was examined across 3 years (fourth to sixth grade) during early…

  18. Early Clinical Features of Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome in Anterior Segment and Gonioscopy Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür Güngör, Sirel; Bayer, Atilla; Akman, Ahmet; Asena, Leyla

    2017-01-01

    To determine the early signs of pseudoexfoliation (PEX) in fellow eyes of cases with unilateral PEX. Fellow eyes of 34 cases with unilateral PEX were evaluated by slit-lamp and gonioscopy. Findings associated with PEX were recorded. Mean age was 67.8±8.1 years (range 55-86 years). Twenty-five patients (73.5%) had pigmentation in the inferior angle and 23 patients (67.6%) had Sampaolesi's line located on the inferior angle in fellow eyes. The other most common findings were loss of peripupillary ruff in 10 patients (29.4%) and pigment dispersion following pupil dilation in 14 patients (41.1%). Pigmentation in the inferior angle and Sampaolesi's line on the inferior angle seem to be the most common early findings associated with PEX. Special attention should be paid to these findings in cases with ocular hypertension for proper management.

  19. The use of ultrasonography in pediatric ophthalmology - diagnostics of ophthalmic disorders in newborns and infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrzejewska, M.; Karczewicz, D.; Wilk, G.

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasonographic (US) examinations in ophthalmology play a major role as one of the additional examination modes in the diagnostics of orbital diseases, and in cases of changes of a vascular origin it is useful in the evaluation of blood flow velocity. The special value of this examination in the assessment of the opaque optical structures on the fundus of the eye is emphasized. The aim of the study was 1) to present the ultrasonographic images and the efficacy of the method in the evaluation of some congenital and acquired bulbar diseases and 2) on the bases of the advantages of the examination, to determine whether ultrasonography could be included as a screening method in the diagnostics of preterm infants as well as a method of choice in term infants with ophthalmologic diseases. One thousand sixty-two children between the ages of 3 weeks to 12 months, of whom 1135 were preterm and 27 term infants, with ophthalmologic changes were examined. A real-time ultrasonographic apparatus with color Doppler (5-7.5 MHz sectoral and 7.5-10 MHz linear transducers). The US examinations of preterm infants were conducted four times and in term infants twice. In 105 children (8.99%) and in 184 eyes, premature retinopathy, intra-bulbar tumors, retinal ablation, posttraumatic changes, inflammatory processes in the posterior chamber of the eyeball, and congenital anomalies of the bulbar structures were diagnosed. Bulbar ultrasonography, being a safe, quick, and efficient examination, should be included as an additional screening method in preterm infants. Ultrasonography with color Doppler is an efficient method of choice for diagnosing problematic diseases of the eyeballs of infants. (author)

  20. Automatic recognition of thermographic examinations for early detection of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiewicz, Mateusz; Neumann, Łukasz; Nowak, Robert M.; Okuniewski, Rafał; Oleszkiewicz, Witold; Cichosz, Paweł; Jagodziński, Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the processing and classification of thermographic examinations taken with device developed by Braster SA. The device records the surface temperature of the breast skin using the liquid crystal matrices. Images are analyzed with the use of machine learning algorithms. The result of classification is available after a few minutes and when it detects suspicious changes patient may be referred for detailed examinations.

  1. Effects of hand massage on anxiety in patients undergoing ophthalmology surgery using local anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Rafiei Kiasari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anxiety is a common disorder in patients before surgery. Inappropriately managed anxiety can cause psychological and physiological reactions and will affect the process of surgery and recovery. Therefore, this study examined the effects of hand mas-sage on anxiety in patients undergoing ophthalmology surgery using local anesthesia. Methods: In this interventional study, 52 patients who were supposed to undergo oph-thalmology surgery using local anesthesia were studied. Patients were randomly as-signed to two groups of intervention, who received hand massage before surgery (n = 27 and control (n = 25. Massaging lasted for 5 minutes (2.5 minutes on each hand before surgery. Stroking and scrubbing methods were performed by 2 trained research-ers. Anxiety level, blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate were measured before and after the intervention in both groups. Anxiety was evaluated using Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Data was analyzed by chi-square, independent samples t-test, and paired t-test. Results: There were no significant differences in mean anxiety, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate between the two groups before the intervention (p > 0.05. However, there was a significant differenc in the mean stress level between the two groups after the intervention (p 0.05. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that 5 minutes of hand massage before ophthalmology surgery (under local anesthesia could reduce anxiety. Therefore, this method can be used to increase patient comfort and reduce anxiety before surgical interventions.

  2. A Randomized Controlled Study of Art Observation Training to Improve Medical Student Ophthalmology Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwin, Jaclyn; Revere, Karen E; Niepold, Suzannah; Bassett, Barbara; Mitchell, Rebecca; Davidson, Stephanie; DeLisser, Horace; Binenbaum, Gil

    2018-01-01

    Observation and description are critical to the practice of medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular. However, medical education does not provide explicit training in these areas, and medical students are often criticized for deficiencies in these skills. We sought to evaluate the effects of formal observation training in the visual arts on the general and ophthalmologic observational skills of medical students. Randomized, single-masked, controlled trial. Thirty-six first-year medical students, randomized 1:1 into art-training and control groups. Students in the art-training group were taught by professional art educators at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, during 6 custom-designed, 1.5-hour art observation sessions over a 3-month period. All subjects completed pre- and posttesting, in which they described works of art, retinal pathology images, and external photographs of eye diseases. Grading of written descriptions for observational and descriptive abilities by reviewers using an a priori rubric and masked to group assignment and pretesting/posttesting status. Observational skills, as measured by description testing, improved significantly in the training group (mean change +19.1 points) compared with the control group (mean change -13.5 points), P = 0.001. There were significant improvements in the training vs. control group for each of the test subscores. In a poststudy questionnaire, students reported applying the skills they learned in the museum in clinically meaningful ways at medical school. Art observation training for first-year medical students can improve clinical ophthalmology observational skills. Principles from the field of visual arts, which is reputed to excel in teaching observation and descriptive abilities, can be successfully applied to medical training. Further studies can examine the impact of such training on clinical care. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Oral and neck examination for early detection of oral cancer--a practical guide.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacCarthy, Denise

    2011-08-01

    Cancer of the head and neck region presents a challenge since, unlike other areas of the body, the boundaries are not always easy to delineate. The functional morbidity associated with head and neck cancer and its treatment are considerable. Head and neck cancer is described as cancer of the lip, mouth, tongue, tonsil, pharynx (unspecified), salivary gland, hypopharynx, larynx and other. Oral cancer refers to cancers of the lip, tongue, gingivae, floor of the mouth, palate (hard and soft), maxilla, vestibule and retromolar area up to the anterior pillar of the fauces (tonsil). When patients present with oral cancer, over 60% of them have regional (lymph node) and sometimes distant (metastatic) spread. The overall five-year survival rates for oral cancer average at between 50 and 80%, depending on the stage of the disease, varying from 86% for stage I to 12-16% for stage IV. The incidence of \\'field cancerisation\\'\\/unstable oral epithelium is high (17%), and even after successful treatment our patients need to be monitored for dental care and further disease. Unlike other areas in the body, the oral epithelium is readily accessible for examination and even self-examination. Dentists and dental hygienists are effective clinicians in the examination of the oral cavity for mouth cancer. An oral and neck examination must be part of every dental examination. An examination protocol is suggested here, which is similar to, but more detailed than, the standardised oral examination method recommended by the World Health Organisation, and consistent with those protocols followed by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.

  4. Early Clinical Features of Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome in Anterior Segment and Gonioscopy Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirel Gür Güngör

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the early signs of pseudoexfoliation (PEX in fellow eyes of cases with unilateral PEX. Materials and Methods: Fellow eyes of 34 cases with unilateral PEX were evaluated by slit-lamp and gonioscopy. Findings associated with PEX were recorded. Results: Mean age was 67.8±8.1 years (range 55-86 years. Twenty-five patients (73.5% had pigmentation in the inferior angle and 23 patients (67.6% had Sampaolesi’s line located on the inferior angle in fellow eyes. The other most common findings were loss of peripupillary ruff in 10 patients (29.4% and pigment dispersion following pupil dilation in 14 patients (41.1%. Conclusion: Pigmentation in the inferior angle and Sampaolesi’s line on the inferior angle seem to be the most common early findings associated with PEX. Special attention should be paid to these findings in cases with ocular hypertension for proper management.

  5. Examination of Academic Achievement in Early Adolescence: A Comparison for Adolesence with Visual Impairments Doing Sport or Not Doing Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was examination of academic achievement of early adolescents with visual impairments. Eighty eight children from Turkey, (age = 12.30 ± 1.22 years; height = 144.10 ± 5.51 cm; weight = 41.45 ± 4.68 kg) for twenty female athletes, (age = 12.30 ± 1.79; height = 151.04 ± 7.49 cm; weight = 48.18 ± 7.63 kg) for twenty seven male…

  6. Improving the effectiveness of service delivery in the public healthcare sector: the case of ophthalmology services in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Chee Yoong; Lim, Ka Keat; Sivasampu, Sheamini; Dahian, Kamilah Binti; Goh, Pik Pin

    2015-08-28

    Rising demand of ophthalmology care is increasingly straining Malaysia's public healthcare sector due to its limited human and financial resources. Improving the effectiveness of ophthalmology service delivery can promote national policy goals of population health improvement and system sustainability. This study examined the performance variation of public ophthalmology service in Malaysia, estimated the potential output gain and investigated several factors that might explain the differential performance. Data for 2011 and 2012 on 36 ophthalmology centres operating in the Ministry of Health hospitals were used in this analysis. We first consulted a panel of ophthalmology service managers to understand the production of ophthalmology services and to verify the production model. We then assessed the relative performance of these centres using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Efficiency scores (ES) were decomposed into technical, scale, and congestion component. Potential increase in service output was estimated. Sensitivity analysis of model changes was performed and stability of the result was assessed using bootstrap approach. Second stage Tobit regression was conducted to determine if hospital type, availability of day services and population characteristics were related to the DEA scores. In 2011, 33% of the ophthalmology centres were found to have ES > 1 (mean ES = 1.10). Potential output gains were 10% (SE ± 2.92), 7.4% (SE ± 2.06), 6.9% (SE ± 1.97) if the centres could overcome their technical, scale and congestion inefficiencies. More centres moved to the performance frontier in 2012 (mean ES = 1.07), with lower potential output gain. The model used has good stability. Robustness checks show that the DEA correctly identified low performing centres. Being in state hospital was significantly associated with better performance. Using DEA to benchmarking service performance of ophthalmology care could provide insights for policy

  7. Enhancing the Early Reading Skills: Examining the Print Features of Preschool Children's Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ozlem Simsek; Bay, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the uses of print features in preschool children's books in the US and Turkey, in order to helping adults to understand print features and supporting children's print awareness. In this context, two hundred children's books was randomly selected from the US and Turkey. Document analysis was used for…

  8. Gratitude and Subjective Well-Being in Early Adolescence: Examining Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Jeffrey J.; Yurkewicz, Charles; Kashdan, Todd B.

    2009-01-01

    Gratitude was examined among 154 students to identify benefits from its experience and expression. Students completed measures of subjective well-being, social support, prosocial behavior, and physical symptoms. Positive associations were found between gratitude and positive affect, global and domain specific life satisfaction, optimism, social…

  9. Friends Can Hurt You: Examining the Coexistence of Friendship and Bullying among Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Jonson-Reid, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Friendship is typically assumed to be a protective factor for victims of school bullying, so the possibility of victimization by friends is rarely explored. This study examines the prevalence of positive affiliation between the victims and aggressors in verbal and physical bullying. Peer nomination inventories were used to assess the friendship…

  10. Modified Team-Based Learning in an Ophthalmology Clerkship in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheqian Huang

    Full Text Available Team-based learning (TBL is an increasingly popular teaching method in medical education. However, TBL hasn't been well-studied in the ophthalmology clerkship context. This study was to examine the impact of modified TBL in such context and to assess the student evaluations of TBL.Ninety-nine students of an 8-year clinical medicine program from Zhongshan Ophthalmic Centre, Sun Yat-sen University, were randomly divided into four sequential units and assigned to six teams with the same faculty. The one-week ophthalmology clerkship module included traditional lectures, gross anatomy and a TBL module. The effects of the TBL module on student performance were measured by the Individual Readiness Assurance Test (IRAT, the Group Readiness Assurance Test (GRAT, the Group Application Problem (GAP and final examination scores (FESs. Students' evaluations of TBL were measured by a 16-item questionnaire. IRAT and GRAT scores were compared using a paired t-test. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and subgroup analysis compared the effects among quartiles that were stratified by the Basic Ophthalmology Levels (BOLs. The BOLs were evaluated before the ophthalmology clerkship.In TBL classes, the GRAT scores were significantly higher than the IRAT scores in both the full example and the BOL-stratified groups. It highlighted the advantages of TBL compared to the individual learning. Quartile-stratified ANOVA comparisons showed significant differences at FES scores (P < 0.01. In terms to IRAT, GRAT and GAP scores, there was no significant result. Moreover, IRAT scores only significantly differed between the first and fourth groups. The FES scores of the first three groups are significantly higher than the fourth group. Gender-specific differences were significant in FES but not the IRAT. Overall, 57.65% of student respondents agreed that TBL was helpful. Male students tended to rate TBL higher than female students.The application of modified TBL to the

  11. The comparative study of imageology and imageological examining procedure on the early femoral head necrosis in adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jihua; Gao Zhenhua; Xu Aide; Xu Wenjian; Wang Jingqun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the corresponding manifestations of MRI, CT, SPECT, and X-ray in the early femoral head necrosis (FHN) in adult as well as their sensitivity and accuracy, and to establish the early imageologic examination procedure. Methods: Forty-two cases (66 hips) with early FHN in adult (Ficat stage I-II) proved by follow-up studies, pathology, or typical imageologic manifestations were analyzed. All patients underwent MRI, CT, SPECT, and conventional radiography in the same period. Results: 1) 'Line-like sign' appeared on MRI in 63 of 66 affected hips ,including single line (32), double lines (21), and three lines (10). They corresponded to the blurred high-density sclerosis line on CT in 33 hips, two parallel lines consisting of a low-density inner line adjacent to a high-density line in 9 hips, a soft tissue density line with bilateral high-density lines side by side in 4 hips, and high-density sclerosis spots not forming a line (13); round or arc-like band of increased uptake of radioisotope on SPECT in 38 hips, and band-like sclerosis on X-ray film in 23 hips. 2) In 66 hips, there was statistical difference in diagnosing early FHN in adult by MRI, CT, SPECT, and X-ray (P<0.001). Conclusion: 'Line-like sign' on MRI corresponds to the high-density sclerosis line around weight-supporting zone on CT ,round or arc-like band of increased uptake of radioisotope in femoral neck or inferior part of femoral head on SPECT, and band-like blurred sclerosis on X-ray film. These manifestations are their specific signs in diagnosing early FHN respectively. 2) For sensitivity and accuracy of imageologic examinations used in diagnosing the early FHN, MRI is superior to CT and SPECT, the CT and SPECT are equal and are superior to X-ray film. 3) The best imageological examining procedure for early FHN in adult should be followed

  12. Physical examination of the hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula to detect early dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreo, Kenneth; Amin, Bakhtiar M; Abreo, Adrian P

    2018-04-01

    The maintenance of vascular access patency for end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis is necessary for survival. Many nephrologists, nurse practitioners, and nurses have limited experience with the physical examination of the arteriovenous fistula. In this review, we define key terms used in the assessment of an arteriovenous fistula. We discuss the arteriovenous fistula physical exam, including details of inspection, palpation, and auscultation. Using these concepts, we review the abnormal findings that can assist practitioners in determining the location of a stenosis. We review the existing literature that validates physical exam findings with gold standard tests such as ultrasound and angiography. Finally, we review data supporting the value of training physicians and nurses in arteriovenous fistula physical examination.

  13. 3D Printing: Print the future of ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenbin; Zhang, Xiulan

    2014-08-26

    The three-dimensional (3D) printer is a new technology that creates physical objects from digital files. Recent technological advances in 3D printing have resulted in increased use of this technology in the medical field, where it is beginning to revolutionize medical and surgical possibilities. It is already providing medicine with powerful tools that facilitate education, surgical planning, and organ transplantation research. A good understanding of this technology will be beneficial to ophthalmologists. The potential applications of 3D printing in ophthalmology, both current and future, are explored in this article. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  14. Introduction to metabolomics and its applications in ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S Z; Begley, P; Mullard, G; Hollywood, K A; Bishop, P N

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics is the study of endogenous and exogenous metabolites in biological systems, which aims to provide comparative semi-quantitative information about all metabolites in the system. Metabolomics is an emerging and potentially powerful tool in ophthalmology research. It is therefore important for health professionals and researchers involved in the speciality to understand the basic principles of metabolomics experiments. This article provides an overview of the experimental workflow and examples of its use in ophthalmology research from the study of disease metabolism and pathogenesis to identification of biomarkers. PMID:26987591

  15. Application of smart phone on interactive teaching methods in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart phones as a symbol of the mobile Internet appears in college classroom, which is not only a challenge, but also a great opportunities of education information. This paper applied smart phones as the carrier of the "Internet" into ophthalmology classroom. Smart phones has a lot of features, such as rich teaching resources, diverse learning methods, flexible learning time, collating and recording capabilities and the timely, comprehensive and accurate teaching feedback so on, and could be used in case teaching and interactive teaching. The implementation of smart phones into ophthalmology classroom could inspire the learning enthusiasm of the students, enhance the quality of teaching, eventually improve teaching effects.

  16. Examining Recall Memory in Infancy and Early Childhood Using the Elicited Imitation Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Angela F; Milojevich, Helen M

    2016-04-28

    The ability to recall the past allows us to report on details of previous experiences, from the everyday to the significant. Because recall memory is commonly assessed using verbal report paradigms in adults, studying the development of this ability in preverbal infants and children proved challenging. Over the past 30 years, researchers have developed a non-verbal means of assessing recall memory known as the elicited or deferred imitation paradigm. In one variant of the procedure, participants are presented with novel three-dimensional stimuli for a brief baseline period before a researcher demonstrates a series of actions that culminate in an end- or goal-state. The participant is allowed to imitate the demonstrated actions immediately, after a delay, or both. Recall performance is then compared to baseline or to performance on novel control sequences presented at the same session; memory can be assessed for the individual target actions and the order in which they were completed. This procedure is an accepted analogue to the verbal report techniques used with adults, and it has served to establish a solid foundation of the nature of recall memory in infancy and early childhood. In addition, the elicited or deferred imitation procedure has been modified and adapted to answer questions relevant to other aspects of cognitive functioning. The broad utility and application of imitation paradigms is discussed, along with limitations of the approach and directions for future research.

  17. Risks of fetus irradiation in X-ray and radioisotope examinations in early stages of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husak, V.; Wiedermann, M.; Susila, M.; Ryznar, V.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation burden is discussed of the fetus in pregnancy. During organogenesis the fetus is not capable of repairs; irradiation causes growth inhibition and malformations. In the last trimestre, irradiation causes disturbances in the somatic growth, leukemia is found in greater incidence in newly-borns. Doses are tabulated from commonest X-ray examinations and the applications of radiopharmaceuticals. The said doses are only valid for the first five weeks of pregnancy; when the thyroid starts functioning, the total dose retained in the thyroid after the application of radiopharmaceuticals may be higher. (H.S.)

  18. Examination of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale factor structure and longitudinal relationships with functioning in early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Michael W; Grossman, Michael; Oyewumi, L Kola; Bowie, Christopher R

    2016-04-01

    We examined the factor structure of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in early-episode psychosis and its relationships with functioning at baseline and follow-up. A total of 240 consecutive admissions to an early intervention in psychosis clinic were assessed at intake to the program with the PANSS, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS). Seventy individuals were reassessed at follow-up. A maximum likelihood factor analysis was conducted on baseline PANSS scores and the ability of each factor to predict baseline and follow-up GAF and SOFAS was examined. A five-factor model with varimax rotation was the best fit to our data and was largely congruent with factors found previously. The negative symptom factor was the best predictor of GAF and SOFAS at baseline and follow-up. Negative symptoms are the best symptomatic predictor of functioning in individuals with early psychosis and are an important treatment target to improve recovery. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Neuro-ophthalmological approach to facial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelinha, Joana; Passarinho, Maria Picoto; Costa, João Marques

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy is associated with significant morbidity and can have different etiologies. The most common causes are Bell's palsy, Ramsay-Hunt syndrome and trauma, including surgical trauma. Incidence varies between 17 and 35 cases per 100,000. Initial evaluation should include accurate clinical history, followed by a comprehensive investigation of the head and neck, including ophthalmological, otological, oral and neurological examination, to exclude secondary causes. Routine laboratory testing and diagnostic imaging is not indicated in patients with new-onset Bell's palsy, but should be performed in patients with risk factors, atypical cases or in any case without resolution within 4 months. Many factors are involved in determining the appropriate treatment of these patients: the underlying cause, expected duration of nerve dysfunction, anatomical manifestations, severity of symptoms and objective clinical findings. Systemic steroids should be offered to patients with new-onset Bell's palsy to increase the chance of facial nerve recovery and reduce synkinesis. Ophthalmologists play a pivotal role in the multidisciplinary team involved in the evaluation and rehabilitation of these patients. In the acute phase, the main priority should be to ensure adequate corneal protection. Treatment depends on the degree of nerve lesion and on the risk of the corneal damage based on the amount of lagophthalmos, the quality of Bell's phenomenon, the presence or absence of corneal sensitivity and the degree of lid retraction. The main therapy is intensive lubrication. Other treatments include: taping the eyelid overnight, botulinum toxin injection, tarsorrhaphy, eyelid weight implants, scleral contact lenses and palpebral spring. Once the cornea is protected, longer term planning for eyelid and facial rehabilitation may take place. Spontaneous complete recovery of Bell's palsy occurs in up to 70% of cases. Long-term complications include aberrant regeneration with

  20. Gunslinger Effect and Müller-Lyer Illusion: Examining Early Visual Information Processing for Late Limb-Target Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James W; Lyons, James; Garcia, Daniel B L; Burgess, Raquel; Elliott, Digby

    2017-07-01

    The multiple process model contends that there are two forms of online control for manual aiming: impulse regulation and limb-target control. This study examined the impact of visual information processing for limb-target control. We amalgamated the Gunslinger protocol (i.e., faster movements following a reaction to an external trigger compared with the spontaneous initiation of movement) and Müller-Lyer target configurations into the same aiming protocol. The results showed the Gunslinger effect was isolated at the early portions of the movement (peak acceleration and peak velocity). Reacted aims reached a longer displacement at peak deceleration, but no differences for movement termination. The target configurations manifested terminal biases consistent with the illusion. We suggest the visual information processing demands imposed by reacted aims can be adapted by integrating early feedforward information for limb-target control.

  1. Osteological, biomolecular and geochemical examination of an early anglo-saxon case of lepromatous leprosy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Inskip

    Full Text Available We have examined a 5th to 6th century inhumation from Great Chesterford, Essex, UK. The incomplete remains are those of a young male, aged around 21-35 years at death. The remains show osteological evidence of lepromatous leprosy (LL and this was confirmed by lipid biomarker analysis and ancient DNA (aDNA analysis, which provided evidence for both multi-copy and single copy loci from the Mycobacterium leprae genome. Genotyping showed the strain belonged to the 3I lineage, but the Great Chesterford isolate appeared to be ancestral to 3I strains found in later medieval cases in southern Britain and also continental Europe. While a number of contemporaneous cases exist, at present, this case of leprosy is the earliest radiocarbon dated case in Britain confirmed by both aDNA and lipid biomarkers. Importantly, Strontium and Oxygen isotope analysis suggest that the individual is likely to have originated from outside Britain. This potentially sheds light on the origins of the strain in Britain and its subsequent spread to other parts of the world, including the Americas where the 3I lineage of M. leprae is still found in some southern states of America.

  2. Osteological, biomolecular and geochemical examination of an early anglo-saxon case of lepromatous leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskip, Sarah A; Taylor, G Michael; Zakrzewski, Sonia R; Mays, Simon A; Pike, Alistair W G; Llewellyn, Gareth; Williams, Christopher M; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Minnikin, David E; Besra, Gurdyal S; Stewart, Graham R

    2015-01-01

    We have examined a 5th to 6th century inhumation from Great Chesterford, Essex, UK. The incomplete remains are those of a young male, aged around 21-35 years at death. The remains show osteological evidence of lepromatous leprosy (LL) and this was confirmed by lipid biomarker analysis and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis, which provided evidence for both multi-copy and single copy loci from the Mycobacterium leprae genome. Genotyping showed the strain belonged to the 3I lineage, but the Great Chesterford isolate appeared to be ancestral to 3I strains found in later medieval cases in southern Britain and also continental Europe. While a number of contemporaneous cases exist, at present, this case of leprosy is the earliest radiocarbon dated case in Britain confirmed by both aDNA and lipid biomarkers. Importantly, Strontium and Oxygen isotope analysis suggest that the individual is likely to have originated from outside Britain. This potentially sheds light on the origins of the strain in Britain and its subsequent spread to other parts of the world, including the Americas where the 3I lineage of M. leprae is still found in some southern states of America.

  3. Ophthalmological abnormalities in wild European hedgehogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we aimed to examine wild European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in rescue centres and to determine ocular abnormalities in this animal population. Three hundred animals varying in age from 2 months to 5 years were examined, 147 being male and 153 female. All animals were evaluated with direct ...

  4. Examining the Impacts of Systematic and Engaging Early Literacy (SEEL): Attention to Teacher Practices and Classroom Effects across the Kindergarten Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Gary E.; Culatta, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined teachers' implementation of an early literacy intervention, Systematic and Engaging Early Literacy (SEEL), on kindergarten children's development of early literacy skills. One hundred forty-nine kindergarten children (102 treatment) across six classrooms participated in this study. Results reveal that children who received SEEL…

  5. Significance of head CT in neuro-ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Yuichiro; Masuyama, Yoshimasa; Nakamura, Yasuko; Fujimoto, Toshiro.

    1979-01-01

    It is important to perform CT purposefully in patients with some neuro-ophthalmological disorders. Using Hitachi CT-H250 with the finer matrix of 256 x 256 and a section thickness of 5 mm and 10 mm, we performed head CT in 98 patients with various kinds of neuro-ophthalmological disorders in these 30 months. Neuro-ophthalmological findings in these patients were visual disturbance, visual field defects (hemianopsia, quandrantanopsia, enlargement of the blind spot, central scotoma), papilledema, optic nerve atrophy, difficulties in ocular movements, and others. In 44 (44.9%) of these 98 patients, abnormal findings were displayed in the head CT, characterizing intracranial tumors, intracranial infarction, aneurysms in intracranial vessels, arterio-venous malformation, enlargement of the ventricle or the cistern. In some cases the head CT was the decisive procedure in ensuring a correct diagnosis. We presented findings in the head CT in several interesting cases. We recognized the necessity of the head CT in patients with neuro-ophthalmological disorders. (author)

  6. What is new in recommendations on ophthalmological screening in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... complication-toxic retinopathy. The present recommendations warn against making premature decision on medicine withdrawal, especially in the light of the most recent studies on their beneficial systemic influence. This paper systematizes the information on ophthalmological screening in chloroquine derivatives users.

  7. Impact of fellowship training on research productivity in academic ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace; Fang, Christina H; Lopez, Santiago A; Bhagat, Neelakshi; Langer, Paul D; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether scholarly impact of academic ophthalmologists, as measured using the h-index, is affected by fellowship training status and to further characterize differences in productivity among the various subspecialties and by departmental rank. A descriptive and correlational design was used. In total, 1440 academic ophthalmologists from 99 ophthalmology training programs were analyzed. The h-index data were obtained from the Scopus database. Faculty members were classified by academic rank and grouped into 10 categories based on fellowship training: anterior segment, corneal and external disease, glaucoma, uveitis and ocular immunology, vitreoretinal disease, ophthalmic plastic surgery, pediatric ophthalmology, neuro-ophthalmology, ophthalmic pathology, and "other." A one-way analysis of variance or Student t test using Microsoft Excel and "R" statistical software were used for comparison of continuous variables, with significance set at p productivity, as measured using the h-index, than non-fellowship-trained ophthalmologists in this study (p productivity compared with those in other ophthalmology subspecialties (p productivity with increasing academic rank from Assistant Professor to Professor (p productivity between fellowship-trained and non-fellowship-trained ophthalmologists existed individually only at the level of Assistant Professor (p productivity increases with departmental academic rank from Assistant Professor to Professor. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ophthalmology programs at ABCC. A brief review and preliminary plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S C; Jablon, S

    1961-07-19

    A proposal is made for a continuing ophthalmology program for exposed and control subjects at Nagasaki and Hiroshima. This program is based on a fixed population selected from the PE-86 and the ME-200 Adult Health Study samples. 27 references, 4 tables.

  9. Teaching and Assessing Systems-based Competency in Ophthalmology Residency Training Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Andrew G.; Beaver, Hilary A.; Greenlee, Emily; Oetting, Thomas A.; Boldt, H. Culver; Olson, Richard; Abramoff, Michael; Carter, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has mandated that residency programs, including ophthalmology, teach and assess specific competencies, including systems-based learning. We review the pertinent literature on systems-based learning for ophthalmology and recommend

  10. Yes to early detection of cancer - no to routine mammography examinations. Parting from wishful thinking, turning to new strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Dersee, T; Koehnlein, W; Kuni, H; Lengfelder, E; Pflugbeil, S; Schmitz-Feuerhake, I

    2002-01-01

    Many experts find it difficult to accept what experience has shown, namely that routine mammography examinations have lowered neither the breast cancer fatality rate nor the crude death rate. One aspect that has been neglected in propagating screenings is the high radiation sensitivity of genetically predisposed females (0.5% - 1.0%). These females should not be exposed to repeated X-rays for screening purposes. True preventive measures, which promise significant effects, include the avoidance of radiation exposure, especially during the early stages of life, and a restrictive use of oestrogen substitution therapies.

  11. Yes to early detection of cancer - no to routine mammography examinations. Parting from wishful thinking, turning to new strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dersee, T.; Dieckmann, H.; Koehnlein, W.; Kuni, H.; Lengfelder, E.; Pflugbeil, S.; Schmitz-Feuerhake, I.

    2002-01-01

    Many experts find it difficult to accept what experience has shown, namely that routine mammography examinations have lowered neither the breast cancer fatality rate nor the crude death rate. One aspect that has been neglected in propagating screenings is the high radiation sensitivity of genetically predisposed females (0.5% - 1.0%). These females should not be exposed to repeated X-rays for screening purposes. True preventive measures, which promise significant effects, include the avoidance of radiation exposure, especially during the early stages of life, and a restrictive use of oestrogen substitution therapies

  12. [Establishment of diagnosis and treatment patterns of holistic integrated medicine for neuro-ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanling

    2014-12-01

    Neuro-ophthalmology, as an interdisciplinary, covers at least three disciplines- ophthalmology, neurology and neurosurgery. With limited knowledge in each discipline, doctors often make misdiagnoses for neuro-ophthalmology diseases. Therefore, it is imperative to abandon the distinction between disciplines and combine all the knowledge to diagnose and treat patients in patterns of holistic integrated medicine in order to effectively improve the diagnosis and treatment of neuro-ophthalmology.

  13. Validation of the Addenbrooke's cognitive examination for detecting early Alzheimer's disease and mild vascular dementia in a German population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, P; Greim, B; Nadler, K; Martens, U; Krecklow, B; Domes, G; Herpertz, S; Kurz, A

    2006-01-01

    We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the German version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) in identifying early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild vascular dementia (VaD) in comparison with the conventional Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The study refers to 50 patients with mild dementia of AD, 26 patients with mild dementia of vascular etiology and to 54 cognitively normal subjects. The ACE and MMSE were validated against an expert diagnosis based on a comprehensive diagnostic workup. Statistical analysis was performed using the receiver operator characteristics method. The optimal cut-off score for the ACE for detecting dementia in patients with early AD was 85/86, which had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 86%. The optimal cut-off for the ACE for the identification of dementia in patients with mild VaD was also 85/86 and it had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 100%. The kappa values imply a substantial agreement between the diagnoses made by the ACE and the MMSE. The German version of the ACE is a short and practical but accurate test battery for the identification of AD and VaD, assessing a broad range of cognitive functions and providing a wide profile of cognitive functions/dysfunctions.

  14. Ophthalmological assessment of cannabis-induced persisting perception disorder: is there a direct retinal effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobor, Ditta; Strasser, Torsten; Zobor, Gergely; Schober, Franziska; Messias, Andre; Strauss, Olaf; Batra, Anil; Zrenner, Eberhart

    2015-04-01

    Cannabis is a psychotomimetic agent that induces impairment of sensory perception. We present detailed clinical and electrophysiological data of patients with hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) after marijuana consumption. A HPPD patient and four heavy cannabis smokers with no visual disturbances (controls) underwent complete ophthalmological examination including psychophysical tests (visual acuity, color vision, visual field, and dark adaptation) and detailed electrophysiological examinations, including extended Ganzfeld ERG, multifocal ERG, and electrooculography (EOG). Furthermore, electrically evoked phosphene thresholds (EPTs) were measured to further evaluate retinal function. Ophthalmological and most electrophysiological examinations were within normal limits for the HPPD patient and for all control subjects. Interestingly, EOG results of the HPPD patient showed a slightly reduced fast oscillation ratio, diminished standing potentials of the slow oscillations, and a light peak within normal range resulting in higher Arden ratios. The EPTs of the patient were reduced, in particular for pulses with long durations (50 ms) causing visual sensations even at lowest possible currents of the neurostimulator. The control subjects did not reveal such alterations. Our findings suggest a direct effect of cannabinoids on the retina and retinal pigment epithelium function, which may be involved in disturbances of the visual function experienced after drug consumption. The observations presented here may contribute to the elucidation of the detailed mechanism. Furthermore, EOG and EPT measurements may be useful tools to demonstrate long-term retinal alterations in cannabis-induced HPPD in patients.

  15. African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control: Ophthalmological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The study site was in Bushenyi, Western Uganda. In a cross-sectional study, 367 persons aged 10 years or older from seven selected villages received eye examination using a standardised protocol and Wu-Jones Motion Sensitivity Testing (MSST). Besides MSST, other information sought included visual acuity, ...

  16. Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering in Ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.

    The eye is not just a "window to the soul"; it can also be a "window to the human body." The eye is built like a camera. Light which travels from the cornea to the retina traverses through tissues that are representative of nearly every tissue type and fluid type in the human body. Therefore, it is possible to diagnose ocular and systemic diseases through the eye. Quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) also known as dynamic light scattering (DLS) is a laboratory technique routinely used in the characterization of macromolecular dispersions. QELS instrumentation has now become more compact, sensitive, flexible, and easy to use. These developments have made QELS/DLS an important tool in ophthalmic research where disease can be detected early and noninvasively before the clinical symptoms appear.

  17. Assessment of online patient education materials from major ophthalmologic associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace; Fang, Christina H; Agarwal, Nitin; Bhagat, Neelakshi; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Langer, Paul D

    2015-04-01

    Patients are increasingly using the Internet to supplement finding medical information, which can be complex and requires a high level of reading comprehension. Online ophthalmologic materials from major ophthalmologic associations should be written at an appropriate reading level. To assess ophthalmologic online patient education materials (PEMs) on ophthalmologic association websites and to determine whether they are above the reading level recommended by the American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health. Descriptive and correlational design. Patient education materials from major ophthalmology websites were downloaded from June 1, 2014, through June 30, 2014, and assessed for level of readability using 10 scales. The Flesch Reading Ease test, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook test, Coleman-Liau Index, Gunning Fog Index, New Fog Count, New Dale-Chall Readability Formula, FORCAST scale, Raygor Readability Estimate Graph, and Fry Readability Graph were used. Text from each article was pasted into Microsoft Word and analyzed using the software Readability Studio professional edition version 2012.1 for Windows. Flesch Reading Ease score, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook grade, Coleman-Liau Index score, Gunning Fog Index score, New Fog Count, New Dale-Chall Readability Formula score, FORCAST score, Raygor Readability Estimate Graph score, and Fry Readability Graph score. Three hundred thirty-nine online PEMs were assessed. The mean Flesch Reading Ease score was 40.7 (range, 17.0-51.0), which correlates with a difficult level of reading. The mean readability grade levels ranged as follows: 10.4 to 12.6 for the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level; 12.9 to 17.7 for the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook test; 11.4 to 15.8 for the Coleman-Liau Index; 12.4 to 18.7 for the Gunning Fog Index; 8.2 to 16.0 for the New Fog Count; 11.2 to 16.0 for the New Dale-Chall Readability Formula; 10.9 to 12.5 for the FORCAST scale; 11

  18. [To strengthen the education on basic knowledge and skills of neuro-ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Ning-li

    2011-12-01

    Basic knowledge and skills are cornerstone of the diagnosis and treatment of neuro-ophthalmology diseases in ophthalmology practice. Due to the interdisciplinary features of neuro-ophthalmology, neuro-anatomy, neuro-physiology related to eyes, neuro-image and neuro-electrodiagnosis, these should be included in the education for the ophthalmologist. Special attention should be paid to training on capability of logically thinking in neuro-ophthalmology. Multiple ways can be used for the education of ophthalmologists and neurologists for the enhancement of basic knowledge and skills of neuro-ophthalmology in China.

  19. A qualitative examination of the perceptions of parents on the Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Valerie; Clark, Marianne; Berry, Tanya; Holt, Nicholas L; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2014-05-17

    Minimizing sedentary behavior, in particular screen-based sedentary behavior, during the early years is important for healthy growth and development. Consequently, new Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years) were recently released. Researchers are unclear what messages should supplement the guidelines when disseminating them to parents and when using the guidelines in behaviour-change interventions to increase adoption. The objective of this study was to qualitatively examine parents' perceptions of the new Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years. Parents with a child ≤4 years who attended a child care centre were purposefully recruited from child care centres. A total of 7 semi-structured focus groups with 2 to 5 parents were conducted from August to November, 2013 by a trained and experienced moderator. Participants were asked a series of open-ended questions pertaining to the Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines information sheet. Initial themes were identified followed by further review and analysis. For the most part parents thought the guidelines were clear and did not disagree with the recommendations per se. However, some confusion arose around the value of some sedentary activities, such as reading and coloring, for social and cognitive development. Many parents described feeling guilty after reading the guidelines and perceived several barriers in meeting the daily recommendations. Common barriers included the need to balance multiple demands of family life, the prevalence and accessibility of screen technology, and the weather and built environment where families live. Parents expressed the importance of communicating the guidelines early enough for good habits to be established and the need for realistic strategies and ideas to help them meet the recommendations. Overall the findings indicate that gain-framed messages around the role of screen-based and non-screen-based sedentary behavior for children

  20. Importance of physical examination in early detection of lump in breast in women of different age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, H.; Imran, S.; Waris, Noorul-ain-Hafeez; Khanam, A.; Khurshid, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The spectrum of breast lesions in adolescents varies markedly from that for adults, with the former lesions being overwhelmingly benign. Fine needle biopsy can be used to distinguish benign and malignant tumour. Study Design: This study examined the characteristics and outcome of women with different age groups in whom physical examination was their sole method of lump in breast detection. Patients and Methods: A total of 200 patients were included in the study. These were divided into 3 groups. Group A was consisting of 75 girls with age of pubescent. Group B included 69 suspected breast cancer women with age range 26-38 years. Fifty-six suspected breast cancer women with age range 41-60 year were included as group C. Study was carried out in patients admitted in the Department/Out-door of Surgery, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Study period was 6 months. All women received a physical examination by a breast surgeon. Proforma including demographic and clinical characteristics were filled. The diagnosis for patients in this study was achieved by core needle biopsy using a 14-gauge cutting needle. Results: It was observed that early age at menarche ( 25 may be a risk factor in peri/post menopausal women. Active life style is more important with increasing age as it decreases the risk of developing tumour state. Family history was more common in women with peri/post menopausal status as compared to other age groups. Clinical characteristics showed that lump size <2.5 cm was more common in both pubescent and reproductive age. While lump size with a range of 2.5-5.0 cm, was observed in all groups of patients. Fibroadenoma is observed in almost all women with pubescent age while both benign and malignant tumour observed in women with reproductive age. Malignant tumour was observed mostly in women with peri/post menopausal status. Conclusion: Study concluded that early detection or clinical examination with FNA cut out the patients from harassment

  1. Radiation-related ophthalmologic changes and aging among the atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Finch, S.C.; Choshi, Kanji; Takaku, Isao; Mishima, Hiromu; Takase, Tomoko.

    1993-05-01

    The relationship of ionizing radiation to the age-related ophthalmologic findings of the 1978-80 ophthalmologic examination of the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been reanalyzed using Dosimetry System 1986 eye organ dose estimates. The main purpose of this re-evaluation was to determine whether age and radiation exposure have an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect on ophthalmologic changes. The best model fitting axial opacities gives a significant positive effect for both linear dose-response and linear age-related regression coefficients and a significant negative effect for an interaction between radiation dose and age. Such a negative interaction implies an antagonistic effect in that the relative risks with relation to radiation doses decrease with increasing age. This phenomenon suggests that the lenses of younger persons are more sensitive to radiation than are those of older persons. However, the best-fitting relationship for posterior subcapsular changes suggested a linear-quadratic dose response and linear age-related effects. The quadratic estimate of radiation dose squared showed a highly significant effect with a negative trend, but the negative quadratic estimate was so extremely small it had almost no contributive value within an appropriative dose area. These data suggest an additive relationship between aging and radiation for the induction of posterior subcapsular changes, and they also indicate that there is no distinct evidence of a radiation-induced aging effect. The radiation-related relative risks increase with a log linearity. The decrease of visual acuity and accommodation with increasing age were comparable in both exposed and control subjects, with age-related visual acuity decreasing more than accommodation. (J.P.N.)

  2. The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Assay in Neuro-Ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Leanne M; Rigi, Mohammed; Suleiman, Ayman; Smith, Stacy V; Graviss, Edward A; Foroozan, Rod; Lee, Andrew G

    2017-09-01

    Although QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) testing is regularly used to detect infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, its utility in a patient population with a low risk for tuberculosis (TB) has been questioned. The following is a cohort study analyzing the efficacy of QFT-GIT testing as a method for detection of active TB disease in low-risk individuals in a neuro-ophthalmologic setting. Ninety-nine patients from 2 neuro-ophthalmology centers were identified as having undergone QFT-GIT testing between January 2012 and February 2016. Patients were divided into groups of negative, indeterminate, and positive QFT-GIT results. Records of patients with positive QFT-GIT results were reviewed for development of latent or active TB, as determined by clinical, bacteriologic, and/or radiographic evidence. Of the 99 cases reviewed, 18 patients had positive QFT-GIT tests. Of these 18 cases, 12 had documentation of chest radiographs or computed tomography which showed no evidence for either active TB or pulmonary latent TB infection (LTBI). Four had chest imaging which was indicative of possible LTBI. None of these 18 patients had symptoms of active TB and none developed active TB within the follow-up period. Based on our results, we conclude that routine testing with QFT-GIT in a low-risk cohort did not diagnose active TB infection. We do not recommend routine QFT-GIT testing for TB low-risk individuals, as discerned through patient and exposure history, ocular examination, and clinical judgment, in neuro-ophthalmology practice.

  3. Quality of the ophthalmological service to outpatients of the public and private healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercos, Benigno Vicente Santos; Berezovsky, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    To compare perceptions of the quality of ophthalmological services offered to outpatients from the public healthcare system to those from the private healthcare system, and to determine which measures are seen as necessary and a priority for improving the quality of care. This was a prospective observational study on 200 patients, 101 and 99 of whom were from the public and private healthcare systems, respectively. All patients underwent an ophthalmological examination at an ophthalmology hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Personal interviews were conducted using two structured questionnaires adapted from the modified SERVQUAL scale. Overall, patients from the private healthcare system were significantly more dissatisfied than those from the public healthcare system. In both systems, reliability was considered to be the most important determinant of quality, and it presented the highest level of dissatisfaction. Satisfaction with the public healthcare system was significantly greater than that with the private healthcare system in terms of the tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, and assurance determinants of the SERVQUAL scale. Institutions must plan, execute, evaluate, and monitor measures that seek to improve the overall patient satisfaction with the quality of services provided, particularly in the private healthcare system, and special attention must be paid to reliability in both healthcare systems. The identification and monitoring of the quality of healthcare services through the periodic use of the SERVQUAL scale may provide healthcare managers with information so that they can identify, plan, and monitor necessary and priority measures. This could be a key strategy for improving the quality of outpatient health services in the public and private systems.

  4. Self-administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE): a brief cognitive assessment Instrument for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharre, Douglas W; Chang, Shu-Ing; Murden, Robert A; Lamb, James; Beversdorf, David Q; Kataki, Maria; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Bornstein, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    To develop a self-administered cognitive assessment instrument to facilitate the screening of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia and determine its association with gold standard clinical assessments including neuropsychologic evaluation. Adults aged above 59 years with sufficient vision and English literacy were recruited from geriatric and memory disorder clinics, educational talks, independent living facilities, senior centers, and memory screens. After Self-administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE) screening, subjects were randomly selected to complete a clinical evaluation, neurologic examination, neuropsychologic battery, functional assessment, and mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Subjects were identified as dementia, MCI, or normal based on standard clinical criteria and neuropsychologic testing. Two hundred fifty-four participants took the SAGE screen and 63 subjects completed the extensive evaluation (21 normal, 21 MCI, and 21 dementia subjects). Spearman rank correlation between SAGE and neuropsychologic battery was 0.84 (0.76 for MMSE). SAGE receiver operating characteristics on the basis of clinical diagnosis showed 95% specificity (90% for MMSE) and 79% sensitivity (71% for MMSE) in detecting those with cognitive impairment from normal subjects. This study suggests that SAGE is a reliable instrument for detecting cognitive impairment and compares favorably with the MMSE. The self-administered feature may promote cognitive testing by busy clinicians prompting earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  5. OPHTHALMOLOGICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL PICTURE OF CROUZON SYNDROME – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade R. Babić

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Crouzon syndrome (CS accounts for about 4.8% of all cases of craniosynostosis. Crouzon syndrome occurs in approximately 1 per 25.000 births worldwide. It may be transmitted as an autosomal dominant genetic condition, but 25% of cases represent a fresh mutation. There is no race or sex predilection. The appearance of an infant with CS can vary in severity from mild presentation with subtle midface characteristics to severe forms with multiple cranial sutures, fused and marked midface and eye problems.A ten-year-old girl suspected to have congenital glaucoma was sent to a consultative examination to the Ophthalmology Clinic, CC Nis. The very appearance of the girl indicated the diagnosis – Crouzon syndrome, which was confirmed by ophthalmological and radiological examinations. The patient was referred to the ophthalmologist in charge for further attendance and was recommended to undergo a surgical treatment by a maxillofacial surgeon.Exophtalmus, hypertelorism, divergent strabismus, hypermetropy, head, orbit and jaw deformities, extremely illustrative, mostly rarely seen in everday practice, are the elements of the clinical picture of Crouzon syndrome. It deserves our attention, taking into consideration ocular complications and multifactorial purblindness which it causes.

  6. Neuro-ophthalmologic evaluation, quality of life, and functional disability in patients with MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Elena; Rodriguez-Mena, Diego; Herrero, Raquel; Almarcegui, Carmen; Dolz, Isabel; Martin, Jesus; Ara, Jose R; Larrosa, Jose M; Polo, Vicente; Fernández, Javier; Pablo, Luis E

    2013-07-02

    To evaluate correlations between longitudinal changes in neuro-ophthalmologic measures and quality of life (QOL) and disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), using optical coherence tomography (OCT), visual evoked potentials (VEP), and visual field examination. Fifty-four patients with relapsing-remitting MS were enrolled in this study and underwent Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life questionnaire (54 items) (MSQOL-54) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) evaluation, as well as complete neuro-ophthalmologic examination including visual field testing and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements using Cirrus and Spectralis OCT and VEP. All patients were re-evaluated at 12, 24, and 36 months. Logistical regression was performed to analyze which measures, if any, could predict QOL. Overall, RNFL thickness results at the baseline evaluation were significantly different from those at 3 years (p ≤ 0.05), but there were no differences in functional measures (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color vision, visual field, and VEP). A reduced MSQOL-54 score was associated with an increase in EDSS score and a decrease in both functional and structural parameters. Patients with longer MS duration presented with a lower MSQOL-54 score (reduction in QOL). Patients with progressive axonal loss as seen in RNFL results had a lower QOL and more functional disability.

  7. Models for joint ophthalmology-optometry patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John J; Kim, Christine M

    2011-07-01

    American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) and American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ASCRS) presented a joint position paper in February 2000 declaring that they do not support routine comanagement of patients with the optometrists. American Optometric Association and American Academy of Optometry quickly responded in support of AAO and ASCRS. All four entities did not preclude legitimate and proper comanagement arrangements. Since that time, the pattern of practice has changed, requiring us to rethink our positions. This paper is written to provide a possible model for the ophthalmology-optometry practice management in ophthalmic surgeries including refractive surgery. Since the publication of the Joint Position Paper, the concept of comanagement has faded and a new model of integrated management has evolved. This has occurred as the changes in the employment pattern of the ophthalmic practice have incorporated optometrists into its fold. This evolution allowed ophthalmic and optometric community to co-exist and thrive to provide better patient care.

  8. [Essential aspects of ophthalmological expert assessment in private accident insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tost, F

    2014-06-01

    Commissions for an expert assessment place basically high demands on commissioned eye specialists because this activity differs from the normal routine field of work. In addition to assessing objective symptoms and subjective symptomatics in a special analytical manner, eye specialists are expected to have knowledge of basic legal terminology, such as proximate cause, evidence and evidential value. Only under these prerequisites can an ophthalmologist fulfill the function of an expert with a high level of quality and adequately adjust the special medical ophthalmological expertise to the requirements of the predominantly legally based clients commissioning the report and oriented to the appropriate valid legal norms. Particularly common difficulties associated with making an ophthalmological expert report for private accident insurance, e.g. determination of the reduction in functional quality, consideration of partial causality and assessment of diplopia are discussed.

  9. [Teleconsultation network for ophthalmology--experiences and results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahlmann, G; Walther, H D; Liesenfeld, B; Kaatz, H; Kluthe, S; Fabian, E; Klaas, D; Schnarr, K D; Neubauer, L; Obermaier, M; Wegner, A; Mertz, M; Mann, G

    1998-02-01

    Telemedical services for ophthalmology are developed within the OPHTEL project, which has been funded by the European Union and by the Bavarian government in the Bavaria-online initiative. Seven private ophthalmologists, one university eye clinic, one clinical Diabetes center and an informatics research institute are connected within a teleconsultation network. Asynchronous (based on Internet E-Mail) and synchronous (based on ISDN-mediated videoconferencing tools) types of teleconsultations are realized. 86 teleconsultations (62 asynchronous, 23 synchronous) took place within the first 10 months. Complex and rare eye diseases as well as interdisciplinary questions (ophthalmology--diabetology) are the main area of medical communication interest. Legal and security problems are discussed. Telemedical services must be understood as a complete process of medical care on the basis of modern communication technologies, which influences also the management of this process.

  10. Early detection of leprosy by examination of household contacts, determination of serum anti-PGL-1 antibodies and consanguinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bazan-Furini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional clinical trial in which the serum anti-phenolic glycolipid (anti-PGL-1 antibodies were analysed in household contacts (HHC of patients with leprosy as an adjunct early leprosy diagnostic marker was conducted. The families of 83 patients underwent clinical examination and serum anti-PGL1 measurement using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 320 HHC, 98 were contacts of lepromatous leprosy (LL, 80 were contacts of borderline lepromatous (BL, 28 were contacts of borderline (BB leprosy, 54 were contacts of borderline tuberculoid (BT, 40 were contacts of tuberculoid (TT and 20 were contacts of indeterminate (I leprosy. Consanguinity with the patients was determined for 232 (72.5% HHC. Of those 232 contacts, 183 had linear consanguinity. Forty-nine HHC had collateral consanguinity. Fifty-eight contacts (18.1% tested positive for anti-PGL1 antibodies. The number of seropositive contacts based on the clinical forms of the index case was 17 (29.3% for LL, 15 (25.9% for BL, one (1.7% for BB, 14 (24.1% for BT, three (5.2% for TT and eight (13.7% for I. At the one year follow-up, two (3.4% of these seropositive contacts had developed BT leprosy. The results of the present study indicate that the serum anti-PGL-1 IgM antibody may be useful for evaluating antigen exposure and as a tool for an early leprosy diagnosis in HHC.

  11. Examination of the Pattern of Growth of Cerebral Tissue Volumes From Hospital Discharge to Early Childhood in Very Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B; Anderson, Peter J; Matthews, Lillian G; Neil, Jeffrey J; Kapur, Kush; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W; Thompson, Deanne K; Inder, Terrie E

    2016-08-01

    Smaller cerebral volumes at hospital discharge in very preterm (VPT) infants are associated with poor neurobehavioral outcomes. Brain growth from the newborn period to middle childhood has not been explored because longitudinal data have been lacking. To examine the pattern of growth of cerebral tissue volumes from hospital discharge to childhood in VPT infants and to determine perinatal risk factors for impaired brain growth and associations with neurobehavioral outcomes at 7 years. Prospective cohort study of VPT infants (childhood and outcomes in VPT infants. Low brain volumes observed in VPT infants are exaggerated at 7 years. Low brain volume in infancy is associated with long-term functional outcomes, emphasizing the persisting influence of early brain development on subsequent growth and outcomes.

  12. Clinical safety and professional liability claims in Ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz-Güerri, F; Gómez-Durán, E L; Martínez-Palmer, A; Castilla Céspedes, M; Arimany-Manso, J

    2017-11-01

    Patient safety is an international public health priority. Ophthalmology scientific societies and organisations have intensified their efforts in this field. As a tool to learn from errors, these efforts have been linked to the management of medical professional liability insurance through the analysis of claims. A review is performed on the improvements in patient safety, as well as professional liability issues in Ophthalmology. There is a high frequency of claims and risk of economic reparation of damage in the event of a claim in Ophthalmology. Special complaints, such as wrong surgery or lack of information, have a high risk of financial compensation and need strong efforts to prevent these potentially avoidable events. Studies focused on pathologies or specific procedures provide information of special interest to sub-specialists. The specialist in Ophthalmology, like any other doctor, is subject to the current legal provisions and appropriate mandatory training in the medical-legal aspects of health care is essential. Professionals must be aware of the fundamental aspects of medical professional liability, as well as specific aspects, such as defensive medicine and clinical safety. The understanding of these medical-legal aspects in the routine clinical practice can help to pave the way towards a satisfactory and safe professional career, and help in increasing patient safety. The aim of this review is to contribute to this training, for the benefit of professionals and patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Toward computer-assisted diagnosis and telemedicine in ophthalmology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marrugo, A.; Millán, M. S.; Cristóbal, G.; Gabarda, S.; Šorel, Michal; Šroubek, Filip

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 6 (2012), s. 1-3 ISSN 1818-2259 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : computer-aided diagnosis * medical and retinal image * deconvolution * telemedicine Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/sorel-toward computer-assisted diagnosis and telemedicine in ophthalmology.pdf

  14. [International relationships in ophthalmology in the German Democratic Republic (GDR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähne, M

    2017-09-01

    International relationships in ophthalmology in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) were directed by the government and predominantly promoted relationships to socialist countries in Eastern Europe. The lack of freedom of travel, restrictions of import for scientific journals and general prevention of contacts by the State security service led to a stagnation in daily practice and in research, mainly from 1961 until 1989.

  15. The human resource crisis in neuro-ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohman, Larry P

    2008-09-01

    Neuro-ophthalmology is facing a serious human resource issue. Few are entering the subspecialty, which is perceived as being poorly compensated compared with other subspecialties of ophthalmology. The low compensation comes from the fact that 1) non-procedural encounters remain undervalued, 2) efforts that benefit other medical specialists are not counted, and 3) the relatively low expenses of neuro-ophthalmologists are not factored into compensation formulas. Mission-based budgeting, which forces academic departments to be financially accountable without the expectation of fiscal relief from medical schools or practice plans, has exacerbated the compensation issue. Solutions must come from within neuro-ophthalmology, academic departments, medical schools, and medical practice plans. They include 1) providing educational resources so that neuro-ophthalmologists need not spend so much time teaching the basics, 2) factoring into compensation the impact of neuro-ophthalmologists in teaching and on revenue generation by procedure-based specialists, 3) improving the efficiency of neuro-ophthalmologists in their consultative practices by providing ample clerical support and other measures, 4) providing contractual salary compensation by departments such as neurosurgery to recognize the contributions made by neuro-ophthalmologists, and 5) reorganizing the academic clinical effort as multidisciplinary rather than departmental.

  16. Evaluation of a simulation tool in ophthalmology: application in teaching funduscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Elise Androwiki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the Eye Retinopathy Trainer® as a teaching tool for direct ophthalmoscopy examination by comparing it with the traditional method using volunteers. Methods: Fourth year medical students received training in direct ophthalmoscopy using a simulation tool and human volunteers. Ninety students were randomized into a Simulation Group or a Control Group by the inclusion or absence of the simulation model in classroom practice. Differences between the groups were analyzed using unpaired Student’s t-test. Results: The Simulation Group was superior to the Control Group, with 51.06% successful in performing fundus examination in both the anatomical model simulation and the human model in comparison with 21.15% in the Control Group. Conclusion: The Eye Retinopathy Trainer® appears to be an effective teaching tool for practice and improvement of ophthalmologic examination among fourth year medical students.

  17. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS): bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeffrey N.; Levy, Steven; Benes, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    The Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS) is currently the largest-scale stem cell ophthalmology trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT01920867). SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) to treat optic nerve and retinal diseases. Treatment approaches include a combination of retrobulbar, subtenon, intravitreal, intra-optic nerve, subretinal, and intravenous injection of autologous BMSCs according to the nature of the disease, the degree of visual loss, and any risk factors related to the treatments. Patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy had visual acuity gains on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) of up to 35 letters and Snellen acuity improvements from hand motion to 20/200 and from counting fingers to 20/100. Visual field improvements were noted. Macular and optic nerve head nerve fiber layer typically thickened. No serious complications were seen. The increases in visual acuity obtained in our study were encouraging and suggest that the use of autologous BMSCs as provided in SCOTS for ophthalmologic mitochondrial diseases including Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy may be a viable treatment option. PMID:27904503

  18. Using Lesson Study to Support the Teaching of Early Number Concepts: Examining the Development of Prospective Teachers' Specialized Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairead

    2018-01-01

    Growing awareness of the importance of education in the early years has led professional organizations and policy makers to consider the effectiveness of mathematics education for young children. Factors such as educational environments, early years curricula and teacher education are some of the many aspects that have been examined. This paper…

  19. Effect of digital problem-based learning cases on student learning outcomes in ophthalmology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jun; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Youdong; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Jinsong

    2009-09-01

    To assess the impact of digital problem-based learning (PBL) cases on student learning in ophthalmology courses. Ninety students were randomly divided into 3 classes (30 students per class). The first class studied under a didactic model. The other 2 classes were divided into 6 groups (10 students per group) and received PBL teaching; 3 groups studied via cases presented in digital form and the others studied via paper-form cases. The results of theoretical and case analysis examinations were analyzed using the chi(2) test. Student performance on the interval practice was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Questionnaires were used to evaluate student and facilitator perceptions. Students in the digital groups exhibited better performance in the practice procedures according to tutorial evaluations compared with the other groups (P digital groups (vs 73% in the paper groups) noted that the cases greatly stimulated their interest. Introducing PBL into ophthalmology could improve educational quality and effectiveness. Digital PBL cases stimulate interest and motivate students to further improve diagnosis and problem-handling skills.

  20. Unpacking Early Work Experiences of Young Adults With Rheumatic Disease: An Examination of Absenteeism, Job Disruptions, and Productivity Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetha, Arif; Badley, Elizabeth; Beaton, Dorcas; Fortin, Paul R; Shiff, Natalie J; Gignac, Monique A M

    2015-09-01

    To examine work absenteeism, job disruptions, and perceived productivity loss and factors associated with each outcome in young adults living with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and juvenile arthritis (JA). One hundred forty-three young adults, ages 18-30 years with SLE (54.5%) and JA (45.5%), completed an online survey of work experiences. Demographic, health (e.g., fatigue, disease activity), psychosocial (e.g., independence, social support), and work context (e.g., career satisfaction, job control, self-disclosure) information was collected. Participants were asked about absenteeism, job disruptions, and perceived productivity loss in the last 6 months. Log Poisson regression analyses examined factors associated with work outcomes. A majority of participants (59%) were employed and reported a well-managed health condition. Employed respondents were satisfied with their career progress and indicated moderate job control. More than 40% of participants reported absenteeism, job disruptions, and productivity loss. Greater job control and self-disclosure, and less social support, were related to a higher likelihood of absenteeism. More disease activity was related to a greater likelihood of reporting job disruptions. Lower fatigue and higher job control were associated with a reduced likelihood of a productivity loss. Young adult respondents with rheumatic disease experienced challenges with employment, including absenteeism, job disruptions, and productivity loss. While related to greater absenteeism, job control could play a role in a young person's ability to manage their health condition and sustain productive employment. Greater attention should also be paid to understanding health factors and social support in early work experiences. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  1. Neuro-ophthalmological conditions: Study of the clinical care pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layat, I; Challe, G; LeHoang, P; Bodaghi, B; Touitou, V

    2017-06-01

    Neuro-ophthalmologic conditions require specialized multidisciplinary management, both medical and surgical, for patients affected by visual loss due to nervous system disease. The primary goal of this study is to define the specificity of neuro-ophthalmology within the realm of visual health. The secondary goal is to review clinical care pathways by studying the organization of management, in terms of accessibility to care and personalization of the care pathway. A field study was carried out from February to June 2015, within the ophthalmology service of the Pitié-Salpêtrière University Medical Center in Paris. A 30-minute interview with the patient before or after his or her neuro-ophthalmology consultation was performed, to describe the clinical care pathway. The medical records of interviewed patients were also analyzed. Seventeen care pathways (10 women and 7 men) were reviewed. The mean age at appearance of visual involvement was 44.5 years (±8.4 years). If we exclude 3 patients over 66 years and retired, 35.71% were active, 35.71% were disabled, and 28.57% were on sick leave. Ten patients (58.82%) met the criteria for admission to long-term care. The first step had been carried out by local private practitioners. The first physician seen was the general medicine physician (59%), then the private ophthalmologist on an emergency basis (17%). On average, patients went through 8 steps during their care pathway (from 6 to 10 steps) and 14 medical departments were involved. The study showed collaboration with the other services of the University Hospital Department of Vision and Disabilities (notably with the Fondation Rothschild, the Quinze-Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, and the Fondation Sainte-Marie). In addition to rehabilitation services, health care professionals participating in the outpatient care of the patients included an orthoptist (11.7%), a psychologist (11.7%), and an optician specializing in low vision for visual aids. Finally

  2. Analysis of online patient education materials in pediatric ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Ann M; John, Elizabeth S; Hansberry, David R; Thomas, Prashant J; Guo, Suqin

    2015-10-01

    Patients increasingly consult online resources for healthcare information. The American Medical Association (AMA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend that online education resources be written between a 3rd- and 7th-grade level. This study assesses whether online health information abides by these guidelines. Ten pediatric ophthalmology conditions were entered into a commonly used search engine, Google.com, and analyzed using 10 validated readability scales. Scientific articles and articles written on patient forums were excluded. The 10 conditions--amblyopia, cataract, conjunctivitis, corneal abrasion, nystagmus, retinoblastoma, retinopathy of prematurity, strabismus, stye, and glaucoma--were also searched and analyzed separately from widely used websites, including Wikipedia and WebMD, as well as those of professional societies, including the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) and the American Optometric Association (AOA). The majority of articles were written above recommended guidelines. All scales showed that the 100 articles were written at a mean grade-level of 11.75 ± 2.72. Only 12% of articles were written below a 9th-grade level and only 3% met recommended criteria. The articles accrued separately from Wikipedia, WebMD, AAPOS, and AOA also had average grade levels above the recommended guidelines. The readability of online patient education material exceeds NIH and AMA guidelines. This disparity can adversely affect caregiver comprehension of such resources and contribute to poor decision making. Pediatric ophthalmology online articles are generally written at a level too high for average caregiver comprehension. Revision of articles can increase satisfaction, improve outcomes, and facilitate the patient-ophthalmologist relationship. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Correlates of Early Alcohol and Drug Use in Hispanic Adolescents: Examining the Role of ADHD with Comorbid Conduct Disorder, Family, School, and Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Barbara; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Rothe, Eugenio M.; Wang, Wei; Pantin, Hilda

    2008-01-01

    This study examined correlates of early adolescent alcohol and drug use in a community sample of 217 eighth-grade adolescents with behavior problems and from Hispanic/Latino immigrant families. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships of multiple contexts (e.g., family, school, and peers) to alcohol and drug use. Results…

  4. Exploring the Potential of a Wearable Camera to Examine the Early Obesogenic Home Environment: Comparison of SenseCam Images to the Home Environment Interview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrempft, S.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Fisher, A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The obesogenic home environment is usually examined via self-report, and objective measures are required. OBJECTIVE: This study explored whether the wearable camera SenseCam can be used to examine the early obesogenic home environment and whether it is useful for validation of

  5. Ophthalmologic changes related to radiation exposure and age in the adult health study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choshi, Kanji; Mishima, Hiromu; Takaku, Isao; Takase, Tomoko; Neriishi, Shotaro.

    1983-11-01

    A two-year ophthalmologic study of age- and radiation-related ophthalmologic lesions among the Adult Health Study (AHS) population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was conducted at RERF in 1978-80. The study population in both cities was composed of all persons exposed to 100+ rad in the AHS, their controls, and all other persons in the AHS sample with a previous record of axial opacities or posterior subcapsular changes, and the in utero clinical sample. The ophthalmologic examination was conducted on 1,582 persons in Hiroshima and 719 persons in Nagasaki belonging to the AHS sample, and 67 persons in Hiroshima and 17 persons in Nagasaki belonging to the in utero clinical sample. Participation in the study was 42% of the eligible AHS sample in Hiroshima and 21% in Nagasaki, and 24% of the eligible in utero sample in Hiroshima and 26% in Nagasaki. Increased lenticular opacities, other lens changes, and loss of visual acuity and accommodation occurred with increasing age in both exposed and control subjects as manifestations of the normal aging process. A highly significant excess risk for all ages in the 300+ rad group in comparison to those in the control group was observed for both axial opacities and posterior subcapsular changes in Hiroshima, but not in Nagasaki. (J.P.N.)

  6. Uses and complications of mitomycin C in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearza, Ali A; Aslanides, Ioannis M

    2007-01-01

    Mitomycin C is a chemotherapeutic agent that acts by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Its use and application in ophthalmology has been increasing in recent years because of its modulatory effects on wound healing. Current applications include pterygium surgery, glaucoma surgery, corneal refractive surgery, cicatricial eye disease, conjunctival neoplasia and allergic eye disease. Although it has been used successfully in these conditions, it has also been associated with significant complications. This article reviews the current trends and uses of mitomycin C in the eye and its reported complications.

  7. [Platforms are needed for innovative basic research in ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-qiang

    2012-07-01

    Basic research poses the cornerstone of technical innovation in all lines including medical sciences. Currently, there are shortages of professional scientists as well as technical supporting teams and facilities in the field of basic research of ophthalmology and visual science in China. Evaluation system and personnel policies are not supportive for innovative but high-risk-of-failure research projects. Discussion of reasons and possible solutions are given here to address these problems, aiming at promoting buildup of platforms hosting novel and important basic research in eye science in this country.

  8. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERIC FILMS USED IN OPHTHALMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Emanuel STAVARACHE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to characterize the surface properties of (polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA foils used in ophathalmological applications. Thus, the morphology, chemical composition and surface energy of these PMMA foils are analyzed, by specific measurements, at the interface with different test liquids of interest in ophthalmology, i.e. distilled H2 O, physiological serum and ophthalmic solution of ReNu Multiplus, used for contact lens cleaning, hydration and disinfection. Also, a solution of Nostamine, known as a drug used in eye irritation and conjunctival inflammation, was tested.

  9. Neuro-Behçet’s disease in childhood: A focus on the neuro-ophthalmological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuro-Behçet’s disease (NBD involves the central nervous system; peripheral nervous system involvement is not often reported. NBD is quite common in adult patients and occurs rarely during childhood and adolescence. Young patients may share symptoms and signs of NBD with other neuro-ophthalmological disorders (e.g. idiopathic intracranial hypertension; thus, making the differential diagnosis difficult. Neuroimaging is mandatory and necessary for a correct NBD diagnosis but in children radiological examinations are often difficult to perform without sedation. From 1971 to 2011, 130 patients aged ≤16 years have been reported with NBD, according to retrospective surveys, case series, and case reports. The origin of the reported cases met the well-known geographical distribution of Behçet’s disease (BD; the mean age at presentation of neurological findings was 11.8 years, with male gender prevalence (ratio, 2.9:1. We considered in detail the neuro-ophthalmological features of the 53 cases whose neuroimaging alterations were described with an assigned radiological pattern of the disease (parenchymal: 14 cases, non-parechymal: 35 cases, and mixed: 4 cases. In 19/53 patients (36%, neuro-ophthalmological symptoms anticipated any pathognomonic sign for a BD diagnosis, or only occasional aphtae were recalled by the patients. Family history was positive in 17% of subjects. Headache was reported in 75% of the patients; in those presenting with cerebral vascular involvement, headache was combined to other symptoms of intracranial hypertension. Papilledema was the most frequently reported ophthalmological finding, followed by posterior uveitis. Treatment consisted of systemic steroids in 93% of patients, often combined with other immunosuppressive drugs (especially colchicine and azathioprine. Clinical recovery or improvement was documented in the large majority of patients. Nine subjects had definitive alterations, and one died. Based on our

  10. Analysis of causes of intraocular lens explantations in the material of Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Lodz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, Michał; Wilczyńska, Olena; Omulecki, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    Implantation of intraocular lenses (IOLS) has become a standard practice in cataract surgery, however, similar to any other type of surgery, using IOLs is not complication-free and sometimes explantation of intraocular lenses may be necessary. This study was to gather data and analyze causes of intraocular lens explantations, performed in the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Łódź. The data were gathered from medical documentation of all patients who underwent intraocular lens removal from January 2003 to July 2006. The examined group consisted of 16 patients (16 eyes): 9 women (fraction 0.56), and 7 men (fraction 0.44), at the age from 21 to 82 years (mean age 62.4 years, SD +/- 15.5). In all patients IOL explantation was performed under local, peribulbar anaesthesia. Two groups of patients were distinguished: patients who had an anterior chamber lens explanted (3 patients, fraction 0.19) and patients who underwent posterior chamber lens explantation (13 patients, fraction 0.81). Causes of AC IOL explantations were: vaulting of the IOL (1 eye, fraction 0.06), luxation of the IOL to the vitreous cavity (1 eye, fraction 0.06), and painful eyeball after anterior chamber lens implantation (1 eye, fraction 0.06). Causes of PC IOL explantations were: subluxation of the IOL (6 eyes, fraction 0.38), luxation of the lens to the vitreous cavity (3 eyes, fraction 0.19), luxation of the lens to the anterior chamber (1 eye, fraction 0.06), endophthalmitis (2 eyes, fraction 0.13) and incorrect lens power (1 eye, fraction 0.06). In the majority of eyes (n = 13, fraction 0.81) the removed implant was replaced by another intraocular lens, but 3 eyes (fraction 0.19) were left aphakic. We did not observe serious intra- or early postoperative complications which might influence the final result of the operation.

  11. Three days in October of 1630: detailed examination of mortality during an early modern plague epidemic in Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, S R

    1989-01-01

    The epidemiology of medieval and early modern European plague remains highly controversial. It now seems likely that the epidemiology was not uniform throughout either the geographic or temporal boundaries of the plague in Western Europe. The Venetian plague of 1630 was extensively documented; day-by-day records were kept, and each mortality in the city was recorded in a set format. The days 23-25 October 1630, representing a period when mortality was beginning to increase sharply, are examined. In all, 1,163 deaths were recorded. They show a large preponderance of women; a mean age of 28, but a majority of cases clumped between ages 0 and 25 years; and an unequal sex ratio among children. Further, there was an identifiable smallpox epidemic raging simultaneously with plague, and more than one-quarter of all the deaths in this period of high mortality were clearly due to nonplague causes. Deaths due to wounds and associated with violence were prominent in one parish, which suggests that in times of plague the breakdown in the normal machinery of government, in everyday patterns of life, and possibly of mental well being resulted in an even more exaggerated death toll. These factors--violence, accidents, and other epidemics--have never been so definitively tied to a European plague epidemic. In addition, there are hints that plague has a marked proclivity to kill pregnant women--their deaths far outnumber those anticipated--and that plague was very localized at a given moment within Venice itself, even during times of peak mortality.

  12. Mouth self-examination to improve oral cancer awareness and early detection in a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Kalavathy Jayapal; Anandkrishnan, Nitin; Suresh, Amritha; Iyer, Subramania K; Ramaiyer, Sundaram Karimassery; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham

    2011-07-01

    Oral cancer is a potentially preventable disease due to its association with well-known risk factors and easy detectability. There is a significant deficiency in the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors among the public. Raising public awareness could effectively contribute to achieving a significant reduction in the incidence of oral cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mouth self-examination (MSE) in improving the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors as well as test its feasibility as an oral cancer-screening tool. The study was carried out in a high-risk population of 57,704 from India, of which, 34,766 individuals who have met the eligibility criteria formed the study population. MSE brochures and trained health workers were employed for the purpose of health education and cancer screening. The present study compared their efficacy to detect oral lesions. Subjects with suspicious lesions were referred to the trained oral cancer specialist for confirmation. A questionnaire to assess the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors was developed and validated. SPSS (v.11.0) was used for data analysis. The program identified 216 cases of potentially malignant lesions as well as three cases of oral cancer. The findings of MSE and health workers showed 72% concordance, while that of health workers and oral cancer specialist showed 100% concordance. MSE had a low sensitivity of 18%, while the specificity was 99.9%. Though the technique identified high-risk lesions such as red patches (66.7%) and non-healing ulcers (42.9%), the detection rate of white patches was low (12.7%). Overall awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors after introduction of MSE program was over 80%; but the compliance to seek treatment was poor (32%). Mouth self-examination may be used as an effective tool to improve the awareness of oral cancer and for the early detection of lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Leadership in Ophthalmology: The Role of Physician-MBAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathipati, Akhilesh S; Tsai, James C

    2018-04-01

    As American health care evolves, an increasing number of doctors are pursuing MBAs. However, relatively little is known about how business training translates into their future careers. This study characterizes ophthalmologists who have completed MBAs and identifies opportunities for physician leadership in the field. Cross-sectional study. We identified 120 ophthalmologists who hold MBAs. We searched each individual's online profiles to collect information on demographics, training, and professional activities. Physician-MBAs in ophthalmology are 80% male; 80% are fellowship trained; and 28% are in primarily nonclinical roles and 55% participate in significant nonclinical activity. Hospital administration is most common (31%), followed by pharmaceutical administration (7%) and consulting (5%). Older ophthalmologist-MBAs were more likely to work in nonclinical roles, with 79% of those who completed residency before 2000 engaged in significant nonclinical activity compared to 30% of those who completed residency after 2000. The most common employers of physician-MBAs in ophthalmology are academic medical centers (43%), large group practices (30%), and private practices (13%). The majority of ophthalmologist-MBAs work in primarily clinical roles, although a sizable proportion hold nonclinical positions. Moving forward, we anticipate an increased role for physician leaders in health care administration, policy, and entrepreneurship. While formal management training is not necessary for these roles, a growing number of physicians have sought out MBAs to support their nonclinical interests. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Microbiological and pharmacokinetic studies on flomoxef in ophthalmologic field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooishi, M; Sakaue, F; Oomomo, A; Tazawa, H

    1989-05-01

    Microbiological and pharmacokinetic studies were carried out on flomoxef (FMOX, 6315-S), a new oxacephem parenteral antibiotic, in the ophthalmologic field. The results obtained are summarized as follows. FMOX has a broad antimicrobial activity spectrum against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The MIC distribution against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical cases was less than or equal to 0.20 - greater than or equal to 100 micrograms/ml with the peak value of 0.39 micrograms/ml. Concentrations of FMOX in aqueous humor and ocular tissues were determined after intravenous injection of 50 mg/kg to rabbits. FMOX showed a peak level of 2.2 micrograms/ml in the aqueous humor at 1/2 hour after administration with the ratio to serum level of 3.4%. Levels of FMOX in external and internal ocular tissues were 12.7 - 76.5 micrograms/g, less than 0.8 - 34.4 micrograms/g (ml) at 1/2 hour after administration, respectively. From these results, we concluded that FMOX may be expected to be a useful and valuable agent against infections in the ophthalmologic field.

  15. Ophthalmological evolution in hyperthyroid patients treated with radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Rodriguez, Maria Teresa; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Julio Cesar; Alavez Martin, Ernesto

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed at analyzing the ophthalmological evolution in hyperthyroid patients treated with radioactive iodine. 100 patients (88 females and 12 males) from the thyroid department of the National Institute of Endocrinology with clinical and biochemical diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and with a mean age of 40 + - 10 years old, were studied. These patients underwent a treatment with radioactive iodine at a dose of 80 m Ci/g of thyroid tissue. A bilateral ophthalmometry was performed to each patient before the treatment and 12 months after it. Mean ophthalmometry of the right eye was 14.51 + - 2.86 mm before the treatment and 13.92 + - 2.83 mm after the treatment, whereas for the left eye it was 14.98 + - 2.91 mm and 14.27 + - 2.83 mm , respectively. Taking into account the results of the ophthalmometry, we concluded that the use of radioactive iodine in the treatment of hyperthyroid patients had no negative results on the ophthalmological evolution of the studied patients

  16. Early life stress predicts negative urgency through brooding, depending on 5-HTTLPR genotype: A pilot study with 6-month follow-up examining suicide ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Jorge; Miranda, Regina

    2017-12-01

    The present study examined the interaction between early life stress and 5-HTT genotypes in predicting two risk factors for suicidal behavior - the brooding subtype of rumination and impulsivity, in the form of negative urgency - over time. Furthermore, we examined early life stress, brooding, and impulsivity as predictors of suicidal ideation over time. Participants with and without a history of early life stress were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and completed assessments assessing brooding and negative urgency at baseline and 6-month follow up. Early life emotional abuse was associated with negative urgency at follow-up. We found an indirect effect of early life emotional abuse on negative urgency through brooding among individuals with 5-HTT low expressing genotypes but not among individuals with 5-HTT high expressing genotypes. Further, a logistic regression analysis revealed that negative urgency was associated with higher odds (O.R. = 16.2) of reporting suicide ideation (versus no ideation) at follow-up. Our findings suggest that brooding and negative urgency may result from the interaction between early life emotional abuse and 5-HTT low expressing genotypes. Further research is necessary to understand how early life stress interacts with 5-HTT genotypes to confer risk for suicidal behavior through psychological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of eLearning for the teaching of undergraduate ophthalmology at medical school: a randomised controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrarca, Caroline A; Warner, Julia; Simpson, Andrew; Petrarca, Robert; Douiri, Abdel; Byrne, David; Jackson, Timothy L

    2018-05-25

    To compare ophthalmology teaching delivered by eLearning with traditional lectures, in terms of undergraduate performance and satisfaction. Randomised controlled crossover study at King's College London Medical School with 245 third year medical students. The ophthalmology syllabus was divided into ten topics. Five topics were randomised to be taught by traditional lectures and five by electronic learning (eLearning). For the second rotation of students the topics were crossed over, so that those topics taught by traditional lectures were taught by eLearning and vice versa. At the end of each rotation the students sat an optional online mock examination containing 100 questions (ten on each topic). Students' examination performance was compared between the two teaching methods. Student satisfaction was assessed using an online satisfaction survey. Outcome measures were the mean percentage of correct answers across all ten topics, student satisfaction and self-assessed knowledge. The mean examination score for questions taught by eLearning was 58% (95% CI, 55.7-59.6), versus 55% (95% CI 53.1-56.8) for traditional lectures (P = 0.047). Across all topics students were more satisfied with eLearning than traditional lectures, with 87% (95% CI 84.5-88.4) rating eLearning as 'excellent' or 'good' versus 65% (95% CI 62.0-67.4) for lectures (p eLearning compared to traditional lectures, with 166 (69.7%) rating eLearning 'much better' or 'better,' 61 (25.6%) 'neutral' and 11 (4.6%) 'worse' or 'much worse.' Student satisfaction and examination performance are both enhanced by ophthalmology eLearning. Similar eLearning modules may be suitable for other specialties and postgraduate learning.

  18. Examining Effects of Poverty, Maternal Depression, and Children's Self-Regulation Abilities on the Development of Language and Cognition in Early Childhood: An Early Head Start Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkins, Kimberly A.; Leger, Sarah E.; Ernest, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood poverty is a prevalent social issue, both in the United States and in the wider international community. It has been well established that factors associated with poverty, including familial income and parental education level, can negatively affect children's language and cognitive development, which can result in academic…

  19. An examination of Indiana Early College High School students who attended Purdue University between 2006 and 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkham, Lisa P

    2016-01-01

    Early College High Schools (ECHS) are an educational intervention designed to promote rigor in high school education along with increased post-secondary access and success for disadvantaged students. Based on evidence, the Early College High School program is effective at helping students who traditionally are not in college-bound tracks find their way into that path. ECHSs provide a comprehensive, rigorous high school experience allowing students to earn an associate’s degree along with the ...

  20. The Iowa ophthalmology wet laboratory curriculum for teaching and assessing cataract surgical competency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Andrew G.; Greenlee, Emily; Oetting, Thomas A.; Beaver, Hilary A.; Johnson, A. Tim; Boldt, H. Culver; Abramoff, Michael; Olson, Richard; Carter, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To describe an ophthalmology wet laboratory (OWL) curriculum for residents in training. Methods Systematic literature review and selection of best practices for use in the OWL learning plan from a single academic ophthalmology program. Results A pretest and posttest of cognitive

  1. Sensorimotor Characteristics of Neuro-Ophthalmology and Oculo-Plastics Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoff, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Certified orthoptists are routinely required, as a standard component of outpatient care, to examine and identify the cause of double vision described by neuro-ophthalmology and oculo-plastics patients. Peer-reviewed articles in the strabismus literature describing the significance of this role of the orthoptists, especially in more complex cases of strabismus, do exist, but are outdated. The importance of creating a differential diagnosis in the understanding of the disease process is a well-recognized component of medical education and modern medicine. This work was a retrospective chart review and descriptive study of the most common clinical characteristics of adult neuro-ophthalmology and oculo-plastics patients seen over a 9-year period by an orthoptist in a large, urban academic institution in the United States. History and clinical data obtained included demographic information; whether the subjects were neuro-ophthalmology or oculo-plastic patients or both; chief complaint; past medical history and associated medical risk factors; past ocular history of strabismus or amblyopia; whether reported diplopia was monocular or binocular; visual acuities; sensorimotor examination and fusion status information; presence or absence of ptosis; pupil size and reactivity; basic accommodative function; orthoptist and physician diagnoses; and suggested treatment of diplopia. Five hundred seventy-five subjects were identified based on inclusion criteria. Racial demographics matched that of the state of Maryland, with the majority of the patients being Caucasian. The minority were of Hispanic origin. Ninety-one percent of the study cohort was referred by the department of neuro-ophthalmology at the institution. Hypertension was a statistically significant medical risk factor for acquired strabismus and diplopia in this adult cohort. Etiology for the strabismus and associated diplopia suggested by the orthoptist was in close agreement with the final diagnosis made by the

  2. Medical students perception of undergraduate ophthalmology training in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Nnewi Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyekwe, L O; Nwosu, S N N

    2006-12-01

    To determine the perception and aspiration of medical students towards ophthalmology. Information for the study was obtained through forced-choice questionnaire set to 102 medical students in 2000/2001 graduating class in Nnamdi Azikiwe University. One hundred questionnaires were completed. As a specialty of choice ophthalmology ranked fourth {16.0%} as a first choice; second {21.0%} as a second choice and first {26.0%} as a third choice. Ninety-five of respondents found ophthalmology training useful. This cohort of medical students considered ophthalmic training in this institution essential and adequate. Undergraduate ophthalmic course should ensure an understanding of the basic principles of ophthalmology and should be designed to motivate the interest and confidence of the medical students in the specialty. Training period should be at least 4 weeks. With appropriate training ophthalmology can attract reasonable interest as a choice for specification.

  3. LASER CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY (LCS AND ITS CLINICAL PERSPECTIVES IN OPHTHALMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karganov Mikhail

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The method of laser correlation spectroscopy (LCS is based on the analysis of the spectrum of quasielastic light scatter during coherent monochromatic laser irradiation of micro-particles in biological fluids (blood serum, urine, oropharyngeal washout fluid, tear fluid etc.. Spectrum provides information on dynamic processes in the analyzed system: translation motion of scattering particles and their orientation and conformation dynamics. Special procedures of cluster analysis make it possible to find out to which linkage group a particular spectrum belongs. LCS allows evaluation of sub-fractional composition of biological fluids in a wide range of molecular sizes (from 1 to 10,000 nm, which determines principal novelty of this approach in ophthalmology.

  4. Amniotic membrane allografts: development and clinical utility in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzuti A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Allison Rizzuti,1,2 Adam Goldenberg,1 Douglas R Lazzaro1,2 1SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 2Kings County Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA Abstract: Amniotic membrane, the innermost layer of the placenta, is a tissue that promotes epithelialization, while decreasing inflammation, neovascularization, and scarring. It is used in the surgical management of a wide variety of ophthalmic conditions where it functions as a graft or patch in ocular surface reconstruction. The development of new preservation techniques, as well as a sutureless amniotic membrane, has allowed for easier, in-office placement, without the disadvantages of an operating room procedure. The purpose of this review is to describe the historical development of amniotic membrane in ophthalmology and to describe its current clinical applications, particularly focusing on recent advances. Keywords: ocular surface, cornea, stem cells, prokera, allograft, patch, transplantation

  5. The power of paradigms : examining the evidential basis for Early to Mid-Holocene pigs and pottery in Melanesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, S.; Barham, A.; Aplin, K.; Dobney, K.; Fairbairn, A.; Richards, M.

    2011-01-01

    The origin and timing of the introduction of pigs and pottery into New Guinea are continuous topics. Arguments have centred on whether domestic pigs and pottery technology entered New Guinea following the 'Austronesian expansion' from southeast Asia into Island Melanesia, c 3300 calBP, or in the Early to Mid-Holocene. We review the history of the debate and present new dates on pig bone and pottery contexts from archaeological sites, including Taora and Lachitu, on the north coast of mainland Papua New Guinea (PNG), where earlier data supported claims for early pig and pottery. We argue that theoretical positions about 'Neolithic' origins in PNG influenced the relative willingness to accept early dates prima facie and conclude that current evidence shows neither pig nor pottery arrived before 3000 calBP in mainland PNG. (author). 96 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Neurological, psychiatric, ophthalmological, and endocrine complications in giant male prolactinomas: An observational study in Algerian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Chentli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prolactinomas are less frequent, but more invasive in males. Giant ones (≥4 cm are extremely rare in literature. Their neurological, psychiatric and endocrine complications are life threatening. Our aim was to report the largest mono center series in order to analyze their frequency, their characteristics, and their complications. Subjects and Methods: All patients had clinical examination, hormonal, ophthalmological, and radiological assessment based on computed tomography scan and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. Positive diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms, high prolactin ± immunohistochemy study. Mixed adenomas were excluded by hormonal exploration and immunohistochemy. For those who received medical treatment only, a reduction in tumor size was considered a supplementary positive point for the diagnosis. Results: Among 154 male prolactinomas seen between 1987 and 2013, we observed 44 giant tumors (28.5%. Median age = 36 years, and 38.3% were under 30. Median tumor height = 53.95 mm (40-130 and median prolactin = 15,715 ng/ml (n < 20. Solid and cystic aspect ± calcifications was observed in 25%. 42 had cavernous sinuses invasion. Other invasions were: Posterior= 65.9%, anterior= 63.6%, temporal= 15.9% and frontal = 9%. For endocrine complications: Hypogonadism = 98.4%, thyrotroph and corticotroph deficits were seen in respectively 34%, and 32%. Posterior pituitary insufficiency was observed in one case. For ophthalmological complications: Optic atrophy = 46%, Ptosis = 6.8%, diplopia/strabismus = 4.5%. Neurological complications were: Memory loss and/or unconsciousness = 18.2%, epilepsy = 15.9%, frontal syndrome = 9% and obstructive hydrocephalus = 6.8%. Conclusion: Giant prolactinomas account for 28% in our population. Severe neurological complications are frequent. But, obstructive hydrocephalus is rare, which argues for a slow progression.

  7. Pathways from maternal distress and child problem behavior to adolescent depressive symptoms: a prospective examination from early childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Wendy; Gustavson, Kristin; Røysamb, Espen; Kjeldsen, Anne; Karevold, Evalill

    2013-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify the pathways from maternal distress and child problem behaviors (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) across childhood and their impact on depressive symptoms during adolescence among girls and boys. Data from families of 921 Norwegian children in a 15-year longitudinal community sample were used. Using structural equation modeling, the authors explored the interplay between maternal-reported distress and child problem behaviors measured at 5 time points from early (ages 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 years) and middle (age 8.5 years) childhood to early adolescence (age 12.5 years), and their prediction of self-reported depressive symptoms during adolescence (ages 14.5 and 16.5 years). The findings revealed paths from internalizing and externalizing problems throughout the development for corresponding problems (homotypic paths) and paths from early externalizing to subsequent internalizing problems (heterotypic paths). The findings suggest 2 pathways linking maternal-rated risk factors to self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms. There was a direct path from early externalizing problems to depressive symptoms. There was an indirect path from early maternal distress going through child problem behavior to depressive symptoms. In general, girls and boys were similar, but some gender-specific effects appeared. Problem behaviors in middle childhood had heterotypic paths to subsequent problems only for girls. The findings highlight the developmental importance of child externalizing problems, as well as the impact of maternal distress as early as age 1.5 years for the development of adolescent depressive symptoms. Findings also indicate a certain vulnerable period in middle childhood for girls. NOTE: See Supplemental Digital Content 1, at http://links.lww.com/JDBP/A45, for a video introduction to this article.

  8. Ophthalmology on social networking sites: an observational study of Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micieli JA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan A Micieli,1 Edmund Tsui2 1Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Surgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, USA Background: The use of social media in ophthalmology remains largely unknown. Our aim was to evaluate the extent and involvement of ophthalmology journals, professional associations, trade publications, and patient advocacy and fundraising groups on social networking sites. Methods: An archived list of 107 ophthalmology journals from SCImago, trade publications, professional ophthalmology associations, and patient advocacy organizations were searched for their presence on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Activity and popularity of each account was quantified by using the number of “likes” on Facebook, the number of followers on Twitter, and members on LinkedIn. Results: Of the 107 journals ranked by SCImago, 21.5% were present on Facebook and 18.7% were present on Twitter. Journal of Community Eye Health was the most popular on Facebook and JAMA Ophthalmology was most popular on Twitter. Among the 133 members of the International Council of Ophthalmology, 17.3% were present on Facebook, 12.8% were present on Twitter, and 7.5% were present on LinkedIn. The most popular on Facebook was the International Council of Ophthalmology, and the American Academy of Ophthalmology was most popular on Twitter and LinkedIn. Patient advocacy organizations were more popular on all sites compared with journals, professional association, and trade publications. Among the top ten most popular pages in each category, patient advocacy groups were most active followed by trade publications, professional associations, and journals. Conclusion: Patient advocacy groups lead the way in social networking followed by professional organizations and journals. Although some journals use social media, most have yet to engage its full potential and maximize the number of

  9. Examining the Motivational Impact of Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Goal Framing and Autonomy-Supportive Versus Internally Controlling Communication Style on Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Simons, Joke; Lens, Willy; Soenens, Bart; Matos, Lennia

    2005-01-01

    The present experimental research examined whether framing early adolescents' (11- to 12-year-olds) learning activity in terms of the attainment of an extrinsic (i.e., physical attractiveness) versus intrinsic (i.e., health) goal and communicating these different goal contents in an internally controlling versus autonomy-supportive way affect…

  10. Multi-Wave Prospective Examination of the Stress-Reactivity Extension of Response Styles Theory of Depression in High-Risk Children and Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abela, John R. Z.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Sheshko, Dana M.; Fishman, Michael B.; Stolow, Darren

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested the stress-reactivity extension of response styles theory of depression (Nolen-Hoeksema "Journal of Abnormal Psychology" 100:569-582, 1991) in a sample of high-risk children and early adolescents from a vulnerability-stress perspective using a multi-wave longitudinal design. In addition, we examined whether obtained…

  11. Knowledge Creation as an Approach to Facilitating Evidence Informed Practice: Examining Ways to Measure the Success of Using This Method with Early Years Practitioners in Camden (London)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chris; Rogers, Sue

    2015-01-01

    This paper has three key aims. First it examines the authors' attempts to use knowledge creation activity as a way of developing evidence informed practice amongst a learning community of 36 early years practitioners in the London Borough of Camden. Second, it seeks to illustrate how the authors approached the idea of measuring evidence use and…

  12. Early Childhood Education and Care Practitioners' Perceptions of Children's Risky Play; Examining the Influence of Personality and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen

    2014-01-01

    While there is a growing interest in children's risk-taking behaviours and their safety when at play, there is also a focus on the need to balance the hazards of risks with the benefits of risk. This is also a growing concern among researchers of early childhood education and care (ECEC). The research conducted thus far on ECEC practitioners'…

  13. Does Parental Psychological Control Relate to Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Early Childhood? An Examination Using the Berkeley Puppet Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lisanne L.; Otten, Roy; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Soenens, Bart; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Parental psychological control has been linked to symptoms of psychopathology in adolescence, yet less is known about its correlates in childhood. The current study is among the first to address whether psychological control is related to internalizing and externalizing problems in early childhood. A community sample of 298 children aged 7.04…

  14. An Examination of Peer, Family, and Community Context Risk Factors for Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Intentions in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargiso, Jessica E.; Friend, Karen; Florin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between peer, family, and community context risk factors and alcohol use; gender is examined as a potential moderator of these relationships. Hierarchical logistic regressions conducted in a sample of 781 seventh grade students found that normative beliefs about peers' alcohol use emerged as the most consistent…

  15. Examining the Early Evidence for Self-Directed Marriage and Relationship Education: A Meta-Analytic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Shelece; Duncan, Stephen F.; Hawkins, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examines the efficacy of self-directed marriage and relationship education (MRE) programs on relationship quality and communication skills. Programs combining traditional face-to-face learning with self-directed elements are also examined, and traditional programs' effectiveness is included as a comparison point. Sixteen studies…

  16. Cancer early detection program based on awareness and clinical breast examination: Interim results from an urban community in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Anita; Sauvaget, Catherine; Roy, Nobhojit; Muwonge, Richard; Kantharia, Surita; Chakrabarty, Anuradha; Bantwal, Kanchan; Haldar, Indrani; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2017-02-01

    Indian women with breast cancer are usually diagnosed in advanced stages leading to poor survival. Improving breast awareness and increasing access to early diagnosis and adequate treatment has been advocated for breast cancer control. We implemented a program to increase awareness on breast cancer and access to its early detection in an occupational health care scheme in Mumbai, India. Breast awareness brochures were mailed annually between June 2013 and June 2016 to a cohort of 22,500 eligible women aged 30-69 years old receiving universal health care from an occupational health care scheme comprising of primary health centres and a referral secondary care hospital in Mumbai. Women with suspected breast cancers were provided with diagnostic investigations and treatment. Socio-demographic information and tumour characteristics were compared between the breast awareness pre-intervention period (Jan 2005-May 2013) and the breast awareness intervention period after four rounds of mailers (June 2013-June 2016). The proportion of women with early tumours and axillary lymph node negative cancers increased from 74% to 81% and 46% to 53% respectively, between the two periods. While the proportion of patients receiving breast conserving surgery increased from 39% to 51%, the proportion receiving chemotherapy decreased from 84% to 56%. Interim results following efforts to improve breast awareness and access to care in a cohort of women in an occupational health care scheme indicate early detection and more conservative treatment of breast cancers. Creating awareness and improving access to care may result in cancer down-staging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Social-emotional competence and early adolescents' peer acceptance in school: Examining the role of afternoon cortisol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Oberle

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the role of afternoon cortisol in social-emotional competence and peer acceptance in early adolescence. To date, research on basal cortisol activity and social development in childhood and adolescence has predominately focused on understanding maladjustment and dysfunction in development. The degree to which basal cortisol is also involved in positive adjustment and social functioning remains largely unexplored. A total of 154 early adolescents (46% female; Mean age = 11.26; SD = .65 from diverse ethnic backgrounds provided self-reports of perspective taking, peer reports of acceptance by classmates, peer reports of prosocial behaviors, and saliva samples to assess basal cortisol. As expected and in alignment with previous research, afternoon cortisol, perspective taking, prosocial behaviors, and peer acceptance were all positively correlated. Path analyses followed by bootstrapping analyses revealed that the direct path from higher afternoon cortisol to higher levels of prosocial behavior was fully mediated by perspective taking skills. The direct path from higher afternoon cortisol to peer acceptance was fully mediated by perspective taking skills and prosocial behavior. The findings are discussed within the broader context of previous research on cortisol and social adjustment in childhood and early adolescence. The practical relevance of the findings is considered.

  18. Social-emotional competence and early adolescents' peer acceptance in school: Examining the role of afternoon cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Eva

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of afternoon cortisol in social-emotional competence and peer acceptance in early adolescence. To date, research on basal cortisol activity and social development in childhood and adolescence has predominately focused on understanding maladjustment and dysfunction in development. The degree to which basal cortisol is also involved in positive adjustment and social functioning remains largely unexplored. A total of 154 early adolescents (46% female; Mean age = 11.26; SD = .65) from diverse ethnic backgrounds provided self-reports of perspective taking, peer reports of acceptance by classmates, peer reports of prosocial behaviors, and saliva samples to assess basal cortisol. As expected and in alignment with previous research, afternoon cortisol, perspective taking, prosocial behaviors, and peer acceptance were all positively correlated. Path analyses followed by bootstrapping analyses revealed that the direct path from higher afternoon cortisol to higher levels of prosocial behavior was fully mediated by perspective taking skills. The direct path from higher afternoon cortisol to peer acceptance was fully mediated by perspective taking skills and prosocial behavior. The findings are discussed within the broader context of previous research on cortisol and social adjustment in childhood and early adolescence. The practical relevance of the findings is considered.

  19. Scientometric analysis of published papers in global ophthalmology in the past ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zheng-Lu; Hu, Xin-Yue; Wang, Ying-Na; Ma, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the published papers of ophthalmology in past ten years and explore the development of ophthalmology. The data of this study retrieved from Science Citation Index Expanded and downloaded online in November 2017, including all the papers with publication year from 2007-2016 were analyzed. The papers were based on the Web of Science category and the journals were based on the Journal Citation Report category. The number of ophthalmology papers increased from 7450 to 9089 during 2007 to 2017. The average rate increased 2.2% annually. USA accounts for one thirds of the total and two thirds of the highly cited papers. In Asia, China, Japan and South Korea were in Top 10 by the number of ophthalmology papers. UK, Germany, Japan and Australia also had great impact in global ophthalmology. The hot spots included endothelial growth factor, optical coherence tomography and open-angle glaucoma. USA is in the leading position in global ophthalmology. Part of Asian countries play an important role in the development of ophthalmology, but the impact needs to be improved.

  20. Prototype Development: Context-Driven Dynamic XML Ophthalmologic Data Capture Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwei, Kelsey M; Kadolph, Christopher; Finamore, Joseph; Cancel, Efrain; McCarty, Catherine A; Okorie, Asha; Thomas, Kate L; Allen Pacheco, Jennifer; Pathak, Jyotishman; Ellis, Stephen B; Denny, Joshua C; Rasmussen, Luke V; Tromp, Gerard; Williams, Marc S; Vrabec, Tamara R; Brilliant, Murray H

    2017-01-01

    Background The capture and integration of structured ophthalmologic data into electronic health records (EHRs) has historically been a challenge. However, the importance of this activity for patient care and research is critical. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype of a context-driven dynamic extensible markup language (XML) ophthalmologic data capture application for research and clinical care that could be easily integrated into an EHR system. Methods Stakeholders in the medical, research, and informatics fields were interviewed and surveyed to determine data and system requirements for ophthalmologic data capture. On the basis of these requirements, an ophthalmology data capture application was developed to collect and store discrete data elements with important graphical information. Results The context-driven data entry application supports several features, including ink-over drawing capability for documenting eye abnormalities, context-based Web controls that guide data entry based on preestablished dependencies, and an adaptable database or XML schema that stores Web form specifications and allows for immediate changes in form layout or content. The application utilizes Web services to enable data integration with a variety of EHRs for retrieval and storage of patient data. Conclusions This paper describes the development process used to create a context-driven dynamic XML data capture application for optometry and ophthalmology. The list of ophthalmologic data elements identified as important for care and research can be used as a baseline list for future ophthalmologic data collection activities. PMID:28903894

  1. The importance of an ophthalmologic examination in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Uveitis occurs within the first year of arthritis onset in 73% of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) considered at risk. The intraocular inflammation is characterized by an insidious onset and a silent and chronic clinical course capable of producing significant visual loss due to complications such as: cataract formation, secondary glaucoma, maculopathy and optic neuropathy. The absence of initial signs and symptoms, along with a deficient ophthalmic monitoring produce a delay in diagnosis with serious consequences. It has been estimated that 47% of JIA patients at risk for developing uveitis are legally blind (20/200 or worse) at least in one eye at the time of their first visit to the ophthalmologist. To reduce ocular complications and improve their visual outcome, it is necessary that rheumatologists refer all patients recently diagnosed (within the first month) with JIA for an ophthalmic evaluation, and maintain periodical follow-up visits based on classification and risk category of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Back pain in ophthalmology: National survey of Indian ophthalmologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Venkatesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim is to assess the prevalence, severity, and associations of back pain among Indian ophthalmologists. Methods: A self-reporting questionnaire was sent to ophthalmologists with valid e-mail addresses registered with the All India Ophthalmological Society. The survey was open for responses for 2 months. Results: A total of 651 (5.96% responses were obtained; 394 (61% males and 257 (39% females. Half (50% of responses were obtained from doctors belonging to 31–40 years' age group. Two hundred and thirty (35% of the ophthalmologists had height ranging from 161 to 170 cm and 443 (68% had weight ranging from 51 to 75 kg. Four hundred and eighty-one (73.8% of the respondents had <15 years of ophthalmic experience. Cataract (346; 53.1% and general ophthalmology (342; 52.5% were commonly practised by the ophthalmologists. Time spent in the outpatient department (OPD was 39.37 ± 16.32 h/week and in the operating theater 13.64 ± 9.89 h/week, respectively. Self-reported prevalence of back pain was 70.5%. Fully 49% of respondents had low back pain, followed by neck pain (33% and upper extremity symptoms (16%. Age <50 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4485, female gender (OR = 2.0265, long working hours in OPD (OR = 1.6524, and performing retinal lasers and indirect ophthalmoscopy (OR = 3.3251 showed positive association with back pain. The intolerable back pain was noted in <7% of the respondents. Around 398 (61% respondents felt that their back pain was exacerbated while doing work and 86.6% felt that up to 5 h/week was lost due to persistent backache. Yoga and some form of exercise (74.3% was practised to alleviate back pain. Conclusion: Back pain symptoms appear to be common among ophthalmologists. Awkward posture and prolonged working hours are responsible for developing back pain among ophthalmologists. Performing yoga and regular exercises, modifications in instrumentation and creating a larger workforce of eye care practitioners are needed

  3. Longitudinal Examination of the Bullying-Sexual Violence Pathway across Early to Late Adolescence: Implicating Homophobic Name-Calling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Basile, Kathleen C; Leemis, Ruth W; Hipp, Tracy N; Davis, Jordan P

    2018-03-02

    The Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory has indicated that bullying perpetration predicts sexual violence perpetration among males and females over time in middle school, and that homophobic name-calling perpetration moderates that association among males. In this study, the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory was tested across early to late adolescence. Participants included 3549 students from four Midwestern middle schools and six high schools. Surveys were administered across six time points from Spring 2008 to Spring 2013. At baseline, the sample was 32.2% White, 46.2% African American, 5.4% Hispanic, and 10.2% other. The sample was 50.2% female. The findings reveal that late middle school homophobic name-calling perpetration increased the odds of perpetrating sexual violence in high school among early middle school bullying male and female perpetrators, while homophobic name-calling victimization decreased the odds of high school sexual violence perpetration among females. The prevention of bullying and homophobic name-calling in middle school may prevent later sexual violence perpetration.

  4. Examining negative effects of early life experiences on reproductive and sexual health among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Karishma K; Silverman, Jay G; Bojorquez, Ietza; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2015-02-01

    To explore experiences during childhood and adolescence that influenced reproductive and sexual health among women who had entered the sex industry in adolescence. A qualitative study was conducted using information provided by 25 female sex workers (FSWs) from Tijuana, Mexico, who reported entering the sex industry when younger than 18 years. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants between January 31, 2011, and July 8, 2011. Four interrelated themes that shaped health experiences-early sexual abuse, early illicit drug use, ongoing violence, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health care-were identified. Participants reporting these experiences were at risk of unintended teenaged pregnancy, spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and untreated sexually transmitted infections. Programs and policies that address social, structural, and individual vulnerabilities during adolescence and adulthood are required to promote reproductive and sexual health among FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Examining the Predictive Relations between Two Aspects of Self-Regulation and Growth in Preschool Children’s Early Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Allan, Darcey M.; Phillips, Beth M.

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that self-regulatory processes are linked to early academic skills both concurrently and longitudinally. The majority of extant longitudinal studies, however, have been conducted using autoregressive techniques that may not accurately model change across time. The purpose of this study was to examine the unique associations between two components of self-regulation, attention and executive functioning (EF), and growth in early literacy skills over the preschool year using latent-growth-curve analysis. The sample included 1,082 preschool children (M-age = 55.0 months, SD = 3.73). Children completed measures of vocabulary, syntax, phonological awareness, print knowledge, cognitive ability, and self-regulation, and children’s classroom teachers completed a behavior rating measure. To examine the independent relations of the self-regulatory skills and cognitive ability with children’s initial early literacy skills and growth across the preschool year, growth models in which the intercept and slope were simultaneously regressed on each of the predictor variables were examined. Because of the significant relation between intercept and slope for most outcomes, slope was regressed on intercept in the models to allow a determination of direct and indirect effects of the predictors on growth in children’s language and literacy skills across the preschool year. In general, both teacher-rated inattention and directly measured EF were uniquely associated with initial skills level; however, only teacher-rated inattention uniquely predicted growth in early literacy skills. These findings suggest that teacher-ratings of inattention may measure an aspect of self-regulation that is particularly associated with the acquisition of academic skills in early childhood. PMID:27854463

  6. Development of automatic extraction of the corpus callosum from magnetic resonance imaging of the head and examination of the early dementia objective diagnostic technique in feature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Naoki; Kaneko, Tomoyuki

    2005-01-01

    We examined the objective diagnosis of dementia based on changes in the corpus callosum. We examined midsagittal head MR images of 17 early dementia patients (2 men and 15 women; mean age, 77.2±3.3 years) and 18 healthy elderly controls (2 men and 16 women; mean age, 73.8±6.5 years), 35 subjects altogether. First, the corpus callosum was automatically extracted from the MR images. Next, early dementia was compared with the healthy elderly individuals using 5 features of the straight-line methods, 5 features of the Run-Length Matrix, and 6 features of the Co-occurrence Matrix from the corpus callosum. Automatic extraction of the corpus callosum showed an accuracy rate of 84.1±3.7%. A statistically significant difference was found in 6 of the 16 features between early dementia patients and healthy elderly controls. Discriminant analysis using the 6 features demonstrated a sensitivity of 88.2% and specificity of 77.8%, with an overall accuracy of 82.9%. These results indicate that feature analysis based on changes in the corpus callosum can be used as an objective diagnostic technique for early dementia. (author)

  7. Social Anxiety Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation in a Clinical Sample of Early Adolescents: Examining Loneliness and Social Support as Longitudinal Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Michelle; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Simon, Valerie; Spirito, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that social anxiety may be related to increased risk for suicidal ideation in teens, although this research largely has been cross-sectional and has not examined potential mediators of this relationship. A clinical sample of 144 early adolescents (72 % female; 12?15 years old) was assessed during psychiatric inpatient hospitalization and followed up at 9 and 18 months post-baseline. Symptoms of social anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, loneliness, and perceived ...

  8. Prospective validation of a blood-based 9-miRNA profile for early detection of breast cancer in a cohort of women examined by clinical mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Maria B; Kodahl, Annette R; Binder, Harald

    2016-01-01

    developed a 9-miRNA profile using serum and LNA-based qPCR that effectively stratified patients with early stage breast cancer vs. healthy women. To further develop the test into routine clinical practice, we collected serum of women examined by clinical mammography (N = 197) according to standard...... is significantly different between women with breast cancer and controls (p-value within one year despite being categorized as clinically healthy...

  9. Teachers' Language in Interactions: An Exploratory Examination of Mental State Talk in Early Childhood Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth; La Paro, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined 34 Head Start teachers' use of four categories of mental state talk (verbalizations of mental processes using emotion terms, cognition terms, desire terms, and perception terms) during naturally occurring classroom interactions. Transcriptions from classroom videos were coded for mental state talk…

  10. Standing in the Gaps: Examining the Effects of Early Gifted Education on Black Girl Achievement in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jemimah L.; Young, Jamaal R.; Ford, Donna Y.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the differential effects of access to gifted education on the mathematics and science achievement of fourth-grade Black girls. This study utilized mean difference effect sizes to examine the magnitude of differences between groups. By convention, White girls were included as a comparison group. Girls…

  11. Use of amniotic membrane in ophthalmology surgery, first cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, P.; Ogrodnik, M.T.; Zarate, H; Silva, S.; Azocar, M.; Hitschfeld, M.

    2008-01-01

    The results obtained with the implant of amniotic membranes have propitiated their use in different medical fields.One of the most important barriers that have to be solved is the risk to transmit illness from donor to patient. A cooperative work between the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCHEN) and the Complejo de Salud San Borja Arriaran (CSSBA) has been done to prepare the membranes with the main purpose of assuring the quality and effectiveness of the tissue, since the procurement to the moment that it is used as biological apposite. In the production of this radiation sterilized tissue, we have followed a strict protocol that considers selection criteria for each donor, obtainment and processing of each membrane in aseptic conditions including the washing steps, cutting,drying in laminar flow hood, packing and identification.This is followed by sterilization with gamma radiation,quality controls which include the count of colonies formation units and the assurance of sterility. The average size of each membrane was 2 x 2 cm. The membranes have been used in 57 patients since 2002 up to date on surgical procedures of ophthalmology specialty: 38 Pterigeon, 3 Recoverment of anophthalmic cavity, 4 Corneal perforations, 2 Sclera ulcers, 1 extirpation of a conjunctiva inclusion cyst and 1 Reconstruction of Lachrymal sac, with very good results

  12. Surgical adhesives in ophthalmology: history and current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhan, Samantha; Peng, Si-Liang; Janbatian, Hrag; Saadeh, Stephanie; Greenstein, Stephen; Al Bahrani, Faisal; Fadlallah, Ali; Yeh, Tsai-Chu; Melki, Samir A

    2018-03-26

    Tissue adhesives are gaining popularity in ophthalmology, as they could potentially reduce the complications associated with current surgical methods. An ideal tissue adhesive should have superior tensile strength, be non-toxic and anti-inflammatory, improve efficiency and be cost-effective. Both synthetic and biological glues are available. The primary synthetic glues include cyanoacrylate and the recently introduced polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives, while most biological glues are composed of fibrin. Cyanoacrylate has a high tensile strength, but rapidly polymerises upon contact with any fluid and has been associated with histotoxicity. Fibrin induces less toxic and inflammatory reactions, and its polymerisation time can be controlled. Tensile strength studies have shown that fibrin is not as strong as cyanoacrylate. While more research is needed, PEG variants currently appear to have the most promise. These glues are non-toxic, strong and time-effective. Through MEDLINE and internet searches, this paper presents a systematic review of the current applications of surgical adhesives to corneal, glaucoma, retinal, cataract and strabismus surgeries. Our review suggests that surgical adhesives have promise to reduce problems in current ophthalmic surgical procedures. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. An outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis at an outpatient ophthalmology clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Doyle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC is an acute eye infection caused by adenovirus. We investigated an outbreak of EKC at an outpatient ophthalmology practice in the context of a suspected community wide increase in EKC activity. A site visit was made to the facility reporting the outbreak. A line list was created of patients clinically diagnosed with EKC at the practice during the previous 5 months. A questionnaire was faxed to all other licensed ophthalmologists in the county regarding recent EKC activity in their facility. Descriptive data analyses were conducted. The outbreak facility reported 37 patients clinically diagnosed with EKC during the previous 5 months. In addition, the single ophthalmologist at the practice also had symptoms compatible with EKC during the outbreak period. Specimens were collected on 4 patients and all were positive for adenovirus serotype 8. Forty percent of ophthalmologists surveyed in the county saw at least one EKC patient in the previous 3 months, and 20% reported a perceived increase in EKC activity in recent months over normal seasonal patterns. The outbreak at the facility likely began as part of a widespread community increase in EKC that may have been amplified at the facility through nosocomial transmission. Medical providers experiencing increases in EKC activity above seasonally expected norms should contact their public health department for assistance with etiologic diagnoses and outbreak control.

  14. Optical design and tolerancing of an ophthalmological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Ingo; Martin, Thomas; Yi, Allen; Li, Likai; Rübenach, Olaf

    2014-09-01

    Tolerance analysis by means of simulation is an essential step in system integration. Tolerance analysis allows for predicting the performance of a system setup of real manufactured parts and for an estimation of the yield with respect to evaluation figures, such as performance requirements, systems specification or cost demands. Currently, optical freeform optics is gaining importance in optical systems design. The performance of freeform optics often strongly depends on the manufacturing accuracy of the surfaces. For this reason, a tolerance analysis with respect to the fabrication accuracy is of crucial importance. The characterization of form tolerances caused by the manufacturing process is based on the definition of straightness, flatness, roundness, and cylindricity. In case of freeform components, however, it is often impossible to define a form deviation by means of this standard classification. Hence, prediction of the impact of manufacturing tolerances on the optical performance is not possible by means of a conventional tolerance analysis. To carry out a tolerance analysis of the optical subsystem, including freeform optics, metrology data of the fabricated surfaces have to be integrated into the optical model. The focus of this article is on design for manufacturability of freeform optics with integrated alignment structures and on tolerance analysis of the optical subsystem based on the measured surface data of manufactured optical freeform components with respect to assembly and manufacturing tolerances. This approach will be reported here using an ophthalmological system as an example.

  15. Cerebral visual impairment in children: Causes and associated ophthalmological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehere, Niranjan; Chougule, Pratik; Dutton, Gordon N

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to identify common causes, associated ophthalmological abnormalities, and systemic comorbidities in children in Andhra Pradesh, India, with cerebral visual impairment (CVI). A retrospective review of case records of all children aged visual impairment was seen in 88.8%, and 11.2% had high functioning CVI. Fifty-eight (46.4%) patients had significant refractive errors, 40 (32.25%) had strabismus, 4 (3.2%) had visually significant cataract, and 40 (32%) had optic atrophy. Motor delay was observed in 39.5%, speech delay was evident in 22.4%, and cognitive delay in 16%. HIE is the most common cause (one-third) of CVI in our population, and the majority of them presented at age visual impairment (88.8%). A significant number of them have treatable ophthalmic conditions such as refractive errors (46.4%), accommodative insufficiency (12.1%), and cataract (3.2%), and more than one-third of them also have delay in other areas of development.

  16. Field Study of Dairy Cows with Reduced Appetite in Early Lactation: Clinical Examinations, Blood and Rumen Fluid Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The study included 125 cows with reduced appetite and with clinical signs interpreted by the owner as indicating bovine ketosis 6 to 75 days postpartum. Almost all of the cows were given concentrates 2 to 3 times daily. With a practitioners view to treatment and prophylaxis the cows were divided into 5 diagnostic groups on the basis of thorough clinical examination, milk ketotest, decreased protozoal activity and concentrations, increased methylene blue reduction time, and increased liver parameters: ketosis (n = 32, indigestion (n = 26, combined ketosis and indigestion (n = 29, liver disease combined with ketosis, indigestion, or both (n = 15, and no specific diagnosis (n = 17. Three cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis and 3 with abomasal displacement were not grouped. Nonparametric methods were used when groups were compared. Aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and total bilirubin were elevated in the group with liver disease. Free fatty acids were significantly elevated in cows with ketosis, compared with cows with indigestion. Activity and concentrations of large and small protozoas were reduced, and methylene blue reduction time was increased in cows with indigestion. The rumen fluid pH was the same for groups of cows with and without indigestion. Prolonged reduced appetite before examination could have led to misclassification. Without careful interpretation of the milk ketotest, many cases with additional diagnoses would have been reported as primary ketosis. Thorough clinical examination together with feasible rumen fluid examination and economically reasonable blood biochemistry did not uncover the reason(s for reduced appetite in 14% of the cows. More powerful diagnostic methods are needed.

  17. Frequency and risk factors associated with dry eye in patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez JD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jaime D Martinez,1 Anat Galor,2,3 Nallely Ramos-Betancourt,1 Andrés Lisker-Cervantes,1 Francisco Beltrán,1 Jorge Ozorno-Zárate,1 Valeria Sánchez-Huerta,1 Marco-Antonio Torres-Vera,1 Everardo Hernández-Quintela1 1Cornea and External Diseases Service, Asociación Para Evitar la Ceguera en Mexico (Association to prevent blindness in Mexico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Miami Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3Cornea and External Diseases Division, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain the frequency and risk factors of dry eye (DE among patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico.Methods: Approximately 338 consecutive new patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City underwent an ocular surface examination, which included tear film break-up time, fluorescein corneal staining, Schirmer’s test, and evaluation of meibum quality. Symptoms of DE were evaluated by the Ocular Surface Disease Index and Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Information on demographics, exposures, past medical and ocular history, and medications was also collected.Results: The frequency of severe DE symptoms was found to be 43% based on the Ocular Surface Disease Index and 30% based on Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Risk factors significantly associated with increased DE symptoms included dry mouth and gastrointestinal ulcer medications. With regard to signs, aqueous tear deficiency was a less-frequent finding (22% in our population than evaporative deficiency (94%. Risk factors associated with aqueous tear deficiency were dry mouth and diuretic use. No risk factors were associated with evaporative deficiency. Risk factors associated with meibomian gland dysfunction included old age, male sex, arthritis, and use of an antihypertensive. The only risk factor associated with corneal staining was dry

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of the locus of lesions in neuro-ophthalmological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobuto, Keiko; Oka, Tomomi; Ishiguro, Mami; Ohnishi, Tohru; Fukushima, Masahiro; Tsutsui, Jun

    1989-01-01

    Seven patients with neuro-opthalmological diseases were examined by X-ray computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the application of the latter in these diseases was studied. The cases included one each of rhinogenous optic neuropathy with mucocele in the ethnoid sinus, pituitary adenoma, multiple sclerosis, multiple cerebral infarction, hemangioma in the pontine region, one-and-a-half syndrome, and oculomotor nerve palsy with midbrain infarction. We were able to diagnose the pituitary adenoma and the multiple cerebral infarction by both MRI and CT, but in the other cases the lesions could not be detected by CT and some smaller lesions were visualized by MRI alone. These smaller lesions were in the paranasal sinus and brain stem, where CT diagnosis is difficult because of bone artifacts. The absence of bone artifacts was one of the advantages of MRI as evaluated in this study. Poor demonstration of calcification and bones, however, seemed to be a weak point. Our study showed MRI to be effective in examining neuro-ophthalmological diseases. (author)

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of the locus of lesions in neuro-ophthalmological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobuto, Keiko; Oka, Tomomi; Ishiguro, Mami; Ohnishi, Tohru; Fukushima, Masahiro; Tsutsui, Jun (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    Seven patients with neuro-opthalmological diseases were examined by X-ray computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the application of the latter in these diseases was studied. The cases included one each of rhinogenous optic neuropathy with mucocele in the ethnoid sinus, pituitary adenoma, multiple sclerosis, multiple cerebral infarction, hemangioma in the pontine region, one-and-a-half syndrome, and oculomotor nerve palsy with midbrain infarction. We were able to diagnose the pituitary adenoma and the multiple cerebral infarction by both MRI and CT, but in the other cases the lesions could not be detected by CT and some smaller lesions were visualized by MRI alone. These smaller lesions were in the paranasal sinus and brain stem, where CT diagnosis is difficult because of bone artifacts. The absence of bone artifacts was one of the advantages of MRI as evaluated in this study. Poor demonstration of calcification and bones, however, seemed to be a weak point. Our study showed MRI to be effective in examining neuro-ophthalmological diseases. (author).

  20. Ophthalmology on social networking sites: an observational study of Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micieli, Jonathan A; Tsui, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    The use of social media in ophthalmology remains largely unknown. Our aim was to evaluate the extent and involvement of ophthalmology journals, professional associations, trade publications, and patient advocacy and fundraising groups on social networking sites. An archived list of 107 ophthalmology journals from SCImago, trade publications, professional ophthalmology associations, and patient advocacy organizations were searched for their presence on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Activity and popularity of each account was quantified by using the number of "likes" on Facebook, the number of followers on Twitter, and members on LinkedIn. Of the 107 journals ranked by SCImago, 21.5% were present on Facebook and 18.7% were present on Twitter. Journal of Community Eye Health was the most popular on Facebook and JAMA Ophthalmology was most popular on Twitter. Among the 133 members of the International Council of Ophthalmology, 17.3% were present on Facebook, 12.8% were present on Twitter, and 7.5% were present on LinkedIn. The most popular on Facebook was the International Council of Ophthalmology, and the American Academy of Ophthalmology was most popular on Twitter and LinkedIn. Patient advocacy organizations were more popular on all sites compared with journals, professional association, and trade publications. Among the top ten most popular pages in each category, patient advocacy groups were most active followed by trade publications, professional associations, and journals. Patient advocacy groups lead the way in social networking followed by professional organizations and journals. Although some journals use social media, most have yet to engage its full potential and maximize the number of potential interested individuals.

  1. Investigating the perception of Romanian adults on ophthalmology services from an experiential marketing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Consuela-Mădălina; Gheorghe, Iuliana-Raluca; Purcărea, Victor Lorin

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, we live in a world in which we are daily bombed by hundreds of advertisements. Specialists have to discover other channels or embed attractive elements in the advertisements' messages to cut through the clutter and catch the consumers' attention. The evolution of the concept of service has changed from the commercial status to determining a lifestyle. Buying a service has led to a change in the consumer behavior. Consumers want to buy services that dazzle their senses, touch their hearts, and stimulate their minds, not as before, excellent or satisfying. Ophthalmology is the medical specialty that is the most oriented toward outpatient care, as hospitalization is required only in a small percentage of cases. The objective of this case study was to investigate the perception of Romanian adult consumers on ophthalmology services from an experiential marketing perspective, by using the Focus Group method. Ophthalmology requires a wide range of skills due to the diversity of consumers who demand specialized consultations. Experiential marketing is a valuable strategy that ophthalmologic organizations may use to target specific consumers. The purpose of this case study was to identify the perceptions of Romanian adults on experiential marketing campaigns and determine the degree to which these campaigns influenced their decisions of buying an ophthalmologic service. Using a snowball sampling technique we have sent a filter questionnaire to 40 people on the internet. The filter questionnaire consisted of questions about wearing eyeglasses, the period of wearing them, the last ophthalmologic consultation, the type of ophthalmologic clinic they were going to, age and education. The respondents revealed there is almost no visibility on promoting services even if there is an upsurge of organizations offering this type of health service in the Romanian ophthalmology sector.

  2. Communication Skills Training in Ophthalmology: Results of a Needs Assessment and Pilot Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anuradha; Browning, David; Haviland, Miriam J; Jackson, Mary Lou; Luff, Donna; Meyer, Elaine C; Talcott, Katherine; Kloek, Carolyn E

    To conduct a needs assessment to identify gaps in communication skills training in ophthalmology residency programs and to use these results to pilot a communication workshop that prepares residents for difficult conversations. A mixed-methods design was used to perform the needs assessment. A pre-and postsurvey was administered to workshop participants. Mass Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School (HMS), Department of Ophthalmology. HMS ophthalmology residents from postgraduate years 2-4 participated in the needs assessment and the workshop. Ophthalmology residency program directors in the United States participated in national needs assessment. Ophthalmology program directors across the United States were queried on their perception of resident communication skills training through an online survey. A targeted needs assessment in the form of a narrative exercise captured resident perspectives on communication in ophthalmology from HMS residents. A group of HMS residents participated in the pilot workshop and a pre- and postsurvey was administered to participants to assess its effectiveness. The survey of program directors yielded a response rate of 40%. Ninety percent of respondents agreed that the communication skills training in their programs could be improved. Fifteen of 24 residents (62%) completed the needs assessment. Qualitative analysis of the narrative material revealed four themes; (1) differing expectations, (2) work role and environment, (3) challenges specific to ophthalmology, and (4) successful strategies adopted. Nine residents participated in the workshop. There was a significant improvement post-workshop in resident reported scores on their ability to manage their emotions during difficult conversations (p = 0.03). There is an opportunity to improve communication skills training in ophthalmology residency through formalized curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. Investigating the perception of Romanian adults on ophthalmology services from an experiential marketing perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Consuela-Mădălina; Gheorghe, Iuliana-Raluca; Purcărea, Victor Lorin

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, we live in a world in which we are daily bombed by hundreds of advertisements. Specialists have to discover other channels or embed attractive elements in the advertisements’ messages to cut through the clutter and catch the consumers’ attention. The evolution of the concept of service has changed from the commercial status to determining a lifestyle. Buying a service has led to a change in the consumer behavior. Consumers want to buy services that dazzle their senses, touch their hearts, and stimulate their minds, not as before, excellent or satisfying. Ophthalmology is the medical specialty that is the most oriented toward outpatient care, as hospitalization is required only in a small percentage of cases. The objective of this case study was to investigate the perception of Romanian adult consumers on ophthalmology services from an experiential marketing perspective, by using the Focus Group method. Ophthalmology requires a wide range of skills due to the diversity of consumers who demand specialized consultations. Experiential marketing is a valuable strategy that ophthalmologic organizations may use to target specific consumers. The purpose of this case study was to identify the perceptions of Romanian adults on experiential marketing campaigns and determine the degree to which these campaigns influenced their decisions of buying an ophthalmologic service. Using a snowball sampling technique we have sent a filter questionnaire to 40 people on the internet. The filter questionnaire consisted of questions about wearing eyeglasses, the period of wearing them, the last ophthalmologic consultation, the type of ophthalmologic clinic they were going to, age and education. The respondents revealed there is almost no visibility on promoting services even if there is an upsurge of organizations offering this type of health service in the Romanian ophthalmology sector. PMID:29450395

  4. A Randomized Trial Examining the Effects of Parent Engagement on Early Language and Literacy: The Getting Ready Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoche, Lisa L.; Kupzyk, Kevin A.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Marvin, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    Language and literacy skills established during early childhood are critical for later school success. Parental engagement with children has been linked to a number of adaptive characteristics in preschoolers including language and literacy development, and family-school collaboration is an important contributor to school readiness. This study reports the results of a randomized trial of a parent engagement intervention designed to facilitate school readiness among disadvantaged preschool children, with a particular focus on language and literacy development. Participants included 217 children, 211 parents, and 29 Head Start teachers in 21 schools. Statistically significant differences in favor of the treatment group were observed between treatment and control participants in the rate of change over 2 academic years on teacher reports of children’s language use (d = 1.11), reading (d = 1.25), and writing skills (d = .93). Significant intervention effects on children’s direct measures of expressive language were identified for a subgroup of cases where there were concerns about a child’s development upon entry into preschool. Additionally, other child and family moderators revealed specific variables that influenced the treatment’s effects. PMID:21640249

  5. VALUE-BASED MEDICINE AND OPHTHALMOLOGY: AN APPRAISAL OF COST-UTILITY ANALYSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gary C; Brown, Melissa M; Sharma, Sanjay; Brown, Heidi; Smithen, Lindsay; Leeser, David B; Beauchamp, George

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To ascertain the extent to which ophthalmologic interventions have been evaluated in value-based medicine format. Methods Retrospective literature review. Papers in the healthcare literature utilizing cost-utility analysis were reviewed by researchers at the Center for Value-Based Medicine, Flourtown, Pennsylvania. A literature review of papers addressing the cost-utility analysis of ophthalmologic procedures in the United States over a 12-year period from 1992 to 2003 was undertaken using the National Library of Medicine and EMBASE databases. The cost-utility of ophthalmologic interventions in inflation-adjusted (real) year 2003 US dollars expended per quality-adjusted life-year ($/QALY) was ascertained in all instances. Results A total of 19 papers were found, including a total of 25 interventions. The median cost-utility of ophthalmologic interventions was $5,219/QALY, with a range from $746/QALY to $6.5 million/QALY. Conclusions The majority of ophthalmologic interventions are especially cost-effective by conventional standards. This is because of the substantial value that ophthalmologic interventions confer to patients with eye diseases for the resources expended. PMID:15747756

  6. Examining social-cognitive predictors of parenting skills among mothers with preschool and early elementary school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Saiideh; Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein Baghiani; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Norouzi, Ali; Jafari, Ali Reza; Fallahzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Identification of parenting skills determinants among mothers is an ongoing field of research. The aim of this study was to identify the social cognitive predictors of parenting skills among mothers. Previous studies have demonstrated the health action process approach (HAPA) as a credible frame for predicting behavior, but the number of studies considering the predictive value of parenting skills determinants among mothers is rare. An 8 months prospective design was applied. Participants were mothers with preschool and early elementary school-aged children. At the 1(st) time, 120 participants completed self-report questionnaires regarding their risk perception, outcome expectancies, task self-efficacy, and intentions toward parenting skills. At the 2(nd) time, they returned a follow-up questionnaire, which measured planning, coping self-efficacy, and recovery self-efficacy and finally, 8 months later as the 3(rd) time, parenting skills were measured. Path analysis was used for analysis. Path analysis indicated that, in the motivational phase, there was no relationship between parenting skills intention and risk perception, outcome expectancies, and task self-efficacy. Furthermore, no relationship was found between parenting skills intention and planning. In the volitional phase, coping self-efficacy, recovery self-efficacy, and planning were statistically significant predictors of parenting skills. The results of this study confirm that volitional phase of the HAPA model is useful in determining parenting skills. However, the role motivational variables seem to be unimportant in performing these behaviors. It was concluded that everybody intended to apply parenting skills, in nature, and intervention strategies should be focused on turning intentions into behavior.

  7. Dose reduction in high-resolution MSCT. Examinations of the chest for early detection of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, J.; Adam, G.; Wedegaertner, U.; Wildberger, J.E.; Dichtl, D.; Nagel, H.D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: the purpose of this study was to optimize high-resolution MSCT chest protocols for the evaluation of symptomatic immunosuppressed patients with suspected pneumonia using a dose-simulating program. Materials and methods: using the MSCT (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), 30 immunosuppressed patients with suspected pneumonia were examined with a low-dose HRCT of the chest (120 kV, 100 eff.mAs and collimation of 4 x 1 mm). A dose-simulating program was used to reconstruct the raw data at four different dose levels (70, 50, 35 und 25 mAs). For dose simulation for each mAs product, the correspondent noise level was added to the data. Images were generated with a slice thickness of 1 mm and 5 mm in the lung window. The images were then evaluated independently by two radiologists and graded on a scale of 1 to 3 points: 1 = no pneumonia, 2 = unclear, 3 = pneumonia. A receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was performed to calculate the area under the curve (AUC). The actual dosage in mSv was calculated. The sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Results: out of 30 patients, 7 had a normal chest finding and 23 had pneumonia. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 1.0 for every dosage and slice thickness. Infiltrates were detected correctly for all dosage levels. The sensitivity was 100% for all dose levels and slice thicknesses. There was one false positive finding at 35 mAs and 1 mm slice thickness. At this dose level the specificity was reduced to 93%. A reduction to 25 mAs had no influence on the detection of pneumonia. Thus, MSCT examinations of the chest can be performed with 25 mAs without missing the right diagnosis, resulting in an effective dose of 1.15 mSv (men), 1.5 mSv (women) and a CTDIvol of 2.5 mGy. (orig.)

  8. International patenting in ophthalmology: An analysis of its structure and relevance for the development of drugs and diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann AM Mucke

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hermann AM Mucke, Peter Mucke, Eva MuckeHM Pharma Consultancy, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: While investigative ophthalmologists access peer-reviewed journals as part of their daily routine, and while they regularly visit scientific congresses, they rarely peruse patent documents as an information source. Among the reasons for this negligence are the incompatibility of patent search algorithms with those known from journal databases, a legalistic and frequently redundant language, and misconceptions about the nature of the patenting system. Here we present key data and analyses from the ophthalmology module of a patent database system that we are developing to address some of these problems. We show that international patent applications consistently reflect developer interest in the ocular drug and diagnostics field; that they are technically focused lead indicators of developments that frequently feature in peer-reviewed patenting only much later; and that patenting targets are well aligned with the unmet therapeutic needs of populations in industrialized countries. Most applications (74%–78% in years since 2006 are supported with experimental data, and most (on average, 80%–90% faced at least one objection to patentability during their initial stage of examination. In contrast to the peer-reviewed scenery that is highly diverse, the corresponding patenting arena shows a pronounced focus on the United States.Keywords: ophthalmology, eye diseases, iontophoresis, intellectual property, patents as topic, bibliographic databases

  9. An early examination of access to select orphan drugs treating rare diseases in health insurance exchange plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sandy W; Brantley, Kelly; Liow, Christine; Teagarden, J Russell

    2014-10-01

    Patients with rare diseases often face significant health care access challenges, particularly since the number of available treatment options for rare diseases is limited. The implementation of health insurance exchanges promises improved access to health care. However, when purchasing a plan, patients with rare diseases need to consider multiple factors, such as insurance premium, access to providers, coverage of a specific medication or treatment, tier placement of drug, and out-of-pocket costs.  To provide an early snapshot of the exchange plan landscape from the perspective of patients with select rare diseases by evaluating the degree of access to medications in a subset of exchange plans based on coverage, tier placement, associated cost sharing, and utilization management (UM) applied.  The selection of drugs for this analysis began by identifying rare diseases with FDA-approved treatment options using the National Institutes of Health Office of Rare Diseases' webpage and further identification of a subset of drugs based on select criteria to ensure a varied sample, including the characteristics and prevalence of the condition. The medications were categorized based on whether alternative therapies have FDA approval for the same indication and whether there are comparators based on class or therapeutic area. The list was narrowed to 11 medications across 7 diseases, and the analysis was based on how these drugs are listed in exchange plan outpatient pharmacy benefit formularies. This analysis focused on 84 plans in 15 states with the highest expected exchange enrollment and included a variety of plan types to ensure that variability in the marketplace was represented. To best approximate plans that will have the greatest enrollment, the analysis focused on silver and bronze plan formularies because consumers in this market are expected to be sensitive to premiums. Data on drug coverage, tier placement, cost, and UM were collected from these plans

  10. Optometry and ophthalmology: the Internet connection--assessing consumer health web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, M; Schachne, E; Saludes, I

    2001-11-01

    The Internet is a major conduit of health information. Consumers frequently rely on it without verifying its validity. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy and currency of Internet-based information on the roles and practice of optometrists, which has been found to be misleading, inaccurate, and often outdated. Using search engines and ranking directories, 16 popular health Web sites were examined for differentiation between optometry and ophthalmology. Each site's eye care content was reviewed for syndication, definitions, provider directories, linkages to eye organizations, and provider recommendations in treatment of certain conditions. Many Web sites use a syndicated source for their health content and several use Merriam-Webster as their primary dictionary. A majority of sites provided poor definitions for optometry. Most Web sites were biased in recommending ophthalmologists and do not include optometrists as licensed providers in treatment of certain eye diseases. For example, Intelihealth, Aetnaushc, and Noah-Health recommend only ophthalmologists for the treatment of conjunctivitis. Inaccuracies and misleading information about optometry do exist and undermine the role of optometrists in delivery of eye care. When alerted, several Web sites were receptive to proposed changes. While some efforts have been undertaken to monitor Web sites, the profession must develop a concrete effort to ensure that it is correctly represented on the Internet.

  11. Prototype Development: Context-Driven Dynamic XML Ophthalmologic Data Capture Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peissig, Peggy; Schwei, Kelsey M; Kadolph, Christopher; Finamore, Joseph; Cancel, Efrain; McCarty, Catherine A; Okorie, Asha; Thomas, Kate L; Allen Pacheco, Jennifer; Pathak, Jyotishman; Ellis, Stephen B; Denny, Joshua C; Rasmussen, Luke V; Tromp, Gerard; Williams, Marc S; Vrabec, Tamara R; Brilliant, Murray H

    2017-09-13

    The capture and integration of structured ophthalmologic data into electronic health records (EHRs) has historically been a challenge. However, the importance of this activity for patient care and research is critical. The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype of a context-driven dynamic extensible markup language (XML) ophthalmologic data capture application for research and clinical care that could be easily integrated into an EHR system. Stakeholders in the medical, research, and informatics fields were interviewed and surveyed to determine data and system requirements for ophthalmologic data capture. On the basis of these requirements, an ophthalmology data capture application was developed to collect and store discrete data elements with important graphical information. The context-driven data entry application supports several features, including ink-over drawing capability for documenting eye abnormalities, context-based Web controls that guide data entry based on preestablished dependencies, and an adaptable database or XML schema that stores Web form specifications and allows for immediate changes in form layout or content. The application utilizes Web services to enable data integration with a variety of EHRs for retrieval and storage of patient data. This paper describes the development process used to create a context-driven dynamic XML data capture application for optometry and ophthalmology. The list of ophthalmologic data elements identified as important for care and research can be used as a baseline list for future ophthalmologic data collection activities. ©Peggy Peissig, Kelsey M Schwei, Christopher Kadolph, Joseph Finamore, Efrain Cancel, Catherine A McCarty, Asha Okorie, Kate L Thomas, Jennifer Allen Pacheco, Jyotishman Pathak, Stephen B Ellis, Joshua C Denny, Luke V Rasmussen, Gerard Tromp, Marc S Williams, Tamara R Vrabec, Murray H Brilliant. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 13.09.2017.

  12. [Scientific role of German ophthalmology in the European telecommunication project OPHTEL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, M; Mann, G; Zahlmann, G; Obermaier, M

    1997-07-01

    In Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain and Italy, the OPHTEL project combines clinical centers of ophthalmology and internal medicine, an institute for medical informatics and health services research, a publishing company and different industrial partners in the EDP market. With the aid of visual telecommunication and rapid data transfer, methods and conditions will be developed and proved so that any physician can very easily obtain sufficient information for treating his patient. Thus, the regional differences in the quality of structured health service (e.g., urban/ rural) will be overcome throughout Europe. SCIENTIFIC TASKS: A multilingual diagnostic and therapeutic thesaurus has to be worked out in order to create standards for communication and quality control. Based on literature, images and image analysis in a knowledge-based data bank, a monitoring system (containing watch-dog functions) and the basic aspects of an ophthalmological patient/disease register will be investigated. (In parallel, a technical development of synchronous and asynchronous telecommunication between eye physicians is taking place in close cooperation with the regional Bavarian project Teleopathalmology in Bavaria on-line). State of the art 6 months after starting the project:the knowledge-based image data bank has been founded and also an ophthalmological 8 language thesaurus and definition standard. All data transfer lines are installed. The project is taking place amid diverging sections of medicine: ophthalmology and internal medicine, health politics and data protection, individual treatment and common interest (health care), product management and office organization. Thus, the scientific quality of the transferred ophthalmological content must undergo sophisticated controls. FUTURE STEPS: Intense cooperation with the big German associations for ophthalmology (DOG, BVA) and the European ophthalmological societies concerning EDP, classification and quality control.

  13. TECHNIQUES OF EVALUATION OF HEMOGLOBIN OXYGEN SATURATION IN CLINICAL OPHTHALMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen content in body fluids and tissues is an important indicator of life support functions. A number of ocular pathologies, e.g. glaucoma, are of presumable vascular origin which means altered blood supply and oxygen circulation. Most oxygen is transported in the blood in the association with hemoglobin. When passing through the capillaries, hemoglobin releases oxygen, converting from oxygenated form to deoxygenated form. This process is accompanied by the changes in spectral characteristics of hemoglobin which result in different colors of arterial and venous blood. Photometric technique for the measurement of oxygen saturation in blood is based on the differences in light absorption by different forms of hemoglobin. The measurement of saturation is called oximetry. Pulse oximetry with assessment of tissue oxygenation is the most commonly used method in medicine. The degree of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the eye blood vessels is the most accessible for noninvasive studies during ophthalmoscopy and informative. Numerous studies showed the importance of this parameter for the diagnosis of retinopathy of various genesis, metabolic status analysis in hyperglycemia, diagnosis and control of treatment of glaucoma and other diseases involving alterations in eye blood supply. The specific method for evaluation of oxygen concentration is the measurement of pressure of oxygen dissolved in the blood, i.e. partial pressure of oxygen. In ophthalmological practice, this parameter is measured in anterior chamber fluid evaluating oxygen level for several ophthalmopathies including different forms of glaucoma, for instillations of hypotensive eye drops as well as in vitreous body near to the optic disc under various levels of intraocular pressure. Currently, monitoring of oxygen saturation in retinal blood vessels, i.e. retinal oximetry, is well developed. This technique is based on the assessment of light absorption by blood depending on

  14. Representation of Women With Industry Ties in Ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ashvini K; Bounds, Gregory W; Bakri, Sophie J; Gordon, Lynn K; Smith, Justine R; Haller, Julia A; Thorne, Jennifer E

    2016-06-01

    Women in ophthalmology are growing in number and have made strides in traditional metrics of professional achievement. Professional ties to industry represent another potential means of career advancement, recognition, and income. To report the representation of women among ophthalmologists receiving industry remuneration for research, consulting, honoraria, grants, royalties, and faculty/speaker roles. In this observational, retrospective study, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Open Payments database for payments to ophthalmologists by biomedical companies was reviewed for representation, median payments, and mean payments by women and men for industry relationships in 2013 and 2014. The analysis was performed from July 2015 to November 2015. The primary outcome measures were percentage representation of women vs men overall and in industry research, consulting, speaking roles, royalties and licenses, grants, services other than consulting, and honoraria. Secondary outcome measures included mean and median payments from industry to female vs male ophthalmologists. In 2013, 4164 of 21 380 (19.5%) ophthalmologists were women, and of 1204 ophthalmologists analyzed for industry payments, 176 (4.2%) women had industry ties compared with 1028 (6%) men (P women were $11 419 compared with $20 957 for men (P = .001), and median payments to women were $3000 compared with $4787 for men (P = .007). In 2013, women were underrepresented among ophthalmologists receiving industry payments for research (49 of 462 [10.6%]), consulting (96 of 610 [15.7%]), honoraria (3 of 47 [6.4%]), industry grants (1 of 7 [14.3%]), royalties and licenses (1 of 13 [7.7%]), and faculty/speaker roles (2 of 48 [4.2%]). In 2014, 4352 of 21 531 (20.2%) of ophthalmologists were women. Of 1518 ophthalmologists analyzed for industry payments, 255 (6%) women had industry ties compared with 1263 (7.4%) men (P women were $14 848 compared with $30 513 for men (P = .004

  15. Determination of Risk Factors and Treatment of Dry Eye Disease in Type 1 Diabetes Before Corneal Complications at Sindh Institute of Ophthalmology And Visual Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shujaat, Shehnilla; Jawed, Muhammad; Memon, Shahzad; Talpur, Khalid Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and determine the risk factors and treatment of dry eye disease in type 1 diabetes before any ocular surface or corneal complication occurs. This study was conducted at Sindh Institute of Ophthalmology And Visual Sciences, Hyderabad, Pakistan. Subjects and methods for observational study were undertaken at the Department of Ophthalmology Sindh Institute Of Ophthalmology And Visual Sciences, Hyderabad, Pakistan. Hundred confirmed cases of type 1 diabetes were included in the study by non probability convenience sampling. Tear film breakup time and schrimer test were carried out to determine dry eye disease. Data was collected by self-prepared questionnaire and entered and analyzed by using Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 20.0). The frequencies and percentage were recorded and any associations with predisposing factors were statistically analyzed by t test. Out of hundred patients, 71 (71%) were found to have dry eyes (Pdry eye disease (Pdry eyes in males and females. Long duration was found to be related with increased occurrence of dry eyes (Pdry eyes. There is marked increase in frequency/ risk of developing dry eye disease in type 1 diabetes patients. Therefore, it is recommended to have periodic ophthalmic examination for type 1 diabetic patients.

  16. Relocation consequences on an ophthalmology consultation service from an inpatient to outpatient facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh JS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Jorawer S Singh,1 Vincent M Imbrogno,2 Mary K Howard,3 Amandip S Cheema,3 Ausra D Selvadurai,4 Surbhi Bansal5 1Department of Ophthalmology, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2Contemporary Ophthalmology of Erie, Erie, PA, 3Department of Ophthalmology, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, 4OcuSight Eye Care Center, Rochester, NY, 5Department of Ophthalmology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Importance: This study shows that relocation of an academic ophthalmology residency program from an inpatient to an outpatient setting in western New York does not affect the consult volume but affects management patterns and follow-up rates.Objective: To investigate the effects on the ophthalmology consultation service of an academic program with relocation from a Regional Level-1 Trauma center to an outpatient facility.Design: Consultation notes from 3 years before and 3 years after the University at Buffalo’s (UB Department of Ophthalmology relocation from a Regional Level-1 Trauma center (Erie County Medical Center to an outpatient facility (Ross Eye Institute were obtained from hospital electronic medical records and analyzed.Setting: Hospitalized care and institutional practice.Participants: All inpatient or Emergency Room Ophthalmology consultation patients from the Department of Ophthalmology at UB from 2004 to 2010 (1,379 patients.Exposures: None, this was a retrospective chart review.Main outcome measures: Patient demographics, reason for consult, diagnoses, and ophthalmic procedures performed by the UB Department of Ophthalmology before and after its relocation.Results: Relocation to the outpatient facility did not affect consult volume (P=0.15. The number of consults focusing on ophthalmic conditions, as a percentage of the yearly total, rose 460% (P=0.0001, while systemic condition consults with ocular manifestations fell 83% (P=0.0001. Consults for ocular trauma decreased 65% (P=0.0034. Consults ending with a

  17. Trends in Authorship of Articles in Major Ophthalmology Journals by Gender, 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Michael; Zayit-Soudry, Shiri; Segal, Ori; Barak, Yoreh; Nemet, Arie Y; Shulman, Shiri; Geffen, Noa

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate trends in the prevalence of women authors in ophthalmology in recent years. Cohort study. Authors listed in publications of 6 leading ophthalmology journals between January 2002 and December 2014. Using the PubMed search engine, we conducted an observational study of trends in gender distribution of all authors in 6 leading ophthalmology journals between January 2002 and December 2014. In multiauthored articles, the first listed author often is the lead investigator and the last author is the senior author. Therefore, the full names and positions (first, middle, or last) of all authors in every article were collected. A Google-based name identifier was used to assign the gender of authors. Proportion of women authors throughout the study period in all journals, general ophthalmology versus subspecialty journals, and basic science versus clinical research journals. Furthermore, we assessed the proportion of women in different authorship positions (first, middle, and last). A total of 102 254 authors from 23 026 published articles were analyzed. There was a significant rise over time in the percentage of women authors, with a steeper slope for first authors than for last authors (P<0.001), although in 2014, women authors were less than the 50% mark in all categories of authorship. The rise in the percentage of women authors was similar in basic and clinical research, but was steeper for first authorship than for last authorship (P<0.001). In all 3 authorship positions (first, middle, or last), women's contributions consistently were higher in basic research publications. The rise in the percentage of women authors was significantly steeper for general journals than for subspecialty journals (P<0.001). There was no significant rise for last authorship in subspecialty journals. In all 3 authorship positions, the proportion of women was consistently higher in general ophthalmology journals than for subspecialty journals. Despite an overall increase in

  18. Attitudes to research and research training among ophthalmologists and ophthalmology trainees in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasundera, Thiran; Fisk, Michael; McGhee, Charles N J

    2003-08-01

    To determine the attitudes to research and research training among ophthalmologists and ophthalmology trainees in New Zealand. A structured, self-administered questionnaire was devised and after preliminary validation a postal survey was sent to all ophthalmologists and ophthalmology registrars and fellows in New Zealand. A total of 82 replies were received from 115 questionnaires sent out; a response rate of 71.3%. An overwhelming majority found research to have benefited their education, clinical practice and career; 67.1% of the respondents intended to do research in the future. Although a majority (56.4%) felt research to be beneficial to ophthalmology training, 42.3% felt research would be of limited or no benefit when selecting candidates for vocational training. However, 97.5% of respondents felt that ophthalmology trainees should undertake some form of research during training, with most supporting small studies or case reports (44.4%) or a short structured training course in research (42.0%). Interestingly, 86.6% felt that research methodology and data analysis should be taught in a structured fashion with most supporting courses or seminars of a few weeks duration during the vocational training period. Many ophthalmologists felt inadequately equipped or trained to mentor and supervise trainees undertaking research and 41.5% of consultant ophthalmologists felt further training to fulfil this role would be beneficial. This survey suggests that New Zealand ophthalmologists generally approve of and support a place for research, possibly of a more structured design, during ophthalmology training.

  19. A pilot trial of tele-ophthalmology for diagnosis of chronic blurred vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Johnson Choon Hwai; Poh, Eugenie Wei Ting; Srinivasan, Sanjay; Lim, Tock Han

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of tele-ophthalmology in diagnosing the major causes of chronic blurring of vision. Thirty consecutive patients attending a primary eye-care facility in Singapore (the Ang Mo Kio Polyclinic, AMKP) with the symptom of chronic blurred vision were recruited. An ophthalmic technician was trained to perform Snellen acuity; auto-refraction; intraocular pressure measurement; red-colour perimetry; video recordings of extraocular movement, cover tests and pupillary reactions; and anterior segment and fundus photography. Digital information was transmitted to a tertiary hospital in Singapore (the Tan Tock Seng Hospital) via a tele-ophthalmology system for teleconsultation with an ophthalmologist. The diagnoses were compared with face-to-face consultation by another ophthalmologist at the AMKP. A user experience questionnaire was administered at the end of the consultation. Using face-to-face consultation as the gold standard, tele-ophthalmology achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing media opacity (n = 29), maculopathy (n = 23) and keratopathy (n = 30) of any type; and 100% sensitivity and 92% specificity in diagnosing optic neuropathy of any type (n = 24). The majority of the patients (97%) were satisfied with the tele-ophthalmology workflow and consultation. The tele-ophthalmology system was able to detect causes of chronic blurred vision accurately. It has the potential to deliver high-accuracy diagnostic eye support to remote areas if suitably trained ophthalmic technicians are available.

  20. Problemas oftalmológicos mais freqüentes e desenvolvimento visual do pré-termo extremo Frequent ophthalmologic problems and visual development of preterm newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Graziano

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar conceitos do desenvolvimento visual e principais alterações oculares do recém-nascido prematuro. Salientar a importância do exame oftalmológico preventivo e tratamento precoce das doenças oculares. FONTE DOS DADOS: Dados de literatura. SÍNTESE DE DADOS: A visão é um dos mais importantes sentidos no desenvolvimento físico e cognitivo normal da criança. Em recém-nascido prematuro, as funções visual, motora e cognitiva, quando comparadas às de crianças de termo em idade escolar, são prejudicadas. Isto se deve mais à imaturidade do sistema nervoso central do que a lesões localizadas em estruturas oculares e/ou corticais. A retinopatia da prematuridade, o estrabismo e os erros de refração são as principais alterações oftálmicas secundárias à prematuridade descritas na literatura. A retinopatia da prematuridade é uma das principais causas de cegueira prevenível na infância. Calcula-se que, em média, 562 crianças fiquem cegas por ano no Brasil, um custo socioeconômico alto, principalmente por se tratar de uma doença passível de tratamento. Muito pode ser feito pela criança com deficiência visual; programas de estimulação visual precoce permitem que a criança possa ter uma integração maior com seu meio. CONCLUSÕES: Recomenda-se que todo recém-nascido prematuro com p OBJECTIVES: To review the concepts of visual development and the major ocular abnormalities in preterm newborns. To emphasize the importance of preventive ophthalmologic examination and early treatment of ocular disorders. SOURCES OF DATA: A review of published data. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: Vision is one of the most important senses in the normal physical and cognitive development of children. Schoolchildren who were born preterm have impaired visual, motor and cognitive functions when compared to those of children born full term. This is more a consequence of central nervous system immaturity than of localized injuries to ocular and

  1. [Evaluation of Web-based software applications for administrating and organising an ophthalmological clinical trial site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortüm, K; Reznicek, L; Leicht, S; Ulbig, M; Wolf, A

    2013-07-01

    The importance and complexity of clinical trials is continuously increasing, especially in innovative specialties like ophthalmology. Therefore an efficient clinical trial site organisational structure is essential. In modern internet times, this can be accomplished by web-based applications. In total, 3 software applications (Vibe on Prem, Sharepoint and open source software) were evaluated in a clinical trial site in ophthalmology. Assessment criteria were set; they were: reliability, easiness of administration, usability, scheduling, task list, knowledge management, operating costs and worldwide availability. Vibe on Prem customised by the local university met the assessment criteria best. Other applications were not as strong. By introducing a web-based application for administrating and organising an ophthalmological trial site, studies can be conducted in a more efficient and reliable manner. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Ophthalmologic Disease in HIV Infection: Recent Changes in Pathophysiology and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael W

    2017-10-19

    Ophthalmologic conditions were among the earliest described findings in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this review is to highlight recent changes in the pathophysiology and management of ophthalmologic conditions in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996 changed ophthalmologic findings from predominantly acute infectious diseases to chronic, slowly progressive, debilitating conditions. HIV-associated neuroretinal disorder infrequently leads to blindness, but it causes visual disability in a large percentage of patients. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is now seen less commonly in the USA, but it remains an important cause of blindness in HIV-infected patients from developing countries. Immune recovery uveitis has emerged as a major cause of visual disability in the USA. As HIV has become a chronic disease, visual disability due to chronic noninfectious diseases have become increasingly important.

  3. Examining the social determinants of children's developmental health: protocol for building a pan-Canadian population-based monitoring system for early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhn, Martin; Janus, Magdalena; Enns, Jennifer; Brownell, Marni; Forer, Barry; Duku, Eric; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Raos, Rob

    2016-04-29

    Early childhood is a key period to establish policies and practices that optimise children's health and development, but Canada lacks nationally representative data on social indicators of children's well-being. To address this gap, the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher-administered questionnaire completed for kindergarten-age children, has been implemented across most Canadian provinces over the past 10 years. The purpose of this protocol is to describe the Canadian Neighbourhoods and Early Child Development (CanNECD) Study, the aims of which are to create a pan-Canadian EDI database to monitor trends over time in children's developmental health and to advance research examining the social determinants of health. Canada-wide EDI records from 2004 to 2014 (representing over 700,000 children) will be linked to Canada Census and Income Taxfiler data. Variables of socioeconomic status derived from these databases will be used to predict neighbourhood-level EDI vulnerability rates by conducting a series of regression analyses and latent variable models at provincial/territorial and national levels. Where data are available, we will measure the neighbourhood-level change in developmental vulnerability rates over time and model the socioeconomic factors associated with those trends. Ethics approval for this study was granted by the Behavioural Research Ethics Board at the University of British Columbia. Study findings will be disseminated to key partners, including provincial and federal ministries, schools and school districts, collaborative community groups and the early childhood development research community. The database created as part of this longitudinal population-level monitoring system will allow researchers to associate practices, programmes and policies at school and community levels with trends in developmental health outcomes. The CanNECD Study will guide future early childhood development action and policies, using the database as a tool

  4. Dr Adam Zamenhof (1888-1940) and his insight into ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincewicz, Andrzej; Sulkowska, Mariola; Lieberman, E James; Bakunowicz-Lazarczyk, Alina; Sulkowski, Stanislaw

    2009-02-01

    Adam Zamenhof was greatly influenced by his father, Ludwik Zamenhof, who designed the international language Esperanto. Like his father, he became an ophthalmologist and joined the Esperanto movement. He published in the field of ophthalmology and was soon chosen as head of an ophthalmology department. He subsequently became Chief of the Orthodox Jewish Hospital at Czystem in Warsaw. He was active in the leadership of the Bialystok-Warsaw Chamber of Medical Doctors. He perished in the Nazi Holocaust (Shoah) but all Zamenhof's ideals that Adam served as a doctor and social activist remain still alive.

  5. Modeling the consumer’s perception of experiential marketing in the Romanian private ophthalmologic services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Consuela-Mădălina; Gheorghe, Iuliana-Raluca; Purcărea, Victor Lorin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The importance of experience in marketing grew, as the concept itself is very personal and difficult to measure. Experience turns out to be complicated but once placed in a context it gets significant features. As the health care competitive environment increases, marketers are looking for new and effective methods of engaging consumers by using experiential marketing strategies. Moreover, little is known about the consumers’ perceptions related to ophthalmologic services. Aim. The objective of this paper was to measure the consumer’s perception of experiential marketing in the Romanian private ophthalmologic services by using structural equation modeling. Materials and Methods. The Experiential Marketing model consisted of the following components: Sense Experience, Feel Experience, Think Experience, Act Experience and Relate Experience as well as the consequences of applying Experiential Marketing in the form of willingness to purchase a service, generating word-of-mouth communication and building consumer loyalty. The sampling method was non-probabilistic, using the snowball technique and the sample was made up of 190 people who wore eyeglasses for more than 3 years. The instrument for data collection was a self-administered questionnaire, which consisted of 2 parts: the first section contained several demographic questions and the second section encompassed closed end questions related to the perception of private ophthalmologic services from an experiential marketing perspective. All the second section questions were measured on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 with Strongly Disagree to 5 to Strongly Agree. The data analysis was conducted in SPSS and the structural equation modeling was performed in WarpPLS version 6.0. Findings. There were 71.05% respondents, who appreciated the application of experiential marketing in private ophthalmologic services, followed by 18.95%, who were confused. The demographic profile of respondents

  6. Modeling the consumer's perception of experiential marketing in the Romanian private ophthalmologic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Consuela-Mădălina; Gheorghe, Iuliana-Raluca; Purcărea, Victor Lorin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The importance of experience in marketing grew, as the concept itself is very personal and difficult to measure. Experience turns out to be complicated but once placed in a context it gets significant features. As the health care competitive environment increases, marketers are looking for new and effective methods of engaging consumers by using experiential marketing strategies. Moreover, little is known about the consumers' perceptions related to ophthalmologic services. Aim. The objective of this paper was to measure the consumer's perception of experiential marketing in the Romanian private ophthalmologic services by using structural equation modeling. Materials and Methods. The Experiential Marketing model consisted of the following components: Sense Experience, Feel Experience, Think Experience, Act Experience and Relate Experience as well as the consequences of applying Experiential Marketing in the form of willingness to purchase a service, generating word-of-mouth communication and building consumer loyalty. The sampling method was non-probabilistic, using the snowball technique and the sample was made up of 190 people who wore eyeglasses for more than 3 years. The instrument for data collection was a self-administered questionnaire, which consisted of 2 parts: the first section contained several demographic questions and the second section encompassed closed end questions related to the perception of private ophthalmologic services from an experiential marketing perspective. All the second section questions were measured on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 with Strongly Disagree to 5 to Strongly Agree. The data analysis was conducted in SPSS and the structural equation modeling was performed in WarpPLS version 6.0. Findings. There were 71.05% respondents, who appreciated the application of experiential marketing in private ophthalmologic services, followed by 18.95%, who were confused. The demographic profile of respondents encompassed

  7. The first cut is the deepest: basic surgical training in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, A; Boulton, M G; Watson, M P; Moseley, M J; Murray, P I; Fielder, A R

    2005-12-01

    To examine the basic surgical training received by Senior House Officers (SHOs) in ophthalmology and the influence on training of sociodemographic and organisational factors. Cross-sectional survey of SHOs in recognised UK surgical training posts asking about laboratory training and facilities, surgical experience, demographic details, with the opportunity to add comments. A total of 314/466 (67%) questionnaires were returned. In all, 67% had attended a basic surgical course, 40% had access to wet labs and 39% had spent time in a wet lab in the previous 6 months. The mean number of part phakoemulsification (phako) procedures performed per week was 0.79; the mean number of full phakos performed per week was 0.74. The number of part phakos performed was negatively correlated, and the number of full phakos completed was positively correlated, with length of time as an SHO. Respondents who had larger operating lists performed more full phakos per week (Pwomen were less likely to have access to a wet lab (P=0.013), had completed fewer full phakos per week (P=0.003), and were less likely to have completed 50 full phakos (P=0003). SHOs' comments revealed concerns about their limited 'hands on' experience. There are significant shortcomings in the basic surgical training SHOs receive, particularly in relation to wet lab experience and opportunities to perform full intraocular procedures. SHOs themselves perceive their training as inadequate. Women are disadvantaged in both laboratory and patient-based training, but minority ethnic groups and those who qualified overseas are not.

  8. Assessment of Durability of Online and Multisensory Learning Using an Ophthalmology Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Linda Mottow; Anderson, Craig L

    2015-10-01

    To explore the impact of online learning and multisensory small-group teaching on acquisition and retention of specialty knowledge and diagnostic skills during a third-year family medicine rotation. Exploratory, observational, longitudinal, and multiple-skill measures. Two medical school classes (n = 199) at a public medical school in California. Students engaged in online self-study, small-group interactive diagnostic sessions, picture identification of critical pathologic features, and funduscopic simulator examinations. The authors compared performance on testing immediately after online learning with testing at end-rotation, as well as picture identification versus simulator diagnostic ability in students with (n = 94) and without (n = 105) practice tracing contours on whiteboard projections of those same slides depicting fundus pathologic features of common systemic diseases. Picture identification, accuracy of funduscopic descriptions, online module post-tests, and end-rotation tests. Proprioceptive reinforcement of fundus pattern recognition significantly reduced the need for remediation for misdiagnosing optic disc edema during end-rotation funduscopic simulator testing, but it had no effect on fundus pattern recognition or diagnostic ability overall. Near-perfect immediate online post-test scores contrasted sharply with poor end-rotation scores on an in-house test (average, 59.4%). Rotation timing was not a factor because the patterns remained consistent throughout the academic school year. Neither multisensory teaching nor online self-study significantly improved retention of ophthalmic knowledge and diagnostic skills by the end of a month-long third-year rotation. Timing such training closer to internship when application is imminent may enhance students' appreciation for its value and perhaps may improve retention. Pulsed quizzes over time also may be necessary to motivate students to retain the knowledge gained. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of

  9. Exploring the Potential of a Wearable Camera to Examine the Early Obesogenic Home Environment: Comparison of SenseCam Images to the Home Environment Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrempft, Stephanie; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia Hm; Fisher, Abigail

    2017-10-12

    The obesogenic home environment is usually examined via self-report, and objective measures are required. This study explored whether the wearable camera SenseCam can be used to examine the early obesogenic home environment and whether it is useful for validation of self-report measures. A total of 15 primary caregivers of young children (mean age of child 4 years) completed the Home Environment Interview (HEI). Around 12 days after the HEI, participants wore the SenseCam at home for 4 days. A semistructured interview assessed participants' experience of wearing the SenseCam. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), percent agreement, and kappa statistics were used as validity estimates for 54 home environment features. Wearing the SenseCam was generally acceptable to those who participated. The SenseCam captured all 54 HEI features but with varying detail; 36 features (67%) had satisfactory validity (ICC or kappa ≥0.40; percent agreement ≥80 where kappa could not be calculated). Validity was good or excellent (ICC or kappa ≥0.60) for fresh fruit and vegetable availability, fresh vegetable variety, display of food and drink (except sweet snacks), family meals, child eating lunch or dinner while watching TV, garden and play equipment, the number of TVs and DVD players, and media equipment in the child's bedroom. Validity was poor (ICC or kappa Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 12.10.2017.

  10. EXAMINING LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF AN INFANT MENTAL HEALTH HOME-BASED EARLY HEAD START PROGRAM ON FAMILY STRENGTHS AND RESILIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckelvey, Lorraine; Schiffman, Rachel F; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Bocknek, Erika London; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Reischl, Thomas M; Hawver, Shelley; Cunningham Deluca, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Infant Mental Health based interventions aim to promote the healthy development of infants and toddlers through promoting healthy family functioning to foster supportive relationships between the young child and his or her important caregivers. This study examined impacts of an Infant Mental Health home-based Early Head Start (IMH-HB EHS) program on family functioning. The sample includes 152 low-income families in the Midwestern United States, expectant or parenting a child younger than 1 year of age, who were randomly assigned to receive IMH-HB EHS services (n = 75) or to a comparison condition (n = 77). Mothers who received IMH-HB EHS services reported healthier psychological and family functioning, outcomes that are consistent with the IMH focus, when their children were between the ages of 3 and 7 years of age. Specifically, mothers in the IMH-HB EHS group reported healthier family functioning and relationships, better coping skills needed to advocate for their families, and less stress in the parenting role versus those in the comparison condition. The study also examined support seeking coping, some of which changed differently over time based on program group assignment. Overall, findings suggest that the gains families achieve from participating in IMH-HB EHS services are maintained after services cease. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. THE DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF CLINICAL EXAMINATION AND ULTRASOUND STUDY OF ENTHESES FOR EARLY DETECTION OF PSORIATIC AND RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: REMARC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Viktorovna Korotaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of enthesitis can help in differentiating early psoriatic arthritis (ePsA from early rheumatoid arthritis (eRA.Objective. To estimate the diagnostic value of detecting enthesitis during clinical examination and ultrasound in ePsA and eRA.Subjects and methods. The trial included 36 patients with ePsA and 33 with eRA. Entheses were evaluated using the Leeds Enthesitis Index (LEI: lateral humeral epicondyle and medial femoral condyle (MFC, Achilles tendon insertion site (ATAP, and plantar fascia (PF point on the right and on the left. Enthesitis (on ultrasound presented with thickening, reduced echo density, and vascularization at Doppler energy imaging. DAS, DAS28, SDAI, CDAI, M±SD, Me [25th, 75th percentile], t-test, Fisher's exact test, χ2test, U test, and Spearman correlation coefficients (R were calculated; the value p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results. Clinical examination revealed enthesitis in 41.6% of the patients with ePsA and in 39.4% of those with eRA (p >0.05. No significant differences were found between ePsA and eRA according to LEI (0.5 [0; 2] and 1 [0; 2] and to LEI+PF (1 [0; 2] and 1 [0; 2], respectively. Enthesitis of MFC and PF was significantly more frequently detected in ePsA than in eRA – 12 (33.3%/2 (6.1% and 10 (27.8%/2 (6.1% patients, respectively. In eRA versus ePsA, enthesitis of MFC was more frequently found (16 (48.4% and 8 (22.2% patients, respectively. Ultrasound revealed no significant differences between the groups in enthesitis. In ePsA, there was a significant correlation between DAS, DAS28, SDAI, CDAI, LEI, and LEI+PF.Conclusion. Enthesis ultrasound cannot differentiate ePsA from eRA. Clinical examination more frequently detects enthesitis in the knee joints in eRA and in the calcaneal region in ePsA.

  12. [Surgeon and eye doctor Caspar Stromayr and the ophthalmological illustrations in his "Practica copiosa" (1559)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nover, A; Kümmel, W F

    1984-11-01

    In 1559 Caspar Stromayr wrote a richly illustrated book about hernias and their treatment. The manuscript also includes 3 chapters of a book on ophthalmological diseases which, however, was never published. In addition, it contains 6 separate watercolor illustrations of eye diseases, though without any explanatory texts. The authors attempt to interpret these first colored pictures of eye diseases.

  13. Electronic health record impact on productivity and efficiency in an academic pediatric ophthalmology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Travis K; Read-Brown, Sarah; Choi, Dongseok; Yackel, Thomas R; Tu, Daniel C; Chiang, Michael F

    2014-12-01

    To measure the effect of electronic health record (EHR) implementation on productivity and efficiency in the pediatric ophthalmology division at an academic medical center. Four established providers were selected from the pediatric ophthalmology division at the Oregon Health & Science University Casey Eye Institute. Clinical volume was compared before and after EHR implementation for each provider. Time elapsed from chart open to completion (OTC time) and the proportion of charts completed during business hours were monitored for 3 years following implementation. Overall there was an 11% decrease in clinical volume following EHR implementation, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.18). The mean OTC time ranged from 5.5 to 28.3 hours among providers in this study, and trends over time were variable among the four providers. Forty-four percent of all charts were closed outside normal business hours (30% on weekdays, 14% on weekends). EHR implementation was associated with a negative impact on productivity and efficiency in our pediatric ophthalmology division. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Neuro-ophthalmology: the eye as a window to the brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Anat

    2013-02-01

    Neuro-ophthalmology focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of visual disorders related to the neurological system rather than the globe itself. Being a subspecialty of both neurology and ophthalmology, it requires specialized training and expertise in diseases of the eye, brain, nerves and muscles. Commonly encountered pathologies in neuro-ophthalmology include: optic neuropathies (such as optic neuritis and ischemic optic neuropathy), visual field loss (transient, constant, unexplained), transient visual loss, unspecified visual disturbances, diplopia, abnormal eye movements, thyroid eye disease, myasthenia gravis, anisocoria, and eyelid abnormalities. The current issue of "Harefuah" is dedicated to contemporary knowledge in neuro-opthalmology, and spans from studies of neuromyelitis optica (NMO), ischemic optic neuropathies, and optic neuropathies induced by phosphodiesterase inhibitors, to the management of sight-threatening carotid-cavernous fistulas, and more. These studies emphasize the importance of an interdisciplinary treatment team consisting of a neuro-ophthalmologist, a neuro-radiologist, and sometimes, even a neuro-surgeon. Such an approach may prove to be beneficial to the patient, by optimizing follow-up and treatment decisions. This issue emphasizes how a correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount significance in patients with neuro-ophthalmological disorders.

  15. Analysis of ophthalmological and vision-related publications in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesly Carrillo Galván

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess scientific production related to ophthalmology and vision in Latin America during the period from 2006 to 2015. Methods: The PubMed, Lilacs (Bireme, Google Scholar, SciELO, and Medigraphic databases were evaluated for this retrospective, descriptive, and comparative study. Results: A total of 1,510 articles was identified. Brazil was the leader in quantitative production in ophthalmology, averaging 85.4 articles per year. Mexico was in second place with 27.4, and Argentina was in third place with 11.1 articles per year. Forty-one percent of articles were published in English, 28.1% dealt with the subspecialty of the retina, and 63% were published by researchers affiliated with universities. The frequency of male first authors was 58.9%, and the journal Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia accounted for 36.42% of the identified articles. Conclusions: Brazil stands in first place in Latin America in ophthalmologic scientific production. Nearly half of the researchers in ophthalmology in Latin America included in our study were listed in databases other than PubMed.

  16. Gender differences in successful National Institutes of Health funding in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svider, Peter F; D'Aguillo, Christine M; White, Priscilla E; Pashkova, Anna A; Bhagat, Neelakshi; Langer, Paul D; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether gender differences in individual National Institutes of Health (NIH) awards and in funding totals exist in ophthalmology, and to further characterize whether factors such as experience, academic rank, and terminal degree play a role. A retrospective review of awards granted to primary investigators (PIs) in ophthalmology departments from 2011 through the present was conducted. PIs were classified by gender, degree, experience, and academic position. The NIH funding database was used to gather award data. Academic medical center. Men had higher mean NIH awards ($418,605) than their female colleagues ($353,170; p = 0.005) and had higher total funding per PI (p = 0.004). Men had statistically higher awards at the level of assistant professor than their female counterparts (p careers, although this difference only reached statistical significance on comparison of faculty with 10 or fewer years of experience. Male PIs receiving grants since 2011 had higher awards than their female colleagues did, most markedly among PIs in the earlier portions of their career. Differences in gender representation among senior faculty and in positions of leadership in academic ophthalmology may be partially a result of disparities in research output, as scholarly productivity is an important component of the academic advancement process in ophthalmology. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Development of an ophthalmological clinical information system for inpatient eye clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortüm, K U; Müller, M; Babenko, A; Kampik, A; Kreutzer, T C

    2015-12-01

    In times of increased digitalization in healthcare, departments of ophthalmology are faced with the challenge of introducing electronic clinical health records (EHR); however, specialized software for ophthalmology is not available with most major EHR sytems. The aim of this project was to create specific ophthalmological user interfaces for large inpatient eye care providers within a hospitalwide EHR. Additionally the integration of ophthalmic imaging systems, scheduling and surgical documentation should be achieved. The existing EHR i.s.h.med (Siemens, Germany) was modified using advanced business application programming (ABAP) language to create specific ophthalmological user interfaces for reproduction and moreover optimization of the clinical workflow. A user interface for documentation of ambulatory patients with eight tabs was designed. From June 2013 to October 2014 a total of 61,551 patient contact details were documented. For surgical documentation a separate user interface was set up. Digital clinical orders for documentation of registration and scheduling of operations user interfaces were also set up. A direct integration of ophthalmic imaging modalities could be established. An ophthalmologist-orientated EHR for outpatient and surgical documentation for inpatient clinics was created and successfully implemented. By incorporation of imaging procedures the foundation of future smart/big data analyses was created.

  18. Ophthalmology and vision science research: Part 3: avoiding writer's block--understanding the ABCs of a good research paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Charles N J; Gilhotra, Amardeep K

    2005-12-01

    Completion of a scientific manuscript for submission to a peer-reviewed journal is a daunting task for clinicians and scientists early in their careers. In an ongoing series, this third article is the first of 2 related articles that deal with the basics of producing a high-quality research manuscript. Although ophthalmology and vision science are the principal focus of this series, the general concepts essential to producing a quality manuscript are applicable to diverse fields of research. This article highlights the exponential growth in the scientific literature over the past 40 years, considers why it is important to publish completed research, and discusses the necessity of identifying the key messages of the research, and their context, in relation to the published literature. The ethics of publishing biomedical research and scientific misconduct, such as duplicate publication or plagiarism, are outlined. To avoid later conflict, there is a critical need for coworkers to carefully address authorship order and inclusion early in the manuscript process. Internationally agreed guidelines are identified to guide this process. The importance of choosing the correct journal for a specific article and the nature of basic citation indices are discussed. The article concludes by elaborating and contrasting different scientific writing styles and emphasizing the considerable importance of developing a representative title and applying clarity and appropriate structure to the abstract.

  19. Contingent Valuation Analysis of an Otolaryngology and Ophthalmology Emergency Department: The Value of Acute Specialty Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naunheim, Matthew R; Kozin, Elliot D; Sethi, Rosh K; Ota, H G; Gray, Stacey T; Shrime, Mark G

    2017-03-01

    Specialty emergency departments (EDs) provide a unique mechanism of health care delivery, but the value that they add to the medical system is not known. Evaluation of patient preferences to determine value can have a direct impact on resource allocation and direct-to-specialist care. To assess the feasibility of contingent valuation (CV) methodology using a willingness-to-pay (WTP) survey to evaluate specialty emergency services, in the context of an ophthalmology- and otolaryngology-specific ED. Contingent valuation analysis of a standalone otolaryngology and ophthalmology ED. Participants were English-speaking adults presenting to a dedicated otolaryngology and ophthalmology ED. The WTP questions were assessed using a payment card format, with reference to an alternative modality of treatment (ie, general ED), and were analyzed with multivariate regression. Validated WTP survey administered from October 14, 2014, through October 1, 2015. Sociodemographic data, level of distress, referral data, income, and WTP. A total of 327 of 423 (77.3%) ED patients responded to the WTP survey, with 116 ophthalmology and 211 otolaryngology patients included (52.3% female; mean [range] age, 46 [18-90] years). The most common reason for seeking care at this facility was a reputation for specialty care for both ear, nose, and throat (80 [37.9%]) and ophthalmology (43 [37.1%]). Mean WTP for specialty-specific ED services was $377 for ophthalmology patients, and $321 for otolaryngology patients ($340 overall; 95% CI, $294 to $386), without significant difference between groups (absolute difference, $56; 95% CI, $-156 to $43). Self-reported level of distress was higher among ear, nose, and throat vs ophthalmology patients (absolute difference, 0.47 on a Likert scale of 1-7; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.84). Neither level of distress, income, nor demographic characteristics influenced WTP, but patients with higher estimates of total visit cost were more likely to have higher WTP (β coefficient

  20. An Investigation of the Utility of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III in the Early Detection of Dementia in Memory Clinic Patients Aged over 75 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubb, Michael T; Evans, Jonathan J

    2015-01-01

    To examine the validity of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III) in detecting early dementia in UK memory clinic patients aged 75-85 years. The ACE-III was administered to 59 patients prior to diagnosis. The extent to which scores predicted the membership of the dementia or no-dementia group was explored using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and other parameters of diagnostic performance. Thirty-three participants (55.9%) were diagnosed with dementia (Alzheimer's disease = 56.3%, Alzheimer's disease with cerebrovascular disease = 31.3%, and vascular dementia = 12.5%). The optimal cut-off for detecting dementia was 81/100 (scores <81 indicating dementia with a sensitivity of 0.79, a specificity of 0.96, and a positive predictive value of 0.96), with superiority over published cut-offs (88/100 and 82/100) at medium and lower prevalence rates. The number of years of full-time education had a significant positive relationship to total ACE-III scores (r = 0.697, p < 0.001) for the no-dementia group. Exploratory analysis indicated that optimal cut-offs were different for higher versus lower education groups. The ACE-III has excellent accuracy for the detection of dementia in day-to-day clinical practice. Lower cut-offs than those specified in the index paper, and the consideration of the patients' years of full-time education may be necessary for optimal diagnostic performance. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. A Life Course Approach to Inequality: Examining Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Relationship between Early Life Socioeconomic Conditions and Adult Health Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Taylor W; Brown, Tyson H

    2015-08-07

    Previous research has documented a relationship between childhood socioeconomic conditions and adult health, but less is known about racial/ethnic differences in this relationship, particularly among men. This study utilizes a life course approach to investigate racial/ethnic differences in the relationships among early and later life socioeconomic circumstances and health in adulthood among men. Panel data from the Health and Retirement Study and growth curve models are used to examine group differences in the relationships among childhood and adult socioeconomic factors and age-trajectories of self-rated health among White, Black and Mexican American men aged 51-77 years (N=4147). Multiple measures of childhood socioeconomic status (SES) predict health in adulthood for White men, while significantly fewer measures of childhood SES predict health for Black and Mexican American men. Moreover, the health consequences of childhood SES diminish with age for Black and Mexican American men. The childhood SES-adult health relationship is largely explained by measures of adult SES for White men. The life course pathways linking childhood SES and adult health differ by race/ethnicity among men. Similar to arguments that the universality of the adult SES-health relationship should not be assumed, results from our study suggest that scholars should not assume that the significance and nature of the association between childhood SES and health in adulthood is similar across race/ethnicity among men.

  2. Social anxiety symptoms and suicidal ideation in a clinical sample of early adolescents: examining loneliness and social support as longitudinal mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Michelle; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Simon, Valerie; Spirito, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Recent research has shown that social anxiety may be related to increased risk for suicidal ideation in teens, although this research largely has been cross-sectional and has not examined potential mediators of this relationship. A clinical sample of 144 early adolescents (72 % female; 12-15 years old) was assessed during psychiatric inpatient hospitalization and followed up at 9 and 18 months post-baseline. Symptoms of social anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, loneliness, and perceived social support were assessed via structured interviews and self-report instruments. Structural equation modeling revealed a significant direct relationship between social anxiety symptoms at baseline and suicidal ideation at 18 months post-baseline, even after controlling for baseline depressive symptoms and ideation. A second multiple mediation model revealed that baseline social anxiety had a significant indirect effect on suicidal ideation at 18 months post-baseline through loneliness at 9 months post-baseline. Social anxiety did not have a significant indirect effect on suicidal ideation through perceived social support from either parents or close friends. Findings suggest that loneliness may be particularly implicated in the relationship between social anxiety and suicidality in teens. Clinicians should assess and address feelings of loneliness when treating socially anxious adolescents.

  3. Shy, but funny? Examining peer-valued characteristics as moderators of the associations between anxious-withdrawal and peer outcomes during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C

    2015-04-01

    Research has revealed significant heterogeneity in the group-level peer outcomes associated with anxious-withdrawal, but little is known about possible sources of this heterogeneity during early adolescence. This study of 271 young adolescents (49 % female; M age = 11.54 years) examined whether the concurrent and short-term longitudinal (3 month period) associations between peer-nominated anxious-withdrawn behaviors and three group-level peer outcomes (overt victimization, peer acceptance, popularity) varied as a function of peer-valued characteristics (humor, prosocial behavior, physical attractiveness, athletic ability) and gender, after accounting for the effects of involvement in mutual friendships. Regression analyses revealed that the associations between anxious-withdrawal and peer outcomes were moderated by peer-valued characteristics and, in many cases, gender. For example, anxious-withdrawal was related positively to overt victimization for all adolescents who were high in prosocial behavior. But, anxious-withdrawal was related negatively to popularity for adolescent boys who were high in prosocial behavior and adolescent girls who were low in prosocial behavior. Anxious-withdrawal also predicted increases in acceptance for adolescent girls who were high in humor, but decreases in acceptance for adolescent boys who were high in humor. Several additional moderator effects were found for boys only. The findings highlight the importance of considering the unique constellation of characteristics displayed by anxious-withdrawn young adolescents in studies on peer experiences at the group-level of social complexity.

  4. Estimating the success rate of ovulation and early litter loss rate in the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) by examining the ovaries and uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Oi, Toru; Sawada, Seigo; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2011-02-01

    In order to develop a method for estimating the success/failure rates of reproductive processes, especially those of ovulation and neonate nurturing, in the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus), we examined offspring status, corpora lutea (CLs), placental scars (PSs) and corpora albicantia (CAs) in 159 females (0-23 years old) killed as nuisances on Honshu Island of Japan during 2001-2009. PSs were found to remain in the uterus at least until November of the year of parturition. CA detectability began to decline after September of the year of parturition. Monthly and age-specific proportions of CL-present females revealed that the post-mating season starts in August, and that the age of first ovulation is 4 years. These results indicate that the success rate of ovulation (SRO: the probability that solitary/non-lactating mature females actually succeed in ovulation) can be estimated by calculating the proportion of CL-present females among > or = 4-year-old females without PSs captured from August to November; the early litter loss rate (ELLR: the probability that parenting females lose all of their cubs [0-year-old offspring] before mating season) can be estimated by calculating the proportion of CL-present females among those with PSs and CAs captured in August or later. The estimated values of SRO and ELLR were 0.93 (62/67) and 0.27 (6/22), respectively.

  5. Differentiation of early from advanced coronary atherosclerotic lesions: systematic comparison of CT, intravascular US, and optical frequency domain imaging with histopathologic examination in ex vivo human hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Schlett, Christopher L; Alkadhi, Hatem; Nakano, Masataka; Stolzmann, Paul; Vorpahl, Marc; Scheffel, Hans; Tanaka, Atsushi; Warger, William C; Maehara, Akiko; Ma, Shixin; Kriegel, Matthias F; Kaple, Ryan K; Seifarth, Harald; Bamberg, Fabian; Mintz, Gary S; Tearney, Guillermo J; Virmani, Renu; Hoffmann, Udo

    2012-11-01

    To establish an ex vivo experimental setup for imaging coronary atherosclerosis with coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography, intravascular ultrasonography (US), and optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) and to investigate their ability to help differentiate early from advanced coronary plaques. All procedures were performed in accordance with local and federal regulations and the Declaration of Helsinki. Approval of the local Ethics Committee was obtained. Overall, 379 histologic cuts from nine coronary arteries from three donor hearts were acquired, coregistered among modalities, and assessed for the presence and composition of atherosclerotic plaque. To assess the discriminatory capacity of the different modalities in the detection of advanced lesions, c statistic analysis was used. Interobserver agreement was assessed with the Cohen κ statistic. Cross sections without plaque at coronary CT angiography and with fibrous plaque at OFDI almost never showed advanced lesions at histopathologic examination (odds ratio [OR]: 0.02 and 0.06, respectively; both Padvanced lesions (OR: 2.49, P=.0003; OR: 2.60, P=.002; and OR: 31.2, Padvanced lesions than intravascular US and coronary CT angiography (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.858 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.802, 0.913], 0.631 [95% CI: 0.554, 0.709], and 0.679 [95% CI: 0.618, 0.740]; respectively, Padvanced coronary plaques. © RSNA, 2012

  6. Early detection of testicular cancer: revisiting the role of self-efficacy in testicular self-examination among young asymptomatic males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Kanayo; Chadwick, Rebecca

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests that self-efficacy is an important factor in behaviors that facilitate the early-detection of various cancers. In general people with high self-efficacy are more likely to attend cancer screening sessions or perform bodily self-exams. However, there is a paucity of research focusing on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination (TSE). The effect of self-efficacy on TSE remains unclear especially given the relative obscurity of the testicular cancer threat, and appropriate clinical- and self-detection procedures, in the young asymptomatic male population. Thus, the present study tested the interaction of self-efficacy with young men's appraisals of the threat of testicular cancer. The study was based on 2 × 2 × 2 mixed factorial experimental design. Over 100 young asymptomatic men were exposed to a health warning about testicular cancer and randomly assigned to high/low self-efficacy, vulnerability, and severity conditions. High self-efficacy increased motivation to perform TSE given high vulnerability, but damaged attitudes to self-exams given low vulnerability and severity estimates. High self-efficacy also facilitated subsequent TSE. Overall, these findings support preexisting notions of self-efficacy but raise new questions about the moderating effects of threat appraisals.

  7. Social Anxiety Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation in a Clinical Sample of Early Adolescents: Examining Loneliness and Social Support as Longitudinal Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Simon, Valerie; Spirito, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that social anxiety may be related to increased risk for suicidal ideation in teens, although this research largely has been cross-sectional and has not examined potential mediators of this relationship. A clinical sample of 144 early adolescents (72 % female; 12–15 years old) was assessed during psychiatric inpatient hospitalization and followed up at 9 and 18 months post-baseline. Symptoms of social anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, loneliness, and perceived social support were assessed via structured interviews and self-report instruments. Structural equation modeling revealed a significant direct relationship between social anxiety symptoms at baseline and suicidal ideation at 18 months post-baseline, even after controlling for baseline depressive symptoms and ideation. A second multiple mediation model revealed that baseline social anxiety had a significant indirect effect on suicidal ideation at 18 months post-baseline through loneliness at 9 months post-baseline. Social anxiety did not have a significant indirect effect on suicidal ideation through perceived social support from either parents or close friends. Findings suggest that loneliness may be particularly implicated in the relationship between social anxiety and suicidality in teens. Clinicians should assess and address feelings of loneliness when treating socially anxious adolescents. PMID:24390470

  8. Discordant Dry Eye Disease (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M; Harper, Daniel E; Pallazola, Vincent; Harte, Steven E; Hussain, Munira; Sugar, Alan; Williams, David A; Clauw, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    To improve understanding of dry eye disease and highlight a subgroup of patients who have a component of central sensitization and neuropathic pain contributing to their condition. Prospective, cross-sectional, IRB-approved study comparing isolated dry eye disease (n=48) to fibromyalgia (positive control; n=23) and healthy (negative control; n=26) individuals with ocular surface examination, corneal confocal microscopy, quantitative sensory testing, and self-reported ocular symptoms and systemic associations. A subset of patients also underwent skin biopsy and/or brain neuroimaging. Dry eye patients were split into concordant (ie, those with dry eyes on examination) and discordant (ie, those with dry eye symptoms but normal examination) subgroups for further analysis. We hypothesized that on the systemic measures included, concordant patients would resemble healthy controls, whereas discordant patients would show evidence of centralized mechanisms similar to fibromyalgia. Schirmer test and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores indicated significant decreases in tear production (Schirmer: healthy, 18.5±8.2 mm; dry, 11.2±5.4 mm; fibromyalgia, 14.4±7.5; P dry eye symptoms (OSDI: healthy, 1.9±3.0; dry, 20.3±17.7; fibromyalgia, 20.3±17.1; P dry eye and fibromyalgia patients, compared to controls. The discordant subgroup had decreased corneal nerve density and decreased visual quality-of-life scores, similar to patients with fibromyalgia. Concordant patients were more similar to healthy controls on these measures. Individuals with discordant dry eye may have a central pathophysiologic mechanism leading to their eye pain symptoms, which could be an important factor to consider in treatment of chronic idiopathic dry eye.

  9. Discordant Dry Eye Disease (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M.; Harper, Daniel E.; Pallazola, Vincent; Harte, Steven E.; Hussain, Munira; Sugar, Alan; Williams, David A.; Clauw, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To improve understanding of dry eye disease and highlight a subgroup of patients who have a component of central sensitization and neuropathic pain contributing to their condition. Methods Prospective, cross-sectional, IRB-approved study comparing isolated dry eye disease (n=48) to fibromyalgia (positive control; n=23) and healthy (negative control; n=26) individuals with ocular surface examination, corneal confocal microscopy, quantitative sensory testing, and self-reported ocular symptoms and systemic associations. A subset of patients also underwent skin biopsy and/or brain neuroimaging. Dry eye patients were split into concordant (ie, those with dry eyes on examination) and discordant (ie, those with dry eye symptoms but normal examination) subgroups for further analysis. We hypothesized that on the systemic measures included, concordant patients would resemble healthy controls, whereas discordant patients would show evidence of centralized mechanisms similar to fibromyalgia. Results Schirmer test and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores indicated significant decreases in tear production (Schirmer: healthy, 18.5±8.2 mm; dry, 11.2±5.4 mm; fibromyalgia, 14.4±7.5; Pdry eye symptoms (OSDI: healthy, 1.9±3.0; dry, 20.3±17.7; fibromyalgia, 20.3±17.1; Pdry eye and fibromyalgia patients, compared to controls. The discordant subgroup had decreased corneal nerve density and decreased visual quality-of-life scores, similar to patients with fibromyalgia. Concordant patients were more similar to healthy controls on these measures. Conclusions Individuals with discordant dry eye may have a central pathophysiologic mechanism leading to their eye pain symptoms, which could be an important factor to consider in treatment of chronic idiopathic dry eye. PMID:28050051

  10. The metallographic examination of sword no. 438 as part of a systematic survey of swords from the early medieval stronghold of Mikulčice, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hošek, Jiří

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a metallographic examination of a sword from grave No. 438, which was uncovered at the site of Mikulčice (Hodonín county, a former early medieval stronghold in Moravia (Czech Republic. Mikulčice was one of the main power centres of the Great Moravia – the first state formed by Slavs north of the Danube River – which was created in the first third of the 9th century and ended at the beginning of the 10th century. The sword, provided with a single flattened hemispherical pommel (Petersen X type, has a blade bearing an inscription that is no longer legible. According to the results of metallographic examination, the blade was hardened and consists of steel cutting edges welded on a core, which was composed of steel side-plates and a middle strip of iron or low-carbon steel. It was an excellent sword, undoubtedly one of the best swords excavated in Mikulčice.

    El artículo trata de un examen metalográfico de una espada de la tumba número 438, que fue descubierta en el yacimiento de Mikulčice (Hodonín Condado, antiguo bastión bajomedieval en Moravia (República Checa. Mikulčice fue uno de los centros de poder principales del Gran Moravia - la primera agrupación estatal de los eslavos del norte del río Danubio - que se creó en el primer tercio del siglo IX y fue abolido al comienzo del siglo X. La espada, que cuenta con un pomo aplanado hemiesféri-co (Petersen tipo X, tiene una hoja con una inscripción que ya no es legible. De acuerdo con los resulta-dos del examen metalográfico, la hoja fue endurecida y se compone de filos de corte de acero, soldados a un núcleo. Éste está compuesto de placas laterales de acero y una franja central de hierro o de acero dulce. Era una espada excelente, sin duda, una de las mejores espadas jamás excavadas en Mikulčice.

  11. [Understanding the advantages and disadvantages of femtosecond laser comprehensive applications in ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li-xin; Gao, Hua

    2013-04-01

    The femtosecond (FS) laser is a novel laser technology, and is approved clinical application by FDA in 2000. FS laser initially mainly used in corneal refractive surgery to replace the mechanical microkeratome. Since the accuracy and controllability of the FS laser is very high, it shows superiority in the field of corneal refractive surgery. And with the development of the relative hard and software, FS laser is began to used in other fields of ophthalmology, such as corneal transplants, cataract surgery, as well as assisted diagnosis et al., although still have some limitations, the preliminary clinical results have been shown a very good prospects in the ophthalmology fields. Therefore, we reviewed the alternative applications, challenges and limitations, research direction in the future of FS laser, so that provide a reference and revelations for the peers.

  12. Basic and clinical application progression of invigorating blood and dissolving stasis Chinese medicine in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Invigorating blood and dissolving stasis method is a kind of unique therapy of Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCMtreatment, which efficacy has become increasingly prominent in the treatment of ophthalmology. With the further studies of blood stasis and invigorating blood and dissolving stasis therapy, it is widely used in clinical ophthalmology, and get good effects beyond thought, especially when western medicine has no curative effects. It improved the cure rate of fundus oculi disease from the eyelids, conjunctiva, lacrimal sac, vitreous body to the choroid and retina, optic nerve and macula lutea, from surface to fundus, or pathological changes related to inflammation, degeneration, necrosis, atrophy, hyperplasia of fibrous tissue hyperplasia. This paper is aim to explain the definition of invigorating blood and dissolving stasis and make a review of basic research and clinical application about it in several diseases.

  13. Usefulness of post-mortem ophthalmological endoscopy during forensic autopsy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujinaka, Masatake; Akaza, Kayoko; Nagai, Atsushi; Nakamura, Isao; Bunai, Yasuo

    2005-01-01

    Post-mortem intraocular findings in two autopsy cases with traumatic intracranial haemorrhage were obtained using an ophthalmological endoscope. The endoscopy results clearly revealed the presence of intraocular haemorrhages and papilledema caused by intracranial haemorrhage. Post-mortem ophthalmological endoscopy offers several benefits. First, post-mortem intraocular findings can be directly observed in corpses with post-mortem clouding of the cornea. Secondly, the endoscopy only requires a 0.9 mm incision in the sclera and does not require the removal of the eye from the corpse, a procedure that should be avoided for ethical and cosmetic reasons. Thus, post-mortem opthalmological endoscopy is a useful method for obtaining intraocular findings in autopsies.

  14. Achados oftalmológicos em 28 crianças portadoras da seqüência de Möebius Möebius sequence: clinical ophthalmological findings in 28 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Patrícia Ferreira Santos

    2004-08-01

    orthotropia. Fundoscopic examination was normal in 26 patients (92.8%. CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that Möebius sequence patients presented important ophthalmological disorders, like visual acuity deficiency, incomitant strabismus, exposure keratitis and refractive errors. It is suggested that these patients should be evaluated early by an ophthalmologist for the diagnosis and treatment of these problems.

  15. An Examination of the Relationship between Supervision and Self-Efficacy in Early Career School Psychologists, School Psychology Interns, and Practicum Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaas, Felicia M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between self-efficacy and supervision in early career school psychologists and school psychology graduate students who are currently completing either their practicum or internship experiences. The sample consisted of practicing early career school psychologists (ECPs) and school psychology…

  16. Representation of ophthalmology concepts by electronic systems: adequacy of controlled medical terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Michael F; Casper, Daniel S; Cimino, James J; Starren, Justin

    2005-02-01

    To assess the adequacy of 5 controlled medical terminologies (International Classification of Diseases 9, Clinical Modification [ICD9-CM]; Current Procedural Terminology 4 [CPT-4]; Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine, Clinical Terms [SNOMED-CT]; Logical Identifiers, Names, and Codes [LOINC]; Medical Entities Dictionary [MED]) for representing concepts in ophthalmology. Noncomparative case series. Twenty complete ophthalmology case presentations were sequentially selected from a publicly available ophthalmology journal. Each of the 20 cases was parsed into discrete concepts, and each concept was classified along 2 axes: (1) diagnosis, finding, or procedure and (2) ophthalmic or medical concept. Electronic or paper browsers were used to assign a code for every concept in each of the 5 terminologies. Adequacy of assignment for each concept was scored on a 3-point scale. Findings from all 20 case presentations were combined and compared based on a coverage score, which was the average score for all concepts in that terminology. Adequacy of assignment for concepts in each terminology, based on a 3-point Likert scale (0, no match; 1, partial match; 2, complete match). Cases were parsed into 1603 concepts. SNOMED-CT had the highest mean overall coverage score (1.625+/-0.667), followed by MED (0.974+/-0.764), LOINC (0.781+/-0.929), ICD9-CM (0.280+/-0.619), and CPT-4 (0.082+/-0.337). SNOMED-CT also had higher coverage scores than any of the other terminologies for concepts in the diagnosis, finding, and procedure categories. Average coverage scores for ophthalmic concepts were lower than those for medical concepts. Controlled terminologies are required for electronic representation of ophthalmology data. SNOMED-CT had significantly higher content coverage than any other terminology in this study.

  17. Neuro-Ophthalmology at a Tertiary Eye Care Centre in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Rebika; Singh, Digvijay; Gantayala, Shiva P; Ganesan, Vaitheeswaran L; Sharma, Pradeep; Saxena, Rohit

    2017-11-09

    Neuro-ophthalmology as a specialty is underdeveloped in India. The aim of our study was to determine the spectrum and profile of patients presenting to a tertiary eye care center with neuro-ophthalmic disorders. A retrospective hospital-based study was conducted, and records of all patients seen at the neuro-ophthalmology clinic of Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, over a 1-year period were retrieved and evaluated. Of a total of 30,111 patients referred to various specialty clinics in a span of 1 year, 1597 (5%) were referred for neuro-ophthalmology evaluation. The mean patient age was 30.8 ± 19.5 years, with a male dominance (M:F = 2.02:1). Among these patients, optic nerve disorders were noted in 63.8% (n = 1,020), cranial nerve palsy in 7% (n = 114), cortical visual impairment in 6.5% (n = 105), and others (eye/optic nerve hypophasia, blepharospasm, and optic disc drusen) in 6% (n = 95). Among the patients with optic nerve disorders, optic neuropathy without disc edema/(traumatic optic neuropathy, hereditary, tumor-related, retrobulbar neuritis, toxic, and idiopathic) was noted in 42.8% (n = 685) and optic neuropathy with disc edema (ischemic optic neuropathy, papilledema, post-papilledema optic atrophy, papillitis, neuroretinitis, and inflammatory optic neuropathy) in 20.9% (n = 335). Sixteen percent of patients (n = 263) were incorrect referrals. The neuro-ophthalmic clinic constitutes a significant referral unit in a tertiary eye care center in India. Traumatic and ischemic optic neuropathies are the most common diagnoses. Neuro-ophthalmology requires further development as a subspecialty in India to better serve the nation's population.

  18. Ophthalmology patients' interest in online access to clinic notes at three US clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bryan S; Oster, Natalia V; Chen, Galen Y; Ding, Leona L; Walker, Janice D; Elmore, Joann G

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to understand patients' perceptions about potential benefits and harms of accessing their own ophthalmology clinic notes via an electronic patient portal as part of the OpenNotes initiative. The authors conducted a cross-sectional, in-person survey of ophthalmology patients at three US eye clinics. The paper survey was self-administered or administered with assistance from study staff before or after patients' clinical visits. The authors used descriptive statistics to summarise patient characteristics and patient attitudes about accessing their ophthalmology notes online. Chi-square and t-tests were performed to assess differences in patient responses between clinic locations. Four hundred and fifty-one patients responded (response rate 65%). Most patients thought that accessing doctors' notes online was a good idea (95%), wanted to view their clinic notes online (94%), and agreed online access would increase their understanding of their eye problems (95%) and help them better remember their care plan (94%); 14% said online access would increase their worry; 43% had privacy concerns; and 96% indicated they would show or discuss their notes with at least one other person. Non-white patients were more likely than white patients to perceive online clinic notes as a useful tool, but they were also more likely to worry and to express greater privacy concerns. Patients at three US eye clinics were strongly in favour of online access to ophthalmology notes and were optimistic this access would improve their understanding and self-care. Ophthalmologists should consider offering online access to their notes to enhance doctor-patient communication and improve clinical outcomes. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  19. A forecast of ophthalmology practice trends in saudi arabia: a survey of junior residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwadani, Fahad; Alrushood, Aziz; Altokhy, Hisham; Alasbali, Tariq

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the trends in practice pattern among current ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia. Ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia responded anonymously to a written survey between November 2007 and February 2008. The survey contained questions on demographic information, medical education, residency training, career goals and factors influencing their career choice. The data were categorized by gender. The influence of gender on outcome was assessed in a univariate fashion using the Chi-square or Fisher exact test when appropriate. A P-value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant for all analyses. A total of 68 out of 85 residents (80%) responded to the survey. Over one-half of the residents preferred to pursue a fellowship within Saudi Arabia (53%), while others (25%) planned to train in North America. The majority of respondents wished to practice in an urban setting (63%). Anterior segment was the most desired subspecialty, while general ophthalmology and glaucoma were not a popular choice. Most residents were interested in refractive surgery (77%) and research (75%). The main factor influencing the decision to pursue ophthalmology was the ability to combine medicine and surgery (97%), while a positive elective experience was also an important factor, particularly for female respondents (91% vs. 57%; P < 0.001). Concerted efforts are required to encourage adoption to ophthalmic practice in public institutions rather than in private practice. In addition training in underrepresented subspecilaties should be encouraged to ensure adequate ophthalmic care for all citizens of Saudi Arabia.

  20. Ophthalmologic abnormalities in Mowat-Wilson syndrome and a mutation in ZEB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariss, Michelle; Natan, Kristina; Friedman, Neil; Traboulsi, Elias I

    2012-09-01

    Mowat-Wilson syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by a distinct facial appearance, moderate-to-severe mental retardation, microcephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, Hirschsprung disease, congenital heart disease, and genital anomalies. Ophthalmological abnormalities have been rarely described in patients with this condition which is caused by mutations in the ZEB2 gene. We report a 9-year-old female with this syndrome who has severe ocular abnormalities including bilateral microphthalmia, cataract, and retinal aplasia.

  1. Teaching Neuro-Ophthalmology in the Asia-Pacific Region and China: A Personal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, John

    2015-12-01

    Over the last 30 years, I have been involved in a number of projects helping to educate and train local ophthalmologists in many parts of Asia and the Pacific Islands, which lack adequate training and service in neuro-ophthalmology. In this article, I offer an overview of a number of different teaching initiatives and offer practical suggestions to anyone who might wish to become involved.

  2. [Deep learning and neuronal networks in ophthalmology : Applications in the field of optical coherence tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, M; Eter, N

    2018-04-19

    Deep learning is increasingly becoming the focus of various imaging methods in medicine. Due to the large number of different imaging modalities, ophthalmology is particularly suitable for this field of application. This article gives a general overview on the topic of deep learning and its current applications in the field of optical coherence tomography. For the benefit of the reader it focuses on the clinical rather than the technical aspects.

  3. Exploration and deliberation of on-job postgraduates training in clinical ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jia Dai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the diversified development in training clinical students, an impeccable system in clinical on-job postgraduates training has been established. It has been being an important problem for colleges and tutors to improve the quality in the postgraduates training program in the specialty of ophthalmology. This paper analyzed the problems in the training of clinical postgraduates and explored the ways to resolve the problems.

  4. Ophthalmology's future in the next decade: a historical and comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, S H

    1999-01-01

    To gain a historical and comparative perspective about the future of ophthalmology within the profession of medicine. A literature search is made of disciplines other than medicine (history, sociology, philosophy, economics, and ethics) in order to assess factors responsible for survival and healthiness of a profession. The "learned" professions (medicine, law, and theology) are assessed. Other "professional" careers valued by society (sports and classical music) are reviewed. From the perspective of other disciplines, the future of ophthalmology is seen as vulnerable and fragile. Survival of professions, be they classically or economically defined, is linked to societal needs, a profession's unique commitment and ability to provide services to society, and the profession's maintenance of knowledge as well as skill-based services. Historical evidence has shown erosion of a profession's power consequent to capitalist influences, government influences, access of skills by less trained individuals, and elitist posturing by a profession. Comparative evidence has shown societal acceptance of an escalation of salaries for designated superstars, increasing roles and influence of managerial personnel, and trivialization of values other than economic ones. Attention to historical and comparative trends by individual ophthalmologists as well as associations representing ophthalmologists is mandatory if ophthalmology as we know it is to survive within the profession of medicine.

  5. International Council of Ophthalmology: Refocusing Ophthalmic Education in the Asia-Pacific Region and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnik, Karl; Mayorga, Eduardo; Spivey, Bruce; Ritch, Robert; Gauthier, Tina-Marie

    2012-01-01

    The International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) is a global organization with a regional focus. Working in partnership with supranational and ICO member societies, the ICO is building a "World Alliance for Sight" to improve access to the highest-quality eye care worldwide. Designed to preserve and restore vision on an international scale, the ICO initiative, "Refocusing Ophthalmic Education," enhances ophthalmic education of residents, subspecialists, medical students, and allied eye care personnel by redefining the most effective ways to teach and in creating beneficial educational opportunities. The "Teaching the Teachers" program helps ophthalmic educators incorporate more effective methods of training and continuing professional development to meet societal needs, achieved in part through regional courses for residency program directors; symposia, and keynote talks presented by ICO's World Ophthalmology Educational Colloquium, Conferences for Ophthalmic Educators, and ophthalmic surgical competency rubrics. Recognizing that standardized curricula are essential for consistent ophthalmic education, the ICO has developed a curricular framework whereby goals, expectations, knowledge base, competencies, and technical training are delineated. The ICO is defining worldwide models of team training and compiling best practice, which will include training-program accreditation to ensure improvement in the education of ophthalmologists. International Council of Ophthalmology Web-based teaching courses, a Webinar Network, and a technology blog further support information and communication technologies for teaching and learning. At the ICO's Center for Ophthalmic Educators (educators.icoph.org), trainers will find valuable teaching resources in multiple languages as well as ways to share ideas and collaborate with peers and other ophthalmic educators.

  6. [CME-certified online education in Germany - status in ophthalmology 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handzel, D M

    2012-06-01

    The use of the internet is becoming more and more important in every aspect of daily life, also in professional education. Online education and face-to-face learning have proven to be equally efficient. The aim of this study is to evaluate the amount of online education in the German-speaking internet 2011. The terms "ophthalmology", "online-education", "continuing medical education" and "CME" (partly in German language) were searched by an internet-search engine. The first 100 pages were visited. Pages were evaluated in respect of quality and quantity, authorship and possible influence of sponsors. Only 9 of the first 100 hits had an actual offer for ophthalmology. Nearly all of these were websites of ophthalmological scientific journals. The content represented the same educational format (pictures and text) as in the print issue. CME-certified online education can be found in Germany as offspring of print issues only. The content is identical with educational texts in the print issues. An enlargement of the offer, which uses the possibilities of modern internet technology is highly probable. This estimation is supported by the growing use of the internet and developments on English-speaking websites for online-education. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Therapeutic application of lasers in ophthalmology; Terapeutyczne zastosowanie laserow w okulistyce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misiuk-Hojlo, M; Krzyzanowska-Berkowska, P; Hill-Bator, A [Department of Ophthalmology, Silesian Piasts University of Medicine in Wroclaw (Poland)

    2007-07-01

    Lasers have found application in diverse branches of medicine. In ophthalmology, laser technology has various therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The purpose of this article is to review the major therapeutic applications of lasers in different eye disorders. The effects of lasers on biological tissues and different laser techniques as well as the indications for laser therapy in various parts of the eye are discussed. Lasers are used to treat glaucoma and many vascular disorders of the retina. Laser treatment may be useful in preventing the development of neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy, BRVO, or CRVO. Laser techniques are also available for the treatment of the exudative form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and some malignant and benign intraocular tumors and in retina abnormalities which predispose to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Corneal laser surgery is the most frequently applied laser procedure in ophthalmology. PRK, LASIK, and LASEK are used to correct errors in vision such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. Laser photocoagulation is also helpful in cataract surgery. Nowadays, lasers have become so universal that it is difficult to imagine ophthalmology without them. We are still witnessing rapid advances in the development of laser techniques, especially in plastic surgery, cataract extraction, and ocular imaging. (authors)

  8. P3-1: Ophthalmologic Factors Influencing Asthenopia with Watching 3D Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwook Wee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify ophthalmologic factors influencing asthenopia while watching 3D displays. Methods: 30 adult subjects without ophthalmologic abnormality watched the same 3D displays for 30 minutes. Each subject's far and near visual acuity, near points of accommodation and convergence, amplitude of fusional convergence and divergence, stereopsis, angle of phoric deviation, tear break-up time, and temperature of ocular surface before and after watching 3D displays were measured. And surveys for subjective symptoms right after watching 3D displays were conducted. The above-mentioned experiments were performed equally with 2D displays for detection of innate influence of 3D displays. Results: The near points of accommodation and convergence were significantly changed after watching 3D displays (p < .05 compared to 2D displays. And all 10 subjective symptoms were significantly increased after watching 3D displays (p < .05. Conclusion: The accommodation and binocular vergence are predominant ophthalmologic factors that might influence asthenopia significantly while watching 3D displays. Subjective visual discomfort significantly increases with watching 3D displays, and more specific evaluation should be added for detecting the practically related factors with asthenopia.

  9. Ophthalmological screening of a paediatric cochlear implant population: a retrospective analysis and 12-year follow-up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Falzon, K

    2010-06-01

    To determine the nature and prevalence of ophthalmological findings for a cohort of children in a paediatric cochlear implant program and to assist the clinician in devising an investigative plan for this population.

  10. Systemic and Ophthalmologic Findings in Patients with Iris Coloboma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Ertekin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: Ocular coloboma is a rare malformation resulting from defective closure of the embryonic optic fissure. It can affect iris, retina, choroid, optic disc or ciliary body. This study reviews the clinical diagnosis and the accompanying ocular and systemic abnormalities in cases of iris coloboma. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Sixteen eyes of ten patients referred to our clinic and diagnosed as iris coloboma were included in the study and were reviewed retrospectively. Re sults: Seven cases were sporadic, and three cases were familial. Isolated iris coloboma was present in only one case, and chorioretinal involvement was present in all the others. Seven cases had involvement of the optic disc. Other ocular anomalies were unilateral microphthalmia in 3 cases, unilateral anophthalmia in 1 case, and unilateral microcornea in one case. Strabismus was present in the familial cases. Dis cus si on: In patients, diagnosed with iris coloboma, routine eye examination should be completed, refractive errors should be corrected, and these patients must be follewed for amblyopia. If strabismus is concominant, surgery can be performed. For potential complications, patients should be checked at regular intervals. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 19-22

  11. Value of gallium 67 citrate scintigraphy in ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanez-Alloschery, Monique.

    1978-01-01

    For ophthalmologists scintigraphy appears as a simple method to detect endoocular or endoorbital abnormalities. However none of the many scintigraphic methods described seems reliable enough to be used alone. One of the latest isotopic explorations using gallium 67 citrate, a tracer considered tumour-tropic might be able to solve this problem. The aim of this work is to judge the value of the method in the diagnosis of malignant endoocular and endoorbital tumours on the basis of 24 anatomoclinical observations. It may be concluded from this study that ocular gallium 67 citrate scintigraphy, which gave no clearly positive results at all but some doubtful results in the case of endoocular tumours more than 5 mm in diameter, is to be rejected; fluorescein angiography and ocular echograhy provide more elements for an accurate etiological diagnosis. Orbital scintigraphy on the other hand seems to be a necessary complement to a tomodensitometric examination since both methods offer diagnostic information without systematic recurse to carotid arteriography or orbital phlebography, sometimes dangerous for the patient [fr

  12. Spillover effects of Medicare fee reductions: evidence from ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jean M; Hadley, Jack; Gaskin, Darrell J

    2002-09-01

    Relatively little research has examined physicians' supply responses to Medicare fee cuts especially whether fee reductions for specific procedures have "spillover" effects that cause physicians to increase the supply of other services they provide. In this study we investigate whether ophthalmologist changed their provision of non-cataract services to Medicare patients over the time period 1992-1994, when the Medicare Fee Schedule (MFS) resulted in a 17.4% reduction in the average fee paid for a cataract extraction. Following the McGuire-Pauly model of physician behavior (McGuire and Pauly, 1991), we estimated a supply function for non-cataract procedures that included three price variables (own-price, a Medicare cross-price and a private cross-price) and an income effect. The Medicare cross-price and income variables capture spillover effects. Consistent with the model's predictions, we found that the Medicare cross-price is significant and negative, implying that a 10% reduction in the fee for a cataract extraction will cause ophthalmologists to supply about 5% more non-cataract services. Second, the income variable is highly significant, but its impact on the supply of non-cataract services is trivial. The suggests that physicians behave more like profit maximizing firms than target income seekers. We also found that the own-price and the private cross-price variables are highly significant and have the expected positive and negative effects on the volume of non-cataract services respectively. Our results demonstrate the importance of evaluating volume responses to fee changes for the array of services the physician performs, not just the procedure whose fee has been reduced. Focusing only on the procedure whose fee has been cut will yield an incomplete picture of how fee reductions for specific procedures affect physician supply decisions.

  13. Oral glucose for pain relief during examination for retinopathy of prematurity: a masked randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marlene Coelho da; Eckert, Gabriela Unchalo; Fortes, Barbara Gastal Borges; Fortes Filho, João Borges; Silveira, Rita C; Procianoy, Renato S

    2013-01-01

    Ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity is a painful procedure. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have been proposed to reduce pain during eye examinations. This study aims to evaluate the analgesic effect of 25% glucose using a validated pain scale during the first eye examination for retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants with birth weight relief.

  14. Facing the challenges in ophthalmology clerkship teaching: Is flipped classroom the answer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Lin

    Full Text Available Recent reform of medical education highlights the growing concerns about the capability of the current educational model to equip medical school students with essential skills for future career development. In the field of ophthalmology, although many attempts have been made to address the problem of the decreasing teaching time and the increasing load of course content, a growing body of literature indicates the need to reform the current ophthalmology teaching strategies. Flipped classroom is a new pedagogical model in which students develop a basic understanding of the course materials before class, and use in-class time for learner-centered activities, such as group discussion and presentation. However, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of the flipped classroom in ophthalmology education. This study, for the first time, assesses the use of flipped classroom in ophthalmology, specifically glaucoma and ocular trauma clerkship teaching. A total number of 44 international medical school students from diverse background were enrolled in this study, and randomly divided into two groups. One group took the flipped glaucoma classroom and lecture-based ocular trauma classroom, while the other group took the flipped ocular trauma classroom and lecture-based glaucoma classroom. In the traditional lecture-based classroom, students attended the didactic lecture and did the homework after class. In the flipped classroom, students were asked to watch the prerecorded lectures before the class, and use the class time for homework discussion. Both the teachers and students were asked to complete feedback questionnaires after the classroom. We found that the two groups did not show differences in the final exam scores. However, the flipped classroom helped students to develop skills in problem solving, creative thinking and team working. Also, compared to the lecture-based classroom, both teachers and students were more satisfied with the flipped

  15. Facing the challenges in ophthalmology clerkship teaching: Is flipped classroom the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Zhu, Yi; Chen, Chuan; Wang, Wei; Chen, Tingting; Li, Tao; Li, Yonghao; Liu, Bingqian; Lian, Yu; Lu, Lin; Zou, Yuxian; Liu, Yizhi

    2017-01-01

    Recent reform of medical education highlights the growing concerns about the capability of the current educational model to equip medical school students with essential skills for future career development. In the field of ophthalmology, although many attempts have been made to address the problem of the decreasing teaching time and the increasing load of course content, a growing body of literature indicates the need to reform the current ophthalmology teaching strategies. Flipped classroom is a new pedagogical model in which students develop a basic understanding of the course materials before class, and use in-class time for learner-centered activities, such as group discussion and presentation. However, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of the flipped classroom in ophthalmology education. This study, for the first time, assesses the use of flipped classroom in ophthalmology, specifically glaucoma and ocular trauma clerkship teaching. A total number of 44 international medical school students from diverse background were enrolled in this study, and randomly divided into two groups. One group took the flipped glaucoma classroom and lecture-based ocular trauma classroom, while the other group took the flipped ocular trauma classroom and lecture-based glaucoma classroom. In the traditional lecture-based classroom, students attended the didactic lecture and did the homework after class. In the flipped classroom, students were asked to watch the prerecorded lectures before the class, and use the class time for homework discussion. Both the teachers and students were asked to complete feedback questionnaires after the classroom. We found that the two groups did not show differences in the final exam scores. However, the flipped classroom helped students to develop skills in problem solving, creative thinking and team working. Also, compared to the lecture-based classroom, both teachers and students were more satisfied with the flipped classroom

  16. [Clinical electro-ophthalmology at the Max Planck Institute of the Frankfurt University Ophthalmology Clinic 1970-1991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R; Baier, M; Eckl, G; Raile, A

    1996-07-01

    The survey shows the frequency and distribution of diseases evaluated by electroophthalmological methods. Patients with retinal diseases (51.2%) and those with diseases of the optic nerve (21.8%) were examined most frequently. In a high percentage these investigations lead to a clinically useful assessment: described as confirmation or exclusion of a clinical diagnosis, as establishing a possible differential diagnosis or clearing up formerly unknown aspects of a disease. In cases of hereditary retinal disorders only 11% remained unclear, with presumed optic neuritis only 6%. The importance of electroophthalmological investigations is there ability to assess functional deficits in the visual system especially in somehow more rare retinal and centrally located disorders, functional deficits of unknown origins or in general diseases including the visual system.

  17. Impact of an electronic health record operating room management system in ophthalmology on documentation time, surgical volume, and staffing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David S; Read-Brown, Sarah; Tu, Daniel C; Lambert, William E; Choi, Dongseok; Almario, Bella M; Yackel, Thomas R; Brown, Anna S; Chiang, Michael F

    2014-05-01

    Although electronic health record (EHR) systems have potential benefits, such as improved safety and quality of care, most ophthalmology practices in the United States have not adopted these systems. Concerns persist regarding potential negative impacts on clinical workflow. In particular, the impact of EHR operating room (OR) management systems on clinical efficiency in the ophthalmic surgery setting is unknown. To determine the impact of an EHR OR management system on intraoperative nursing documentation time, surgical volume, and staffing requirements. For documentation time and circulating nurses per procedure, a prospective cohort design was used between January 10, 2012, and January 10, 2013. For surgical volume and overall staffing requirements, a case series design was used between January 29, 2011, and January 28, 2013. This study involved ophthalmic OR nurses (n = 13) and surgeons (n = 25) at an academic medical center. Electronic health record OR management system implementation. (1) Documentation time (percentage of operating time documenting [POTD], absolute documentation time in minutes), (2) surgical volume (procedures/time), and (3) staffing requirements (full-time equivalents, circulating nurses/procedure). Outcomes were measured during a baseline period when paper documentation was used and during the early (first 3 months) and late (4-12 months) periods after EHR implementation. There was a worsening in total POTD in the early EHR period (83%) vs paper baseline (41%) (P system implementation was associated with worsening of intraoperative nursing documentation time especially in shorter procedures. However, it is possible to implement an EHR OR management system without serious negative impacts on surgical volume and staffing requirements.

  18. Skin self-examination education for early detection of melanoma: a randomized controlled trial of Internet, workbook, and in-person interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June K; Gaber, Rikki; Hultgren, Brittney; Eilers, Steven; Blatt, Hanz; Stapleton, Jerod; Mallett, Kimberly; Turrisi, Rob; Duffecy, Jenna; Begale, Mark; Martini, Mary; Bilimoria, Karl; Wayne, Jeffrey

    2014-01-13

    Early detection of melanoma improves survival. Since many melanoma patients and their spouses seek the care of a physician after discovering their melanoma, an ongoing study will determine the efficacy of teaching at-risk melanoma patients and their skin check partner how to conduct skin self-examinations (SSEs). Internet-based health behavior interventions have proven efficacious in creating behavior change in patients to better prevent, detect, or cope with their health issues. The efficacy of electronic interactive SSE educational intervention provided on a tablet device has not previously been determined. The electronic interactive educational intervention was created to develop a scalable, effective intervention to enhance performance and accuracy of SSE among those at-risk to develop melanoma. The intervention in the office was conducted using one of the following three methods: (1) in-person through a facilitator, (2) with a paper workbook, or (3) with a tablet device used in the clinical office. Differences related to method of delivery were elucidated by having the melanoma patient and their skin check partner provide a self-report of their confidence in performing SSE and take a knowledge-based test immediately after receiving the intervention. The three interventions used 9 of the 26 behavioral change techniques defined by Abraham and Michie to promote planning of monthly SSE, encourage performing SSE, and reinforce self-efficacy by praising correct responses to knowledge-based decision making and offering helpful suggestions to improve performance. In creating the electronic interactive SSE educational intervention, the educational content was taken directly from both the scripted in-person presentation delivered with Microsoft PowerPoint by a trained facilitator and the paper workbook training arms of the study. Enrollment totaled 500 pairs (melanoma patient and their SSE partner) with randomization of 165 pairs to the in-person, 165 pairs to the

  19. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashper Stuart

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system. A disproportionate burden of disease is also experienced by disadvantaged populations. Methods/Design This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months, tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine. 2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver. 3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva, environmental (fluoride exposure and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions. 4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and

  20. The Long-Term Financial and Clinical Impact of an Electronic Health Record on an Academic Ophthalmology Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele C. Lim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine financial and clinical work productivity outcomes associated with the use of the electronic health record (EHR. Methods. 191,360 billable clinical encounters were analyzed for 12 clinical providers over a 9-year study period during which an EHR was implemented. Main outcome measures were clinical revenues collected per provider and secondary outcomes were charge capture, patient visit coding levels, transcription costs, patient visit volume per provider, digital drawing, and digital imaging volume. Results. The difference in inflation adjusted net clinical revenue per provider per year did not change significantly in the period after EHR implementation (mean = $404,198; SD = $17,912 than before (mean = $411,420; SD = $39,366 (P=0.746. Charge capture, the proportion of higher- and lower-level visit codes for new and established patients, and patient visits per provider remained stable. A total savings of $188,951 in transcription costs occurred over a 4-year time period post-EHR implementation. The rate of drawing the ophthalmic exam in the EHR was low (mean = 2.28%; SD = 0.05% for all providers. Conclusions. This study did not show a clear financial gain after EHR implementation in an academic ophthalmology practice. Ophthalmologists do not rely on drawings to document the ophthalmic exam; instead, the ophthalmic exam becomes text-driven in a paperless world.

  1. Creation of an Accurate Algorithm to Detect Snellen Best Documented Visual Acuity from Ophthalmology Electronic Health Record Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbagwu, Michael; French, Dustin D; Gill, Manjot; Mitchell, Christopher; Jackson, Kathryn; Kho, Abel; Bryar, Paul J

    2016-05-04

    Visual acuity is the primary measure used in ophthalmology to determine how well a patient can see. Visual acuity for a single eye may be recorded in multiple ways for a single patient visit (eg, Snellen vs. Jäger units vs. font print size), and be recorded for either distance or near vision. Capturing the best documented visual acuity (BDVA) of each eye in an individual patient visit is an important step for making electronic ophthalmology clinical notes useful in research. Currently, there is limited methodology for capturing BDVA in an efficient and accurate manner from electronic health record (EHR) notes. We developed an algorithm to detect BDVA for right and left eyes from defined fields within electronic ophthalmology clinical notes. We designed an algorithm to detect the BDVA from defined fields within 295,218 ophthalmology clinical notes with visual acuity data present. About 5668 unique responses were identified and an algorithm was developed to map all of the unique responses to a structured list of Snellen visual acuities. Visual acuity was captured from a total of 295,218 ophthalmology clinical notes during the study dates. The algorithm identified all visual acuities in the defined visual acuity section for each eye and returned a single BDVA for each eye. A clinician chart review of 100 random patient notes showed a 99% accuracy detecting BDVA from these records and 1% observed error. Our algorithm successfully captures best documented Snellen distance visual acuity from ophthalmology clinical notes and transforms a variety of inputs into a structured Snellen equivalent list. Our work, to the best of our knowledge, represents the first attempt at capturing visual acuity accurately from large numbers of electronic ophthalmology notes. Use of this algorithm can benefit research groups interested in assessing visual acuity for patient centered outcome. All codes used for this study are currently available, and will be made available online at https://phekb.org.

  2. Different early effect of irradiation in brain and small cell lung cancer examined by in vivo 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristjansen, P E; Pedersen, A G; Quistorff, B

    1992-01-01

    Early effects of irradiation were evaluated by non-invasive in vivo 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) of two small cell lung cancer (SCLC) tumor lines CPH SCCL 54A and 54B, in nude mice. The tumors were originally derived from the same patient and have similar morphology and growth...

  3. Examination of the early infection stages of koi herpesvirus (KHV) in experimentally infected carp, Cyprinus carpio L. using in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, S J; Thompson, K D; Adams, A; Kempter, J; Bergmann, S M

    2015-05-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) causes a highly infectious disease afflicting common carp and koi, Cyprinus carpio L. Various molecular and antibody-based detection methods have been used to elucidate the rapid attachment and dissemination of the virus throughout carp tissues, facilitating ongoing development of effective diagnostic approaches. In situ hybridization (ISH) was used here to determine the target tissues of KHV during very early infection, after infecting carp with a highly virulent KHV isolate. Analysis of paraffin-embedded tissues (i.e. gills, skin, spleen, kidney, gut, liver and brain) during the first 8 h and following 10 days post-infection (hpi; dpi) revealed positive signals in skin mucus, gills and gut sections after only 1 hpi. Respiratory epithelial cells were positive as early as 2 hpi. Viral DNA was also detected within blood vessels of various tissues early in the infection. Notable increases in signal abundance were observed in the gills and kidney between 5 and 10 dpi, and viral DNA was detected in all tissues except brain. This study suggests that the gills and gut play an important role in the early pathogenesis of this Alloherpesvirus, in addition to skin, and demonstrates ISH as a useful diagnostic tool for confirmation of acutely infected carp. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. An Early Historical Examination of the Educational Intent of Supervised Agricultural Experiences (SAEs) and Project-Based Learning in Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kasee L.; Rayfield, John

    2016-01-01

    Project-based learning has been a component of agricultural education since its inception. In light of the current call for additional emphasis of the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) component of agricultural education, there is a need to revisit the roots of project-based learning. This early historical research study was conducted to…

  5. The metallographic examination of sword no. 438 as part of a systematic survey of swords from the early medieval stronghold of Mikulčice, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Jiří; Košta, J.; Bárta, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, prosinec (2012), s. 87-102 ISSN 0436-029X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/2289 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Mikulčice * Great Moravia * early medieval sword * archaeometallurgy Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  6. GENERAL OPHTHALMOLOGY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of trauma, extent of eye injury, and visual acuity (VA) at admission and the time of discharge. .... history of poor vision affecting both distant and near, difficulty reading .... the field while avoiding superlatives or self-aggrandizing phrases. Your.

  7. COMMUNITY OPHTHALMOLOGY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... The Role of Research in Social Marketing: The Community Eye. Outreach Clinic .... Serious thought was given to the possibility of establishing static eye care .... Information obtained included vital statistics, work history, job.

  8. GENERAL OPHTHALMOLOGY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... Nelson-Immu JC, Mowatt L, Walters C.A. Patterns of ocular trauma presenting to the ... 11 hospital, Addis Ababa. Ethiop J Health Dev 2001;15:131-7. 12. ... injuries in Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Edo State Nigeria.

  9. Ophthalmologic outcome after third cranial nerve palsy or paresis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, A V; Repka, M X

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the causes and ophthalmologic outcome of oculomotor nerve palsy or paresis in children younger than 8 years of age. Patients evaluated between 1985 and 1997 were retrospectively reviewed. Data analyzed included vision, residual strabismus after surgery, aberrant reinnervation, binocular function, and anisometropia. Long-term outcome was assessed in patients followed-up longer than 6 months. Forty-one patients were identified. The most frequent causes were congenital (39%), traumatic (37%), and neoplastic (17%). Visual acuities were reduced in 71% of patients at the time of the initial visit. Long-term outcome could be assessed in 20 of the 41 patients (49%), with a mean follow-up of 3.6 years (range, 0.5 to 13 years). Visual acuities were reduced because of amblyopia in 35% and nonamblyopic factors in 25% of patients in the long-term outcome group at last follow-up. The best response to amblyopia therapy was in the congenital group, in which all patients improved to normal visual acuity. Strabismus surgery was performed on 8 of 20 children (40%) followed-up, none of whom demonstrated measurable stereopsis after operation despite improved alignment. Aberrant reinnervation was present in 9 of 20 patients (45%). Only 3 patients fully recovered from their oculomotor nerve injuries, and these were the only patients to regain measurable stereopsis. The causes in those 3 patients were congenital, traumatic, and neoplastic. Oculomotor nerve palsy/paresis is associated with poor visual and sensorimotor outcome in children younger than 8 years of age. The best ophthalmologic outcome was in the resolved cases (3 of 20; 15%). Amblyopia therapy was most effective with congenital causes, but treatment results were poor with other causes. Young children with posttraumatic and postneoplastic oculomotor nerve injuries demonstrated the worst ophthalmologic outcomes.

  10. Publication rate of abstracts presented at the 2010 Canadian Ophthalmological Society Annual Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilious, Alfred; Benavides Vargas, Ana Maria; Buys, Yvonne M

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the publication rate of submitted abstracts accepted for presentation at the 2010 Canadian Ophthalmological Society (COS) Annual Meeting in peer-reviewed journals. A retrospective analysis and literature search of abstracts presented at the 2010 COS Annual Meeting. Abstracts accepted as an oral presentation or poster from the 2010 COS Annual Meeting were tabulated by type of presentation (oral vs poster), subspecialty, study design, number of authors, and principal investigator's institution. A PubMed search was conducted for each abstract by key word, first author, and last author. The year of publication, journal, and impact factor were recorded for identified publications. Publication rate was calculated by type of presentation, subspecialty, study design, number of authors, and institution. A total of 175 abstracts were presented at the 2010 COS Annual Meeting. There were 105 oral (60%) and 70 poster (40%) presentations. The overall publication rate was 45.7%; 49.5% for oral presentations and 40.0% for posters. Cornea (57.6%) and public health (54.5%) had the highest publication rates of all subspecialties. Randomized control trials (71.4%) and cohort studies (70.0%) had higher publication rates than other study designs. Overall, 28.8% of abstracts were published in the Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. The average impact factor of all publications was 2.73. Of abstracts presented at the 2010 COS Annual Meeting, 45.7% were published within 5 years after the conference. This publication rate is within the upper end of previously reported meeting publication rates for medical societies. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Microscopic alterations in silicone tubes surface after application of ophthalmological lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Sousa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify microscopic morphological alterations in the surface of silicone tubes used for intubation of the lachrymal system after exposure to ophthalmological lubricants. Methods: Experimental, descriptive and longitudinal study consisted of the application of ophthalmological lubricants in silicone tubes. The tubes were divided in: Group 1 (Cylocort®, 2 (Epitezan®, 3 (Labcaína®, 4 (Liposic®, 5 (Maxinom® and 6 (Vista Gel®. One tube was not exposed to any lubricant, used as control. The tubes were observed and photographed after 2 hours, 30 days, 45 days before and after cleaning the surface and lumen. The following aspects were observed: surface (regularity, transparency, quantity, size and shape of the substances and lumen (obstruction. Results: Control: irregular surface with pores after 2 hours: Group 1 – irregular surface with presence of film; Groups 2, 3 and 5 – abundant and irregular quantity of ointment at the surface; Group 4 – discrete modification at the surface; Group 6 – growth of pigmented (brownish structures with filaments in the lumen, with discrete film in the surface. 30 Days: Groups 1, 4 and 5 – increase of the irregular superficial film; Group 2 – crust with notorious horizontal lines; Group 3 – diminution of the superficial film; Group 4 – crust less evident. Group 6 – increase of the structure seen with 2 hours of exposition, arboriform aspect. Forty-five days pre cleaning: Group 4 – diminution of the surface crust; Group 6 – expansion of the arboriform structure; unaltered findings in other groups. 45 days after cleaning: Groups 1 and 5 – light diminution of the surface crust; Groups 2, 3 and 4 – kept the modifications; Group 6 – the structure inside the lumen was not identified, clear surface, without evidence of film. Conclusions: Microscopic morphological alterations in the surface and lumen of silicone tubes can occur when those remain in contact with determined

  12. Use of health care claims data to study patients with ophthalmologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Joshua D; Lum, Flora; Lee, Paul P; Rich, William L; Coleman, Anne L

    2014-05-01

    To describe what information is or is not included in health care claims data, provide an overview of the main advantages and limitations of performing analyses using health care claims data, and offer general guidance on how to report and interpret findings of ophthalmology-related claims data analyses. Systematic review. Not applicable. A literature review and synthesis of methods for claims-based data analyses. Not applicable. Some advantages of using claims data for analyses include large, diverse sample sizes, longitudinal follow-up, lack of selection bias, and potential for complex, multivariable modeling. The disadvantages include (a) the inherent limitations of claims data, such as incomplete, inaccurate, or missing data, or the lack of specific billing codes for some conditions; and (b) the inability, in some circumstances, to adequately evaluate the appropriateness of care. In general, reports of claims data analyses should include clear descriptions of the following methodological elements: the data source, the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the specific billing codes used, and the potential confounding factors incorporated in the multivariable models. The use of claims data for research is expected to increase with the enhanced availability of data from Medicare and other sources. The use of claims data to evaluate resource use and efficiency and to determine the basis for supplementary payment methods for physicians is anticipated. Thus, it will be increasingly important for eye care providers to use accurate and descriptive codes for billing. Adherence to general guidance on the reporting of claims data analyses, as outlined in this article, is important to enhance the credibility and applicability of findings. Guidance on optimal ways to conduct and report ophthalmology-related investigations using claims data will likely continue to evolve as health services researchers refine the metrics to analyze large administrative data sets. Copyright

  13. Effectiveness of mobile-phone short message service (SMS reminders for ophthalmology outpatient appointments: Observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Car Josip

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-attendance for hospital outpatient appointments is a significant problem in many countries. It causes suboptimal use of clinical and administrative staff and financial losses, as well as longer waiting times. The use of Short Message Service (SMS appointment reminders potentially offers a cost-effective and time-efficient strategy to decrease non-attendance and so improve the efficiency of outpatient healthcare delivery. Methods An SMS text message was sent to patients with scheduled appointments between April and September 2006 in a hospital ophthalmology department in London, reminding them of their appointments. This group acted as the intervention group. Controls were patients with scheduled ophthalmology appointments who did not receive an SMS or any alternative reminder. Results During the period of the study, 11.2% (50/447 of patients who received an SMS appointment reminder were non-attenders, compared to 18.1% (1720/9512 who did not receive an SMS reminder. Non-attendance rates were 38% lower in patients who received an SMS reminder than in patients who did not receive a reminder (RR of non-attendance = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.48 – 0.80. Conclusion The use of SMS reminders for ophthalmology outpatient appointments was associated with a reduction of 38% in the likelihood of patients not attending their appointments, compared to no appointment reminder. The use of SMS reminders may also be more cost-effective than traditional appointment reminders and require less labour. These findings should be confirmed with a more rigorous study design before a wider roll-out.

  14. Electronic Referrals and Digital Imaging Systems in Ophthalmology: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeganathan, V Swetha E; Hall, H Nikki; Sanders, Roshini

    2017-01-01

    Ophthalmology departments face intensifying pressure to expedite sight-saving treatments and reduce the global burden of disease. The use of electronic communication systems, digital imaging, and redesigned service care models is imperative for addressing such demands. The recently developed Scottish Eyecare Integration Project involves an electronic referral system from community optometry to the hospital ophthalmology department using National Health Service (NHS) email with digital ophthalmic images attached, via a virtual private network connection. The benefits over the previous system include reduced waiting times, improved triage, e-diagnosis in 20% without the need for hospital attendance, and rapid electronic feedback to referrers. We draw on the experience of the Scottish Eyecare Integration Project and discuss the global applications of this and other advances in teleophthalmology. We focus particularly on the implications for management and screening of chronic disease, such as glaucoma and diabetic eye disease, and ophthalmic disease, such as retinopathy of prematurity where diagnosis is almost entirely and critically dependent on fundus appearance. Currently in Scotland, approximately 75% of all referrals are electronic from community to hospital. The Scottish Eyecare Integration Project is globally the first of its kind and unique in a national health service. Such speedy, safe, and efficient models of communication are geographically sensitive to service provision, especially in remote and rural regions. Along with advances in teleophthalmology, such systems promote the earlier detection of sight-threatening disease and safe follow-up of non-sight-threatening disease in the community. Copyright© 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  15. Patient satisfaction with wait times at an emergency ophthalmology on-call service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Brian J; Barbosa, Joshua; Moinul, Prima; Sivachandran, Nirojini; Donaldson, Laura; Zhao, Lily; Mullen, Sarah J; McLaughlin, Christopher R; Chaudhary, Varun

    2018-04-01

    To assess patient satisfaction with emergency ophthalmology care and determine the effect provision of anticipated appointment wait time has on scores. Single-centre, randomized control trial. Fifty patients triaged at the Hamilton Regional Eye Institute (HREI) from November 2015 to July 2016. Fifty patients triaged for next-day appointments at the HREI were randomly assigned to receive standard-of-care preappointment information or standard-of-care information in addition to an estimated appointment wait time. Patient satisfaction with care was assessed postvisit using the modified Judgements of Hospital Quality Questionnaire (JHQQ). In determining how informing patients of typical wait times influenced satisfaction, the Mann-Whitney U test was performed. As secondary study outcomes, we sought to determine patient satisfaction with the intervention material using the Fisher exact test and the effect that wait time, age, sex, education, mobility, and number of health care providers seen had on satisfaction scores using logistic regression analysis. The median JHQQ response was "very good" (4/5) and between "very good" and "excellent" (4.5/5) in the intervention and control arms, respectively. There was no difference in patient satisfaction between the cohorts (Mann-Whitney U = 297.00, p = 0.964). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that wait times influenced patient satisfaction (OR = 0.919, 95% CI 0.864-0.978, p = 0.008). Of the intervention arm patients, 92.0% (N = 23) found the preappointment information useful, whereas only 12.5% (N = 3) of the control cohort patients noted the same (p < 0.001). Provision of anticipated wait time information to patients in an emergency on-call ophthalmology clinic did not influence satisfaction with care as captured by the JHQQ. Copyright © 2018 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Ophthalmological opinions for liability affairs material damage (Part I) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggraf, H

    1979-02-01

    German law abides anyone reponsible for the damage he or she has caused to another person's property or corporal integrity. This includes all medical costs directed towards the restitution of health as well as economical damage in direct consequence of the corporal damage. An ophthalmological expert is to state his opinion therefore in accordance with the specific conditions of every individual case and not just according to general charts. Financial compensation is only granted for the actual results of damage inquestion. Prior damage and disability have to be remarked but not to justify a financial compensation. The question of smart-money is dealt with in Part II.

  17. Decision support systems and applications in ophthalmology: literature and commercial review focused on mobile apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Martínez-Pérez, Borja; López-Coronado, Miguel; Díaz, Javier Rodríguez; López, Miguel Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    The growing importance that mobile devices have in daily life has also reached health care and medicine. This is making the paradigm of health care change and the concept of mHealth or mobile health more relevant, whose main essence is the apps. This new reality makes it possible for doctors who are not specialist to have easy access to all the information generated in different corners of the world, making them potential keepers of that knowledge. However, the new daily information exceeds the limits of the human intellect, making Decision Support Systems (DSS) necessary for helping doctors to diagnose diseases and also help them to decide the attitude that has to be taken towards these diagnoses. These could improve the health care in remote areas and developing countries. All of this is even more important in diseases that are more prevalent in primary care and that directly affect the people's quality of life, this is the case in ophthalmological problems where in first patient care a specialist in ophthalmology is not involved. The goal of this paper is to analyse the state of the art of DSS in Ophthalmology. Many of them focused on diseases affecting the eye's posterior pole. For achieving the main purpose of this research work, a literature review and commercial apps analysis will be done. The used databases and systems will be IEEE Xplore, Web of Science (WoS), Scopus, and PubMed. The search is limited to articles published from 2000 until now. Later, different Mobile Decision Support System (MDSS) in Ophthalmology will be analyzed in the virtual stores for Android and iOS. 37 articles were selected according their thematic (posterior pole, anterior pole, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), cloud, data mining, algorithms and structures for DSS, and other) from a total of 600 found in the above cited databases. Very few mobile apps were found in the different stores. It can be concluded that almost all existing mobile apps are focused on the eye's posterior

  18. Comparison between flipped classroom and lecture-based classroom in ophthalmology clerkship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fen; Chen, Chuan; Zhu, Yi; Zuo, Chengguo; Zhong, Yimin; Wang, Nan; Zhou, Lijun; Zou, Yuxian; Liang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In recent years, the flipped classroom method of teaching has received much attention in health sciences education. However, the application of flipped classrooms in ophthalmology education has not been well investigated. Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and acceptability of the flipped classroom approach to teaching ophthalmology at the clerkship level. Design: Ninety-five fourth year medical students in an ophthalmology clerkship were randomly divided into two groups. An ocular trauma module was chosen for the content of this study. One group (FG (flipped group), n = 48) participated in flipped classroom instruction and was asked to watch a recorded lecture video and to read study materials before a face-to-face class meeting. They used the in-class time for discussion. The other group (TG (traditional group), n = 47) was assigned to traditional lecture-based instruction. These students attended a didactic lecture and completed assigned homework after the lecture. Feedback questionnaires were collected to compare students’ perspectives on the teaching approach they experienced and to evaluate students’ self-perceived competence and interest in ocular trauma. Pre- and post-tests were performed to assess student learning of the course materials. Results: More students in the FG agreed that the classroom helped to promote their learning motivation, improve their understanding of the course materials, and enhance their communication skill and clinical thinking. However, students in the FG did not show a preference for this method of teaching, and also reported more burden and pressure than those from the TG. Students from the FG performed better on the post test over the ocular trauma-related questions when compared to those from the TG. Conclusions: The flipped classroom approach shows promise in ophthalmology clerkship teaching. However, it has some drawbacks. Further evaluation and modifications

  19. Application of capacitively coupled rf discharge plasma for sterilization of polymer materials used in ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullin, I.Sh.; Avetisov, S.E.; Lipatov, D.V.; Rybakova, E.G.; Bragin, V.E.; Bykanov, A.N.; Kamarentsev, E.N.

    1996-01-01

    The sterilization effect of capacitively coupled rf discharge plasma treatment of contact lenses was investigated. There were used two types of polymer: highly hydrophilic polymer with water content 76% (Navelen-76) and poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA). There was demonstrated the possibility of effective sterilization by RF discharge plasma of a set of polymer materials used in ophthalmology. The best results were obtained for hard contact lenses. There was perfect sterilization in this case. There were not perfect sterilization in some cases of soft contact lenses treatment. It may be caused by porous structure of the external layers of this material and limited thickness of the sterilization layer. (author)

  20. Optical coherence tomography angiography: Technical principles and clinical applications in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Hagag

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA is a functional extension of OCT that provides information on retinal and choroidal circulations without the need for dye injections. With the recent development of high-speed OCT systems and efficient algorithms, OCTA has become clinically feasible. In this review article, we discuss the technical principles of OCTA, including image processing and artifacts, and its clinical applications in ophthalmology. We summarize recent studies which qualitatively or quantitatively assess disease presentation, progression, and/or response to treatment.

  1. Comparison between flipped classroom and lecture-based classroom in ophthalmology clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fen; Chen, Chuan; Zhu, Yi; Zuo, Chengguo; Zhong, Yimin; Wang, Nan; Zhou, Lijun; Zou, Yuxian; Liang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the flipped classroom method of teaching has received much attention in health sciences education. However, the application of flipped classrooms in ophthalmology education has not been well investigated. The goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and acceptability of the flipped classroom approach to teaching ophthalmology at the clerkship level. Ninety-five fourth year medical students in an ophthalmology clerkship were randomly divided into two groups. An ocular trauma module was chosen for the content of this study. One group (FG (flipped group), n = 48) participated in flipped classroom instruction and was asked to watch a recorded lecture video and to read study materials before a face-to-face class meeting. They used the in-class time for discussion. The other group (TG (traditional group), n = 47) was assigned to traditional lecture-based instruction. These students attended a didactic lecture and completed assigned homework after the lecture. Feedback questionnaires were collected to compare students' perspectives on the teaching approach they experienced and to evaluate students' self-perceived competence and interest in ocular trauma. Pre- and post-tests were performed to assess student learning of the course materials. More students in the FG agreed that the classroom helped to promote their learning motivation, improve their understanding of the course materials, and enhance their communication skill and clinical thinking. However, students in the FG did not show a preference for this method of teaching, and also reported more burden and pressure than those from the TG. Students from the FG performed better on the post test over the ocular trauma-related questions when compared to those from the TG. The flipped classroom approach shows promise in ophthalmology clerkship teaching. However, it has some drawbacks. Further evaluation and modifications are required before it can be widely accepted and implemented

  2. Examination of cumulative effects of early adolescent depression on cannabis and alcohol use disorder in late adolescence in a community-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Isaac C; Fleming, Charles B; Vander Stoep, Ann; Nicodimos, Semret; Zheng, Cheng; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Although they often co-occur, the longitudinal relationship between depression and substance use disorders during adolescence remains unclear. This study estimated the effects of cumulative depression during early adolescence (ages 13-15 years) on the likelihood of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) at age 18. Prospective cohort study of youth assessed at least annually between 6th and 9th grades (~ age 12-15) and again at age 18. Marginal structural models based on a counterfactual framework that accounted for both potential fixed and time-varying confounders were used to estimate cumulative effects of depressive symptoms over early adolescence. The sample originated from four public middle schools in Seattle, Washington, USA. The sample consisted of 521 youth (48.4% female; 44.5% were non-Hispanic White). Structured in-person interviews with youth and their parents were conducted to assess diagnostic symptom counts of depression during early adolescence; diagnoses of CUD and AUD at age 18 was based the Voice-Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Cumulative depression was defined as the sum of depression symptom counts from grades 7-9. The past-year prevalence of cannabis and alcohol use disorder at the age 18 study wave was 20.9 and 19.8%, respectively. A 1 standard deviation increase in cumulative depression during early adolescence was associated with a 50% higher likelihood of CUD [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07, 2.10]. Although similar in direction, there was no statistically significant association between depression and AUD (PR = 1.41; 95% CI = 0.94, 2.11). Further, there were no differences in associations according to gender. Youth with more chronic or severe forms of depression during early adolescence may be at elevated risk for developing cannabis use disorder compared with otherwise similar youth who experience fewer depressive symptoms during early adolescence. © 2017 Society

  3. Examination of cultural competence in service providers in an early intervention programme for psychosis in Montreal, Quebec: Perspectives of service users and treatment providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Shruthi; Jordan, Gerald; Pope, Megan A; Iyer, Srividya N

    2018-06-01

    To better understand cultural competence in early intervention for psychosis, we compared service users' and service providers' perceptions of the importance of providers being culturally competent and attentive to aspects of culture. At a Canadian early intervention programme, a validated scale was adapted to assess service user (N = 51) and provider (N = 30) perceptions of service providers' cultural competence and the importance accorded thereto. Analyses of variance revealed that the importance of service providers being culturally competent was rated highest by service providers, followed by visible minority service users, followed by white service users. Providers rated themselves as being more interested in knowing about service users' culture than service users perceived them to be. Service users accorded less import to service providers' cultural competence than providers themselves, owing possibly to varied socialization. A mismatch in users' and providers' views on providers' efforts to know their users' cultures may influence mental healthcare outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Examination of level of knowledge in Italian general practitioners attending an education session on diagnosis and management of the early stage of Alzheimer's disease: pass or fail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, Federica; Panza, Francesco; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Capozzo, Rosa; Barulli, Maria Rosaria; Leo, Antonio; Lozupone, Madia; Fontana, Andrea; Arcuti, Simona; Copetti, Massimiliano; Cardinali, Valentina; Grasso, Alessandra; Tursi, Marianna; Iurillo, Annalisa; Imbimbo, Bruno Pietro; Seripa, Davide; Logroscino, Giancarlo

    2016-07-01

    We detected the general level of knowledge about the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subsequent care in general practitioners (GPs) from Southern Italy. We explored also the GP perception about their knowledge and training on diagnosis and management of AD. On a sample of 131 GPs, we administered two questionnaires: the GP-Knowledge, evaluating GPs' expertise about AD epidemiology, differential diagnosis, and available treatments, and the GP-QUestionnaire on Awareness of Dementia (GP-QUAD), assessing the GPs' attitudes, awareness, and practice regarding early diagnosis of dementia. Specific screening tests or protocols to diagnose and manage dementia were not used by 53% of our GPs. The training on the recognition of early AD signs and symptoms was considered inadequate by 55% of the participants. Females were more likely to consider their training insufficient (58%) compared to males (53%). Female GPs were less likely to prescribe antipsychotic drugs to control neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and suggest specialist advice in late stage of cognitive impairment. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) performed only on GP-QUAD suggested two dimensions explaining 26.1% ("GP attitude") and 20.1% ("GP knowledge") of the inertia for a total of 46.2%, In our survey on GP clinical practice, several problems in properly recognizing early AD symptoms and subsequently screening patients to be referred to secondary/tertiary care centers for diagnosis confirmation have emerged. In the future, specific training programs and educational projects for GPs should be implemented also in Italy to improve detection rates and management of dementia in primary care.

  5. The impact of the economy and recessions on the marketplace demand for ophthalmologists (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Ron A; Nwanze, Chukwuemeka C

    2011-12-01

    To develop a help-wanted index (HWI) to measure trends in marketplace demand for ophthalmologists, to identify the economic drivers of demand, and to determine the impact of economic recessions on the ophthalmology job market. Review of physician recruitment advertisements appearing in the journals Ophthalmology, American Journal of Ophthalmology, and Archives of Ophthalmology from January 1980 through June 2006. Over the 26-year study period a consistent increase in the demand for subspecialists (31% of HWI in 1980 to 80% in 2005) was noted. There was also an increase in the demand for academic ophthalmologists. The need for academic ophthalmologists seems to be correlated with national research expenditure and stock market gains (P = .00191), whereas demand for private practice ophthalmologists seems to be correlated with the national economic well-being, as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) (P market gains, GDP, and discretionary health care expenditure have been associated with the ophthalmology job market. These factors tend to decline with economic recessions. Historically, the demand for ophthalmologists has declined 2 to 3 years following a recession, which may mean lower demand in the near future, given the recent recession.

  6. Epidemiologic Evaluation of Ocular Trauma in Patients Admitted to Ophthalmology Ward of Farshchian Hospital in Hamadan in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bazzazi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Ocular trauma is one of the important reasons of visual loss which can cause multiple damages to eyelid, eyeball and adenexal tissues. Furthermore, ocular trauma is one of the major causes of unilateral blindness and the third leading cause of hospi-talization in ophthalmology wards. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and characteristics of eye trauma at Farshchian hospital in Hamadan in 2012. Material & Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 70 patients with ocular trauma, admitted to Farshchian hospital, were studied. We assessed the age, sex, job , educational level, location, cause of trauma, its type and site of injury. The data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software and t, ?2 statistical tests. Results: The mean age of patients in this study was 24.01 years (SD= 16.04. Among 70 pa-tients, 58 people (82.1% were males and 12 patients (17.1% were females. The most com-mon cause of trauma was observed in 19 patients (27.1%. The most common location of the trauma in this study was homing, seen in 28 patients (40%. Among the 70 patients, 29 peo-ple (41.4% had open globe injuries, 25 people had (35.7% closed globe injuries, 5 patients (7.1% had burning and 11 patients (15.7% had adenexal injury. Conclusions: The results showed that most ocular traumas occur in the early ages and in males. The most common type of them is open globe injury and the most common cause is a sharp object. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (1:25-31

  7. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS for retinal and optic nerve diseases: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey N Weiss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we present the results of a single patient with optic neuropathy treated within the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS. SCOTS is an Institutional Review Board approved clinical trial and is the largest ophthalmology stem cell study registered at the National Institutes of Health to date- www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT 01920867. SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of optic nerve and retinal diseases. Pre- and post-treatment comprehensive eye exams were independently performed at the Wilmer Eye Institute at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, USA. A 27 year old female patient had lost vision approximately 5 years prior to enrollment in SCOTS. Pre-treatment best-corrected visual acuity at the Wilmer Eye Institute was 20/800 Right Eye (OD and 20/4,000 Left Eye (OS. Four months following treatment in SCOTS, the central visual acuity had improved to 20/100 OD and 20/40 OS.

  8. Ophthalmological findings in infants with microcephaly and presumable intra-uterus Zika virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila V. Ventura

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: In 2015, a twenty-fold increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in Brazil was reported, and the Ministry of Health associated this abnormal prevalence with the maternal-fetal Zika virus (ZIKV transmission. Methods: We assessed the ophthalmological findings of ten mothers and their infants that had been clinically diagnosed with ZIKV-related microcephaly and presented ocular abnormalities, born from May to December 2015. Results: Seven mothers (70.0% referred symptoms during pregnancy (malaise, rash and arthralgia, of which six (85.7% were in the first trimester. At the time of exam, no ophthalmological abnormalities were identified in the mothers and they did not report ocular symptoms during pregnancy. Serology was negative in all infants for Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses. Ocular findings included macular alterations (gross pigment mottling and/or chorioretinal atrophy in fifteen eyes (75.0%, and optic nerve abnormalities (hypoplasia with double-ring sign, pallor, and/or increased cup-to-disk ratio in nine eyes (45.0%. Conclusions: Patients presented normal anterior segment and important macular and optic nerve abnormalities. Further studies will assess the visual significance of these alterations.

  9. Unique identification code for medical fundus images using blood vessel pattern for tele-ophthalmology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anushikha; Dutta, Malay Kishore; Sharma, Dilip Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Identification of fundus images during transmission and storage in database for tele-ophthalmology applications is an important issue in modern era. The proposed work presents a novel accurate method for generation of unique identification code for identification of fundus images for tele-ophthalmology applications and storage in databases. Unlike existing methods of steganography and watermarking, this method does not tamper the medical image as nothing is embedded in this approach and there is no loss of medical information. Strategic combination of unique blood vessel pattern and patient ID is considered for generation of unique identification code for the digital fundus images. Segmented blood vessel pattern near the optic disc is strategically combined with patient ID for generation of a unique identification code for the image. The proposed method of medical image identification is tested on the publically available DRIVE and MESSIDOR database of fundus image and results are encouraging. Experimental results indicate the uniqueness of identification code and lossless recovery of patient identity from unique identification code for integrity verification of fundus images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alberto Urrets-Zavalía Jr (1920-2010): An Argentinian contributor to ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Urrets-Zavalía, Julio A; Ascaso, Francisco J

    2016-05-01

    Alberto Urrets-Zavalía Jr was born in Córdoba (Argentina) in 1920. Chairman of the Department of Ophthalmology of the National University of Córdoba and founder of the Cornea and Glaucoma Surgical Center in the same city, in 1956 he created the first residency programme in Ophthalmology in his country. He founded the first Eye Bank and introduced one of the first argon laser photocoagulators in South America. He authored around 200 scientific presentations and publications, describing new findings and clinical entities. Thus, his individualisation of the cyclovertical component in strabismus contributed to important evolution of ideas concerning pathogenesis and therapy in oculomotor disorders of infancy. He was the first to propose the dehydration of the vitreous body in glaucoma patients before ocular surgery and developed a fixation pick and scleral depressor for retinal detachment surgery. He also described a new technique, the V-Z procedures for the correction of senile ectropion. In 1968, he published his Décollement de la rétine, considered a masterpiece in retinal detachment literature for many years. Urrets-Zavalía died in his native city at the age of 89. His prolific scientific and educational contributions make him one of the most brilliant and influential ophthalmologists of the 20th-century. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Growth and survival of larval and early juvenile lesser sandeel in patchy prey field in the North Sea: An examination using individual-based modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürkan, Zeren; Christensen, Asbjørn; Deurs, Mikael van

    2012-01-01

    -stages in the North Sea. Simulations of patchiness related starvation mortality are able to explain observed patterns of variation in sandeel growth. Reduced prey densities within patches decrease growth and survival rate of larvae and match–mismatch affect growth and survival of larvae with different hatch time due...... by modeling copepod size spectra dynamics and patchiness based on particle count transects and Continuous Plankton Recorder time series data. The study analyzes the effects of larval hatching time, presence of zooplankton patchiness and within patch abundance on growth and survival of sandeel early life...

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of clinic-based chloral hydrate sedation versus general anaesthesia for paediatric ophthalmological procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Heather F; Lambley, Rosemary; West, Stephanie K; Ungar, Wendy J; Mireskandari, Kamiar

    2015-11-01

    The inability of some children to tolerate detailed eye examinations often necessitates general anaesthesia (GA). The objective was to assess the incremental cost effectiveness of paediatric eye examinations carried out in an outpatient sedation unit compared with GA. An episode of care cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from a societal perspective. Model inputs were based on a retrospective cross-over cohort of Canadian children aged Costs ($CAN), adverse events and number of successful procedures were modelled in a decision analysis with one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The mean cost per patient was $406 (95% CI $401 to $411) for EUS and $1135 (95% CI $1125 to $1145) for EUA. The mean number of successful procedures per patient was 1.39 (95% CI 1.34 to 1.42) for EUS and 2.06 (95% CI 2.02 to 2.11) for EUA. EUA was $729 more costly on average than EUS (95% CI $719 to $738) but resulted in an additional 0.68 successful procedures per child. The result was robust to varying the cost assumptions. Cross-over designs offer a powerful way to assess costs and effectiveness of two interventions because patients serve as their own control. This study demonstrated significant savings when ophthalmological exams were carried out in a hospital outpatient clinic, although with slightly fewer procedures completed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. A longitudinal examination of the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Niven, Ailsa G; Fawkner, Samantha G; Henretty, Joan M

    2009-06-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the influence of maturation on physical self-perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls (N=150; mean age=12.79+/-0.31). Physical characteristics were measured and participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children, the Children and Youth Physical Self-Perception Profile and the Pubertal Development Scale on two occasions 12 months apart. The results demonstrated a decrease in overall physical activity levels over 12 months which was not influenced by maturational status or physical characteristics. Additional analysis indicated that physical self-perceptions partially accounted for the explained variance in physical activity change, with physical condition being an important individual predictor of physical activity. Further analysis indicated that body mass was an important individual predictor of changes in perceptions of body attractiveness and physical self-worth. At this age maturation has a limited influence on the physical activity behaviours of early adolescent girls and although the variance in physical activity was partly accounted for by physical self-perceptions, this was a relatively small contribution and other factors related to this drop in physical activity need to be considered longitudinally.

  14. Latino and European American early adolescents' exposure to music with substance-use references: examining parent-child communication as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Jennifer A; Wang, Ningxin; Harvey, Jessica

    2014-02-01

    This study hypothesized that frequent exposure to and attention to music with substance-use references would be indirectly related to alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana use through pro-substance-use beliefs (e.g., norms, outcome expectancies, and refusal efficacy). Parent-child communication, however, would attenuate such associations, which would differ by ethnicity. Multigroup mediation and moderation analyses were conducted, using cross-sectional survey data from 253 Latino and 308 European American 6th-8th grades students. For Latino and European American early adolescents, best-friend-injunctive norms and weak refusal efficacy were significant mediators, but not positive outcome expectancies. Descriptive norms were a significant mediator, but only for European American early adolescents. Although targeted parent-child communication and parental mediation did not moderate the associations between the music-exposure variables and the pro-substance-use beliefs variables, targeted parent-child communication attenuated the association between listening to favorite songs and alcohol consumption. Parental mediation attenuated the association between attention to music and alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence-based practice instruction by faculty members and librarians in North American optometry and ophthalmology programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Katherine A; Hrynchak, Patricia K; Spafford, Marlee M

    2014-07-01

    North American optometry and ophthalmology faculty members and vision science librarians were surveyed online (14% response rate) about teaching evidence-based practice (EBP). Similar to studies of other health care programs, all five EBP steps (Ask, Acquire, Appraise, Apply, Assess) were taught to varying degrees. Optometry and ophthalmology EBP educators may want to place further emphasis on (1) the Apply and Assess steps, (2) faculty- and student-generated questions and self-assessment in clinical settings, (3) online teaching strategies, (4) programmatic integration of EBP learning objectives, and (5) collaboration between faculty members and librarians.

  16. The Influence of Time Attitudes on Alcohol-Related Attitudes, Behaviors and Subjective Life Expectancy in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Examination Using Mover-Stayer Latent Transition Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kevin Eugene; Morgan, Grant; Worrell, Frank C.; Sumnall, Harry; McKay, Michael Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to examine the stability of time attitudes profiles across a one-year period as well as the association between time attitudes profiles and several variables. These variables include attitudes towards alcohol, context of alcohol use, consumption of a full drink, and subjective life expectancy. We assessed the…

  17. Examination of two lowland rice cultivars reveals that gibberellin-dependent early response to submergence is not necessarily mediated by ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Vincent; Moritz, Thomas; García-Martínez, José L

    2011-01-01

    Using two lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars we found that in both cases submerged-induced elongation early after germination depends on gibberellins (GAs). Submergence increases the content of the active GA 1 by enhancing the expression of GA biosynthesis genes, thus facilitating the seedlings to escape from the water and preventing asphyxiation. However, the two cultivars differ in their response to ethylene. The cultivar Senia (short), by contrast to cultivar Bomba (tall), does not elongate after ethylene application, and submerged-induced elongation is not negated by an inhibitor of ethylene perception. Also, while ethylene emanation in Senia is not altered by submergence, Bomba seedlings emanate more ethylene upon de-submergence, associated with enhanced expression of the ethylene biosynthesis gene OsACS5. The cultivar Senia thus allows the possibility of clarifying the role of ethylene and other factors as triggers of GA biosynthesis enhancement in rice seedlings under submergence.

  18. Breast Self- Examination Contradiction

    OpenAIRE

    Ayla Akkas Gursoy

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is very important health problem among women in the World and Turkey. Although treatment chance is very rising and survival is getting longer thanks to early diagnosis in breast cancer. Some discussion is making related to breast self examination which is one of the early detection methods in recent years. This article consider the discussions about breast self examination under the historical development light. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000): 257-260

  19. Breast Self- Examination Contradiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Akkas Gursoy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is very important health problem among women in the World and Turkey. Although treatment chance is very rising and survival is getting longer thanks to early diagnosis in breast cancer. Some discussion is making related to breast self examination which is one of the early detection methods in recent years. This article consider the discussions about breast self examination under the historical development light. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000: 257-260

  20. Estimating the success rate of ovulation and early litter loss rate in the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) by examining the ovaries and uteri

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Oi, Toru; Sawada, Seigo; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop a method for estimating the success/failure rates of reproductive processes, especially those of ovulation and neonate nurturing, in the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus), we examined offspring status, corpora lutea (CLs), placental scars (PSs) and corpora albicantia (CAs) in 159 females (0-23 years old) killed as nuisances on Honshu Island of Japan during 2001-2009. PSs were found to remain in the uterus at least until November of the year of...

  1. Rate of Unverifiable Publications Among Ophthalmology Residency Applicants Invited to Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez, Heather M; Tauscher, Robert; Brown, Eric N; Wayman, Laura; Mawn, Louise A

    2018-04-19

    Unverifiable publications in applications for ophthalmology residencies could be a serious concern if they represent publication dishonesty. To determine the rate of unverifiable publications among applicants offered an interview. Retrospective review of 322 ophthalmology residency applications for entering classes 2012 to 2017 at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee. Full-length publications reported in the applications were searched in PubMed, Google, Google Scholar, and directly on the journal's website. Applications were deemed unverifiable if there was no record of the publication by any of these means or if substantial discrepancies existed, such as incorrect authorship, incorrect journal, or a meaningful discrepancy in title or length (full-length article vs abstract). Inability to locate publication with search, incorrect author position, applicant not listed as an author, article being an abstract and not a published paper, substantial title discrepancy suggesting an alternative project, and incorrect journal. Of the 322 applicants offered interviews during the 6-year study period, 22 (6.8%) had 24 unverifiable publications. Two hundred thirty-nine of these applicants (74.2%) reported at least 1 qualifying publication; of this group, 22 (9.2%) had an unverifiable publication. The applications with unverifiable publications were evenly distributed across the years of the study (range, 2-6 per cycle; Pearson χ25 = 3.65; P = .60). Two applicants had 2 unverifiable publications each. Two of the 22 applicants (9.1%) with unverifiable publications were graduates of medical schools outside the United States. Among the unverifiable publications, the most common reason was inability to locate the publication (13 [54%]). Additional issues included abstract rather than full-length publication (5 [20.8%]), incorrect author position (4 [16.7%]), applicant not listed as an author on the publication (1 [4.2%]), and substantial title

  2. Measuring the perceived quality of ophthalmology services in private organizations. A marketing perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Iuliana Raluca; Gheorghe, Consuela-Mădălina; Purcărea, Victor Lorin

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, the competition registered on the Romanian markets regarding the activity of private ophthalmology organizations has raised their interest in developing consumer-oriented strategies. The key factor that assures a differentiation as well as a competitive advantage is the service quality from a marketing perspective. Objectives: From a marketing perspective, service quality is measured as a perceived discrepancy between the consumers’ expectations and was actually performed in health care services. The most widely and validated measurement is the SERVQUAL scale. However, a variety of SERVQUAL scales have been applied in different health care environments without taking into consideration the specialty of the health care service. Thus, the objective of this paper was to measure the service quality in the Romanian ophthalmology private organizations using the SERVQUAL measurement, by identifying the SERVQUAL dimensions, which register the highest and the lowest gap scores. Materials and methods: The instrument for data collection was the SERVQUAL self-administered questionnaire that consisted of 22 items measured on a 5-point Likert scale. The sample size encompassed 100 participants and the sampling technique was the snowball. The internal consistency, validity and the reliability of the SERVQUAL scale was determined by the Cronbach’s alpha coefficients and factor analysis. The SERVQUAL questionnaire focused on 5 dimensions (tangibles, reliability, assurance, empathy and responsiveness) and each dimension, in its turn, was characterized by different items. Results: The mean age of the participants was 49.52 years, with a mean income of 3031 Romanian Currency and the mean period of wearing eyeglasses was 5 years (±2). Further, there were 47% females and 53% males. The overall internal consistency of the SERVQUAL scale, as well as the dimensions’ internal consistency were all above 0.7 and the factor analysis revealed that the items loaded properly on

  3. Measuring the perceived quality of ophthalmology services in private organizations. A marketing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Iuliana Raluca; Gheorghe, Consuela-Mădălina; Purcărea, Victor Lorin

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, the competition registered on the Romanian markets regarding the activity of private ophthalmology organizations has raised their interest in developing consumer-oriented strategies. The key factor that assures a differentiation as well as a competitive advantage is the service quality from a marketing perspective. From a marketing perspective, service quality is measured as a perceived discrepancy between the consumers' expectations and was actually performed in health care services. The most widely and validated measurement is the SERVQUAL scale. However, a variety of SERVQUAL scales have been applied in different health care environments without taking into consideration the specialty of the health care service. Thus, the objective of this paper was to measure the service quality in the Romanian ophthalmology private organizations using the SERVQUAL measurement, by identifying the SERVQUAL dimensions, which register the highest and the lowest gap scores. The instrument for data collection was the SERVQUAL self-administered questionnaire that consisted of 22 items measured on a 5-point Likert scale. The sample size encompassed 100 participants and the sampling technique was the snowball. The internal consistency, validity and the reliability of the SERVQUAL scale was determined by the Cronbach's alpha coefficients and factor analysis. The SERVQUAL questionnaire focused on 5 dimensions (tangibles, reliability, assurance, empathy and responsiveness) and each dimension, in its turn, was characterized by different items. The mean age of the participants was 49.52 years, with a mean income of 3031 Romanian Currency and the mean period of wearing eyeglasses was 5 years (±2). Further, there were 47% females and 53% males. The overall internal consistency of the SERVQUAL scale, as well as the dimensions' internal consistency were all above 0.7 and the factor analysis revealed that the items loaded properly on each dimension. Moreover, the gap scores of the

  4. Music Preferences, Friendship, and Externalizing Behavior in Early Adolescence: A SIENA Examination of the Music Marker Theory Using the SNARE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Aart; Keijsers, Loes; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ter Bogt, Tom

    2017-08-01

    Music Marker Theory posits that music is relevant for the structuring of peer groups and that rock, urban, or dance music preferences relate to externalizing behavior. The present study tested these hypotheses, by investigating the role of music preference similarity in friendship selection and the development of externalizing behavior, while taking the effects of friends' externalizing behavior into account. Data were used from the first three waves of the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study (N = 1144; 50% boys; M age  = 12.7; SD = 0.47), including students who entered the first-year of secondary school. Two hypotheses were tested. First, adolescents were expected to select friends based both on a similarity in externalizing behavior and music genre preference. Second, a preference for rock, urban, or dance, music types was expected to predict the development of externalizing behavior, even when taking friends' influence on externalizing behavior into account. Stochastic Actor-Based Modeling indicated that adolescents select their friends based on both externalizing behavior and highbrow music preference. Moreover, both friends' externalizing behavior and a preference for dance music predicted the development of externalizing behavior. Intervention programs might focus on adolescents with dance music preferences.

  5. Ophthalmological affectation: A way to mask Miastenia Gravis. A case purpose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor R. Sánchez Dacal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia Gravis MG is an autoimmune and chronic neuromuscular disease characterized by variable of weakness in the skeletal muscles that control the eye movements and it is confused with an ophthalmological disorder. With this presentation we pretend to systematize the Theoretical references about MG which allow making a correct diagnosis of the disease from the experience of a clinical case. The theory about MG regarding the presentation of the disease is discussed, emphasising on the significance of its differential diagnosis with an ophthalmopathy, which will contribute to apply a proper treatment and a satisfactory evolution of the patient, arriving to the conclusion that affectation of the III cranial pair is a way of frequent presentation of MG, being valuable the differential diagnosis of the ophthalmopaties in these entities.

  6. Image analysis in modern ophthalmology: from acquisition to computer assisted diagnosis and telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo, Andrés G.; Millán, María S.; Cristóbal, Gabriel; Gabarda, Salvador; Sorel, Michal; Sroubek, Filip

    2012-06-01

    Medical digital imaging has become a key element of modern health care procedures. It provides visual documentation and a permanent record for the patients, and most important the ability to extract information about many diseases. Modern ophthalmology thrives and develops on the advances in digital imaging and computing power. In this work we present an overview of recent image processing techniques proposed by the authors in the area of digital eye fundus photography. Our applications range from retinal image quality assessment to image restoration via blind deconvolution and visualization of structural changes in time between patient visits. All proposed within a framework for improving and assisting the medical practice and the forthcoming scenario of the information chain in telemedicine.

  7. Pharmacoepidemiological observational study of antimicrobial use in outpatients of ophthalmology department in North Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Kauser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recognition of drug usage patterns provides the basis for improving safety and plummeting risks associated with their use. Thus, this study was undertaken to explore the drug usage pattern in ophthalmology with an emphasis on antimicrobial use at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology, Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India for 9 months. Newly registered patients visiting the Outpatient Department for curative complaints were included. All drugs prescribed were recorded, including dose, route, dosage form, frequency of administration, indications for prescription, and duration of therapy, and the data was audited using the indicators prescribed by the World Health Organization. Result: A total of 600 prescriptions were analyzed. The number of drugs prescribed was 1097 with an average drug per prescription being 1.8. The most common disorders diagnosed were infective conjunctivitis (21.5% followed by stye (5.5%. Drugs were prescribed in different dosage forms with eye drops (72.6% being the most common. Drugs were predominantly prescribed by brand name (100%. Antimicrobials (44.7% were the most commonly prescribed drugs followed by lubricants (17.5%. Moxifloxacin (53.5% was the most commonly prescribed antimicrobial agent. Of the antimicrobials prescribed, 89.6% were prescribed topically. Average total cost per prescription was 113 INR. Conclusion: The study concludes with an overall impression of rational prescription in terms of prescribing in consensus with the recommended treatment protocol of ocular diseases. Nevertheless, health-care professionals should be encouraged to prescribe by generic name. Creating awareness regarding selection of drugs from essential drug list to reduce the drug cost is the need of the hour. Last but not least, updating knowledge regarding appropriate antimicrobial use and the

  8. Is pediatric ophthalmology a popular subspecialty in India: Present scenario and future remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucheta Parija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study was to assess the attitude and perceptions of residents regarding Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (POS subspecialty training. We also explored the possible barriers and solutions to promoting POS in India. Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 20 items, with a 5-point Likert scale, was provided to all postgraduate residents of Ophthalmology in the year 2013–2014. Semistructured interview of a selected panel of experts was carried out to understand the challenges, barriers, and opportunities for developing POS subspecialty in India. The data collected were coded and statistically analyzed using standard methods for quantitative and qualitative data. Results: Out of 81 residents, 69 responded (85.2%. The mean age of the respondents was 27.5 ± 1.23 years. Forty eight (69.0% residents reported that there was no structured surgical teaching and systematic periodic posting in this subspecialty during their residency program. Residents who stated difficulty to understand the subject were 59%. Pursuing POS as a career choice was indicated by 21.0%. Major attracting attributes of POS fellowship were intellectual stimulation (69.7% and independent operative skills (57.5%. Dissuading factors were difficulty to handle children (54.5% and stress factor (48.4%. Expert views were grouped under four domains, such as doctor–patient ratio, infrastructure, training opportunities, utilization, and accessibility to POS services. Conclusion: The study has provided useful insights into the preferential behavior among trainee resident doctors and reasons for not choosing POS as a possible choice of future fellowships.

  9. Adequacy of the ophthalmology workforce under Ontario's Local Health Integration Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tony; Xu, Mark; Hooper, Philip L

    2016-06-01

    To determine the current distribution of ophthalmologists across Ontario's Local Health Integration Networks (LHINs) and the influence on LHIN-specific cataract surgery wait times. Cross-sectional study. Ophthalmologists listed in the College of Physicians and Surgeons (CPSO) database and the Canadian population. A list of ophthalmologists and their practice locations were obtained from the CPSO website. The total population count for Ontario was obtained from the Statistics Canada census. The population counts for the population aged 65 years and older were generated using the Canadian Socioeconomic Information Management System (CANSIM) table 109-5425. Cataract surgery wait times were obtained from the Ontario Ministry of Health. Statistical analysis was completed using Microsoft Excel using StatPlus software. There are currently 3.28 ophthalmologists per 100 000 total population in Ontario. LHIN-specific ratios ranged from 8.87 (Toronto Central) to 1.67 (Central West), with 3 out of 14 LHINs having met the previously recommended ratio of 3.37. Median cataract surgery wait times ranged from 30 to 72 days. Although the number of cataract surgeries performed was positively correlated with the population aged 65 years and older (p < 0.001), there was no statistically significant association between wait times and number of cataract cases per 1000 population (p = 0.41). Although Ontario appears to have a sufficient number of ophthalmologists overall, there is significant variation in the distribution of the ophthalmology workforce at the LHIN level. This variation did not appear to significantly influence LHIN-specific cataract surgery wait times. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Using Electronic Health Records to Build an Ophthalmologic Data Warehouse and Visualize Patients' Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortüm, Karsten U; Müller, Michael; Kern, Christoph; Babenko, Alexander; Mayer, Wolfgang J; Kampik, Anselm; Kreutzer, Thomas C; Priglinger, Siegfried; Hirneiss, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    To develop a near-real-time data warehouse (DW) in an academic ophthalmologic center to gain scientific use of increasing digital data from electronic medical records (EMR) and diagnostic devices. Database development. Specific macular clinic user interfaces within the institutional hospital information system were created. Orders for imaging modalities were sent by an EMR-linked picture-archiving and communications system to the respective devices. All data of 325 767 patients since 2002 were gathered in a DW running on an SQL database. A data discovery tool was developed. An exemplary search for patients with age-related macular degeneration, performed cataract surgery, and at least 10 intravitreal (excluding bevacizumab) injections was conducted. Data related to those patients (3 142 204 diagnoses [including diagnoses from other fields of medicine], 720 721 procedures [eg, surgery], and 45 416 intravitreal injections) were stored, including 81 274 optical coherence tomography measurements. A web-based browsing tool was successfully developed for data visualization and filtering data by several linked criteria, for example, minimum number of intravitreal injections of a specific drug and visual acuity interval. The exemplary search identified 450 patients with 516 eyes meeting all criteria. A DW was successfully implemented in an ophthalmologic academic environment to support and facilitate research by using increasing EMR and measurement data. The identification of eligible patients for studies was simplified. In future, software for decision support can be developed based on the DW and its structured data. The improved classification of diseases and semiautomatic validation of data via machine learning are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Extending the XNAT archive tool for image and analysis management in ophthalmology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahle, Andreas; Lee, Kyungmoo; Harding, Adam T.; Garvin, Mona K.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Sonka, Milan; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2013-03-01

    In ophthalmology, various modalities and tests are utilized to obtain vital information on the eye's structure and function. For example, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is utilized to diagnose, screen, and aid treatment of eye diseases like macular degeneration or glaucoma. Such data are complemented by photographic retinal fundus images and functional tests on the visual field. DICOM isn't widely used yet, though, and frequently images are encoded in proprietary formats. The eXtensible Neuroimaging Archive Tool (XNAT) is an open-source NIH-funded framework for research PACS and is in use at the University of Iowa for neurological research applications. Its use for ophthalmology was hence desirable but posed new challenges due to data types thus far not considered and the lack of standardized formats. We developed custom tools for data types not natively recognized by XNAT itself using XNAT's low-level REST API. Vendor-provided tools can be included as necessary to convert proprietary data sets into valid DICOM. Clients can access the data in a standardized format while still retaining the original format if needed by specific analysis tools. With respective project-specific permissions, results like segmentations or quantitative evaluations can be stored as additional resources to previously uploaded datasets. Applications can use our abstract-level Python or C/C++ API to communicate with the XNAT instance. This paper describes concepts and details of the designed upload script templates, which can be customized to the needs of specific projects, and the novel client-side communication API which allows integration into new or existing research applications.

  12. An Interactive Method for Teaching Anatomy of the Human Eye for Medical Students in Ophthalmology Clinical Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Doyle, Sara K.; Madden, Richard H.; Mitchell, Terry L.; Sims, Ershela L.

    2009-01-01

    Much research has shown the benefits of additional anatomical learning and dissection beyond the first year of medical school human gross anatomy, all the way through postgraduate medical training. We have developed an interactive method for teaching eye and orbit anatomy to medical students in their ophthalmology rotation at Duke University…

  13. Prematures with and without Regressed Retinopathy of Prematurity: Comparison of Long-Term (6-10 Years) Ophthalmological Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats, Bernard P.; Tan, Karel E. W. P.

    Reporting long-term ophthalmologic sequelae among ex-prematures at 6 to 10 years of age, this study compares 42 ex-premature infants who had had regressed forms of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) during the neonatal period with 42 matched non-ROP ex-premature controls at 6 to 10 years of age. Subjects were subdivided into four groups: (1) ROP…

  14. [Study of the impact of a MBA Administration in Health course on the organizational modernity of ophthalmologic clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, Manuel; Scarpi, Marinho Jorge

    2005-01-01

    Investigations in the field of the learning competence that investigate the impact of the acquisition of new individual competence of those responsible for ophthalmologic clinics, by means of a MBA Administration in Health course, on the organizational modernity of ophthalmologic clinics. Survey using questionnaires applied to students and former students of the course and to managers of ophthalmologic clinics not linked to the course (n=30 each one). The analysis was made by means of statistical methods: r of Pearson and Q of Yule; Student's t test, sum of series test, median test and U test of Mann-Whitney. Linear and positive correlation was observed between excellency of MBA Administration in Health and the development of the veteran students' capacities (rho correlation of Spearman at the level of 0.01); there is a significant difference (0.0364, by the Mann-Whitney test), between veteran students and freshmen regarding the need to extend the individual capacities provided by the MBA Administration in Health course, to the other operational employees of the ophthalmologic clinics; and there is a significant difference (0.0057, for the Mann-Whitney test), among veteran students of the MBA Administration in Health course and freshmen regarding the importance of the organizational modernity for the ophthalmologic clinics. The obtained results are consistent, in a general way, with the proposed model: MBA Administration's excellence in Health contributes significantly to the organizational modernity, to the development of competence of the veteran students, and, also in substantial way to the perception of organizational hiatuses.

  15. Tracking Cognitive Decline in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early-Stage Alzheimer Dementia: Mini-Mental State Examination versus Neuropsychological Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonho; Na, Han Kyu; Byun, Justin; Shin, Jiwon; Kim, Sungsoo; Lee, Byung Hwa; Na, Duk L

    2017-01-01

    Although the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB), and neuropsychological batteries are widely used for evaluating cognitive function, it remains elusive which instrument best reflects the longitudinal disease progression in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and probable Alzheimer disease (AD). We investigated whether changes in these three instruments over time correlate with loss of cortical gray matter volume (cGMV). We retrospectively investigated 204 patients (aMCI, n = 114; AD, n = 90) who had undergone MMSE, CDR-SOB, the dementia version of the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB-D), and 3-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images at least twice. We investigated the partial correlation between annual decline in test scores and percent change of cGMV. In aMCI patients, changes in the SNSB-D total score (r = 0.340, p < 0.001) and CDR-SOB (r = 0.222, p = 0.020), but not MMSE, showed a correlation with cGMV loss, with the SNSB-D total score showing the strongest correlation. In AD patients, decline in all three test scores correlated significantly with cGMV loss, with MMSE exhibiting the strongest correlation (r = 0.464, p < 0.001). In aMCI patients, neuropsychological battery, though time-consuming, was the most adequate tool in tracking disease progression. In AD patients, however, MMSE may be the most effective longitudinal monitoring tool when considering cost-effectiveness. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The attendance of women in mammographic early detection programme and the results of the observation of the breast glands condition. 1. The attendance of higher schools female employees in mammography examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romejko, M.; Kleszczewska, J.; Liszek, A.; Tarlowska, L.; Wronkowski, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this work is to assess the attendance in the early detection (mammography) in female employees of Warsaw-based higher schools aged 40-69. During the 4.5 year period (1985-1989) 1325 female employees of higher schools (23.5% of the schools' total employment) turned up to the Female Cancer Prevention Center of The Higher Schools' Medical Center (ZOZ) in Warsaw. Observation of this group continued until June 30, 1992. Majority of the women (56.5%) showed up only once, 21.7% came twice, and 21.8% at least three times. Out of the 1021 women (77% of all the examined female employees) who showed no symptoms in the first test, only 37% came again for the second checkup. Out of the 305 women who had changes detected in their X-ray images, 66% turned up for the second test. 23 women (1.7%) had suspicious mammography results or typical cancer symptoms in the first test. The present work shows that the reason of the insufficient attendance of higher schools' female employees in early detection programs need to be investigated and that a more efficient early detection system must be developed. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the anterior chamber angle in glaucoma: a report by the american academy of ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott D; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C; Chen, Philip P; Chen, Teresa C; Francis, Brian A; Jampel, Henry D

    2013-10-01

    To assess the published literature pertaining to the association between anterior segment imaging and gonioscopy and to determine whether such imaging aids in the diagnosis of primary angle closure (PAC). Literature searches of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were last conducted on July 6, 2011. The searches yielded 371 unique citations. Members of the Ophthalmic Technology Assessment Committee Glaucoma Panel reviewed the titles and abstracts of these articles and selected 134 of possible clinical significance for further review. The panel reviewed the full text of these articles and identified 79 studies meeting the inclusion criteria, for which the panel methodologist assigned a level of evidence based on a standardized grading scheme adopted by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Three, 70, and 6 studies were rated as providing level I, II, and III evidence, respectively. Quantitative and qualitative parameters defined from ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT), Scheimpflug photography, and the scanning peripheral anterior chamber depth analyzer (SPAC) demonstrate a strong association with the results of gonioscopy. There is substantial variability in the type of information obtained from each imaging method. Imaging of structures posterior to the iris is possible only with UBM. Direct imaging of the anterior chamber angle (ACA) is possible using UBM and OCT. The ability to acquire OCT images in a completely dark environment allows greater sensitivity in detecting eyes with appositional angle closure. Noncontact imaging using OCT, Scheimpflug photography, or SPAC makes these methods more attractive for large-scale PAC screening than contact imaging using UBM. Although there is evidence suggesting that anterior segment imaging provides useful information in the evaluation of PAC, none of these imaging methods provides sufficient information about the ACA anatomy to be considered a substitute for

  18. [The German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) during the Period of National Socialism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, J M

    2006-11-01

    Sixty-one years after the end of the Hitler dictatorship, the history of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) has still hardly been investigated. According to different sources, especially the reports of the DOG congresses 1934, 1936, 1938, and 1940, the following picture can be drawn: 1. The seizure of power ("Machtergreifung") of Adolf Hitler was appreciated by most of the DOG members. 2. After a change of the constitution the DOG came under the control of the "Reichsinnenministerium". However, it escaped the egalitarianism ("Gleichschaltung") and remained relatively independent. 3. Approximately 40 % of the heads of the German university eye clinics who were the most influential DOG representatives were members of the national socialistic German working party (NSDAP). Almost all of these joined the party in 1933 or later. 4. Up to the last congress in Dresden, 1940, the DOG activities were quite extensive. After that time the activities strongly declined. 5. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offspring" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from January 1st 1934 was intensely discussed by the DOG. Some prominent ophthalmologists and DOG members were at least in part responsible for the sterilisations because of "congenital blindness". However, as far as it is known, the DOG itself did not intervene directly concerning the practice of sterilisation. 6. Between 1932 and 1940, the DOG lost approximately 12 % of its members. Many of these stemmed from foreign countries, and many were German Jews. The latter left the DOG, as Walther Löhlein stated after the end of the war, "voluntarily". However, a main reason for leaving the DOG was very likely the feeling of being unwanted. The national socialism had several disastrous effects on ophthalmology. Although single DOG members participated in the excesses, the DOG as an organization was not directly involved. However, taking into consideration that more than 10 % of the members of the

  19. Using Role-plays as an Empathy Education Tool for Ophthalmology Postgraduate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kirti; Bhattacharyya, Mainak; Veerwal, Vikas; Singh, Arshi

    2017-12-01

    To assess the role of an "empathy sensitizing module" (ESM) in ophthalmology postgraduates in promoting effective empathetic communication. Thirty-nine ophthalmology postgraduates were taught effective empathetic communication using specially designed module, comprising of five illustrative role-plays. We evaluated the impact of the training by (a) self-assessment of empathy quotient by residents using Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE scale) before and 6 weeks after ESM training and (b) nonparticipant observation (NPO) by trained faculty in real-life settings over the next 4 months. A peer-validated, self-designed checklist was used for NPO. The change in score was analyzed using Student's paired t -test. The faculty observed the use of empathy in real-life patient encounters of the trainees over the next 6 months. In addition, secondary qualitative data were collected and analyzed to assess the impact of the module on other stakeholders such as the role-playing undergraduate students and core faculty. Pretraining assessment revealed that concept of empathy during patient communication was understood by only 10% students. PostESM training, the self-rated mean empathy score, on JSE, significantly increased from 95.9 to 106.7 (of a maximum of 140). This was also confirmed by a significant improvement in externally rated empathy and soft skills scores (from 29.3 to 39.1; of a maximum of 55) using the NPO tool. Focus group discussion was done on the continued display of empathy by the trainees in real-life situation over 6 months of observation by the faculty. The group agreed that there was a gradual attrition of initial gain in empathy behavior over the observation period of 6 months. The spillover benefits of the training process were observed among the role-playing undergraduates as well. A thematic analysis of their reflections on the process revealed a substantial change with an improved understanding of effective communication. There is a definite scope for

  20. Psychic blindness or visual agnosia: early descriptions of a nervous disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This article briefly reports on three early contributions to the understanding of visual agnosia as a syndrome sui generis. The authors of the respective papers worked in different fields such as physiology, ophthalmology, and neurology, and, although they were not in direct contact with each other, their results converged upon a consistent view of a nervous disorder that they called psychic blindness.

  1. Effects of topical bevacizumab application on early bleb failure after trabeculectomy: observational case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klos-Rola J

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Justyna Klos-Rola, Maria Tulidowicz-Bielak, Tomasz Zarnowski Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of topical bevacizumab on the formation and function of filtering blebs in eyes with early bleb failure after antiglaucoma surgery. Methods: Of all patients who underwent mitomycin-augmented trabeculectomy for glaucoma in the Department of Ophthalmology at the Medical University in Lublin, Poland, between March 2009 and March 2010, a total of 21 eyes from 20 patients with injected filtration bleb 9.8 ± 4.7 days after surgery were included in this observational case series. All patients were treated with standard steroid therapy and topical bevacizumab 5 mg/mL five times a day for 20.9 ± 9.8 days. Patients were followed up every other day, and a full eye examination was performed 14, 30, 60, and 180 days after initiation of treatment. Blebs were evaluated for vascularity by slit-lamp examination with concomitant photographic documentation and intraocular pressure measurement. Results: Elevated functional bleb with significantly reduced vascularity was present in 16 eyes, and was flat and nonfunctional in five eyes. Intraocular pressure in all eyes decreased from a mean of 26.6 ± 9.6 mmHg before surgery to 14.6 ± 7.7 mmHg and 15.8 ± 8.3 mmHg at 2 and 6 months after surgery, respectively. Filtration bleb leak was noted in three eyes while on treatment with bevacizumab. Conclusion: Topical application of bevacizumab might favor functional bleb formation after trabeculectomy in eyes with a high risk of failure. Keywords: glaucoma, trabeculectomy, bleb failure, bevacizumab

  2. Early caries naked-eyed examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhmutov, D; Gonchukov, S; Voytenok, O; Kharchenko, O; Zubov, B

    2008-01-01

    In view of its potential for dental diagnostics, noninvasive optical methods have been the object of research for the last years. Different techniques (spectroscopy, microscopy, and tomography) are used to discriminate between caries and sound enamel. The main aim of this paper is to determine a simple way to see incipient caries with the naked eye

  3. Guiding role of typical cases in clinical training for ophthalmology professional degree graduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the change of the concept of graduate enrollment, the recruiting proportion of clinical medicine professional degree graduate students is more and more, and the training of professional degree graduate students is increasingly focusing on practical. In our experience in clinical training for ophthalmology professional degree graduate students, increasing the ward clinical practice time is important. For particular emphasis on the guiding role of the typical cases, each professional group combined their professional characteristics of the typical cases to instruct the graduate students, training their clinical diagnosis and treatment ability, training their microsurgical techniques. From clinical medical writing, record summary, literature review, professional degree graduate students could expand their knowledge structure, practice their thesis writing ability. Based on the typical cases, expansion of knowledge coverage, they could improve the ability of diagnosis and treatment for special disease cases. In this rigorous training system, professional degree graduate students can learn by analogy, and focus on typical cases to get the most intuitive panoramic understanding of the diseases, with a minimum of time to master the most clinical knowledge, to enrich clinical experience, and to lay the foundation for future work in the assessment.

  4. The international council of ophthalmology: vision for ophthalmic education in an interdependent world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew G; Golnik, Karl C; Tso, Mark O M; Spivey, Bruce; Miller, Kathleen; Gauthier, Tina-Marie

    2012-10-01

    To describe the emerging strategic global perspective of the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) efforts in ophthalmic education. A global perspective describing how the development of sophisticated educational tools in tandem with information technology can revolutionize ophthalmic education worldwide. Review of ICO educational tools, resources, and programs that are available to ophthalmic educators across the globe. With the explosive growth of the Internet, the ability to access medical information in the most isolated of locations is now possible. Through specific ICO initiatives, including the ICO curricula, the "Teaching the Teachers" program, and the launching of the new ICO Center for Ophthalmic Educators, the ICO is providing ophthalmic educators across the globe with access to standardized but customizable educational programs and tools to better train ophthalmologists and allied eye care professionals throughout the world. Access to educational tools and strengthening of global learning will help providers meet the goals of VISION 2020 and beyond in eliminating avoidable blindness. It is the intent of the ICO that its programs for ophthalmic educators, including conferences, courses, curricula, and online resources, result in better-trained ophthalmologists and eye care professionals worldwide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dosimetry on ocular brachytherapy with I-125 ophthalmologic ROPES and COMS plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourao, Arnaldo P. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnoloica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Engenharia Hospitalar], e-mail: aprata@des.cefetmg.br; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares], e-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    Radiotherapy is an alternative to ocular enucleation. However, the irradiation of ocular region can bring deleterious effects due to the high doses, mainly in the lens, retina and in the bone structures in growth phase. Brachytherapy instead of teletherapy looks for departuring absorbed doses in tumor minimizing doses in the lens and the adjacent tissues of the eyeball (orbital region), avoiding deleterious effects. Thus, a three-dimensional computational voxel model and an analytical model were coupled, including the heterogeneous properties of the globe and the adjacent tissues. The analytical model was applied to define the thin structures of the ocular globe. This computational model is used to simulate orbital irradiation with ROPES and COMS ophthalmologic plaques placed on the sclera surface filled to ten and eight iodine-125 seeds, respectively. Simulations are performed on the MCNP5 code. The computational simulation allows evaluating how the dose rates are spatially distributed in the orbital volume. The results are normalized to 100% at the maximum dose on the tumor base, and by the applied source activity. The external globe structures receive 0.5% of the maximum internal dose. The crystalline lens dosimetry depends on the position and thickness of the tumor and the plaque diameters. On the present case, 12.75% of maximum dose is found on the lens. The maximum dose is found onto the eyeball, in the vitreous. The present model represents an advance in simulating and predicting absorbed dose on ocular brachytherapy, incorporating anthropomorphic and anthropometric features of the real eyeball. (author)

  6. Regression models in the determination of the absorbed dose with extrapolation chamber for ophthalmological applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Morales P, R.

    1992-06-01

    The absorbed dose for equivalent soft tissue is determined,it is imparted by ophthalmologic applicators, ( 90 Sr/ 90 Y, 1850 MBq) using an extrapolation chamber of variable electrodes; when estimating the slope of the extrapolation curve using a simple lineal regression model is observed that the dose values are underestimated from 17.7 percent up to a 20.4 percent in relation to the estimate of this dose by means of a regression model polynomial two grade, at the same time are observed an improvement in the standard error for the quadratic model until in 50%. Finally the global uncertainty of the dose is presented, taking into account the reproducibility of the experimental arrangement. As conclusion it can infers that in experimental arrangements where the source is to contact with the extrapolation chamber, it was recommended to substitute the lineal regression model by the quadratic regression model, in the determination of the slope of the extrapolation curve, for more exact and accurate measurements of the absorbed dose. (Author)

  7. Correlation between weather and incidence of selected ophthalmological diagnoses: a database analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kern C

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Kern, Karsten Kortüm, Michael Müller, Florian Raabe, Wolfgang Johann Mayer, Siegfried Priglinger, Thomas Christian Kreutzer University Eye Hospital Munich, Faculty of Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany Purpose: Our aim was to correlate the overall patient volume and the incidence of several ophthalmological diseases in our emergency department with weather data. Patients and methods: For data analysis, we used our clinical data warehouse and weather data. We investigated the weekly overall patient volume and the average weekly incidence of all encoded diagnoses of “conjunctivitis”, “foreign body”, “acute iridocyclitis”, and “corneal abrasion”. A Spearman’s correlation was performed to link these data with the weekly average sunshine duration, temperature, and wind speed. Results: We noticed increased patient volume in correlation with increasing sunshine duration and higher temperature. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the weekly incidences of conjunctivitis and of foreign body and weather data. Conclusion: The results of this data analysis reveal the possible influence of external conditions on the health of a population and can be used for weather-dependent resource allocation. Keywords: corneal injury, trauma, uveitis, conjunctivitis, weather

  8. Estimate of neutron secondary doses received by patients in proton therapy: cases of ophthalmologic treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinetti, F.

    2009-12-01

    This research thesis aims at assessing doses due to secondary neutrons and received by the organs of a patient which are located outside of the treatment field. The study focused on ophthalmological treatments performed at the Orsay proton therapy centre. A 75 eV beam line model has first been developed with the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Several experimental validations of this model have been performed: proton dose distribution in a water phantom, ambient equivalent dose due to secondary neutrons and neutron spectra in the treatment room, and doses deposited by secondary neutrons in an anthropomorphous phantom. Simulations and measurements are in correct agreement. Then, a numeric assessment of secondary doses received by the patient's organs has been performed by using a MIRD-type mathematical phantom. These doses have been computed for several organs: the non-treated eye, the brain, the thyroid, and other parts of the body situated either in the front part of the body (the one directly exposed to neutrons generated in the treatment line) or deeper and further from the treatment field

  9. Dosimetry on ocular brachytherapy with I-125 ophthalmologic ROPES and COMS plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, Arnaldo P.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2009-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an alternative to ocular enucleation. However, the irradiation of ocular region can bring deleterious effects due to the high doses, mainly in the lens, retina and in the bone structures in growth phase. Brachytherapy instead of teletherapy looks for departuring absorbed doses in tumor minimizing doses in the lens and the adjacent tissues of the eyeball (orbital region), avoiding deleterious effects. Thus, a three-dimensional computational voxel model and an analytical model were coupled, including the heterogeneous properties of the globe and the adjacent tissues. The analytical model was applied to define the thin structures of the ocular globe. This computational model is used to simulate orbital irradiation with ROPES and COMS ophthalmologic plaques placed on the sclera surface filled to ten and eight iodine-125 seeds, respectively. Simulations are performed on the MCNP5 code. The computational simulation allows evaluating how the dose rates are spatially distributed in the orbital volume. The results are normalized to 100% at the maximum dose on the tumor base, and by the applied source activity. The external globe structures receive 0.5% of the maximum internal dose. The crystalline lens dosimetry depends on the position and thickness of the tumor and the plaque diameters. On the present case, 12.75% of maximum dose is found on the lens. The maximum dose is found onto the eyeball, in the vitreous. The present model represents an advance in simulating and predicting absorbed dose on ocular brachytherapy, incorporating anthropomorphic and anthropometric features of the real eyeball. (author)

  10. The international forum of ophthalmic simulation: developing a virtual reality training curriculum for ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, George M; Lamparter, Julia; Sullivan, Paul M; O'Sullivan, Fiona; Hussain, Badrul; Athanasiadis, Ioannis; Litwin, Andre S; Gillan, Stewart N

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the effect of a structured, supervised, cataract simulation programme on ophthalmic surgeons in their first year of training, and to evaluate the level of skill transfer. Trainees with minimal intraocular and simulator experience in their first year of ophthalmology undertook a structured, sequential, customised, virtual reality (VR) cataract training programme developed through the International Forum of Ophthalmic Simulation. A set of one-handed, bimanual, static and dynamic tasks were evaluated before and after the course and scores obtained. Statistical significance was evaluated with the Wilcoxon sign-rank test. The median precourse score of 101.50/400 (IQR 58.75-145.75) was significantly improved after completing the training programme ((postcourse score: 302/400, range: 266.25-343), p<0.001). While improvement was evident and found to be statistically significant in all parameters, greatest improvements were found for capsulorhexis and antitremor training ((Capsulorhexis: precourse score=0/100, range 0-4.5; postcourse score=81/100, range 13-87.75; p=0.002), (antitremor training: precourse score=0/100, range 0-0; postcourse score=80/100, range 60.25-91.50; p=0.001)). Structured and supervised VR training can offer a significant level of skills transfer to novice ophthalmic surgeons. VR training at the earliest stage of ophthalmic surgical training may, therefore, be of benefit.

  11. [Ophthalmologic reading charts : Part 2: Current logarithmically scaled reading charts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radner, W

    2016-12-01

    To analyze currently available reading charts regarding print size, logarithmic print size progression, and the background of test-item standardization. For the present study, the following logarithmically scaled reading charts were investigated using a measuring microscope (iNexis VMA 2520; Nikon, Tokyo): Eschenbach, Zeiss, OCULUS, MNREAD (Minnesota Near Reading Test), Colenbrander, and RADNER. Calculations were made according to EN-ISO 8596 and the International Research Council recommendations. Modern reading charts and cards exhibit a logarithmic progression of print sizes. The RADNER reading charts comprise four different cards with standardized test items (sentence optotypes), a well-defined stop criterion, accurate letter sizes, and a high print quality. Numbers and Landolt rings are also given in the booklet. The OCULUS cards have currently been reissued according to recent standards and also exhibit a high print quality. In addition to letters, numbers, Landolt rings, and examples taken from a timetable and the telephone book, sheet music is also offered. The Colenbrander cards use short sentences of 44 characters, including spaces, and exhibit inaccuracy at smaller letter sizes, as do the MNREAD cards. The MNREAD cards use sentences of 60 characters, including spaces, and have a high print quality. Modern reading charts show that international standards can be achieved with test items similar to optotypes, by using recent technology and developing new concepts of test-item standardization. Accurate print sizes, high print quality, and a logarithmic progression should become the minimum requirements for reading charts and reading cards in ophthalmology.

  12. Indications for and techniques of keratoplasty at Vietnam National Institute of Ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Ngoc Dong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To report the indications for and techniques of corneal transplantation at Vietnam National Institute of Ophthalmology (VNIO over a period of 12y (2002-2013. METHODS: Records of patients who had undergone corneal transplantation at VNIO from January 1, 2002 to January 1, 2014 were reviewed to determine the indication for and type of corneal transplant performed. Patient age, gender, indication for corneal transplantation and surgical technique were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Corneal transplantation were underwent in 1390 eyes of 1278 patients with a mean age of 44.9±18.1y during the period under review. The most common indication was infectious corneal ulcer (n=670; 48.2%, followed by corneal scar (n=333, 24.0%, corneal dystrophy (n=138, 9.9% and failed graft (n=112, 8.1%. Nearly all procedures performed were penetrating keratoplasty (n=1300, 93.5%, with a few lamellar keratoplasty procedures performed: lamellar keratoplasty (n=52, 3.7%, Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (n=27, 1.9% and deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (n=11, 0.8%. CONCLUSION: While the most common indication for keratoplasty was infectious keratitis, nearly all indications for corneal transplantation were managed with penetrating keratoplasty. However, lamellar keratoplasty techniques, including deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, are being performed with increasing frequency for isolated stromal and endothelial disorders, respectively.

  13. Application of photo transferred thermoluminescence in the ophthalmologic area by using CaSO4:Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossi, Fabio H.; Campos, Leticia L.; Schor, Paulo; Melo Junior, Luis A.S. de

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of CaSO 4 :Dy pellets to laser radiation detection on the ophthalmologic area is being studied by IPEN together with UNIFESP, in order to obtain an adequate dosimeter to set the dose laser spread and received by the patients, professional of health and environmental. The method of phototranferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) using CaSO 4 :Dy pellets with 0,8 mm of thickness, introduced good sensibility to the excimer laser used on UNIFESP. The PTTL signal to the laser radiation shown reproducible and linear in a great range of absorbed energy (∼ 4.000 mJ) and gamma doses (5-100 Gy) and, points of measure with distances source laser-sample in order of 4,0 m presents good resolution of the PTTL signal. A method of monitoring the area in the surgery room was tried between the IPEN and UNIFESP. Using the CaSO 4 :Dy, the researchers have had a method cheaper and accessible to study the eventual risks of the ultraviolet radiation on the chromosomic breakage and in the development of malignancies tumors in professional of health exposed daily to the excimer laser used in corneans refractive surgeries. (author)

  14. Current role of cryotherapy in retinopathy of prematurity: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jennifer L; Melia, Michele; Yang, Michael B; Buffenn, Angela N; Chiang, Michael F; Lambert, Scott R

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the role of cryotherapy in the current treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Literature searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library were conducted on December 2, 2009, for articles published after 1984. The searches included all languages and retrieved 187 relevant citations. Thirteen articles were deemed relevant to the assessment question and were rated according to the strength of evidence. Four articles reported results from 2 large multicenter randomized clinical trials, and the remaining 9 articles reported results of 3 small randomized trials that directly compared cryotherapy and laser. Neither of the multicenter randomized clinical trials was a direct comparison of cryotherapy with laser. These studies were used to evaluate the comparative trials based on treatment criteria, study populations, and clinical results. Higher percentages of poor structural and functional outcomes generally were seen in eyes treated with cryotherapy compared with eyes undergoing laser treatment. Higher rates of systemic complications and myopia also were identified after treatment with cryotherapy. Despite a relative paucity of level I evidence directly comparing cryotherapy and laser treatment for threshold ROP, the literature suggests that neonatal facilities should gain access to laser technology and laser-trained ophthalmic staff to achieve better outcomes for treatment of the disease. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. RESULTS OF THE SURVEY CONDUCTED AMONG OPHTHALMOLOGISTS ON THE ISSUE OF EQUIPMENT OF MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS WITH OPHTHALMOLOGY DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Seraphimov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The problem of limited accessibility and quality of ophthalmic medical care remains one of the leading ones in the national healthcare. This article presents results of the survey conducted among ophthalmologists about the effect of large-scale equipment of all medical institutions in the Leningrad Region with modern ophthalmologic devices over the recent years.Objective is to determine the contribution of the health care modernization program to equipping the medical institutions of the Leningrad Region with modern ophthalmologic medical devices, and to identify the main areas for improving the ophthalmologic care for residents of the Leningrad region with cataracts.Materials and methods. According to a specially developed questionnaire, 105 ophthalmologists from the Leningrad Region were interviewed. The survey was conducted among physicians working both in out-patient medical facilities and in medical facilities with in-patient modalities.Results. The results of the study confirmed positive changes that occurred in recent years as a result of equipping medical institutions with modern medical devices. Almost two-thirds (59.9% of respondents noted that equipping with modern medical devices had a significant impact on the quality of the medical and diagnostic measures carried out in healthcare facilities of the region.Conclusions. The equipment had a significant impact on the diagnosis and treatment of all kinds of diseases of the eye and its appendages, especially such eye disease which is so common among the population of the Leningrad Region as cataracts (75.0 per 100 ophthalmologists surveyed. At the same time, in spite of these efforts, the standard for equipping ophthalmologic departments in individual medical institutions has not been fully provided. Only every fifth (20.9% ophthalmologist noted during the survey that the list of available ophthalmic devices was sufficient, and that they all worked properly.

  16. A comparison of undergraduate clinical ophthalmology learning methods: smart phone television display versus slit-lamp teaching telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenting, Sandy Zhou; Samin, Margaret Million; Sanjay, Srinivasan; Neelam, Kumari; Shibli, Khalil; Chang, Su; Cheng, Jason

    2017-08-01

    To compare medical students' preference of smart phone television display (SPTD) to a slit-lamp teaching telescope (SLTT) in undergraduate clinical ophthalmology education. This is a randomized, crossover, comparative study. Pairs of medical students were randomly assigned to 2 teaching sessions using either SPTD first followed by SLTT or in reverse order. Students were asked to give feedback on the 2 teaching devices by answering 6 questions using a numeric rating score from 1 to 10. All participating students were sent the results of the study 1 month after the completion of the study and were asked to reflect upon the outcome. Thirty-eight students were recruited. The overall satisfaction scores were significantly higher for SPTD than SLTT (8.6 ± 1.4 vs 7.5 ± 1.0, p teaching. Our study has demonstrated that the utility of SPTD as a teaching aid can significantly increase the satisfaction of undergraduate medical students during their ophthalmology attachment. It offers specific practical advantages in teaching medical students over the traditional SLTT. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Results of an internet-based survey amongst members of the German Ophthalmological Society concerning postmortem cornea donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, C E; Promesberger, J; Hirschfeld, G; Koch, R; Reinhard, T; Seitz, B

    2012-12-01

    Analysis of willingness for postmortem cornea donation by professionals in ophthalmology and their motives in favor of or against donation. 3887 members of the German Ophthalmological Society received an anonymous questionnaire concerning sociodemographic background, physical health, experiences with organ explantation and their former engagement and motives concerning organ and cornea donation. 722 of the questionnaires were partially and 533 completely answered with an average willingness for cornea donation of 79.4%. Significant parameters for cornea donation were gender, former experience with organ explantation, ophthalmological health and fear of false diagnosis of brain death, worse medical treatment or organ commercialization. Of the participants 53.9% suggested the internet as a favorite source of information in this matter. The factors which had a significant impact on cornea donation in this survey seem to be mainly a result of insufficient information. Detailed information regarding this topic should preferentially be presented on internet pages of professional societies and could probably increase donation approval of DOG members.

  18. Mersey deanery ophthalmology trainees' views of the objective assessment of surgical and technical skills (OSATS) workplace-based assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagkataki, Myrto; Choudhary, Anshoo

    2013-02-01

    Objective assessment of surgical and technical skills (OSATS) workplace-based assessment tool is now mandatory during ophthalmology speciality training in the United Kingdom. The opinions of those undergoing this assessment have not been formally sought. This study evaluated the views of ophthalmology trainees on OSATS assessment as applied to cataract surgery. A questionnaire was circulated to 34 ophthalmology speciality trainees of the Mersey deanery. A total of 28 responses were received. The most positive aspects of the process identified were feedback, learning and opportunity for reflective practice. The most negative aspects were time constraints, assessor's availability and case selection. Of the trainees, 93 % mentioned that no previous agreed action was taken into consideration when filling in subsequent forms and their performance was not discussed in their annual summative assessment. This study highlights important aspects of trainees' perceptions of OSATS. Trainees appreciate the formative aspects of OSATS assessment. Some problems came to light, which can be resolved by specification of standards, training of assessors, and commitment from both trainers and trainees. Changes are needed to allow demonstration of surgical progression with time. The issues identified here will be relevant to other specialities as well. A larger survey would be beneficial.

  19. Nondestructive examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mletzko, U.

    1980-01-01

    Visual examination is treated as a method for the control of size and shape of components, surface quality and weld performance. Dye penetrant, magnetic particle and eddy current examinations are treated as methods for the evaluation of surface defects and material properties. The limitations to certain materials, defect sizes and types are shown. (orig./RW)

  20. Risk of bias assessment of randomised controlled trials in high-impact ophthalmology journals and general medical journals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joksimovic, Lazar; Koucheki, Robert; Popovic, Marko; Ahmed, Yusuf; Schlenker, Matthew B; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2017-10-01

    Evidence-based treatments in ophthalmology are often based on the results of randomised controlled trials. Biased conclusions from randomised controlled trials may lead to inappropriate management recommendations. This systematic review investigates the prevalence of bias risk in randomised controlled trials published in high-impact ophthalmology journals and ophthalmology trials from general medical journals. Using Ovid MEDLINE, randomised controlled trials in the top 10 high-impact ophthalmology journals in 2015 were systematically identified and critically appraised for the prevalence of bias risk. Included randomised controlled trials were assessed in all domains of bias as defined by the Cochrane Collaboration. In addition, the prevalence of conflict of interest and industry sponsorship was investigated. A comparison with ophthalmology articles from high-impact general medical journals was performed. Of the 259 records that were screened from ophthalmology-specific journals, 119 trials met all inclusion criteria and were critically appraised. In total, 29.4% of domains had an unclear risk, 13.8% had a high risk and 56.8% had a low risk of bias. In comparison, ophthalmology articles from general medical journals had a lower prevalence of unclear risk (17.1%), higher prevalence of high risk (21.9%) and a higher prevalence of low risk domains (61.9%). Furthermore, 64.7% of critically appraised trials from ophthalmology-specific journals did not report any conflicts of interest, while 70.6% did not report an industry sponsor of their trial. In closing, it is essential that authors, peer reviewers and readers closely follow published risk of bias guidelines. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Incontinentia pigmenti--ophthalmological observation of a series of cases and review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Doherty, M

    2012-02-01

    AIM: The aims of this study were to make an inventory of the disease in Ireland, to acquire better knowledge of the relationship between genetic makeup and phenotypic ocular presentation and, finally, through literature review and personal experience, to establish clear guidelines on best practice in the management of children with this rare condition both in terms of screening and follow-up. METHODS: All patients who attended the dermatology and genetic clinic in Our Lady\\'s Hospital for Sick Children, Crumlin, with incontinentia pigmenti (IP) were contacted and invited to attend the eye clinic for ocular assessment. Children who were already attending the ophthalmic services before commencement of the study had their charts reviewed for assessment. RESULTS: 11 of 19 patients agreed to attend the clinic for ocular assessment. Of these patients, nine had genetic testing. The mean age of the patients at the examination was 8 years (3 months to 29 years). In 10 patients, IP was the result of a spontaneous mutation, whereas the condition was inherited from an affected mother in one patient. Of the 11 patients with IP, 5 have visually significant ocular findings (47%). We describe the case history of four of these children briefly to outline the severity of this condition. CONCLUSION: Our patients had a significant percentage of ocular abnormalities (47%). We have outlined an examination schedule for patients with and without retinal pathology and recommend fluorescein angiography in patients with retinal pathology to fully determine the extent of ischaemia. Like other studies, early treatment with peripheral retinal photocoagulation to reduce the risk of retinal detachment is recommended in this study.

  2. Investigation of antibacterial and wettability behaviours of plasma-modified PMMA films for application in ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Abbasi-Firouzjah, Marzieh; Shokri, Babak

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research is the experimental investigation of the surface properties of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) such as wettability and the roughness effect on Escherichia coli (gram negative) cell adhesion. Radio frequency (RF; 13.56 MHz) oxygen plasma was used to enhance the antibacterial and wettability properties of this polymer for biomedical applications, especially ophthalmology. The surface was activated by O 2 plasma to produce hydrophilic functional groups. Samples were treated with various RF powers from 10 to 80 W and different gas flow rates from 20 to 120 sccm. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to monitor the plasma process. The modified surface hydrophilicity, morphology and transparency characteristics were studied by water contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy, respectively. Based on the contact angle measurements of three liquids, surface free energy variations were investigated. Moreover, the antibacterial properties were evaluated utilizing the method of plate counting of Escherichia coli. Also, in order to investigate stability of the plasma treatment, an ageing study was carried out by water contact angle measurements repeated in the days after the treatment. For biomedical applications, especially eye lenses, highly efficient antibacterial surfaces with appropriate hydrophilicity and transparency are of great importance. In this study, it is shown that the plasma process is a reliable and convenient method to achieve these purposes. A significant alteration in the hydrophilicity of a pristine PMMA surface was observed after treatment. Also, our results indicated that the plasma-modified PMMAs exhibit appropriate antibacterial performance. Moreover, surface hydrophilicity and surface charge have more influence on bacterial adhesion rate than surface roughness. UV–vis analysis results do not show a considerable difference for transparency of samples after plasma treatment

  3. Quality of previous diabetes care among patients receiving services at ophthalmology hospitals in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Saldana, Joel; Rosales-Campos, Andrea C; Rangel León, Carmen B; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Laura I; Martínez-Castro, Francisco; Piette, John D

    2010-12-01

    To survey a large sample of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Mexico City to determine if patient experience, access to basic services, treatment, and outcomes differed between those with social security coverage and those without. From 2001-2007 a total of 1 000 individuals with T2DM were surveyed in outpatient clinics of the three largest public ophthalmology hospitals in Mexico City. Patients reported information about their health status and receipt of basic diabetes services, such as laboratory glycemic monitoring and diabetes education. Rates were compared between those with (n = 461) and without (n = 539) social security. Almost half of the patients (46%) in these public facilities were social security patients that were unable to access other services and had to pay out-of-pocket for care. Half of respondents were originally identified as potentially diabetic based on symptom complaints (51%), including 11% with visual impairment. Most patients (87.9%) reported that their glycemic level was being monitored exclusively via fasting blood glucose testing or random capillary blood glucose tests; only 5.3% reported ever having a glycated hemoglobin test. While nearly all respondents reported an individual physician encounter ever, only 39% reported ever receiving nutrition counseling and only 21% reported attending one or more sessions of diabetes education in their lifetime. Processes of care and outcomes were no different in patients with and those without social security coverage. In Mexico, the quality of diabetes care is poor. Despite receiving social security, many patients still have to pay out-of-pocket to access needed care. Without policy changes that address these barriers to comprehensive diabetes management, scientific achievements in diagnosis and pharmacotherapy will have limited impact.

  4. [Ophthalmological service quality offered to outpatients of the Public Healthcare System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Hercos, Benigno Vicente; Berezovsky, Adriana

    2006-01-01

    To identify the perception of the ophthalmic service quality provided for outpatients of the public healthcare system as well as to detect which actions should be considered necessary and priority in order to improve its quality. A quantitative descriptive study was carried out on 100 outpatients of the public healthcare system which were submitted to ophthalmic tests at Fundação Hilton Rocha--Belo Horizonte-MG, from July 1st-July 30th 2004. Individual interviews were carried out by giving the interviewees two structured questionnaires adapted from the modified SERVQUAL. This scale is in agreement with the reality of the studied institute. The adapted SERVQUAL scale was submitted to statistical validation and it showed a suitable internal consistency index. In general terms, a slight general dissatisfaction was detected regarding ophthalmological service quality. The interviewees cared more about safety and reliability. A higher degree of dissatisfaction was detected mainly concerning fulfillment of procedures at scheduled appointments related to the execution of services within due time-limits. The institute is supposed to plan as well as carry out actions which lead to a general improvement in the patient's satisfaction regarding service quality and mainly reliability. Service quality monitoring through periodic use of the SERVQUAL scale will not only make it possible to plan highly precise and effective intervention strategies in these and in other healthcare services but it will also allow monitoring the responses to these actions. All these actions will contribute to the improvement of the service in the system as a whole.

  5. Valor predictivo de algunos exámenes de laboratorio clínico en la infección neonatal bacteriana precoz Prognostic value of some clinical laboratory examinations related to an early bacterial neonatal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Roig Álvarez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El diagnóstico microbiológico de la infección neonatal de inicio precoz es complejo. En la mayoría de los recién nacidos se inicia el tratamiento ante la sospecha clínica y la positividad de algunos reactantes de fase aguda y el hemograma. MÉTODOS. Se analizó el valor predictivo utilizando como método de referencia el hemocultivo periférico o el hallazgo anatomopatológico de infección de algunos exámenes de laboratorio clínico de forma aislada. El estudio se realizó en el total de los casos, 32 neonatos con infección de inicio precoz probada y probable, y por localización de la infección. RESULTADOS. Ni la proteína C-reactiva positiva ni las alteraciones de los leucocitos totales fueron buenos predictores de sepsis de inicio precoz de cualquier localización. La trombocitopenia impresionó ser un marcador competente pero no resultó así al calcular el intervalo de confianza al 95 %. Al excluir la localización pulmonar, la proteína C-reactiva positiva se convirtió en un marcador competente. Ninguno de los neonatos con infección pulmonar probada tuvo resultados positivos en los exámenes clínicos realizados. CONCLUSIONES. No se cuenta de momento con ninguna prueba de laboratorio clínico capaz de predecir con certeza la presencia de infección de inicio precoz de cualquier localización. La proteína C-reactiva cualitativa es un marcador competente de infección precoz del torrente sanguíneo y de meninges en los neonatos.INTRODUCTION: Microbiological diagnosis of neonatal infection of early onset is complex. In most of newborns diagnosis is started if there is a clinical suspicion and the positivity of some acute-phase reactants and the hemogran. METHODS: Prognostic value was analyzed using as reference method the peripheral hemoculture or the pathological anatomy findings of infection in some of clinical laboratory examinations in an isolated way. Study was performed in all the cases, in 32 neonates

  6. Radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on radionuclide examinations of the pancreas. The pancreas, situated retroperitonally high in the epigastrium, was a particularly difficult organ to image noninvasively before ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) became available. Indeed the organ still remains difficult to examine in some patients, a fact reflected in the variety of methods available to evaluate pancreatic morphology. It is something of a paradox that the pancreas is metabolically active and physiologically important but that its examination by radionuclide methods has virtually ceased to have any role in day-to-day clinical practice. To some extent this is caused by the tendency of the pancreas's commonest gross diseases emdash carcinoma and pancreatitis, for example emdash to result in nonfunction of the entire organ. Disorders of pancreatic endocrine function have generally not required imaging methods for diagnosis, although an understanding of diabetes mellitus and its nosology has been advanced by radioimmunoassay of plasma insulin concentrations

  7. Phenotypic characteristics of early Wolfram syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bess A; Permutt, M Alan; Paciorkowski, Alexander R; Hoekel, James; Karzon, Roanne; Wasson, Jon; Viehover, Amy; White, Neil H; Shimony, Joshua S; Manwaring, Linda; Austin, Paul; Hullar, Timothy E; Hershey, Tamara

    2013-04-27

    Wolfram Syndrome (WFS:OMIM 222300) is an autosomal recessive, progressive, neurologic and endocrinologic degenerative disorder caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene, encoding the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein wolframin, thought to be involved in the regulation of ER stress. This paper reports a cross section of data from the Washington University WFS Research Clinic, a longitudinal study to collect detailed phenotypic data on a group of young subjects in preparation for studies of therapeutic interventions. Eighteen subjects (ages 5.9-25.8, mean 14.2 years) with genetically confirmed WFS were identified through the Washington University International Wolfram Registry. Examinations included: general medical, neurologic, ophthalmologic, audiologic, vestibular, and urologic exams, cognitive testing and neuroimaging. Seventeen (94%) had diabetes mellitus with the average age of diabetes onset of 6.3 ± 3.5 years. Diabetes insipidus was diagnosed in 13 (72%) at an average age of 10.6 ± 3.3 years. Seventeen (94%) had optic disc pallor and defects in color vision, 14 (78%) had hearing loss and 13 (72%) had olfactory defects, eight (44%) had impaired vibration sensation. Enuresis was reported by four (22%) and nocturia by three (17%). Of the 11 tested for bladder emptying, five (45%) had elevated post-void residual bladder volume. WFS causes multiple endocrine and neurologic deficits detectable on exam, even early in the course of the disease. Defects in olfaction have been underappreciated. The proposed mechanism of these deficits in WFS is ER stress-induced damage to neuronal and hormone-producing cells. This group of subjects with detailed clinical phenotyping provides a pool for testing proposed treatments for ER stress. Longitudinal follow-up is necessary for establishing the natural history and identifying potential biomarkers of progression.

  8. Radiologic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoeni, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The radiographic examination of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract has been changed drastically by the introduction of endoscopic procedures that are now widely available. However, the diagnostic approach to the small bowel remains largely unchanged. Ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are occasionally employed but are not primary imaging modalities for small bowel disease. Even though small bowel endoscopes are available, they are infrequently used, and no scientific paper on their employment has been published. Barium studies are still the mainstay for evaluating patients with suspected small bowel abnormalities. This paper discusses the anatomy and physiology of the small bowel and lists the various types of barium and pharmacologic aids used for examining it. The different radiographic methods for examining the small bowel with barium, including SBFT, dedicated SBFT, enteroclysis, peroral pneumocolon (PPC), and retrograde small bowel examination, are described and put into perspective. To some degree such an undertaking must be a personal opinion, but certain conclusions can be made based on the available literature and practical experience. This analysis is based on the assumption that all the various barium techniques are performed with equal expertise by the individual radiologist, thus excluding bias from unfamiliarity with certain aspects of a procedure, such as intubation or skilled compression during fluoroscopy. Also, the use of water-soluble contrast material, CT, and MRI for evaluating suspected small bowel abnormalities is outlined

  9. Health Examination by PET. (1) Cancer Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    Cancer examination by positron emission tomography (PET) started in Japan in 1994 and has been rapidly popularized. This paper describes author's experience of the examination in his hospital along the recent Japanese guideline for the PET cancer examination. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is intravenously injected at 3.7 (or 4.6, for diabetic patients) MBq/kg after 4-5 hr fasting and 40 min later, imaging is conducted with additional delayed scan at 2 hr to reduce the possible false positive. Image is taken by the equipment with PET-specific camera, of which quality assurance (QA) is maintained according to the guideline, and 3D image is constructed by the ordered subset expectation maximization method. Number of examinees during 4.5 years are 18,210 (M/F=9,735/8,475), and 236 (1.3%), together with use of other test measures like ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical marker and occult blood as well, are found to have cancer of thyroid, large bowel, lung, breast and others. The false negative rate by PET alone is 78/236 (33%) for cancer. PET examination has problems of image reading and specificity of organs, and tasks of informed consent, test cost, increased exchange of information and radiation exposure. However, PET cancer examination will be established as a routine diagnostic tool when the accumulated evidence of early cancer detection is shown useful for improving the survival rate and for reducing the medicare cost. (T.I.)

  10. Awareness of childhood blindness in parents attending Paediatrics Ophthalmology outpatient department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Paranjpe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blindness is defined by World Health Organisation as having a visual acuity of <3/60 in the better eye. Thirty-seven million people are blind worldwide. One million and four hundred thousand are children. The causes of blindness in children vary according to region and socioeconomic development. The aim of our study is to identify a range of potential issues relating to parental awareness and perceptions of common eye diseases affecting children. Materials and Methods: The type of study was population-based, prospective, cross-sectional study conducted on parents of 200 children ranging from 0 to 16 years of age, attending Paediatric Ophthalmology clinic during the month of August and September 2014. This was an open-ended questionnaire-based study and only the participants who consented were enrolled in the study. Results: The most common eye problem detected among 200 of children was refractive errors. The incidence of refractive errors was found to be 103 out of 200 (51.5%. This is followed by 71 (35.5% cases of squint/strabismus. Of 200 parents, 150 (75% think the present eye condition of their child will reduce the eyesight. However, they did not know about the nature of the eye problem. Forty-four (22% parents did not know anything about the eye condition of their child. Seventy (35% parents were apprehensive about the use of spectacles in the children suffering from refractive errors. One hundred and six (53% parents came to know about the eye problem of their child from the teacher of the child and 63 (31.5% parents got information from their family doctor. Conclusions: As the number of mothers attending the eye department with the child is high, so there is more need of educating the mothers about the eye conditions of the child. Education and socioeconomic conditions affect the knowledge and awareness level of the parents regarding eye problems. Most of the children attending outpatient department were found to be in the

  11. [Possibility of 3D Printing in Ophthalmology - First Experiences by Stereotactic Radiosurgery Planning Scheme of Intraocular Tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furdová, A; Furdová, Ad; Thurzo, A; Šramka, M; Chorvát, M; Králik, G

    Nowadays 3D printing allows us to create physical objects on the basis of digital data. Thanks to its rapid development the use enormously increased in medicine too. Its creations facilitate surgical planning processes, education and research in context of organ transplantation, individualization prostheses, breast forms, and others.Our article describes the wide range of applied 3D printing technology possibilities in ophthalmology. It is focusing on innovative implementation of eye tumors treatment planning in stereotactic radiosurgery irradiation.We analyze our first experience with 3D printing model of the eye in intraocular tumor planning stereotactic radiosurgery. 3D printing, model, Fused Deposition Modelling, stereotactic radiosurgery, prostheses, intraocular tumor.

  12. The application of a "6S Lean" initiative to improve workflow for emergency eye examination rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarali, Samir; Rayat, Jaspreet; Salmonson, Hilary; Moss, Theodora; Mathura, Pamela; Damji, Karim F

    2017-10-01

    Ophthalmology residents on call at the Royal Alexandra Hospital identified workplace disorganization and lack of standardization in emergency eye examination rooms as an impediment to efficient patient treatment. The aim of the study was to use the "6S Lean" model to improve workflow in eye examination rooms at the Royal Alexandra Hospital. With the assistance of quality improvement consultants, the "6S Lean" model was applied to the current operation of the emergency eye clinic examination rooms. This model, considering 8 waste categories, was then used to recommend and implement changes to the examination rooms and to workplace protocols to enhance efficiency and safety. Eye examination rooms were improved with regards to setup, organization of supplies, inventory control, and maintenance. All targets were achieved, and the 5S audit checklist score increased by 33 points from 44 to 77. Implementation of the 6S methodology is a simple approach that removes inefficiencies from the workplace. The ophthalmology clinic removed waste from all 8 waste categories, increased audit results, mitigated patient and resident safety risks, and ultimately redirected resident time back to patient care delivery. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigating the Status of Training Quality of Ophthalmologic Residents in Khatam-Ol-Anbia Hospital in Mashhad, Based on the Standards of EFQM Organizational Excellence Model in the Academic Year 2012-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Derakhshan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available  Background and Purpose: As the leaders of educational organizations, universities use various models and approaches in evaluating their activities. However, excellence model for evaluation of educational services can demonstrate the distinction of this evaluation procedure. The aim of this study is to investigate the status of training quality of ophthalmologic residents in Khatam-Ol-Anbia Hospital in Mashhad based on the standards of organizational excellence model EFQM in the educational year of 2012-2013.Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study has been conducted in the second half of 2013 in the educational, research, and therapeutic hospital of Khatam-Ol-Anbia, among the hospitals affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. All students in the stage of residency in Ophthalmology entered this study. In this research, 18 men and 6 women participated. Moreover, in the statistical population of this research, 14 of the residents were non-native and 10 were native. Using standardized questionnaire of organizational excellence model in higher education sector and the degree of achievement of the educational services outcomes presented to learners was investigated. This questionnaire was first adapted from the main booklet published by Sheffield University, England. Following the extraction of the preliminary questionnaire, normalization of the instrument for validity was done by expert judgment, to examine the internal consistency of the various sections of the instrument and the reliability, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.96 was obtained. The questionnaire consists of 4 main sections, each of which questions contain certain indices of educational services. Using SPSS 16 and congruent with the background and research questions, the results were obtained.Results: The mean value of general status of the training quality of Ophthalmology residents has been obtained as 6.66 (of a max of 10. The mean value for the indices of

  14. The Global Education Network for Retinopathy of Prematurity (Gen-Rop): Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of A Novel Tele-Education System (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R V Paul; Patel, Samir N; Ryan, Michael C; Jonas, Karyn E; Ostmo, Susan; Port, Alexander D; Sun, Grace I; Lauer, Andreas K; Chiang, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    To describe the design, implementation, and evaluation of a tele-education system developed to improve diagnostic competency in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) by ophthalmology residents. A secure Web-based tele-education system was developed utilizing a repository of over 2,500 unique image sets of ROP. For each image set used in the system, a reference standard ROP diagnosis was established. Performance by ophthalmology residents (postgraduate years 2 to 4) from the United States and Canada in taking the ROP tele-education program was prospectively evaluated. Residents were presented with image-based clinical cases of ROP during a pretest, posttest, and training chapters. Accuracy and reliability of ROP diagnosis (eg, plus disease, zone, stage, category) were determined using sensitivity, specificity, and the kappa statistic calculations of the results from the pretest and posttest. Fifty-five ophthalmology residents were provided access to the ROP tele-education program. Thirty-one ophthalmology residents completed the program. When all training levels were analyzed together, a statistically significant increase was observed in sensitivity for the diagnosis of plus disease, zone, stage, category, and aggressive posterior ROP (Peducation system for ROP education is effective in improving diagnostic accuracy of ROP by ophthalmology residents. This system may have utility in the setting of both healthcare and medical education reform by creating a validated method to certify telemedicine providers and educate the next generation of ophthalmologists.

  15. Comparison between mini mental state examination (MMSE) and Montreal cognitive assessment Indonesian version (MoCA-Ina) as an early detection of cognitive impairments in post-stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, S.; Mistivani, I.; Rumende, C. M.; Kusumaningsih, W.

    2017-08-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is defined as cognitive impairment that may never develop into dementia. Cognitive impairment is one long-term complication of a stroke. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), which is commonly used as a screening tool for cognitive impairment, has a low sensitivity to detect cognitive impairment, especially MCI. Alternatively, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Indonesian version (MoCA-Ina) has been reported to have a higher sensitivity than the MMSE. The aim of this study was to compare the proportion of MCI identified between the MMSE and MoCA-Ina in stroke patients. This was a cross-sectional study of stroke outpatients who attended the Polyclinic Neuromuscular Division, Rehabilitation Department, and Polyclinic Stroke, Neurology Department Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta. The proportion of MCI identified using the MMSE was 31.03% compared to 72.41% when using the MoCA-Ina. This difference was statistically significant (Fisher’s exact test, p = 0.033). The proportion of MCI in stroke patients was higher when using the MoCA-Ina compared to the MMSE. The MoCA-Ina should be used as an alternative in the early detection of MCI in stroke patients, especially those undergoing rehabilitation.

  16. Radionuclide examination in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streda, A.; Kolar, J.; Valesova, M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of twenty years of experience with the use of radionuclides in bone and articular rheumatic diseases indications for such examinations are summed up. The main advantage of the use of radionuclide methods is that they bring forward early diagnosis of tissue reconstruction which can thus be detected at the stage of microstructural changes. They also provide earlier and more reliable detection of the degree of the pathological process than is provided by X-ray examination. In some cases scintiscan may also be found useful as a method for following up the results of treatment of rheumatic diseases. (author)

  17. Confocal microscopy as an early relapse marker for acanthamoeba keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daas, Loay; Viestenz, Arne; Schnabel, Philipp Albert; Fries, Fabian N; Hager, Tobias; SzentmÁry, Nora; Seitz, Berthold

    2018-01-01

    Acanthameoba keratitis is a serious ophthalmological condition with a potentially vision-threatening prognosis. Early diagnosis and recognition of relapse, and the detection of persistent Acanthamoeba cysts, are essential for informing the prognosis and managing the condition. We suggest the use of in vivo confocal microscopy not only to identify the early signs of relapse after keratoplasty in patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis, but also as an additional follow-up tool after antimicrobial crosslinking. This study shows that in vivo confocal microscopy is, in experienced hands, a quick and reliable diagnostic tool. Clin. Anat. 31:60-63, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Exploration of problem-based learning combined with standardized patient in the teaching of basic science of ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of problem-based learning(PBLcombined with standardized patient(SPin the teaching of basic science of ophthalmology. METHODS: Sixty-four students of Optometry in grade 2012 were randomly divided into experimental group(n=32and control group(n=32. Traditional teaching method was implemented in control group while PBL combined with SP was applied in experimental group. At the end of term students were interviewed using self-administered questionnaire to obtain their evaluation for teaching effect. Measurement data were expressed as (-overx±s and analyzed by independent samples t test. Enumeration data were analyzed by χ2 test, and PRESULTS:The mean scores of theory test(83.22±3.75and experimental test(94.28±2.20in experimental group were significantly higher than theory test(70.72±3.95and experimental test(85.44±3.52in control group(all PPPCONCLUSION:Using PBL combined with SP teaching mode in basic science of ophthalmology can highly improve learning enthusiasm of students and cultivate self-learning ability of students, practice ability and ability of clinical analysis.

  19. The Role of Retinal Imaging and Portable Screening Devices in Tele-ophthalmology Applications for Diabetic Retinopathy Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBuc, Delia Cabrera

    2016-12-01

    In the years since its introduction, retinal imaging has transformed our capability to visualize the posterior pole of the eye. Increasing practical advances in mobile technology, regular monitoring, and population screening for diabetic retinopathy management offer the opportunity for further development of cost-effective applications through remote assessment of the diabetic eye using portable retinal cameras, smart-phone-based devices and telemedicine networks. Numerous retinal imaging methods and mobile technologies in tele-ophthalmology applications have been reported for diabetic retinopathy screening and management. They provide several advantages of automation, sensitivity, specificity, portability, and miniaturization for the development of point-of-care diagnostics for eye complications in diabetes. The aim of this paper is to review the role of retinal imaging and mobile technologies in tele-ophthalmology applications for diabetic retinopathy screening and management. At large, although improvements in current technology and telemedicine services are still needed, telemedicine has demonstrated to be a worthy tool to support health caregivers in the effective management and prevention of diabetes and its complications.

  20. Repercusión oftalmológica de los traumatismos maxilofaciales Ophthalmological repercussion of maxillofacial traumatisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Díaz Fernández

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio prospectivo de 40 pacientes afectados por traumatismos maxilofaciales con lesiones oftalmológicas asociadas, asistidos en el Hospital Clinico quirúrgico Docente "Saturnino Lora" de Santiago de Cuba, durante el año 1995. La lesión oftalmológica más frecuente fue el hematoma palpebral, asociado con un porcentaje significativo de lesiones graves, las cuales estaban en relación con el área afectada durante el traumatismo. Se comportó con incidencia elevada la agudeza visual dentro de los límites normales. La secuela que más se presentó fue la cicatriz deformante de anejos. Se reportan casos de secuelas graves como la pérdida del globo ocular. Los estudios electrofisiológicos demostraron su importancia para la evaluación funcional de las lesiones oftalmológicas.prospective study of 40 patients suffering from maxillofacial traumatisms with associated ophthalmological injuries that recieved attention at "Saturnino Lora" Clinical and Surgical Teaching Hospital, in Santiago de Cuba, in 1995, was presented. The most frequent ophthalmological injury was the palpebral hematoma associated with a significant percentage of severe injuries, which were related to the area affected during traumatism. Visual acuity had an elevated incidence within the normal limits. The adnexa deforming scar was the most common sequela. Cases of severe sequelae, such as the loss of the eyeball, were reported.

  1. Imperceptible watermarking for security of fundus images in tele-ophthalmology applications and computer-aided diagnosis of retina diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anushikha; Dutta, Malay Kishore

    2017-12-01

    The authentication and integrity verification of medical images is a critical and growing issue for patients in e-health services. Accurate identification of medical images and patient verification is an essential requirement to prevent error in medical diagnosis. The proposed work presents an imperceptible watermarking system to address the security issue of medical fundus images for tele-ophthalmology applications and computer aided automated diagnosis of retinal diseases. In the proposed work, patient identity is embedded in fundus image in singular value decomposition domain with adaptive quantization parameter to maintain perceptual transparency for variety of fundus images like healthy fundus or disease affected image. In the proposed method insertion of watermark in fundus image does not affect the automatic image processing diagnosis of retinal objects & pathologies which ensure uncompromised computer-based diagnosis associated with fundus image. Patient ID is correctly recovered from watermarked fundus image for integrity verification of fundus image at the diagnosis centre. The proposed watermarking system is tested in a comprehensive database of fundus images and results are convincing. results indicate that proposed watermarking method is imperceptible and it does not affect computer vision based automated diagnosis of retinal diseases. Correct recovery of patient ID from watermarked fundus image makes the proposed watermarking system applicable for authentication of fundus images for computer aided diagnosis and Tele-ophthalmology applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chaotic examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildirici, Melike; Sonustun, Fulya Ozaksoy; Sonustun, Bahri

    2018-01-01

    In the regards of chaos theory, new concepts such as complexity, determinism, quantum mechanics, relativity, multiple equilibrium, complexity, (continuously) instability, nonlinearity, heterogeneous agents, irregularity were widely questioned in economics. It is noticed that linear models are insufficient for analyzing unpredictable, irregular and noncyclical oscillations of economies, and for predicting bubbles, financial crisis, business cycles in financial markets. Therefore, economists gave great consequence to use appropriate tools for modelling non-linear dynamical structures and chaotic behaviors of the economies especially in macro and the financial economy. In this paper, we aim to model the chaotic structure of exchange rates (USD-TL and EUR-TL). To determine non-linear patterns of the selected time series, daily returns of the exchange rates were tested by BDS during the period from January 01, 2002 to May 11, 2017 which covers after the era of the 2001 financial crisis. After specifying the non-linear structure of the selected time series, it was aimed to examine the chaotic characteristic for the selected time period by Lyapunov Exponents. The findings verify the existence of the chaotic structure of the exchange rate returns in the analyzed time period.

  3. Importância da avaliação oftalmológica em recém-natos Importance of the ophthalmological evaluation in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wasilewski

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar a existência de afecções oculares, nas primeiras 48 horas de vida de recém-natos, e relacioná-las com a suspeita clínica dos pediatras. Métodos: realizou-se um estudo prospectivo em que todos os recém-natos no período de julho a dezembro de 2000 foram examinados no alojamento conjunto do Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba (HUEC. Seiscentos e sessenta e sete recém-natos foram avaliados, através de um protocolo, por médicos residentes e preceptores de oftalmologia, independentemente se havia ou não qualquer suspeita de alteração ocular pelo pediatra. Procedeu-se à inspeção, iluminação oblíqua, avaliação de desvio ocular e oftalmoscopia direta à distância (reflexo vermelho em todos os pacientes. Resultados: em 3,75% dos pacientes avaliados, encontrou-se alguma alteração ocular. A principal afecção ocular foi a opacidade corneana, detectada pelo exame de reflexo vermelho à distância. Cinqüenta e seis por cento dos recém-natos portadores de patologia ocular passaram despercebidos pelos pediatras, neonatologistas e pais. Conclusão: este estudo demonstrou que a maioria das desordens oculares presentes ao nascimento não é diagnosticada pelos pediatras (56%, evidenciando, desta forma, a importância do exame oftalmológico como rotina no atendimento ao recém-nato nas primeiras 48 horas de vida.Objective: To verify the existence of ocular diseases in the first 48 hours of life of newborns and relate it to the clinical suspicious of pediatricians. Methods: A prospective study was performed. All infants that were born between July and December of 2000 were evaluated in the nursery of Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba (HUEC. Six hundred sixty-seven newborns were evaluated through a protocol by residents and tutors of ophthalmology, regardless of pediatricians’ suspicious of ocular disorder. The examination consisted of inspection, oblique illumination, evaluation of ocular

  4. [Prader-Willi syndrome case with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in both eyes treated by early vitrectomy under local anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hideyuki; Sato, Yukihiro; Nakashima, Motohiro; Nakajima, Motohiro

    2012-02-01

    Although patients with Prader-Willi syndrome have a high rate of diabetes, to date, there have been only 4 reported cases (6 eyes) undergoing vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Herein, we report a case of Prader-Willi syndrome with proliferative diabetic retinopathy that was treated by early vitrectomy OU under local anesthesia. A 30-year-old man was diagnosed as having Prader-Willi syndrome at the age of 2 years and diabetes at age 17. He was referred to our hospital as diabetic retinopathy had been detected in his first ophthalmological examination at age 29. Visual acuity was 0.6 bilaterally. Proliferative retinopathy, with cataract and macular edema, was identified in both eyes. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed on both eyes. However, proliferative membranes developed bilaterally, and vitreous hemorrhage occurred OS. Visual acuity decreased to 0.3 OU. The patient was hospitalized at our internal medicine department for blood glucose control. Subsequently, with an anesthesiologist on standby, a hypnotic sedative was injected intramuscularly, achieving retro-bulbar anesthesia. Combined cataract and vitreous surgery was performed on the left eye. One week later, a similar operation was performed on the right eye. The patient was discharged four days later. In the two years since these operation, visual acuity has been maintained at 0.8 OU. Patients with Prader-Willi syndrome should be examined for early detection and treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

  5. THE ROLE OF LABORATORY EXAMINATION IN RED EYE SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Chernakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze etiological structure of inflammatory diseases of ocular surface. Materials and methods: The study included outpatients (n = 49 who referred to Ophthalmological office at the Herpetic center during the period 2012 to 2014. Complaints duration was 60.65 ± 12.28 days. All patients underwent routine ophthalmologic examination; tear and/or conjunctival scraping PCR for type 1 and 2 herpes simplex viruses, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, type 6 human herpesvirus, adenoviruses, enteroviruses, ureaplasma, chlamydia; conjunctival swab microbiology; eyelash microscopy for eyelash mites. Results: After the examination, all patients were divided into three groups: 1 with herpesvirus infections of the eye (n = 24, 2 with non-herpetic infection of the eye (enterovirus, adenovirus, bacteria, fungi, n = 18, 3 with ocular surface lesions due to non-infectious causes (n = 7. In three cases U. urealyticum was detected, doxycycline was administrated. Identification of pathogens in the groups 1 and 2 resulted in effective causal treatment with subsequent clinical recovery. Exclusion of infection in the third group allowed to avoid inappropriate antibacterial or antiviral therapy. Conclusion: In patients with chronic red eye syndrome of unknown etiology, laboratory examination of tear and/or conjunctival scraping is essential for differentiating between infectious and non-infectious disease.

  6. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

  7. Statistical methods for conducting agreement (comparison of clinical tests) and precision (repeatability or reproducibility) studies in optometry and ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlinden, Colm; Khadka, Jyoti; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2011-07-01

    The ever-expanding choice of ocular metrology and imaging equipment has driven research into the validity of their measurements. Consequently, studies of the agreement between two instruments or clinical tests have proliferated in the ophthalmic literature. It is important that researchers apply the appropriate statistical tests in agreement studies. Correlation coefficients are hazardous and should be avoided. The 'limits of agreement' method originally proposed by Altman and Bland in 1983 is the statistical procedure of choice. Its step-by-step use and practical considerations in relation to optometry and ophthalmology are detailed in addition to sample size considerations and statistical approaches to precision (repeatability or reproducibility) estimates. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

  8. Application of traditional indexes and adverse events in the ophthalmologic perioperative medical quality evaluation during 2010-2012

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    Yong-Na Bian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the medical quality of ophthalmologic perioperative period during 2010-2012 in our hospital.METHODS:The relevant data of perioperative period were collected in our hospital during 2010-2012, and the medical quality of perioperative period was evaluated by using the traditional evaluation indexes and adverse events. Whereby, the traditional indicators include vision changes, improving of intraocular pressure, diagnostic accordance rate before and after operation, cure improvement rate, successful rescue rate, and incidence of surgical complications, etc. Adverse events are associated with ophthalmologic perioperative events including pressure sores, postoperative wound infection, drug adverse events, and equipment related adverse events.RESULTS:There were 1483, 1662 and 1931 ophthalmic operations in our hospital in the year 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. From traditional index analysis, the proportions of vision improvement for each year were 96.43%, 96.76% and 97.32%, respectively; the rates of intraocular pressure improvement were 87.50%, 85.72% and 90.17%, respectively (P <0.05; the diagnostic accordance rates before and after operation were 99.86%, 99.94% and 99.90%, respectively; cure improvement rates were 99.73%, 99.93% and 99.84%, respectively; the successful rescue rates were 82.98%, 81.46% and 76.66%, respectively; the complications incidence rates were 18.44%, 17.52% and 17.97%, respectively. The negative factor analysis results showed that:among all the patients of ophthalmic surgeries in our hospital during 2010 and 2012, only one case of postoperative wound infection was found in 2011, and also only one case of tumbling in 2010. The adverse drug events for each year were 1 case (0.07%, 2 cases (0.12%, and 4 cases (0.21%, respectively; the medical device adverse events for each year were 3 cases (0.20%, 5 cases (0.30%, and 6 cases (0.31%, respectively. Noticeably, only one case with postoperative infection of

  9. A de novo 11q23 deletion in a patient presenting with severe ophthalmologic findings, psychomotor retardation and facial dysmorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek-Kiper, Pelin Özlem; Bayram, Yavuz; Ütine, Gülen Eda; Alanay, Yasemin; Boduroğlu, Koray

    2014-01-01

    Distal 11q deletion, previously known as Jacobsen syndrome, is caused by segmental aneusomy for the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 11. Typical clinical features include facial dysmorphism, mild-to-moderate psychomotor retardation, trigonocephaly, cardiac defects, and thrombocytopenia. There is a significant variability in the range of clinical features. We report herein a five-year-old girl with severe ophthalmological findings, facial dysmorphism, and psychomotor retardation with normal platelet function, in whom a de novo 11q23 deletion was detected, suggesting that distal 11q monosomy should be kept in mind in patients presenting with dysmorphic facial features and psychomotor retardation even in the absence of hematological findings.

  10. 3D printed reproductions of orbital dissections: a novel mode of visualising anatomy for trainees in ophthalmology or optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Justin W; Paxton, Lisa; Dawes, Kathryn; Burlak, Kateryna; Quayle, Michelle; McMenamin, Paul G

    2015-09-01

    The teaching of human head, neck and orbital anatomy forms a critical part of undergraduate and postgraduate medical and allied health professional training, including optometry. While still largely grounded in cadaveric dissection, this method of instruction is constrained in some countries and regional areas by access to real human cadavers, costs of cadaver bequest programmes, health and safety of students and staff and the shortage of adequate time in modern curricula. Many candidates choosing a postgraduate pathway in ophthalmological training, such as those accepted into the Royal Colleges of Ophthalmology in the UK, Australia and New Zealand programmes and the American Academy of Ophthalmologists in the USA, are compelled as adult learners to revise or revisit human orbital anatomy, ocular anatomy and select areas of head and neck anatomy. These candidates are often then faced with the issue of accessing facilities with dissected human cadaveric material. In light of these difficulties, we developed a novel means of creating high-resolution reproductions of prosected human cadaver orbits suitable for education and training. 3D printed copies of cadaveric orbital dissections (superior, lateral and medial views) showing a range of anatomical features were created. These 3D prints offer many advantages over plastinated specimens as they are suitable for rapid reproduction and as they are not human tissue they avoid cultural and ethical issues associated with viewing cadaver specimens. In addition, they are suitable for use in the office, home, laboratory or clinical setting in any part of the world for patient and doctor education. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. A Comprehensive Proteomics Analysis of the Human Iris Tissue: Ready to Embrace Postgenomics Precision Medicine in Ophthalmology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Krishna R; Dammalli, Manjunath; Pinto, Sneha M; Murthy, Kalpana Babu; Nirujogi, Raja Sekhar; Madugundu, Anil K; Dey, Gourav; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Mishra, Uttam Kumar; Nair, Bipin; Gowda, Harsha; Prasad, T S Keshava

    2016-09-01

    The annual economic burden of visual disorders in the United States was estimated at $139 billion. Ophthalmology is therefore one of the salient application fields of postgenomics biotechnologies such as proteomics in the pursuit of global precision medicine. Interestingly, the protein composition of the human iris tissue still remains largely unexplored. In this context, the uveal tract constitutes the vascular middle coat of the eye and is formed by the choroid, ciliary body, and iris. The iris forms the anterior most part of the uvea. It is a thin muscular diaphragm with a central perforation called pupil. Inflammation of the uvea is termed uveitis and causes reduced vision or blindness. However, the pathogenesis of the spectrum of diseases causing uveitis is still not very well understood. We investigated the proteome of the iris tissue harvested from healthy donor eyes that were enucleated within 6 h of death using high-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry. A total of 4959 nonredundant proteins were identified in the human iris, which included proteins involved in signaling, cell communication, metabolism, immune response, and transport. This study is the first attempt to comprehensively profile the global proteome of the human iris tissue and, thus, offers the potential to facilitate biomedical research into pathological diseases of the uvea such as Behcet's disease, Vogt Koyonagi Harada's disease, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Finally, we make a call to the broader visual health and ophthalmology community that proteomics offers a veritable prospect to obtain a systems scale, functional, and dynamic picture of the eye tissue in health and disease. This knowledge is ultimately pertinent for precision medicine diagnostics and therapeutics innovation to address the pressing needs of the 21st century visual health.

  12. Improving the Teaching Skills of Residents in a Surgical Training Program: Results of the Pilot Year of a Curricular Initiative in an Ophthalmology Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Yewlin E; Newman, Lori R; Loewenstein, John I; Kloek, Carolyn E

    2015-01-01

    To design and implement a teaching skills curriculum that addressed the needs of an ophthalmology residency training program, to assess the effect of the curriculum, and to present important lessons learned. A teaching skills curriculum was designed for the Harvard Medical School (HMS) Residency Training Program in Ophthalmology. Results of a needs assessment survey were used to guide curriculum objectives. Overall, 3 teaching workshops were conducted between October 2012 and March 2013 that addressed areas of need, including procedural teaching. A postcurriculum survey was used to assess the effect of the curriculum. Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, a tertiary care institution in Boston, MA. Overall, 24 residents in the HMS Residency Training Program in Ophthalmology were included. The needs assessment survey demonstrated that although most residents anticipated that teaching would be important in their future career, only one-third had prior formal training in teaching. All residents reported they found the teaching workshops to be either very or extremely useful. All residents reported they would like further training in teaching, with most residents requesting additional training in best procedural teaching practices for future sessions. The pilot year of the resident-as-teacher curriculum for the HMS Residency Training Program in Ophthalmology demonstrated a need for this curriculum and was perceived as beneficial by the residents, who reported increased comfort in their teaching skills after attending the workshops. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Targeted Vision Function Goals and Use of Vision Resources in Ophthalmology Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Comorbid Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casten, Robin; Rovner, Barry W.; Fontenot, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study characterizes self-reported functional vision goals and the use of low vision resources (for example, services and devices) in ophthalmology clinic patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and comorbid depressive symptoms. Methods: From July 2009 to February 2013, we assessed 188 consecutive patients (age 65+;…

  14. [Continuous funding of National Natural Science Foundation of China has boosted the development of the discipline of ophthalmology over the past 25 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ren-bing; Fan, Xian-qun; Xu, Yan-ying; Dong, Er-dan

    2012-02-01

    To analyze the role of National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) on the development of the discipline of Ophthalmology from 1986 to 2010. Data on the total number of projects and funding of NSFC allocated to Ophthalmology, as well as papers published, awards, personnel training, subject construction were collected, and the role of NSFC on other sources of funding was evaluated. From 1986 to 2010, NSFC supported a total of 593 scientific research projects of Ophthalmology, funding a total amount of 152.44 million Yuan, among which were 371 free application projects, 156 Young Scientist Funds, 9 Key Programs, 5 National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, 3 Major international (regional) joint research programs, 1 Science Fund for Creative Research Group and 48 other projects. Over the past 25 years, the number of NSFC projects received by Ophthalmology has been an overall upward trend in the share in the Department of Life (Health) Sciences. Take the projects (186 of 292, 63.7%) as examples completed between 2002 and 2010, a total 262 papers were published in Science Citation Index (SCI) included journals and 442 papers were published in Chinese journals. Meanwhile, 8 Second prizes of National Science and Technology Progress Award and 1 State Technological Invention Award were received. As of 2010, the training of a total of more than 40 postdoctoral, more than 400 doctoral students and more than 600 graduate students have been completed. 5 national key disciplines and 1 national key laboratory have been built. Moreover, 2 "973" programs from Ministry of Science and Technology and 1 project of special fund in the public interest from Ministry of Public Health were obtained. 2 scholars were among the list of Yangtze Fund Scholars granted by Ministry of Education. Over the past 25 years, a full range of continuous funding from NSFC has led to fruitful results and a strong impetus to the progress of discipline of Ophthalmology.

  15. Factors influencing the choice of ophthalmology as a career among medical students of king saud bin abdulaziz university Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Abdullah AlSalman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Choosing a future speciality for medical students can be frightening as well as confusing. Identifying factors that influence medical students' future career choice is critical and can play an important role in shaping the future workforce. Aims: The study aims to determine factors associated with medical students' preference of Ophthalmology as a future career choice at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was carried out among Saudi students of both genders who were enrolled in KSAU-HS (clinical phase during the study. Subjects and Methods: A validated questionnaire was sent through E-mail to 302 eligible students, of which 275 participated, with a response rate of (91%. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis was carried out for all categorical variables. In addition, data were compared using Chi-square test; all tests were two-sided and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 28 students (10.2% considered Ophthalmology as their first choice, while it was the second choice for four students (1.5%. Among all the participants, factors that attracted medical students to consider Ophthalmology as a career choice included the high income (54%, private sector opportunities (40%, part-time opportunities (40% and leisure (34%. Whereas, the difficulty of getting into the Ophthalmology Residency Programme (53% was the most important factor that pushed students away from choosing Ophthalmology. Conclusions: Multiple factors influenced the KSAU-HS medical students' choice of when choosing a future speciality. Knowing these factors can help in directing work-force to choose specialities that are currently limited in Saudi Arabia.

  16. The Global Education Network for Retinopathy of Prematurity (Gen-Rop): Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of A Novel Tele-Education System (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R.V. Paul; Patel, Samir N.; Ryan, Michael C.; Jonas, Karyn E.; Ostmo, Susan; Port, Alexander D.; Sun, Grace I.; Lauer, Andreas K.; Chiang, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the design, implementation, and evaluation of a tele-education system developed to improve diagnostic competency in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) by ophthalmology residents. Methods: A secure Web-based tele-education system was developed utilizing a repository of over 2,500 unique image sets of ROP. For each image set used in the system, a reference standard ROP diagnosis was established. Performance by ophthalmology residents (postgraduate years 2 to 4) from the United States and Canada in taking the ROP tele-education program was prospectively evaluated. Residents were presented with image-based clinical cases of ROP during a pretest, posttest, and training chapters. Accuracy and reliability of ROP diagnosis (eg, plus disease, zone, stage, category) were determined using sensitivity, specificity, and the kappa statistic calculations of the results from the pretest and posttest. Results: Fifty-five ophthalmology residents were provided access to the ROP tele-education program. Thirty-one ophthalmology residents completed the program. When all training levels were analyzed together, a statistically significant increase was observed in sensitivity for the diagnosis of plus disease, zone, stage, category, and aggressive posterior ROP (P<.05). Statistically significant changes in specificity for identification of stage 2 or worse (P=.027) and pre-plus (P=.028) were observed. Conclusions: A tele-education system for ROP education is effective in improving diagnostic accuracy of ROP by ophthalmology residents. This system may have utility in the setting of both healthcare and medical education reform by creating a validated method to certify telemedicine providers and educate the next generation of ophthalmologists. PMID:26538772

  17. Fundus auto fluorescence and spectral domain ocular coherence tomography in the early detection of chloroquine retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Megan B. Goodman; Ari Ziskind

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the sensitivity of spectral domain ocular coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fundus auto fluorescence (FAF) images as a screening test to detect early changes in the retina prior to the onset of chloroquine retinopathy. Method: The study was conducted using patients taking chloroquine (CQ), referred by the Rheumatology Department to the Ophthalmology Department at Tygerberg Academic Hospital. Group A consisted of 59 patients on CQ for less than 5 years, and Group B co...

  18. On textual and contextual position of the ophthalmological treatise of bodhisattva nāgārjuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongsu; Kang, Sungyong

    2013-04-01

    Medical knowledge in India began to be introduced to China in earliest from the Later Han Dynasty period to the times of Wei-Qin and South & North Dynasties. This is proved by many Buddhist medical books appeared in those days. Of the contents of Indian medicine, the theory of four major elements affected Chinese medicine more than did the theory of body fluids. Based on the theory of four major elements that was began to be introduced in Fú shuō fú yī jīng, an attempt to establish a new medical system was made in Zhŏu hòu băi yīfāng written by Táo Hóng-jĭng and Sūn Sī-miăo who tried to develop etiology further but could not achieve any great outcomes. Unlike the foregoing situation, Indian medicine aroused a large echo in China in the field of ophthalmology with ophthalmological knowledge mentioned in Suśrutasa hitā and 'Jīnzhēn-shù'(cataract couching) introduced as a surgical treatment of cataract. The Suśrutasa hitā which is one of the three major texts of Indian medicine contains additional information on surgical operations not introduced in the Carakasa hitā. The technique of cataract surgery was particularly popular in the Tang and Song dynasty periods in China under the name Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn(The Ophthalmological Treatise of Bodhisattva Nāgārjuna) or Lóng shù lùn and was even designated as a subject to educate medical officers. While the original text of Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn was not handed down, the first testimony that show the trace of the introduction of this text into China was the Tiān zhú jīng lùn yăn mentioned in Wài tái mì yào(Arcane Essential from the Imperial Library) written by Wang Tao. Long shàng dào ren who was mentioned as the compiler of the book is assumed to be Lóng shù. Although Tiān zhú jīng lùn yăn introduced anatomical knowledge about the eyeball that could have not been in the traditional Chinese medicine, this book has only limited quantity of information in this

  19. A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of Saffron Supplementation in Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Sustained Benefits to Central Retinal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Piccardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In a previous randomized clinical trial (Falsini et al. (2010, it was shown that short-term Saffron supplementation improves retinal flicker sensitivity in early age-related macular degeneration (AMD. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the observed functional benefits from Saffron supplementation may extend over a longer follow-up duration. Design. Longitudinal, interventional open-label study. Setting. Outpatient ophthalmology setting. Participants. Twenty-nine early AMD patients (age range: 55–85 years with a baseline visual acuity >0.3. Intervention. Saffron oral supplementation (20 mg/day over an average period of treatment of 14 (±2 months. Measurements. Clinical examination and focal-electroretinogram-(fERG- derived macular (18° flicker sensitivity estimate (Falsini et al. (2010 every three months over a followup of 14 (±2 months. Retinal sensitivity, the reciprocal value of the estimated fERG amplitude threshold, was the main outcome measure. Results. After three months of supplementation, mean fERG sensitivity improved by 0.3 log units compared to baseline values (P<0.01, and mean visual acuity improved by two Snellen lines compared to baseline values (0.75 to 0.9, P<0.01. These changes remained stable over the follow-up period. Conclusion. These results indicate that in early AMD Saffron supplementation induces macular function improvements from baseline that are extended over a long-term followup.

  20. "If I Am Not Doing My Own Playing Then I Am Not Able to Truly Share the Gift of Play with Children": Using Poststructuralism and Care Ethics to Examine Future Early Childhood Educators' Relationships with Play in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Julie; Shimpi, Priya Mariana; Rabin, Colette

    2014-01-01

    The current sociopolitical context of schooling is positioning play as incongruous with children's academic learning. As a result, teacher educators must increasingly guide future early childhood professionals to develop the skills and knowledge necessary to become effective play advocates. This includes articulating the value of play across the…

  1. Light through the dark ages: The Arabist contribution to Western ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Haq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Europe in the Middle Ages had descended into a dark period, and none more so than in the field of medicine. The rich heritage of the pagan Greeks had largely been ignored or forgotten by medieval Europe, and instead it was the early Arabist world that embraced and developed the Hellenistic medical teachings, emerging not only as guardians of the classical learning still existent, but also as pioneers and innovators, restricted only by the development in the associated fields. The Kahhal (, or Oculist or Eye Specialist, had a privileged place in royal households, especially during the Abbasid period, in contrast to the time of Galen, whose writings referred to ophthalmologists in a rather derogatory manner. This elevated standing in the medical profession allowed Arabist scholars to cultivate remarkably erudite techniques and exceptional texts, which were used until very recently.

  2. An Analysis of Peer-Reviewed Scores and Impact Factors with Different Citation Time Windows: A Case Study of 28 Ophthalmologic Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Li; Gai, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Shi-Le; Wang, Pu

    2015-01-01

    An important attribute of the traditional impact factor was the controversial 2-year citation window. So far, several scholars have proposed using different citation time windows for evaluating journals. However, there is no confirmation whether a longer citation time window would be better. How did the journal evaluation effects of 3IF, 4IF, and 6IF comparing with 2IF and 5IF? In order to understand these questions, we made a comparative study of impact factors with different citation time windows with the peer-reviewed scores of ophthalmologic journals indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database. The peer-reviewed scores of 28 ophthalmologic journals were obtained through a self-designed survey questionnaire. Impact factors with different citation time windows (including 2IF, 3IF, 4IF, 5IF, and 6IF) of 28 ophthalmologic journals were computed and compared in accordance with each impact factor's definition and formula, using the citation analysis function of the Web of Science (WoS) database. An analysis of the correlation between impact factors with different citation time windows and peer-reviewed scores was carried out. Although impact factor values with different citation time windows were different, there was a high level of correlation between them when it came to evaluating journals. In the current study, for ophthalmologic journals' impact factors with different time windows in 2013, 3IF and 4IF seemed the ideal ranges for comparison, when assessed in relation to peer-reviewed scores. In addition, the 3-year and 4-year windows were quite consistent with the cited peak age of documents published by ophthalmologic journals. Our study is based on ophthalmology journals and we only analyze the impact factors with different citation time window in 2013, so it has yet to be ascertained whether other disciplines (especially those with a later cited peak) or other years would follow the same or similar patterns. We designed the survey questionnaire

  3. Ab interno trabeculectomy: ultrastructural evidence and early tissue response in a human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Ettore; Ortolani, Fulvia; Petrelli, Lucia; Contin, Magali; Pognuz, Derri Roman; Marchini, Maurizio; Bandello, Francesco

    2007-10-01

    To report the results of ultrastructural analysis of the postoperative effects of ab interno trabeculectomy in a human eye. Department of Ophthalmology, Palmanova Hospital, Palmanova, Udine, Italy. A 60-year-old woman with cataract and glaucoma had enucleation for a choroidal melanoma 10 days after ab interno trabeculectomy combined with phacoemulsification. A second ab interno trabeculectomy was performed after enucleation to evaluate the outcomes of the previous trabeculectomy. Light and transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed on samples excised from areas (1) not subjected to a procedure (control samples), (2) that had ab interno trabeculectomy before enucleation, and (3) that had ab interno trabeculectomy immediately after enucleation. Control samples showed normal trabecular features. Semithin sections of all ab interno trabeculectomy samples showed full-thickness removal of trabeculum segments, with Schlemm's canal lumen opening into the anterior chamber and apparent preservation of the adjacent structures. On ultrathin sections of samples that had ab interno trabeculectomy before enucleation, the endothelium lining the outer wall of Schlemm's canal and other angle components showed intact ultrastructural features. In trabecular beams that were not removed, the extracellular matrix appeared to have maintained its fine texture and was free of activated fibroblasts or leucocyte infiltrates. Observations confirm that ab interno trabeculectomy causes direct communication between Schlemm's canal lumen and the anterior chamber in vivo and immediately after enucleation during the early postoperative period. The absence of an evident inflammatory reaction in the examined case should be considered with caution because of possible tumor-induced immune suppression.

  4. Extracapsular cataract extraction training: junior ophthalmology residents' self-reported satisfaction level with their proficiency and initial learning barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Daniel Shu Wei; Tan, Sarah; Lee, Shu Yen; Rosman, Mohamad; Aw, Ai Tee; Yeo, Ian Yew San

    2015-07-01

    To investigate residents' self-reported satisfaction level with their proficiency in extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) surgery and the initial barriers to learning the procedure. This is a single-centre prospective descriptive case series involving eight first-year ophthalmology residents in Singapore National Eye Center. We recorded the demographics, frequency of review by the residents of their own surgical videos and their satisfaction level with their proficiency at each of the ECCE steps using a 5-point Likert scale. All ECCE surgical videos between October 2013 and May 2014 were collected and analysed for the overall time taken for the surgery and the time taken to perform the individual steps of the procedure. The mean age of the residents was 27.6 ± 1.5 years and 62.5% (5/8) were women. More than half (62.5%, 5/8) reviewed their own surgical videos while 37.5% (3/8) discussed the surgical videos with their peers or supervisors. Of the ECCE steps, the residents were most dissatisfied with their proficiency in performing irrigation and aspiration (87.5%, 7/8), followed by suturing (62.5%, 5/8), intraocular lens insertion (62.5%, 5/8) and tin can capsulotomy (62.5%, 5/8). The average time taken for each ECCE case was 55.0 ± 12.2 min and, of all the steps, most time was spent on suturing (20.5 ± 6.8 min), followed by irrigation and aspiration (5.5 ± 3.6 min) and tin can capsulotomy (3.3 ± 1.8 min). The first-year ophthalmology residents were most dissatisfied with their proficiency in irrigation/aspiration, suturing and tin can capsulotomy. More training needs to be directed to these areas during teaching sessions in the operating room, wet laboratory or cataract simulation training sessions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Mental stress as consequence and cause of vision loss: the dawn of psychosomatic ophthalmology for preventive and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Bernhard A; Wang, Jiaqi; Cárdenas-Morales, Lizbeth; Faiq, Muneeb; Heim, Christine

    2018-06-01

    The loss of vision after damage to the retina, optic nerve, or brain has often grave consequences in everyday life such as problems with recognizing faces, reading, or mobility. Because vision loss is considered to be irreversible and often progressive, patients experience continuous mental stress due to worries, anxiety, or fear with secondary consequences such as depression and social isolation. While prolonged mental stress is clearly a consequence of vision loss, it may also aggravate the situation. In fact, continuous stress and elevated cortisol levels negatively impact the eye and brain due to autonomous nervous system (sympathetic) imbalance and vascular dysregulation; hence stress may also be one of the major causes of visual system diseases such as glaucoma and optic neuropathy. Although stress is a known risk factor, its causal role in the development or progression of certain visual system disorders is not widely appreciated. This review of the literature discusses the relationship of stress and ophthalmological diseases. We conclude that stress is both consequence and cause of vision loss. This creates a vicious cycle of a downward spiral, in which initial vision loss creates stress which further accelerates vision loss, creating even more stress and so forth. This new psychosomatic perspective has several implications for clinical practice. Firstly, stress reduction and relaxation techniques (e.g., meditation, autogenic training, stress management training, and psychotherapy to learn to cope) should be recommended not only as complementary to traditional treatments of vision loss but possibly as preventive means to reduce progression of vision loss. Secondly, doctors should try their best to inculcate positivity and optimism in their patients while giving them the information the patients are entitled to, especially regarding the important value of stress reduction. In this way, the vicious cycle could be interrupted. More clinical studies are now

  6. [Early therapeutic trials for retinitis pigmentosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufier, Jean-Louis

    2003-01-01

    Non syndromic forms of Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) constitute a collection of clinically and genetically heterogeneous inherited retinal degenerative diseases. They are characterized by a bilateral progressive visual loss susceptible to cause blindness. These diseases are transmitted through pedigrees according to all known modes of inheritance. They are bilateral and usually start during infancy. However, very early clinical presentations exist, such as those observed in children affected by Leber Congenital Amaurosis, as well as late onset autosomal dominant forms of retinitis pigmentosa. The characteristic clinical aspect of the rod-cone RP dystrophies is marked by alterations of the peripheral retina associated with a night blindness and a progressive narrowing of the visual field. The ophthalmoscopic examination of RP patients commonly reveals thin retinal arteries and scattered pigmentary accumulations. In contrast, there are cone rod retinal dystrophies whose onset is marked by a decreased visual acuity before the appearance of any visual field alteration. Some forms of RPs display an ocular fundus devoid of any pigmentary alteration. Syndromic forms of RPs are not uncommon. The association of deafness with RP is detected in nearly 30% of the patients. Other associations with RP can include mental deficiency, facial dysmorphy, microcephaly, obesity, kidney deficiency, immune deficiencies, metabolic disorders. The existence of such syndromic forms of RP localizes RPs at the crossroad of several medical specialties. A long lasting collaboration between our department of ophthalmology and the department of medical genetics of the Necker-Sick Children Hospital has allowed us to establish numerous genotype-phenotype correlations, especially in LCA and Stargardt's disease. ABCR gene mutations cause Stargardt disease. ABCR mutations may also cause some types of Ages Related Macular Degenerations (AMD). Nowadays, there is no known efficient therapy available for

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 53: From student to entry-level professional: Examining the technical communications practices of early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information-use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that early career-stage aerospace engineers and scientists must possess to be successful. Feedback from industry rates communications and information-use skills high in terms of their importance to engineering practice; however, this same feedback rates the communications and information-use skills of early career-stage engineers low. To gather adequate and generalizable data about the communications and information-related activities of entry-level aerospace engineers and scientists, we surveyed 264 members of the AIAA who have no more than 1-5 years of aerospace engineering work experience. To learn more about the concomitant communications norms, we compared the results of this study with data (1,673 responses) we collected from student members of the AIAA and with data (341 responses) we collected from a study of aerospace engineering professionals. In this paper, we report selected results from these studies that focused on the communications practices and information-related activities of early career-stage U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists in the workplace.

  8. A System Approach to Navy Medical Education and Training. Appendix 20. Ophthalmology Technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-31

    PAGE 02 I OF RESDONSE BOOKLET I ISCRFN PATIENT O4 ARRIVAL TO DETERMINE WHICH STAFF MEMBER IPATIENT SHOULD SEE 2 ICHECK PUPIL REACTION TO LIGHT 3 IDILATE...PUPILS 4 IPALPATE EYi FOR INTRAOCULAR TENSION 5 IOBSERVE/RECORD OR DESCRIBE CHARACTERISTICS OF DRAINAGE FROM IEYES/EARS I 6 IOBSERVE FOR REPORT OR...RINGING, HEARI’iG ILOSS 1 38 !OBSERVE/RECORD OR DESCRIBE CHARACTERISTICS OF SI,ITUM, MUCUS 39 1EXAMINE FOR VIRAL INFECTIONS OF THE SKIN, E.G. AARTS 40

  9. The Relationship Between Ocular Itch, Ocular Pain, and Dry Eye Symptoms (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Small, Leslie; Feuer, William; Levitt, Roy C; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate associations between sensations of ocular itch and dry eye (DE) symptoms, including ocular pain, and DE signs. A cross-sectional study of 324 patients seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic was performed. The evaluation consisted of questionnaires regarding ocular itch, DE symptoms, descriptors of neuropathic-like ocular pain (NOP), and evoked pain sensitivity testing on the forehead and forearm, followed by a comprehensive ocular surface examination including corneal mechanical sensitivity testing. Analyses were performed to examine for differences between those with and without subjective complaints of ocular itch. The mean age was 62 years with 92% being male. Symptoms of DE and NOP were more frequent in patients with moderate-severe ocular itch compared to those with no or mild ocular itch symptoms. With the exception of ocular surface inflammation (abnormal matrix metalloproteinase 9 testing) which was less common in those with moderate-severe ocular itch symptoms, DE signs were not related to ocular itch. Individuals with moderate-severe ocular itch also demonstrated greater sensitivity to evoked pain on the forearm and had higher non-ocular pain, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorders scores, compared to those with no or mild itch symptoms. Subjects with moderate-severe ocular itch symptoms have more severe symptoms of DE, NOP, non-ocular pain and demonstrate abnormal somatosensory testing in the form of increased sensitivity to evoked pain at a site remote from the eye, consistent with generalized hypersensitivity.

  10. Uveal Melanoma Cell Lines: Where do they come from? (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Martine J; Magner, J Antonio Bermudez; Ksander, Bruce R; Dubovy, Sander R

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether some of the most often used uveal melanoma cell lines resemble their original tumor. Analysis of the literature, patient charts, histopathology, mutations, chromosome status, HLA type, and expression of melanocyte markers on cell lines and their primary tumors. We examined five cell lines and the primary tumors from which they were derived. Four of the five examined primary tumors were unusual: one occupied the orbit, two were recurrences after prior irradiation, and one developed in an eye with a nevus of Ota. One cell line did not contain the GNA11 mutation, but it was present in the primary tumor. Three of the primary tumors had monosomy 3 (two of these lacked BAP1 expression); however, all five cell lines showed disomy 3 and BAP1 expression. All of the cell lines had gain of 8q. Two cell lines lacked expression of melanocyte markers, although these were present in the corresponding primary tumor. All cell lines could be traced back to their original uveal melanoma. Four of the five primary tumors were unusual. Cell lines often differed from their primary tumor in chromosome status and melanocyte markers. However, their specific chromosome aberrations and capacity to continue proliferation characterize them as uveal melanoma cell lines.

  11. Dynamic light scattering in ophthalmology: results of in vitro and in vivo experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Franz

    2006-01-01

    To calibrate new dynamic light scattering (DLS) devices in defined solutions and post mortem porcine and human eyes. To examine all segments of the eye and to become familiar with the usage of the technique in living subjects. METHODS, DESIGN: Three new DLS devices for the usage in patients were developed. Mono-disperse solutions, poly-disperse solutions, gels, post mortem porcine and human eyes as well as healthy volunteers were studied. The detected signals were inverted into autocorrelation functions. We constructed three DLS devices appropriate for in vitro as well as in vivo examinations. In mono disperse solution precise disintegration rates could be calculated. In poly-disperse solutions, in gel and in the vitreous the results did not correlate with movements of individual particles but we could calculate characteristics of the complete scattering system. In vivo measurements demonstrated that DLS can be used in all human eye segments. DLS is a unique technique. With DLS the molecular composition of eye segments can be studied in living subjects. This can be used to understand the molecular basis of severe eye diseases. The presented data demonstrate that DLS delivers reproducible data from all eye segments. It is possible to study the molecular structures of eye segments in living subjects. The developed devices were proved successfully in vitro as well as in vivo. Limitations are the low specificity of DLS and its sensitivity to background noise. Now clinical studies are necessary to demonstrate potential diagnostic benefits of DLS in specific eye diseases.

  12. Temporomandibular joint examination reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guarda Nardini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ it’s a joint closely related to the skull base, the spine, and the jaws; all these anatomical structures must be taken in consideration when evaluating pain involving the tmj. In order to detect patients affected by pathology or dysfunctions of the tmj, physical examination is of great value in orienting the diagnosis. Inspection must consider the symmetry of the body, the dental status and the type of occlusion. Palpation is a way to assess contractiont involving the muscles of the masticatory system and of the neck. Auscultation, based on articular noise provides means to determine whether we are dealing with degeneration of the joint or a dislocation of the intrarticular disc. In order to confirm the diagnosis obtained with the clinical evaluation, it’s useful to perform imaging techniques as opt, tomography and TC of the tmj and electromyokineosiography – index of the mandibular functionality and of the muscles status. MRI and dynamic MRI are among the non invasive exams which give the greatest amount of information, regarding the disc position and the joint degeneration. Arthroscopy is an invasive technique that allows early diagnosis of degeneration and is helpful to reveal early inflammatory processes of the joint.

  13. Early Vitreous Surgery in the Treatment of Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tereshhenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal is to identify objective indications for early primary vitreous surgery in infants with aggressive posterior ROP and to develop a methodology. Patients and methods. The study included 20 preterm infants (40 eyes with aggressive posterior ROP at the stage of formation exudative-tractional retinal detachment, which were divided into two groups. The main group consisted of 10 infants (20 eyes with severe manifestations of aggressive posterior ROP. The control group included 10 premature infants (20 eyes with aggressive posterior ROP, who underwent transpupillary laser coagulation of the retina (LC. In all cases (20 eyes 5-8 days after LC was recorded the progression of the disease. Based on data from a complex ophthalmic examination, given the progression of the disease after LC in the control group and baseline severe aggressive posterior ROP in the main group with the control with identical clinical picture, patients in both groups was made early vitreous surgery: in the main group — after ophthalmological examination and control after 8-16 days after LC. Results. In the main group after 6 months in 15 eyes (75% formed the correct vitreomacular interface, in 5 cases (25% were diagnosed with the smoothness of the foveolar pits by sealing the internal limiting membrane with no signs of retinal edema. In the control group after 6 months in 6 eyes (30% formed the right macular interface in 11 (55% — was defined by flatness or lack foveolar pit with no signs of retinal edema. On 3 eyes (15% in the 2nd zone remained a local retinal detachment. Conclusion. Primary vitrectomy performed according to the developed indications, allows to optimize the treatment of patients with aggressive posterior ROP in cases of inefficiency of the LC. It is an alternative and pathogenetically substantiated technology, which efficiency is not inferior to the traditional approach, including LС followed by vitreous surgery.

  14. An observational study of the proceedings of the All India Ophthalmological Conference, 2000 and subsequent publication in indexed journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaliwal Upreet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine the quality of reporting in the proceedings of the All India Ophthalmological Conference (AIOC 2000, subsequent rate of publication in an indexed journal and differences between the proceedings and the journal version of these papers. Design: Observational study. Materials and Methods: All papers presented at the AIOC 2000 were retrieved from the proceedings and assessed for completeness of reporting. To determine the subsequent full publication, a Medline search was performed as of January 2007; consistency between the proceedings paper and the final publication was evaluated. Statistical analysis: Chi square and Fisher′s exact tests were used to compare publication rates based on geographical location, subspecialty and study design; Student′s t -test was used to compare differences based on the number of authors and sample size. Results: Two hundred papers were retrieved; many failed to include study dates, design or statistical methods employed. Thirty-three (16.5% papers were subsequently published in indexed journals by January 2007. The published version differed from the proceedings paper in 27 (81.8% instances, mostly relating to changes in author name, number or sequence. Conclusions: The overall quality of reporting of scientific papers in the proceedings of the AIOC 2000 was inadequate and many did not result in publication in an indexed journal. Differences between the published paper in journals and in proceedings were seen in several instances. Ophthalmologists should be cautious about using the information provided in conference proceedings in their ophthalmic practice.

  15. [Retinotopic mapping of the human visual cortex with functional magnetic resonance imaging - basic principles, current developments and ophthalmological perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M B; Kaule, F; Grzeschik, R; Behrens-Baumann, W; Wolynski, B

    2011-07-01

    Since its initial introduction in the mid-1990 s, retinotopic mapping of the human visual cortex, based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has contributed greatly to our understanding of the human visual system. Multiple cortical visual field representations have been demonstrated and thus numerous visual areas identified. The organisation of specific areas has been detailed and the impact of pathophysiologies of the visual system on the cortical organisation uncovered. These results are based on investigations at a magnetic field strength of 3 Tesla or less. In a field-strength comparison between 3 and 7 Tesla, it was demonstrated that retinotopic mapping benefits from a magnetic field strength of 7 Tesla. Specifically, the visual areas can be mapped with high spatial resolution for a detailed analysis of the visual field maps. Applications of fMRI-based retinotopic mapping in ophthalmological research hold promise to further our understanding of plasticity in the human visual cortex. This is highlighted by pioneering studies in patients with macular dysfunction or misrouted optic nerves. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Oral Antibiotics for Meibomian Gland-Related Ocular Surface Disease: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wladis, Edward J; Bradley, Elizabeth A; Bilyk, Jurij R; Yen, Michael T; Mawn, Louise A

    2016-03-01

    To review the existing medical literature on the role of oral antibiotics in the management of ocular surface disease (OSD) that arises from disorders of the meibomian glands and to assess the efficacy of oral antibiotics in the management of this common ocular disease. A literature search was last conducted on August 12, 2015, in the PubMed and Cochrane databases for English-language original research investigations that evaluated the role of doxycycline, minocycline, and azithromycin in OSD among adult patients. The searches identified 87 articles, and 8 studies ultimately met the criteria outlined for this assessment. The 8 studies identified in the search documented an improvement in meibomian gland-related OSD after treatment with these agents, although side effects were common. This search identified only 1 randomized, controlled trial to assess the efficacy of these medications. Although oral antibiotics are used commonly in the management of OSD, there is no level I evidence to support their use. There are only a few studies that have assessed the efficacy of oral antibiotics in clinically meaningful ways in the management of OSD that arises from disorders of the meibomian glands. The current level of evidence is insufficient to conclude that antibiotics are useful in managing OSD arising from disorders of the meibomian glands. The few existing studies on the topic indicate that oral antibiotics may be an effective treatment for OSD that results from meibomian gland disease. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reported estimates of diagnostic accuracy in ophthalmology conference abstracts were not associated with full-text publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korevaar, Daniël A; Cohen, Jérémie F; Spijker, René; Saldanha, Ian J; Dickersin, Kay; Virgili, Gianni; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M M

    2016-11-01

    To assess whether conference abstracts that report higher estimates of diagnostic accuracy are more likely to reach full-text publication in a peer-reviewed journal. We identified abstracts describing diagnostic accuracy studies, presented between 2007 and 2010 at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Annual Meeting. We extracted reported estimates of sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). Between May and July 2015, we searched MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify corresponding full-text publications; if needed, we contacted abstract authors. Cox regression was performed to estimate associations with full-text publication, where sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were logit transformed, and DOR was log transformed. A full-text publication was found for 226/399 (57%) included abstracts. There was no association between reported estimates of sensitivity and full-text publication (hazard ratio [HR] 1.09 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.98, 1.22]). The same applied to specificity (HR 1.00 [95% CI 0.88, 1.14]), AUC (HR 0.91 [95% CI 0.75, 1.09]), and DOR (HR 1.01 [95% CI 0.94, 1.09]). Almost half of the ARVO conference abstracts describing diagnostic accuracy studies did not reach full-text publication. Studies in abstracts that mentioned higher accuracy estimates were not more likely to be reported in a full-text publication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. IMPACT OF PHYSICIAN COMMUNICATION ON DIABETIC EYE EXAMINATION ADHERENCE: Results From a Retrospective Cohort Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Philip P; Murchison, Ann P; Pizzi, Laura T; Hark, Lisa A; Dai, Yang; Leiby, Benjamin E; Haller, Julia A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of written communication between an ophthalmologist and a primary care physician (PCP) on patient adherence to diabetic eye examination recommendations. In a retrospective cohort study of a multiethnic population at an urban ophthalmology center, records of all patients with diabetes and clinic visits between 2007 and 2010 were reviewed. Data collected included patient demographics, insurance status, hemoglobin A1C, severity of diabetic retinopathy, follow-up examinations, and written communication between a patient's ophthalmologist and PCP. Statistical analyses were performed to examine the relationship between physician communication and adherence to diabetic eye examination based on the American Academy of Ophthalmology-published recommendations. A total of 1,968 people with diabetes were included. Written communication from an ophthalmologist to a PCP was associated with increased adherence to follow-up eye examination recommendations (Odds Ratio: 1.49; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.16-1.92; P = 0.0018). Communication from a PCP to an ophthalmologist was also associated with increased adherence (Odds Ratio: 1.94; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.37-2.77; P = 0.0002). Multivariable analysis controlling for other factors associated with examination adherence confirmed that communication both to and from an ophthalmologist was independently and significantly associated with increased follow-up adherence. Patients with communication between ophthalmologists and PCPs are more likely to adhere to diabetic eye examinations.

  19. Pilot evaluation of short-term changes in macular pigment and retinal sensitivity in different phenotypes of early age-related macular degeneration after carotenoid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvi, Federico; Souied, Eric H; Falfoul, Yousra; Georges, Anouk; Jung, Camille; Querques, Lea; Querques, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the response of carotenoid supplementation in different phenotypes of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by measuring macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and retinal sensitivity. Consecutive patients with only medium/large drusen and only reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) and age-matched and sex-matched controls were enrolled. At baseline, participants underwent a complete ophthalmological examination including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), MPOD and retinal sensitivity. Patients were put on vitamin supplementation (lutein 10 mg/day, zeaxanthin 2 mg/day) and 3 months later underwent a repeated ophthalmological examination. Twenty patients with medium/large drusen, 19 with RPD and 15 control subjects were included. At baseline, in controls, mean MPOD and BCVA were significantly higher compared with RPD (p=0.001 and p=0.01) but similar to medium/large drusen (p=0.9 and p=0.4). Mean retinal sensitivity was significantly higher in controls compared with RPD and medium/large drusen (for all p<0.0001). After 3 months of carotenoid supplementation the mean MPOD significantly increased in RPD (p=0.002), thus showing no more difference compared with controls (p=0.3); no significant changes were found in mean retinal sensitivity and BCVA (p=0.3 and p=0.7). Medium/large drusen did not show significant changes on MPOD, retinal sensitivity and BCVA (p=0.5, p=0.7 and p=0.7, respectively). Patients with early AMD, especially RPD phenotype, show lower macular sensitivity and MPOD than controls. After supplementation, MPOD significantly increased in RPD. These results suggest different pathophysiology for RPD as compared with medium/large drusen and may open new ways to identifying further therapeutic targets in this phenotype of early AMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Quality of life in chemical warfare survivors with ophthalmologic injuries: the first results form Iran Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Batool; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Montazeri, Ali

    2009-01-19

    Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against the Iranians during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988). The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in people who had ophthalmologic complications due to the sulfur mustard gas exposure during the war. The Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF) database indicated that there were 196 patients with severe ophthalmologic complications due to chemical weapons exposure. Of these, those who gave consent (n = 147) entered into the study. Quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and scores were compared to those of the general public. In addition logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate variables that contribute to physical and mental health related quality of life. The mean age of the patients was 44.8 (SD = 8.7) ranging from 21 to 75 years. About one-third of the cases (n= 50) reported exposure to chemical weapons more than once. The mean exposure duration to sulfur mustard gas was 21.6 years (SD = 1.2). The lowest scores on the SF-36 subscales were found to be: the role physical and the general health. Quality of life in chemical warfare victims who had ophthalmologic problems was significantly lower than the general public (P chemical warfare victims with ophthalmologic complications suffer from poor health related quality of life. It seems that the need for provision of health and support for this population is urgent. In addition, further research is necessary to measure health related quality of life in victims with different types of disabilities in order to support and enhance quality of life among this population.

  1. Quality of life in chemical warfare survivors with ophthalmologic injuries: the first results form Iran Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against the Iranians during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988. The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL in people who had ophthalmologic complications due to the sulfur mustard gas exposure during the war. Methods The Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF database indicated that there were 196 patients with severe ophthalmologic complications due to chemical weapons exposure. Of these, those who gave consent (n = 147 entered into the study. Quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and scores were compared to those of the general public. In addition logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate variables that contribute to physical and mental health related quality of life. Results The mean age of the patients was 44.8 (SD = 8.7 ranging from 21 to 75 years. About one-third of the cases (n= 50 reported exposure to chemical weapons more than once. The mean exposure duration to sulfur mustard gas was 21.6 years (SD = 1.2. The lowest scores on the SF-36 subscales were found to be: the role physical and the general health. Quality of life in chemical warfare victims who had ophthalmologic problems was significantly lower than the general public (P Conclusion The study findings suggest that chemical warfare victims with ophthalmologic complications suffer from poor health related quality of life. It seems that the need for provision of health and support for this population is urgent. In addition, further research is necessary to measure health related quality of life in victims with different types of disabilities in order to support and enhance quality of life among this population.

  2. Impact of psychological problems in chemical warfare survivors with severe ophthalmologic complication, a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, Gholamhosein; Ghasemi, Hassan; Mousavi, Batool; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Rahnama, Parvin; Jafari, Farhad; Afshin-Majd, Siamak; Sadeghi Naeeni, Maryam; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi

    2012-04-12

    Sulfur mustard (SM) has been used as a chemical warfare agent since the early twentieth century. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated SM induced ocular injuries, few of those studies have also focused on the psychological health status of victims. This study has evaluated the most prominent influences on the psychological health status of patients with severe SM induced ocular injuries. This descriptive study was conducted on 149 Iranian war veterans with severe SM induced eye injuries. The psychological health status of all patients was assessed using the Iranian standardized Symptom Check List 90-Revised (SCL90-R) questionnaire. The results of patients' Global Severity Index (GSI) were compared with the optimal cut-off point of 0.4 that has previously been calculated for GSI in Iranian community. The Mann-Whitney U test, T tests and effect sizes (using Cohen's d) were employed as statistical methods. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. The mean age of patients was 44.86 (SD=8.7) and mean duration of disease was 21.58 (SD=1.20) years. Rate of exposure was once in 99 (66.4%) cases. The mean GSI (1.46) of the study group was higher compared to standardized cut off point (0.4) of the Iranian community. The results of this study showed that the mean of total GSI score was higher in participants with lower educational levels (effect size=0.507), unemployment (effect size=0.464) and having more than 3 children (effect size=0.62). Among the participants, 87 (58.4%) cases had a positive psychological history for hospitalization or receiving outpatient cares previously and 62 (41.6%) cases had a negative psychological history. In addition, the mean of GSI in participants with negative psychological history was lower than those with positive psychological history (Mean Change Difference=-0.621 with SD=0.120). There was a significant difference between positive and negative psychological history with respect to GSI (Pchemical survivors are

  3. Assessment of early treatment response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using non-mono-exponential diffusion models: a feasibility study comparing the baseline and mid-treatment MRI examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedair, Reem; Manavaki, Roido; Gill, Andrew B.; Abeyakoon, Oshaani; Gilbert, Fiona J. [University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Priest, Andrew N.; Patterson, Andrew J. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); McLean, Mary A. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); University of Cambridge, Li Ka Shing Centre, Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Graves, Martin J. [University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Griffiths, John R. [University of Cambridge, Li Ka Shing Centre, Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-15

    To assess the feasibility of the mono-exponential, bi-exponential and stretched-exponential models in evaluating response of breast tumours to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) at 3 T. Thirty-six female patients (median age 53, range 32-75 years) with invasive breast cancer undergoing NACT were enrolled for diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) prior to the start of treatment. For assessment of early response, changes in parameters were evaluated on mid-treatment MRI in 22 patients. DW-MRI was performed using eight b values (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 300, 600, 900 s/mm{sup 2}). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), tissue diffusion coefficient (D{sub t}), vascular fraction (Florin), distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) and alpha (α) parameters were derived. Then t tests compared the baseline and changes in parameters between response groups. Repeatability was assessed at inter- and intraobserver levels. All patients underwent baseline MRI whereas 22 lesions were available at mid-treatment. At pretreatment, mean diffusion coefficients demonstrated significant differences between groups (p < 0.05). At mid-treatment, percentage increase in ADC and DDC showed significant differences between responders (49 % and 43 %) and non-responders (21 % and 32 %) (p = 0.03, p = 0.04). Overall, stretched-exponential parameters showed excellent repeatability. DW-MRI is sensitive to baseline and early treatment changes in breast cancer using non-mono-exponential models, and the stretched-exponential model can potentially monitor such changes. (orig.)

  4. Assessment of early treatment response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using non-mono-exponential diffusion models: a feasibility study comparing the baseline and mid-treatment MRI examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedair, Reem; Manavaki, Roido; Gill, Andrew B.; Abeyakoon, Oshaani; Gilbert, Fiona J.; Priest, Andrew N.; Patterson, Andrew J.; McLean, Mary A.; Graves, Martin J.; Griffiths, John R.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of the mono-exponential, bi-exponential and stretched-exponential models in evaluating response of breast tumours to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) at 3 T. Thirty-six female patients (median age 53, range 32-75 years) with invasive breast cancer undergoing NACT were enrolled for diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) prior to the start of treatment. For assessment of early response, changes in parameters were evaluated on mid-treatment MRI in 22 patients. DW-MRI was performed using eight b values (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 300, 600, 900 s/mm"2). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), tissue diffusion coefficient (D_t), vascular fraction (Florin), distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) and alpha (α) parameters were derived. Then t tests compared the baseline and changes in parameters between response groups. Repeatability was assessed at inter- and intraobserver levels. All patients underwent baseline MRI whereas 22 lesions were available at mid-treatment. At pretreatment, mean diffusion coefficients demonstrated significant differences between groups (p < 0.05). At mid-treatment, percentage increase in ADC and DDC showed significant differences between responders (49 % and 43 %) and non-responders (21 % and 32 %) (p = 0.03, p = 0.04). Overall, stretched-exponential parameters showed excellent repeatability. DW-MRI is sensitive to baseline and early treatment changes in breast cancer using non-mono-exponential models, and the stretched-exponential model can potentially monitor such changes. (orig.)

  5. [Experience in establishing ophthalmology at the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer (HAS) in Deschapelles, Haiti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, D; Bracher, H R

    2007-04-01

    Haiti is regarded as the poorest country of the Western hemisphere. The Hôpital Albert Schweitzer (HAS), founded in 1956 by Larimer Melon, is providing medical care to the Artibonite valley, an area in the centre of Haiti with over 400 000 inhabitants. Until 2001, a three-fold population was without eye care in central Haiti. In 2001, Hans Rudolf Bracher, a retired ophthalmologist from Bern, initiated the eye department at HAS and organised an eye examination unit, a microscope and further surgical equipment. Since then, eye care to the population was provided by short-term visits of ophthalmologists, nurses and orthoptists, mainly from switzerland. Additionally, teaching and surgical training was performed at university hospital in Port-au-Price, the only education centre for ophthalmologists in the country. The actual political and security situation complicates visits of western doctors. A development association for the HAS eye department was founded and with its help, an Haitian ophthalmologist is employed in a full-time position. Furthermore, logistic support is provided with drugs and surgical equipment. Today, under difficult circumstances, the eye department is well established as an effective and cost-covering institution at HAS.

  6. Early Corneal Innervation and Trigeminal Alterations in Parkinson Disease: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Alessandro; Rania, Laura; Calamuneri, Alessandro; Postorino, Elisa Imelde; Mormina, Enricomaria; Gaeta, Michele; Marino, Silvia; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Quartarone, Angelo; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Puzzolo, Domenico; Aragona, Pasquale

    2018-04-01

    To describe corneal innervation and trigeminal alterations in drug-naive patients with Parkinson disease (PD). A case series study was conducted by recruiting 3 early drug-naive patients with PD, 2 men and 1 woman (age: 72, 68, and 66, respectively). Ophthalmologic assessment included Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, visual acuity by the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution score, pupillary light reflexes, extrinsic ocular movements, corneal sensitivity, and slit-lamp examination. Corneal innervation parameter changes were evaluated in vivo using the Confoscan 4 confocal microscope, and they were compared with a control data set. The Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 (HRT3) has been used to assess retinal alterations in our patients, if compared with normal range values provided by the HRT3. Moreover, 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis of water diffusion property changes of trigeminal nerves was performed. All data were analyzed and compared with 2 control data sets made by 14 age-matched controls. Patients with PD showed profound alterations of corneal innervation and of trigeminal diffusion MRI parameters, compared with controls. Strong differences (PD vs. controls) were found for deep nerve tortuosity (Kallinikos mean 19.94 vs. 2.13) and the number of beadings (mean 34.2 vs. 15.5). HRT3 retinal evaluation revealed less structural changes compared with the normal range. Diffusion MRI showed profound changes of white matter diffusion properties (PD vs. controls), with fractional anisotropy decrement (mean 0.3029 vs. 0.3329) and mean diffusivity increment (mean 0.00127 vs. 0.00106). Corneal innervation changes might occur earlier in patients with PD than in retinal ones. Confocal corneal innervation analysis might provide possible early biomarkers for a better PD evaluation and for its earlier diagnosis.

  7. Verification of multimarkers for detection of early stage diabetic retinopathy using multiple reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunggon; Kim, Sang Jin; Han, Dohyun; Jin, Jonghwa; Yu, Jiyoung; Park, Kyong Soo; Yu, Hyeong Gon; Kim, Youngsoo

    2013-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication of diabetes and 80% of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients whose DM duration is over 10 years can be expected to suffer with DR. The diagnosis of DR depends on an ophthalmological examination, and no molecular methods of screening DR status exist. Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) is the early DR which is hard to be noticed in early NPDR, showing significant cause of adult blindness in type 2 diabetes patients. Protein biomarkers have been valuable in the diagnosis of disease and the use of multiple biomarkers has been suggested to overcome the low specificity of single ones. For biomarker development, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) has been spotlighted as an alternative method to quantify target proteins with no need for immunoassay. In this study, 54 candidate DR marker proteins from a previous study were verified by MRM in plasma samples from NPDR patients in 3 stages (mild, moderate and severe; 15 cases each) and diabetic patients without retinopathy (15 cases) as a control. Notably, 27 candidate markers distinguished moderate NPDR from type 2 diabetic patients with no diabetic retinopathy, generating AUC values (>0.7). Specifically, 28 candidate proteins underwent changes in expression as type 2 diabetic patients with no diabetic retinopathy progressed to mild and moderate NPDR. Further, a combination of 4 markers from these 28 candidates had the improved specificity in distinguishing moderate NPDR from type 2 diabetic patients with no diabetic retinopathy, yielding a merged AUC value of nearly 1.0. We concluded that MRM is a fast, robust approach of multimarker panel determination and an assay platform that provides improved specificity compared with single biomarker assay systems.

  8. Dose reduction in high-resolution MSCT. Examinations of the chest for early detection of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients; High-Resolution-MSCT-Thoraxuntersuchungen zur Infiltratsuche. Untersuchung einer Dosisreduktion bei immunsupprimierten Patienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, J.; Adam, G.; Wedegaertner, U. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Wildberger, J.E.; Dichtl, D. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Nagel, H.D. [Philips Medizin Systeme GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Purpose: the purpose of this study was to optimize high-resolution MSCT chest protocols for the evaluation of symptomatic immunosuppressed patients with suspected pneumonia using a dose-simulating program. Materials and methods: using the MSCT (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), 30 immunosuppressed patients with suspected pneumonia were examined with a low-dose HRCT of the chest (120 kV, 100 eff.mAs and collimation of 4 x 1 mm). A dose-simulating program was used to reconstruct the raw data at four different dose levels (70, 50, 35 und 25 mAs). For dose simulation for each mAs product, the correspondent noise level was added to the data. Images were generated with a slice thickness of 1 mm and 5 mm in the lung window. The images were then evaluated independently by two radiologists and graded on a scale of 1 to 3 points: 1 = no pneumonia, 2 = unclear, 3 = pneumonia. A receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was performed to calculate the area under the curve (AUC). The actual dosage in mSv was calculated. The sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Results: out of 30 patients, 7 had a normal chest finding and 23 had pneumonia. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 1.0 for every dosage and slice thickness. Infiltrates were detected correctly for all dosage levels. The sensitivity was 100% for all dose levels and slice thicknesses. There was one false positive finding at 35 mAs and 1 mm slice thickness. At this dose level the specificity was reduced to 93%. A reduction to 25 mAs had no influence on the detection of pneumonia. Thus, MSCT examinations of the chest can be performed with 25 mAs without missing the right diagnosis, resulting in an effective dose of 1.15 mSv (men), 1.5 mSv (women) and a CTDIvol of 2.5 mGy. (orig.)

  9. American Academy of Ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... location. Phaco at 50: The Challenge of Innovation Charles D. Kelman, MD, introduced phacoemulsification for cataract surgery ... Oct. 27 – 30 for AAO 2018. Subspecialty Day will take place Oct. 26 and 27. In response ...

  10. Diagnostic imaging in ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, C.F.; Becker, M.H.; Flanagan, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    There are three sections in the book. The first section is a discussion of imaging techniques, which includes plain film radiography and multidirectional tomography of the orbit, computed tomography (CT) of the orbit and its use in the evaluation of ocular motility disorders, ultrasonography of the eye and orbit, investigation of the orbit by contrast techniques (which includes a brief review of angiography), the lachrimal drainage system, foreign body localization, and magnetic resonance imaging of the eye and orbit. There is extensive discussion of CT throughout the book. The second section is devoted to the role of these imaging methods in the evaluation of ophthalmic disorders. A discussion of congenital anomalies is useful for those centers that are exposed to unusual congenital anomalies and syndromes. Also included is evaluation of exophthalmous and thyroid ophthamalopathy, orbital tumors, lesions involving the visual pathways, CT assessment of paraorbital pathology (including basal and squamous cell tumors of the face), infection of the orbit, and orbital trauma. The third section is an overview of radiation therapy and malignant intraoccular tumors

  11. NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    headache of 2 years duration and visual loss left eye (LE). She was ... perimetry confirmed a right homonymous hemianopia and Cranial CT scan showed a suprasellar ... Magnetic resonance imaging brain was ordered and neurosurgery ... as a function of decibel sensitivity loss on automated static perimetry. Implications ...

  12. Wavefront Measurement in Ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molebny, Vasyl

    Wavefront sensing or aberration measurement in the eye is a key problem in refractive surgery and vision correction with laser. The accuracy of these measurements is critical for the outcome of the surgery. Practically all clinical methods use laser as a source of light. To better understand the background, we analyze the pre-laser techniques developed over centuries. They allowed new discoveries of the nature of the optical system of the eye, and many served as prototypes for laser-based wavefront sensing technologies. Hartmann's test was strengthened by Platt's lenslet matrix and the CCD two-dimensional photodetector acquired a new life as a Hartmann-Shack sensor in Heidelberg. Tscherning's aberroscope, invented in France, was transformed into a laser device known as a Dresden aberrometer, having seen its reincarnation in Germany with Seiler's help. The clinical ray tracing technique was brought to life by Molebny in Ukraine, and skiascopy was created by Fujieda in Japan. With the maturation of these technologies, new demands now arise for their wider implementation in optometry and vision correction with customized contact and intraocular lenses.

  13. Development of early core anomaly detection system by using in-sodium microphone in JOYO. Fundamental characteristics test of in-sodium microphone in water and examination of improvement of detection accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komai, Masafumi

    2001-07-01

    Fast reactor core anomalies can be detected in near real-time with acoustic sensors. An acoustic detection system senses an in-core anomaly immediately from the fast acoustic signals that propagate through the sodium coolant. One example of a detectable anomaly is sodium boiling due to local blockage in a sub-assembly; the slight change in background acoustic signals can be detected. A key advantage of the acoustic detector is that it can be located outside the core. The location of the anomaly in the core can be determined by correlating multiple acoustic signals. This report describes the testing and fundamental characteristics of a microphone suitable for use in the sodium coolant and examines methods to improve the system's S/N ratio. Testing in water confirmed that the in-sodium microphone has good impulse and wide band frequency responses. These tests used impulse and white noise signals that imitate acoustic signals from boiling sodium. Correlation processing of multiple microphone signals to improve S/N ratio is also described. (author)

  14. Safety and Efficacy of Lacrimal Drainage System Plugs for Dry Eye Syndrome: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcet, Marcus M; Shtein, Roni M; Bradley, Elizabeth A; Deng, Sophie X; Meyer, Dale R; Bilyk, Jurij R; Yen, Michael T; Lee, W Barry; Mawn, Louise A

    2015-08-01

    level II and III evidence in these studies, plugs improve the signs and symptoms of moderate dry eye that are not improved with topical lubrication, and they are well tolerated. There are no level I studies that describe the efficacy or safety of lacrimal drainage system plugs. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Why is it necessary to examine retina when the patient suffers from aplastic anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcikova, D; Gerinec, A; Busanyova, B; Gresikova, M; Biskup, S; Hortnagel, K

    2018-01-01

    To inform about a case of Revesz syndrome (RS) with initial ophthalmological symptomatology of severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy of the left eye (LE). After the aplastic anemia had developed, RS was established. The exudative retinopathy was successfully treated with photocoagulation on the right eye (RE). RS is characterized by fatal bone marrow failure, exudative retinopathy, neuroradiographic abnormalities, neurodevelopmental delay and skin abnormalities. Non-treated exudative retinopathy leads to blindness. We report ophthalmological findings as follows: fundus photography and fluorescein angiography (FA) acquired by examinations under general anesthesia in patient with RS. Results of genetic tests helped to establish the diagnosis. Two‑year old Caucasian male was examined due to total retinal detachment on LE and signs of chorioretinal scarring on RE. In preoperative screening, thrombocytopenia was detected; later, severe pancytopenia developed. Considering the hematological findings and clinical appearance, we suspected RS, which was confirmed by genetic tests. We found a pathogenic mutation in gene TINF2 (variant c.865C>T;p.Pro289Ser) in a mosaic state with autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. This mutation has not been described in RS yet. Blind LE was enucleated because of dolorous neovascular glaucoma. FA of RE shows excessive areas of capillary nonperfusion with vascular abnormalities and exudation. After the photocoagulation, the visual acuity (VA) on RE remains 0.9 at the age of 7 years. RS is an extremely rare condition.  The initial symptomatology could be ophthalmological or hematological. The positive finding of TINF2 gene mutation helped in establishing the correct diagnosis. The ischemic retinopathy was successfully treated by photocoagulation (Fig. 6, Ref. 6). Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  16. Eye and hand motor interactions with the Symbol Digit Modalities Test in early multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Gro O; de Rodez Benavent, Sigrid A; Harbo, Hanne F; Laeng, Bruno; Sowa, Piotr; Damangir, Soheil; Bernhard Nilsen, Kristian; Etholm, Lars; Tønnesen, Siren; Kerty, Emilia; Drolsum, Liv; Inge Landrø, Nils; Celius, Elisabeth G

    2015-11-01

    Eye and hand motor dysfunction may be present early in the disease course of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and can affect the results on visual and written cognitive tests. We aimed to test for differences in saccadic initiation time (SI time) between RRMS patients and healthy controls, and whether SI time and hand motor speed interacted with the written version of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (wSDMT). Patients with RRMS (N = 44, age 35.1 ± 7.3 years), time since diagnosis < 3 years and matched controls (N = 41, age 33.2 ± 6.8 years) were examined with ophthalmological, neurological and neuropsychological tests, as well as structural MRI (white matter lesion load (WMLL) and brainstem lesions), visual evoked potentials (VEP) and eye-tracker examinations of saccades. SI time was longer in RRMS than controls (p < 0.05). SI time was not related to the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), WMLL or to the presence of brainstem lesions. 9 hole peg test (9HP) correlated significantly with WMLL (r = 0.58, p < 0.01). Both SI time and 9HP correlated negatively with the results of wSDMT (r = -0.32, p < 0.05, r = -0.47, p < 0.01), but none correlated with the results of PASAT. RRMS patients have an increased SI time compared to controls. Cognitive tests results, exemplified by the wSDMT, may be confounded by eye and hand motor function. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Early-stage chronic kidney disease, insulin resistance, and osteoporosis as risk factors of sarcopenia in aged population: the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J E; Lee, Y-H; Huh, J H; Kang, D R; Rhee, Y; Lim, S-K

    2014-09-01

    Sarcopenia means the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with aging. In this study, we found that insulin resistance, chronic kidney disease stage 3, and osteoporosis at the femur neck were closely associated with sarcopenia in elderly men. These conditions modified to slow down the progression of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is known to have multiple contributing factors; however, its modifiable risk factors have not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to identify the most influential and modifiable risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly. This was a population-based, cross-sectional study using data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), 2008-2009. This study included 940 men and 1,324 women aged 65 years and older who completed a body composition analysis using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height(2) of less than 1 standard deviation below the sex-specific mean for a younger reference group. Using univariate analysis, age, body mass index (BMI), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), limitations in daily activities, regular exercise, high-risk drinking, family income, osteoporosis, daily energy, and protein intake were associated with sarcopenia in men; age, BMI, limitations in daily activities, regular exercise, occupation, osteoporosis at the total hip, and daily energy intake were associated with sarcopenia in women. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, HOMA-IR ≥2.5 (odds ratio [OR] for sarcopenia, 2.27; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.21-4.25), chronic kidney disease stage 3 (OR, 3.13; 95 % CI, 1.14-8.61), and osteoporosis at the femur neck (OR, 6.83; 95 % CI, 1.08-43.41) were identified as risk factors for sarcopenia in men. Insulin resistance, chronic kidney disease, and osteoporosis at the femur neck should be modified to prevent the acceleration of skeletal muscle

  18. Examination Management and Examination Malpractice: The Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunji, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Examination malpractice or cheating has become a global phenomenon. In different countries of the world today, developed and developing, academic dishonesty especially cheating in examinations has heightened and taken frightening dimension. In many countries of the world this phenomenon has become a serious matter of concern that has left many…

  19. Perfil oftalmológico dos alunos do programa alfabetização solidária em quatro municípios do Ceará Ophthalmological profile of adult students belonging to a literacy program in four cities of Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islane Castro Verçosa

    2003-01-01

    assess visual acuity, ophthalmologists and residents in Ophthalmology, auxiliary personnel and secretaries. RESULTS: We observed that almost half of the students (46% showed visual acuity equal to or below 0.8 in both eyes; 81.4% of the population needed optic correction and 37% needed corrective lenses for presbyopia. The majority of the population was between 41 and 50 years old, 56% of the students were female. Thirty-eight percent of the students showed some ophthalmologic pathology. We found that pterygium and cataracts were the most frequent. CONCLUSION: The program should include as prerequisite an ophthalmologic examination of each student prior to enrollment for best results.

  20. MRI of the fingers in patients with systemic scleroderma. Early results of contrast-enhanced examinations on a dedicated MRI system; MRT der Finger bei systemischer Sklerodermie. Erste Ergebnisse mit kontrastverstaerkten Untersuchungen an einem dedizierten MRT-System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonel, H.; Seemann, M.; Reiser, M. [Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Klinikum Grosshadern, Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Messer, G.; Walchner, M.; Roecken, M. [Dermatologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    Purpose. To estimate disease activity in patients with systemic sclerosis using contrast-enhanced MRI of the skin. Material and Methods. In a pre-study, sequences of a low-field (0.2 T) scanner (Artoscan, Esaote, Genova, Italy) were optimized for detection of intravenous contrast (0.1 mmol/l Gd-DTPA) in six patients with the autoimmune disease systemic scleroderma. Based on the results of the pre-study, 17 patients with scleroderma (7 sclerotic/10 active inflammatory disease) were scanned using gradient-spoiled 3D GRE sequences (FA 90 , TR 100 ms, TE 18 ms), which had been established as most sensitive for intravenous contrast. Contrast enhancement of the skin was determined quantitatively by contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR), comparing post- to pre-contrast and dynamic scans (for 6 min, 1 acquisition/min). Patients in the chronic state with sclerodactylia and active inflammation of the hands were considered separately and compared to a control group (n=10) matched according to age. Results. CNR increase after intravenous contrast was significantly high