WorldWideScience

Sample records for early noninvasive indicator

  1. Peak negative myocardial velocity gradient in early diastole as a noninvasive indicator of left ventricular diastolic function: comparison with transmitral flow velocity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Uematsu, M; Shimizu, H; Nakamura, K; Yamagishi, M; Miyatake, K

    1998-11-01

    We sought to assess the clinical significance of peak negative myocardial velocity gradient (MVG) in early diastole as a noninvasive indicator of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. Peak systolic MVG has been shown useful for the quantitative assessment of regional wall motion abnormalities, but limited data exist regarding the diastolic MVG as an indicator of LV diastolic function. Peak negative MVG was obtained from M-mode tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in 43 subjects with or without impairment of systolic and diastolic performance: 12 normal subjects, 12 patients with hypertensive heart disease (HHD) with normal systolic performance and 19 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and was compared with standard Doppler transmitral flow velocity indices. In a subgroup of 30 patients, effects of preload increase on these indices were assessed by performing passive leg lifting. In an additional 11 patients with congestive heart failure at the initial examination, the measurements were repeated after 26+/-16 days of volume-reducing therapy. Peak negative MVG was significantly depressed both in HHD (-3.9+/-1.3/s, p indices failed to distinguish DCM from normal due to the pseudonormalization. Transmitral flow velocity indices were significantly altered (peak early/late diastolic filling velocity [E/A]=1.1+/-0.5 to 1.5+/-0.7, p indicator of LV diastolic function that is less affected by preload alterations than the transmitral flow velocity indices, and thereby could be used for the follow-up of patients with nonischemic LV dysfunction presenting congestive heart failure.

  2. Embracing early literacy indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik; Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2010-01-01

    Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet (www.ease-eu.com) på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres.......Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet (www.ease-eu.com) på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres....

  3. CARDIAC TRANSPLANT REJECTION AND NON-INVASIVE COMON CAROTID ARTERY WALL FUNCTIONAL INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shevchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allograft rejection would entail an increase in certain blood biomarkers and active substances derived from activated inflammatory cells which could influence entire vascular endothelial function and deteriorate arterial wall stiffness. We propose that carotid wall functional indices measured with non-invasive ultrasound could we valuable markers of the subclinical cardiac allograft rejection. Aim. Our goal was to analyze the clinical utility of functional common carotid wall (CCW variables measured with high-resolution Doppler ultrasound as a non-invasive screening tool for allograft rejection in cardiac transplant patients (pts. Methods. One hundred and seventy one pts included 93 cardiac recipients, 30 dilated cardiomyopathy waiting list pts, and 48 stable coronary artery disease (SCAD pts without decompensated heart failure were included. Along with resistive index (Ri, pulsative index (Pi, and CCW intima-media thickness (IMT, CCW rigidity index (iRIG was estimated using empirical equation. Non-invasive evaluation was performed in cardiac transplant recipients prior the endomyo- cardial biopsy. Results. Neither of Ri, Pi, or CCW IMT were different in studied subgroups. iRIG was signifi- cantly lower in SCAD pts when compared to the dilated cardiomyopathy subgroup. The later had similar values with cardiac transplant recipients without rejection. Antibody-mediated and cellular rejection were found in 22 (23.7% and 17 (18.3% cardiac recipients, respectively. Mean iRIG in pts without rejection was significantly lower in comparison to antibody-mediated rejection and cell-mediated (5514.7 ± 2404.0 vs 11856.1 ± 6643.5 and 16071.9 ± 10029.1 cm/sec2, respectively, p = 0.001. Area under ROC for iRIG was 0.90 ± 0.03 units2. Analysis showed that iRIG values above estimated treshold 7172 cm/sec2 suggested relative risk of any type of rejection 17.7 (95%CI = 6.3–49.9 sensitivity 80.5%, specificity – 81.1%, negative predictive value – 84

  4. Early Reading Proficiency. Leading Indicator Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musen, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    In "Beyond Test Scores: Leading Indicators for Education," Foley and colleagues (2008) define leading indicators as those that "provide early signals of progress toward academic achievement" (p. 1) and stress that educators "need leading indicators to help them see the direction their efforts are going in and to take…

  5. Functional diffusion map: A noninvasive MRI biomarker for early stratification of clinical brain tumor response

    OpenAIRE

    Moffat, Bradford A.; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Meyer, Charles R.; Johnson, Timothy D.; Dong, Qian; Tsien, Christina; Mukherji, Suresh; Quint, Douglas J.; Gebarski, Stephen S.; Robertson, Patricia L.; Junck, Larry R.; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Ross, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of radiation and chemotherapy efficacy for brain cancer patients is traditionally accomplished by measuring changes in tumor size several months after therapy has been administered. The ability to use noninvasive imaging during the early stages of fractionated therapy to determine whether a particular treatment will be effective would provide an opportunity to optimize individual patient management and avoid unnecessary systemic toxicity, expense, and treatment delays. We investiga...

  6. UWB based low-cost and non-invasive practical breast cancer early detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasarveswari, V.; Khatun, S.; Fakir, M. M.; Jusoh, M.; Ali, S.

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of women death worldwide. Breast tumor is an early stage of cancer that locates in cells of a human breast. As there is no remedy, early detection is crucial. Towards this, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) is a prominent candidate. It is a wireless communication technology which can achieve high bandwidth with low power utilization. UWB is suitable to be used for short range communication systems including breast cancer detection since it is secure, non-invasive and human health friendly. This paper presents the low-cost and non-invasive early breast cancer detection strategy using UWB sensor (or antenna). Emphasis is given here to detect breast tumor in 2D and 3D environments. The developed system consisted of hardware and software. Hardware included UWB transceiver and a pair of home-made directional sensor/antenna. The software included feed-forward back propagation Neural Network (NN) module to detect the tumor existence, size and location along with soft interface between software and hardware. Forward scattering technique was used by placing two sensors diagonally opposite sides of a breast phantom. UWB pulses were transmitted from one side of phantom and received from other side, controlled by the software interface in PC environment. Collected received signals were then fed into the NN module for training, testing and validation. The system exhibited detection efficiency on tumor existence, location (x, y, z), and size were approximately 100%, (78.17%, 70.66%, 92.46%), 85.86% respectively. The proposed UWB based early breast cancer detection system could be more practical with low-cost, user friendly and non-harmful features. This project may help users to monitor their breast health regularly at their home.

  7. Noninvasive analysis of volatile biomarkers in human emanations for health and early disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Saito, Keita; Kato, Hisato; Masuda, Kazufumi

    2013-06-01

    Early disease diagnosis is crucial for human healthcare and successful therapy. Since any changes in homeostatic balance can alter human emanations, the components of breath exhalations and skin emissions may be diagnostic biomarkers for various diseases and metabolic disorders. Since hundreds of endogenous and exogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from the human body, analysis of these VOCs may be a noninvasive, painless, and easy diagnostic tool. Sampling and preconcentration by sorbent tubes/traps and solid-phase microextraction, in combination with GC or GC-MS, are usually used to analyze VOCs. In addition, GC-MS-olfactometry is useful for simultaneous analysis of odorants and odor quality. Direct MS techniques are also useful for the online real-time detection of VOCs. This review focuses on recent developments in sampling and analysis of volatile biomarkers in human odors and/or emanations, and discusses future use of VOC analysis.

  8. Early diagnosis of incipient caries based on non-invasive lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velescu, A.; Todea, C.; Vitez, B.

    2016-03-01

    AIM: The aim of this study is to detect incipient caries and enamel demineralization using laser fluorescence.This serves only as an auxilary aid to identify and to monitor the development of these lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 6 patients were involved in this study, three females and three male. Each patient underwent a professional cleaning, visual examination of the oral cavity, and then direct inspection using DiagnoCam and DIAGNOdent. After data recording each patient was submitted to retro-alveolar X-ray on teeth that were detected with enamel lesions. All data was collected and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Of 36 areas considered in clinically healthy, 24 carious surfaces were found using laser fluorescence, a totally non-invasive method for detecting incipient carious lesions compared with the radiographic examination. CONCLUSIONS: This method has good applicability for patients because it improves treatment plan by early detection of caries and involves less fear for anxious patients and children.

  9. Non-invasive method for screening and early detection of breast tumors using thermal field analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Drosu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to general presentation of international and European evaluation regarding breast cancer incidence and mortality as well as recommendations for prevention, screening, detection and treatment.The past years international research development in biomedical engineering has put a particular emphasis on the thermography use in breast pathology diagnosis and its main advantages, such as: an early diagnose of the breast cancer, in that stage when the mammography or ultrasounds can not easily detect the changes of the tissue; a totally non-invasive interaction with human body; very low costs and possibilities for the women to do a self thermographic test.We also present some important results of our research within the field of breast tumor detection using the numerical analysis of the thermal inverse problem.

  10. Noninvasive ultrasound molecular imaging of the effect of statins on endothelial inflammatory phenotype in early atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Khanicheh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory changes on the endothelium are responsible for leukocyte recruitment to plaques in atherosclerosis. Noninvasive assessment of treatment-effects on endothelial inflammation may be of use for managing medical therapy and developing novel therapies. We hypothesized that molecular imaging of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 with contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEU could assess treatment effects on endothelial phenotype in early atherosclerosis. METHODS: Mice with atherosclerosis produced by gene deletion of the LDL-receptor and Apobec-1-editing protein were studied. At 12 weeks of age, mice received 8 weeks of regular chow or atorvastatin-enriched chow (10 mg/kg/day. At 20 weeks, CEU molecular imaging for aortic endothelial VCAM-1 expression was performed with VCAM-1-targeted (MB(VCAM and control microbubbles (MB(Ctr. Aortic wall thickness was assessed with high frequency ultrasound. Histology, immunohistology and Western blot were used to assess plaque burden and VCAM-1 expression. RESULTS: Plaque burden was reduced on histology, and VCAM-1 was reduced on Western blot by atorvastatin, which corresponded to less endothelial expression of VCAM-1 on immunohistology. High frequency ultrasound did not detect differences in aortic wall thickness between groups. In contrast, CEU molecular imaging demonstrated selective signal enhancement for MB(VCAM in non-treated animals (MB(VCAM 2±0.3 vs MB(Ctr 0.7±0.2, p<0.01, but not in statin-treated animals (MB(VCAM 0.8±0.2 vs MB(Ctr 1.0±0.2, p = ns; p<0.01 for the effect of statin on MB(VCAM signal. CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive CEU molecular imaging detects the effects of anti-inflammatory treatment on endothelial inflammation in early atherosclerosis. This easily accessible, low-cost technique may be useful in assessing treatment effects in preclinical research and in patients.

  11. Asynchrony of the early maturation of white matter bundles in healthy infants: Quantitative landmarks revealed noninvasively by diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.; Perrin, M.; Mangin, J.F.; Cointepas, Y.; Duchesnay, E.; Le Bihan, D.; Hertz-Pannier, L.; Dehaene-Lambertz, G.; Dubois, J.; Dehaene-Lambertz, G.; Perrin, M.; Mangin, J.F.; Cointepas, Y.; Duchesnay, E.; Le Bihan, D.; Hertz-Pannier, L.

    2008-01-01

    Normal cognitive development in infants follows a well-known temporal sequence, which is assumed to be correlated with the structural maturation of underlying functional networks. Postmortem studies and, more recently, structural MR imaging studies have described qualitatively the heterogeneous spatio-temporal progression of white matter myelination. However, in vivo quantification of the maturation phases of fiber bundles is still lacking. We used noninvasive diffusion tensor MR imaging and tractography in twenty-three 1-4-month-old healthy infants to quantify the early maturation of the main cerebral fascicles. A specific maturation model, based on the respective roles of different maturational processes on the diffusion phenomena, was designed to highlight asynchronous maturation across bundles by evaluating the time-course of mean diffusivity and anisotropy changes over the considered developmental period. Using an original approach, a progression of maturation in four relative stages was determined in each tract by estimating the maturation state and speed, from the diffusion indices over the infants group compared with an adults group on one hand, and in each tract compared with the average over bundles on the other hand. Results were coherent with, and extended previous findings in 8 of 11 bundles, showing the anterior limb of the internal capsule and cingulum as the most immature, followed by the optic radiations, arcuate and inferior longitudinal fascicles, then the spino-thalamic tract and fornix, and finally the cortico-spinal tract as the most mature bundle. Thus, this approach provides new quantitative landmarks for further noninvasive research on brain-behavior relationships during normal and abnormal development. (authors)

  12. Non-invasive assessment determine the swallowing and respiration dysfunction in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chin-Man; Shieh, Wann-Yun; Weng, Yi-Hsin; Hsu, Yi-Hsuan; Wu, Yih-Ru

    2017-09-01

    Dysphagia is common among patients with Parkinson's disease. Swallowing and its coordination with respiration is extremely important to achieve safety swallowing. Different tools have been used to assess this coordination, however the results have been inconsistent. We aimed to investigate this coordination in patients with Parkinson's disease using a non-invasive method. Signals of submental muscle activity, thyroid cartilage excursion, and nasal airflow during swallowing were recorded simultaneously. Five different water boluses were swallowed three times, and the data were recorded and analyzed. Thirty-seven controls and 42 patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease were included. The rates of non-expiratory/expiratory pre- and post-swallowing respiratory phase patterns were higher in the patients than in the controls (P Parkinson's disease, and safety compensation mechanisms were used more than efficiency during swallowing. The results of this study may serve as a baseline for further research into new treatment regimens and to improve the management of swallowing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Trial of early noninvasive ventilation for ALS: A pilot placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Teresa L; Brown, Devin L; Baek, Jonggyu; Migda, Erin M; Funckes, Timothy; Gruis, Kirsten L

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the use and tolerability of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) early in their disease by comparing active NIV and sham NIV in patients not yet eligible for NIV use as recommended by practice guidelines. This was a single-center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo (sham)-controlled pilot trial. Patients with ALS were randomized to receive either sham NIV or active NIV and underwent active surveillance approximately every 3 months until they reached a forced vital capacity (FVC) NIV for clinical symptom management. In total, 54 participants were randomized. The mean NIV use was 2.0 hours (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.0) per day in the sham NIV treatment group and 3.3 hours (CI 2.0-4.6) per day in the active NIV group, which did not differ by treatment group (p = 0.347). The majority of sham NIV participants (88%) and active NIV participants (73%) reported only mild or no problem with NIV use. Difference of change in FVC through the treatment period by group (0.44 per month) favored active NIV (p = 0.049). Survival and changes in maximal inspiratory or expiratory pressure did not differ between treatment groups. The efficacy of early NIV in ALS should be tested in randomized, placebo-controlled trials. The trial is registered on clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00580593). This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with ALS, adherence with NIV and sham NIV are similar. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. A Multi-Institutional Study of Feasibility, Implementation, and Early Clinical Results With Noninvasive Breast Brachytherapy for Tumor Bed Boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Subarna; Rocchio, Kathy; Arthur, Douglas; Vera, Robyn; Sha, Sandra; Jolly, Michele; Cavanaugh, Sean; Wooten, Eric; Benda, Rashmi; Greenfield, Brad; Prestidge, Bradley; Ackerman, Scot; Kuske, Robert; Quiet, Coral; Snyder, Margaret; Wazer, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility, implementation, and early results of noninvasive breast brachytherapy (NIBB) for tumor bed boost with whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT). Methods and Materials: NIBB is a commercially available (AccuBoost, Billerica, MA) mammography-based, brachytherapy system in which the treatment applicators are centered on the planning target volume (PTV) to direct 192 Ir emissions along orthogonal axes. A privacy-encrypted online data registry collected information from 8 independent academic and community-based institutions. Data were from 146 consecutive women with early-stage breast cancer after lumpectomy and WBRT receiving boost with NIBB between July 2007 and March 2010. Toxicity and cosmesis were graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (v. 3.0) and the Harvard scale. Median follow-up was 6 months (1–39 months). Results: Grade 1–2 skin toxicity was observed in 64%, 48%, and 21% during the acute (1–3 weeks), intermediate (4–26 weeks), and late-intermediate (>26 weeks) periods. There was no Grade 4 toxicity. At 6 months, for the entire cohort, cosmesis was excellent/good in 62%/38%. The subset receiving NIBB before WBRT had cosmetic scores of 32% and 63%, whereas during WBRT, 58% and 37% were rated as excellent and good, respectively. Breast compression was scored as “uncomfortable” in 12%, 29%, and 59% when NIBB was delivered before, during, or after WBRT. For each patient, the fraction-to-fraction variability in PTV was low. Skin flash was associated with a higher proportion of excellent cosmesis (58% vs. 42%) relative to having the applicator all within breast tissue. Conclusions: These data indicate that NIBB is feasible and can be consistently implemented in a broad array of practice settings. Preliminary evaluation suggests that NIBB is associated with acceptably mild normal tissue toxicity and favorable early cosmesis. The application of NIBB before WBRT may be associated with better patient tolerance at

  15. Indicators for early identification of re-emerging mycotoxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Dekkers, S.; Kandhai, M.C.; Jeurissen, S.M.F.; Booij, C.J.H.; Heer, de C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select the most important indicators for early identification of re-emerging mycotoxins in wheat, maize, peanuts and tree nuts. The study was based on a holistic approach and, consequently, potential indicators were evaluated not only from the food production chain but

  16. Applications in Bioastronautics and Bioinformatics: Early Radiation Cataracts Detected by Noninvasive, Quantitative, and Remote Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; King, James F.; Giblin, Frank J.

    2000-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars is a key goal in NASA's exploration planning in the next 20 years. Maintaining crew health and good vision is certainly an important aspect of achieving a successful mission. Continuous radiation exposure is a risk factor for radiation-induced cataracts in astronauts because radiation exposure in space travel has the potential of accelerating the aging process (ref. 1). A patented compact device (ref. 2) based on the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) was designed for monitoring an astronaut's ocular health during long-duration space travel. This capability of early diagnosis, unmatched by any other clinical technique in use today, may enable prompt initiation of preventive/curative therapy. An Internet web-based system integrating photon correlation data and controlling the hardware to monitor cataract development in vivo at a remote site in real time (teleophthalmology) is currently being developed. The new technology detects cataracts very early (at the molecular level). Cataract studies onboard the International Space Station will be helpful in quantifying any adverse effect of radiation to ocular health. The normal lens in a human eye, situated behind the cornea, is a transparent tissue. It contains 35 wt % protein and 65 wt % water. Aging, disease (e.g., diabetes), smoking, dehydration, malnutrition, and exposure to ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation can cause agglomeration of the lens proteins. Protein aggregation can take place anywhere in the lens, causing lens opacity. The aggregation and opacification could produce nuclear (central portion of the lens) or cortical (peripheral) cataracts. Nuclear and posterior subcapsular (the membrane's capsule surrounds the whole lens) cataracts, being on the visual optical axis of the eye, cause visual impairment that can finally lead to blindness. The lens proteins, in their native state, are small in size. As a cataract develops, this size grows from a few nanometers

  17. Noninvasive staging of lung cancer. Indications and limitations of gallium-67 citrate imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekerman, C.; Caride, V.J.; Hoffer, P.B.; Boles, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The results of evaluation of the hila and mediastinum with 67Ga scans are contradictory, as are the recommendations by different investigators on the use of 67Ga scintigraphy in the clinical evaluation of patients with primary lung carcinoma. Nevertheless, the economy and logistic simplicity of evaluating local and distant metastases with a single imaging procedure are attractive, especially because the symptoms may not enable the physician to make a correct identification of the organ systems affected by metastases. Neumann and Hoffer state that at present conventional Ga-67 scanning techniques cannot be recommended for preoperative staging of mediastinal lymph node metastases in lung cancer patients. According to Waxman, 67Ga scintigraphy, relative to other imaging modalities, is a sensitive indicator of hilar spread of a tumor. However, because of the normally high background activity within the sternum and spine, mediastinal abnormalities may be poorly detected. Since most pulmonary tumors metastasize via regional nodes to the pulmonary hilum and then to the mediastinum, the high sensitivity for the detection of pulmonary hilar abnormalities and the high specificity for detection of mediastinal lesions suggest that gallium scintigraphy is a valuable adjunctive test when used appropriately. The results obtained locally are probably the best guide for individual physicians in the selection of diagnostic tests for their patients. Gallium scans may thus be helpful in the clinical evaluation of patients with lung cancer. Although gallium scans identify mediastinal node involvement, there is considerable controversy over the relationship between the sensitivity and specificity of the method. By detecting distant extrathoracic metastases, the 67Ga scan may identify a small group of patients who can be spared a needless operation. 92 references

  18. Non-Invasive Markers for Early Diagnosis and Determination of the Severity of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuijls, Geertje; Derikx, Joep P. M.; van Wijck, Kim; Zimmermann, Luc J. I.; Degraeuwe, Pieter L.; Mulder, Twan L.; Van der Zee, David C.; Brouwers, Hens A. A.; Verhoeven, Bas H.; van Heurn, L. W. Ernest; Kramer, Boris W.; Buurman, Wim A.; Heineman, Erik

    Objectives: To improve diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) by noninvasive markers representing gut wall integrity loss (I-FABP and claudin-3) and gut wall inflammation (calprotectin). Furthermore, the usefulness of I-FABP to predict NEC severity and to screen for NEC was evaluated. Methods:

  19. Non-invasive markers for early diagnosis and determination of the severity of necrotizing enterocolitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuijls, G.; Derikx, J.P.; Wijck, K. van; Zimmermann, L.J.; Degraeuwe, P.L.J.; Mulder, T.L.; Zee, D.C. van der; Brouwers, H.A.A.; Verhoeven, B.H.; Heurn, L.W.E. van; Kramer, B.W.; Buurman, W.A.; Heineman, E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To improve diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) by noninvasive markers representing gut wall integrity loss (I-FABP and claudin-3) and gut wall inflammation (calprotectin). Furthermore, the usefulness of I-FABP to predict NEC severity and to screen for NEC was evaluated. METHODS:

  20. A Multi-Institutional Study of Feasibility, Implementation, and Early Clinical Results With Noninvasive Breast Brachytherapy for Tumor Bed Boost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, Subarna, E-mail: shamid@tuftsmedicalcenter.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Rocchio, Kathy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Arthur, Douglas; Vera, Robyn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Sha, Sandra; Jolly, Michele [Central Florida Cancer Institute, Davenport, FL (United States); Cavanaugh, Sean; Wooten, Eric [Atlanta Oncology Associates, Hawkinsville, GA (United States); Benda, Rashmi; Greenfield, Brad [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boca Raton Community Hospital, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Prestidge, Bradley [Texas Cancer Clinic, San Antonio, TX (United States); Ackerman, Scot [First Coast Oncology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Kuske, Robert; Quiet, Coral; Snyder, Margaret [Arizona Breast Cancer Specialists, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Wazer, David E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility, implementation, and early results of noninvasive breast brachytherapy (NIBB) for tumor bed boost with whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT). Methods and Materials: NIBB is a commercially available (AccuBoost, Billerica, MA) mammography-based, brachytherapy system in which the treatment applicators are centered on the planning target volume (PTV) to direct {sup 192}Ir emissions along orthogonal axes. A privacy-encrypted online data registry collected information from 8 independent academic and community-based institutions. Data were from 146 consecutive women with early-stage breast cancer after lumpectomy and WBRT receiving boost with NIBB between July 2007 and March 2010. Toxicity and cosmesis were graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (v. 3.0) and the Harvard scale. Median follow-up was 6 months (1-39 months). Results: Grade 1-2 skin toxicity was observed in 64%, 48%, and 21% during the acute (1-3 weeks), intermediate (4-26 weeks), and late-intermediate (>26 weeks) periods. There was no Grade 4 toxicity. At 6 months, for the entire cohort, cosmesis was excellent/good in 62%/38%. The subset receiving NIBB before WBRT had cosmetic scores of 32% and 63%, whereas during WBRT, 58% and 37% were rated as excellent and good, respectively. Breast compression was scored as 'uncomfortable' in 12%, 29%, and 59% when NIBB was delivered before, during, or after WBRT. For each patient, the fraction-to-fraction variability in PTV was low. Skin flash was associated with a higher proportion of excellent cosmesis (58% vs. 42%) relative to having the applicator all within breast tissue. Conclusions: These data indicate that NIBB is feasible and can be consistently implemented in a broad array of practice settings. Preliminary evaluation suggests that NIBB is associated with acceptably mild normal tissue toxicity and favorable early cosmesis. The application of NIBB before WBRT may be associated with better patient tolerance

  1. Early predictors of success of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in hypercapnic respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, D; Prasad, Bnbm; Tampi, P S; Ramprasad, R

    2011-10-01

    Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has emerged as a significant advancement in the management of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. Patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure requiring ventilation therapy (respiratory rate [RR] of > 30 breaths per minutes, PaCO2 > 55 mmHg and arterial pH success group and these parameters continued to improve even after four and 24 hours of NIPPV treatment. Out of 24 (24%) patients who failed to respond, 13 (54%) needed endotracheal intubation within one hour. The failure group had higher baseline HR than the success group. Improvement in HR, RR, pH, and PCO2 one hour after putting the patient on NIPPV predicts success of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in hypercapnic respiratory failure.

  2. Identifying early indicators in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benti, Liliane; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Proudfoot, Judy; Parker, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    The identification of early markers has become a focus for early intervention in bipolar disorder. Using a retrospective, qualitative methodology, the present study compares the early experiences of participants with bipolar disorder to those with unipolar depression up until their first diagnosed episode. The study focuses on differences in early home and school environments as well as putative differences in personality characteristics between the two groups. Finally we a compare and contrast prodromal symptoms in these two populations. Thirty-nine participants, 20 diagnosed with unipolar depression and 19 diagnosed with bipolar disorder, took part in the study. A semi-structured interview was developed to elicit information about participants' experiences prior to their first episode. Participants with bipolar disorder reported disruptive home environments, driven personality features, greater emotion dysregulation and adverse experiences during the school years, whereas participants with depression tended to describe more supportive home environments, and more compliant and introvert personality traits. Retrospective data collection and no corroborative evidence from other family members. No distinction was made between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder nor between melancholic and non-melancholic depression in the sample. Finally the study spanned over a 12-month period which does not allow for the possibility of diagnostic reassignment of some of the bipolar participants to the unipolar condition. These findings indicate that there may be benefits in combining both proximal and distal indicators in identifying a bipolar disorder phenotype which, in turn, may be relevant to the development of early intervention programs for young people with bipolar disorder.

  3. Noninvasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabatin, J T; Gay, P C

    1999-08-01

    Noninvasive ventilation refers to the delivery of assisted ventilatory support without the use of an endotracheal tube. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) can be delivered by using a volume-controlled ventilator, a pressure-controlled ventilator, a bilevel positive airway pressure ventilator, or a continuous positive airway pressure device. During the past decade, there has been a resurgence in the use of noninvasive ventilation, fueled by advances in technology and clinical trials evaluating its use. Several manufacturers produce portable devices that are simple to operate. This review describes the equipment, techniques, and complications associated with NPPV and also the indications for both short-term and long-term applications. NPPV clearly represents an important addition to the techniques available to manage patients with respiratory failure. Future clinical trials evaluating its many clinical applications will help to define populations of patients most apt to benefit from this type of treatment.

  4. Early MR abnormality indicating functional recovery from spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumeya, Hiroshi; Hideshima, Hiroshi [Hideshima Hospital, Musashino, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as an indicator of recovery from hemiparesis was evaluated in 60 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. T{sub 2}-weighted MR images revealed early MR abnormality (EMA) of the corticospinal tract within 1 week of ictus. Most patients without EMA recovered beyond Brunnstrom's Recovery Stage 3 while only a few patients with EMA did so. Patients with EMA cannot regain motor function because EMA is almost always followed by complete tract degeneration. EMA in the brainstem and poor motor function recovery are closely correlated. (author).

  5. Early MR abnormality indicating functional recovery from spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumeya, Hiroshi; Hideshima, Hiroshi (Hideshima Hospital, Musashino, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as an indicator of recovery from hemiparesis was evaluated in 60 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. T{sub 2}-weighted MR images revealed early MR abnormality (EMA) of the corticospinal tract within 1 week of ictus. Most patients without EMA recovered beyond Brunnstrom's Recovery Stage 3 while only a few patients with EMA did so. Patients with EMA cannot regain motor function because EMA is almost always followed by complete tract degeneration. EMA in the brainstem and poor motor function recovery are closely correlated. (author).

  6. Noninvasive presymptomatic detection of Cercospora beticola infection and identification of early metabolic responses in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Mock

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cercospora beticola is an economically significant fungal pathogen of sugar beet, and is the causative pathogen of Cercospora leaf spot. Selected host genotypes with contrasting degree of susceptibility to the disease have been exploited to characterize the patterns of metabolite responses to fungal infection, and to devise a pre-symptomatic, non-invasive method of detecting the presence of the pathogen. Sugar beet genotypes were analyzed for metabolite profiles and hyperspectral signatures. Correlation of data matrices from both approaches facilitated identification of candidates for metabolic markers. Hyperspectral imaging was highly predictive with a classification accuracy of 98.5-99.9 % in detecting C. beticola. Metabolite analysis revealed metabolites altered by the host as part of a successful defence response: these were L-DOPA, 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid 12-O-β-D-glucoside, pantothenic acid and 5-O-feruloylquinic acid. The accumulation of glucosylvitexin in the resistant cultivar suggests it acts as a constitutively-produced protectant. The study establishes a proof-of-concept for an unbiased, presymptomatic and non-invasive detection system for the presence of C. beticola. The test needs to be validated with a larger set of genotypes, to be scalable to the level of a crop improvement program, aiming to speed up the selection for resistant cultivars of sugar beet. Untargeted metabolic profiling is a valuable tool to identify metabolites which correlate with hyperspectral data.

  7. Lexical retrieval in discourse: an early indicator of Alzheimer's dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkala, Seija; Wiener, Debra; Himali, Jayandra J; Beiser, Alexa S; Obler, Loraine K; Liu, Yulin; McKee, Ann; Auerbach, Sanford; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A; Au, Rhoda

    2013-12-01

    We examined the progression of lexical-retrieval deficits in individuals with neuropathologically determined Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 23) and a comparison group without criteria for AD (n = 24) to determine whether linguistic changes were a significant marker of the disease. Our participants underwent multiple administrations of a neuropsychological battery, with initial administration occurring on average 16 years prior to death. The battery included the Boston Naming Test (BNT), a letter fluency task (FAS) and written description of the Cookie Theft Picture (CTP). Repeated measures analysis revealed that the AD-group showed progressively greater decline in FAS and CTP lexical performance than the comparison group. Cross-sectional time-specific group comparisons indicated that the CTP differentiated performance between the two groups at 7-9 years prior to death and FAS and BNT only at 2-4 years. These results suggest that lexical-retrieval deficits in written discourse serve as an early indicator of AD.

  8. Non-invasive identification of protein biomarkers for early pregnancy diagnosis in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C Koester

    Full Text Available Approximately 80% of cheetahs living in typical zoological collections never reproduce. In more than 60% of breedings, the female is confirmed to ovulate, but parturition fails to occur. It is unknown if these non-pregnant intervals of elevated progesterone (deemed luteal phases are conception failures or a pregnancy terminating in embryonic/fetal loss. There have been recent advances in metabolic profiling and proteome analyses in many species with mass spectrometry used to identify 'biomarkers' and mechanisms indicative of specific physiological states (including pregnancy. Here, we hypothesized that protein expression in voided cheetah feces varied depending on pregnancy status. We: 1 identified the expansive protein profile present in fecal material of females; and 2 isolated proteins that may be candidates playing a role in early pregnancy establishment and diagnosis. Five hundred and seventy unique proteins were discovered among samples from pregnant (n = 8, non-pregnant, luteal phase (n = 5, and non-ovulatory control (n = 5 cheetahs. Four protein candidates were isolated that were significantly up-regulated and two were down-regulated in samples from pregnant compared to non-pregnant or control counterparts. One up-regulated candidate, immunoglobulin J chain (IGJ; an important component of the secretory immune system was detected using a commercially available antibody via immunoblotting. Findings revealed that increased IGJ abundance could be used to detect pregnancy successfully in >80% of 23 assessed females within 4 weeks after mating. The discovery of a novel fecal pregnancy marker improves the ability to determine reproductive, especially gestational, status in cheetahs managed in an ex situ insurance and source population.

  9. Non-invasive identification of protein biomarkers for early pregnancy diagnosis in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Diana C; Wildt, David E; Maly, Morgan; Comizzoli, Pierre; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 80% of cheetahs living in typical zoological collections never reproduce. In more than 60% of breedings, the female is confirmed to ovulate, but parturition fails to occur. It is unknown if these non-pregnant intervals of elevated progesterone (deemed luteal phases) are conception failures or a pregnancy terminating in embryonic/fetal loss. There have been recent advances in metabolic profiling and proteome analyses in many species with mass spectrometry used to identify 'biomarkers' and mechanisms indicative of specific physiological states (including pregnancy). Here, we hypothesized that protein expression in voided cheetah feces varied depending on pregnancy status. We: 1) identified the expansive protein profile present in fecal material of females; and 2) isolated proteins that may be candidates playing a role in early pregnancy establishment and diagnosis. Five hundred and seventy unique proteins were discovered among samples from pregnant (n = 8), non-pregnant, luteal phase (n = 5), and non-ovulatory control (n = 5) cheetahs. Four protein candidates were isolated that were significantly up-regulated and two were down-regulated in samples from pregnant compared to non-pregnant or control counterparts. One up-regulated candidate, immunoglobulin J chain (IGJ; an important component of the secretory immune system) was detected using a commercially available antibody via immunoblotting. Findings revealed that increased IGJ abundance could be used to detect pregnancy successfully in >80% of 23 assessed females within 4 weeks after mating. The discovery of a novel fecal pregnancy marker improves the ability to determine reproductive, especially gestational, status in cheetahs managed in an ex situ insurance and source population.

  10. Towards non-invasive diagnostic techniques for early detection of acute renal transplant rejection: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hollis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The kidney is a very important complicated filtering organ of the body. When the kidney reaches stage 5 chronic kidney disease, end stage renal failure, the preeminent therapy is renal transplantation. Although it is the best form of treatment, lack of kidney donors is still challenging. Therefore, all efforts should be employed to prolong the survival rate of the transplanted kidney. However, graft dysfunction (e.g., acute rejection is one of the serious barriers to long term kidney transplant survival. Currently, graft dysfunction’s gold standard of diagnosis is renal biopsy. Although renal biopsy is helpful, it is not preferred due to its invasive nature, high morbidity rates, and expensiveness. Therefore, noninvasive imaging techniques have become the subject of extensive research and interest, giving a strong promise to replace, or at least to decrease, biopsy usage in diagnosing graft dysfunction. This survey will discuss not only the current diagnosis and treatment of graft dysfunction but also the state-of-the-art imaging techniques in detecting acute renal transplant rejection.

  11. EXTERNAL VALIDATION OF THE DIABETES EARLY READMISSION RISK INDICATOR (DERRI™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Daniel J; Recco, Dominic; Turchin, Alexander; Zhao, Huaqing; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2018-04-06

    The Diabetes Early Readmission Risk Indicator (DERRI ™ ) was previously developed and internally validated as a tool to predict the risk of all-cause readmission within 30 days of discharge (30-d readmission) of hospitalized patients with diabetes. In this study, the predictive performance of the DERRI ™ with and without additional predictors was assessed in an external sample. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with diabetes discharged from 2 academic medical centers between 1/1/2000 and 12/31/2014. We applied the previously developed DERRI ™ , which includes admission laboratory results, sociodemographics, a diagnosis of certain comorbidities, and recent discharge information, and evaluated the effect of adding metabolic indicators on predictive performance using multivariable logistic regression. Total cholesterol and A1c were selected based on clinical relevance and univariate association with 30-d readmission. Among 105,974 discharges, 19,032 (18.0%) were followed by 30-d readmission for any cause. The DERRI ™ had a C-statistic of 0.634 for 30-d readmission. Total cholesterol (TC) was the lipid parameter most strongly associated with 30-d readmission. The DERRI ™ predictors, A1c, and TC were significantly associated with 30-d readmission; however, their addition to the DERRI ™ did not significantly change model performance (C-statistic 0.643 [95% CI, 0.638-0.647], p=0.92). Performance of the DERRI ™ in this external cohort was modest but comparable to other readmission prediction models. Addition of A1c and TC to the DERRI ™ did not significantly improve performance. Although the DERRI ™ may be useful to direct resources toward diabetes patients at higher risk, better prediction is needed. DERRI = Diabetes Early Readmission Risk Indicator; TC = Total cholesterol; A1c = hemoglobin A1c; HDL-C = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; DKA = diabetic ketoacidosis; HHS

  12. Mountains as early warning indicators of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The panoramic splendor and complexity of mountain environments have inspired and challenged humans for centuries. These areas have been variously perceived as physical structures to be conquered, as sites of spiritual inspiration, and as some of the last untamed natural places on Earth. In our time, the perception that "mountains are forever" may provide solace to those seeking stability in a rapidly changing world. However, changes in the hydrology and in the abundance and species composition of the native flora and fauna of mountain ecosystems are potential bellwethers of global change, because these systems have a propensity to amplify environmental changes within specific portions of this landscape. Mountain areas are thus sentinels of climate change. We are seeing effects today in case histories I present from the Himalaya's, Andes, Alps, and Rocky Mountains. Furthermore, these ecosystem changes are occurring in mountain areas before they occur in downstream ecosystems. Thus, mountains are early warning indicators of perturbations such as climate change. The sensitivity of mountain ecosystems begs for enhanced protection and worldwide protection. Our understanding of the processes that control mountain ecosystems—climate interactions, snowmelt runoff, biotic diversity, nutrient cycling—is much less developed compared to downstream ecosystems where human habitation and development has resulted in large investments in scientific knowledge to sustain health and agriculture. To address these deficiencies, I propose the formation of an international mountain research consortium.

  13. Aconitase and Developmental End Points as Early Indicators of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Vasyliovuch Lozinsky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, the toxicity of the different xenobiotics was tested on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster model system. Methods: Fly larvae were raised on food supplemented with xenobiotics at different concentrations (sodium nitroprusside (0.1-1.5 mM, S-nitrosoglutathione (0.5-4 mM, and potassium ferrocyanide (1 mM. Emergence of flies, food intake by larvae, and pupation height preference as well as aconitase activity (in 2-day old flies were measured. Results: Food supplementation with xenobiotics caused a developmental delay in the flies and decreased pupation height. Biochemical analyses of oxidative stress markers and activities of antioxidants and their associated enzymes were carried out on 2-day-old flies emerged from control larvae and larvae fed on food supplemented with chemicals. Larval exposure to chemicals resulted in lower activities of aconitase in flies of both sexes and perturbation in activities of antioxidant enzymes. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that among a variety of parameters tested, aconitase activity, developmental endpoints, and pupation height may be used as reliable early indicators of toxicity caused by different chemicals.

  14. Early neurophysiological indices of second language morphosyntax learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Jeff; Shtyrov, Yury; Williams, John; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-02-01

    Humans show variable degrees of success in acquiring a second language (L2). In many cases, morphological and syntactic knowledge remain deficient, although some learners succeed in reaching nativelike levels, even if they begin acquiring their L2 relatively late. In this study, we use psycholinguistic, online language proficiency tests and a neurophysiological index of syntactic processing, the syntactic mismatch negativity (sMMN) to local agreement violations, to compare behavioural and neurophysiological markers of grammar processing between native speakers (NS) of English and non-native speakers (NNS). Variable grammar proficiency was measured by psycholinguistic tests. When NS heard ungrammatical word sequences lacking agreement between subject and verb (e.g. *we kicks), the MMN was enhanced compared with syntactically legal sentences (e.g. he kicks). More proficient NNS also showed this difference, but less proficient NNS did not. The main cortical sources of the MMN responses were localised in bilateral superior temporal areas, where, crucially, source strength of grammar-related neuronal activity correlated significantly with grammatical proficiency of individual L2 speakers as revealed by the psycholinguistic tests. As our results show similar, early MMN indices to morpho-syntactic agreement violations among both native speakers and non-native speakers with high grammar proficiency, they appear consistent with the use of similar brain mechanisms for at least certain aspects of L1 and L2 grammars. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: assessment of non-invasive indices predicting hepatic steatosis and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyzos, Stergios A; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Kountouras, Jannis; Mintziori, Gesthimani; Chatzis, Panagiotis; Papadakis, Efstathios; Katsikis, Ilias; Panidis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance contributes to the pathogenesis of both polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-invasive indices of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in PCOS women with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this cross-sectional study, three non-invasive indices for hepatic steatosis [NAFLD liver fat score, lipid accumulation product (LAP) and hepatic steatosis index (HIS)] and four for fibrosis [FIB-4, aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-Platelet Ratio Index (APRI), body mass index (BMI)-Age-Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)-Triglycerides (BAAT) and BMI AST/ALT Ratio Diabetes (BARD)] were calculated in 314 PCOS women (77 with, 237 without MetS) and 78 controls. All steatosis indices were significantly higher in the PCOS than the control group (NAFLD liver fat score: -0.139 ± 0.117 vs. -0.976 ± 0.159, psteatosis indices were significantly higher in PCOS women with than without MetS (NAFLD liver fat score: 1.874 ± 0.258 vs. -0.793 ± 0.099, phepatic steatosis were significantly higher in PCOS, especially in the presence of MetS, whereas indices of hepatic fibrosis yielded controversial results. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the long-term outcomes of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis indices in PCOS women.

  16. Non-invasive toluene sensor for early diagnosis of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Rahul; Srivastava, Sudha, E-mail: sudha.srivastava@jiit.ac.in [Department of Biotechnology, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida-201307,Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-04-13

    Here we present, quantification of volatile organic compounds in human breath for early detection of lung cancer to increase survival probability. Graphene oxide nanosheets synthesized by modified Hummer’s method were employed as a sensing element to detect the presence of toluene in the sample. Optical and morphological characterization of synthesized nanomaterial was performed by UV-Visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. Spectroscopic assay shows a linearly decreasing intensity of GO absorption peak with increasing toluene concentration with a linear range from 0-200 pM. While impedimetric sensor developed on a graphene oxide nanosheetsmodified screen printed electrodes displayed a decreasing electron transfer resistance increasing toluene with much larger linear range of 0-1000 pM. Reported techniques are advantageous as these are simple, sensitive and cost effective, which can easily be extended for primary screening of other VOCs.

  17. In-situ non-invasive device for early detection of fouling in aquatic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Fortunato, Luca

    2017-01-05

    An in-situ, non-destructive sensor device, system and method are provided to detect or assess fouling at a very early stage of development. They can be used to detect or assess fouling on a surface of an aquatic system. They can be used to obtain a depth profile of the fouling. Data concerning the depth profile can be extracted and used to assess the fouling on the surface, in one or more aspects, the method can include providing an optical tomography spectrometer; optically positioning the optical tomography spectrometer in association with a surface of an area to be assessed for fouling in an aqueous system; irradiating the surface; acquiring, from irradiating the surface, a plurality of signals as a function of a distance from the surface at different times; extracting data from the signals as a function of the distance to obtain a depth profile of the surface at the different times; and determining a change in the depth profile between the different times to assess fouling on the surface.

  18. Validity of hydration non-invasive indices during the weightcutting and official weigh-in for Olympic combat sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Elías, Valentín E; Martínez-Abellán, Alberto; López-Gullón, José María; Morán-Navarro, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G; De la Cruz-Sánchez, Ernesto; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In Olympic combat sports, weight cutting is a common practice aimed to take advantage of competing in weight divisions below the athlete's normal weight. Fluid and food restriction in combination with dehydration (sauna and/or exercise induced profuse sweating) are common weight cut methods. However, the resultant hypohydration could adversely affect health and performance outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine which of the routinely used non-invasive measures of dehydration best track urine osmolality, the gold standard non-invasive test. Immediately prior to the official weigh-in of three National Championships, the hydration status of 345 athletes of Olympic combat sports (i.e., taekwondo, boxing and wrestling) was determined using five separate techniques: i) urine osmolality (UOSM), ii) urine specific gravity (USG), iii) urine color (UCOL), iv) bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and v) thirst perception scale (TPS). All techniques were correlated with UOSM divided into three groups: euhydrated (G1; UOSM 250-700 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)), dehydrated (G2; UOSM 701-1080 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)), and severely dehydrated (G3; UOSM 1081-1500 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)). We found a positive high correlation between the UOSM and USG (r = 0.89: p = 0.000), although this relationship lost strength as dehydration increased (G1 r = 0.92; G2 r = 0.73; and G3 r = 0.65; p = 0.000). UCOL showed a moderate although significant correlation when considering the whole sample (r = 0.743: p = 0.000) and G1 (r = 0.702: p = 0.000) but low correlation for the two dehydrated groups (r = 0.498-0.398). TPS and BIA showed very low correlation sizes for all groups assessed. In a wide range of pre-competitive hydration status (UOSM 250-1500 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)), USG is highly associated with UOSM while being a more affordable and easy to use technique. UCOL is a suitable tool when USG is not available. However, BIA or TPS are not sensitive enough to detect hypohydration at official weight

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of Platelet Count and Platelet Indices in Noninvasive Assessment of Fibrosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Milovanovic Alempijevic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Keeping in mind the rising prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and the need to establish noninvasive tests for its detection, the aim of our study was to investigate whether platelet count (PC, mean platelet volume (MPV, and platelet distribution width (PDW can predict the presence of liver fibrosis in this group of patients. Methods. In 98 patients with NAFLD and 60 healthy volunteers, complete blood counts with automated differential counts were performed and values of PC, PDW, MPV, and PCT were analyzed. Results. Patients with NAFLD had lower PC and higher MPV, PCT, and PDW compared to the controls (P < 0.05. When NAFLD group was stratified according to severity of liver fibrosis, there was a statistically significant difference in the average values of PDW and PC between the groups (P < 0.05. Conclusion. Patients with NAFLD have significantly higher values of PCT, PDW, and MPV when compared to the healthy controls. Further studies are needed to establish their potential use for prediction of the degree of liver steatosis and fibrosis in NAFLD patients.

  20. Validation of noninvasive indices of global systolic function in patients with normal and abnormal loading conditions: a simultaneous echocardiography pressure-volume catheterization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotti, Raquel; Bermejo, Javier; Benito, Yolanda; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Ripoll, Cristina; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Elízaga, Jaime; González-Mansilla, Ana; Barrio, Alicia; Bañares, Rafael; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive indices based on Doppler echocardiography are increasingly used in clinical cardiovascular research to evaluate left ventricular global systolic chamber function. Our objectives were to clinically validate ultrasound-based methods of global systolic chamber function to account for differences between patients in conditions of abnormal load, and to assess their sensitivity to load confounders. Twenty-seven patients (8 dilated cardiomyopathy, 10 normal ejection fraction, and 9 end-stage liver disease) underwent simultaneous echocardiography and left heart catheterization with pressure-conductance instrumentation. The reference index, maximal elastance (Emax), was calculated from pressure-volume loop data obtained during acute inferior vena cava occlusion. A wide range of values were observed for left ventricular systolic chamber function (Emax: 2.8±1.0 mm Hg/mL), preload, and afterload. Among the noninvasive indices tested, the peak ejection intraventricular pressure difference showed the best correlation with Emax (R=0.75). A significant but weaker correlation with Emax was observed for ejection fraction (R=0.41), midwall fractional shortening (R=0.51), global circumferential strain (R=-0.53), and strain rate (R=-0.46). Longitudinal strain and strain rate failed to correlate with Emax, as did noninvasive single-beat estimations of this index. Principal component and multiple regression analyses demonstrated that peak ejection intraventricular pressure difference was less sensitive to load, whereas ejection fraction and longitudinal strain and strain rate were heavily influenced by afterload. Current ultrasound methods have limited accuracy to characterize global left ventricular systolic chamber function in a given patient. The Doppler-derived peak ejection intraventricular pressure difference should be preferred for this purpose because it best correlates with the reference index and is more robust in conditions of abnormal load.

  1. The electric field near human skin wounds declines with age and provides a noninvasive indicator of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccitelli, Richard; Nuccitelli, Pamela; Li, Changyi; Narsing, Suman; Pariser, David M; Lui, Kaying

    2011-01-01

    Due to the transepidermal potential of 15-50 mV, inside positive, an injury current is driven out of all human skin wounds. The flow of this current generates a lateral electric field within the epidermis that is more negative at the wound edge than at regions more lateral from the wound edge. Electric fields in this region could be as large as 40 mV/mm, and electric fields of this magnitude have been shown to stimulate human keratinocyte migration toward the wounded region. After flowing out of the wound, the current returns through the space between the epidermis and stratum corneum, generating a lateral field above the epidermis in the opposite direction. Here, we report the results from the first clinical trial designed to measure this lateral electric field adjacent to human skin wounds noninvasively. Using a new instrument, the Dermacorder®, we found that the mean lateral electric field in the space between the epidermis and stratum corneum adjacent to a lancet wound in 18-25-year-olds is 107-148 mV/mm, 48% larger on average than that in 65-80-year-olds. We also conducted extensive measurements of the lateral electric field adjacent to mouse wounds as they healed and compared this field with histological sections through the wound to determine the correlation between the electric field and the rate of epithelial wound closure. Immediately after wounding, the average lateral electric field was 122 ± 9 mV/mm. When the wound is filled in with a thick, disorganized epidermal layer, the mean field falls to 79 ± 4 mV/mm. Once this epidermis forms a compact structure with only three cell layers, the mean field is 59 ± 5 mV/mm. Thus, the peak-to-peak spatial variation in surface potential is largest in fresh wounds and slowly declines as the wound closes. The rate of wound healing is slightly greater when wounds are kept moist as expected, but we could find no correlation between the amplitude of the electric field and the rate of wound

  2. Indices allowing early detection of chronic pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Soejima, Kenzo; Koda, Eiichi; Mori, Masaaki; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Kawamura, Masahumi; Kobayashi, Koichi

    1996-01-01

    To establish criteria allowing early detection of pathologically significant alterations in pulmonary emphysema caused by smoking, pulmonary-function tests and high-resolution computed tomography were done in 104 subjects categorized into three groups: nonsmoking healthy adults, smokers with a normal FEV 1 %, and smokers with a low FEV 1 % (cross-sectional analysis). Fifty-six of the 104 patients underwent pulmonary-function testing and high-resolution computed tomography once per year for 3 years (longitudinal analysis). Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses showed that abnormalities in functional residual capacity, in single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and in the average tomographic density of sections in the lower lung fields obtained after a deep inspiration could be used to predict whether the disease would reach an advanced stage, even if the patients had no significant symptoms at the time of testing. Relative areas of low-attenuation regions, which were alleged to directly reflect the size of emphysematous areas, appear not to be useful for early detection of pathological emphysema. (author)

  3. Early Childhood Stuttering and Electrophysiological Indices of Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Arnold, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    We examined neural activity mediating semantic and syntactic processing in 27 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and 27 preschool-age children who do not stutter (CWNS) matched for age, nonverbal IQ and language abilities. All participants displayed language abilities and nonverbal IQ within the normal range. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were elicited while participants watched a cartoon video and heard naturally spoken sentences that were either correct or contained semantic or syntactic (phrase structure) violations. ERPs in CWS, compared to CWNS, were characterized by longer N400 peak latencies elicited by semantic processing. In the CWS, syntactic violations elicited greater negative amplitudes for the early time window (150–350 ms) over medial sites compared to CWNS. Additionally, the amplitude of the P600 elicited by syntactic violations relative to control words was significant over the left hemisphere for the CWNS but showed the reverse pattern in CWS, a robust effect only over the right hemisphere. Both groups of preschoolage children demonstrated marked and differential effects for neural processes elicited by semantic and phrase structure violations; however, a significant proportion of young CWS exhibit differences in the neural functions mediating language processing compared to CWNS despite normal language abilities. These results are the first to show that differences in event-related brain potentials reflecting language processing occur as early as the preschool years in CWS and provide the first evidence that atypical lateralization of hemispheric speech/language functions previously observed in the brains of adults who stutter begin to emerge near the onset of developmental stuttering. PMID:23773672

  4. Early anthropometric indices predict short stature and overweight status in a cohort of Peruvians in early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Robie; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Sterling, Charles R; Bern, Caryn; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    While childhood malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, less well understood is how early childhood growth influences height and body composition later in life. We revisited 152 Peruvian children who participated in a birth cohort study between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements 11 to 14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of childhood anthropometric indices on height and body composition in early adolescence. Each standard deviation decrease in length-for-age at birth was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.7 SD in both boys and girls (all poverweight in early adolescence. Linear growth retardation in early childhood is a strong determinant of adolescent stature, indicating that, in developing countries, growth failure in height during early childhood persists through early adolescence. Interventions addressing linear growth retardation in childhood are likely to improve adolescent stature and related-health outcomes in adulthood. PMID:22552904

  5. Non-invasive detection of the early phase of kidney injury by photoacoustic/computed tomography imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wanma; Peng, Wen; Ning, Fengling; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yunfei; Wang, Yinhang; Xie, Weiyi; Zhang, Jing; Xin, Hong; Li, Cong; Zhang, Xuemei

    2018-06-01

    The early diagnosis of kidney diseases, which can remarkably impair the quality of life and are costly, has encountered great difficulties. Therefore, the development of methods for early diagnosis has great clinical significance. In this study, we used an emerging technique of photoacoustic (PA) imaging, which has relatively high spatial resolution and good imaging depth. Two kinds of PA gold nanoparticle (GNP)-based bioprobes were developed based on their superior photo detectability, size controllability and biocompatibility. The kidney injury mouse model was developed by unilateral ureteral obstruction for 96 h and the release of obstruction model). Giving 3.5 and 5.5 nm bioprobes by tail vein injection, we found that the 5.5 nm probe could be detected in the bladder in the model group, but not in the control group. These results were confirmed by computed tomography imaging. Furthermore, the model group did not show changes in the blood biochemical indices (BUN and Scr) and histologic examination. The 5.5 nm GNPs were found to be the critical point for early diagnosis of kidney injury. This new method was faster and more sensitive and accurate for the detection of renal injury, compared with conventional methods, and can be used for the development of a PA GNP-based bioprobe for diagnosing renal injury.

  6. Comparison of early myocardial technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake to early peaking of creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB as indicators of early reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, M.; Yuzuki, Y.; Arai, H.; Shimizu, K.; Morikawa, M.; Shimono, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The value of technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PYP) scintigraphy as an indicator of reperfusion 2.8 to 8 hours after the onset of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction was compared with the value of early peak creatine kinase (CK) and CK-MB release within 16 hours after the onset of symptoms. In 29 patients who received thrombolytic therapy, recanalization was seen (group 1) and in 7 it was not (group 2). In 23 patients (79%) in group 1 scintigraphic findings were positive and in all 7 in group 2 they were negative. In 15 patients (52%) in group 1 and 1 patient (14%) in group 2, CK reached its peak level within 16 hours. In 20 patients (69%) in group 1 and 3 (43%) in group 2 the CK-MB level reached a peak within 16 hours. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy of positive results of early Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy in predicting the reperfusion were 79%, 100% and 83%. These values are significantly higher than or similar to those of early peaking of CK and CK-MB release. In contrast to measurements of enzyme release, reperfusion data for Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy are available immediately after thrombolytic therapy. Therefore, early Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy (3 to 8 hours after onset of symptoms) is valuable as a noninvasive technique for early diagnosis of reperfusion

  7. Fallopian tube intraluminal tumor spread from noninvasive precursor lesions: a novel metastatic route in early pelvic carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijron, Jonathan G; Seldenrijk, Cornelis A; Zweemer, Ronald P; Lange, Joost G; Verheijen, René H M; van Diest, Paul J

    2013-08-01

    Pelvic serous carcinoma is usually advanced stage at diagnosis, indicating that abdominal spread occurs early in carcinogenesis. Recent discovery of a precursor sequence in the fallopian tube, culminating in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), provides an opportunity to study early disease events. This study aims to explore novel metastatic routes in STICs. A BRCA1 mutation carrier (patient A) who presented with a STIC and tubal intraluminal shedding of tumor cells upon prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (PBSO) instigated scrutiny of an additional 23 women who underwent a PBSO and 40 patients with pelvic serous carcinoma involving the tubes. Complete serial sectioning of tubes and ovaries of patient A did not reveal invasive carcinoma, but subsequent staging surgery showed disseminated abdominal disease. STIC, intraluminal tumor cells, and abdominal metastases displayed an identical immunohistochemical profile (p53/WT1/PAX8/PAX2) and TP53 mutation. In 16 serous carcinoma patients (40%) tubal intraluminal tumor cells were found, compared with none in the PBSO group. This is the first description of a STIC, which plausibly metastasized without the presence of invasion through intraluminal shedding of malignant surface epithelial cells in the tube and subsequently spread throughout the peritoneal cavity. These findings warrant a reconsideration of the malignant potential of STICs and indicate that intraluminal shedding could be a risk factor for early intraperitoneal metastasis. Although rare in the absence of invasive cancer, we show that intraluminal shedding of tumor cells in the fallopian tubes from serous carcinoma cases are common and a likely route of abdominal spread.

  8. Early Warning Indicators for Population-Based Monitoring of HIV Drug Resistance in 6 African Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigaloff, Kim C. E.; Hamers, Raph L.; Menke, Jack; Labib, Moheb; Siwale, Margaret; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E.; Kityo, Cissy; Mandaliya, Kishor; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Geskus, Ronald B.; Stevens, Wendy S.; van Vugt, Michèle; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA testing and HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) testing are not routinely available for therapeutic monitoring of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. World Health Organization HIVDR early warning indicators (EWIs) assess ART

  9. Banking, debt, and currency crises in developed countries: stylized facts and early warning indicators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babecký, J.; Havránek, T.; Matějů, Jakub; Rusnák, M.; Šmídková, K.; Vašíček, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, December (2014), s. 1-17 ISSN 1572-3089 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : crises * developed countries * early warning indicators Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2014

  10. Banking, debt, and currency crises in developed countries: stylized facts and early warning indicators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babecký, J.; Havránek, T.; Matějů, Jakub; Rusnák, M.; Šmídková, K.; Vašíček, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, December (2014), s. 1-17 ISSN 1572-3089 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : crises * developed countries * early warning indicators Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2014

  11. Research advances in indicators for early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis patients with renal impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Lifang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The liver is closely associated with the kidney, and liver injury in various stages can cause various kidney diseases to varying degrees, which further lead to renal impairment. Such renal impairment in the early stage is often functional and can be reversed by drugs, otherwise it can progress to hepatorenal syndrome, cause acute renal failure, and even threaten human life. The indicators such as serum creatinine and urea nitrogen have a limited effect in the early diagnosis of renal impairment and cannot be used for early monitoring and diagnosis of liver cirrhosis patients with renal impairment. Therefore, early monitoring of liver cirrhosis patients with renal impairment has always been a hot topic in this field. This article summarizes the research advances in the indicators for early diagnosis of renal impairment.

  12. Indicators of financial crises do work! : an early-warning system for six Asian countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestano, [No Value; Jacobs, Jan; Kuper, Gerard H.

    2003-01-01

    Indicators of financial crisis generally do not have a good track record. This paper presents an early warning system for six countries in Asia, in which indicators do work.We distinguish three types of financial crises, currency crises, banking crises and debt crises, and extract four groups of

  13. Capturing early signs of deterioration: the dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score and its value in the Rapid Response System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douw, G.; Huisman-de Waal, G.J.; Zanten, A.R. van; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Schoonhoven, L.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the predictive value of individual and combined dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators at various Early Warning Score levels, differentiating between Early Warning Scores reaching the trigger threshold to call a rapid response team and Early Warning

  14. Intraoperative radiotherapy in early stage breast cancer: potential indications and evidence to date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, A M

    2015-01-01

    Following early results of recent studies of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in the adjuvant treatment of patients with early breast cancer, the clinical utility of IORT is a subject of much recent debate within the breast oncology community. This review describes the intraoperative techniques available, the potential indications and the evidence to date pertaining to local control and toxicity. We also discuss any implications for current practice and future research. PMID:25734489

  15. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Neonatal Bowel: Novel, Bedside, Noninvasive, and Radiation-Free Imaging for Early Detection of Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamad, Suzanne; Hackam, David J; Goldstein, Seth D; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Darge, Kassa; Hwang, Misun

    2018-05-31

    Despite extensive research and improvements in the field of neonatal care, the morbidity and mortality associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) have remained unchanged over the past three decades. Early detection of ischemia and necrotic bowel is vital in improving morbidity and mortality associated with NEC; however, strategies for predicting and preventing NEC are lacking. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are novel techniques in pediatrics that have been proven as safe modalities. CEUS has benefits over conventional ultrasound (US) by its improved real-time evaluation of the micro- and macrovascularities of normally and abnormally perfused tissue. US has been implemented as a useful adjunct to X-ray for earlier evaluation of NEC. NIRS is another noninvasive technique that has shown promise in improving early detection of NEC. The purpose of this article is to review the current understanding of changes in bowel perfusion in NEC, discuss the accuracy of abdominal US in detecting NEC, and explain how the use of CEUS and NIRS will enhance the precise and early detection of altered/pathological bowel wall perfusion in the initial development and course of NEC. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Early indicators and risk factors for ethical issues in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlish, Carol; Brown-Saltzman, Katherine; Hersh, Mary; Shirk, Marilyn; Nudelman, Olga

    2011-03-01

    Nurses in all clinical settings encounter ethical issues that frequently lead to moral distress. This critical incident study explored nurses' descriptions of ethically difficult situations to identify risk factors and early indicators of ethical conflicts. Employing the critical incident technique, researchers developed a questionnaire that collected information on ethically difficult situations, their risk factors and early indicators, nurse actions, and situational outcomes. Two nurse researchers independently analyzed and categorized data using a constant comparison technique. Most of the ethically difficult situations pertained to end-of-life care for children and adults. Conflicts in interpersonal relationships were prevalent. Nurses were especially moved by patient and family suffering and concerned about patient vulnerability, harm-benefit ratio, and patient autonomy. Researchers discovered risk factor categories for patients, families, healthcare providers, and health systems. Additionally, researchers found subcategories in six major categories of early indicators: signs of conflict, patient suffering, nurse distress, ethics violation, unrealistic expectations, and poor communication. Nurses are keenly aware of pertinent risk factors and early indicators of unfolding ethical conflicts. Many nurses reported feeling powerless in the face of ethical conflict. Research that develops interventions to strengthen nurses' voices in ethically difficult situation is warranted. Nurses are in a key position to identify patient situations with a high risk for ethical conflict. Initiating early ethics consultation and interventions can alter the course of pending conflicts and diminish the potential for patient and family suffering and nurses' moral distress. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  17. Clinical indicators for success of misoprostol treatment after early pregnancy failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, C; Zhang, J; Troendle, J; Barnhart, K; Creinin, M D; Westhoff, C; Huang, X; Frederick, M

    2007-10-01

    To identify clinical indicators for success of misoprostol treatment after early pregnancy failure. A total of 473 women with early pregnancy failure received 800 microg of vaginal misoprostol on treatment day 1. At the follow-up visit on day 3, a second dose was given if expulsion was incomplete. On day 8, vacuum aspiration was offered if expulsion had not occurred. Ultrasonography was used as gold standard for success. A Classification and Regression Tree analysis was undertaken to derive two decision trees for the success of misoprostol treatment on study days 3 and 8. Heavy bleeding after the first dose and an open cervical os were identified as clinical indicators of treatment success on day 3. Treatment success occurred in 84% of women with either or both indicators. Reporting passage of tissue after a second misoprostol dose and old blood in the vagina were potential indicators of treatment success or failure on day 8. A woman with either of these indicators has a 65% chance of treatment success after the second dose. Conversely, a woman with neither indicator on day 8 has a 94% chance of treatment failure. Standard clinical findings may be useful as indicators for success or failure of medical management of early pregnancy failure in settings with limited or no access to ultrasonography. More research to identify even better indicators is warranted.

  18. Laser Raman detection of platelet as a non-invasive approach for early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P; Wang, X H; Cheng, Y; Peng, J; Shen, A G; Hu, J M; Tian, Q; Shang, X L; Liu, Z C; Yao, X Q; Wang, J Z; Baek, S J; Park, A

    2011-01-01

    Early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a problem that puzzled many doctors. Reliable markers in easy-assembling samples are of considerable clinical diagnostic value. In this work, laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) was developed a new method that potentially allows early and differential diagnosis of AD from the platelet sample. Raman spectra of platelets isolated from different ages of AD transgenic mice and non-transgenic controls were collected and analyzed. Multilayer perceptron networks (MLP) classification method was used to classify spectra and establish the diagnostic models. For differential diagnosis, spectra of platelets isolated from AD, Parkinson's disease (PD) and vascular dementia (VD) mice were also discriminated. Two notable spectral differences at 740 and 1654 cm -1 were revealed in the mean spectrum of platelets isolated from AD transgenic mice and the controls. MLP displayed a powerful ability in the classifying of early, advanced AD and the control group, and in differential diagnosis of PD and advanced AD, as well as VD and advanced AD. The results suggest that platelet detecting by LRS coupled with MLP analysis appears to be an easy and accurate method for early and differential diagnosis of AD. This technique could be rapidly promoted from laboratory to the hospital

  19. Indications for surgery in acute pancreatitis on the basis of abdominal CT in the early stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Keishoku; Nakasaku, Osamu; Kim, Jung-hyo; Hatakeyama, Gen

    1986-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis clinically manifests various degrees of severity. In the present study, we performed a retrospective study on 39 cases of acute pancreatitis and examined the indications for surgery and infection as an aggravating factor in acute pancreatitis on the basis of CT in the early stage (about 48 hours after onset). CT in the early stage of acute pancreatitis permits objective determination of the extent of lesion enlargement. The cases could be classified into three grades: severe (CT score ≥ 6; surgical therapy), moderate (CT score = 5, 4; medical therapy possible), and mild (CT score ≤ 3; medical therapy) as determined by CT. Emergency surgery was performed in seven of 10 patients in whom pancreatitis was judged to be severe on the basis of CT and clinical findings. Of the seven, four had infection in the early stage (within 48 hours after onset). Three of the four had MOF complications and died. Two of the three patients without infection were relieved. The extent of inflammatory lesions of severe pancreatitis was severe by CT, and the CT scores were especially high in cases with infection. Infection in the early stage of acute pancreatitis was thus thought to be an serious aggravating factor. It was concluded, therefore, that, in the early stage, CT was very useful as a helpful guide to early judgement and an indicator for emergency surgery. (author)

  20. Clinical assessment of the early myocardial Tc-99m-PYP uptake as an indicator of successful recanalization in the acutely infarcted vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Makoto; Yuzuki, Yousuke; Miyazaki, Yukio; Kurose, Takesi; Matsunaga, Kazuhiko; Simono, Yukio

    1986-01-01

    A noninvasive useful method is required to early ascertain the effect of intracoronary thrombolysis (ICT) currently performed for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In the present study, Tc-99m-pyrophosphate (PYP) scintigraphy was performed early (2.8 - 9.3 hr) after the onset of symptoms in 34 patients undergoing ICT. Of 27 patients in whom favorable recanalization was obtained, 24 had positive early scintigrams. In the other 7 patients in whom ICT was unsuccessful, scintigrams were negative. In 3 of them, favorable collateral circulation was seen. The findings were compared with those within 16 hr after the onset for the peak levels of creatine kinase (CK) and MB-CK. Early PYP scintigraphy had a sensitivity of 89 %, specificity of 100 %, and predictive accuracy of 91 % in assessing the recanalization in the infarcted vessels. The corresponding figiures were 70 %, 86 %, and 74 % for CK levels; and 70 %, 71 %, and 71 % for MB-CK levels. The results indicate that PYP scintigraphy may be a useful aid in the diagnosis of recanalization. The mechanism for PYP uptake on early scintigrams may be explained by the passage of excessive Ca ion into the ischemic myocardial cells through the rapid recanalization, resulting in accelerated cell death (reperfusion necrosis). (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Clinical assessment of the early myocardial Tc-99m-PYP uptake as an indicator of successful recanalization in the acutely infarcted vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Makoto; Yuzuki, Yousuke; Miyazaki, Yukio; Kurose, Takesi; Matsunaga, Kazuhiko; Simono, Yukio

    1986-11-01

    A noninvasive useful method is required to early ascertain the effect of intracoronary thrombolysis (ICT) currently performed for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In the present study, Tc-99m-pyrophosphate (PYP) scintigraphy was performed early (2.8 - 9.3 hr) after the onset of symptoms in 34 patients undergoing ICT. Of 27 patients in whom favorable recanalization was obtained, 24 had positive early scintigrams. In the other 7 patients in whom ICT was unsuccessful, scintigrams were negative. In 3 of them, favorable collateral circulation was seen. The findings were compared with those within 16 hr after the onset for the peak levels of creatine kinase (CK) and MB-CK. Early PYP scintigraphy had a sensitivity of 89 %, specificity of 100 %, and predictive accuracy of 91 % in assessing the recanalization in the infarcted vessels. The corresponding figiures were 70 %, 86 %, and 74 % for CK levels; and 70 %, 71 %, and 71 % for MB-CK levels. The results indicate that PYP scintigraphy may be a useful aid in the diagnosis of recanalization. The mechanism for PYP uptake on early scintigrams may be explained by the passage of excessive Ca ion into the ischemic myocardial cells through the rapid recanalization, resulting in accelerated cell death (reperfusion necrosis). (Namekawa, K.).

  2. Network based early warning indicators of vegetation changes in a land–atmosphere model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Z.; Dekker, S.C.; Rietkerk, M.; Hurk, B.J.J.M. van den; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Numerous model studies demonstrate that ecosystems might not shift smoothly with a gradual change in resource concentration. At specific points, vegetation can suddenly shift from one stable state to another. To predict such undesirable shifts, statistical indicators are proposed for early

  3. The Utility of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) in Predicting Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Julie M. Young

    2010-01-01

    Reading proficiency is the goal of many local and national reading initiatives. A key component of these initiatives is accurate and reliable reading assessment. In this high-stakes testing arena, the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) has emerged as a preferred measure for identification of students at risk for reading…

  4. Impact of an early respiratory care programme with non-invasive ventilation adaptation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitacca, M; Montini, A; Lunetta, C; Banfi, P; Bertella, E; De Mattia, E; Lizio, A; Volpato, E; Lax, A; Morini, R; Paneroni, M

    2018-03-01

    Forced vital capacity (FVC) NIV) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It was hypothesized that a very early start of NIV could lengthen the free interval before death compared to later-start NIV; as a secondary outcome, the survival rate of patients on NIV without tracheotomy was also evaluated. This retrospective study was conducted on 194 ALS patients, divided into a later group (LG) with FVC NIV prescription (n = 129) and a very early group (VEG) with FVC ≥80% at NIV prescription (n = 65). Clinical and respiratory functional data and time free to death between groups over a 3-year follow-up were compared. At 36 months from diagnosis, mortality was 35% for the VEG versus 52.7% for the LG (P = 0.022). Kaplan-Meier survival curves adjusted for tracheotomy showed a lower probability of death (P = 0.001) for the VEG as a whole (P = 0.001) and for the non-bulbar (NB) subgroup (P = 0.007). Very early NIV was protective of survival for all patients [hazard ratio (HR) 0.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28-0.74; P = 0.001] and for the NB subgroup (HR 0.43; 95% CI 0.23-0.79; P = 0.007), whilst a tracheotomy was protective for all patients (HR 0.27; 95% CI 0.15-0.50; P = 0.000) and both NB (HR 0.26; 95% CI 0.12-0.56; P = 0.001) and bulbar subgroups (HR 0.29; 95% CI 0.11-0.77; P = 0.013). Survival in VEG patients on NIV without tracheotomy was three times that for the LG (43.1% vs. 14.7%). Very early NIV prescription prolongs the free time from diagnosis to death in NB ALS patients whilst tracheotomy reduces the mortality risk in all patients. © 2017 EAN.

  5. Early definitive treatment rate as a quality indicator of care in acute gallstone pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R; Charman, S C; Palser, T

    2017-11-01

    Early definitive treatment (cholecystectomy or endoscopic sphincterotomy in the same admission or within 2 weeks after discharge) of gallstone disease after a biliary attack of acute pancreatitis is standard of care. This study investigated whether compliance with early definitive treatment for acute gallstone pancreatitis can be used as a care quality indicator for the condition. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Hospital Episode Statistics database. All emergency admissions to National Health Service hospitals in England with a first time diagnosis of acute gallstone pancreatitis in the financial years 2008, 2009 and 2010 were examined. Trends in early definitive treatment between hospital trusts were examined and patient morbidity outcomes were determined. During the study interval there were 19 510 patients with an overall rate of early definitive treatment at 34·7 (range 9·4-84·7) per cent. In the 1-year follow-up period, 4661 patients (23·9 per cent) had one or more emergency readmissions for complications related to gallstone pancreatitis. Of these, 2692 (57·8 per cent) were readmissions for acute pancreatitis; 911 (33·8 per cent) were within the first 2 weeks of discharge, with the remaining 1781 (66·2 per cent) occurring after the point at which definitive treatment should have been received. Early definitive treatment resulted in a 39 per cent reduction in readmission risk (adjusted risk ratio (RR) 0·61, 95 per cent c.i. 0·58 to 0·65). The risk was further reduced for acute pancreatitis readmissions to 54 per cent in the early definitive treatment group (adjusted RR 0·46, 0·42 to 0·51). In acute gallstone pancreatitis, compliance with recommended early definitive treatment varied considerably, with associated variation in outcomes. Compliance should be used as a quality indicator to improve care. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. 18F-FDG PET/CT in tuberculosis: an early non-invasive marker of therapeutic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, V.; Grenier, G.; Fior, R.; Boue, F.; Castilla-Lievre, M.A.; Guillet-Caruba, C.; Desarnaud, S.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT) for early therapeutic intervention in patients with probable or confirmed tuberculosis (TB). Twenty-one consecutive human immunodeficiency virus negative patients were prospectively included. All patients underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT before and after 1 month of anti-tuberculosis treatment. The maximum standardised uptake value (SUV max ) of the most 18 F-FDG avid lesions was recorded. The median age of patients was 36 years (range 18-84); 33.3% were male, 80.9% were born in endemic countries, and 23.8% had a past history of TB. TB was confirmed on culture in 8, on histology in 9 and on the basis of clinical symptoms in 4 patients. 18 F-FDG PET/CT detected active pulmonary TB (n = 1), extrapulmonary (n = 10) or both (n = 10). The second 18 F-FDG PET/CT showed reduced radiotracer uptake intensity in 19 of 21 patients, with a median percentage decrease of SUV max of 31% (range 2-84). Two patients showed no improvement. TB was ruled out in one patient during follow-up; the final diagnosis was a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The other patient was smear-positive for 3 months. 18 F-FDG PET/CT allows an easy evaluation of early therapeutic response in patients with TB, particularly extra-pulmonary TB. (authors)

  7. Capturing early signs of deterioration: the dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score and its value in the Rapid Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douw, Gooske; Huisman-de Waal, Getty; van Zanten, Arthur R H; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2017-09-01

    To determine the predictive value of individual and combined dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators at various Early Warning Score levels, differentiating between Early Warning Scores reaching the trigger threshold to call a rapid response team and Early Warning Score levels not reaching this point. Dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score comprises nine indicators underlying nurses' 'worry' about a patient's condition. All indicators independently show significant association with unplanned intensive care/high dependency unit admission or unexpected mortality. Prediction of this outcome improved by adding the dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators to an Early Warning Score based on vital signs. An observational cohort study was conducted on three surgical wards in a tertiary university-affiliated teaching hospital. Included were surgical, native-speaking, adult patients. Nurses scored presence of 'worry' and/or dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators every shift or when worried. Vital signs were measured according to the prevailing protocol. Unplanned intensive care/high dependency unit admission or unexpected mortality was the composite endpoint. Percentages of 'worry' and dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators were calculated at various Early Warning Score levels in control and event groups. Entering all dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators in a multiple logistic regression analysis, we calculated a weighted score and calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predicted value and negative predicted value for each possible total score. In 3522 patients, 102 (2·9%) had an unplanned intensive care/high dependency unit admissions (n = 97) or unexpected mortality (n = 5). Patients with such events and only slightly changed vital signs had significantly higher percentages of 'worry' and dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators expressed than patients in the control group. Increasing number

  8. Identification and testing of early indicators for N leaching from urine patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Iris; Cichota, Rogerio; Snow, Val

    2013-11-30

    Nitrogen leaching from urine patches has been identified as a major source of nitrogen loss under intensive grazing dairy farming. Leaching is notoriously variable, influenced by management, soil type, year-to-year variation in climate and timing and rate of urine depositions. To identify early indicators for the risk of N leaching from urine patches for potential usage in a precision management system, we used the simulation model APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems SIMulator) to produce an extensive N leaching dataset for the Waikato region of New Zealand. In total, nearly forty thousand simulation runs with different combinations of soil type and urine deposition times, in 33 different years, were done. The risk forecasting indicators were chosen based on their practicality: being readily measured on farm (soil water content, temperature and pasture growth) or that could be centrally supplied to farms (such as actual and forecast weather data). The thresholds of the early indicators that are used to forecast a period for high risk of N leaching were determined via classification and regression tree analysis. The most informative factors were soil temperature, pasture dry matter production, and average soil water content in the top soil over the two weeks prior to the urine N application event. Rainfall and air temperature for the two weeks following urine deposition were also important to fine-tune the predictions. The identified early indicators were then tested for their potential to predict the risk of N leaching in two typical soils from the Waikato region in New Zealand. The accuracy of the predictions varied with the number of indicators, the soil type and the risk level, and the number of correct predictions ranged from about 45 to over 90%. Further expansion and fine-tuning of the indicators and the development of a practical N risk tool based on these indicators is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Noninvasive Urodynamic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Levi D'Ancona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The longevity of the world's population is increasing, and among male patients, complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS are growing. Testing to diagnose LUTS and to differentiate between the various causes should be quick, easy, cheap, specific, not too bothersome for the patient, and noninvasive or minimally so. Urodynamic evaluation is the gold standard for diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction (BOO but presents some inconveniences such as embarrassment, pain, and dysuria; furthermore, 19% of cases experience urinary retention, macroscopic hematuria, or urinary tract infection. A greater number of resources in the diagnostic armamentarium could increase the opportunity for selecting less invasive tests. A number of groups have risen to this challenge and have formulated and developed ideas and technologies to improve noninvasive methods to diagnosis BOO. These techniques start with flowmetry, an increase in the interest of ultrasound, and finally the performance of urodynamic evaluation without a urethral catheter. Flowmetry is not sufficient for confirming a diagnosis of BOO. Ultrasound of the prostate and the bladder can help to assess BOO noninvasively in all men and can be useful for evaluating the value of BOO at assessment and during treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia patients in the future. The great advantages of noninvasive urodynamics are as follows: minimal discomfort, minimal risk of urinary tract infection, and low cost. This method can be repeated many times, permitting the evaluation of obstruction during clinical treatment. A urethral connector should be used to diagnose BOO, in evaluation for surgery, and in screening for treatment. In the future, noninvasive urodynamics can be used to identify patients with BOO to initiate early medical treatment and evaluate the results. This approach permits the possibility of performing surgery before detrusor damage occurs.

  10. Noninvasive Ventilation With vs Without Early Surfactant to Prevent Chronic Lung Disease in Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isayama, Tetsuya; Chai-Adisaksopha, Chatree; McDonald, Sarah D

    2015-08-01

    Controversy exists regarding which of the 2 major strategies currently used to prevent chronic lung disease (CLD) in preterm infants is optimal: noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) or intubate-surfactant-extubate (INSURE). Preterm infants often require surfactant administration because of respiratory distress syndrome. To evaluate whether early INSURE or NCPAP alone is more effective in preventing CLD, death, or both. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases from their inception to January 2, 2015, along with conference proceedings and trial registrations. Randomized clinical trials that compared early INSURE with NCPAP alone in preterm infants who had never been intubated before the study entry were selected. Among 1761 initially identified articles, 9 trials (1551 infants) were included. Duplicate study selection and data extraction were performed. Meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects models with quality-of-evidence assessment according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Seven main outcomes were selected a priori to be assessed according to GRADE, including a composite outcome of CLD and/or death, CLD alone, death alone, air leakage, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, neurodevelopmental impairment, and a composite outcome of death and/or neurodevelopmental impairment. There were no statistically significant differences between early INSURE and NCPAP alone for all outcomes assessed. However, the relative risk (RR) estimates appeared to favor early INSURE over NCPAP alone, with a 12% RR reduction in CLD and/or death (RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.76-1.02; risk difference [RD], -0.04; 95% CI, -0.08 to 0.01; moderate quality of evidence), a 14% decrease in CLD (RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.71-1.03; RD, -0.03; 95% CI, -0.06 to 0.01; moderate quality of evidence), and a 50% decrease in air leakage (RR

  11. Key goals and indicators for successful aging of adults with early-onset disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Mitchell P

    2014-01-01

    Substantial improvements have occurred in the longevity of several groups of individuals with early-onset disabilities, with many now surviving to advanced ages. This paper estimates the population of adults aging with early-onset disabilities at 12-15 million persons. Key goals for the successful aging of adults with early-onset disabilities are discussed, emphasizing reduction in risks for aging-related chronic disease and secondary conditions, while promoting social participation and independence. However, indicators suggest that elevated risk factors for aging-related chronic diseases, including smoking, obesity, and inactivity, as well as barriers to prevention and the diminished social and economic situation of adults with disabilities are continuing impediments to successful aging that must be addressed. Increased provider awareness that people with early-onset disabilities are aging and can age successfully and the integration of disability and aging services systems are transformative steps that will help adults with early-onset disability to age more successfully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Indication for and frequency of early orthodontic therapy or interceptive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, Peter

    2003-05-01

    The early treatment of nonskeletal and skeletal orthodontic anomalies in the deciduous and early mixed dentition is intended to prevent the development of pronounced anomalies in the late mixed and permanent dentition with the ultimate aim of reducing or even eliminating the need for later orthodontic treatment. There is a general consensus in the international literature that early therapy is indicated in cases of anterior and lateral crossbite and Class III malocclusion, and possibly for extreme forms of mandibular retrognathism (overjet > or =10 mm) and of open bite. However, evidence of the efficiency of early orthodontic measures is just as rare as studies providing serviceable information on the incidence of tooth malalignments and malocclusions in the deciduous and early mixed dentition, some of whose findings are in any case highly divergent. This makes it substantially more difficult to draw conclusions on the extent to which early orthodontic therapy may be indicated. In order to obtain information on the incidence of nonskeletal and skeletal orthodontic problems constituting a treatment need, 2326 first-year schoolchildren aged between 6 and 7 years were examined in Frankfurt am Main and in the Rural District of Offenbach. In only 14.7% of the children were no relevant orthodontic findings recorded. 77.2% displayed mild to severe dysgnathic symptoms, though without early orthodontic therapy being considered indicated. Treatment with orthodontic appliances was considered urgent for 187 of the children (8.04%). With 8.3% and 7.9% respectively, lateral and anterior crossbite were top of the list of anomalies with an urgent treatment need. Among the patients with lateral crossbite, the prognostically less favorable unilateral form was recorded approximately four times more often than the bilateral form. Markedly increased sagittal overjet > or =10 mm) was registered in only 1.4% of the children, and negative overjet (Class III) (with the exception of edge

  13. Reduced butyrylcholinesterase activity is an early indicator of trauma-induced acute systemic inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zivkovic AR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aleksandar R Zivkovic, Jochen Bender, Thorsten Brenner, Stefan Hofer,* Karsten Schmidt* Department of Anesthesiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Early diagnosis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome is fundamentally important for an effective and a goal-directed therapy. Various inflammation biomarkers have been used in clinical and experimental practice. However, a definitive diagnostic tool for an early detection of systemic inflammation remains to be identified. Acetylcholine (Ach has been shown to play an important role in the inflammatory response. Serum cholinesterase (butyrylcholinesterase [BChE] is the major Ach hydrolyzing enzyme in blood. The role of this enzyme during inflammation has not yet been fully understood. This study tests whether a reduction in the BChE activity could indicate the onset of the systemic inflammatory response upon traumatic injury. Patients and methods: This observational study measured BChE activity in patients with traumatic injury admitted to the emergency room by using point-of-care-test system (POCT. In addition, the levels of routine inflammation biomarkers during the initial treatment period were measured. Injury Severity Score was used to assess the trauma severity. Results: Altered BChE activity was correlated with trauma severity, resulting in systemic inflammation. Reduction in the BChE activity was detected significantly earlier compared to those of routinely measured inflammatory biomarkers. Conclusion: This study suggests that the BChE activity reduction might serve as an early indicator of acute systemic inflammation. Furthermore, BChE activity, measured using a POCT system, might play an important role in the early diagnosis of the trauma-induced systemic inflammation. Keywords: trauma, injury, early diagnostics, cholinergic, pseudocholinesterase, SIRS

  14. Poor Prognosis Indicated by Venous Circulating Tumor Cell Clusters in Early-Stage Lung Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murlidhar, Vasudha; Reddy, Rishindra M; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Zhao, Lili; Ishikawa, Martin K; Grabauskiene, Svetlana; Zhang, Zhuo; Lin, Jules; Chang, Andrew C; Carrott, Philip; Lynch, William R; Orringer, Mark B; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Beer, David G; Wicha, Max S; Ramnath, Nithya; Azizi, Ebrahim; Nagrath, Sunitha

    2017-09-15

    Early detection of metastasis can be aided by circulating tumor cells (CTC), which also show potential to predict early relapse. Because of the limited CTC numbers in peripheral blood in early stages, we investigated CTCs in pulmonary vein blood accessed during surgical resection of tumors. Pulmonary vein (PV) and peripheral vein (Pe) blood specimens from patients with lung cancer were drawn during the perioperative period and assessed for CTC burden using a microfluidic device. From 108 blood samples analyzed from 36 patients, PV had significantly higher number of CTCs compared with preoperative Pe ( P ontology analysis revealed enrichment of cell migration and immune-related pathways in CTC clusters, suggesting survival advantage of clusters in circulation. Clusters display characteristics of therapeutic resistance, indicating the aggressive nature of these cells. Thus, CTCs isolated from early stages of lung cancer are predictive of poor prognosis and can be interrogated to determine biomarkers predictive of recurrence. Cancer Res; 77(18); 5194-206. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Early diagnosis of asthma in young children by using non-invasive biomarkers of airway inflammation and early lung function measurements: study protocol of a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kant, Kim DG; Klaassen, Ester MM; Jöbsis, Quirijn; Nijhuis, Annedien J; van Schayck, Onno CP; Dompeling, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Background Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood, characterized by chronic airway inflammation. There are problems with the diagnosis of asthma in young children since the majority of the children with recurrent asthma-like symptoms is symptom free at 6 years, and does not have asthma. With the conventional diagnostic tools it is not possible to differentiate between preschool children with transient symptoms and children with asthma. The analysis of biomarkers of airway inflammation in exhaled breath is a non-invasive and promising technique to diagnose asthma and monitor inflammation in young children. Moreover, relatively new lung function tests (airway resistance using the interrupter technique) have become available for young children. The primary objective of the ADEM study (Asthma DEtection and Monitoring study), is to develop a non-invasive instrument for an early asthma diagnosis in young children, using exhaled inflammatory markers and early lung function measurements. In addition, aetiological factors, including gene polymorphisms and gene expression profiles, in relation to the development of asthma are studied. Methods/design A prospective case-control study is started in 200 children with recurrent respiratory symptoms and 50 control subjects without respiratory symptoms. At 6 years, a definite diagnosis of asthma is made (primary outcome measure) on basis of lung function assessments and current respiratory symptoms ('golden standard'). From inclusion until the definite asthma diagnosis, repeated measurements of lung function tests and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath (condensate), blood and faeces are performed. The study is registered and ethically approved. Discussion This article describes the study protocol of the ADEM study. The new diagnostic techniques applied in this study could make an early diagnosis of asthma possible. An early and reliable asthma diagnosis at 2–3 years will have consequences for the management of

  16. Visual Indicators on Vaccine Boxes as Early Warning Tools to Identify Potential Freeze Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoff, Ronald; Wood, Jillian; Chernock, Maria C; Tipping, Diane

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of visual freeze indicators on vaccines would assist health care providers in identifying vaccines that may have been exposed to potentially damaging temperatures. Twenty-seven sites in Connecticut involved in the Vaccine for Children Program participated. In addition to standard procedures, visual freeze indicators (FREEZEmarker ® L; Temptime Corporation, Morris Plains, NJ) were affixed to each box of vaccine that required refrigeration but must not be frozen. Temperatures were monitored twice daily. During the 24 weeks, all 27 sites experienced triggered visual freeze indicator events in 40 of the 45 refrigerators. A total of 66 triggered freeze indicator events occurred in all 4 types of refrigerators used. Only 1 of the freeze events was identified by a temperature-monitoring device. Temperatures recorded on vaccine data logs before freeze indicator events were within the 35°F to 46°F (2°C to 8°C) range in all but 1 instance. A total of 46,954 doses of freeze-sensitive vaccine were stored at the time of a visual freeze indicator event. Triggered visual freeze indicators were found on boxes containing 6566 doses (14.0% of total doses). Of all doses stored, 14,323 doses (30.5%) were of highly freeze-sensitive vaccine; 1789 of these doses (12.5%) had triggered indicators on the boxes. Visual freeze indicators are useful in the early identification of freeze events involving vaccines. Consideration should be given to including these devices as a component of the temperature-monitoring system for vaccines.

  17. Are fish outside their usual ranges early indicators of climate-driven range shifts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Hannah E; Burrows, Michael T; Pecl, Gretta T; Robinson, Lucy M; Poloczanska, Elvira S

    2017-05-01

    Shifts in species ranges are a global phenomenon, well known to occur in response to a changing climate. New species arriving in an area may become pest species, modify ecosystem structure, or represent challenges or opportunities for fisheries and recreation. Early detection of range shifts and prompt implementation of any appropriate management strategies is therefore crucial. This study investigates whether 'first sightings' of marine species outside their normal ranges could provide an early warning of impending climate-driven range shifts. We examine the relationships between first sightings and marine regions defined by patterns of local climate velocities (calculated on a 50-year timescale), while also considering the distribution of observational effort (i.e. number of sampling days recorded with biological observations in global databases). The marine trajectory regions include climate 'source' regions (areas lacking connections to warmer areas), 'corridor' regions (areas where moving isotherms converge), and 'sink' regions (areas where isotherms locally disappear). Additionally, we investigate the latitudinal band in which first sightings were recorded, and species' thermal affiliations. We found that first sightings are more likely to occur in climate sink and 'divergent' regions (areas where many rapid and diverging climate trajectories pass through) indicating a role of temperature in driving changes in marine species distributions. The majority of our fish first sightings appear to be tropical and subtropical species moving towards high latitudes, as would be expected in climate warming. Our results indicate that first sightings are likely related to longer-term climatic processes, and therefore have potential use to indicate likely climate-driven range shifts. The development of an approach to detect impending range shifts at an early stage will allow resource managers and researchers to better manage opportunities resulting from range

  18. Massachusetts Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS). "Technical Descriptions of Risk Model Development": Early and Late Elementary Age Groupings (Grades 1-6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (Department) created the grades 1-12 Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS) in response to district interest in the Early Warning Indicator Index (EWII) that the Department previously created for rising grade 9 students. Districts shared that the EWII data were helpful, but also…

  19. Targeted theranostic platinum(IV) prodrug with a built-in aggregation-induced emission light-up apoptosis sensor for noninvasive early evaluation of its therapeutic responses in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Youyong; Kwok, Ryan T K; Tang, Ben Zhong; Liu, Bin

    2014-02-12

    Targeted drug delivery to tumor cells with minimized side effects and real-time in situ monitoring of drug efficacy is highly desirable for personalized medicine. In this work, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a chemotherapeutic Pt(IV) prodrug whose two axial positions are functionalized with a cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) tripeptide for targeting integrin αvβ3 overexpressed cancer cells and an apoptosis sensor which is composed of tetraphenylsilole (TPS) fluorophore with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics and a caspase-3 enzyme specific Asp-Glu-Val-Asp (DEVD) peptide. The targeted Pt(IV) prodrug can selectively bind to αvβ3 integrin overexpressed cancer cells to facilitate cellular uptake. In addition, the Pt(IV) prodrug can be reduced to active Pt(II) drug in cells and release the apoptosis sensor TPS-DEVD simultaneously. The reduced Pt(II) drug can induce the cell apoptosis and activate caspase-3 enzyme to cleave the DEVD peptide sequence. Due to free rotation of the phenylene rings, TPS-DEVD is nonemissive in aqueous media. The specific cleavage of DEVD by caspase-3 generates the hydrophobic TPS residue, which tends to aggregate, resulting in restriction of intramolecular rotations of the phenyl rings and ultimately leading to fluorescence enhancement. Such noninvasive and real-time imaging of drug-induced apoptosis in situ can be used as an indicator for early evaluation of the therapeutic responses of a specific anticancer drug.

  20. A combined sensitivity analysis and kriging surrogate modeling for early validation of health indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamoureux, Benjamin; Mechbal, Nazih; Massé, Jean-Rémi

    2014-01-01

    To increase the dependability of complex systems, one solution is to assess their state of health continuously through the monitoring of variables sensitive to potential degradation modes. When computed in an operating environment, these variables, known as health indicators, are subject to many uncertainties. Hence, the stochastic nature of health assessment combined with the lack of data in design stages makes it difficult to evaluate the efficiency of a health indicator before the system enters into service. This paper introduces a method for early validation of health indicators during the design stages of a system development process. This method uses physics-based modeling and uncertainties propagation to create simulated stochastic data. However, because of the large number of parameters defining the model and its computation duration, the necessary runtime for uncertainties propagation is prohibitive. Thus, kriging is used to obtain low computation time estimations of the model outputs. Moreover, sensitivity analysis techniques are performed upstream to determine the hierarchization of the model parameters and to reduce the dimension of the input space. The validation is based on three types of numerical key performance indicators corresponding to the detection, identification and prognostic processes. After having introduced and formalized the framework of uncertain systems modeling and the different performance metrics, the issues of sensitivity analysis and surrogate modeling are addressed. The method is subsequently applied to the validation of a set of health indicators for the monitoring of an aircraft engine’s pumping unit

  1. Mitochondrial Epigenetic Changes Link to Increased Diabetes Risk and Early-Stage Prediabetes Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Louise D.; Linarelli, Leah E.; Brooke, Joseph; Smith, Cayleen; Wall, Sarah S.; Greenawald, Mark H.; Seidel, Richard W.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Almeida, Fabio A.; Cheng, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by mitochondrial derangement and oxidative stress. With no known cure for T2D, it is critical to identify mitochondrial biomarkers for early diagnosis of prediabetes and disease prevention. Here we examined 87 participants on the diagnosis power of fasting glucose (FG) and hemoglobin A1c levels and investigated their interactions with mitochondrial DNA methylation. FG and A1c led to discordant diagnostic results irrespective of increased body mass index (BMI), underscoring the need of new biomarkers for prediabetes diagnosis. Mitochondrial DNA methylation levels were not correlated with late-stage (impaired FG or A1c) but significantly with early-stage (impaired insulin sensitivity) events. Quartiles of BMI suggested that mitochondrial DNA methylation increased drastically from Q1 (20 40, morbidly obese). A significant change was also observed from Q1 to Q2 in HOMA insulin sensitivity but not in A1c or FG. Thus, mitochondrial epigenetic changes link to increased diabetes risk and the indicator of early-stage prediabetes. Further larger-scale studies to examine the potential of mitochondrial epigenetic marker in prediabetes diagnosis will be of critical importance for T2D prevention. PMID:27298712

  2. Type II cytokeratin gene expression is indicative of early cell differentiation in the chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlebois, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Embryonic development in vertebrates appears to involve a series of inductive tissue interactions that lead to regional specializations, which eventually become elaborated in the basic body plan of the embryo. The inductive interactions leading to early regionalization of the embryo are often particularly difficult to evaluate because of the absence of available morphological or biochemical evidence that such events have occurred. In the 36 hour chick embryo, the regional subdivision of the early ectoderm is evidence by a marked lens-forming bias in the head ectoderm, which is absent in the presumptive dorsal epidermis of the trunk region. As a strategy for isolating genes whose differential expression might reflect this regional subdivision, a cDNA library from 36 hour embryos was prepared and screened for differential hybridization to [ 32 P]cDNA probes synthesized using template RNA isolated from 36 hour head ectoderm and trunk ectoderm. A cDNA clone (T4) was isolated which hybridizes to transcripts present at much higher levels in trunk ectoderm than in head ectoderm. Partial nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of this clone indicate that it represents a gene encoding a type II cytokeratin. The distribution of transcripts complementary to the T4 probe was evaluated in early embryos using RNA gel blot analysis and in situ hybridization to tissue sections

  3. Fatigue in older adults: An early indicator of the aging process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of research on fatigue in older adults, with a focus on fatigue as an early indicator of the aging process. Fatigue is a strong predictor of functional limitations, disability, mortality, and other adverse outcomes in young-old and old-old populations......, between men and women, and in different geographic localities. Several biological, physiological and social explanations are proposed: fatigue may be seen not only as a self-reported indicator of frailty, defined as a physiologic state of increased vulnerability to stressors, which results from decreased...... physiologic reserves and even dysregulation of multiple physiologic systems, but also this state may be accelerated because of the cumulative impact of social, mental and biological factors throughout life....

  4. Noninvasive monitoring of early antiangiogenic therapy response in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenograft model using MRI with RGD-conjugated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Y

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Yanfen Cui,1,* Caiyuan Zhang,1,* Ran Luo,1 Huanhuan Liu,1 Zhongyang Zhang,1 Tianyong Xu,2 Yong Zhang,2 Dengbin Wang11Department of Radiology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 2MR Advanced Application and Research Center, GE Healthcare China, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD-based nanoprobes allow specific imaging of integrin αvβ3, a protein overexpressed during angiogenesis. Therefore, this study applied a novel RGD-coupled, polyacrylic acid (PAA-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO (referred to as RGD-PAA-USPIO in order to detect tumor angiogenesis and assess the early response to antiangiogenic treatment in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC xenograft model by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Materials and methods: The binding specificity of RGD-PAA-USPIO with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs was confirmed by Prussian blue staining and transmission electron microscopy in vitro. The tumor targeting of RGD-PAA-USPIO was evaluated in the NPC xenograft model. Later, mice bearing NPC underwent MRI at baseline and after 4 and 14 days of consecutive treatment with Endostar or phosphate-buffered saline (n=10 per group.Results: The specific uptake of the RGD-PAA-USPIO nanoparticles was mainly dependent on the interaction between RGD and integrin αvβ3 of HUVECs. The tumor targeting of RGD-PAA-USPIO was observed in the NPC xenograft model. Moreover, the T2 relaxation time of mice in the Endostar-treated group decreased significantly compared with those in the control group both on days 4 and 14, consistent with the immunofluorescence results of CD31 and CD61 (P<0.05.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the magnetic resonance molecular nanoprobes, RGD-PAA-USPIOs, allow noninvasive in vivo imaging of tumor angiogenesis and assessment of the early response to antiangiogenic treatment in

  5. Invasive and noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring of patients with cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmahos, G C; Wo, C C; Demetriades, D; Bishop, M H; Shoemaker, W C

    1998-01-01

    Seventeen patients with hemodynamic instability from acute cerebrovascular accidents were evaluated shortly after arrival at the emergency department of a university-run county hospital with both invasive Swan-Ganz pulmonary artery catheter placement and a new, noninvasive, thoracic electrical bioimpedance device. Values were recorded and temporal patterns of survivors and nonsurvivors were described. Cardiac indices obtained simultaneously by the 2 techniques were compared. Of the 17 patients, 11 (65%) died. Survivors had higher values than nonsurvivors for mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, and oxygen saturation, delivery, and consumption at comparable times. Cardiac index values, as measured by invasive and noninvasive methods, were correlated. We concluded that hemodynamic monitoring in an acute care setting may recognize temporal circulatory patterns associated with outcome. Noninvasive electrical bioimpedance technology offers a new method for early hemodynamic evaluation. Further research in this area is warranted. PMID:9682626

  6. Evaluating Indicators and Life Cycle Inventories for Processes in Early Stages of Technical Readiness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Raymond [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

    2017-11-01

    This presentation examines different methods for analyzing manufacturing processes in the early stages of technical readiness. Before developers know much detail about their processes, it is valuable to apply various assessments to evaluate their performance. One type of assessment evaluates performance indicators to describe how closely processes approach desirable objectives. Another type of assessment determines the life cycle inventories (LCI) of inputs and outputs for processes, where for a functional unit of product, the user evaluates the resources used and the releases to the environment. These results can be compared to similar processes or combined with the LCI of other processes to examine up-and down-stream chemicals. The inventory also provides a listing of the up-stream chemicals, which permits study of the whole life cycle. Performance indicators are evaluated in this presentation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's GREENSCOPE (Gauging Reaction Effectiveness for ENvironmental Sustainability with a multi-Objective Process Evaluator) methodology, which evaluates processes in four areas: Environment, Energy, Economics, and Efficiency. The method develops relative scores for indicators that allow comparisons across various technologies. In this contribution, two conversion pathways for producing cellulosic ethanol from biomass, via thermochemical and biochemical routes, are studied. The information developed from the indicators and LCI can be used to inform the process design and the potential life cycle effects of up- and down-stream chemicals.

  7. Prognostic indicators for early mortality after tracheostomy in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsikia, Afshin; Goodwin, Matthew; Wells, Zachary; Gauthier, Zoe; Bascom, Molli; Suh, Moon; Meloro, Beth; Ortiz, Jorge; Joshi, Amit R T

    2016-11-01

    Tracheostomy is indicated for patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. The aim of this study is to identify prognostic indicators for early mortality after tracheostomy to potentially avoid futility in the intensive care unit. Patients who underwent tracheostomy and died within 30 d of admission (futile group) were compared with patients who underwent tracheostomy and survived more than 30 d after admission (nonfutile group). Categorical data were analyzed using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Continuous variables were analyzed using T-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. Prognostic factors were evaluated with univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Overall, 88.3% of patients underwent nonfutile tracheostomy, while 11.7% underwent futile tracheostomy. Serum albumin level (1.5 g/dL versus 1.9 g/dL, P = 0.040) and mechanical ventilation duration before procedure (10 versus 12 d, P = 0.029) were significantly less in the futile group. Hypoalbuminemia (tracheostomy in multivariable analysis. Hypoalbuminemia may serve as a prognostic indicator and risk factor for early mortality after tracheostomy. In patients with hypoalbuminemia, treatment of underlying disease processes and trending serum albumin level recovery in response to treatment may provide some insight to clinicians with regard to timing of tracheostomy. Better prognostic tools are still needed for critically ill patients to avoid futility in the intensive care unit. In this cohort, 88.3% of patients undergoing tracheostomy survived past 30 d. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sathiyabarathi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows (n=19 were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature and udder skin surface temperature (USST before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC, Electrical Conductivity (EC, and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. Results: The mean±standard deviation (SD body (37.23±0.08°C and USST (37.22±0.04°C of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p37.61°C. Conclusion: It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cowside diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows.

  9. Terrestrial origin of viviparity in mesozoic marine reptiles indicated by early triassic embryonic fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motani, Ryosuke; Jiang, Da-yong; Tintori, Andrea; Rieppel, Olivier; Chen, Guan-bao

    2014-01-01

    Viviparity in Mesozoic marine reptiles has traditionally been considered an aquatic adaptation. We report a new fossil specimen that strongly contradicts this traditional interpretation. The new specimen contains the oldest fossil embryos of Mesozoic marine reptile that are about 10 million years older than previous such records. The fossil belongs to Chaohusaurus (Reptilia, Ichthyopterygia), which is the oldest of Mesozoic marine reptiles (ca. 248 million years ago, Early Triassic). This exceptional specimen captures an articulated embryo in birth position, with its skull just emerged from the maternal pelvis. Its headfirst birth posture, which is unlikely to be a breech condition, strongly indicates a terrestrial origin of viviparity, in contrast to the traditional view. The tail-first birth posture in derived ichthyopterygians, convergent with the conditions in whales and sea cows, therefore is a secondary feature. The unequivocally marine origin of viviparity is so far not known among amniotes, a subset of vertebrate animals comprising mammals and reptiles, including birds. Therefore, obligate marine amniotes appear to have evolved almost exclusively from viviparous land ancestors. Viviparous land reptiles most likely appeared much earlier than currently thought, at least as early as the recovery phase from the end-Permian mass extinction.

  10. The early indicators of financial failure: a study of bankrupt and solvent health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Joseph S; Singh, Sher G

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a series of pertinent predictors of financial failure based on analysis of solvent and bankrupt health systems to identify which financial measures show the clearest distinction between success and failure. Early warning signals are evident from the longitudinal analysis as early as five years before bankruptcy. The data source includes seven years of annual statements filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by 13 health systems before they filed bankruptcy. Comparative data were compiled from five solvent health systems for the same seven-year period. Seven financial solvency ratios are included in this study, including four cash liquidity measures, two leverage measures, and one efficiency measure. The results show distinct financial trends between solvent and bankrupt health systems, in particular for the operating-cash-flow-related measures, namely Ratio 1: Operating Cash Flow Percentage Change, from prior to current period; Ratio 2: Operating Cash Flow to Net Revenues; and Ratio 4: Cash Flow to Total Liabilities, indicating sensitivity in the hospital industry to cash flow management. The high dependence on credit from third-party payers is cited as a reason for this; thus, there is a great need for cash to fund operations. Five managerial policy implications are provided to help health system managers avoid financial solvency problems in the future.

  11. Terrestrial origin of viviparity in mesozoic marine reptiles indicated by early triassic embryonic fossils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Motani

    Full Text Available Viviparity in Mesozoic marine reptiles has traditionally been considered an aquatic adaptation. We report a new fossil specimen that strongly contradicts this traditional interpretation. The new specimen contains the oldest fossil embryos of Mesozoic marine reptile that are about 10 million years older than previous such records. The fossil belongs to Chaohusaurus (Reptilia, Ichthyopterygia, which is the oldest of Mesozoic marine reptiles (ca. 248 million years ago, Early Triassic. This exceptional specimen captures an articulated embryo in birth position, with its skull just emerged from the maternal pelvis. Its headfirst birth posture, which is unlikely to be a breech condition, strongly indicates a terrestrial origin of viviparity, in contrast to the traditional view. The tail-first birth posture in derived ichthyopterygians, convergent with the conditions in whales and sea cows, therefore is a secondary feature. The unequivocally marine origin of viviparity is so far not known among amniotes, a subset of vertebrate animals comprising mammals and reptiles, including birds. Therefore, obligate marine amniotes appear to have evolved almost exclusively from viviparous land ancestors. Viviparous land reptiles most likely appeared much earlier than currently thought, at least as early as the recovery phase from the end-Permian mass extinction.

  12. Evolution of care indicators after an early discharge intervention in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral-López, Isabel; González-Carrión, María Pilar; Rivas-Campos, Antonio; Lafuente-Lorca, Justa; Castillo-Vera, Josefa; de Casas, Carmen; Peña-Caballero, Manuela

    To evaluate the evolution of health outcomes in preterm infants included in an early discharge programme. Controlled, non-randomised trial with an intervention group and a control group children admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves of Granada were included in the study. The intervention group comprised preterm infants admitted to the neonatal unit clinically stable, whose family home was located within 20km. from the hospital. They were discharged two weeks before the established time and a skilled nurse in neonatal care monitored them at home. The control group comprised infants who could not be included in home monitoring due to the distance to the hospital criterion or because their families did not give their consent and who received the usual care until their discharge. The study variables were the outcome indicators of the Nursing Outcomes Classification. Differences were found in the Nursing Outcomes Classification scores in the intervention group compared to the control group. The early discharge of preterm infants followed up at home by an expert nurse in neonatal care is a health service that achieves results in preparating parents for the care of their child, enabling them to learn about the health services, adapt to their new life, and establishbreastfeeding times. It constitutes safe intervention for children and is beneficial to parents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of indicators for the early selection of the height character in Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes García Rodríguez

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In the plant breeding programs attended by Biotechnology and using the induction of mutations becomes necessary to work with big populations of plants to guarantee bigger possibilities to be successful in the work. For what to have a selection system that allows to carry out the same one in acclimatization phase would allow to shorten the outlines of improvement and to diminish the population’s size notably to evaluate in field phase, what would bear to diminish the expenses in the whole process of studies clones them. With the aim of determining possible morphological indicators that could be used as markers for the selection of low bearing in the clones of the FHIA were studied in conditions of acclimatization different cultivars and banana mutants, being evaluated several morphological characters as: the height of the plant, number of leaves, long and wide of the penultimate emitted leaf, as well as the long of their petiole and the distance between two serial leaves. It was also evaluated the height of the plants under conditions in vitro when they were subcultivate in a culture medium with different concentration of AG3. The results indicate that inside the evaluated morphological characters, those that more early allowed to distinguish among plants of low bearing were: the long of the petiole and the height of the plants and that the moment of the selection should be to the 60 days. Not differences were observed between genotypes when they were subcultivate in the culture medium enriched with AG3. Key words: banana, early selection, low bearing, morphological markers, plantain

  14. Hematological and biochemical indicators for the early diagnosis of dengue viral infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, N.; Abbasi, A.; Sheikh, Q.H.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the haematological and biochemical indicators for the early diagnosis of dengue viral infection. Patients presenting with a fever of less than 2 weeks duration, generalized morbiliform rash and bleeding manifestations were included. Clinical history was recorded and patients were placed on fluid and haematological support. Diagnosis was established by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for dengue virus or detection of dengue virus specific IgM and IgG. One hundred and four patients met the inclusion criteria during the study period. Sixty six patients had clinical and haematological features suggestive of grade I Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF); 34 patients had grade II DHF and 4 had grade III DHF out of whom 3 progressed to grade IV DHF. All the patients presented with fever followed by generalized morbiliform rash (81.73%), vomiting (79.8%), abdominal pain (65.38%), backache (62.5%), depression (60.6%) and mucosal bleeding manifestations (34.6%). Clinically, conjunctival infection was present in 93 patients (89.4%), hepatomegaly 59 (56.7%), lymphadenopathy in 17 (16.3%), splenomegaly in 13 (12.5%), pleural effusion in 11 (10.5%) and ascites in 8 (7.6%). Common laboratory findings were thrombocytopenia in 100% patients, leucopenia in 55 (52.8%), raised hematocrit in 52 (50%), and elevated aminotransferases, gamma GT in 100 (96%) patients. The overall mortality was 2.88%. In this series clinical history and examination supported by the triad of thrombocytopenia, raised hematocrit and elevated liver enzymes was sufficient for the early diagnosis of dengue hemorrhagic fever without waiting for dengue serology. (author)

  15. Early decision indicators for foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in non-endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Graeme Garner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Disease managers face many challenges when deciding on the most effective control strategy to manage an outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD. Decisions have to be made under conditions of uncertainty and where the situation is continually evolving. In addition, resources for control are often limited. A modelling study was carried out to identify characteristics measurable during the early phase of a FMD outbreak that might be useful as predictors of the total number of infected places, outbreak duration and the total area under control. The study involved two modelling platforms in two countries (Australia and New Zealand and encompassed a large number of incursion scenarios. Linear regression, classification and regression tree and boosted regression tree analyses were used to quantify the predictive value of a set of parameters on three outcome variables of interest: the total number of infected places, outbreak duration and the total area under control. The number of infected premises, number of pending culls, area under control, estimated dissemination ratio, and cattle density around the index herd at days 7, 14 and 21 following first detection were associated with each of the outcome variables. Regression models for the size of the area under control had the highest predictive value (R2 = 0.51-0.9 followed by the number of infected premises (R2 = 0.3-0.75 and outbreak duration (R2 = 0.28-0.57. Predictability improved at later time points in the outbreak. Predictive regression models using various cut-points at day 14 to define small and large outbreaks had positive predictive values of 0.85‒0.98 and negative predictive values of 0.52‒0.91, with 79‒97% of outbreaks correctly classified. On the strict assumption that each of the simulation models used in this study provide a realistic indication of the spread of FMD in animal populations our conclusion is that relatively simple metrics available early in a control program can be

  16. ABNORMAL MICROFAUNAL SHELLS AS EARLY WARNING INDICATOR OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES SURROUNDING BERAU DELTA, EAST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresna Tri Dewi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 25 sediment samples from surrounding Berau Delta, East Kalimantan have been used for microfaunal study. It is found some abnormal shells of ostracoda, foraminifera and other forms with darkish shells (black, dark green and dark brown. These forms were analyzed using SEM-Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX or EDS to know their chemical composition. The result shows that these abnormal forms composed of CaO, SiO2, C, FeO, Al2O3, K2O, and small amount of Na2O and Cl. They may derive from different sources: CaO and MgO from neutralized component during the environmental management to handle the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD. The other components may derive from coal ash during combustion process or other activities. From this result, the small amount (less than 5% of abnormal shells may be used as early warning indicator of environmental changes in the study area.

  17. Phylogenomic Analyses Indicate that Early Fungi Evolved Digesting Cell Walls of Algal Ancestors of Land Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying; Wang, Sishuo; Sekimoto, Satoshi; Aerts, Andrea L.; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Yee Ngan, Chew; Ohm, Robin A.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Berbee, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    As decomposers, fungi are key players in recycling plant material in global carbon cycles. We hypothesized that genomes of early diverging fungi may have inherited pectinases from an ancestral species that had been able to extract nutrients from pectin-containing land plants and their algal allies (Streptophytes). We aimed to infer, based on pectinase gene expansions and on the organismal phylogeny, the geological timing of the plant–fungus association. We analyzed 40 fungal genomes, three of which, including Gonapodya prolifera, were sequenced for this study. In the organismal phylogeny from 136 housekeeping loci, Rozella diverged first from all other fungi. Gonapodya prolifera was included among the flagellated, predominantly aquatic fungal species in Chytridiomycota. Sister to Chytridiomycota were the predominantly terrestrial fungi including zygomycota I and zygomycota II, along with the ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that comprise Dikarya. The Gonapodya genome has 27 genes representing five of the seven classes of pectin-specific enzymes known from fungi. Most of these share a common ancestry with pectinases from Dikarya. Indicating functional and sequence similarity, Gonapodya, like many Dikarya, can use pectin as a carbon source for growth in pure culture. Shared pectinases of Dikarya and Gonapodya provide evidence that even ancient aquatic fungi had adapted to extract nutrients from the plants in the green lineage. This implies that 750 million years, the estimated maximum age of origin of the pectin-containing streptophytes represents a maximum age for the divergence of Chytridiomycota from the lineage including Dikarya. PMID:25977457

  18. Effect of a Grain Extract on Certain Digestive Physiological Indicators in Early Weaned Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Kovács

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a non-medicated diet with or without a grain extract feed additive (benzoquinones as main active ingredients on the growth of rabbits and certain physiological indicators of the digestive tract was examined. One-day-old rabbits of average birth weight were distributed into litters of eight, and these litters were randomly divided into three groups (21-22 litters/group. The control group (Group C received a basal diet. The diet fed to rabbits of Group IM, was supplemented with a feed additive containing natural basic ingredients (Immunovet-HBM, 1 kg/t; the diet fed to Group M was medicated (tiamulin, oxytetracycline and diclazuril. Three days prior to kindling and up to weaning at 21 days of age of the pups, the does were fed one of the three diets ad libitum. Young rabbits were allowed to consume the same diets beside their mother’s milk before weaning. Significant (p p p < 0.05 higher in the C and IM group than in M rabbits. The proportion of butyric acid was lower than that of propionic acid even on the 42nd day in Group M. From the results of this study it is clear that the early weaning of rabbits can be accomplished by the use of a non-medicated diet without any decrease in weight gain. In our study the grain extract feed additive exerted a beneficial effect by increasing the pancreatic enzyme activity and maintaining a better VFA ratio.

  19. The importance of retesting the hearing screening as an indicator of the real early hearing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Polo Camargo da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis of hearing loss minimizes its impact on child development. We studied factors that influence the effectiveness of screening programs.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between gender, weight at birth, gestational age, risk factors for hearing loss, venue for newborn hearing screening and "pass" and "fail" results in the retest.METHODS: Prospective cohort study was carried out in a tertiary referral hospital. The screening was performed in 565 newborns through transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in three admission units before hospital discharge and retest in the outpatient clinic. Gender, weight at birth, gestational age, presence of risk indicators for hearing loss and venue for newborn hearing screening were considered.RESULTS: Full-term infants comprised 86% of the cases, preterm 14%, and risk factors for hearing loss were identified in 11%. Considering the 165 newborns retested, only the venue for screening, Intermediate Care Unit, was related to "fail" result in the retest.CONCLUSIONS: Gender, weight at birth, gestational age and presence of risk factors for hearing loss were not related to "pass" and/or "fail" results in the retest. The screening performed in intermediate care units increases the chance of continued "fail" result in the Transient Otoacoustic Evoked Emissions test.

  20. Prevalence, and early childhood caries risk indicators in preschool children in suburban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike O; Kolawole, Kikelomo A; Oziegbe, Elizabeth O; Oyedele, Titus; Oshomoji, Olusegun V; Chukwumah, Nneka M; Onyejaka, Nneka

    2015-06-30

    Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is defined as the presence of caries lesion in an primary tooth in children below the age of 71 months. It is a significant public health problem with consequences for the growth and development of affected children. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and ECC risk indicators in a suburban population in Nigeria. The data of 497 children aged 6 months to 71 months who were recruited through a household survey conducted in Ile-Ife, Nigeria was analysed for prevalence of ECC and risk indicators. Information on children's ages, sex, socioeconomic status, tooth brushing habits, sugary snacks consumption, use of fluoridated toothpaste, birth rank, infant-feeding practices, breastfeeding practices, maternal age at childbirth, and maternal knowledge of oral health was obtained. Children's oral hygiene and caries status was also determined. Risk factors associated with ECC were determined using logistic regression analysis. Thirty-three (6.6%) children had ECC. Four (0.8%) had severe ECC. The four risk indicators for ECC were the child's gender, mothers' knowledge of oral health, consumption of sugary snacks in between meals more than three times a day, and the child's oral hygiene status. Females (PR: -0.06; 95% CI: -0.01- -0.01; p = 0.02), and children with mothers who had good knowledge of oral health (PR: -0.06; 95% CI: -0.11--0.008; p = 0.02) were less likely to have ECC. Children who consumed sugary snacks in between meals three times a day or more (PR: 0.05; CI: 0.003 - 0.01; P = 0.04) and children with fair oral hygiene (PR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.005-0.10; p = 0.03) were more likely to have ECC. The prevalence of ECC in the study population was low. Promoting good oral hygiene practices and enhancing mothers' knowledge of oral health may help reduce further, the risk for ECC in the study population.

  1. Early warning indicators for HIV drug resistance in Cameroon during the year 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billong, Serge C; Fokam, Joseph; Nkwescheu, Armand S; Kembou, Etienne; Milenge, Pascal; Tsomo, Zephirin; Dion, Grace Ngute; Aghokeng, Avelin F; Mpoudi, Eitel N; Ndumbe, Peter M; Colizzi, Vittorio; Elat Nfetam, Jean B

    2012-01-01

    Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings is accompanied with an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR), which in turn could compromise the performance of national ART rollout programme. In order to sustain the effectiveness of ART in a resource-limited country like Cameroon, HIVDR early warning indicators (EWI) may provide relevant corrective measures to support the control and therapeutic management of AIDS. A retrospective study was conducted in 2010 among 40 ART sites (12 Approved Treatment Centers and 28 Management Units) distributed over the 10 regions of Cameroon. Five standardized EWIs were selected for the evaluation using data from January through December, among which: (1) Good ARV prescribing practices: target = 100%; (2) Patient lost to follow-up: target ≤ 20%; (3) Patient retention on first line ART: target ≥ 70%; (4) On-time drug pick-up: target ≥ 90%; (5) ARV drug supply continuity: target = 100%. Analysis was performed using a Data Quality Assessment tool, following WHO protocol. THE NUMBER OF SITES ATTAINING THE REQUIRED PERFORMANCE ARE: 90% (36/40) for EWI(1), 20% (8/40) for EWI(2); 20% (8/40) for EWI(3); 0% (0/37) for EWI(4); and 45% (17/38) for EWI 5. ARV prescribing practices were in conformity with the national guidelines in almost all the sites, whereas patient adherence to ART (EWI(2), EWI(3), and EWI(4)) was very low. A high rate of patients was lost-to-follow-up and others failing first line ART before 12 months of initiation. Discontinuity in drug supply observed in about half of the sites may negatively impact ARV prescription and patient adherence. These poor ART performances may also be due to low number of trained staff and community disengagement. The poor performance of the national ART programme, due to patient non-adherence and drug stock outs, requires corrective measures to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in Cameroon.

  2. Correlation of transcriptomic responses and metal bioaccumulation in Mytilus edulis L. reveals early indicators of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poynton, Helen C., E-mail: helen.poynton@umb.edu; Robinson, William E.; Blalock, Bonnie J.; Hannigan, Robyn E.

    2014-10-15

    , three transcripts directly involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR) were induced in the metal treatments at 2 weeks and were further up-regulated at 4 weeks. Overall, correlation of tissue concentrations and gene expression responses indicates that as mussels accumulate higher concentrations of metals, initial stress responses are mobilized to protect tissues. However, given the role of UPR in apoptosis, it serves as an early indicator of stress, which once overwhelmed will result in adverse physiological effects.

  3. Alterations to Bone Mineral Composition as an Early Indication of Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Foot

    OpenAIRE

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Esmonde-White, Francis W.L.; Holmes, Crystal M.; Morris, Michael D.; Roessler, Blake J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot is a major risk factor for amputation, but there is a limited understanding of early-stage infection, impeding limb-preserving diagnoses. We hypothesized that bone composition measurements provide insight into the early pathophysiology of diabetic osteomyelitis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Compositional analysis by Raman spectroscopy was performed on bone specimens from patients with a clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the foot requiring surgi...

  4. [Size of lower jaw as an early indicator of skeletal class III development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Zdenka; Nikodijević, Angelina; Udovicić, Bozidar; Milić, Jasmina; Nikolić, Predrag

    2008-08-01

    Malocclusion of skeletal class III is a complex abnormality, with a characteristic sagital position of the lower jaw in front of the upper one. A higher level of prognatism of the lower jaw in relation to the upper one can be the consequence of its excessive length. The aim of this study was to find the differences in the length of the lower jaw in the children with skeletal class III and the children with normal sagital interjaw relation (skeletal class I) in the period of mixed dentition. After clinical and x-ray diagnostics, profile tele-x-rays of the head were analyzed in 60 examinees with mixed dentition, aged from 6 to 12 years. The examinees were divided into two groups: group 1--the children with skeletal class III and group 2--the children with skeletal class I. The length of the lower jaw, upper jaw and cranial base were measured. The proportional relations between the lengths measured within each group were established and the level of difference in the lengths measured and their proportions between the groups were estimated. No significant difference between the groups was found in the body length, ramus and the total length of the lower jaw. Proportional relation between the body length and the length of the lower jaw ramus and proportional relation between the forward cranial base and the lower jaw body were not significantly different. A significant difference was found in proportional relations of the total length of the lower jaw with the total lengths of cranial base and the upper jaw and proportional relation of the length of the lower and upper jaw body. Of all the analyzed parameters, the following were selected as the early indicators of the development of skeletal class III on the lower jaw: greater total length of the lower jaw, proportional to the total lengths of cranial base and theupper jaw, as well as greater length of the lower jaw body, proportional to the length of the upper jaw body.

  5. Early warning indicators for HIV drug resistance in Cameroon during the year 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge C Billong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-limited settings is accompanied with an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR, which in turn could compromise the performance of national ART rollout programme. In order to sustain the effectiveness of ART in a resource-limited country like Cameroon, HIVDR early warning indicators (EWI may provide relevant corrective measures to support the control and therapeutic management of AIDS. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 2010 among 40 ART sites (12 Approved Treatment Centers and 28 Management Units distributed over the 10 regions of Cameroon. Five standardized EWIs were selected for the evaluation using data from January through December, among which: (1 Good ARV prescribing practices: target = 100%; (2 Patient lost to follow-up: target ≤ 20%; (3 Patient retention on first line ART: target ≥ 70%; (4 On-time drug pick-up: target ≥ 90%; (5 ARV drug supply continuity: target = 100%. Analysis was performed using a Data Quality Assessment tool, following WHO protocol. RESULTS: THE NUMBER OF SITES ATTAINING THE REQUIRED PERFORMANCE ARE: 90% (36/40 for EWI(1, 20% (8/40 for EWI(2; 20% (8/40 for EWI(3; 0% (0/37 for EWI(4; and 45% (17/38 for EWI 5. ARV prescribing practices were in conformity with the national guidelines in almost all the sites, whereas patient adherence to ART (EWI(2, EWI(3, and EWI(4 was very low. A high rate of patients was lost-to-follow-up and others failing first line ART before 12 months of initiation. Discontinuity in drug supply observed in about half of the sites may negatively impact ARV prescription and patient adherence. These poor ART performances may also be due to low number of trained staff and community disengagement. CONCLUSIONS: The poor performance of the national ART programme, due to patient non-adherence and drug stock outs, requires corrective measures to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in Cameroon.

  6. Landslide early warning system prototype with GIS analysis indicates by soil movement and rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artha, Y.; Julian, E. S.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is developing and testing of landslide early warning system. The early warning system uses accelerometersas ground movement and tilt-sensing device and a water flow sensor. A microcentroller is used to process the input signal and activate the alarm. An LCD is used to display the acceleration in x,y and z axis. When the soil moved or shifted and rainfall reached 100 mm/day, the alarm rang and signal were sentto the monitoring center via a telemetry system.Data logging information and GIS spatial data can be monitored remotely as tables and graphics as well as in the form of geographical map with the help of web-GIS interface. The system were tested at Kampung Gerendong, Desa Putat Nutug, Kecamatan Ciseeng, Kabupaten Bogor. This area has 3.15 cumulative score, which mean vulnerable to landslide. The results show that the early warning system worked as planned.

  7. Early invasive versus non-invasive treatment in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (FRISC-II): 15 year follow-up of a prospective, randomised, multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentin, Lars; Lindhagen, Lars; Ärnström, Elisabet; Husted, Steen; Janzon, Magnus; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Kontny, Frederic; Kempf, Tibor; Levin, Lars-Åke; Lindahl, Bertil; Stridsberg, Mats; Ståhle, Elisabeth; Venge, Per; Wollert, Kai C; Swahn, Eva; Lagerqvist, Bo

    2016-10-15

    The FRISC-II trial was the first randomised trial to show a reduction in death or myocardial infarction with an early invasive versus a non-invasive treatment strategy in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. Here we provide a remaining lifetime perspective on the effects on all cardiovascular events during 15 years' follow-up. The FRISC-II prospective, randomised, multicentre trial was done at 58 Scandinavian centres in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. Between June 17, 1996, and Aug 28, 1998, we randomly assigned (1:1) 2457 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome to an early invasive treatment strategy, aiming for revascularisation within 7 days, or a non-invasive strategy, with invasive procedures at recurrent symptoms or severe exercise-induced ischaemia. Plasma for biomarker analyses was obtained at randomisation. For long-term outcomes, we linked data with national health-care registers. The primary endpoint was a composite of death or myocardial infarction. Outcomes were compared as the average postponement of the next event, including recurrent events, calculated as the area between mean cumulative count-of-events curves. Analyses were done by intention to treat. At a minimum of 15 years' follow-up on Dec 31, 2014, data for survival status and death were available for 2421 (99%) of the initially recruited 2457 patients, and for other events after 2 years for 2182 (89%) patients. During follow-up, the invasive strategy postponed death or next myocardial infarction by a mean of 549 days (95% CI 204-888; p=0·0020) compared with the non-invasive strategy. This effect was larger in non-smokers (mean gain 809 days, 95% CI 402-1175; p interaction =0·0182), patients with elevated troponin T (778 days, 357-1165; p interaction =0·0241), and patients with high concentrations of growth differentiation factor-15 (1356 days, 507-1650; p interaction =0·0210). The difference was mainly driven by postponement of new myocardial infarction

  8. Evaluation of severity and indication for surgery in acute pancreatitis on the basis of CT in the early stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Keishouku; Nakasaku, Osamu; Kim, Jung-hyo; Hatakeyama, Gen

    1985-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis clinically manifests various degrees of severity. In the present study, we performed a retrospective study on 32 cases of acute pancreatitis and examined the evaluation of severity and indication for surgery in acute pancreatitis on the basis of computed tomography (CT) at the early stage (about 48 hours after onset). CT in the early stage of acute pancreatitis permits objective determination of the extent of lesion enlargement. The cases could be classified into three grades, severe, moderate, and mild, as determined by CT. It was concluded, therefore, that in the early stage CT was very useful as an indicator for emergency surgery and a helpful guide to early judgement. Emergency surgery was performed on seven of nine cases in which pancreatitis was judged to be severe on the basis of abdominal CT and clinical findings. Of the seven, four had infection in the early stage (within 48 hours after onset). Three of the four had MOF complications and died. Two of three patients without infection were relieved. The pancreatitic lesion of the cases with infection was severe as assessed via CT and the CT score was especially high. Infection in the early stage of acute pancreatitis was thus thought to be a seriouns aggravating factor. A. severe (CT score ≥ 6: surgical therapy). B. moderate (CT score = 4,5: medical therapy possible). C. mild (CT score ≤ 3: medical therapy). (author)

  9. Relationship among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function during early lactation in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Felix Diaz; Muiño, Rodrigo; Pereira, Víctor; Campos, Rómulo; Benedito, José Luis

    2011-09-01

    Blood indicators are used as a tool to diagnose metabolic disorders. The present work was conducted to study the relationships among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function in high-yielding dairy cows. Two groups of Holstein cows were studied: 27 early lactation cows and 14 mid lactation cows from four different herds with similar husbandry characteristics in Galicia, Spain. Blood samples were obtained to measure beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides (TG), and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Cows in early lactation had higher levels of BHB and NEFA than mid lactation cows. High lipomobilization (NEFA > 400 µmol/L) was detected in 67% and 7% of early lactation and mid lactation cows, respectively, while subclinical ketosis (BHB > 1.2 mmol/L) was detected in 41% and 28% of the early lactation and lactation cows, respectively. TG concentrations were low in all cows suffering subclinical ketosis and in 61% of the cows with high lipomobilization. During early lactation, 30% of cows suffered hepatic lipidosis as detected by levels of AST. Compromised hepatic function was observed in early lactation cows as shown by lower concentrations of glucose, total protein, and urea.

  10. California forests show early indications of both range shifts and local persistence under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josep M. Serra-Diaz; Janet Franklin; Whalen W. Dillon; Alexandra D. Syphard; Frank W. Davis; Ross K. Meentemeyer

    2015-01-01

    Aim Forest regeneration data provide an early signal of the persistence and migration of tree species, so we investigated whether species shifts due to climate change exhibit a common signal of response or whether changes vary by species. Location California Floristic Province, United...

  11. On Track for Success: The Use of Early Warning Indicator and Intervention Systems to Build a Grad Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Mary; Bridgeland, John M.; Fox, Joanna Hornig; Balfanz, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, schools, districts, and states have become increasingly savvy with data collection and analysis to drive student outcomes. The development and use of Early Warning Indicator and Intervention Systems (EWS) are at the cutting edge of the data- driven, outcomes-focused, high-impact education movement. These systems can increase…

  12. Terrestrial Origin of Viviparity in Mesozoic Marine Reptiles Indicated by Early Triassic Embryonic Fossils

    OpenAIRE

    Motani, Ryosuke; Jiang, Da-yong; Tintori, Andrea; Rieppel, Olivier; Chen, Guan-bao

    2014-01-01

    Viviparity in Mesozoic marine reptiles has traditionally been considered an aquatic adaptation. We report a new fossil specimen that strongly contradicts this traditional interpretation. The new specimen contains the oldest fossil embryos of Mesozoic marine reptile that are about 10 million years older than previous such records. The fossil belongs to Chaohusaurus (Reptilia, Ichthyopterygia), which is the oldest of Mesozoic marine reptiles (ca. 248 million years ago, Early Triassic). This exc...

  13. The importance of retesting the hearing screening as an indicator of the real early hearing disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Daniela Polo Camargo da; Lopez,Priscila Suman; Ribeiro,Georgea Espíndola; Luna,Marcos Otávio de Mesquita; Lyra,João César; Montovani,Jair Cortez

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis of hearing loss minimizes its impact on child development. We studied factors that influence the effectiveness of screening programs.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between gender, weight at birth, gestational age, risk factors for hearing loss, venue for newborn hearing screening and "pass" and "fail" results in the retest.METHODS: Prospective cohort study was carried out in a tertiary referral hospital. The screening was performed in 565 newborns thr...

  14. MEMBANGUN EARLY WARNING INDICATORS PERGERAKAN KURS DI INDONESIA: PENGEMBANGAN BUSINESS CYCLE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Devi Benazir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis in 1997/1998 that was signed by depreciation rupiah almost destroyed the pillars of the economy. This exchange rate shock possibly will happen in the future like that happened in August 2007. At the same time, rupiah falled to the lowest level Rp. 9.410 per dollar (the exchange rate use the last month in August 2007. The exchange rate of its daily until above Rp 9.500 per dollar (Sadewa, 2007. Therefore, it was needed indicator of theearly detection with build leading indicators the movement of the exchange rate in Indonesia. The purpose of this research is building leading indicators the movement of the exchangerate in Indonesia. It could give the capacity forecasting of the Indonesian economy of the movement direction in a manner the aggregate with the Business Cycle Analysis method andIts development. Empirical results showed that is received by four leading indicators and four coincident indicators. The real export, the real import, foreign currency deposit, and forexbanks demand deposits in foreign currency became the moving indicator preceded the exchange rate. Whereas, there are four indicators to coincident was foreign assets, interbank call money rate 1 day, the German share index (DAX, and the USA share index (Nasdaq. This condition indicated that the exchange rate rupiah really was affected by the external factor.

  15. Noninvasive acceleration measurements to characterize knee arthritis and chondromalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, N P; Rothschild, B M; Mandal, M; Gupta, V; Suryanarayanan, S

    1995-01-01

    Devising techniques and instrumentation for early detection of knee arthritis and chondromalacia presents a challenge in the domain of biomedical engineering. The purpose of the present investigation was to characterize normal knees and knees affected by osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and chondromalacia using a set of noninvasive acceleration measurements. Ultraminiature accelerometers were placed on the skin over the patella in four groups of subjects, and acceleration measurements were obtained during leg rotation. Acceleration measurements were significantly different in the four groups of subjects in the time and frequency domains. Power spectral analysis revealed that the average power was significantly different for these groups over a 100-500 Hz range. Noninvasive acceleration measurements can characterize the normal, arthritis, and chondromalacia knees. However, a study on a larger group of subjects is indicated.

  16. Interpreting the gamma statistic in phylogenetic diversification rate studies: a rate decrease does not necessarily indicate an early burst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Fordyce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic hypotheses are increasingly being used to elucidate historical patterns of diversification rate-variation. Hypothesis testing is often conducted by comparing the observed vector of branching times to a null, pure-birth expectation. A popular method for inferring a decrease in speciation rate, which might suggest an early burst of diversification followed by a decrease in diversification rate is the gamma statistic. METHODOLOGY: Using simulations under varying conditions, I examine the sensitivity of gamma to the distribution of the most recent branching times. Using an exploratory data analysis tool for lineages through time plots, tree deviation, I identified trees with a significant gamma statistic that do not appear to have the characteristic early accumulation of lineages consistent with an early, rapid rate of cladogenesis. I further investigated the sensitivity of the gamma statistic to recent diversification by examining the consequences of failing to simulate the full time interval following the most recent cladogenic event. The power of gamma to detect rate decrease at varying times was assessed for simulated trees with an initial high rate of diversification followed by a relatively low rate. CONCLUSIONS: The gamma statistic is extraordinarily sensitive to recent diversification rates, and does not necessarily detect early bursts of diversification. This was true for trees of various sizes and completeness of taxon sampling. The gamma statistic had greater power to detect recent diversification rate decreases compared to early bursts of diversification. Caution should be exercised when interpreting the gamma statistic as an indication of early, rapid diversification.

  17. Interpreting the gamma statistic in phylogenetic diversification rate studies: a rate decrease does not necessarily indicate an early burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, James A

    2010-07-23

    Phylogenetic hypotheses are increasingly being used to elucidate historical patterns of diversification rate-variation. Hypothesis testing is often conducted by comparing the observed vector of branching times to a null, pure-birth expectation. A popular method for inferring a decrease in speciation rate, which might suggest an early burst of diversification followed by a decrease in diversification rate is the gamma statistic. Using simulations under varying conditions, I examine the sensitivity of gamma to the distribution of the most recent branching times. Using an exploratory data analysis tool for lineages through time plots, tree deviation, I identified trees with a significant gamma statistic that do not appear to have the characteristic early accumulation of lineages consistent with an early, rapid rate of cladogenesis. I further investigated the sensitivity of the gamma statistic to recent diversification by examining the consequences of failing to simulate the full time interval following the most recent cladogenic event. The power of gamma to detect rate decrease at varying times was assessed for simulated trees with an initial high rate of diversification followed by a relatively low rate. The gamma statistic is extraordinarily sensitive to recent diversification rates, and does not necessarily detect early bursts of diversification. This was true for trees of various sizes and completeness of taxon sampling. The gamma statistic had greater power to detect recent diversification rate decreases compared to early bursts of diversification. Caution should be exercised when interpreting the gamma statistic as an indication of early, rapid diversification.

  18. Near-infrared reflectance bull’s eye maculopathy as an early indication of hydroxychloroquine toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong KL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Keye L Wong,1 Scott E Pautler,2 David J Browning31Retina Associates of Sarasota, Sarasota, FL, USA; 2Retina Vitreous Associates of Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Charlotte Eye Ear Nose and Throat Associates, Charlotte, NC, USAImportance: In some patients, hydroxychloroquine ocular toxicity may progress even following cessation of therapy. Any leverage the clinician may use to allow earlier detection may avert significant vision loss.Observation: We report three cases suggesting that bull’s eye maculopathy seen on near-infrared reflectance with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope could be an early, objective manifestation of hydroxychloroquine ocular toxicity, and with progression of the disease this near-infrared “bull’s eye” change may disappear.Conclusion and relevance: Alerting clinicians to this observation may allow a larger case series to corroborate the hypothesis that bull’s eye maculopathy detected by near-infrared reflectance may represent an early sign of hydroxychloroquine toxicity.Keywords: confocal, scanning laser ophthalmoscope, multifocal ERG

  19. Assessment and comparison of two early warning indicator methods in the perspective of prevention of atypical accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paltrinieri, Nicola; Øien, Knut; Cozzani, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Some severe major accidents occurred in Europe in recent years (e.g. the Vapour Cloud Explosion at Buncefield in 2005), which were not foreseen by their site “Seveso-II” safety reports. Detailed analyses of such “atypical” scenarios demonstrated that they are the result of a number of failures at different technical and organizational levels. Thus, their prevention is a major challenge and must be coordinated through different kinds of approaches, among which improved early detection plays an important role. Proactive methodologies for the development of early warning indicators can unveil early deviations in the causal chain. Two examples are the Resilience-based Early Warning Indicator (REWI) method and the so-called “Dual Assurance” method. The aim of this study was to analyse the possible integration of early warning indicators in the hazard identification process. A Buncefield-like site was analysed to obtain indicators that were compared with the actual causes that led to the accident at Buncefield (and to similar accident scenarios). The results show that indicators from both methods could have prevented the accidents from happening. However, one main difference is related to the issue of hazard identification, which is fundamental for the prevention of atypical accident scenarios. The REWI method is not dependent on the outcome of the hazard identification process. Instead it provides complementarities to the first prevention approach (improved identification of atypical scenarios), demonstrating that a mutual activity would be an effective strategy in which human, organizational, cultural and technical factors are treated in an integrated manner. - Highlights: ► Early warning indicators were created through 2 methods for the Buncefield oil depot. ► A general capacity to cover causes of atypical events was demonstrated. ► The Dual Assurance method showed to mainly cover operability failures. ► The REWI method showed to promote acts

  20. Origin of clothing lice indicates early clothing use by anatomically modern humans in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toups, Melissa A; Kitchen, Andrew; Light, Jessica E; Reed, David L

    2011-01-01

    Clothing use is an important modern behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 3 Ma, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since clothing lice evolved from head louse ancestors once humans adopted clothing, dating the emergence of clothing lice may provide more specific estimates of the origin of clothing use. Here, we use a Bayesian coalescent modeling approach to estimate that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at least by 83,000 and possibly as early as 170,000 years ago. Our analysis suggests that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically modern humans in Africa and reinforces a broad trend of modern human developments in Africa during the Middle to Late Pleistocene.

  1. A gene expression profile indicative of early stage HER2 targeted therapy response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Fiona; Madden, Stephen F; Clynes, Martin; Crown, John; Doolan, Padraig; Aherne, Sinéad T; O'Connor, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Efficacious application of HER2-targetting agents requires the identification of novel predictive biomarkers. Lapatinib, afatinib and neratinib are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) of HER2 and EGFR growth factor receptors. A panel of breast cancer cell lines was treated with these agents, trastuzumab, gefitinib and cytotoxic therapies and the expression pattern of a specific panel of genes using RT-PCR was investigated as a potential marker of early drug response to HER2-targeting therapies. Treatment of HER2 TKI-sensitive SKBR3 and BT474 cell lines with lapatinib, afatinib and neratinib induced an increase in the expression of RB1CC1, ERBB3, FOXO3a and NR3C1. The response directly correlated with the degree of sensitivity. This expression pattern switched from up-regulated to down-regulated in the HER2 expressing, HER2-TKI insensitive cell line MDAMB453. Expression of the CCND1 gene demonstrated an inversely proportional response to drug exposure. A similar expression pattern was observed following the treatment with both neratinib and afatinib. These patterns were retained following exposure to traztuzumab and lapatinib plus capecitabine. In contrast, gefitinib, dasatinib and epirubicin treatment resulted in a completely different expression pattern change. In these HER2-expressing cell line models, lapatinib, neratinib, afatinib and trastuzumab treatment generated a characteristic and specific gene expression response, proportionate to the sensitivity of the cell lines to the HER2 inhibitor.Characterisation of the induced changes in expression levels of these genes may therefore give a valuable, very early predictor of the likely extent and specificity of tumour HER2 inhibitor response in patients, potentially guiding more specific use of these agents.

  2. Changes in the blood-nerve barrier after sciatic nerve cold injury: indications supporting early treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe edema in the endoneurium can occur after non-freezing cold injury to the peripheral nerve, which suggests damage to the blood-nerve barrier. To determine the effects of cold injury on the blood-nerve barrier, the sciatic nerve on one side of Wistar rats was treated with low temperatures (3-5°C for 2 hours. The contralateral sciatic nerve was used as a control. We assessed changes in the nerves using Evans blue as a fluid tracer and morphological methods. Excess fluid was found in the endoneurium 1 day after cold injury, though the tight junctions between cells remained closed. From 3 to 5 days after the cold injury, the fluid was still present, but the tight junctions were open. Less tracer leakage was found from 3 to 5 days after the cold injury compared with 1 day after injury. The cold injury resulted in a breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier function, which caused endoneurial edema. However, during the early period, the breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier did not include the opening of tight junctions, but was due to other factors. Excessive fluid volume produced a large increase in the endoneurial fluid pressure, prevented liquid penetration into the endoneurium from the microvasculature. These results suggest that drug treatment to patients with cold injuries should be administered during the early period after injury because it may be more difficult for the drug to reach the injury site through the microcirculation after the tissue fluid pressure becomes elevated.

  3. Detection of Taenia solium taeniasis coproantigen is an early indicator of treatment failure for taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-04-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective.

  4. The impact of indicated prevention and early intervention on co-morbid eating disorder and depressive symptoms: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Depressive and eating disorder symptoms are highly comorbid. To date, however, little is known regarding the efficacy of existing programs in decreasing concurrent eating disorder and depressive symptoms. We conducted a systematic review of selective and indicated controlled prevention and early intervention programs that assessed both eating disorder and depressive symptoms. We identified a total of 26 studies. The large majority of identified interventions (92%) were successful in decreasing eating disorder symptoms. However fewer than half (42%) were successful in decreasing both eating disorder and depressive symptoms. Intervention and participant characteristics did not predict success in decreasing depressive symptoms. Indicated prevention and early intervention programs targeting eating disorder symptoms are limited in their success in decreasing concurrent depressive symptoms. Further efforts to develop more efficient interventions that are successful in decreasing both eating disorder and depressive symptoms are warranted.

  5. Recovery of the cardiac frequency to the minute post effort as early indicator of myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez M, L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the recovery cardiac frequency like ischemia indicator, due to the immediate reactivity of the parasympathetic nervous system in the post-effort. It is obtained as conclusion that a slow descent of the cardiac frequency to the first minute of the post-effort is a predictor ischemia index when correlating it with the risk evaluated by cardiac SPECT with a high specificity; being this a marker of simple calculating in the daily practice. (Author)

  6. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Indicators of Early Immune Stimulation: A Childhood Leukemia International Consortium Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudant, Jérémie; Lightfoot, Tracy; Urayama, Kevin Y.; Petridou, Eleni; Dockerty, John D.; Magnani, Corrado; Milne, Elizabeth; Spector, Logan G.; Ashton, Lesley J.; Dessypris, Nikolaos; Kang, Alice Y.; Miller, Margaret; Rondelli, Roberto; Simpson, Jill; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Orsi, Laurent; Roman, Eve; Metayer, Catherine; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The associations between childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and several proxies of early stimulation of the immune system, that is, day-care center attendance, birth order, maternally reported common infections in infancy, and breastfeeding, were investigated by using data from 11 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (enrollment period: 1980–2010). The sample included 7,399 ALL cases and 11,181 controls aged 2–14 years. The data were collected by questionnaires administered to the parents. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, study, maternal education, and maternal age. Day-care center attendance in the first year of life was associated with a reduced risk of ALL (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.71, 0.84), with a marked inverse trend with earlier age at start (P < 0.0001). An inverse association was also observed with breastfeeding duration of 6 months or more (odds ratio = 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.79, 0.94). No significant relationship with a history of common infections in infancy was observed even though the odds ratio was less than 1 for more than 3 infections. The findings of this large pooled analysis reinforce the hypothesis that day-care center attendance in infancy and prolonged breastfeeding are associated with a decreased risk of ALL. PMID:25731888

  7. Diversification rates indicate an early role of adaptive radiations at the origin of modern echinoid fauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Boivin

    Full Text Available Evolutionary radiations are fascinating phenomena corresponding to a dramatic diversification of taxa and a burst of cladogenesis over short periods of time. Most evolutionary radiations have long been regarded as adaptive but this has seldom been demonstrated with large-scale comparative datasets including fossil data. Originating in the Early Jurassic, irregular echinoids are emblematic of the spectacular diversification of mobile marine faunas during the Mesozoic Marine Revolution. They diversified as they colonized various habitats, and now constitute the main component of echinoid fauna in modern seas. The evolutionary radiation of irregular echinoids has long been considered as adaptive but this hypothesis has never been tested. In the present work we analyze the evolution of echinoid species richness and morphological disparity over 37 million years based on an extensive fossil dataset. Our results demonstrate that morphological and functional diversifications in certain clades of irregular echinoids were exceptionally high compared to other clades and that they were associated with the evolution of new modes of life and so can be defined as adaptive radiations. The role played by ecological opportunities in the diversification of these clades was critical, with the evolution of the infaunal mode of life promoting the adaptive radiation of irregular echinoids.

  8. The nucleic acids as early indicators of the recovery of patients subjected to total body irradiation for bone marrow transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morera Carrillo, L.M.; Garcia Lima, O.; Carnot, J.; Cardenas, J.

    2000-01-01

    The possibility to use the concentration of nucleic acids as an early indicator for the recovery of individuals exposed to high radiation was valued in 30 patients subjected to a dose of 10 Gy (cobalt 60) in two or three sessions of total body irradiation for bone marrow transplants. The determination of the concentration of the nucleic acids was carried out prior to the irradiation, and later in different periods until the patients discharge. The behaviour of indicate such as alpha amylase serics transaminases, glicemics, alkaline phosphatase and others was also studied

  9. Pulse oximeter perfusion index as an early indicator of sympathectomy after epidural anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginosar, Y; Weiniger, C F; Meroz, Y; Kurz, V; Bdolah-Abram, T; Babchenko, A; Nitzan, M; Davidson, E M

    2009-09-01

    The pulse oximeter perfusion index (PI) has been used to indicate sympathectomy-induced vasodilatation. We hypothesized that pulse oximeter PI provides an earlier and clearer indication of sympathectomy following epidural anesthesia than skin temperature and arterial pressure. Forty patients received lumbar epidural catheters. Patients were randomized to receive either 10 ml 0.5% bupivacaine or 10 ml 0.25% bupivacaine. PI in the toe, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and toe temperature were all assessed at baseline and at 5, 10 and 20 min following epidural anesthesia. The effect of epidural anesthesia over time was assessed by repeated measures analysis of variance. Additionally, we defined clinically evident sympathectomy criteria (a 100% increase in the PI, a 15% decrease in MAP and a 1 degrees C increase in toe temperature). The numbers of patients demonstrating these changes for each test were compared using the McNemar test for each time point. Twenty-nine subjects had photoplethysmography signals that met a priori signal quality criteria for analysis. By 20 min, PI increased by 326%, compared with a 10% decrease and a 3% increase in MAP and toe temperature, respectively. For PI 15/29, 26/29 and 29/29 of the subjects met the sympathectomy criteria at 5, 10 and 20 min, respectively, compared with 4/29, 6/29 and 18/29 for MAP changes and 3/29, 8/29 and 14/29 for toe temperature changes. PI was an earlier, clearer and more sensitive indicator of the development of epidural-induced sympathectomy than either skin temperature or MAP.

  10. Identification of early indicators of altered metabolism in normal development using a rodent model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Daniel Prabakaran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the existence of a close relationship between the early maternal developmental environment, fetal size at birth and the risk of developing disease in adulthood has been suggested, most studies, however, employed experimentally induced intrauterine growth restriction as a model to link this with later adult disease. Because embryonic size variation also occurs under normal growth and differentiation, elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes and their relevance to later adult disease risk becomes important. The birth weight of rat pups vary according to the uterine horn positions. Using birth weight as a marker, we compared two groups of rat pups – lower birth weight (LBW, 5th to 25th percentile and average birth weight (ABW, 50th to 75th percentile – using morphological, biochemical and molecular biology, and genetic techniques. Our results show that insulin metabolism, Pi3k/Akt and Pparγ signaling and the genes regulating growth and metabolism are significantly different in these groups. Methylation at the promoter of the InsII (Ins2 gene and DNA methyltransferase 1 in LBW pups are both increased. Additionally, the Dnmt1 repressor complex, which includes Hdac1, Rb (Rb1 and E2f1, was also upregulated in LBW pups. We conclude that the Dnmt1 repressor complex, which regulates the restriction point of the cell cycle, retards the rate at which cells traverse the G1 or G0 phase of the cell cycle in LBW pups, thereby slowing down growth. This regulatory mechanism mediated by Dnmt1 might contribute to the production of small-size pups and altered physiology and pathology in adult life.

  11. Non-invasive brain stimulation of the right inferior frontal gyrus may improve attention in early Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasova, Ilona; Anderkova, Lubomira; Marecek, Radek; Rektorova, Irena

    2014-11-15

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive tool for modulating cortical activity. In this pilot study, we evaluated the effects of high frequency rTMS applied over the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) on cognitive functions in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or incipient dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ten patients (6 men; 4 women, mean age of 72 ± 8 years; MMSE 23 ± 3.56) were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled study with a crossover design. All participants received 2 sessions of 10 Hz rTMS over the non-dominant right hemisphere in random order: IFG (active stimulation site) and vertex (control stimulation site). Intensities were adjusted to 90% of resting motor threshold. A total of 2250 pulses were applied in a session. The Trail Making Test (TMT), the Stroop test, and the complex visual scene encoding task (CVSET) were administered before and immediately after each session. The Wilcoxon paired test was used for data analysis. Stimulation applied over the IFG induced improvement in the TMT parts A (p = 0.037) and B (p = 0.049). No significant changes were found in the Stroop test or the CVSET after the IFG stimulation. We observed no significant cognitive aftereffects of rTMS applied over the vertex. High frequency rTMS of the right IFG induced significant improvement of attention and psychomotor speed in patients with MCI/mild dementia due to AD. This pilot study is part of a more complex protocol and ongoing research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Loneliness Literacy Scale: Development and Evaluation of an Early Indicator for Loneliness Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honigh-de Vlaming, Rianne; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Bos-Oude Groeniger, Inge; Hooft van Huysduynen, Eveline J C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Van't Veer, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    To develop and evaluate the Loneliness Literacy Scale for the assessment of short-term outcomes of a loneliness prevention programme among Dutch elderly persons. Scale development was based on evidence from literature and experiences from local stakeholders and representatives of the target group. The scale was pre-tested among 303 elderly persons aged 65 years and over. Principal component analysis and internal consistency analysis were used to affirm the scale structure, reduce the number of items and assess the reliability of the constructs. Linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between the literacy constructs and loneliness. The four constructs "motivation", "self-efficacy", "perceived social support" and "subjective norm" derived from principal component analysis captured 56 % of the original variance. Cronbach's coefficient α was above 0.7 for each construct. The constructs "self-efficacy" and "perceived social support" were positively and "subjective norm" was negatively associated with loneliness. To our knowledge this is the first study developing a short-term indicator for loneliness prevention. The indicator contributes to the need of evaluating public health interventions more close to the intervention activities.

  13. Cutaneous Mitochondrial PO2, but Not Tissue Oxygen Saturation, Is an Early Indicator of the Physiologic Limit of Hemodilution in the Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römers, Luuk H L; Bakker, Charlotte; Dollée, Nathalie; Hoeks, Sanne E; Lima, Alexandre; Raat, Nicolaas J H; Johannes, Tanja; Stolker, Robert J; Mik, Egbert G

    2016-07-01

    Hemodilution is a consequence of fluid replacement during blood loss and is limited by the individual ability to compensate for decreasing hemoglobin level. We tested the ability of a novel noninvasive method for measuring cutaneous mitochondrial PO2 (mitoPO2) to detect this threshold early. Anesthetized and ventilated pigs were hemodynamically monitored and randomized into a hemodilution (n = 12) or a time control (TC) group (n = 14). MitoPO2 measurements were done by oxygen-dependent delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX after preparation of the skin with 20% 5-aminolevulinic acid cream. Tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) was measured with near infrared spectroscopy on the thoracic wall. After baseline measurements, progressive normovolemic hemodilution was performed in the hemodilution group in equal steps (500 ml blood replaced by 500 ml Voluven; Fresenius Kabi AG, Germany). Consecutive measurements were performed after 20-min stabilization periods and repeated 8 times or until the animal died. The TC animals remained stable with regard to hemodynamics and mitoPO2. In the hemodilution group, mitoPO2 became hemoglobin-dependent after reaching a threshold of 2.6 ± 0.2 g/dl. During hemodilution, hemoglobin and mitoPO2 decreased (7.9 ± 0.2 to 2.1 ± 0.2 g/dl; 23.6 ± 2 to 9.9 ± 0.8 mmHg), but StO2 did not. Notably, mitoPO2 dropped quite abruptly (about 39%) at the individual threshold. We observed that this decrease in mitoPO2 occurred at least one hemodilution step before changes in other conventional parameters. Cutaneous mitoPO2 decreased typically one hemodilution step before occurrence of significant alterations in systemic oxygen consumption and lactate levels. This makes mitoPO2 a potential early indicator of the physiologic limit of hemodilution and possibly a physiologic trigger for blood transfusion.

  14. Early menopause and other gynecologic risk indicators for chronic fatigue syndrome in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneva, Roumiana S.; Lin, Jin-Mann S.; Unger, Elizabeth R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine whether gynecologic conditions are associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Methods This study includes a subset of 157 women from a population-based case-control study in Georgia, United States, conducted in 2004-2009. Gynecologic history was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs and ORs adjusted for body mass index and other covariates, where relevant, were estimated for gynecologic conditions between 84 CFS cases and 73 healthy controls. Results Cases and controls were of similar age. Women with CFS reported significantly more gynecologic conditions and surgical operations than controls: menopause status (61.9% vs 37.0%; OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.21-4.66), earlier mean age at menopause onset (37.6 vs 48.6 y; adjusted OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), excessive menstrual bleeding (73.8% vs 42.5%; adjusted OR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.66-6.70), bleeding between periods (48.8% vs 23.3%; adjusted OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.60-6.86), endometriosis (29.8% vs 12.3%; adjusted OR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.53-8.84), use of noncontraceptive hormonal preparations (57.1% vs 26.0%; adjusted OR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.36-6.38), nonmenstrual pelvic pain (26.2% vs 2.7%; adjusted OR, 11.98; 95% CI, 2.57-55.81), and gynecologic surgical operation (65.5% vs 31.5%; adjusted OR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.66-6.67), especially hysterectomy (54.8% vs 19.2%; adjusted OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.46-7.17). Hysterectomy and oophorectomy occurred at a significantly younger mean age in the CFS group than in controls and occurred before CFS onset in 71% of women with records of date of surgical operation and date of CFS onset. Conclusions Menstrual abnormalities, endometriosis, pelvic pain, hysterectomy, and early/surgical menopause are all associated with CFS. Clinicians should be aware of the association between common gynecologic problems and CFS in women. Further work is warranted to determine whether these conditions contribute to the development and

  15. Incremental value of right atrial strain for early diagnosis of hemodynamic deterioration in pulmonary hypertension: a new noninvasive tool for a more comprehensive diagnostic paradigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinino, Cristina; Giubertoni, Ailia; Zanaboni, Jacopo; Gravellone, Miriam; Sola, Daniele; Rosso, Roberta; Ferrarotti, Lorena; Marino, Paolo Nicola

    2017-11-01

    identify right atrial functional impairment before structural changes and may be implemented in a comprehensive, noninvasive right heart assessment for diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary hypertension patients.

  16. Expanding indications for valve-sparing aortic root reconstruction: early and midterm results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valo, Johanna; Jokinen, Janne J; Kaarne, Markku; Ihlberg, Leo

    2013-02-01

    Valve-sparing aortic root reconstruction (VSRR) is an accepted method to treat patients with aortic root dilation. The role of the VSRR is less well defined for patients with bicuspid aortic valve, severe aortic valve insufficiency, congenital heart defects, and type A aortic dissection. We studied the clinical outcome of patients who underwent VSRR for expanded indications. Seventy-eight patients underwent VSRR between the 2005 and 2012. Seventy-two patients (92%) underwent reimplantation and 6 patients (8%) were operated on with the remodeling technique. The mean age was 51 ± 12 years (range 24 to 73). For 71 patients (91%), the operation was elective, and for 7 (9%; all with type A aortic dissection), on an emergency basis. Preoperatively, the degree of aortic insufficiency was graded as 2+ or greater for 27 patients (35%). Connective tissue disorder (Marfan or Loeys-Dietz), bicuspid aortic valve, or congenital heart disease was present in 15 (19%), 15 (19%), and 7 patients (9%), respectively. Concomitant aortic valve leaflet repair was performed for 39 patients (50%). The mean follow-up time was 2.4 ± 1.7 years (range, 0.1 to 7.0). Thirty-day mortality was zero. The rate of postoperative complications was low: stroke 3%, renal failure 3%, prosthesis infection 1%, and low cardiac output syndrome 1%. Survival was 100% at 1 year and 97% at 5 years. Freedom from recurrent aortic valve insufficiency (≥2+) during the follow-up was 94%. The midterm results of VSRR in terms of survival, freedom from recurrent aortic valve insufficiency, and the need for reoperation are excellent, even for high-risk patients. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of DNA damage and telomerase activity in exfoliated urinary cells as sensitive and noninvasive biomarkers for early diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex-workers of a rubber tyres industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Delia; Casadio, Valentina; Bravaccini, Sara; Iavicoli, Sergio; Pira, Enrico; Romano, Canzio; Fresegna, Anna Maria; Maiello, Raffaele; Ciervo, Aureliano; Buresti, Giuliana; Zoli, Wainer; Calistri, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify sensitive and noninvasive biomarkers of early carcinogenic effect at target organ to use in biomonitoring studies of workers at risk for previous occupational exposure to potential carcinogens. Standard urine cytology (Papanicolaou staining test), comet assay, and quantitative telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay were performed in 159 ex-rubber workers employed in tyres production and 97 unexposed subjects. In TRAP positive cases, a second level analysis using FISH (Urovysion) was done. Cystoscopy results were available for 11 individuals whose 6 FISH/TRAP/comet positive showed in 3 cases a dysplastic condition confirmed by biopsy, 1 comet positive resulted in infiltrating UBC to the biopsy and with hyperplasia and slight dysplasia to the urinary cytology, 1 comet positive resulted in papillary superficial UBC to the biopsy, 1 FISH/TRAP positive showed a normal condition, and 2 TRAP positive showed in one case a phlogosis condition. The results evidenced good concordance of TRAP, comet, and FISH assays as early biomarkers of procarcinogenic effect confirmed by the dysplastic condition and UBC found by cystoscopy-biopsy analysis. The analysis of these markers in urine cells could be potentially more accurate than conventional cytology in monitoring workers exposed to mixture of bladder potential carcinogens.

  18. Assessment of DNA Damage and Telomerase Activity in Exfoliated Urinary Cells as Sensitive and Noninvasive Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer in Ex-Workers of a Rubber Tyres Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Cavallo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify sensitive and noninvasive biomarkers of early carcinogenic effect at target organ to use in biomonitoring studies of workers at risk for previous occupational exposure to potential carcinogens. Standard urine cytology (Papanicolaou staining test, comet assay, and quantitative telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP assay were performed in 159 ex-rubber workers employed in tyres production and 97 unexposed subjects. In TRAP positive cases, a second level analysis using FISH (Urovysion was done. Cystoscopy results were available for 11 individuals whose 6 FISH/TRAP/comet positive showed in 3 cases a dysplastic condition confirmed by biopsy, 1 comet positive resulted in infiltrating UBC to the biopsy and with hyperplasia and slight dysplasia to the urinary cytology, 1 comet positive resulted in papillary superficial UBC to the biopsy, 1 FISH/TRAP positive showed a normal condition, and 2 TRAP positive showed in one case a phlogosis condition. The results evidenced good concordance of TRAP, comet, and FISH assays as early biomarkers of procarcinogenic effect confirmed by the dysplastic condition and UBC found by cystoscopy-biopsy analysis. The analysis of these markers in urine cells could be potentially more accurate than conventional cytology in monitoring workers exposed to mixture of bladder potential carcinogens.

  19. Stability of the Associations between Early Life Risk Indicators and Adolescent Overweight over the Evolving Obesity Epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Lise; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Petersen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pre- and perinatal factors and preschool body size may help identify children developing overweight, but these factors might have changed during the development of the obesity epidemic. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the associations between early life risk indicators and overweight...... at the age of 9 and 15 years at different stages of the obesity epidemic. METHODS: We used two population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohorts including 4111 children born in 1966 (NFBC1966) and 5414 children born in 1985-1986 (NFBC1986). In both cohorts, we used the same a priori defined prenatal factors......, maternal body mass index (BMI), birth weight, infant weight (age 5 months and 1 year), and preschool BMI (age 2-5 years). We used internal references in early childhood to define percentiles of body size (90) and generalized linear models to study the association with overweight...

  20. Embracing early literacy indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik; Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2010-01-01

    Om hvordan læringshistorie-metoden blev modificeret til at blive målrettet skriftsprogstilegnelse (EASE-projektet), og hvordan såkaldte skriftsprogstilegnelses-indikatorer er potentielt indsnævrende for den pædagogiske praksis....

  1. Improvement in Creatinine Clearance after Open Heart Surgery in Infants as an Early Indicator of Surgical Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Amit; Dagan, Ovadia

    2016-12-01

    Early surgical correction of congenital heart malformations in neonates and small infants may be complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI), which is associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates, especially in patients who require dialysis. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered the best measurement of renal function which, in neonates and infants, is highly dependent on heart function. To determine whether measurements of creatinine clearance after open heart surgery in neonates and young infants can serve as an early indicator of surgical success or AKI. We conducted a prospective observational study in 19 neonates and small infants (body weight creatinine clearance and albumin excretion was performed before and during surgery and four times during 48 hours after surgery. Mean creatinine clearance was lowest during surgery (25.2 ± 4. ml/min/1.73 m2) and increased significantly in the first 16 hours post-surgery (45.7 ± 6.3 ml/min/1.73 m2). A similar pattern was noted for urine albumin which was highest during surgery (203 ± 31 µg/min) and lowest (93 ± 20 µg/min) 48 hours post-surgery. AKI occurred in four patients, and two patients even required dialysis. All six showed a decline in creatinine clearance and an increase in urine albumin between 8 and 16 hours post-surgery. In neonates and small infants undergoing open heart surgery, a significant improvement in creatinine clearance in the first 16 hours postoperatively is indicative of a good surgical outcome. This finding has important implications for the early evaluation and treatment of patients in the intensive care unit on the first day post-surgery.

  2. The Role of Retinal Carotenoids and Age on Neuroelectric Indices of Attentional Control among Early to Middle-Aged Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Walk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One apparent consequence of aging appears to be loss of some aspects of cognitive control. This loss is measurable as early as mid-adulthood. Since, like many aspects of cognition, there is wide variance among individuals, it is possible that behavior, such as one’s diet, could drive some of these differences. For instance, past data on older humans and non-human primates have suggested that dietary carotenoids could slow cognitive decline. In this study, we tested how early such protection might manifest by examining a sample (n = 60 of 25–45 year olds. Carotenoid status was assessed by directly measuring macular pigment optical density (MPOD which has shown to be highly correlated with the primary carotenoid in brain, lutein. Cognitive control was measured using event-related potentials during the performance of cognitive control tasks designed to tap into different aspects of attentional (i.e., selective attention, attentional inhibition, and response inhibition control. Our results showed that, across participants, MPOD was related to both age and the P3 component of participants’ neuroelectric profile (P3 amplitude for attentional, but not response, inhibition. Although younger adults exhibited larger P3 amplitudes than their older adult counterparts, older subjects with higher MPOD levels displayed P3 indices similar to their younger adult counterparts in amplitude. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analyses showed that age was no longer a significant predictor of P3 amplitude when MPOD was included as a predictor in the model, suggesting that MPOD may partially contribute to the relationship between age and P3 amplitude. In addition, age and MPOD were shown to have independent associations with intraindividual variability of attentional control, such that younger individuals and individuals with higher MPOD showed less intraindividual variability. These results show a relationship between retinal carotenoids and neuroelectric

  3. Massachusetts Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS). "Technical Descriptions of Risk Model Development": Middle and High School Age Groupings (Grades 7-12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (Department) created the grades 1-12 Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS) in response to district interest in the Early Warning Indicator Index (EWII) that the Department previously created for rising grade 9 students. Districts shared that the EWII data were helpful, but also…

  4. Noninvasive measurement of lung carbon-11-serotonin extraction in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, G.; Firnau, G.; Meyer, G.J.; Gratz, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    The fraction of serotonin extracted on a single passage through the lungs is being used as an early indicator of lung endothelial damage but the existing techniques require multiple arterial blood samples. We have developed a noninvasive technique to measure lung serotonin uptake in man. We utilized the double indicator diffusion principle, a positron camera, 11 C-serotonin as the substrate, and 11 CO-erythrocytes as the vascular marker. From regions of interest around each lung, we recorded time-activity curves in 0.5-sec frames for 30 sec after a bolus injection of first the vascular marker 11 CO-erythrocytes and 10 min later 11 C-serotonin. A second uptake measurement was made after imipramine 25-35 mg was infused intravenously. In three normal volunteers, the single-pass uptake of 11 C-serotonin was 63.9% +/- 3.6%. This decreased in all subjects to a mean of 53.6% +/- 1.4% after imipramine. The rate of lung washout of 11 C was also significantly prolonged after imipramine. This noninvasive technique can be used to measure lung serotonin uptake to detect early changes in a variety of conditions that alter the integrity of the pulmonary endothelium

  5. Comparison of surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity with parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test in early lactation dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Nores, V; Castillo, C; Hernandez, J; Abuelo, A

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between different surrogate indices and parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in dairy cows at the start of their lactation. Ten dairy cows underwent IVGTT on Days 3 to 7 after calving. Areas under the curve during the 90 min after infusion, peak and nadir concentrations, elimination rates, and times to reach half-maximal and basal concentrations for glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate were calculated. Surrogate indices were computed using the average of the IVGTT basal samples, and their correlation with the IVGTT parameters studied through the Spearman's rank test. No statistically significant or strong correlation coefficients (P > 0.05; |ρ| insulin sensitivity measures derived from the IVGTT and any of the surrogate indices. Therefore, these results support that the assessment of insulin sensitivity in early lactation cattle cannot rely on the calculation of surrogate indices in just a blood sample, and the more laborious tests (ie, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test or IVGTT) should be employed to predict the sensitivity of the peripheral tissues to insulin accurately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel circulating microRNA signature as a potential non-invasive multi-marker test in ER-positive early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kodahl, Annette R; Lyng, Maria Bibi; Binder, Harald

    2014-01-01

    controls using LNA-based quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). A signature of miRNAs was subsequently validated in an independent set of 111 serum samples from 60 patients with early-stage breast cancer and 51 healthy controls and further tested for reproducibility in 3 independent data sets from the GEO...... Database. RESULTS: A multivariable signature consisting of 9 miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-18a, miR-107, miR-133a, miR-139-5p, miR-143, miR-145, miR-365, miR-425) was identified that provided considerable discrimination between breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Further, the ability of the 9 mi......RNA signature to stratify samples from breast cancer patients and healthy controls was confirmed in the validation set (p = 0.012) with a corresponding AUC = 0.665 in the ROC-curve analysis. No association between miRNA expression and tumor grade, tumor size, menopausal- or lymph node status was observed...

  7. Non-Invasive, Quantitative, and Remote Detection of Early Radiation Cataracts for Applications in Bio-Astronautics and Bio-Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Giblin, Frank J.; King, James F.; Singh, B. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars may be a possibility in the next twenty years. Maintaining good vision is an essential aspect of achieving a successful mission. Continuous radiation exposure is a risk factor for radiation-induced cataracts in astronauts. A compact device based on the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) is designed for monitoring an astronaut's ocular health during long-duration space travel. Preliminary data on the simulated effects of ionizing radiation exposure to the ocular tissues of nonhuman animals and results on the sensitivity of DLS over established clinical procedures in investigating cataracts are presented. This capability of early diagnosis, unmatched by any other clinical technique in use today, may enable prompt initiation of preventive/curative therapy. An internet web based system integrating photon correlation data and controlling the hardware to monitor cataract development in vivo at a remote site in real time (teleophthalmology) is currently being developed. Cataract studies on-board the International Space Station (ISS) will be helpful in designing better protective radiation shields for future space vehicles and space suits.

  8. Biomarkers, imaging and disease activity indices in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis: the Italian arm of the SpondyloArthritis-Caught-Early (SPACE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lorenzin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate biomarkers facilitating early diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA and correlations between them and disease activity parameters and imaging indexes. Patients with low back pain (LBP (≥3 months, ≤2 years, onset ≤45 years participating in the Italian arm of the SpondyloArthritis-Caught-Early SPACE study underwent a physical examination, questionnaires, laboratory tests, X-rays and MRI of the spine and sacroiliac joints (SIJ. An expert rheumatologist formulated axSpA diagnosis in accordance with Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS criteria. Disease activity and physical functioning were assessed using imaging, clinical and serological indices. Spine and SIJ MRI and X-rays were scored independently by 2 readers using the SPARCC, mSASSS and NY-criteria. Patients were classified as: subjects with signs of radiographic sacroiliitis (r-axSpA, subjects with signs of sacroiliitis on SIJ-MRI but not on X-rays (nr-axSpA MRI SIJ+ or subjects with no signs of sacroiliitis on MRI/X-rays but with >2 SpA features and signs of bone oedema on MRI spine (nr-axSpA MRI SIJ-/undifferentiated SpA. Significant differences were found in the prevalence of radiographic sacroiliitis, active sacroiliitis on MRI and SPARCC SIJ scores. Biomarker levels were not significantly increased in any of the patient groups. The correlations between IL-17 and IL-23 and other indices were not significant; correlations were found between IL-22 and BASFI, BASG1, HAQ, VAS pain, between mSASSS and MMP3, and between the latter and hsCRP. Although not significantly higher in any of the three groups, IL-22, MMP3 and hsCRP values were correlated with some disease activity indexes and with mSASSS. Large observational studies are required to confirm these preliminary findings.

  9. Dental caries risk indicators in early childhood and their association with caries polarization in adolescence: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemaitiene, Migle; Grigalauskiene, Ruta; Andruskeviciene, Vilija; Matulaitiene, Zivile Kristina; Zubiene, Jurate; Narbutaite, Julija; Slabsinskiene, Egle

    2016-07-02

    Based on the hypothesis that biological and social risks accumulate during life, it is important to identify possible dental caries risk indicators from the life course of early childhood and assess their association with caries polarization in adolescence. A cross-sectional design was applied to the study, and a multistage cluster sampling method used to draw a representative sample of 1063 18-year-old Lithuanian adolescents. The dental examinations were performed according to the methodology for oral status evaluation recommended by the World Health Organization. Parents of the participating adolescents completed a self-administered questionnaire about their children's life course during early childhood. The interdependence of characteristics was evaluated by chi-square (χ (2)) and Student's (t) criteria. A multivariate logistic regression model with the Significant Caries (SiC) index as an outcome was performed. The mean scores for the number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed teeth (DT) in the SiC positive group were higher than the corresponding values in the SiC negative group (6.14 [SD, 2.30] and 1.67 [SD, 2.02] vs 1.28 [SD, 1.11] and 0.34 [SD, 0.69], p caries risk indicators were identified that were independently associated with a SiC positive outcome: gender(OR = 1.32 [95 % CI: 1.01-1.73]), earlier eruption of the first primary tooth(OR = 1.43 [95 % CI: 1.03-1.97]), and past caries experience in the primary dentition (OR = 1.62 [95 % CI:1.22-2.14]). These study findings provide reliable evidence that gender, earlier eruption of the first primary tooth, and past caries experience in the primary dentition should be considered to be dental caries risk indicators and may have an adverse effect on caries polarization in adolescence.

  10. Efficiency of Noninvasive Ventilation in Acute Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Z. Nadiradze

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of noninvasive supporting ventilation in patients with acute cardiorespiratory failure in the early postoperative period after cardiac surgery under extracorporeal circulation. Methods. Case histories of patients operated on the heart under extracorporeal circulation, who postoperatively developed acute car-diorespiratory failure requiring repeated artificial ventilation (AV, were retrospectively studied. According to the AV mode, the patients were divided into 2 groups. Non-invasive AV was carried out in Group 1 (a study group. In Group 2 (a control group, tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation were performed when respiratory indices deteriorated. In both groups, anesthesia was maintained without deviating from the clinically accepted protocol. The indications for extubation were routine. Following 24—72 hours after extubation, the health status of patients became worse, as manifested in decreased circulatory performance, requiring that they be switched to AV. Clinical and laboratory findings were used to define indications for AV switching. The conditions for noninvasive ventilation were the close cooperation of a patient with medical personnel, the absence of significant hyperthermia, injury, operation or facial abnormally, which excluded intimate mating. Results. Analysis of gas exchange changes suggests that there are no differences between the groups both just after surgery and within 24 postperfusion hours after extubation. When the condition deteriorated, no differences in oxygen exchange and delivery were observed in the study and control groups. In the control group, PaO2, oxygenation index, and oxygen delivery index were significantly less than those in the study group. Analysis of the duration of assisted ventilation revealed that the study group patients were on a respirator significantly less than the controls. The length of intensive care unit stay also increased greatly in Group 2

  11. Redox history of the Three Gorges region during the Ediacaran and Early Cambrian as indicated by the Fe isotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Sawaki

    2018-01-01

    To circumvent this deficiency, we drilled a fossiliferous Ediacaran to Early Cambrian sedimentary succession in the Three Gorges region, South China. We analyzed the iron isotope ratios (δ56/54Fe of pyrite grains in the drill cores using laser ablation multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate large variations in δ56/54Fe, from −1.6 to 1.6‰, and positive iron isotope ratios are observed in many successions. The presence of positive δ56/54Fe in pyrite indicates that the ferrous iron in the seawater was partially oxidized, suggesting that seawater at Three Gorges was ferruginous during the Ediacaran and Early Cambrian periods. However, aggregated pyrite grains in organic carbon-rich black shales at Member 4 of the Doushantuo Formation and the base of the Shuijingtuo Formation yield near-zero δ56/54Fe values; this suggests that the ocean was transiently dominated by sulfidic conditions during these periods. Notably negative δ56/54Fe values, lower than −1‰, can be interpreted as a signature of DIR. The DIR also might contribute in part to the re-mineralization of organic matter during the largest negative carbon isotope anomaly in the Ediacaran.

  12. Does digital mammography suppose an advance in early diagnosis? Trends in performance indicators 6 years after digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Maria; Domingo, Laia; Macià, Francesc; Comas, Mercè; Burón, Andrea; Castells, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    To provide a complete evaluation of the long-term impact of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) on the improvement of early diagnosis in a population-based screening program. We included 82,961 screen-film mammograms (SFM) and 79,031 FFDM from women aged 50-69 screened biennially from 1995-2010 in Spain and followed-up to 2012. The first screening round of the program was excluded. Rates of cancer detection, interval cancer, tumoral characteristics and other quality indicators were compared between SFM and FFDM periods using the Chi-square test. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted. Detection of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) significantly increased with FFDM (0.05 % vs 0.09 %; p = 0.010), along with the proportion of small invasive cancers (Digitalization has supposed an improvement in early diagnosis because DCIS and small invasive cancers increased without a change in detection rate. Moreover, false-positive reduction without an increase in the interval cancer rate was confirmed.

  13. Identification of key performance indicators for on-farm animal welfare incidents: possible tools for early warning and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Patricia C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to describe aspects of case study herds investigated by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (DAFF in which animal welfare incidents occurred and to identify key performance indicators (KPIs that can be monitored to enhance the Early Warning System (EWS. Despite an EWS being in place for a number of years, animal welfare incidents continue to occur. Questionnaires regarding welfare incidents were sent to Superintending Veterinary Inspectors (SVIs, resulting in 18 herds being chosen as case study herds, 12 of which had a clearly defined welfare incident date. For each study herd, data on six potential KPIs were extracted from DAFF databases. The KPIs for those herds with a clearly defined welfare incident date were studied for a consecutive four year window, with the fourth year being the 'incident year', when the welfare incident was disclosed. For study herds without a clearly defined welfare incident date, the KPIs were determined on a yearly basis between 2001 and 2009. Results We found that the late registration of calves, the use of on-farm burial as a method of carcase disposal, an increasing number of moves to knackeries over time and records of animals moved to 'herd unknown' were notable on the case farms. Conclusion Four KPIs were prominent on the case study farms and warrant further investigation in control herds to determine their potential to provide a framework for refining current systems of early warning and prevention.

  14. Comparison of PET metabolic indices for the early assessment of tumour response in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated by polychemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maisonobe, Jacques-Antoine; Necib, Hatem; Buvat, Irene [IMNC UMR 8165 CNRS - Paris 7 and Paris 11 Universities, Orsay Cedex (France); Garcia, Camilo A.; Vanderlinden, Bruno; Flamen, Patrick [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Hendlisz, Alain [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Gastroenterology, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-02-15

    To compare the performance of eight metabolic indices for the early assessment of tumour response in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with chemotherapy. Forty patients with advanced mCRC underwent two FDG PET/CT scans, at baseline and on day 14 after chemotherapy initiation. For each lesion, eight metabolic indices were calculated: four standardized uptake values (SUV) without correction for the partial volume effect (PVE), two SUV with correction for PVE, a metabolic volume (MV) and a total lesion glycolysis (TLG). The relative change in each index between the two scans was calculated for each lesion. Lesions were also classified as responding and nonresponding lesions using the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours (RECIST) 1.0 measured by contrast-enhanced CT at baseline and 6-8 weeks after starting therapy. Bland-Altman analyses were performed to compare the various indices. Based on the RECIST classification, ROC analyses were used to determine how accurately the indices predicted lesion response to therapy later seen with RECIST. RECIST showed 27 responding and 74 nonresponding lesions. Bland-Altman analyses showed that the four SUV indices uncorrected for PVE could not be used interchangeably, nor could the two SUV corrected for PVE. The areas under the ROC curves (AUC) were not significantly different between the SUV indices not corrected for PVE. The mean SUV change in a lesion better predicted lesion response without than with PVE correction. The AUC was significantly higher for SUV uncorrected for PVE than for the MV, but change in MV provided some information regarding the lesion response to therapy (AUC >0.5). In these mCRC patients, all SUV uncorrected for PVE accurately predicted the tumour response on day 14 after starting therapy as assessed 4 to 6 weeks later (i.e. 6 to 8 weeks after therapy initiation) using the RECIST criteria. Neither correcting SUV for PVE nor measuring TLG improved the assessment of tumour

  15. Aberrant proteins featured in the saliva of habitual betel quid chewers: an indication of early oral premalignancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie, Kala; Jayapalan, Jaime Jacqueline; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2014-12-01

    Prolonged chewing of betel quid is known to cause oral diseases, including cancer. The present study was performed to screen for aberrant proteins in the saliva of habitual betel quid chewers compared to nonchewers. Saliva of female subjects (n = 10) who had been chewing betel quid for more than 20 years and nonbetel quid chewers (n = 10) of the same gender and range of age was analyzed by gel-based proteomics. Increased structural microheterogeneity of saliva haptoglobin beta chains indicated by shifts of focused spots similar to that earlier reported in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, and their relatively higher abundance compared to nonbetel quid chewers, were detected in saliva protein profiles of all chewers. In addition, the majority of the betel quid chewers also showed significant higher abundance of hemopexin, alpha-1B glycoprotein, alpha1-antitrypsin, complement C3, and transthyretin. These proteins had previously been associated with several different cancers. Our data demonstrated different forms of protein aberration in the saliva of betel quid chewers, which may be indicative of early oral precancerous conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Non-Specific Root Transport of Nutrient Gives Access to an Early Nutritional Indicator: The Case of Sulfate and Molybdate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Maillard

    Full Text Available Under sulfur (S deficiency, crosstalk between nutrients induced accumulation of other nutrients, particularly molybdenum (Mo. This disturbed balanced between S and Mo could provide a way to detect S deficiency and therefore avoid losses in yield and seed quality in cultivated species. Under hydroponic conditions, S deprivation was applied to Brassica napus to determine the precise kinetics of S and Mo uptake and whether sulfate transporters were involved in Mo uptake. Leaf contents of S and Mo were also quantified in a field-grown S deficient oilseed rape crop with different S and N fertilization applications to evaluate the [Mo]:[S] ratio, as an indicator of S nutrition. To test genericity of this indicator, the [Mo]:[S] ratio was also assessed with other cultivated species under different controlled conditions. During S deprivation, Mo uptake was strongly increased in B. napus. This accumulation was not a result of the induction of the molybdate transporters, Mot1 and Asy, but could be a direct consequence of Sultr1.1 and Sultr1.2 inductions. However, analysis of single mutants of these transporters in Arabidopsis thaliana suggested that other sulfate deficiency responsive transporters may be involved. Under field conditions, Mo content was also increased in leaves by a reduction in S fertilization. The [Mo]:[S] ratio significantly discriminated between the plots with different rates of S fertilization. Threshold values were estimated for the hierarchical clustering of commercial crops according to S status. The use of the [Mo]:[S] ratio was also reliable to detect S deficiency for other cultivated species under controlled conditions. The analysis of the leaf [Mo]:[S] ratio seems to be a practical indicator to detect early S deficiency under field conditions and thus improve S fertilization management.

  17. Indicators for early assessment of palliative care in lung cancer patients: a population study using linked health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Maria; O'Brien, Katie M; Lucey, Michael; Clough-Gorr, Kerri; Hannigan, Ailish

    2018-02-26

    Analysing linked, routinely collected data may be useful to identify characteristics of patients with suspected lung cancer who could benefit from early assessment for palliative care. The aim of this study was to compare characteristics of newly diagnosed lung cancer patients dying within 30 days of diagnosis (short term survivors) with those surviving more than 30 days. To identify indicators for early palliative care assessment we distinguished between characteristics available at diagnosis (age, gender, smoking status, marital status, comorbid disease, admission type, tumour stage and histology) from those available post diagnosis. A second aim was to examine the association between receiving any tumour-directed treatment, place of death and survival time. A retrospective observational population based study comparing lung cancer patients who died within 30 days of diagnosis (short term survivors) with those who survived longer using Chi-squared tests and logistic regression. Incident lung cancer (ICD-03:C34) patients diagnosed 2005-2012 inclusive who died before 01-01-2014 (n = 14,228) were identified from the National Cancer Registry of Ireland linked to death certificate data and acute hospital episode data. One in five newly diagnosed lung cancer patients died within 30 days of diagnosis. After adjusting for stage and histology, death within 30 days was higher in patients who were aged 80 years or older (adjusted OR 2.46; 95%CI 2.05-3.96; p < 0.001), patients with emergency admissions at diagnosis (adjusted OR 2.96; 95%CI 2.61-3.37; p < 0.001) and patients with any comorbidities at diagnosis (adjusted OR 1.32 95%CI 1.15-1.52; p < 0.001). Overall, 75% of those who died within 30 days died in hospital compared to 43% of longer term survivors. We have shown a high proportion of lung cancer patients who die within 30 days of diagnosis are older, have comorbidities and are admitted through the emergency department. These characteristics

  18. : ventilators for noninvasive ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Fauroux , Brigitte; Leroux , Karl; Desmarais , Gilbert; Isabey , Daniel; Clément , Annick; Lofaso , Frédéric; Louis , Bruno

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of all the ventilators proposed for home noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in children in France. The ventilators (one volume-targeted, 12 pressure-targeted and four dual) were evaluated on a bench which simulated six different paediatric ventilatory patterns. For each ventilator, the quality of the inspiratory and expiratory trigger and the ability to reach and maintain the preset pre...

  19. Prognostic indicators associated with early mortality of wild raptors admitted to a wildlife rehabilitation centre in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-López, Rafael A; Casal, Jordi; Darwich, Laila

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of the prognostic indicators of wildlife casualties is critical in wildlife rehabilitation practice, to optimize the use of economical resources, and to protect animal welfare. Few studies have been conducted in this field. To identify the prognostic indicators associated with raptor mortality during the first week of hospitalization. Complete medical records of 1722 wild raptor cases admitted to a wildlife rehabilitation centre from 1995 to 2007 were used. Regression models were created to determine mortality-related factors for different variables (order, sex, body condition (BC), clinical signs, and available haematological and biochemical parameters). In the bivariate analysis, the presence of nervous (OR = 11.9, 95%CI:5.1-27.6) or musculoskeletal (OR = 12.1, 95%CI:5.8-25.3) signs, a poor BC (OR = 32.9, 95%CI:19-81.2), and low values of packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin or total solids (TS), were all associated with early mortality. After adjusting variables in the multivariate model, BC was excluded due to co-linearity with other variables, and alteration of the nervous system was the only significant risk factor (OR = 4.0; 95%CI:1.9-8.8). In species specific analysis, poor prognosis was related to neurological signs in Athene noctua, poor BC in Strix aluco, trauma in Acciptiter nisus and Tyto alba, low PCV in Buteo buteo and Falco tinnunculus and low TS in Falco tinnunculus. Raptors with a poor BC, low values of PCV and those presenting with neurological signs, had the highest risk of dying in the first days of admittance. Thus, either medical care or humane euthanasia for poor prognosis should be performed to address animal welfare.

  20. Colorimetric Detection of Caspase 3 Activity and Reactive Oxygen Derivatives: Potential Early Indicators of Thermal Stress in Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickael Ros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to develop and implement rapid assessments of coral health to allow effective adaptive management in response to coastal development and global change. There is now increasing evidence that activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis plays a key role during coral bleaching and subsequent mortality. In this study, a “clinical” approach was used to assess coral health by measuring the activity of caspase 3 using a commercial kit. This method was first applied while inducing thermal bleaching in two coral species, Acropora millepora and Pocillopora damicornis. The latter species was then chosen to undergo further studies combining the detection of oxidative stress-related compounds (catalase activity and glutathione concentrations as well as caspase activity during both stress and recovery phases. Zooxanthellae photosystem II (PSII efficiency and cell density were measured in parallel to assess symbiont health. Our results demonstrate that the increased caspase 3 activity in the coral host could be detected before observing any significant decrease in the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the algal symbionts and/or their expulsion from the host. This study highlights the potential of host caspase 3 and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities as early indicators of stress in individual coral colonies.

  1. HIF1-alpha overexpression indicates a good prognosis in early stage squamous cell carcinomas of the oral floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joos Ulrich

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 is a transcription factor, which plays a central role in biologic processes under hypoxic conditions, especially concerning tumour angiogenesis. HIF-1α is the relevant, oxygen-dependent subunit and its overexpression has been associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumours. Therefore, HIF-1α expression in early stage oral carcinomas was evaluated in relation to established clinico-pathological features in order to determine its value as a prognostic marker. Methods 85 patients with histologically proven surgically treated T1/2 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oral floor were eligible for the study. Tumor specimens were investigated by means of tissue micro arrays (TMAs and immunohistochemistry for the expression of HIF-1. Correlations between clinical features and the expression of HIF-1 were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results HIF-1α was frequently overexpressed in a probably non-hypoxia related fashion. The expression of HIF-1α was related with a significantly improved 5-year survival rate (p Conclusion HIF-1α overexpression is an indicator of favourable prognosis in T1 and T2 SCC of the oral floor. Node negative patients lacking HIF-1α expression may therefore be considered for adjuvant radiotherapy.

  2. Energetic endpoints provide early indicators of life history effects in a freshwater gastropod exposed to the fungicide, pyraclostrobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidder, Bridgette N.; Reátegui-Zirena, Evelyn G.; Olson, Adric D.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Organismal energetics provide important insights into the effects of environmental toxicants. We aimed to determine the effects of pyraclostrobin on Lymnaea stagnalis by examining energy allocation patterns and life history traits. Juvenile snails exposed to pyraclostrobin decreased feeding rate and increased apparent avoidance behaviors at environmentally relevant concentrations. In adults, we found that sublethal concentrations of pyraclostrobin did not affect reproductive output, however, there were significant effects on developmental endpoints with longer time to hatch and decreased hatching success in pyraclostrobin-exposed egg masses. Further, there were apparent differences in developmental effects depending on whether mothers were also exposed to pyraclostrobin suggesting this chemical can exert intergenerational effects. Pyraclostrobin also affected protein and carbohydrate content of eggs in mothers that were exposed to pyraclostrobin. Significant effects on macronutrient content of eggs occurred at lower concentrations than effects on gross endpoints such as hatching success and time to hatch suggesting potential value for these endpoints as early indicators of ecologically relevant stress. These results provide important insight into the effects of a common fungicide on important endpoints for organismal energetics and life history. - Highlights: • We exposed a freshwater snail to relevant concentrations of pyraclostrobin. • We monitored energetic and life history endpoints. • Pyraclostrobin affected feeding, hatching success and egg macronutrient content. • Energetic-based endpoints may provide valuable insight to toxic effects. - The fungicide pyraclostrobin at environmentally relevant concentrations effects a range of life history and energetic endpoints in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.

  3. Energetic endpoints provide early indicators of life history effects in a freshwater gastropod exposed to the fungicide, pyraclostrobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidder, Bridgette N; Reátegui-Zirena, Evelyn G; Olson, Adric D; Salice, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    Organismal energetics provide important insights into the effects of environmental toxicants. We aimed to determine the effects of pyraclostrobin on Lymnaea stagnalis by examining energy allocation patterns and life history traits. Juvenile snails exposed to pyraclostrobin decreased feeding rate and increased apparent avoidance behaviors at environmentally relevant concentrations. In adults, we found that sublethal concentrations of pyraclostrobin did not affect reproductive output, however, there were significant effects on developmental endpoints with longer time to hatch and decreased hatching success in pyraclostrobin-exposed egg masses. Further, there were apparent differences in developmental effects depending on whether mothers were also exposed to pyraclostrobin suggesting this chemical can exert intergenerational effects. Pyraclostrobin also affected protein and carbohydrate content of eggs in mothers that were exposed to pyraclostrobin. Significant effects on macronutrient content of eggs occurred at lower concentrations than effects on gross endpoints such as hatching success and time to hatch suggesting potential value for these endpoints as early indicators of ecologically relevant stress. These results provide important insight into the effects of a common fungicide on important endpoints for organismal energetics and life history. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative monitoring of apoptosis, Part 1: early and late spectral changes are indicative of the presence of apoptosis in cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Christine S.; Zhang, Kexiong; Liu, Wei-Han Bobby; Waxman, David J.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2011-11-01

    Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death with unique morphological and biochemical features, is dysregulated in cancer and is activated by many cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. Noninvasive assays for apoptosis in cell cultures can aid in screening of new anticancer agents. We have previously demonstrated that elastic scattering spectroscopy can monitor apoptosis in cell cultures. In this report we present data on monitoring the detailed time-course of scattering changes in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and PC-3 prostate cancer cells treated with staurosporine to induce apoptosis. Changes in the backscattering spectrum are detectable within 10 min, and continue to progress up to 48 h after staurosporine treatment, with the magnitude and kinetics of scattering changes dependent on inducer concentration. Similar responses were observed in CHO cells treated with several other apoptosis-inducing protocols. Early and late scattering changes were observed under conditions shown to induce apoptosis via caspase activity assay and were absent under conditions where apoptosis was not induced. Finally, blocking caspase activity and downstream apoptotic morphology changes prevented late scattering changes. These observations demonstrate that early and late changes in wavelength-dependent backscattering correlate with the presence of apoptosis in cell cultures and that the late changes are specific to apoptosis.

  5. Noninvasive detection of lung cancer by analysis of exhaled breath

    OpenAIRE

    Bajtarevic, Amel; Ager, Clemens; Pienz, Martin; Klieber, Martin; Schwarz, Konrad; Ligor, Magdalena; Ligor, Tomasz; Filipiak, Wojciech; Denz, Hubert; Fiegl, Michael; Hilbe, Wolfgang; Weiss, Wolfgang; Lukas, Peter; Jamnig, Herbert; Hackl, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Europe and the western world. At present, diagnosis of lung cancer very often happens late in the course of the disease since inexpensive, non-invasive and sufficiently sensitive and specific screening methods are not available. Even though the CT diagnostic methods are good, it must be assured that "screening benefit outweighs risk, across all individuals screened, not only those with lung cancer". An early non-invasive...

  6. HIF1-alpha overexpression indicates a good prognosis in early stage squamous cell carcinomas of the oral floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillies, Thomas; Werkmeister, Richard; Diest, Paul J van; Brandt, Burkhard; Joos, Ulrich; Buerger, Horst

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor, which plays a central role in biologic processes under hypoxic conditions, especially concerning tumour angiogenesis. HIF-1α is the relevant, oxygen-dependent subunit and its overexpression has been associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumours. Therefore, HIF-1α expression in early stage oral carcinomas was evaluated in relation to established clinico-pathological features in order to determine its value as a prognostic marker. 85 patients with histologically proven surgically treated T1/2 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral floor were eligible for the study. Tumor specimens were investigated by means of tissue micro arrays (TMAs) and immunohistochemistry for the expression of HIF-1. Correlations between clinical features and the expression of HIF-1 were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests and multivariate Cox regression analysis. HIF-1α was frequently overexpressed in a probably non-hypoxia related fashion. The expression of HIF-1α was related with a significantly improved 5-year survival rate (p < 0.01) and a significantly increased disease free period (p = 0.01) independent from nodal status and tumour size. In primary node negative T1/T2 SCC of the oral floor, absence of HIF-1α expression specified a subgroup of high-risk patients (p < 0.05). HIF-1α overexpression is an indicator of favourable prognosis in T1 and T2 SCC of the oral floor. Node negative patients lacking HIF-1α expression may therefore be considered for adjuvant radiotherapy

  7. Profiling inflammatory biomarkers in cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) postpartum: Potential early indicators of bovine clinical endometritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnane, Mounir; Chapwanya, Aspinas; Kaidi, Rachid; Meade, Kieran G; O'Farrelly, Cliona

    2017-11-01

    Endometritis significantly impacts fertility and milk yield, thus reducing profitability of the dairy production. In cows that develop endometritis, normal postpartum endometrial inflammation is dysregulated. Here, we propose that endometrial inflammation is reflected in cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) which could therefore be used as a prognostic tool. CVM was collected from 20 dairy cows (10 with clinical endometritis and 10 healthy) 7 and 21 days postpartum (DPP). Polymorphonuclear (PMN), mononuclear leukocyte and epithelial cells were counted, total protein levels were estimated and levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and C5b were analyzed by ELISA in CVM. PMN were consistently high in CVM from 7 to 21 DPP, but were higher in CVM from cows with clinical endometritis 21 DPP compared with healthy cows. In contrast, there were more epithelial cells in healthy cows 21 DPP than in clinical endometritis animals. Total protein levels decreased significantly in CVM from healthy cows between days 7 and 21 postpartum. All inflammatory biomarkers except C5b, remained high in cows with clinical endometritis from 7 to 21 DPP, indicating sustained and chronic endometrial inflammation. IL1, IL-6, IL-8 and Hp levels were higher in CVM from cows with clinical endometritis compared to healthy cows 21 DPP. Interestingly IL-1β levels were raised in CVM from clinical endometritis but not in healthy cows 7 DPP suggesting that early measurement of IL-1β levels might provide a useful predictive marker of clinical endometritis. In contrast, SAA and C5b levels were increased in healthy cows 21 DPP, compared to cows with clinical endometritis suggesting that these acute phase proteins might have an anti-inflammatory role. Our results show that CVM is convenient for profiling disease-associated changes in key inflammatory molecules postpartum and reaffirms that sustained inflammation is a key feature of clinical endometritis in the dairy cow. Copyright

  8. Performance of HbA1c as an early diagnostic indicator of type 1 diabetes in children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehik, Kendra; Cuthbertson, David; Boulware, David; Beam, Craig A; Rodriguez, Henry; Legault, Laurent; Hyytinen, Mila; Rewers, Marian J; Schatz, Desmond A; Krischer, Jeffrey P

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate HbA(1c) as an alternative criterion for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 1 diabetes (T1D) in high-risk subjects TrialNet Natural History (TrialNet) studies and had an HbA(1c) within 90 days of an OGTT with a 2-h plasma glucose (2-hPG) measure were included. An OGTT of 140-199 mg/dL defined IGT, and an OGTT with 2-hPG ≥200 mg/dL or fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL defined diabetes. HbA(1c) ≥5.7% defined IGT, and HbA(1c) ≥ 6.5% defined diabetes. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess diagnostic accuracy of HbA(1c) compared with OGTT. There were 587 subjects from DPT-1, 884 from TrialNet, 91 from TEDDY, and 420 from TRIGR. As an indicator for IGT, HbA(1c) sensitivity was very low across the studies (8-42%), and specificity was variable (64-95%). With HbA(1c) ≥6.5% threshold used for T1D diagnosis, the sensitivity was very low and specificity was high (sensitivity and specificity: DPT-1 24 and 98%, TrialNet 28 and 99%, TEDDY 34 and 98%, and TRIGR 33 and 99%, respectively). The positive predictive value of HbA(1c) ≥6.5% for the development of T1D was variable (50-94%) across the four studies. HbA(1c) ≥6.5% is a specific but not sensitive early indicator for T1D in high-risk subjects <21 years of age diagnosed by OGTT or asymptomatic hyperglycemia. Redefining the HbA(1c) threshold is recommended if used as an alternative criterion in diagnosing T1D.

  9. Distinct GAGE and MAGE-A expression during early human development indicate specific roles in lineage differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten; Harkness, Linda; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Expression of cancer/testis-associated proteins (CTAs) has traditionally been considered to be restricted to germ cells in normal tissues and to different types of malignancies. We have evaluated the potential role of CTAs in early human development. METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry...... and RT-PCR, we investigated the expression of CTAs in differentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and in late embryos and early fetuses. RESULTS: We found that melanoma antigen A (MAGE-A) family members were expressed during differentiation of hESC to embryoid bodies and in teratomas, and overlapped...... with expression of the neuroectodermal markers beta-tubulin 3, Pax6 and nestin. A widespread expression of MAGE-A was also observed in neurons of the early developing central nervous system and peripheral nerves. G antigen (GAGE) expression was present in the early ectoderm of embryos, including cells...

  10. Palaeoredox indicators from the organic-rich Messinian early post-evaporitic deposits of the Apennines (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampalmieri, G.; Iadanza, A.; Cipollari, P.; Cosentino, D.; Lo Mastro, S.

    2009-04-01

    Bottom redox conditions in marine and lacustrine ancient basins are often inferred by the occurrence of peculiar sedimentological structures and microfaunal assemblages. The co-occurrence, in such environments, of authigenic uranium, framboidal pyrite, barite and Fe-Mn nodules and encrustations, provides a good constraint for palaeo reconstructions. Authigenic uranium is a common constituent of hydrocarbon source rocks: it forms at the sediment-water interface under oxygen-deficient conditions and accumulates together with organic matter (OM). Its precipitation is triggered by the reduction of the soluble U6+ion in seawater to insoluble U4+. With respect to black shales, uranium content has even been used to estimate the TOC. Also authigenic pyrite forms under anoxic conditions and replaces organic matter: 1) the increase in pyrite content and in organic matter are directly correlated; 2) the size distribution of framboidal pyrite (consistent with sulphate-reducing bacterial activity) is considered a measure of redox conditions within the sediment. Barite is an authigenic mineral related to Corg content, since its organic precipitation is triggered by sulphate-reduction processes occurring in decaying OM-bearing microenvironments. Finally, also Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide are typical indicators of redox conditions. About 6 My ago the Mediterranean Sea underwent a giant event of concentration referred to as Messinian Salinity Crisis, which can be roughly subdivided into an evaporitic and a post evaporitic phase. The post evaporitic phase (p-ev; 5.61-5.33 Ma) developed in a context of humid conditions and can be further distinguished into two steps: p-ev1 (early post evaporitic phase) and p-ev2 (late post evaporitic phase). Previous works focused on pev2, which is interpreted to represent the establishment of brackish water conditions (Lago-Mare biofacies). In other respects, the palaeoenvironment of p-ev1 deposits, mostly represented by resedimented evaporitic deposits or

  11. Early Detection of Autism (ASD) by a Non-invasive Quick Measurement of Markedly Reduced Acetylcholine & DHEA and Increased β-Amyloid (1-42), Asbestos (Chrysotile), Titanium Dioxide, Al, Hg & often Coexisting Virus Infections (CMV, HPV 16 and 18), Bacterial Infections etc. in the Brain and Corresponding Safe Individualized Effective Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Lu, Dominic; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Ahdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2015-01-01

    A brief historical background on Autism & some of the important symptoms associated with Autism are summarized. Using strong Electro Magnetic Field Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical molecules with identical weight (which received U.S. Patent) non-invasively & rapidly we can detect various molecules including neurotransmitters, bacteria, virus, fungus, metals & abnormal molecules. Simple non- invasive measurement of various molecules through pupils & head of diagnosed or suspected Autism patients indicated that in Autism patients following changes were often found: 1) Acetylcholine is markedly reduced; 2) Alzheimer's disease markers (i.e. β-Amyloid (1-42), Tau Protein, Apolipoprotein (Apo E4)) are markedly increased; 3) Chrysotile Asbestos is increased; 4) Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is moderately increased; 5) Al is moderately increased; 6) Hg is moderately increased; 7) Dopamine, Serotonin & GABA are significantly reduced (up to about 1/10 of normal); 8) Often viral infections (such as CMV, HHV-6, HPV-16, HPV-18, etc.), and Bacterial infections (such as Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycobacterium TB, Borrelia Burgdorferi, etc.) coexist. Research by others on Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows that it is a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders, with about 70% of ASD patients also suffering from gastro-intestinal problems. While Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by formation of 1) Amyloid plaques, 2) Neurofibrillary tangles inside of neurons, and 3) Loss of connections between neurons. More than 90% of AD develops in people over the age of 65. These 3 characteristics often progressively worsen over time. Although Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alzheimer's disease are completely different diseases they have some similar biochemical changes. Eight examples of such measurement & analysis are shown for comparison. Most of Autism patients improved significantly by removing the source or preventing intake of Asbestos, TiO2, Al & Hg or enhancing urinary output

  12. Noninvasive prenatal testing: the future is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwitz, Errol R; Levy, Brynn

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal detection of chromosome abnormalities has been offered for more than 40 years, first by amniocentesis in the early 1970s and additionally by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) in the early 1980s. Given the well-recognized association between increasing maternal age and trisomy,1-3 the primary utilization of prenatal testing has been by older mothers. This has drastically reduced the incidence of aneuploid children born to older mothers.4 Although younger women have relatively low risks of conceiving a child with aneuploidy, the majority of pregnant women are in their late teens, 20s, and early 30s. As such, most viable aneuploid babies are born to these younger mothers.5 Invasive prenatal diagnosis (CVS and amniocentesis) is not a feasible option for all low-risk mothers, as these procedures carry a small but finite risk and would ultimately cause more miscarriages than they would detect aneuploidy. For this reason, a number of noninvasive tests have been developed-including first-trimester risk assessment at 11 to 14 weeks, maternal serum analyte (quad) screening at 15 to 20 weeks, and sonographic fetal structural survey at 18 to 22 weeks-all of which are designed to give a woman an adjusted (more accurate) estimate of having an aneuploid fetus using as baseline her a priori age-related risk. Ultrasound and maternal serum analysis are considered screening procedures and both require follow up by CVS or amniocentesis in screen-positive cases for a definitive diagnosis of a chromosome abnormality in the fetus. The ability to isolate fetal cells and fetal DNA from maternal blood during pregnancy has opened up exciting opportunities for improved noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Direct analysis of fetal cells from maternal circulation has been challenging given the scarcity of fetal cells in maternal blood (1:10,000-1:1,000,000) and the focus has shifted to the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA, which is found at a concentration almost 25 times higher than that

  13. Why and how to measure stock market fluctuations? The early history of stock market indices, with special reference to the French case

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Cyrille Hautcoeur

    2006-01-01

    Stock market indices are today a vital and daily tool for both economists and actors in the financial world. The multiplication and the very importance given to these indices raise the question of their accuracy and of the reliability of the methods that are used to construct them. We begin an investigation on these questions by studying the early history of these indices. We show that stock market indices appeared in the daily press in the United States at the end of the 19th century; that a...

  14. Clay Mineralogy and Crystallinity as a Climatic Indicator: Evidence for Both Cold and Temperate Conditions on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, B.; Rutledge, A.; Rampe, E. B.

    2015-01-01

    Surface weathering on Earth is driven by precipitation (rain/snow melt). Here we summarize the influence of climate on minerals produced during surface weathering, based on terrestrial literature and our new laboratory analyses of weathering products from glacial analog sites. By comparison to minerals identified in likely surface environments on Mars, we evaluate the implications for early martian climate.

  15. Spatio-temporal patterns of tree establishment are indicative of biotic interactions during early invasion of a montane meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Rice; C.B. Halpern; J.A. Antos; J.A. Jones

    2012-01-01

    Tree invasions of grasslands are occurring globally, with profound consequences for ecosystem structure and function. We explore the spatio-temporal dynamics of tree invasion of a montane meadow in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, where meadow loss is a conservation concern. We examine the early stages of invasion, where extrinsic and intrinsic processes can be clearly...

  16. Age-related differences during simple working memory decisions: ERP indices of early recognition and compensation failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tays, William J; Dywan, Jane; Capuana, Lesley J; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2011-06-01

    Imaging data has identified frontal cortical activation in older adults during simple recognition tasks that relates positively with performance and could, therefore, be considered compensatory. However, in a previous electrophysiological study involving a Sternberg task with proactive interference manipulations, we observed a frontal positive scalp potential between 400 and 500 ms that was unique to older adults and predictive of poorer performance. These results led us to ask whether unique frontal activation in older adults serves a compensatory role only during relatively simple tasks when stimulus familiarity provides an unambiguous basis for response selection. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis by having younger and older adults complete a verbal Sternberg task without interference manipulations. In younger adults, we observed an early posterior negativity (90-120 ms) that predicted performance accuracy. Older adults failed to show this early negativity but did produce the expected frontal positivity. However, the frontal positivity was again associated with poorer performance. These data support the view that younger adults are able to bias early target discrimination to benefit response selection whereas older adults rely on later controlled processes that are not always effective in buffering against normative age-related decline. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Noninvasive Ventilation in Premature Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Keri Ann

    2016-04-01

    The use of noninvasive ventilation is a constantly evolving treatment option for respiratory disease in the premature infant. The goals of these noninvasive ventilation techniques are to improve gas exchange in the premature infant's lungs and to minimize the need for intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation. The goals of this article are to consider various uses of nasal interfaces, discuss skin care and developmental positioning concerns faced by the bedside nurse, and discuss the medical management aimed to reduce morbidity and mortality. This article explores the nursing role, the advances in medical strategies for noninvasive ventilation, and the team approach to noninvasive ventilation use in this population. Search strategy included a literature review on medical databases, such as EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed, and NeoReviews. Innovative products, nursing research on developmental positioning and skin care, and advanced medical management have led to better and safer outcomes for premature infants requiring noninvasive ventilation. The medical focus of avoiding long-term mechanical ventilation would not be possible without the technology to provide noninvasive ventilation to these premature infants and the watchful eye of the nurse in terms of careful positioning, preventing skin breakdown and facial scarring, and a proper seal to maximize ventilation accuracy. This article encourages nursing-based research to quantify some of the knowledge about skin care and positioning as well as research into most appropriate uses for noninvasive ventilation devices.

  18. Changes in cerebral blood flow and psychometric indicators in veterans with early forms of chronic brain ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilenko Т.М.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal is to study the cerebral blood flow and psychometric characteristics in veterans of Afghanistan with early forms of chronic brain ischemia. Material and Methods. The study included 74 veterans of the Afghan war aged from 45 to 55 years: group 1, 28 people with NPNKM; Group 2-28 patients with circulatory encephalopathy stage 1; group 3-18 healthy persons. Doppler examination of cerebral vessels was carried out on the unit «Smart-lite». Reactive and personal anxiety of patients was assessed using the scale of Spielberger, evaluation of the quality of life through the test SAN. Determining the level of neuroticism and psychoticism was conducted by the scale of neuroticism and psy-choticism. Results: The study of cerebral blood flow in the Afghan war veterans showed signs of insolvency of carotid and carotid-basilar anastomoses, hypoperfusion phenomenon with the depletion of autoregulation, violation of the outflow of venous blood at the level of the microvasculature, accompanied by cerebral arteries spasm. More than 40% of patients with early forms of chronic brain ischemia had high personal anxiety, low levels of well-being and activity, with maximum expression of dyscirculatory hypoxia. Conclusion. Readaptation of veterans of Afghanistan is accompanied by the changes in psychometric performance and the formation of the earliest forms of brain chronic ischemia associated with inadequate hemodynamics providing increased functional activity of the brain and the inefficiency of compensatory-adaptive reactions.

  19. Individual common carotid artery wall layer dimensions, but not carotid intima-media thickness, indicate increased cardiovascular risk in women with preeclampsia: an investigation using noninvasive high-frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Tansim; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Larsson, Marita; Naessen, Tord

    2013-09-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Ultrasound assessment of the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) during or after PE has not indicated any increased cardiovascular risk. We used high-frequency ultrasound (22 MHz) to estimate the individual common carotid artery IMTs in 55 women at PE diagnosis and in 64 women with normal pregnancies at a similar stage. All were re-examined about 1 year postpartum. A thick intima, thin media, and high intima/media (I/M) ratio are signs of a less healthy artery wall. PE was associated with a significantly thicker mean common carotid artery intima, thinner media, and higher I/M ratio than in normal pregnancy (mean I/M difference, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.25; Pwomen with PE were negatively affected during pregnancy and 1 year postpartum compared with women with normal pregnancies, indicating increased cardiovascular risk. Estimation of intima thickness and I/M ratio seem preferable to estimation of common carotid artery IMT in imaging cardiovascular risk in PE. Results from this pilot study warrant further confirmation.

  20. Foliar morphometric indicators for early detection of water stress in Gmelina arborea Roxb. in agroforestry systems of Santafé de Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Melo-Cruz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf asymmetry was assessed in individuals of Gmelina arborea Roxb. growing under different soil water conditions in a dry forest agroforestry system (AFS, in Santafé de Antioquia. Leaf asymmetry was correlated with additional morphometric parameters, such as angle of insertion of the petiole in the leaf in mature individuals and the ratio of the number of teeth on the edge of the blade in juvenile leaves to propose new indicators of early stage stress. The models generated had R2 values of above 75 %, which support their use in identifying developmental instability as an early indicator of water stress. Similarly, leaf diversity was assessed between the two phenotypes of leaves (ML and JL, with conventional morphometric variables (length of the midrib, leaf perimeter, specific leaf area and dry matter, because they are characters related to leaf form and function. There were marked differences in form and behavior between the two types of leaf indicating a further source of instability evident from leaf ontogeny. The results of this work will allow the optimization of management strategies of G. arborea in the AFS as an early indicator of water stress.

  1. [The importance of an early accompanying evaluation of new care forms for the development of indicators for quality assurance in outpatient psychiatric integrated care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausen, A; Glaeske, G

    2015-05-01

    Aim of this contribution is to illustrate the imp-ortance of an early accompanying evaluation of new care forms for the development of indicators. The illustration uses the experience of the accompanying evaluation of the integrated care model for optimisation of outpatient psychiatric care. For the integrated care model we could develop potential indicators by using medical-psychiatric and insured-related routine data, but all potential indicators need further development to enable reliable statements about achieved quality targets. It is shown that the development of indicators in the outpatient psychiatric integrated care is affected by many different factors such as vague target agreements in the contract and missing contractual agreements for the data. As a result it is illustrated that in this project the evaluation was introduced after implementation of this new form of care and the already established contract and the data management impeded the development of indicators. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Vigorous root growth is a better indicator of early nutrient uptake than root hair traits in spring wheat grown under low fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    . Vigorous root growth, however, was a better indicator of early nutrient acquisition than RHL and RHD. Vigorous root growth and long and dense root hairs ensured efficient acquisition of macro- and micronutrients during early growth and a high root length to shoot dry matter ratio favored high macronutrient......A number of root and root hair traits have been proposed as important for nutrient acquisition. However, there is still a need for knowledge on which traits are most important in determining macro- and micronutrient uptake at low soil fertility. This study investigated the variations in root growth...... vigor and root hair length (RHL) and density (RHD) among spring wheat genotypes and their relationship to nutrient concentrations and uptake during early growth. Six spring wheat genotypes were grown in a soil with low nutrient availability. The root and root hair traits as well as the concentration...

  3. Early alterations in extracellular matrix and transforming growth factor β gene expression in mouse lung indicative of late radiation fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, J.N.; Johnston, C.J.; Baggs, R.; Rubin, P.

    1994-01-01

    Fibrosis, characterized by the accumulation of collagen, is a late result of thoracic irradiation. The expression of late radiation injury can be found immediately after irradiation by measuring messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance. To determine if extracellular matrix mRNA and transforming growth factor beta abundance was affected acutely after irradiation, the authors measured mRNA levels of collagen I (CI), collagen III (CIII), collagen IV (CIV), fibronectin (FN), and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ 1,2ampersand3 ) in mouse lungs on day 1 and day 14 after graded doses of radiation. C57BL/6 female mice were irradiated with a single dose to the thorax of 5 or 12.5 Gy. Total lung RNA was prepared and immobilized by Northern and slot blotting and hybridized with radiolabelled cDNA probes for CI, CIII, CIV, FN, TGFβ 1,2ampersand3 and a control probe encoding for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Autoradiographic data were quantified by video densitometry and results normalized to GAPDH. Changes in the expression of CI, CIII, CIV, FN and TGFβ 1,2ampersand3 were observed as early as 1 day after exposure. Through 14 days, changes in mRNA up to 5-fold were seen for any one dose. Dose related changes as high as 10-fold were also evident. The CI:CIII ratio increased gradually for the 5 Gy dose at 14 days postirradiation while the CI:CII ratio for the 12.5 Gy dose decreased by approximately 4-fold as compared to the control. These studies suggest that alterations in expression of extracellular matrix and TGFβ mRNA occur very early after radiation injury even at low doses and may play a role in the development of chronic fibrosis. 37 refs., 6 figs

  4. Non-invasive diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mello, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis begins with a focus on non-invasive diagnostic methods for ectopic pregnancy. The heterogeneity found in studies on diagnostic tests for ectopic pregnancy has led to an international recommendation on uniform definitions of early pregnancy complications. Hereafter,

  5. Intervention on early-onset conduct problems as indicated prevention for substance use: A seven-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Estrella; Rodríguez, Concepción; Villar, Paula; Gómez-Fraguela, X Antón

    2017-06-28

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term effects of a manualised program which intervenes on children with early-onset conduct problems, their families and teachers. The program evaluation involved 14 primary schools which were randomly assigned to the intervention (45 participating families) and control (30 families) conditions during 2007-2008. After a screening process which identified children with significant conduct problems both at home with their family and at school, the program was implemented in eight schools. Seven years later, 58 families (37 from the intervention group and 21 from the control group), with characteristics equivalent to those of the study's entire initial group, were contacted again. With measures administered to the children and their parents, comparisons through multivariate analyses of variance between intervention and control groups supported the program's efficacy in reducing both conduct problems and relations with antisocial peers. Furthermore, the program fostered social and communication skills. As regards drug use, the intervention group showed less favourable attitudes towards drugs, lower intention of drug use, lower frequency of tobacco use and lower intensity of alcohol use. These results support the usefulness of multicomponent programs for conduct problems as a way to prevent, in the long term, unfavourable developmental trajectories, where drug use is a key element.

  6. Accelerating early anti-tuberculosis drug discovery by creating mycobacterial indicator strains that predict mode of action

    KAUST Repository

    Boot, Maikel

    2018-04-13

    Due to the rise of drug resistant forms of tuberculosis there is an urgent need for novel antibiotics to effectively combat these cases and shorten treatment regimens. Recently, drug screens using whole cell analyses have been shown to be successful. However, current high-throughput screens focus mostly on stricto sensu life-death screening that give little qualitative information. In doing so, promising compound scaffolds or non-optimized compounds that fail to reach inhibitory concentrations are missed. To accelerate early TB drug discovery, we performed RNA sequencing on Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium marinum to map the stress responses that follow upon exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics with known targets: ciprofloxacin, ethambutol, isoniazid, streptomycin and rifampicin. The resulting dataset comprises the first overview of transcriptional stress responses of mycobacteria to different antibiotics. We show that antibiotics can be distinguished based on their specific transcriptional stress fingerprint. Notably, this fingerprint was more distinctive in M. marinum. We decided to use this to our advantage and continue with this model organism. A selection of diverse antibiotic stress genes was used to construct stress reporters. In total, three functional reporters were constructed to respond to DNA damage, cell wall damage and ribosomal inhibition. Subsequently, these reporter strains were used to screen a small anti-TB compound library to predict the mode of action. In doing so, we could identify the putative mode of action for three novel compounds, which confirms our approach.

  7. CXCL13 predicts disease activity in early rheumatoid arthritis and could be an indicator of the therapeutic 'window of opportunity'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Stinne Ravn; Schelde, Karen Kræmmer; Rasmussen, Tue Kruse

    2014-01-01

    placebo (DMARD) (n¿=¿37) or methotrexate plus adalimumab (DMARD¿+¿ADA) (n¿=¿39). Treatment outcome was evaluated after 1 and 2 years. CXCL13 plasma levels in healthy volunteers (n¿=¿38) were also examined.ResultsBaseline CXCL13 plasma levels were increased in early rheumatoid arthritis patients...... in comparison with healthy volunteers. Also, plasma CXCL13 correlated positively with disease activity parameters; swollen joint count 28 (rho¿=¿0.34) and 40 (rho¿=¿0.39), visual analogue score (rho¿=¿0.38) and simplified disease activity index (rho¿=¿0.25) (all P¿... a significantly 2-fold more in the DMARD¿+¿ADA group than in the DMARD group. Baseline CXCL13 plasma levels in the DMARD group correlated inversely with disease activity parameters; disease activity score in 28 joints, four variables, C-reactive protein based (DAS28CRP) (rho¿=¿0.58, p¿

  8. Proinflammatory Cytokines, Enolase and S-100 as Early Biochemical Indicators of Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Following Perinatal Asphyxia in Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro-Huerta, Verónica; Flores-Soto, Mario Eduardo; Merin Sigala, Mario Ernesto; Barrera de León, Juan Carlos; Lemus-Varela, María de Lourdes; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam de Guadalupe; Beas-Zárate, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    Estimation of the neurological prognosis of infants suffering from perinatal asphyxia and signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is of great clinical importance; however, it remains difficult to satisfactorily assess these signs with current standard medical practices. Prognoses are typically based on data obtained from clinical examinations and neurological tests, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and neuroimaging, but their sensitivities and specificities are far from optimal, and they do not always reliably predict future neurological sequelae. In an attempt to improve prognostic estimates, neurological research envisaged various biochemical markers detectable in the umbilical cord blood of newborns (NB). Few studies examining these biochemical factors in the whole blood of newborns exist. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the expression and concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and specific CNS enzymes (S-100 and enolase) in infants with perinatal asphyxia. These data were compared between the affected infants and controls and were related to the degree of HIE to determine their utilities as biochemical markers for early diagnosis and prognosis. The levels of the proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Reverse Transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression and serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, enolase and S-100 were significantly increased in the children with asphyxia compared with the controls. The role of cytokines after hypoxic-ischemic insult has been determined in studies of transgenic mice that support the use of these molecules as candidate biomarkers. Similarly, S-100 and enolase are considered promising candidates because these markers have been correlated with tissue damage in different experimental models. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Discovering metabolic indices for early detection of squash (Cucurbita maxima) storage quality using GC-MS-based metabolite profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, K; Kimura, Y; Sugiyama, K; Kami, D; Nakamura, T; Oka, N

    2016-04-01

    Squash (Cucubita maxima) cultivars with good storage qualities are needed for breeding to improve poor crop supply during winter in Japan. We measured changes in squash constituents during different storage periods to identify compounds that were suitable to be used as indices of storage quality. Principal components analysis of compounds at 1-5 months after harvest showed that PC1 scores were lower for cultivars with a higher rather than lower SQ (storage quality) ranks. Partial least-squares regression analysis was performed using the peak areas of all compounds identified from the 15 cultivars at 1 month after harvest as explanation variables and SQ as the target variable. Variable influence on projection scores and rank correlation coefficients were higher for arabinose and xylose, which showed less temporal change during the storage period; hence, they were considered to be suitable indicators for storage evaluation. These data will be useful for future studies aiming to improve storage quality of squash. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Early indication of noise-induced hearing loss from PMP use in adolescents: A cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C Colon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs may indicate preclinical noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL in adolescents from unsafe personal music player (PMP use. Aims: The objective, therefore, was to observe preclinical signs of NIHL in 9th grade adolescents with clinically normal hearing by comparing DPOAE signals between different levels of A-weighted equivalent PMP exposure. Settings and Design: Subjects were recruited from all secondary-level schools located in the city of Regensburg, Germany during two academic years 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. Subjects and Methods: A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs for a 40-hour work week (LAeq,40h were estimated from questionnaire responses on output and duration of PMP use of the previous week. Subjects were then categorized into four levels of exposure: 85 to <90, and ≥90 A-weighted Decibel [dB(A]. DPOAE signals were collected by trained audiological staff, applying a standard optimized protocol, at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the University Hospital Regensburg. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean DPOAE signals were compared between levels by unpaired t test. Novel linear regression models adjusting for other leisure noise exposures and with outcome variables DPoutcome and 4 kilo Hertz (kHz DPOAEs estimated effects between levels. Results: A total of 1468 subjects (56% female, mostly aged 15 or 16 years were available for analysis. Comparison of DPOAE means by PMP exposure typically showed no greater than 1 dB difference between groups. In fact, comparisons between ≥90 dB(A and <80 dB(A presented the least differences in magnitude. Both DPoutcome and 4 kHz linear regression models presented a weak association with the 4-level PMP exposure variable. An expected dose-response to PMP exposure was not observed in any analyses. Conclusions: DPOAE signal strength alone cannot indicate preclinical NIHL in adolescents.

  11. Angiopoietin-2 Is an Early Indicator of Acute Pancreatic-Renal Syndrome in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Sporek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the first week of the disease, acute kidney injury (AKI is among the most common causes of mortality in acute pancreatitis (AP. Recently, serum angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2 has been associated with hyperdynamic state of the systemic circulation. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between Ang-2 and the clinical AP severity during the first 72 hours of the disease, and organ disfunction, including AKI. Methods. Study included patients admitted to the surgery ward, diagnosed with AP. AKI was diagnosed according to KDIGO guidelines and renal failure according to modified Marshall scoring system. Ang-2 was determined in serum with ELISA. Results. AP was classified as mild (MAP in 71% of patients, moderately severe (MSAP in 22%, and severe (SAP in 8%. During the first 72 hours of AP, 11 patients developed AKI and 6 developed renal failure. Ang-2 at 24, 48, and 72 hours following the onset of AP symptoms significantly predicted SAP and MSAP, as well as AKI and renal failure. Also, Ang-2 significantly correlated with acute phase proteins as well as with the indicators of renal disfunction. Conclusions. Serum Ang-2 may be a relevant predictor of AP severity, in particular of the development of AP-renal syndrome.

  12. Non-invasive tissue oximetry following unilateral DIEP-flap reconstruction: A pilot evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P.A. Vranken

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Continuous non-invasive tissue oxygen saturation is suitable for postoperative monitoring of DIEP-flaps, and StO2 pattern may aid in early identification of vascular compromise in DIEP-flaps.

  13. Non-invasive cardiac imaging. Spectrum, methodology, indication and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefers, Michael; Flachskampf, Frank; Sechtem, Udo; Achenbach, Stephan; Krause, Bernd J.; Schwaiger, Markus; Breithardt, Guenter

    2008-01-01

    The book contains 13 contributions concerning the following chapters: (1)methodology: echo cardiography; NMR imaging; nuclear medicine; computer tomography, (2) clinical protocols: contraction; cardiac valve function; perfusion and perfusion reserve; vitality; corona imaging; transmitters, receptors, enzymes; (3) clinic: coronary heart diseases; non-ischemic heart diseases. The appendix contains two contributions on future developments and certification/standardization

  14. Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846) an early warning indicator species of global warming in the central Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloca, Francesco; Mastrantonio, Gianluca; Lasinio, Giovanna Jona; Ligas, Alessandro; Sartor, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    The effect of temperature increase on the stock of the deep-sea pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) was analysed along the western coasts of Italy (North Tyrrhenian-Ligurian Sea: Geographical Sub-Area 9). This crustacean is currently one of the most important commercial species of the trawl fisheries in the Mediterranean Sea. Landings of the species in the North Tyrrhenian-Ligurian Sea have grown consistently during the last years following a rapid increase in the stock size. Since the deep-sea pink shrimp stock is exploited on the same fishing ground of other heavily overexploited stocks in a full mixed and poorly selective fishery, its condition seems to be largely independent of the current fishing exploitation pattern suggesting a positive role of climate change on the dynamic of the stock. To test this hypothesis we investigated the effect of sea surface temperature (SST) on density and distribution of P. longirostris by means of general additive models (GAMs). Two different models were developed for the whole stock and for the recruits (CL International bottom trawl survey in the Mediterranean) survey density indices (n km- 2) covering the period 1995-2010. Predictors included were geographical coordinates, quarterly averaged minimum SST, sampling depth and year. Spawners density was included as predictor into the GAM for recruits. The best GAM for the whole stock explained 67.1% of the total deviance, showing a clear increase in density in concomitance with the expansion of the stock northward. We found a significant positive effect of the min SST of all seasons, as expected considering that P. longirostris spawn all year round, with the highest influence played by summer min SST, either in the same or previous year. The best model for recruits explained 64.9% of the total deviance. Recruitment increased linearly with the density of spawners showing a positive temporal trend and an expansion northward. The observed trend in recruitment appeared

  15. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A as early-phase and prognostic indicators of acute radiation exposure in nonhuman primate total-body irradiation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossetrova, N.I., E-mail: ossetrova@afrri.usuhs.mil [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Sandgren, D.J.; Blakely, W.F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Terrorist radiological attacks or nuclear accidents could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation. In mass-casualty radiological incidents early medical-management requires triage tools for first-responders to quantitatively identify individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and for early initiation (i.e., within one day after radiation exposure) of cytokine therapy for treatment of bone marrow acute radiation syndrome. Herein, we present results from 30 rhesus macaques total-body irradiated (TBI) to a broad dose range of 1-8.5 Gy with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (0.55 Gy min{sup -1}) and demonstrate dose- and time-dependent changes in blood of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CRP and SAA dose-response results are consistent with {approx}1 Gy and {approx}0.2 Gy thresholds for photon-exposure at 24 h after TBI, respectively. Highly significant elevations of CRP and SAA (p = 0.00017 and p = 0.0024, respectively) were found in animal plasma at 6 h after all TBI doses suggesting their potential use as early-phase biodosimeters. Results also show that the dynamics and content of CRP and SAA levels reflect the course and severity of the acute radiation sickness (ARS) and may function as prognostic indicators of ARS outcome. These results demonstrate proof-of-concept that these radiation-responsive proteins show promise as a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposures and may also contribute as diagnostic indices in the medical management of radiation accidents.

  16. ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is an indicator of ribosomal stress in early response to DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ya-Qiong; An, Guo-Shun; Ni, Ju-Hua; Li, Shu-Yan; Jia, Hong-Ti

    2014-01-01

    The nucleolus plays a major role in ribosome biogenesis. Most genotoxic agents disrupt nucleolar structure and function, which results in the stabilization/activation of p53, inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Likewise, transcription factor E2F1 as a DNA damage responsive protein also plays roles in cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, or apoptosis in response to DNA damage through transcriptional response and protein-protein interaction. Furthermore, E2F1 is known to be involved in regulating rRNA transcription. However, how E2F1 displays in coordinating DNA damage and nucleolar stress is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is a characteristic feature of nucleolar stress in early response to DNA damage. We found that at the early stage of DNA damage, E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus was an ATM-dependent and a common event in p53-suficient and -deficient cells. Increased nucleolar E2F1 was sequestered by the nucleolar protein p14ARF, which repressed E2F1-dependent rRNA transcription initiation, and was coupled with S phase. Our data indicate that early accumulation of E2F1 in the nucleolus is an indicator for nucleolar stress and a component of ATM pathway, which presumably buffers elevation of E2F1 in the nucleoplasm and coordinates the diversifying mechanisms of E2F1 acts in cell cycle progression and apoptosis in early response to DNA damage.

  17. A Distinct Class of Antibodies May Be an Indicator of Gray Matter Autoimmunity in Early and Established Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann J. Ligocki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available * These authors contributed equally to the work in this manuscript.We have previously identified a distinct class of antibodies expressed by B cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of early and established relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS patients that is not observed in healthy donors. These antibodies contain a unique pattern of mutations in six codons along VH4 antibody genes that we termed the antibody gene signature (AGS. In fact, patients who have such B cells in their CSF are identified as either having RRMS or developing RRMS in the future. As mutations in antibody genes increase antibody affinity for particular antigens, the goal for this study was to investigate whether AGS+ antibodies bind to brain tissue antigens. Single B cells were isolated from the CSF of 10 patients with early or established RRMS. We chose 32 of these B cells that expressed antibodies enriched for the AGS for further study. We generated monoclonal full-length recombinant human antibodies (rhAbs and used both immunological assays and immunohistochemistry to investigate the capacity of these AGS+ rhAbs to bind brain tissue antigens. AGS+ rhAbs did not recognize myelin tracts in the corpus callosum. Instead, AGS+ rhAbs recognized neuronal nuclei and/or astrocytes, which are prevalent in the cortical gray matter. This pattern was unique to the AGS+ antibodies from early and established RRMS patients, as AGS+ antibodies from an early neuromyelitis optica patient did not display the same reactivity. Prevalence of CSF-derived B cells expressing AGS+ antibodies that bind to these cell types may be an indicator of gray matter-directed autoimmunity in early and established RRMS patients.

  18. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Noninvasive optoacoustic system for rapid diagnostics and management of circulatory shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Kinsky, Michael; Prough, Donald S.

    2012-02-01

    Circulatory shock is lethal, if not promptly diagnosed and effectively treated. Typically, circulatory shock resuscitation is guided by blood pressure, heart rate, and mental status, which have poor predictive value. In patients, in whom early goaldirected therapy was applied using central venous oxygenation measurement, a substantial reduction of mortality was reported (from 46.5% to 30%). However, central venous catheterization is invasive, time-consuming and often results in complications. We proposed to use the optoacoustic technique for noninvasive, rapid assessment of central venous oxygenation. In our previous works we demonstrated that the optoacoustic technique can provide measurement of blood oxygenation in veins and arteries due to high contrast and high resolution. In this work we developed a novel optoacoustic system for noninvasive, automatic, real-time, and continuous measurement of central venous oxygenation. We performed pilot clinical tests of the system in human subjects with different oxygenation in the internal jugular vein and subclavian vein. A novel optoacoustic interface incorporating highly-sensitive optoacoustic probes and standard ultrasound imaging probes were developed and built for the study. Ultrasound imaging systems Vivid i and hand-held Vscan (GE Healthcare) as well as Site-Rite 5 (C.R. Bard) were used in the study. We developed a special algorithm for oxygenation monitoring with minimal influence of overlying tissue. The data demonstrate that the system provides precise measurement of venous oxygenation continuously and in real time. Both current value of the venous oxygenation and trend (in absolute values and for specified time intervals) are displayed in the system. The data indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic system developed by our group is capable of noninvasive measurement of blood oxygenation in specific veins; 2) clinical ultrasound imaging systems can facilitate optoacoustic probing of specific blood vessels; 3) the

  20. Non-invasive diagnostic methods in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.

  1. Noninvasive vaccination against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhichao; Diaz-Arévalo, Diana; Guan, Hongbing; Zeng, Mingtao

    2018-04-06

    The development of a successful vaccine, which should elicit a combination of humoral and cellular responses to control or prevent infections, is the first step in protecting against infectious diseases. A vaccine may protect against bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral infections in animal models, but to be effective in humans there are some issues that should be considered, such as the adjuvant, the route of vaccination, and the antigen-carrier system. While almost all licensed vaccines are injected such that inoculation is by far the most commonly used method, injection has several potential disadvantages, including pain, cross contamination, needlestick injury, under- or overdosing, and increased cost. It is also problematic for patients from rural areas of developing countries, who must travel to a hospital for vaccine administration. Noninvasive immunizations, including oral, intranasal, and transcutaneous administration of vaccines, can reduce or eliminate pain, reduce the cost of vaccinations, and increase their safety. Several preclinical and clinical studies as well as experience with licensed vaccines have demonstrated that noninvasive vaccine immunization activates cellular and humoral immunity, which protect against pathogen infections. Here we review the development of noninvasive immunization with vaccines based on live attenuated virus, recombinant adenovirus, inactivated virus, viral subunits, virus-like particles, DNA, RNA, and antigen expression in rice in preclinical and clinical studies. We predict that noninvasive vaccine administration will be more widely applied in the clinic in the near future.

  2. The U.S./Canadian GEO Bilateral Drought Indices and Definitions Study: Implications for the Canadian Drought Monitor and a Global Drought Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwen, T.; Heim, R. R.; Howard, A.

    2011-12-01

    provide recommendations for a global drought early warning system, and implications of the Drought Indices and Definitions Study for improving both the Can-DM and a global drought early warning system.

  3. Cluster analysis of indicators of liver functional and preoperative low branched-chain amino acid tyrosine ration indicate a high risk of early recurrence in analysis of 165 hepatocellular carcinoma patients after initial hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukio; Mizuguchi, Toru; Kawamoto, Masaki; Meguro, Makoto; Harada, Kohei; Ota, Shigenori; Hirata, Koichi

    2011-08-01

    Cluster analysis is used for dividing many prognostic indicators, including liver function, tumor progression, and operative variables, into specific clusters. The albumin (ALB), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and branched chain amino-acid to tyrosine ratio (BTR) may represent the severity of liver disease and function of the hepatic reserve. We developed the ALB-BTR and HGF-BTR classifications depending on each level to find specific unique subgroups. Our aim was to identify specific subgroups destined for favorable and poor prognoses after initial hepatectomy. Between 2002 and 2008, 165 patients were analyzed retrospectively. Liver function indicators, including BTR, tumor-related factors, and operative variables, were evaluated by cluster analysis with Ward's criterion. The ALB-BTR classification was divided into 4 groups depending on ALB (cutoff value, 4.0 g/dL) and BTR (cutoff value, 6.0). The HGF-BTR classification was also divided into 4 groups depending on HGF (cutoff value, 0.35 ng/mL) and BTR (cutoff value, 6.0). The prognoses of the subgroups were compared by the log-rank test. Cluster analysis divided multiple indicators into 5 different clusters. In each cluster, we further analyzed subgroups using the ALB-BTR and HGF-BTR classification. Mean recurrence-free survival times in ALB-GI (19.1 ± 2.4 months) and HGF-GIII (29.4 ± 3.8 months) were less than their mean overall survival times. Cluster analysis is useful to find similar and different indicators. Even though liver function was well preserved, low BTR could identify early recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma patients after resection. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between textural and morphological tumor indices on baseline PET-CT and early metabolic response on interim PET-CT in bulky malignant lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Bouallègue, Fayçal; Tabaa, Yassine Al; Kafrouni, Marilyne; Cartron, Guillaume; Vauchot, Fabien; Mariano-Goulart, Denis

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether metabolic, textural, and morphological tumoral indices evaluated on baseline PET-CT were predictive of early metabolic response on interim PET-CT in a cohort of patients with bulky Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin malignant lymphomas. This retrospective study included 57 patients referred for initial PET-CT examination. In-house dedicated software was used to delineate tumor contours using a fixed 30% threshold of SUV max and then to compute tumoral metabolic parameters (SUV max, mean, peak, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis, metabolic tumoral volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis, and area under the curve of the cumulative histogram), textural parameters (Moran's and Geary's indices, energy, entropy, contrast, correlation derived from the gray-level co-occurrence matrix, area under the curve of the power spectral density, auto-correlation distance, and granularity), and shape parameters (surface, asphericity, convexity, surfacic extension, and 2D and 3D fractal dimensions). Early metabolic response was assessed on interim PET-CT using the Deauville 5-point scale and patients were ranked according to the Lugano classification as complete or not complete metabolic responders. The impact of the segmentation method (alternate threshold at 41%) and image resolution (Gaussian postsmoothing of 3, 5, and 7 mm) was investigated. The association of the proposed parameters with early response was assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses. Their added predictive value was explored using supervised classification by support vector machines (SVM). We evaluated in leave-one-out cross-validation three SVMs admitting as input features (a) MTV, (b) MTV + histological type, and (c) MTV + histology + relevant texture/shape indices. Features associated with complete metabolic response were low MTV (P = 0.01), low TLG (P = 0.003), high power spectral density AUC (P = 0.007), high surfacic extension (P = 0.006), low 2D fractal dimension (P

  5. Early prevention of antisocial personality: long-term follow-up of two randomized controlled trials comparing indicated and selective approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen; Briskman, Jackie; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-06-01

    Antisocial personality is a common adult problem that imposes a major public health burden, but for which there is no effective treatment. Affected individuals exhibit persistent antisocial behavior and pervasive antisocial character traits, such as irritability, manipulativeness, and lack of remorse. Prevention of antisocial personality in childhood has been advocated, but evidence for effective interventions is lacking. The authors conducted two follow-up studies of randomized trials of group parent training. One involved 120 clinic-referred 3- to 7-year-olds with severe antisocial behavior for whom treatment was indicated, 93 of whom were reassessed between ages 10 and 17. The other involved 109 high-risk 4- to 6-year-olds with elevated antisocial behavior who were selectively screened from the community, 90 of whom were reassessed between ages 9 and 13. The primary psychiatric outcome measures were the two elements of antisocial personality, namely, antisocial behavior (assessed by a diagnostic interview) and antisocial character traits (assessed by a questionnaire). Also assessed were reading achievement (an important domain of youth functioning at work) and parent-adolescent relationship quality. In the indicated sample, both elements of antisocial personality were improved in the early intervention group at long-term follow-up compared with the control group (antisocial behavior: odds ratio of oppositional defiant disorder=0.20, 95% CI=0.06, 0.69; antisocial character traits: B=-4.41, 95% CI=-1.12, -8.64). Additionally, reading ability improved (B=9.18, 95% CI=0.58, 18.0). Parental expressed emotion was warmer (B=0.86, 95% CI=0.20, 1.41) and supervision was closer (B=-0.43, 95% CI=-0.11, -0.75), but direct observation of parenting showed no differences. Teacher-rated and self-rated antisocial behavior were unchanged. In contrast, in the selective high-risk sample, early intervention was not associated with improved long-term outcomes. Early intervention with

  6. Systematic review of the relationships between physical activity and health indicators in the early years (0-4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Carson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the rapid development during the early years (0-4 years, an understanding of the health implications of physical activity is needed. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the relationships between objectively and subjectively measured physical activity and health indicators in the early years. Methods Electronic databases were originally searched in April, 2016. Included studies needed to be peer-reviewed, written in English or French, and meet a priori study criteria. The population was apparently healthy children aged 1 month to 59.99 months/4.99 years. The intervention/exposure was objectively and subjectively measured physical activity. The comparator was various volumes, durations, frequencies, patterns, types, and intensities of physical activity. The outcomes were health indicators ranked as critical (adiposity, motor development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, fitness and important (bone and skeletal health, cardiometabolic health, and risks/harm. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE framework was used to assess the quality of evidence for each health indicator by each study design. Results Ninety-six studies representing 71,291 unique participants from 36 countries were included. Physical activity interventions were consistently (>60% of studies associated with improved motor and cognitive development, and psychosocial and cardiometabolic health. Across observational studies, physical activity was consistently associated with favourable motor development, fitness, and bone and skeletal health. For intensity, light- and moderate-intensity physical activity were not consistently associated with any health indicators, whereas moderate- to vigorous-intensity, vigorous-intensity, and total physical activity were consistently favourably associated with multiple health indicators. Across study designs, consistent favourable associations with

  7. Evaluation of left ventricular function by invasive and noninvasive methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusukawa, R [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-06-01

    Noninvasive methods in cardiology have progressed very rapidly in recent years. Cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography are the standard methods for evaluating of cardiac performance, however, they need expensive apparatus and are time-consuming, arduous procedures which do not permit to repeat frequently, and sometimes risky. In this article, the indices of pump and muscle function of the heart obtained by invasive methods were compared to those indices obtained by noninvasive methods, and correlation between two groups and usefulness and limitation were discussed. Systolic time intervals are convenient and repeatable measures of left ventricular performance in clinical cardiology. There are significant correlations of PEP/LVET with stroke volume, ejection fraction and mean circumferential shortening velocity. Although some limitations are present in application of this method to certain diseases, these measures are useful in the evaluation of left ventricular performance. Echocardiography has made an era of the noninvasive cardiology. Left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, mean circumferential shortening velocity and PSP/ESVI are accurately calculated by echocardiographic measurement. Nuclear cardiology is also accurate noninvasive method in evaluation of cardiac performance. With this tremendous growth in this field, it will make next era of noninvasive cardiology.

  8. Comparative Performance of Ground vs. Aerially Assessed RGB and Multispectral Indices for Early-Growth Evaluation of Maize Performance under Phosphorus Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gracia-Romero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Low soil fertility is one of the factors most limiting agricultural production, with phosphorus deficiency being among the main factors, particularly in developing countries. To deal with such environmental constraints, remote sensing measurements can be used to rapidly assess crop performance and to phenotype a large number of plots in a rapid and cost-effective way. We evaluated the performance of a set of remote sensing indices derived from Red-Green-Blue (RGB images and multispectral (visible and infrared data as phenotypic traits and crop monitoring tools for early assessment of maize performance under phosphorus fertilization. Thus, a set of 26 maize hybrids grown under field conditions in Zimbabwe was assayed under contrasting phosphorus fertilization conditions. Remote sensing measurements were conducted in seedlings at two different levels: at the ground and from an aerial platform. Within a particular phosphorus level, some of the RGB indices strongly correlated with grain yield. In general, RGB indices assessed at both ground and aerial levels correlated in a comparable way with grain yield except for indices a* and u*, which correlated better when assessed at the aerial level than at ground level and Greener Area (GGA which had the opposite correlation. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI evaluated at ground level with an active sensor also correlated better with grain yield than the NDVI derived from the multispectral camera mounted in the aerial platform. Other multispectral indices like the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI performed very similarly to NDVI assessed at the aerial level but overall, they correlated in a weaker manner with grain yield than the best RGB indices. This study clearly illustrates the advantage of RGB-derived indices over the more costly and time-consuming multispectral indices. Moreover, the indices best correlated with GY were in general those best correlated with leaf phosphorous content

  9. Individualized estimation of human core body temperature using noninvasive measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Rakesh, Vineet; Oyama, Tatsuya; Kazman, Josh B; Yanovich, Ran; Ketko, Itay; Epstein, Yoram; Morrison, Shawnda; Reifman, Jaques

    2018-06-01

    A rising core body temperature (T c ) during strenuous physical activity is a leading indicator of heat-injury risk. Hence, a system that can estimate T c in real time and provide early warning of an impending temperature rise may enable proactive interventions to reduce the risk of heat injuries. However, real-time field assessment of T c requires impractical invasive technologies. To address this problem, we developed a mathematical model that describes the relationships between T c and noninvasive measurements of an individual's physical activity, heart rate, and skin temperature, and two environmental variables (ambient temperature and relative humidity). A Kalman filter adapts the model parameters to each individual and provides real-time personalized T c estimates. Using data from three distinct studies, comprising 166 subjects who performed treadmill and cycle ergometer tasks under different experimental conditions, we assessed model performance via the root mean squared error (RMSE). The individualized model yielded an overall average RMSE of 0.33 (SD = 0.18)°C, allowing us to reach the same conclusions in each study as those obtained using the T c measurements. Furthermore, for 22 unique subjects whose T c exceeded 38.5°C, a potential lower T c limit of clinical relevance, the average RMSE decreased to 0.25 (SD = 0.20)°C. Importantly, these results remained robust in the presence of simulated real-world operational conditions, yielding no more than 16% worse RMSEs when measurements were missing (40%) or laden with added noise. Hence, the individualized model provides a practical means to develop an early warning system for reducing heat-injury risk. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A model that uses an individual's noninvasive measurements and environmental variables can continually "learn" the individual's heat-stress response by automatically adapting the model parameters on the fly to provide real-time individualized core body temperature estimates. This

  10. Noninvasive neuromodulation in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Láinez, Miguel J A; Jensen, Rigmor

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuromodulation is an alternative in the management of medically intractable cluster headache patients. Most of the techniques are invasive, but in the last 2 years, some studies using a noninvasive device have been presented. The objective of this article is to review the data...... using this approach. RECENT FINDINGS: Techniques as occipital nerve stimulation or sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation are recommended as first-line therapy in refractory cluster patients, but they are invasive and maybe associated with complications. Noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation with an external...... device has been tried in cluster patients. Results from clinical practice and a single randomized clinical trial have been presented showing a reduction of the number of cluster attacks/week in the patients treated with the device. The rate of adverse events was low and most of them were mild. SUMMARY...

  11. Utility of 99mTc-MAG3 perfusion indices in the evaluation of renal transplant function during early post-transplantation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo

    2000-01-01

    We have examined the utility of 99m Tc-MAG3 perfusion indices for assessing renal graft function in early post-transplantation period. Our study included 80 renal transplant recipients (48 men and 32 women, mean age:40.3 years). Diagnosis was based on biopsy, laboratory data and clinical course. Renal scintigraphy (RS) was obtained using 100 MBq of 99m Tc-MAG3 from 11 days to 23 days of kidney transplantation. We measured 5 indices in whole-kidney (WK) and cortical (C) renograms; Hilson's perfusion index (PI), transplant perfusion index (TP) and transplant function index (TF) as perfusion parameter, and the time to peak activity (Tmax) and the ratio of renal counts at 20 min to that at 3 min (K20/3) as functional parameter. The diagnoses at the day of RS were normal graft (NG) in 44, acute rejection (AR) in 14, acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in 10, and Cyclosporine A nephrotoxicity (CsA) in 12. TP and TF were significantly decreased in AR, ATN and CsA, compared to those in NG. K20/3 of AR and ATN were significantly greater than that of NG. WK-Tmax of AR was significantly longer than than that of NG. K20.3 of AR and C-K20/3 of ATN were significantly prolonged relative to those of CsA. There were no statistically significant perfusion indices among complication groups. TP and TF reflecting microperfusion and initial tubular extraction are reliable in assessing graft function. However, it is required to correlate perfusion indices with functional indices and clinical course in differentiating from one another among complication groups

  12. Utility of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 perfusion indices in the evaluation of renal transplant function during early post-transplantation period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    We have examined the utility of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 perfusion indices for assessing renal graft function in early post-transplantation period. Our study included 80 renal transplant recipients (48 men and 32 women, mean age:40.3 years). Diagnosis was based on biopsy, laboratory data and clinical course. Renal scintigraphy (RS) was obtained using 100 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 from 11 days to 23 days of kidney transplantation. We measured 5 indices in whole-kidney (WK) and cortical (C) renograms; Hilson's perfusion index (PI), transplant perfusion index (TP) and transplant function index (TF) as perfusion parameter, and the time to peak activity (Tmax) and the ratio of renal counts at 20 min to that at 3 min (K20/3) as functional parameter. The diagnoses at the day of RS were normal graft (NG) in 44, acute rejection (AR) in 14, acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in 10, and Cyclosporine A nephrotoxicity (CsA) in 12. TP and TF were significantly decreased in AR, ATN and CsA, compared to those in NG. K20/3 of AR and ATN were significantly greater than that of NG. WK-Tmax of AR was significantly longer than than that of NG. K20.3 of AR and C-K20/3 of ATN were significantly prolonged relative to those of CsA. There were no statistically significant perfusion indices among complication groups. TP and TF reflecting microperfusion and initial tubular extraction are reliable in assessing graft function. However, it is required to correlate perfusion indices with functional indices and clinical course in differentiating from one another among complication groups.

  13. The response of early neural genes to FGF signaling or inhibition of BMP indicate the absence of a conserved neural induction module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers Crystal D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanism that initiates the formation of the vertebrate central nervous system has long been debated. Studies in Xenopus and mouse demonstrate that inhibition of BMP signaling is sufficient to induce neural tissue in explants or ES cells respectively, whereas studies in chick argue that instructive FGF signaling is also required for the expression of neural genes. Although additional signals may be involved in neural induction and patterning, here we focus on the roles of BMP inhibition and FGF8a. Results To address the question of necessity and sufficiency of BMP inhibition and FGF signaling, we compared the temporal expression of the five earliest genes expressed in the neuroectoderm and determined their requirements for induction at the onset of neural plate formation in Xenopus. Our results demonstrate that the onset and peak of expression of the genes vary and that they have different regulatory requirements and are therefore unlikely to share a conserved neural induction regulatory module. Even though all require inhibition of BMP for expression, some also require FGF signaling; expression of the early-onset pan-neural genes sox2 and foxd5α requires FGF signaling while other early genes, sox3, geminin and zicr1 are induced by BMP inhibition alone. Conclusions We demonstrate that BMP inhibition and FGF signaling induce neural genes independently of each other. Together our data indicate that although the spatiotemporal expression patterns of early neural genes are similar, the mechanisms involved in their expression are distinct and there are different signaling requirements for the expression of each gene.

  14. Early BCR-ABL1 Transcript Decline after 1 Month of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy as an Indicator for Treatment Response in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Missiry

    Full Text Available In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, early treatment prediction is important to identify patients with inferior overall outcomes. We examined the feasibility of using reductions in BCR-ABL1 transcript levels after 1 month of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI treatment to predict therapy response. Fifty-two first-line TKI-treated CML patients were included (imatinib n = 26, dasatinib n = 21, nilotinib n = 5, and BCR-ABL1 transcript levels were measured at diagnosis (dg and 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months. The fold change of the BCR-ABL1 transcripts at 1 month compared to initial BCR-ABL1 transcript levels was used to indicate early therapy response. In our cohort, 21% of patients had no decrease in BCR-ABL1 transcript levels after 1 month and were classified as poor responders. Surprisingly, these patients had lower BCR-ABL1 transcript levels at dg compared to responders (31% vs. 48%, p = 0.0083. Poor responders also significantly more often had enlarged spleen (55% vs. 15%; p<0.01 and a higher percentage of Ph+ CD34+CD38- cells in the bone marrow (91% vs. 75%, p<0.05. The major molecular response rates were inferior in the poor responders (at 12m 18% vs. 64%, p<0.01; 18m 27% vs. 75%, p<0.01; 24m 55% vs. 87%, p<0.01. In conclusion, early treatment response analysis defines a biologically distinct patient subgroup with inferior long-term outcomes.

  15. Early warning indicators for river nutrient and sediment loads in tropical seagrass beds: a benchmark from a near-pristine archipelago in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Katwijk, M M; van der Welle, M E W; Lucassen, E C H E T; Vonk, J A; Christianen, M J A; Kiswara, W; al Hakim, I Inayat; Arifin, A; Bouma, T J; Roelofs, J G M; Lamers, L P M

    2011-07-01

    In remote, tropical areas human influences increase, potentially threatening pristine seagrass systems. We aim (i) to provide a bench-mark for a near-pristine seagrass system in an archipelago in East Kalimantan, by quantifying a large spectrum of abiotic and biotic properties in seagrass meadows and (ii) to identify early warning indicators for river sediment and nutrient loading, by comparing the seagrass meadow properties over a gradient with varying river influence. Abiotic properties of water column, pore water and sediment were less suitable indicators for increased sediment and nutrient loading than seagrass properties. Seagrass meadows strongly responded to higher sediment and nutrient loads and proximity to the coast by decreasing seagrass cover, standing stock, number of seagrass species, changing species composition and shifts in tissue contents. Our study confirms that nutrient loads are more important than water nutrient concentrations. We identify seagrass system variables that are suitable indicators for sediment and nutrient loading, also in rapid survey scenarios with once-only measurements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-invasive measurement of adrenocortical activity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring physiological stress reactions through the quantification of plasma cortisol often involves physical restraint, which acts as a stressor itself. Here, we present the validation of a non-invasive method for assessing adrenocortical activity as an indicator of stress in the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis). By conducting ...

  17. HIV drug resistance early warning indicators in cohorts of individuals starting antiretroviral therapy between 2004 and 2009: World Health Organization global report from 50 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Diane E; Jordan, Michael R; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Hong, Steven Y; Ravasi, Giovanni; McMahon, James H; Saadani, Ahmed; Kelley, Karen F

    2012-05-01

    The World Health Organization developed a set of human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) early warning indicators (EWIs) to assess antiretroviral therapy clinic and program factors associated with HIVDR. EWIs are monitored by abstracting data routinely recorded in clinical records, and the results enable clinics and program managers to identify problems that should be addressed to minimize preventable emergence of HIVDR in clinic populations. As of June 2011, 50 countries monitored EWIs, covering 131 686 patients initiating antiretroviral treatment between 2004 and 2009 at 2107 clinics. HIVDR prevention is associated with patient care (appropriate prescribing and patient monitoring), patient behavior (adherence), and clinic/program management efforts to reduce treatment interruptions (follow up, retention on first-line ART, procurement and supply management of antiretroviral drugs). EWIs measure these factors and the results have been used to optimize patient and population treatment outcomes.

  18. Predictors of poor retention on antiretroviral therapy as a major HIV drug resistance early warning indicator in Cameroon: results from a nationwide systematic random sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billong, Serge Clotaire; Fokam, Joseph; Penda, Calixte Ida; Amadou, Salmon; Kob, David Same; Billong, Edson-Joan; Colizzi, Vittorio; Ndjolo, Alexis; Bisseck, Anne-Cecile Zoung-Kani; Elat, Jean-Bosco Nfetam

    2016-11-15

    Retention on lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential in sustaining treatment success while preventing HIV drug resistance (HIVDR), especially in resource-limited settings (RLS). In an era of rising numbers of patients on ART, mastering patients in care is becoming more strategic for programmatic interventions. Due to lapses and uncertainty with the current WHO sampling approach in Cameroon, we thus aimed to ascertain the national performance of, and determinants in, retention on ART at 12 months. Using a systematic random sampling, a survey was conducted in the ten regions (56 sites) of Cameroon, within the "reporting period" of October 2013-November 2014, enrolling 5005 eligible adults and children. Performance in retention on ART at 12 months was interpreted following the definition of HIVDR early warning indicator: excellent (>85%), fair (85-75%), poor (sampling strategy could be further strengthened for informed ART monitoring and HIVDR prevention perspectives.

  19. Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C Autoantibodies are Potential Early Indicators of Cardiac Dysfunction and Patient Outcome in Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Thomas L; Kuster, Diederik W D; Gonzalez, Beverly; Balasubramanian, Neelam; Nair, Nandini; Day, Sharlene; Calvino, Jenna E; Tan, Yanli; Liebetrau, Christoph; Troidl, Christian; Hamm, Christian W; Güçlü, Ahmet; McDonough, Barbara; Marian, Ali J; van der Velden, Jolanda; Seidman, Christine E; Huggins, Gordon S; Sadayappan, Sakthivel

    2017-04-01

    The degradation and release of cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) upon cardiac damage may stimulate an inflammatory response and autoantibody (AAb) production. We determined whether the presence of cMyBP-C-AAbs associated with adverse cardiac function in CVD patients. Importantly, cMyBP-C-AAbs were significantly detected in ACS patient sera upon arrival to the emergency department, particularly in STEMI patients. Patients positive for cMyBP-C-AAbs had a reduced LVEF and elevated levels of clinical biomarkers of MI. We conclude that cMyBP-C-AAbs may serve as early predictive indicators of deteriorating cardiac function and patient outcome in ACS patients prior to the infarction.

  20. Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C Autoantibodies Are Potential Early Indicators of Cardiac Dysfunction and Patient Outcome in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Lynch, IVPhD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The degradation and release of cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C upon cardiac damage may stimulate an inflammatory response and autoantibody (AAb production. We determined whether the presence of cMyBP-C-AAbs associated with adverse cardiac function in cardiovascular disease patients. Importantly, cMyBP-C-AAbs were significantly detected in acute coronary syndrome patient sera upon arrival to the emergency department, particularly in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients. Patients positive for cMyBP-C-AAbs had reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and elevated levels of clinical biomarkers of myocardial infarction. We conclude that cMyBP-C-AAbs may serve as early predictive indicators of deteriorating cardiac function and patient outcome in acute coronary syndrome patients prior to the infarction. Key Words: acute myocardial infarction, autoantibodies, cardiac myosin binding protein-c, cardiomyopathy

  1. Clinical efficacy and prognostic indicators for lower limb pedalling exercise early after stroke: Study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myint Phyo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that repetitive, skilled, functional movement is beneficial in driving functional reorganisation of the brain early after stroke. This study will investigate a whether pedalling an upright, static exercise cycle, to provide such beneficial activity, will enhance recovery and b which stroke survivors might be able to participate in pedalling. Methods/Design Participants (n = 24 will be up to 30 days since stroke onset, with unilateral weakness and unable to walk without assistance. This study will use a modified exercise bicycle fitted with a UniCam crank. All participants will give informed consent, then undergo baseline measurements, and then attempt to pedal. Those able to pedal will be entered into a single-centre, observer-blinded randomised controlled trial (RCT. All participants will receive routine rehabilitation. The experimental group will, in addition, pedal daily for up to ten minutes, for up to ten working days. Prognostic indicators, measured at baseline, will be: site of stroke lesion, trunk control, ability to ambulate, and severity of lower limb paresis. The primary outcome for the RCT is ability to voluntarily contract paretic lower limb muscle, measured by the Motricity Index. Secondary outcomes include ability to ambulate and timing of onset and offset of activity in antagonist muscle groups during pedalling, measured by EMG. Discussion This protocol is for a trial of a novel therapy intervention. Findings will establish whether there is sufficient evidence of benefit to justify proceeding with further research into clinical efficacy of upright pedalling exercise early after stroke. Information on potential prognostic indicators will suggest which stroke survivors could benefit from the intervention. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN45392701

  2. Noninvasive hemoglobin measurement using dynamic spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Spectroscopy methods for noninvasive hemoglobin (Hgb) measurement are interfered by individual difference and particular weak signal. In order to address these problems, we have put forward a series of improvement methods based on dynamic spectrum (DS), including instrument design, spectrum extraction algorithm, and modeling approach. The instrument adopts light sources composed of eight laser diodes with the wavelength range from 600 nm to 1100 nm and records photoplethysmography signals at eight wavelengths synchronously. In order to simplify the optical design, we modulate the light sources with orthogonal square waves and design the corresponding demodulation algorithm, instead of adopting a beam-splitting system. A newly designed algorithm named difference accumulation has been proved to be effective in improving the accuracy of dynamic spectrum extraction. 220 subjects are involved in the clinical experiment. An extreme learning machine calibration model between the DS data and the Hgb levels is established. Correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error of prediction sets are 0.8645 and 8.48 g/l, respectively. The results indicate that the Hgb level can be derived by this approach noninvasively with acceptable precision and accuracy. It is expected to achieve a clinic application in the future.

  3. Organic Aerosols in the Presence of CO{sub 2} in the Early Earth and Exoplanets: UV–Vis Refractive Indices of Oxidized Tholins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavilan, Lisseth; Carrasco, Nathalie; Vettier, Ludovic [LATMOS, Université Versailles St Quentin, UPMC Université Paris 06, CNRS, 11 blvd d’Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt (France); Broch, Laurent [LCP-A2MC, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, Metz (France); Fleury, Benjamin, E-mail: lisseth.gavilan@latmos.ipsl.fr [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-10-10

    In this experimental study we investigate the role of atmospheric CO{sub 2} on the optical properties of organic photochemical aerosols. To this end, we add CO{sub 2} to a N{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} gas mixture used in a plasma typically used for Titan studies. We produce organic thin films (tholins) in plasmas where the CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio is increased from 0 to 4. We measure these films via spectrometric ellipsometry and apply a Tauc–Lorentz model, used for optically transparent materials, to obtain the thickness of the thin film, its optical band gap, and the refractive indices in the UV–visible (270–600 nm). All samples present a significant absorption band in the UV. According to the Tauc–Lorentz model, as the CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio is quadrupled, the position of the UV band is shifted from ∼177 nm to 264 nm while its strength is quadrupled. Consequently, we infer that oxidized organic aerosols absorb more efficiently at longer UV wavelengths than reduced aerosols. Our laboratory wavelength-tabulated UV–vis refractive indices provide new constraints to atmospheric models of the early Earth and Earth-like exoplanets including photochemical hazes formed under increasingly oxidizing conditions.

  4. Preliminary report on the development of some indices of relative nutritive value (RNV) of cereal and legume samples, applicable in the early generations of selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.K.; Niemann, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    Rapid screening methods for biuret nitrogen determination and fluorometric lysine estimation are described. While the biuret method has been found to be suitable for early generation screening for peptide nitrogen determination, fluorescence estimation of dansylated grain meal could be taken as a good index of available lysine in cereal and legume samples. The necessity of rapid and inexpensive tests for the determination of Relative Nutritive Value (RNV) in the advance generations of screening, is discussed. Preliminary data available on two such tests, utilizing protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis W. and flour beetle Tribolium confusum Duval, indicated promise. Both techniques were tried on different cereal and legume samples. The relative lethality of beetle larvae and their nitrogen retention were taken as indices of RNV in legumes. Larval Nitrogen Retention Index (LNRI) of cereal samples was found to be dependent both on nitrogen content and on protein quality. It was concluded that both these organisms need to be further investigated for their potential as test animals for RNV determination in the advance segregating populations. (author)

  5. Noninvasive determination of individual renal clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanard, J.; Brunois, J.P.; Ruiz, J.C.; Assailly, J.

    1980-01-01

    A noninvasive method for measurement of individual renal clearance is presented, based on analysis of the early rise of the kidneys' time-activity curves after injection of an appropriate tracer ( 131 I-ortho-iodohippurate for tubular function or 111 In DTPA for glomerular clearance). The analysis is based on the assumption that an insignificant amount of tracer leaves the kidney during the first few moments following injection. Therefore, the kidney activity during this period is directly proportional to the integral of the blood (heart) activity. After blood background subtraction, the linear correlation between the early part of the renogram and the corresponding blood integral activity curve allows calculation of an angular coefficient. The ratio of these coefficients calculated for each kidney is proportional to the ratio of the individual clearances. The latter are calculated from the total clearance simultaneously measured using a simplified method without urine collection. In control subjects with normal renal function individual renal clearances were not significantly different. In uninephrectomized patients a precision of 5% in calculating individual clearance was estimated from data recorded at the level of the remaining kidney. In patients with functional asymmetry, results were compared with 197 HgCl 2 quantitative renal fixation. A linear correlation was found (r = 0.95). The method we propose seems valuable for clinical investigation and allows sequential measurements. (orig.)

  6. An assessment of the relationship between the World Health Organization HIV drug resistance early warning indicators and HIV drug resistance acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jean, M; Harrigan, P R; Sereda, P; Montaner, Jsg; Lima, V D

    2017-05-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO)'s HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) early warning indicators (EWIs) measure antiretroviral therapy (ART)-site factors associated with HIVDR prevention, without HIVDR laboratory testing. We assessed the relationship between EWIs and HIVDR acquisition using data from British Columbia, Canada. Eligible patients were ART-naïve, were ≥ 19 years old, had initiated ART between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012, had ≥ 15 months of follow-up, and were without transmitted HIVDR. Patients were followed for acquired HIVDR until 31 March 2014, the last contact date, or death. We built logistic regression models to assess the associations and predictive ability of individual indicators and of the EWI Score (the number of indicators for which a patient did not meet the criteria) on HIVDR acquisition (to any class of HIVDR, lamivudine (3TC)/emtricitabine (FTC), nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or protease inhibitors (PIs)]). All explored EWIs were associated with at least one class of HIVDR, with the exception of 'ART prescribing practices'. We observed a dose-response relationship between acquiring HIVDR to any antiretroviral class and an increasing EWI score in our predictive logistic regression model. The area under the curve was 0.848 (excellent discrimination). The adjusted odds ratios for acquiring any class of HIVDR for an EWI score of 1, 2 and ≥ 3 versus 0 were 2.30 [95% confidence Interval (CI) 1.21-4.38], 3.35 (95% CI: 1.86-6.03) and 7.26 (95% CI: 4.18-12.61), respectively. Several EWIs were associated with and predictive of HIVDR, supporting the WHO EWIs as a component of the HIVDR prevention method in settings where HIVDR testing is not routinely or widely available. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  7. Non-invasive neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, William J.; Sanguinetti, Joseph L.; Fini, Maria; Hool, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Neurotechnologies for non-invasively interfacing with neural circuits have been evolving from those capable of sensing neural activity to those capable of restoring and enhancing human brain function. Generally referred to as non-invasive neural stimulation (NINS) methods, these neuromodulation approaches rely on electrical, magnetic, photonic, and acoustic or ultrasonic energy to influence nervous system activity, brain function, and behavior. Evidence that has been surmounting for decades shows that advanced neural engineering of NINS technologies will indeed transform the way humans treat diseases, interact with information, communicate, and learn. The physics underlying the ability of various NINS methods to modulate nervous system activity can be quite different from one another depending on the energy modality used as we briefly discuss. For members of commercial and defense industry sectors that have not traditionally engaged in neuroscience research and development, the science, engineering and technology required to advance NINS methods beyond the state-of-the-art presents tremendous opportunities. Within the past few years alone there have been large increases in global investments made by federal agencies, foundations, private investors and multinational corporations to develop advanced applications of NINS technologies. Driven by these efforts NINS methods and devices have recently been introduced to mass markets via the consumer electronics industry. Further, NINS continues to be explored in a growing number of defense applications focused on enhancing human dimensions. The present paper provides a brief introduction to the field of non-invasive neural stimulation by highlighting some of the more common methods in use or under current development today.

  8. Food frequency questionnaire as an indicator of the serum composition of essential n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in early pregnancy, according to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepsch, J; Vaz, J S; Moreira, J D; Pinto, T J P; Soares-Mota, M; Kac, G

    2015-02-01

    We investigated whether food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) may be indicative of the serum composition of essential n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in early pregnancy and if correlations are affected by body mass index (BMI). The present study comprised a prospective cohort conducted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sample was composed of 248 women, aged 20-40 years, between 6 and the 13 weeks of gestation. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated FFQ. Fatty acid serum compositions were determined in fasting serum samples, employing a high-throughput robotic direct methylation coupled with fast gas-liquid chromatography. Spearman's correlation (r(s)) was used to assess the relationship between fatty acid intake and corresponding serum composition. Women were classified according to BMI (kg m(-2) ) as underweight/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg m(-2) ; n = 139) or excessive weight (BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2) ; n = 109). In the total sample, dietary report was significantly correlated with the serum composition of total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA; r(s) = 0.232, P < 0.001), linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6; r(s) = 0.271, P < 0.001), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3; r(s) = 0.263, P < 0.001) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3; r(s) = 0.209, P = 0.001). When analyses were stratified by BMI, significant correlations between FFQ and serum composition among underweight/normal weight women were observed for total PUFA (r(s) = 0.323, P < 0.001), LA (r(s) = 0.322, P < 0.001), EPA (r(s) = 0.352, P < 0.001) and DHA (r(s) = 0.176, P = 0.039). Among women of excessive weight, significant correlations were observed only for alpha linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3; r(s) = 0.199, P = 0.040) and DHA (r(s) = 0.236, P = 0.014). FFQ in early pregnancy may be used as a possible indicator of serum concentrations of fatty acids. Higher correlations were observed among underweight/normal weight women. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Noninvasive Test Detects Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA-developed Video Imaging Communication and Retrieval (VICAR) software laid the groundwork for analyzing images of all kinds. A project seeking to use imaging technology for health care diagnosis began when the imaging team considered using the VICAR software to analyze X-ray images of soft tissue. With marginal success using X-rays, the team applied the same methodology to ultrasound imagery, which was already digitally formatted. The new approach proved successful for assessing amounts of plaque build-up and arterial wall thickness, direct predictors of heart disease, and the result was a noninvasive diagnostic system with the ability to accurately predict heart health. Medical Technologies International Inc. (MTI) further developed and then submitted the technology to a vigorous review process at the FDA, which cleared the software for public use. The software, patented under the name Prowin, is being used in MTI's patented ArterioVision, a carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) test that uses ultrasound image-capturing and analysis software to noninvasively identify the risk for the major cause of heart attack and strokes: atherosclerosis. ArterioVision provides a direct measurement of atherosclerosis by safely and painlessly measuring the thickness of the first two layers of the carotid artery wall using an ultrasound procedure and advanced image-analysis software. The technology is now in use in all 50 states and in many countries throughout the world.

  10. Early diagenetic high-magnesium calcite and dolomite indicate that coal balls formed in marine or brackish water: Stratigraphic and paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Coal balls are carbonate and pyrite permineralizations of peat that contain three-dimensional plant fossils preserved at the cellular level. Coal balls, which occur in Pennsylvanian and earliest Permian equatorial coals, provide a detailed record of terrestrial ecology and tropical climate during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age; yet their depositional environment remains controversial. The exquisite preservation of some coal-ball fossils, e.g. pollen with pollen tubes and leaves with mesophyll, indicates rapid formation. The presence of abundant, cement-filled, void spaces within and between the plant debris in most coal balls indicates that they formed in uncompacted peat, near the surface of the mire. Botanical, taphonomic and isotopic evidence point to a freshwater origin for coal balls. The nearest living relatives of coal ball plants (modern lycopsids, sphenopsids, marratialean ferns and conifers) grow in fresh water. Coal-ball peat contains a high percentage of aerial debris, similar to modern freshwater peat. The stable oxygen isotopes of coal-ball carbonate (δ18O = 16 to 3 per mil) suggest a freshwater origin. However, the widespread occurrence of marine invertebrates and early diagenetic framboidal pyrite in coal balls suggests that many formed in close proximity to marine water. Indeed, carbonate petrology points to a marine or brackish water origin for the first-formed carbonate cements in coal balls. Petrographic and geochemical (microprobe) analysis of coal-ball carbonates in Pennsylvanian coals from the midcontinent of North America (Western Interior Basin, West Pangaea) and the Ruhr and Donets Basins (East Pangaea) indicate that the first formed carbonate is either radaxial, nonstochiometric dolomite or high magnesium calcite (9 - 17 mol % MgCO3, indicating precipitation in marine or brackish water. Although both primary dolomite and high magnesium calcite can form in lacustrine settings, the lakes in which these minerals form occur in carbonate terranes

  11. Noninvasive optoacoustic system for rapid diagnosis and management of circulatory shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Kinsky, Michael; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Andrey; Henkel, S. N.; Seeton, Roger; Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Prough, Donald S.

    2013-03-01

    Circulatory shock can lead to death or severe complications, if not promptly diagnosed and effectively treated. Typically, diagnosis and management of circulatory shock are guided by blood pressure and heart rate. However, these variables have poor specificity, sensitivity, and predictive value. Early goal-directed therapy in septic shock patients, using central venous catheterization (CVC), reduced mortality from 46.5% to 30%. However, CVC is invasive and complication-prone. We proposed to use an optoacoustic technique for noninvasive, rapid assessment of peripheral and central venous oxygenation. In this work we used a medical grade optoacoustic system for noninvasive, ultrasound image-guided measurement of central and peripheral venous oxygenation. Venous oxygenation during shock declines more rapidly in the periphery than centrally. Ultrasound imaging of the axillary [peripheral] and internal jugular vein [central] was performed using the Vivid e (GE Healthcare). We built an optoacoustic interface incorporating an optoacoustic transducer and a standard ultrasound imaging probe. Central and peripheral venous oxygenations were measured continuously in healthy volunteers. To simulate shock-induced changes in central and peripheral oxygenation, we induced peripheral vasoconstriction in the upper extremity by using a cooling blanket. Central and peripheral venous oxygenations were measured before (baseline) and after cooling and after rewarming. During the entire experiment, central venous oxygenation was relatively stable, while peripheral venous oxygenation decreased by 5-10% due to cooling and recovered after rewarming. The obtained data indicate that noninvasive, optoacoustic measurements of central and peripheral venous oxygenation may be used for diagnosis and management of circulatory shock with high sensitivity and specificity.

  12. Proteomics indicators of the rapidly shifting physiology from whole mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, adults during early host colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Pitt

    Full Text Available We developed proteome profiles for host colonizing mountain pine beetle adults, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. Adult insects were fed in pairs on fresh host lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud, phloem tissue. The proteomes of fed individuals were monitored using iTRAQ and compared to those of starved beetles, revealing 757 and 739 expressed proteins in females and males, respectively, for which quantitative information was obtained. Overall functional category distributions were similar for males and females, with the majority of proteins falling under carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle, structure (cuticle, muscle, cytoskeleton, and protein and amino acid metabolism. Females had 23 proteins with levels that changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20, including chaperones and enzymes required for vitellogenesis. In males, levels of 29 proteins changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20, including chaperones as well as motor proteins. Only two proteins, both chaperones, exhibited a significant change in both females and males with feeding. Proteins with differential accumulation patterns in females exhibited higher fold changes with feeding than did those in males. This difference may be due to major and rapid physiological changes occurring in females upon finding a host tree during the physiological shift from dispersal to reproduction. The significant accumulation of chaperone proteins, a cytochrome P450, and a glutathione S-transferase, indicate secondary metabolite-induced stress physiology related to chemical detoxification during early host colonization. The females' activation of vitellogenin only after encountering a host indicates deliberate partitioning of resources and a balancing of the needs of dispersal and reproduction.

  13. The dynamics of germination and morphometrics properties of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold saplings in terms of early indicators of tolerance toward the drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mataruga Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic markers, from morphological to molecular, in function with early indicators of tolerance toward drought, have been an object of research and scientific papers for many years. It starts with the hypothesis that seedlings produced from seeds that were collected from population of extremely different site conditions, on the level of open pollinated families, will have different results concerning drought tolerance. By tracking the dynamics of germination and morphological parameters of saplings, we are researching the interdependence of these parameters with the survival and growth of two-year-old seedlings in conditions where there is a lack of water. Austrian Pine seeds were collected from forty trees, distributed over five provenances on the Balkan Peninsula. Within each provenance a group is assigned to an extremely harsh and dry habitat, while also another group is assigned to prosperous (the most productive habitat. The analysis of the twenty-one-day-old seedlings (saplings is performed in the laboratory, while the tolerance test of the two-year-old seedlings is performed in the field. Seedlings that are exposed to conditions in which there is lack of water, have the coefficient of water formation evaluation 22.59 times bigger than sandy-clay soil with fraction of sand bigger than 60 percent. The results show significant and positive correlation between some parameters of saplings and the dynamics of growth (high increments of the seedlings in drought, but no correlation with the survival of the seedlings.

  14. Shaping long-term primate development: Telomere length trajectory as an indicator of early maternal maltreatment and predictor of future physiologic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S; Howell, Brittany R; Jones, Christopher; Esteves, Kyle; Morin, Elyse; Schlesinger, Reid; Meyer, Jerrold S; Baker, Kate; Sanchez, Mar M

    2017-12-01

    The molecular, neurobiological, and physical health impacts of child maltreatment are well established, yet mechanistic pathways remain inadequately defined. Telomere length (TL) decline is an emerging molecular indicator of stress exposure with definitive links to negative health outcomes in maltreated individuals. The multiple confounders endemic to human maltreatment research impede the identification of causal pathways. This study leverages a unique randomized, cross-foster, study design in a naturalistic translational nonhuman primate model of infant maltreatment. At birth, newborn macaques were randomly assigned to either a maltreating or a competent control mother, balancing for sex, biological mother parenting history, and social rank. Offspring TL was measured longitudinally across the first 6 months of life (infancy) from peripheral blood. Hair cortisol accumulation was also determined at 6, 12, and 18 months of age. TL decline was greater in animals randomized to maltreatment, but also interacted with biological mother group. Shorter TL at 6 months was associated with higher mean cortisol levels through 18 months (juvenile period) when controlling for relevant covariates. These results suggest that even under the equivalent social, nutritional, and environmental conditions feasible in naturalistic translational nonhuman primate models, early adverse caregiving results in lasting molecular scars that foreshadow elevated health risk and physiologic dysregulation.

  15. Noninvasive assessment of preclinical atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen A Lane

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Helen A Lane, Jamie C Smith, J Stephen DaviesDepartment of Endocrinology, University of Wales College of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff, Wales, UKAbstract: Initially considered as a semipermeable barrier separating lumen from vessel wall, the endothelium is now recognised as a complex endocrine organ responsible for a variety of physiological processes vital for vascular homeostasis. These include the regulation of vascular tone, luminal diameter, and blood flow; hemostasis and thrombolysis; platelet and leucocyte vessel-wall interactions; the regulation of vascular permeability; and tissue growth and remodelling. The endothelium modulates arterial stiffness, which precedes overt atherosclerosis and is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Unsurprisingly, dysfunction of the endothelium may be considered as an early and potentially reversible step in the process of atherogenesis and numerous methods have been developed to assess endothelial status and large artery stiffness. Methodology includes flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, assessment of coronary flow reserve, carotid intimamedia thickness, pulse wave analysis, pulse wave velocity, and plethysmography. This review outlines the various modalities, indications, and limitations of available methods to assess arterial dysfunction and vascular risk.Keywords: endothelial function, vascular risk, vascular stiffness

  16. Re-assess Vector Indices Threshold as an Early Warning Tool for Predicting Dengue Epidemic in a Dengue Non-endemic Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong-Shue Chang

    Full Text Available Despite dengue dynamics being driven by complex interactions between human hosts, mosquito vectors and viruses that are influenced by climate factors, an operational model that will enable health authorities to anticipate the outbreak risk in a dengue non-endemic area has not been developed. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the temporal relationship between meteorological variables, entomological surveillance indices and confirmed dengue cases; and to establish the threshold for entomological surveillance indices including three mosquito larval indices [Breteau (BI, Container (CI and House indices (HI] and one adult index (AI as an early warning tool for dengue epidemic.Epidemiological, entomological and meteorological data were analyzed from 2005 to 2012 in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. The successive waves of dengue outbreaks with different magnitudes were recorded in Kaohsiung City, and involved a dominant serotype during each epidemic. The annual indigenous dengue cases usually started from May to June and reached a peak in October to November. Vector data from 2005-2012 showed that the peak of the adult mosquito population was followed by a peak in the corresponding dengue activity with a lag period of 1-2 months. Therefore, we focused the analysis on the data from May to December and the high risk district, where the inspection of the immature and mature mosquitoes was carried out on a weekly basis and about 97.9% dengue cases occurred. The two-stage model was utilized here to estimate the risk and time-lag effect of annual dengue outbreaks in Taiwan. First, Poisson regression was used to select the optimal subset of variables and time-lags for predicting the number of dengue cases, and the final results of the multivariate analysis were selected based on the smallest AIC value. Next, each vector index models with selected variables were subjected to multiple logistic regression models to examine the accuracy of predicting the

  17. Noninvasive imaging of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medarova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    With the development of molecularly targeted cancer therapies, it is highly advantageous to be able to determine their efficacy, to improve overall patient survival. Non-invasive imaging techniques are currently available for visualizing different pathological conditions of the human body, but their use for cancer monitoring is limited due to the lack of tumor-specific imaging probes. This review will attempt to summarize the current clinical diagnostic approaches for breast cancer detection, staging, and therapy assessment. In addition, I will present some novel concepts from the field of molecular imaging that form the basis of some of our research. We believe that this general imaging strategy has the potential of significantly advancing our ability to diagnose breast cancer at the earliest stages of the pathology, before any overt clinical symptoms have developed, as well as to better direct the development of molecularly-targeted individualized therapy protocols.

  18. Comparison of non-invasive tear film stability measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael Tm; Murphy, Paul J; Blades, Kenneth J; Craig, Jennifer P

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of tear film stability is commonly used to give an indication of tear film quality but a number of non-invasive techniques exists within the clinical setting. This study sought to compare three non-invasive tear film stability measurement techniques: instrument-mounted wide-field white light clinical interferometry, instrument-mounted keratoscopy and hand-held keratoscopy. Twenty-two subjects were recruited in a prospective, randomised, masked, cross-over study. Tear film break-up or thinning time was measured non-invasively by independent experienced examiners, with each of the three devices, in a randomised order, within an hour. Significant correlation was observed between instrument-mounted interferometric and keratoscopic measurements (p 0.05). Tear film stability values obtained from the hand-held device were significantly shorter and demonstrated narrower spread than the other two instruments (all p 0.05). Good clinical agreement exists between the instrument-mounted interferometric and keratoscopic measurements but not between the hand-held device and either of the instrument-mounted techniques. The results highlight the importance of specifying the instrument employed to record non-invasive tear film stability. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  19. Using the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills with Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Perspectives of a Panel of Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckner, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Early literacy skills serve as the foundation for the development of subsequent reading skills and strategies. Increasingly, educators are administering early literacy assessments to identify young students who are at risk for reading failure and providing them with additional evidence based interventions. The most widely used assessments for…

  20. Declining trends in early warning indicators for HIV drug resistance in Cameroon from 2008-2010: lessons and challenges for low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokam, Joseph; Billong, Serge C; Bissek, Anne C Z K; Kembou, Etienne; Milenge, Pascal; Abessouguie, Ibile; Nkwescheu, Armand S; Tsomo, Zephirin; Aghokeng, Avelin F; Ngute, Grace D; Ndumbe, Peter M; Colizzi, Vittorio; Elat, Jean B N

    2013-04-08

    Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and limited access to genotyping assays in low-resource settings (LRS) are inevitably accompanied by an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR). The current study aims to evaluate early warning indicators (EWI) as an efficient strategy to limit the development and spread of preventable HIVDR in these settings, in order to sustain the performance of national antiretroviral therapy (ART) rollout programmes. Surveys were conducted in 2008, 2009 and 2010 within 10 Cameroonian ART clinics, based on five HIVDR EWIs: (1) Good prescribing practices; (2) Patient lost to follow-up; (3) Patient retention on first line ART; (4) On-time drug pick-up; (5) Continuous drug supply. Analysis was performed as per the World Health Organisation (WHO) protocol. An overall decreasing performance of the national ART programme was observed from 2008 to 2010: EWI(1) (100% to 70%); EWI(2) (40% to 20%); EWI(3) (70% to 0%); EWI(4) (0% throughout); EWI(5) (90% to 40%). Thus, prescribing practices (EWI(1)) were in conformity with national guidelines, while patient adherence (EWI(2), EWI(3), and EWI(4)) and drug supply (EWI(5)) were lower overtime; with a heavy workload (median ratio ≈1/64 staff/patients) and community disengagement observed all over the study sites. In order to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in poor settings like Cameroon, continuous drug supply, community empowerment to support adherence, and probably a reduction in workload by task shifting, are the potential urgent measures to be undertaken. Such evidence-based interventions, rapidly generated and less costly, would be relevant in limiting the spread of preventable HIVDR and in sustaining the performance of ART programmes in LRS.

  1. Indices of heart rate variability as potential early markers of metabolic stress and compromised regulatory capacity in dried-off high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, S; Mohr, E; Derno, M; Tuchscherer, A; Schäff, C; Börner, S; Kautzsch, U; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M; Röntgen, M

    2017-10-25

    High performing dairy cows experience distinct metabolic stress during periods of negative energy balance. Subclinical disorders of the cow's energy metabolism facilitate failure of adaptational responses resulting in health problems and reduced performance. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) with its sympathetic and parasympathetic branches plays a predominant role in adaption to inadequate energy and/or fuel availability and mediation of the stress response. Therefore, we hypothesize that indices of heart rate variability (HRV) that reflect ANS activity and sympatho-vagal balance could be early markers of metabolic stress, and possibly useful to predict cows with compromised regulatory capacity. In this study we analysed the autonomic regulation and stress level of 10 pregnant dried-off German Holstein cows before, during and after a 10-h fasting period by using a wide range of HRV parameters. In addition heat production (HP), energy balance, feed intake, rumen fermentative activity, physical activity, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyric acid, cortisol and total ghrelin plasma concentrations, and body temperature (BT) were measured. In all cows fasting induced immediate regulatory adjustments including increased lipolysis (84%) and total ghrelin levels (179%), reduction of HP (-16%), standing time (-38%) and heart rate (-15%). However, by analysing frequency domain parameters of HRV (high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) components, ratio LF/HF) cows could be retrospectively assigned to groups reacting to food removal with increased or decreased activity of the parasympathetic branch of the ANS. Regression analysis reveals that under control conditions (feeding ad libitum) group differences were best predicted by the nonlinear domain HRV component Maxline (L MAX, R 2=0.76, threshold; TS=258). Compared with cows having L MAX values above TS (>L MAX: 348±17), those with L MAX values below TS (fasting with a shift of their sympatho-vagal balance

  2. Noninvasive neuromodulation in migraine and cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Amaal

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the currently available noninvasive neuromodulation devices for the treatment of migraine and cluster headache. Over the last decade, several noninvasive devices have undergone development and clinical trials to evaluate efficacy and safety. Based on this body of work, single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcutaneous supraorbital neurostimulation, and noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation devices have been cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration and are available for clinical use for the treatment of primary headache disorders. Overall, these novel noninvasive devices appear to be safe, well tolerated, and have demonstrated promising results in clinical trials in both migraine and cluster headache. This narrative review will provide a summary and update of the proposed mechanisms of action, evidence, safety, and future directions of various currently available modalities of noninvasive neuromodulation for the treatment of migraine and cluster headache.

  3. Predictors of poor retention on antiretroviral therapy as a major HIV drug resistance early warning indicator in Cameroon: results from a nationwide systematic random sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Clotaire Billong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retention on lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART is essential in sustaining treatment success while preventing HIV drug resistance (HIVDR, especially in resource-limited settings (RLS. In an era of rising numbers of patients on ART, mastering patients in care is becoming more strategic for programmatic interventions. Due to lapses and uncertainty with the current WHO sampling approach in Cameroon, we thus aimed to ascertain the national performance of, and determinants in, retention on ART at 12 months. Methods Using a systematic random sampling, a survey was conducted in the ten regions (56 sites of Cameroon, within the “reporting period” of October 2013–November 2014, enrolling 5005 eligible adults and children. Performance in retention on ART at 12 months was interpreted following the definition of HIVDR early warning indicator: excellent (>85%, fair (85–75%, poor (<75; and factors with p-value < 0.01 were considered statistically significant. Results Majority (74.4% of patients were in urban settings, and 50.9% were managed in reference treatment centres. Nationwide, retention on ART at 12 months was 60.4% (2023/3349; only six sites and one region achieved acceptable performances. Retention performance varied in reference treatment centres (54.2% vs. management units (66.8%, p < 0.0001; male (57.1% vs. women (62.0%, p = 0.007; and with WHO clinical stage I (63.3% vs. other stages (55.6%, p = 0.007; but neither for age (adults [60.3%] vs. children [58.8%], p = 0.730 nor for immune status (CD4351–500 [65.9%] vs. other CD4-staging [59.86%], p = 0.077. Conclusions Poor retention in care, within 12 months of ART initiation, urges active search for lost-to-follow-up targeting preferentially male and symptomatic patients, especially within reference ART clinics. Such sampling strategy could be further strengthened for informed ART monitoring and HIVDR prevention perspectives.

  4. Assessment of the World Health Organization's HIV Drug Resistance Early Warning Indicators in Main and Decentralized Outreach Antiretroviral Therapy Sites in Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholus Mutenda

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO early warning indicators (EWIs of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR assess factors at individual ART sites that are known to create situations favourable to the emergence of HIVDR.In 2014, the Namibia HIV care and treatment program abstracted the following adult and pediatric EWIs from all public ART sites (50 main sites and 143 outreach sites: On-time pill pick-up, Retention in care, Pharmacy stock-outs, Dispensing practices, and Viral load suppression. Comparisons were made between main and outreach sites and between 2014 and 2012 using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test in a matched analysis.The national estimates were: On-time pill pick-up 81.9% (95% CI 81.1-82.8 for adults and 82.4% (81.3-83.4 for pediatrics, Retention in care 79% retained on ART after 12 months for adults and 82% for pediatrics, Pharmacy stock-outs 94% of months without a stock-out for adults and 88% for pediatrics, and Dispensing practices 0.01% (0.001-0.056 dispensed mono- or dual-therapy for adults and 0.01% (0.001-0.069 for pediatrics. Viral load suppression was significantly affected by low rates of Viral load completion. Main sites had higher On-time pill pick-up than outreach sites for adults (p<0.001 and pediatrics (p<0.001, and no difference between main and outreach sites for Retention in care for adults (p = 0.761 or pediatrics (p = 0.214. From 2012 to 2014 in adult sites, On-time pill pick-up (p = 0.001, Retention in care (p<0.001, and Pharmacy stock-outs (p = 0.002 worsened. In pediatric sites, On-time pill pick-up (p<0.001 and Pharmacy stock-outs (p = 0.012 worsened.Results of EWIs monitoring in Namibia provide evidence about ART programmatic functioning and contextualize results from national surveys of HIVDR. These results are worrisome as they show a decline in program performance over time. The national ART program is taking steps to minimize the emergence of HIVDR by strengthening adherence and retention of patients on ART

  5. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy: identifying indicators of food access and food literacy for early monitoring of the food environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice A. Boucher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To address challenges Canadians face within their food environments, a comprehensive, multistakeholder, intergovernmental approach to policy development is essential. Food environment indicators are needed to assess population status and change. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy (OFNS integrates the food, agriculture and nutrition sectors, and aims to improve the health of Ontarians through actions that promote healthy food systems and environments. This report describes the process of identifying indicators for 11 OFNS action areas in two strategic directions (SDs: Healthy Food Access, and Food Literacy and Skills. Methods: The OFNS Indicators Advisory Group used a five-step process to select indicators: (1 potential indicators from national and provincial data sources were identified; (2 indicators were organized by SD, action area and data type; (3 selection criteria were identified, pilot tested and finalized; (4 final criteria were applied to refine the indicator list; and (5 indicators were prioritized after reapplication of selection criteria. Results: Sixty-nine potential indicators were initially identified; however, many were individual-level rather than system-level measures. After final application of the selection criteria, one individual-level indicator and six system-level indicators were prioritized in five action areas; for six of the action areas, no indicators were available. Conclusion: Data limitations suggest that available data may not measure important aspects of the food environment, highlighting the need for action and resources to improve system-level indicators and support monitoring of the food environment and health in Ontario and across Canada.

  6. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy: identifying indicators of food access and food literacy for early monitoring of the food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Beatrice A; Manafò, Elizabeth; Boddy, Meaghan R; Roblin, Lynn; Truscott, Rebecca

    2017-09-01

    To address challenges Canadians face within their food environments, a comprehensive, multistakeholder, intergovernmental approach to policy development is essential. Food environment indicators are needed to assess population status and change. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy (OFNS) integrates the food, agriculture and nutrition sectors, and aims to improve the health of Ontarians through actions that promote healthy food systems and environments. This report describes the process of identifying indicators for 11 OFNS action areas in two strategic directions (SDs): Healthy Food Access, and Food Literacy and Skills. The OFNS Indicators Advisory Group used a five-step process to select indicators: (1) potential indicators from national and provincial data sources were identified; (2) indicators were organized by SD, action area and data type; (3) selection criteria were identified, pilot tested and finalized; (4) final criteria were applied to refine the indicator list; and (5) indicators were prioritized after reapplication of selection criteria. Sixty-nine potential indicators were initially identified; however, many were individual-level rather than system-level measures. After final application of the selection criteria, one individual-level indicator and six system-level indicators were prioritized in five action areas; for six of the action areas, no indicators were available. Data limitations suggest that available data may not measure important aspects of the food environment, highlighting the need for action and resources to improve system-level indicators and support monitoring of the food environment and health in Ontario and across Canada.

  7. Noninvasive Ventilatory Correction as an Adjunct to an Experimental Systemic Reperfusion Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Barlinn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common condition in patients with acute ischemic stroke and associated with early clinical deterioration and poor functional outcome. However, noninvasive ventilatory correction is hardly considered as a complementary treatment option during the treatment phase of acute ischemic stroke. Summary of Case. A 55-year-old woman with an acute middle cerebral artery (MCA occlusion received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA and enrolled into a thrombolytic research study. During tPA infusion, she became drowsy, developed apnea episodes, desaturated and neurologically deteriorated without recanalization, re-occlusion or intracerebral hemorrhage. Urgent noninvasive ventilatory correction with biphasic positive airway pressure (BiPAP reversed neurological fluctuation. Her MCA completely recanalized 24 hours later. Conclusions. Noninvasive ventilatory correction should be considered more aggressively as a complementary treatment option in selected acute stroke patients. Early initiation of BiPAP can stabilize cerebral hemodynamics and may unmask the true potential of other therapies.

  8. Noninvasive photoacoustic computed tomography of mouse brain metabolism in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junjie; Xia, Jun; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Demchenko, Alexei V.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of imaging mouse brain metabolism using photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT), a fast, noninvasive and functional imaging modality with optical contrast and acoustic resolution. Brain responses to forepaw stimulations were imaged transdermally and transcranially. 2-NBDG, which diffuses well across the blood-brain-barrier, provided exogenous contrast for photoacoustic imaging of glucose response. Concurrently, hemoglobin provided endogenous contrast for photoacoustic imaging of hemodynamic response. Glucose and hemodynamic responses were quantitatively decoupled by using two-wavelength measurements. We found that glucose uptake and blood perfusion around the somatosensory region of the contralateral hemisphere were both increased by stimulations, indicating elevated neuron activity. While the glucose response area was more homogenous and confined within the somatosensory region, the hemodynamic response area had a clear vascular pattern and spread wider than the somatosensory region. Our results demonstrate that 2-NBDG-enhanced PACT is a promising tool for noninvasive studies of brain metabolism. PMID:22940116

  9. How Does Access to Early Childhood Services Affect the Participation of Women in the Labour Market? Education Indicators in Focus. No. 59

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2018

    2018-01-01

    While the benefits of early childhood education and care (ECEC) services to better learning are now widely acknowledged, a widespread and accessible provision for these services also helps support gender equality in the workforce. In particular, the availability, intensity, reliability and affordability of ECEC play an important role in engaging…

  10. Postgraduate education in noninvasive laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratil, Leos; Kymplova, Jaroslava; Navratilova, Blanka

    2002-10-01

    Non-invasive lasertherapy became today an appreciated treatment method. To avoid its degradation, it is necessary that every physician, who indicates it, would pass out the basic course in these problems. So the error danger by its application would be reduced. As we have verified, in every country the education process is different; we don't consider this fact as right. In the Czech Republic the Radiobiologic Society of Czech Medical Society J. E. Purkynje in co-operation with the Institute of Further Physician's Education, having wide experiences in postgraduate education, organizes already five years such courses. The basic course has 20 lessons, in which the graduates are acquainted with physical base of laser, hygienic rulings for working with laser and biologic changes induced by low level laser in the tissue in vivo. A considerable attention is dedicated to clinical practice and practical education on clinical departments in the fields of dermatology, physiotherapy, stomatology and gynaecology. This course is completed with a lecture of the recent marketing in health service. Participants document their knowledge's in the closing test. Every physician can perfect his knowledge's in a continuation course. Our experiences proved that the education in phototherapy in Czech Republic is on high level in comparison with number of other countries.

  11. Noninvasive testing of asymptomatic bilateral hilar adenopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, P.L.; Singer, D.E.; Goldenheim, P.; Bernardo, J.; Mulley, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnostic strategy for asymptomatic patients with persistent bilateral bilar adenopathy often involves invasive procedures. The authors used Bayesian analysis to: (1) estimate the relative prevalences of diseases causing bilateral bilar adenopathy; (2) assess changes in the prevalence of disease by race, the presence of other clinical symptoms, and geography; and (3) determine the value of relevant noninvasive tests, including the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) assay, gallium scan, and purified protein derivative (PPD), in order to assess when a strategy of watchful waiting is appropriate. The analysis indicated that the ACE assay, particularly when paired with the PPD, can identify many patients who might safely be managed without immediate invasive biopsy. Patients who are ACE+ and PPD- have an estimated probability of sarcoidosis of 0.95 or greater; patients who are ACE- and PPD+ have a probability of tuberculosis of 0.86 if black, 0.79 if white. In contrast, gallium scanning has no diagnostic role in this clinical situation. Bronchoscopic or mediastinoscopic biopsy has a limited role for patients who are ACE+ PPD- or ACE- PPD+ because of limited sensitivity. Patients who are both ACE- and PPD-, particularly if white, may have a high enough risk of lymphoma to consider invasive biopsy

  12. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in unplanned extubation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eryuksel, Emel; Sait, Karakurt; Celikel, Turgay [Dept. of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Marmara Univ. Hospital, (Turkey)

    2009-07-01

    Unplanned extubation is quite common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with unplanned extubation. A total of 15 patients (12 male, age: 57 + - 24 years, APACHE II score: 19 + - 7) monitored at the medical ICU during the year 2004 who developed unplanned extubation were included in the study. NPPV was tried in all of them following unplanned extubation. Indications for admission to the ICU were as follows: nine patients with pneumonia, three with status epilepticus, one with gastrointestinal bleeding, one with cardiogenic pulmonary edema and one with diffuse alveolar bleeding. Eleven of the patients (74%) were at the weaning period at the time of unplanned extubation. Among these 11 patients, NPPV was successful in 10 (91%) and only one (9%) was reintubated due to the failure of NPPV. The remaining four patients (26%) had pneumonia and none of them were at the weaning period at the time of extubation, but their requirement for mechanical ventilation was gradually decreasing. Unfortunately, an NPPV attempt for 6-8 h failed and these patients were reintubated. Patients with unplanned extubation before the weaning criteria are met should be intubated immediately. On the other hand, when extubation develops during the weaning period, NPPV may be an alternative. The present study was conducted with a small number of patients, and larger studies on the effectiveness of NPPV in unplanned extubation are warranted for firm conclusions. (author)

  13. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in unplanned extubation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eryuksel, Emel; Karakurt Sait; Celikel, Turgay

    2009-01-01

    Unplanned extubation is quite common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with unplanned extubation. A total of 15 patients (12 male, age: 57 + - 24 years, APACHE II score: 19 + - 7) monitored at the medical ICU during the year 2004 who developed unplanned extubation were included in the study. NPPV was tried in all of them following unplanned extubation. Indications for admission to the ICU were as follows: nine patients with pneumonia, three with status epilepticus, one with gastrointestinal bleeding, one with cardiogenic pulmonary edema and one with diffuse alveolar bleeding. Eleven of the patients (74%) were at the weaning period at the time of unplanned extubation. Among these 11 patients, NPPV was successful in 10 (91%) and only one (9%) was reintubated due to the failure of NPPV. The remaining four patients (26%) had pneumonia and none of them were at the weaning period at the time of extubation, but their requirement for mechanical ventilation was gradually decreasing. Unfortunately, an NPPV attempt for 6-8 h failed and these patients were reintubated. Patients with unplanned extubation before the weaning criteria are met should be intubated immediately. On the other hand, when extubation develops during the weaning period, NPPV may be an alternative. The present study was conducted with a small number of patients, and larger studies on the effectiveness of NPPV in unplanned extubation are warranted for firm conclusions. (author)

  14. Noninvasive Stimulation of the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Rothwell, John; Capogna, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation methods, such as transcranial electric stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation are widely used tools for both basic research and clinical applications. However, the cortical circuits underlying their effects are poorly defined. Here we review the current...

  15. Noninvasive ventilation in hypoxemic respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Dhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive ventilation (NIV refers to positive pressure ventilation delivered through a noninvasive interface (nasal mask, facemask, or nasal plugs etc. Over the past decade its use has become more common as its benefits are increasingly recognized. This review will focus on the evidence supporting the use of NIV in various conditions resulting in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF, that is, non-hypercapnic patients having acute respiratory failure in the absence of a cardiac origin or underlying chronic pulmonary disease. Outcomes depend on the patient's diagnosis and clinical characteristics. Patients should be monitored closely for signs of noninvasive ventilation failure and promptly intubated before a crisis develops. The application of noninvasive ventilation by a trained and experienced team, with careful patient selection, should optimize patient outcomes.

  16. Noninvasive detection of rejection of transplanted hearts with indium-111-labeled lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisen, H.J.; Eisenberg, S.B.; Saffitz, J.E.; Bolman, R.M. III; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether cardiac transplant rejection can be detected noninvasively with indium-111 ( 111 In)-labeled lymphocytes, we studied 11 dogs with thoracic heterotopic cardiac transplants without immunosuppression and five dogs with transplants treated with cyclosporine (10 mg/kg/day) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day). All were evaluated sequentially with gamma scintigraphy after administration of 150 to 350 muCi of autologous 111 In-lymphocytes. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells (1 to 3 mCi) were used for correction of radioactivity in the blood pool attributable to circulating labeled lymphocytes. Lymphocyte infiltration was quantified as the ratio of indium in the myocardium of the transplant or native heart compared with that in blood (indium excess, IE). Results were correlated with mechanical and electrical activity of allografts and with histologic findings in sequential biopsy specimens. In untreated dogs (n = 11), IE was 15.5 +/- 7.0 (SD) in transplanted hearts undergoing rejection and 0.4 +/- 1.1 in native hearts on the day before animals were killed. In dogs treated with cyclosporine and prednisone (n = 5), IE was minimal in allografts during the course of immunosuppression (0.8 +/- 0.4) and increased to 22.9 +/- 11.1 after immunosuppression was stopped. Scintigraphic criteria of rejection (IE greater than 2 SD above that in native hearts) correlated with results of biopsies indicative of rejection and appeared before electrophysiologic or mechanical manifestations of dysfunction. Thus infiltration of labeled lymphocytes in allografts, indicative of rejection, is detectable noninvasively by gamma scintigraphy and provides a sensitive approach potentially applicable to clinical monitoring for early detection of rejection and guidance for titration of immunosuppressive measures

  17. Management of critically ill patients receiving noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Louise RoseLawrence S Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Patients requiring noninvasive and invasive ventilation frequently present to emergency departments, and may remain for prolonged periods due to constrained critical care services. Emergency clinicians often do not receive the same education on management of mechanical ventilation or have similar exposure to these patients as do their critical care colleagues. The aim of this review was to synthesize the evidence on management of patients requiring noninvasive and invasive ventilation in the emergency department including indications, clinical applications, monitoring priorities, and potential complications. Noninvasive ventilation is recommended for patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Less evidence supports its use in asthma and other causes of acute respiratory failure. Use of noninvasive ventilation in the prehospital setting is relatively new, and some evidence suggests benefit. Monitoring priorities for noninvasive ventilation include response to treatment, respiratory and hemodynamic stability, noninvasive ventilation tolerance, detection of noninvasive ventilation failure, and identification of air leaks around the interface. Application of injurious ventilation increases patient morbidity and mortality. Lung-protective ventilation with low tidal volumes based on determination of predicted body weight and control of plateau pressure has been shown to reduce mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, and some evidence exists to suggest this strategy should be used in patients without lung injury. Monitoring of the invasively ventilated patient should focus on assessing response to mechanical ventilation and other interventions, and avoiding complications, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia. Several key aspects of management of noninvasive

  18. Sedimentologic and paleoclimatic reconstructions of carbonate factory evolution in the Alborz Basin (northern Iran) indicate a global response to Early Carboniferous (Tournaisian) glaciations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar Abadi, Mehrdad; Kulagina, Elena I.; Voeten, Dennis F. A. E.; Boulvain, Frédéric; Da Silva, Anne-Christine

    2017-03-01

    The Lower Carboniferous Mobarak Formation records the development of a storm-sensitive pervasive carbonate factory on the southern Paleo-Tethyan passive margin following the opening of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean into the Alborz Basin along the northern margin of Gondwana. Its depositional facies encompass inner ramp peritidal environments, peloidal to crinoidal shoals, storm to fair-weather influenced mid-ramps, proximal to distal shell beds and low energy outer ramps. Sedimentological analyses and foraminiferal biostratigraphy reveal four events affecting carbonate platform evolution in the Alborz Basin during the Lower Carboniferous: (1) A transgression following global temperature rise in the Early Tournaisian (middle Hastarian) caused the formation of thick-bedded argillaceous limestones. This interval correlates with Early Tournaisian nodular to argillaceous limestones in the Moravia Basin (Lisen Formation, Czech Republic), the Dinant Basin (Pont d'Arcole Formation, Belgium), and at the Rhenish Slate Mountains (Lower Alum shale, Germany). (2) Late Hastarian-early Ivorian glaciations previously identified in Southern Gondwana but had not yet recognized in Northern Gondwana were recorded through a sequence boundary. (3) During the Late Tournaisian-Early Visean?, a differential block faulting regime along the basin's margin caused uplift of the westernmost parts of the Alborz Basin and resulted in subsidence in the eastern part of the central basin. This tectonically controlled shift in depositional regime caused vast sub-aerial exposure and brecciation preserved in the top of the Mobarak Formation in the western portion of the Central Alborz Basin. (4) Tectonic activity coinciding with a progressive, multiphase sea level drop caused indirectly by the Viséan and Serpukhovian glaciations phases ultimately led to the stagnation of the carbonate factory. Paleothermometry proxies, the presence of foraminiferal taxa with a northern Paleo-Tethyan affinity and evidence for

  19. Reflectance confocal microscopy: non-invasive distinction between actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peppelman, M.; Nguyen, K.P.; Hoogedoorn, L.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Gerritsen, M.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early recognition of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is difficult. Non-invasive reflectance confocal microscopic (RCM) imaging of the skin is a promising diagnostic technique. Although several RCM features for SCC and AK have been described, it is not determined whether RCM has the ability

  20. Recipient But Not Donor Adiponectin Polymorphisms Are Associated With Early Posttransplant Hepatic Steatosis in Patients Transplanted for Non-Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Binu V; Aiken, Taylor; Garber, Ari; Thomas, Dawn; Lopez, Rocio; Patil, Deepa; Konjeti, Venkata Rajesh; Fung, John J; McCollough, Arthur J; Askar, Medhat

    2018-06-01

    De novo steatosis after liver transplant is common and can occur in up to one-third of patients who are transplanted for liver disease other than for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Genetic factors may influence posttransplant steatosis; in a posttransplant setting, donor or recipient genetic factors could also play roles. Genetic polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene have been associated with metabolic syndrome in the pretransplant setting. We aimed to assess the association between donor and recipient adiponectin polymorphisms and early posttransplant hepatic steatosis identified on liver biopsies. Clinical data were collected for 302 liver transplant patients who underwent protocol biopsies for hepatitis C. Of these, 111 patients had available biopsies and donor/recipient DNA. Patients with grade 1 steatosis or greater (35% of patients) were compared with patients without posttransplant steatosis with respect to clinical features and donor/recipient adiponectin polymorphism genotypes. Patients who developed posttransplant steatosis and those without steatosis were similar with respect to individual components of metabolic syndrome. The adiponectin polymorphisms rs1501299 G/G and rs17300539 G/G genotypes in recipients were associated with early posttransplant graft steatosis. We found no associations between graft steatosis and donor adiponectin polymorphisms. Genetic polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene of recipients (but not donors) are associated with early de novo posttransplant hepatic steatosis, independent of components of metabolic syndrome.

  1. Noninvasive Assisted Ventilation in Pulmonary Gas Exchange Dysfunctions in Cardiac Surgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Postextubation pulmonary gas exchange dysfunctions are a potential complication in the activation of cardio-surgical patients in the early periods after surgical intervention. Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of noninvasive assisted ventilation (NIAV as a method for correcting the pulmonary gas exchange disturbances developing after early activation of cardiosurgical patients. Subjects and methods. The study included 64 patients (36 males and 28 females aged 21 to 72 (54±2 years who had been operated on under extracorporeal circulation (EC. The duration of EC and myocardial ischemia was 104±6 and 73±4 min, respectively. The indications for NIAV were the clinical manifestations of acute respiratory failure (ARF and/or PaCO2>50 mm Hg and/or PaO2/FiO2Results. During NIAV, there was improvement (p<0.05 of lung oxygenizing function (the increase in PaO2/FiO2 was 23%, a reduction in Qs/Qt from 21.1±1.9 to 13.9±1.0% (p<0.05. NIAV was accompanied by a decrease in PaCO2 (p<0.05. Hypercapnia regressed in 7 patients with isolated lung ventilatory dysfunction (PaCO2>50 mm Hg an hour after initiation of NIAV. During and after NIAV, there were reductions in right atrial pressure, mean pulmonary pressure, indexed total pulmonary vascular resistance (ITPVR (p<0.05. Prior to, during, and following NIAV, mean blood pressure, cardiac index, and indexed total pulmonary vascular resstance did not change greatly. In hypercapnia, the duration of NIAV was significantly less than that in lung oxygenizing function (2.8±0.2 hours versus 4.7±0.5 hours. That of ICU treatment was 23±4 hours. Fifty-two (81% patients were transferred from ICUs to cardiosurgical units on the following day after surgery. Conclusion. In most cases, NIAV promotes a rapid and effective correction of postextubation lung ventilatory and oxygenizing dysfunctions occurring after early activation of cardiosurgical patients. Key words: non-invasive assisted ventilation, early

  2. Noninvasive Detection of Inflammation-Associated Colon Cancer in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C. Ericsson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter bilis-infected Smad3-/- mice represent an attractive model of inflammation-associated colon cancer. Most infected mice develop mucinous adenocarcinoma (MUC by 6 weeks post inoculation (PI; however, approximately one third do not progress to MUC. The ability to predict the development of MUC in mice used in therapeutic studies would confer a considerable saving of time and money. In addition, the inadvertent use of mice without MUC may confound therapeutic studies by making treatments seem falsely efficacious. We assessed both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and fecal biomarkers in Helicobacter- and sham-inoculated mice as methods of noninvasively detecting MUC before the predicted onset of disease. Non-contrast-enhanced MRI was able to detect lesions in 58% of mice with histologically confirmed MUC; however, serial imaging sessions produced inconsistent results. MRI was also a labor- and time-intensive technique requiring anesthesia. Alternatively, inflammatory biomarkers isolated from feces at early time points were correlated to later histologic lesions. Fecal expression of interleukin 1β, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted at 3 weeks PI correlated significantly with lesion severity at 9 weeks PI. For each biomarker, receiver-operator characteristic curves were also generated, and all three biomarkers performed well at 1 to 3 weeks PI, indicating that the development of MUC can be predicted based on the early expression of certain inflammatory mediators in feces.

  3. Infrared thermography: A potential noninvasive tool to monitor udder health status in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sathiyabarathi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The animal husbandry and livestock sectors play a major role in the rural economy, especially for the small and marginal farmers. India has the largest livestock population in the world and ranks first in the milk production. Mastitis is the most common and expensive infectious disease in dairy cattle. The global economic losses per year due to mastitis amounts to USD 35 billion and for Indian dairy industry INR 6000 crores per year. Early detection of mastitis is very important to reduce the economic loss to the dairy farmers and dairy industry. Automated methods for early and reliable detection of mastitis are currently in focus under precision dairying. Skin surface temperature is an important indicator for the diagnosis of cow’s illnesses and for the estimation of their physiological status. Infrared thermography (IRT is a simple, effective, on-site, and noninvasive method that detects surface heat, which is emitted as infrared radiation and generates pictorial images without causing radiation exposure. In human and bovine medicine, IRT is used as a diagnostic tool for assessment of normal and physiological status.

  4. [Clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of patients with non-invasive breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brnijć, Zoran; Brkljacić, Boris; Drinković, Ivan; Jakić-Razumović, Jasminka; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Krajina, Zdenko; Margaritoni, Marko; Strnad, Marija; Sarcević, Bozena; Tomić, Snjezana; Zic, Rado

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Early diagnosis and more effective treatment of invasive breast cancer resulted in significant mortality reduction, improvement of survival and the quality of life of the patients. The management od non-invasive breast cancer, on the contrary, is still controversial and the problem of overdiagnosis and overtreatment of patients come to evidence. In the following text a multidisciplinary team of experts brings the first consensus guidelines aimed to standardize and optimize the criteria and management in diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of non-invasive breast cancer patients in the Republic of Croatia.

  5. Noninvasive measurement of burn wound depth applying infrared thermal imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Mariëlle E.; Maltha, Ilse M.; Klaessens, John H.; Vet, Henrica C.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Zuijlen, Paul P.

    2016-02-01

    In burn wounds early discrimination between the different depths plays an important role in the treatment strategy. The remaining vasculature in the wound determines its healing potential. Non-invasive measurement tools that can identify the vascularization are therefore considered to be of high diagnostic importance. Thermography is a non-invasive technique that can accurately measure the temperature distribution over a large skin or tissue area, the temperature is a measure of the perfusion of that area. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinimetric properties (i.e. reliability and validity) of thermography for measuring burn wound depth. In a cross-sectional study with 50 burn wounds of 35 patients, the inter-observer reliability and the validity between thermography and Laser Doppler Imaging were studied. With ROC curve analyses the ΔT cut-off point for different burn wound depths were determined. The inter-observer reliability, expressed by an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.99, was found to be excellent. In terms of validity, a ΔT cut-off point of 0.96°C (sensitivity 71%; specificity 79%) differentiates between a superficial partial-thickness and deep partial-thickness burn. A ΔT cut-off point of -0.80°C (sensitivity 70%; specificity 74%) could differentiate between a deep partial-thickness and a full-thickness burn wound. This study demonstrates that thermography is a reliable method in the assessment of burn wound depths. In addition, thermography was reasonably able to discriminate among different burn wound depths, indicating its potential use as a diagnostic tool in clinical burn practice.

  6. Noninvasive and invasive evaluation of cardiac dysfunction in experimental diabetes in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salemi Vera

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of death in diabetic patients, the determination of myocardial function in diabetes mellitus is essential. In the present study, we provide an integrated approach, using noninvasive echocardiography and invasive hemodynamics to assess early changes in myocardial function of diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (STZ, 50 mg/kg. After 30 days, echocardiography (noninvasive at rest and invasive left ventricular (LV cannulation at rest, during and after volume overload, were performed in diabetic (D, N = 7 and control rats (C, N = 7. The Student t test was performed to compare metabolic and echocardiographic differences between groups at 30 days. ANOVA was used to compare LV invasive measurements, followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. Differences were considered significant at P Results Diabetes impaired LV systolic function expressed by reduced fractional shortening, ejection fraction, and velocity of circumferential fiber shortening compared with that in the control group. The diabetic LV diastolic dysfunction was evidenced by diminished E-waves and increased A-waves and isovolumic relaxation time. The myocardial performance index was greater in diabetic compared with control rats, indicating impairment in diastolic and systolic function. The LV systolic pressure was reduced and the LV end-diastolic pressure was increased at rest in diabetic rats. The volume overload increased LVEDP in both groups, while LVEDP remained increased after volume overload only in diabetic rats. Conclusion These results suggest that STZ-diabetes induces systolic and diastolic dysfunction at rest, and reduces the capacity for cardiac adjustment to volume overload. In addition, it was also demonstrated that rodent echocardiography can be a useful, clinically relevant tool for the study of initial diabetic cardiomyopathy manifestations in asymptomatic patients.

  7. Nurses' 'worry' as predictor of deteriorating surgical ward patients: A prospective cohort study of the Dutch-Early-Nurse-Worry-Indicator-Score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douw, G.; Huisman-de Waal, G.J.; Zanten, A.R. van; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Schoonhoven, L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nurses' 'worry' is used as a calling criterion in many Rapid Response Systems, however it is valued inconsistently. Furthermore, barriers to call the Rapid Response Team can cause delay in escalating care. The literature identifies nine indicators which trigger nurses to worry about a

  8. Targeted, noninvasive blockade of cortical neuronal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannold, Nathan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Power, Chanikarn; Arvanitis, Costas D.; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Livingstone, Margaret

    2015-11-01

    Here we describe a novel method to noninvasively modulate targeted brain areas through the temporary disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via focused ultrasound, enabling focal delivery of a neuroactive substance. Ultrasound was used to locally disrupt the BBB in rat somatosensory cortex, and intravenous administration of GABA then produced a dose-dependent suppression of somatosensory-evoked potentials in response to electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve. No suppression was observed 1-5 days afterwards or in control animals where the BBB was not disrupted. This method has several advantages over existing techniques: it is noninvasive; it is repeatable via additional GABA injections; multiple brain regions can be affected simultaneously; suppression magnitude can be titrated by GABA dose; and the method can be used with freely behaving subjects. We anticipate that the application of neuroactive substances in this way will be a useful tool for noninvasively mapping brain function, and potentially for surgical planning or novel therapies.

  9. Evaluation of non-invasive multispectral imaging as a tool for measuring the effect of systemic therapy in Kaposi sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana M Kainerstorfer

    Full Text Available Diffuse multi-spectral imaging has been evaluated as a potential non-invasive marker of tumor response. Multi-spectral images of Kaposi sarcoma skin lesions were taken over the course of treatment, and blood volume and oxygenation concentration maps were obtained through principal component analysis (PCA of the data. These images were compared with clinical and pathological responses determined by conventional means. We demonstrate that cutaneous lesions have increased blood volume concentration and that changes in this parameter are a reliable indicator of treatment efficacy, differentiating responders and non-responders. Blood volume decreased by at least 20% in all lesions that responded by clinical criteria and increased in the two lesions that did not respond clinically. Responses as assessed by multi-spectral imaging also generally correlated with overall patient clinical response assessment, were often detectable earlier in the course of therapy, and are less subject to observer variability than conventional clinical assessment. Tissue oxygenation was more variable, with lesions often showing decreased oxygenation in the center surrounded by a zone of increased oxygenation. This technique could potentially be a clinically useful supplement to existing response assessment in KS, providing an early, quantitative, and non-invasive marker of treatment effect.

  10. Noninvasive Body Contouring: A Male Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wat, Heidi; Wu, Douglas C; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2018-01-01

    Noninvasive body contouring is an attractive therapeutic modality to enhance the ideal male physique. Men place higher value on enhancing a well-defined, strong, masculine jawline and developing a V-shaped taper through the upper body. An understanding of the body contour men strive for allows the treating physician to focus on areas that are of most concern to men, thus enhancing patient experience and satisfaction. This article discusses noninvasive body contouring techniques, taking into account the unique aesthetic concerns of the male patient by combining an analysis of the existing literature with our own clinical experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Temporal Profile of Microtubule-Associated Protein 2: A Novel Indicator of Diffuse Brain Injury Severity and Early Mortality after Brain Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Linda; Robicsek, Steven A; Brophy, Gretchen M; Wang, Kevin K W; Hannay, H Julia; Heaton, Shelley; Schmalfuss, Ilona; Gabrielli, Andrea; Hayes, Ronald L; Robertson, Claudia S

    2018-01-01

    This study compared cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) from adult patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) with uninjured controls over 10 days, and examined the relationship between MAP-2 concentrations and acute clinical and radiologic measures of injury severity along with mortality at 2 weeks and over 6 months. This prospective study, conducted at two Level 1 trauma centers, enrolled adults with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score ≤8) requiring a ventriculostomy, as well as controls. Ventricular CSF was sampled from each patient at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, and 240 h following TBI and analyzed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for MAP-2 (ng/mL). Injury severity was assessed by the GCS score, Marshall Classification on computed tomography (CT), Rotterdam CT score, and mortality. There were 151 patients enrolled-130 TBI and 21 control patients. MAP-2 was detectable within 6 h of injury and was significantly elevated compared with controls (p < 0.001) at each time-point. MAP-2 was highest within 72 h of injury and decreased gradually over 10 days. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for deciphering TBI versus controls at the earliest time-point CSF was obtained was 0.96 (95% CI 0.93-0.99) and for the maximal 24-h level was 0.98 (95% CI 0.97-1.00). The area under the curve for initial MAP-2 levels predicting 2-week mortality was 0.80 at 6 h, 0.81 at 12 h, 0.75 at 18 h, 0.75 at 24 h, and 0.80 at 48 h. Those with Diffuse Injury III-IV had much higher initial (p = 0.033) and maximal (p = 0.003) MAP-2 levels than those with Diffuse Injury I-II. There was a graded increase in the overall levels and peaks of MAP-2 as the degree of diffuse injury increased within the first 120 h post-injury. These data suggest that early levels of MAP-2 reflect severity of diffuse brain injury and predict 2-week mortality in TBI patients. These

  12. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy: identifying indicators of food access and food literacy for early monitoring of the food environment

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice A. Boucher; Elizabeth Manafò; Meaghan R. Boddy; Lynn Roblin; Rebecca Truscott

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: To address challenges Canadians face within their food environments, a comprehensive, multistakeholder, intergovernmental approach to policy development is essential. Food environment indicators are needed to assess population status and change. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy (OFNS) integrates the food, agriculture and nutrition sectors, and aims to improve the health of Ontarians through actions that promote healthy food systems and environments. This report describes ...

  13. Non-invasive spectroscopic techniques in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Sianoudis, IA; Zois, EN; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, AA; Dessinioti, C.; Stefanaki, E.; Stratigos, AJ; Antoniou, C.; Katsambas, A.; Christofidou, E.

    2017-11-01

    The number of non-melanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide and has become an important health and economic issue. Early detection and treatment of skin cancer can significantly improve patient outcome. Therefore there is an increase in the demand for proper management and effective non-invasive diagnostic modalities in order to avoid relapses or unnecessary treatments. Although the gold standard of diagnosis for non-melanoma skin cancers is biopsy followed by histopathology evaluation, optical non-invasive diagnostic tools have obtained increased attention. Emerging non-invasive or minimal invasive techniques with possible application in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers include high-definition optical coherence tomography, fluorescence spectroscopy, oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry among others spectroscopic techniques. Our findings establish how those spectrometric techniques can be used to more rapidly and easily diagnose skin cancer in an accurate and automated manner in the clinic.

  14. Recent research findings on non-invasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Qiong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of liver fibrosis and dynamic monitoring of relevant changes have great implications for the treatment and prognosis improvement of chronic liver diseases. So far, liver biopsy remains the “golden standard” for the diagnosis and staging of liver fibrosis. However, due to its inherent limitations, a great effort has been made to develop more accurate non-invasive diagnostic methods, including serum fibrosis markers and mathematical models, ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, ultrasonic elastography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear medicine. The advantages and disadvantages of relevant methods are discussed. Furthermore, proper selection of the non-invasive diagnostic methods for clinical application and the means for mutual verification are analyzed. As for the future direction, it is expected to employ the above methods for combined analysis and comprehensive assessment, in order to enhance the clinical value of non-invasive liver fibrosis diagnosis.

  15. Antioxidant responses to an acute ultra-endurance exercise: impact on DNA stability and indications for an increased need for nutritive antioxidants in the early recovery phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Oliver; Reichhold, Stefanie; Nics, Lukas; Hoelzl, Christine; Valentini, Judit; Stadlmayr, Barbara; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2010-10-01

    Antioxidant requirements have neither been defined for endurance nor been defined for ultra-endurance athletes. To verify whether an acute bout of ultra-endurance exercise modifies the need for nutritive antioxidants, we aimed (1) to investigate the changes of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants in response to an Ironman triathlon; (2) to particularise the relevance of antioxidant responses to the indices of oxidatively damaged blood lipids, blood cell compounds and lymphocyte DNA and (3) to examine whether potential time-points of increased susceptibility to oxidative damage are associated with alterations in the antioxidant status. Blood that was collected from forty-two well-trained male athletes 2 d pre-race, immediately post-race, and 1, 5 and 19 d later was sampled. The key findings of the present study are as follows: (1) Immediately post-race, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and levels of the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays increased significantly. Exercise-induced changes in the plasma antioxidant capacity were associated with changes in uric acid, bilirubin and vitamin C. (2) Significant inverse correlations between ORAC levels and indices of oxidatively damaged DNA immediately and 1 d post-race suggest a protective role of the acute antioxidant responses in DNA stability. (3) Significant decreases in carotenoids and γ-tocopherol 1 d post-race indicate that the antioxidant intake during the first 24 h of recovery following an acute ultra-endurance exercise requires specific attention. Furthermore, the present study illustrates the importance of a diversified and well-balanced diet to maintain a physiological antioxidant status in ultra-endurance athletes in reference to recommendations.

  16. Use of placental vascularization indices and uterine artery peak systolic velocity in early detection of pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes, chronic or gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altorjay, Ábel T; Surányi, Andrea; Nyári, Tibor; Németh, Gábor

    2017-04-14

    We aimed to investigate correlations between uterine artery peak systolic velocity (AUtPSV), and placental vascularization in groups of normal blood pressure (NBP) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (chronic hypertension (CHT), gestational hypertension (GHT) and preeclampsia (PE)) alone or in combination with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and hypothesized that AUtPSV rises when GDM complicates pregnancy hypertension. Placental 3-dimensional power Doppler indices, such as vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization-flow index (VFI), and uterine artery peak systolic velocity (AUtPSV) were measured in CHT (N=43), CHT+GDM (N=15), GHT (N=57), GHT+GDM (N=23) and PE (N=17) pregnancies, and compared to NBP (N=109). Correlations were analyzed between vascularization indices, AUtPSV, pregestational BMI and adverse pregnancy outcome rates. In our results VI was higher in CHT (P=0.010), while FI was lower in CHT (P=0.009), GHT and PE (P=0.001) compared to NBP. In case of VFI, significant difference was found between CHT and GHT (P=0.002), and NBP and PE (P=0.001). FI was found prognostic for umbilical pH and neonatal birth weight. Pre-gestational BMI was significantly higher in GHT+GDM compared to GHT, and in CHT+GDM compared to the CHT group. As for AUtPSV, significant difference was found between NBP and CHT (P=0.012), NBP and CHT+GDM (P=0.045), NBP and GHT+GDM (P=0.007), NBP and PE (P=0.032), and GHT and GHT+GDM (P=0.048) groups. Our study revealed that vascularization indices and AUtPSV show significant differences due to gestational pathology, and can be useful in detection of pregnancies at risk.

  17. The dating and interpretation of Chusang indicates permanent human occupation of the interior of the Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael; Aldenderfer, Mark; Wang, Zhijun; Hoffmann, Dirk; Dahl, Jenny; Degering, Detlev; Haas, Randy; Schlütz, Frank; Gliganic, Luke; May, Jan-Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    central plateau. We suggest that migration onto the plateau during the early Holocene was enabled by the wetter regional climate at that time. These findings challenge (i) current models of the occupation of the Tibetan Plateau and (ii) the original dating of Chusang that - based on OSL multi-grain dating - suggests and an age for the imprints of ca. 20 ka. 1. Aldenderfer, M. (2011): Peopling the Tibetan plateau: Insights from archaeology. High Alt. Med. Biol. 12, 141-147. 2. Chen, F. H. et al. (2015): Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 B.P. Science 347, 248-250. 3. Meyer, M.C. et al. (2017): Permanent human occupation of the central Tibetan Plateau in the early Holocene. Science 355, 64-67. 4. Lu, D. et al. (2016): Ancestral Origins and Genetic History of Tibetan Highlanders. The American Journal of Human Genetics 99, 580-594. 5. Xiang, K. et al. (2013): Identification of a Tibetan-specific mutation in the hypoxic gene EGLN1 and its contribution to high-altitude adaptation. Molecular biology and evolution 30, 1889-1898.

  18. Early indication for a reduced burden of radiologically confirmed pneumonia in children following the introduction of routine vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b in Nha Trang, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasche, Stefan; Takahashi, Kensuke; Vu, Dinh Thiem; Suzuki, Motoi; Nguyen, Thi Hien-Anh; Le, HuuTho; Hashizume, Masahiro; Dang, Duc Anh; Edmond, Karen; Ariyoshi, Koya; Mulholland, E Kim; Edmunds, W John; Yoshida, Lay-Myint

    2014-12-05

    Despite the global success of Hib vaccination in reducing disease and mortality, uncertainty about the disease burden and the potential impact of Hib vaccination in Southeast Asia has delayed the introduction of vaccination in some countries in the region. Hib vaccination was introduced throughout Vietnam in July 2010 without catch-up. In an observational, population based surveillance study we estimated the impact of routine Hib vaccination on all cause radiologically confirmed childhood pneumonia in Nha Trang, Vietnam. In 2007 active hospital based surveillance was established in Khanh Hoa General Hospital, the only hospital in Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa province. Nasopharyngeal samples and chest radiographs are taken routinely from all children diagnosed with acute respiratory illness on admission. For admissions between 02/2007 and 03/2012 chest radiographs were interpreted for the presence of WHO primary endpoint pneumonia and nasopharyngeal swabs were analysed by PCR for the presence of Influenza A or B, RSV and rhinovirus. We employed Poisson regression to estimate the impact of Hib vaccination on radiologically confirmed pneumonia (RCP) while statistically accounting for potential differences in viral circulation in the post vaccination era which could have biased the estimate. Of 3151 cases admitted during the study period, 166 had RCP and major viruses were detected in 1601. The adjusted annual incidence of RCP in children younger than 5 years declined by 39% (12-58%) after introduction of Hib vaccination. This decline was most pronounced in children less than 2 years old, adjusted IRR: 0.52 (0.33-0.81), and no significant impact was observed in the 2-4 years old who were not eligible for vaccination, adjusted IRR: 0.96 (0.52-1.72). We present early evidence that the burden of Hib associated RCP in Nha Trang before vaccination was substantial and that shortly after introduction to the routine childhood immunisation scheme vaccination has substantially reduced

  19. Ricinosomes provide an early indicator of suspensor and endosperm cells destined to die during late seed development in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, M P; Maldonado, S

    2013-11-01

    In mature quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds, the lasting endosperm forms a micropylar cone covering the radicle. The suspensor cells lie within the centre of the cone. During the final stage of seed development, the cells of the lasting endosperm accumulate protein and lipids while the rest are crushed and disintegrated. Both the suspensor and endosperm die progressively from the innermost layers surrounding the embryo and extending towards the nucellar tissue. Ricinosomes are endoplasmic reticulum-derived organelles that accumulate both the pro-form and the mature form of cysteine endopeptidase (Cys-EP), first identified in castor bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm during germination. This study sought to identify associations between the presence of ricinosomes and programmed cell death (PCD) hallmarks in suspensor and endosperm cells predestined to die during quinoa seed development. A structural study using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy was performed. To detect the presence of Cys-EP, both western blot and in situ immunolocalization assays were carried out using anti-R. communis Cys-EP antibody. A TUNEL assay was used to determine DNA fragmentation. Except for the one or two cell layers that constitute the lasting endosperm in the mature seed, ricinosomes were found in suspensor and endosperm cells. These cells were also the site of morphological abnormalities, including misshapen and fragmented nuclei, vesiculation of the cytosol, vacuole collapse and cell wall disorganization. It is proposed that, in suspensor and endosperm cells, the early detection of Cys-EP in ricinosomes predicts the occurrence of PCD during late seed development.

  20. Non-invasive assessment of the liver using imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorling Thompson, Camilla; Wang, Haolu; Liu, Xin; Liang, Xiaowen; Crawford, Darrell H.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2016-12-01

    Chronic liver disease causes 2,000 deaths in Australia per year and early diagnosis is crucial to avoid progression to cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. There is no ideal method to evaluate liver function. Blood tests and liver biopsies provide spot examinations and are unable to track changes in function quickly. Therefore better techniques are needed. Non-invasive imaging has the potential to extract increased information over a large sampling area, continuously tracking dynamic changes in liver function. This project aimed to study the ability of three imaging techniques, multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, infrared thermography and photoacoustic imaging, in measuring liver function. Collagen deposition was obvious in multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging in fibrosis and cirrhosis and comparable to conventional histology. Infrared thermography revealed a significantly increased liver temperature in hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging and photoacoustic imaging could both track uptake and excretion of indocyanine green in rat liver. These results prove that non-invasive imaging can extract crucial information about the liver continuously over time and has the potential to be translated into clinic in the assessment of liver disease.

  1. A Novel Noninvasive Sensing Approach of Assessment of Pelt Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Mukhopadhyay

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The separation of the upper dermal of the skin (the papillary layer or grain from the lower dermis (corium is regarded as a defect in leather making. It is difficult to detect pelts at an early processing stage and it only becomes really apparent once the skin is made into leather. There would be great advantages in detecting the problem at the pickled pelt stage (skins treated with sodium sulphide and lime, bated with enzymes, and then preserved in NaCl and sulphuric acid so that adjustments to the processing could be made to mitigate the effect. A novel bio-sensor for inspection of leather in a non-invasive way has been fabricated and developed. The sensor has the planar Interdigital structure and the consecutive fingers are connected to positive and negative electrodes respectively. The experimental results show that the sensor has a great potential to estimate the leather quality in a non-invasive and non-destructive way.

  2. Country-Level Macroeconomic Indicators Predict Early Post-Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Survival in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A CIBMTR Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William A; Brazauskas, Ruta; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Ahmed, Ibrahim A; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Badawy, Sherif; Beitinjaneh, Amer; George, Biju; Buchbinder, David; Cerny, Jan; Dedeken, Laurence; Diaz, Miguel Angel; Freytes, Cesar O; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Gergis, Usama; Almaguer, David Gomez; Gupta, Ashish; Hale, Gregory; Hashmi, Shahrukh K; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Kamble, Rammurti T; Adekola, Kehinde; Kindwall-Keller, Tamila; Knight, Jennifer; Kumar, Lalit; Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Law, Jason; Lazarus, Hillard M; LeMaistre, Charles; Olsson, Richard F; Pulsipher, Michael A; Savani, Bipin N; Schultz, Kirk R; Saad, Ayman A; Seftel, Matthew; Seo, Sachiko; Shea, Thomas C; Steinberg, Amir; Sullivan, Keith; Szwajcer, David; Wirk, Baldeep; Yared, Jean; Yong, Agnes; Dalal, Jignesh; Hahn, Theresa; Khera, Nandita; Bonfim, Carmem; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Saber, Wael

    2018-03-19

    For patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) offers a potential cure. Life-threatening complications can arise from alloHCT that require the application of sophisticated health care delivery. The impact of country-level economic conditions on post-transplantation outcomes is not known. Our objective was to assess whether these variables were associated with outcomes for patients transplanted for ALL. Using data from the Center for Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, we included 11,261 patients who received a first alloHCT for ALL from 303 centers across 38 countries between the years of 2005 and 2013. Cox regression models were constructed using the following macroeconomic indicators as main effects: Gross national income per capita, health expenditure per capita, and Human Development Index (HDI). The outcome was overall survival at 100 days following transplantation. In each model, transplants performed within lower resourced environments were associated with inferior overall survival. In the model with the HDI as the main effect, transplants performed in the lowest HDI quartile (n = 697) were associated with increased hazard for mortality (hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.64 to 3.57; P macroeconomic indices were associated with lower survival at 100 days after alloHCT for ALL. The reasons for this disparity require further investigation. Copyright © 2018 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Noninvasive Quantification of Pancreatic Fat in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Lingvay, Ildiko; Esser, Victoria; Legendre, Jaime L.; Price, Angela L.; Wertz, Kristen M.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Zhang, Song; Unger, Roger H.; Szczepaniak, Lidia S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To validate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a tool for non-invasive quantification of pancreatic triglyceride (TG) content and to measure the pancreatic TG content in a diverse human population with a wide range of body mass index (BMI) and glucose control.

  4. Noninvasive wearable sensor for indirect glucometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberstein, Gleb; Zilberstein, Roman; Maor, Uriel; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2018-04-02

    A noninvasive mini-sensor for blood glucose concentration assessment has been developed. The monitoring is performed by gently pressing a wrist or fingertip onto the chemochromic mixture coating a thin glass or polymer film positioned on the back panel of a smart watch with PPG/HRM (photoplethysmographic/heart rate monitoring sensor). The various chemochromic components measure the absolute values of the following metabolites present in the sweat: acetone, acetone beta-hydroxybutirate, aceto acetate, water, carbon dioxide, lactate anion, pyruvic acid, Na and K salts. Taken together, all these parameters give information about blood glucose concentration, calculated via multivariate analysis based on neural network algorithms built into the sensor. The Clarke Error Grid shows an excellent correlation between data measured by the standard invasive glucose analyser and the present noninvasive sensor, with all points aligned along a 45-degree diagonal and contained almost exclusively in sector A. Graphs measuring glucose levels five times a day (prior, during and after breakfast and prior, during and after lunch), for different individuals (males and females) show a good correlation between the two curves of conventional, invasive meters vs. the noninvasive sensor, with an error of ±15%. This novel, noninvasive sensor for indirect glucometry is fully miniaturized, easy to use and operate and could represent a valid alternative in clinical settings and for individual, personal users, to current, invasive tools. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Noninvasive imaging of experimental lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Chen, Huaping; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Liu, Gang; Antony, Veena B; Ding, Qiang; Nath, Hrudaya; Eary, Janet F; Thannickal, Victor J

    2015-07-01

    Small animal models of lung fibrosis are essential for unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying human fibrotic lung diseases; additionally, they are useful for preclinical testing of candidate antifibrotic agents. The current end-point measures of experimental lung fibrosis involve labor-intensive histological and biochemical analyses. These measures fail to account for dynamic changes in the disease process in individual animals and are limited by the need for large numbers of animals for longitudinal studies. The emergence of noninvasive imaging technologies provides exciting opportunities to image lung fibrosis in live animals as often as needed and to longitudinally track the efficacy of novel antifibrotic compounds. Data obtained by noninvasive imaging provide complementary information to histological and biochemical measurements. In addition, the use of noninvasive imaging in animal studies reduces animal usage, thus satisfying animal welfare concerns. In this article, we review these new imaging modalities with the potential for evaluation of lung fibrosis in small animal models. Such techniques include micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and multimodal imaging systems including PET/CT and SPECT/CT. It is anticipated that noninvasive imaging will be increasingly used in animal models of fibrosis to gain insights into disease pathogenesis and as preclinical tools to assess drug efficacy.

  6. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Sami

    .The results suggested that administration of glucocorticoids in early lactation resulted in short-term improvement of metabolism in postpartum dairy cows in biochemical terms.

  7. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Mehrdad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Seifi, Hesam A

    2015-01-01

    that administration of glucocorticoids in early lactation resulted in short-term improvement of metabolism in postpartum dairy cows in biochemical terms.

  8. Treatment of Neck Pain: Noninvasive Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, Eugene J.; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Carroll, Linda J.; Nordin, Margareta; Guzman, Jaime; Peloso, Paul M.; Holm, Lena W.; Côté, Pierre; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Cassidy, J. David; Haldeman, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Study Design. Best evidence synthesis. Objective. To identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature from 1980 through 2006 on noninvasive interventions for neck pain and its associated disorders. Summary of Background Data. No comprehensive systematic literature reviews have been published on interventions for neck pain and its associated disorders in the past decade. Methods. We systematically searched Medline and screened for relevance literature published from 1980 through 2006 on the use, effectiveness, and safety of noninvasive interventions for neck pain and associated disorders. Consensus decisions were made about the scientific merit of each article; those judged to have adequate internal validity were included in our best evidence synthesis. Results. Of the 359 invasive and noninvasive intervention articles deemed relevant, 170 (47%) were accepted as scientifically admissible, and 139 of these related to noninvasive interventions (including health care utilization, costs, and safety). For whiplash-associated disorders, there is evidence that educational videos, mobilization, and exercises appear more beneficial than usual care or physical modalities. For other neck pain, the evidence suggests that manual and supervised exercise interventions, low-level laser therapy, and perhaps acupuncture are more effective than no treatment, sham, or alternative interventions; however, none of the active treatments was clearly superior to any other in either the short-or long-term. For both whiplash-associated disorders and other neck pain without radicular symptoms, interventions that focused on regaining function as soon as possible are relatively more effective than interventions that do not have such a focus. Conclusion. Our best evidence synthesis suggests that therapies involving manual therapy and exercise are more effective than alternative strategies for patients with neck pain; this was also true of therapies which include educational interventions

  9. Gingival enlargement as an early diagnostic indicator in therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia: A rare case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triveni M Gowda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment for Hodgkin′s lymphoma (HL has resulted in excellent survival rates but is associated with increased risks of secondary therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML. Gingival enlargement associated with bleeding and ulceration is the most common rapidly appearing oral manifestations of leukemic involvement. An 8 months pregnant patient reported with generalized gingival enlargement, with localized cyanotic and necrotic papillary areas. Co-relating the hematological report with the oral lesions and her past medical history of HL, a diagnosis of t-AML secondary to treatment for HL was made by the oncologist. As oral lesions are one of the initial manifestations of acute leukemia, they may serve as a significant diagnostic indicator for the dental surgeons and their important role in diagnosing and treating such cases. Furthermore, this case report highlights the serious complication of t-AML subsequent to HL treatment and the important role that a general and oral health care professional may play in diagnosing and treating such cases.

  10. [Early diagnosis of HIV in Primary Care in Spain. Results of a pilot study based on targeted screening based on indicator conditions, behavioral criteria and region of origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí, Cristina; Martín-Rabadán, María; Zarco, José; Aguado, Cristina; Carrillo, Ricard; Codinachs, Roger; Carmona, Jose Manuel; Casabona, Jordi

    2018-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of HIV infection in patients diagnosed with an indicator condition (IC) for HIV and/or risk behavior for their acquisition and/or coming from high prevalence countries. To determine the acceptability and feasibility of offering HIV testing based on IC and behavioral and origin criteria in Primary Care (PC). Cross-sectional study in a convenience sample. Six PC centers in Spain. The inclusion criteria were: patients between 16 and 65years old who presented at least one of the proposed ICs and/or at least one of the proposed behavioral and/or origin criteria. A total of 388 patients participated. HIV serology was offered to all patients who met the inclusion criteria. Description of IC frequency, behavioral and origin criteria. Prevalence of HIV infection. Level of acceptability and feasibility of the HIV screening based on IC and behavioral and origin criteria. A total of 174 patients had an IC (44.84%). The most common behavioral criterion was: having unprotected sex at some time in life with people who did not know their HIV status (298; 76.8%). Four HIV+ patients (1.03%) were diagnosed. All had an IC and were men who had sex with men. The level of acceptability in PC was high. Offering HIV testing to patients with IC and behavioral criteria is feasible and effective in PC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Empirical Productivity Indices and Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe empirical measurement of productivity change (or difference) by means of indices and indicators starts with the ex post profit/loss accounts of a production unit. Key concepts are profit, leading to indicators, and profitability, leading to indices. The main task for the productivity

  12. Non-invasive examination of multiple sclerosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerd, A.W. de.

    1981-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is characterized by a wide range of symptoms and, in many cases, by a highly erratic course. As a result diagnosis is often a problem. Two non-invasive examinations, Computer Tomography (CT scan) and the Evoked Response test (ER), are the subjects of this study which, according to available literature, both can play a role in the establishment of the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Clinical trials have been performed and both methods demonstrated abnormalities of the central nervous system which were not suspected on clinical grounds; as a result both methods of examination can contribute to the early establishment of the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. In addition the diagnosis can be determined with greater certainty when the findings of the CT-scan and the evoked response test are taken into consideration. (Auth.)

  13. Noninvasive continuous monitoring of digital pulse waves during hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkert, Antje; Scholze, Alexandra; Tepel, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Intermittent hemodynamic instability during hemodialysis treatment is a frequent complication in patients with end-stage renal failure. A noninvasive method for continuous hemodynamic monitoring is needed. We used noninvasive digital photoplethysmography and an algorithm for continuous, investiga...

  14. Activation of stress-related signalling pathway in human cells upon SiO2 nanoparticles exposure as an early indicator of cytotoxicity

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohamed, Bashir M

    2011-07-29

    Abstract Background Nanomaterials such as SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2NP) are finding increasing applications in the biomedical and biotechnological fields such as disease diagnostics, imaging, drug delivery, food, cosmetics and biosensors development. Thus, a mechanistic and systematic evaluation of the potential biological and toxic effects of SiO2NP becomes crucial in order to assess their complete safe applicability limits. Results In this study, human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 and human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 were exposed to a range of amorphous SiO2NP of various sizes and concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg\\/ml). Key biological indicators of cellular functions including cell population density, cellular morphology, membrane permeability, lysosomal mass\\/pH and activation of transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) were evaluated utilizing quantitative high content screening (HCS) approach and biochemical techniques. Despite the use of extremely high nanoparticle concentrations, our findings showed a low degree of cytotoxicity within the panel of SiO2NP investigated. However, at these concentrations, we observed the onset of stress-related cellular response induced by SiO2NP. Interestingly, cells exposed to alumina-coated SiO2NP showed low level, and in some cases complete absence, of stress response and this was consistent up to the highest dose of 0.5 mg\\/ml. Conclusions The present study demonstrates and highlights the importance of subtle biological changes downstream of primary membrane and endocytosis-associated phenomena resulting from high dose SiO2NP exposure. Increased activation of transcription factors, such as ATF-2, was quantitatively assessed as a function of i) human cell line specific stress-response, ii) SiO2NP size and iii) concentration. Despite the low level of cytotoxicity detected for the amorphous SiO2NP investigated, these findings prompt an in-depth focus for future SiO2NP-cell\\/tissue investigations based on the combined

  15. Activation of stress-related signalling pathway in human cells upon SiO2 nanoparticles exposure as an early indicator of cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bashir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanomaterials such as SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2NP are finding increasing applications in the biomedical and biotechnological fields such as disease diagnostics, imaging, drug delivery, food, cosmetics and biosensors development. Thus, a mechanistic and systematic evaluation of the potential biological and toxic effects of SiO2NP becomes crucial in order to assess their complete safe applicability limits. Results In this study, human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 and human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 were exposed to a range of amorphous SiO2NP of various sizes and concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/ml. Key biological indicators of cellular functions including cell population density, cellular morphology, membrane permeability, lysosomal mass/pH and activation of transcription factor-2 (ATF-2 were evaluated utilizing quantitative high content screening (HCS approach and biochemical techniques. Despite the use of extremely high nanoparticle concentrations, our findings showed a low degree of cytotoxicity within the panel of SiO2NP investigated. However, at these concentrations, we observed the onset of stress-related cellular response induced by SiO2NP. Interestingly, cells exposed to alumina-coated SiO2NP showed low level, and in some cases complete absence, of stress response and this was consistent up to the highest dose of 0.5 mg/ml. Conclusions The present study demonstrates and highlights the importance of subtle biological changes downstream of primary membrane and endocytosis-associated phenomena resulting from high dose SiO2NP exposure. Increased activation of transcription factors, such as ATF-2, was quantitatively assessed as a function of i human cell line specific stress-response, ii SiO2NP size and iii concentration. Despite the low level of cytotoxicity detected for the amorphous SiO2NP investigated, these findings prompt an in-depth focus for future SiO2NP-cell/tissue investigations based on the

  16. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with low-energy photons as a boost in patients with early-stage oral cancer with the indications for postoperative radiotherapy. Treatment feasibility and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, Tomasz; Wygoda, Andrzej; Hutnik, Marcin; Skladowski, Krzysztof; Wydmanski, Jerzy; Maciejewski, Boguslaw [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer and Inst. of Oncology, Gliwice Branch (Poland); Maciejewski, Adam; Szymczyk, Cezary; Wierzgon, Janusz [Dept. of Surgery, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Inst. of Oncology, Gliwice Branch (Poland); Orlef, Andrzej [Dept. of Physics, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Inst. of Oncology, Gliwice Branch (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and preliminary results of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with low-energy photons as a boost in patients with early-stage oral cancer with the indications for postoperative radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Between 2003 and 2006, 16 patients with early-stage cancer of mobile tongue (n = 10 [63%]) or floor of the mouth (n = 6 [37%]) treated at Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Poland, were evaluated for IORT boost with the INTRABEAM {sup registered} System (Carl Zeiss Surgical GmbH; IORT-PRS) because of the high risk of local recurrence due to positive margins on frozen pathologic section. After tumor resection, the applicator was positioned in the tumor bed. The applicator's diameter (range: 1.5-5 cm) was selected to encompass high-risk area of tumor recurrence. The dose (5 Gy, 7 Gy, or 7.5 Gy) was applied according to tumor volume and bone proximity. External-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was provided to the tumor bed in all patients (50 Gy) and to the nodal area, when needed. Toxicity and local tumor control were assessed. Results: Median follow-up was 36 months. IORT did not increase acute mucosal reaction. Local tumor control was found in all cases. Early mucosal reaction did not exceed 3 according to the RTOG scale and healed in median time of 35 days after completion of EBRT. No late adverse effects were observed. Conclusion: This preliminary report has demonstrated the feasibility of IORT-PRS for patients with early oral cancer with the indications for postoperative radiotherapy. This method may be considered an alternative boost technique, although additional studies are needed to establish long-term results in a larger group of patients. (orig.)

  17. Advancing ecological understandings through technological transformations in noninvasive genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano Beja-Pereira; Rita Oliveira; Paulo C. Alves; Michael K. Schwartz; Gordon Luikart

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive genetic approaches continue to improve studies in molecular ecology, conservation genetics and related disciplines such as forensics and epidemiology. Noninvasive sampling allows genetic studies without disturbing or even seeing the target individuals. Although noninvasive genetic sampling has been used for wildlife studies since the 1990s, technological...

  18. Biomarkers for Early Detection of Malignant Mesothelioma: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasetti, Marco, E-mail: m.tomasetti@univpm.it; Santarelli, Lory [Department of Molecular Pathology and Innovative Therapies, Occupational Medicine, Polytechnic University of Marche, via Tronto 10/A Torrette 60020, Ancona (Italy)

    2010-04-14

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare and aggressive tumour of the serosal cavities linked to asbestos exposure. Improved detection methods for diagnosing this type of neoplastic disease are essential for an early and reliable diagnosis and treatment. Thus, focus has been placed on finding tumour markers for the non-invasive detection of MM. Recently, some blood biomarkers have been described as potential indicators of early and advanced MM cancers. The identification of tumour biomarkers alone or in combination could greatly facilitate the surveillance procedure for cohorts of subjects exposed to asbestos, a common phenomenon in several areas of western countries.

  19. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  20. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  1. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian

    1991-01-01

    In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also...

  2. Magnetic fields in noninvasive brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Scaff, Milberto; Guilhoto, Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2014-04-01

    The idea that magnetic fields could be used therapeutically arose 2000 years ago. These therapeutic possibilities were expanded after the discovery of electromagnetic induction by the Englishman Michael Faraday and the American Joseph Henry. In 1896, Arsène d'Arsonval reported his experience with noninvasive brain magnetic stimulation to the scientific French community. In the second half of the 20th century, changing magnetic fields emerged as a noninvasive tool to study the nervous system and to modulate neural function. In 1985, Barker, Jalinous, and Freeston presented transcranial magnetic stimulation, a relatively focal and painless technique. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been proposed as a clinical neurophysiology tool and as a potential adjuvant treatment for psychiatric and neurologic conditions. This article aims to contextualize the progress of use of magnetic fields in the history of neuroscience and medical sciences, until 1985.

  3. Noninvasive dentistry: a dream or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, B H; Exterkate, R A M

    2015-01-01

    Various caries prevention and repair strategies are reviewed in this article ranging from the use of fluoride to nanohydroxyapatite particles. Several of the strategies which combine fluoride and calcium and phosphate treatments have both in vitro and in vivo data showing them to be efficacious if the surface integrity of the lesion is not breached. Once this has occurred, the rationale for cutting off the nutrient supplies to the pathogenic bacteria without the removal of the infected dentine, a noninvasive restorative technique, is discussed using existing clinical studies as examples. Finally two novel noninvasive restorative techniques using fluorohydroxyapatite crystals are described. The need for clinical data in support of emerging caries-preventive and restorative strategies is emphasized. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Non-invasive assessment of coronary calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oei, Hok-Hay S.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jackqueline C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Electron-beam tomography (EBT) and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) enable the noninvasive assessment of coronary calcification. The amount of coronary calcification, as detected by EBT, has a close relation with the amount of coronary atherosclerosis, which is the substrate for the occurrence of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. Calcification of the coronary arteries can be seen as a cumulative measure of life-time exposure to cardiovascular risk factors. Several studies have shown that the amount of coronary calcification is associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. Therefore, coronary calcification is a promising method for non-invasive detection of asymptomatic subjects at high risk of developing coronary heart disease. Whether measurement of coronary calcification also increases the predictive power of coronary events based on cardiovascular risk factors is topic of current research

  5. Noninvasive Transcranial Brain Stimulation and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Allyson C.; Ramkumar, Mukund; Nguyen, Tam; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2009-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that can modulate activity in specific regions of the cortex. At this point, their use in brain stimulation is primarily investigational; however, there is clear evidence that these tools can reduce pain and modify neurophysiologic correlates of the pain experience. TMS has also been used to predict response to surgically implanted stimulation for the tre...

  6. Cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and new diagnostic imaging techniques: the role of noninvasive image methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, José Augusto A; Rodrigues, Alexandre B; Mota, Cleonice Carvalho C; Barbosa, Márcia M; Simões e Silva, Ana C

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem affecting adults and children in both developed and developing countries. This condition often leads to metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A large number of studies have been carried out to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction in obese patients. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis and the development of coronary artery disease, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Noninvasive methods in the field of cardiovascular imaging, such as measuring intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilatation, tissue Doppler, and strain, and strain rate, constitute new tools for the early detection of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. These techniques will certainly enable a better evaluation of initial cardiovascular injury and allow the correct, timely management of obese patients. The present review summarizes the main aspects of cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and discusses the application of recent noninvasive imaging methods for the early detection of cardiovascular alterations.

  7. Evaluation of four non-invasive methods for examination and characterization of pressure ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E.S.; Karlsmark, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pressure ulcers are globally of major concern and there is need for research in the pathogenesis for early intervention. Early studies have suggested existence of a hypo-echogenic subepidermal layer at the location of pressure ulcers, visualized by ultrasound scans. As a continuation......, we here report on usability of four non-invasive techniques for evaluation of pressure ulcers. Methods: Fifteen pressure ulcers in stage 0-IV were examined using four different non-invasive techniques [redness index, skin temperature, skin elasticity (i.e. retraction time), and ultrasound scanning...... at all pressure ulcers, but none at the reference points. The skin retraction time was often higher at the location of a pressure ulcer than at the reference location. We found no correlation between the stage of the ulcers and temperature, redness index, subepidermal layer thickness, or retraction time...

  8. Determinants of noninvasive ventilation success or failure in morbidly obese patients in acute respiratory failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Lemyze

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory failure (ARF is a common life-threatening complication in morbidly obese patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS. We aimed to identify the determinants of noninvasive ventilation (NIV success or failure for this indication.We prospectively included 76 consecutive patients with BMI>40 kg/m2 diagnosed with OHS and treated by NIV for ARF in a 15-bed ICU of a tertiary hospital.NIV failed to reverse ARF in only 13 patients. Factors associated with NIV failure included pneumonia (n = 12/13, 92% vs n = 9/63, 14%; p<0.0001, high SOFA (10 vs 5; p<0.0001 and SAPS2 score (63 vs 39; p<0.0001 at admission. These patients often experienced poor outcome despite early resort to endotracheal intubation (in-hospital mortality, 92.3% vs 17.5%; p<0.001. The only factor significantly associated with successful response to NIV was idiopathic decompensation of OHS (n = 30, 48% vs n = 0, 0%; p = 0.001. In the NIV success group (n = 63, 33 patients (53% experienced a delayed response to NIV (with persistent hypercapnic acidosis during the first 6 hours.Multiple organ failure and pneumonia were the main factors associated with NIV failure and death in morbidly obese patients in hypoxemic ARF. On the opposite, NIV was constantly successful and could be safely pushed further in case of severe hypercapnic acute respiratory decompensation of OHS.

  9. Noninvasive, optoacoustic detection and characterization of intra- and extracranial hematomas and cerebral hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Andrey; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Irene Y.; Robertson, Claudia S.; Asokan, Vasantha; Agbor, Adaeze; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2015-03-01

    Early diagnosis of intracranial hematomas is necessary to improve outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). CT and MRI can diagnose intracranial hematomas, but cannot be used until the patient arrives at a major healthcare facility, resulting in delayed diagnosis. Near infrared spectroscopy may suggest the presence of unilateral intracranial hematomas, but provides minimal information on hematoma type and location due to limitations associated with strong light scattering. We have used optoacoustics (which combines high endogenous optical contrast with the resolution of ultrasound) to diagnose hematomas and monitor cerebral oxygenation. We performed animal and clinical studies on detection and characterization of hematomas and on monitoring cerebral hypoxia by probing the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). Recently, we built a medical grade, multi-wavelength, OPO-based optoacoustic system tunable in the near infrared spectral range. We developed new patient interfaces for noninvasive, transcranial measurements in the transmission mode in the presence of dense hair and used it in patients with TBI. The optoacoustic system was capable of detecting and characterizing intra- and extracranial hematomas. SSS blood oxygenation was measured as well with the new interface. The obtained results indicate that the optoacoustic system in the transmission mode provides detection and characterization of hematomas in TBI patients, as well as cerebral venous blood oxygenation monitoring. The transmission mode approach can be used for optoacoustic brain imaging, tomography, and mapping in humans.

  10. A new approach for low-cost noninvasive detection of asymptomatic heart disease at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarzo, Arthur P; Calvin, James E

    2007-01-01

    It would be useful to have an inexpensive, noninvasive point-of-care test for early detection of asymptomatic heart disease. This study used impedance cardiography (ICG) in a new way to assess heart function that did not use stroke volume or cardiac output. There is a model of the ICG dZ/dt waveform that may be used as a template to represent normal heart function. The hypothesis was that a dZ/dt waveform which deviates from that template should indicate heart dysfunction and therefore heart disease. The objective was to assess the accuracy of this new ICG approach, using echocardiography as the standard. Thirty-four outpatients undergoing echocardiographic testing were tested by ICG while sitting upright and supine. All patients had no symptoms or history of a structural or functional heart disorder. Echocardiographic testing showed 17 patients with abnormalities and 17 as normal. ICG testing yielded 16 true positives for heart dysfunction with 1 false negative (sensitivity = 94%) and 17 true negatives with no false positives (specificity = 100%). Considering that the cost, technical skill, and time required for this ICG test are comparable to those of an electrocardiograph, this new approach has potential as a point-of-care screening test for asymptomatic heart disease.

  11. Recent advances in noninvasive glucose monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So CF

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chi-Fuk So,1 Kup-Sze Choi,1 Thomas KS Wong,2 Joanne WY Chung2,31Centre for Integrative Digital Health, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, 2Department of Nursing and Health Sciences, Tung Wah College, Hong Kong, 3Department of Health and Physical Education, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong KongAbstract: The race for the next generation of painless and reliable glucose monitoring for diabetes mellitus is on. As technology advances, both diagnostic techniques and equipment improve. This review describes the main technologies currently being explored for noninvasive glucose monitoring. The principle of each technology is mentioned; its advantages and limitations are then discussed. The general description and the corresponding results for each device are illustrated, as well as the current status of the device and the manufacturer; internet references for the devices are listed where appropriate. Ten technologies and eleven potential devices are included in this review. Near infrared spectroscopy has become a promising technology, among others, for blood glucose monitoring. Although some reviews have been published already, the rapid development of technologies and information makes constant updating mandatory. While advances have been made, the reliability and the calibration of noninvasive instruments could still be improved, and more studies carried out under different physiological conditions of metabolism, bodily fluid circulation, and blood components are needed.Keywords: noninvasive, glucose monitoring, diabetes mellitus, blood glucose measurement

  12. [Non-invasive assessment of fatty liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egresi, Anna; Lengyel, Gabriella; Hagymási, Krisztina

    2015-04-05

    As the result of various harmful effects (infectious agents, metabolic diseases, unhealthy diet, obesity, toxic agents, autoimmune processes) hepatic damage may develop, which can progress towards liver steatosis, and fibrosis as well. The most common etiological factors of liver damages are hepatitis B and C infection, alcohol consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver biopsy is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases. Due to the dangers and complications of liver biopsy, studies are focused on non-invasive markers and radiological imaging for liver steatosis, progression of fatty liver, activity of the necroinflammation and the severity of the fibrosis. Authors review the possibilities of non-invasive assessment of liver steatosis. The statistical features of the probes (positive, negative predictive values, sensitivity, specificity) are reviewed. The role of radiological imaging is also discussed. Although the non-invasive methods discussed in this article are useful to assess liver steatosis, further studies are needed to validate to follow progression of the diseases and to control therapeutic response.

  13. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Stephanie; Young, Elizabeth; Bowns, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders is coming to fruition in its clinical utility. The presence of cell-free DNA in maternal plasma has been recognized for many years, and a number of applications have developed from this. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders has lagged behind due to complexities of technology development, lack of investment and the need for validation samples for rare disorders. Publications are emerging demonstrating a variety of technical approaches and feasibility of clinical application. Techniques for analysis of cell-free DNA including digital PCR, next-generation sequencing and relative haplotype dosage have been used most often for assay development. Analysis of circulating fetal cells in the maternal blood is still being investigated as a viable alternative and more recently transcervical trophoblast cells. Studies exploring ethical and social issues are generally positive but raise concerns around the routinization of prenatal testing. Further work is necessary to make testing available to all patients with a pregnancy at risk of a single gene disorder, and it remains to be seen if the development of more powerful technologies such as isolation and analysis of single cells will shift the emphasis of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. As testing becomes possible for a wider range of conditions, more ethical questions will become relevant.

  14. General indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the main 2002 energy indicators for France. A first table lists the evolution of general indicators between 1973 and 2002: energy bill, price of imported crude oil, energy independence, primary and final energy consumption. The main 2002 results are detailed separately for natural gas, petroleum and coal (consumption, imports, exports, production, stocks, prices). (J.S.)

  15. Sleep-related breathing disorders and non-invasive ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Lax

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NPPV was originally used in patients with acute respiratory impairment or exacerbations of chronic respiratory diseases, as an alternative to the endotracheal tube. Over the last thirty years NPPV has been also used at night in patients with stable chronic lung disease such as obstructive sleep apnea, the overlap syndrome (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea, neuromuscular disorders, obesity-hypoventilation syndrome, and in other conditions such as sleep disorders associated with congestive heart failure (Cheyne-Stokes respiration. In this no-systematic review we discuss the different types of NPPV, the specific conditions in which they can be used and the indications, recommendations and evidence supporting the efficacy of NPPV. Optimizing patient acceptance and adherence to non-invasive ventilation treatment is challenging. The treatment of sleep-related disorders is a life-threatening condition. The optimal level of treatment should be determined in a sleep laboratory. Side effects directly affecting the patient’s adherence to treatment are known. The most common are nasopharyngeal symptoms including increased congestion and rhinorrhea; these effects are related to reduced humidity of inspired gas. Humidification of delivered gas may improve these symptoms.

  16. [Noninvasive total hemoglobin monitoring based on multiwave spectrophotometry in obstetrics and gynecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyregov, A V; Ovechkin, A Iu; Petrov, S V

    2012-01-01

    Results of prospective randomized comparative research of 2 total hemoglobin estimation methods are presented. There were laboratory tests and continuous noninvasive technique with multiwave spectrophotometry on the Masimo Rainbow SET. Research was carried out in two stages. At the 1st stage (gynecology)--67 patients were included and in second stage (obstetrics)--44 patients during and after Cesarean section. The standard deviation of noninvasive total hemoglobin estimation from absolute values (invasive) was 7.2 and 4.1%, an standard deviation in a sample--5.2 and 2.7 % in gynecologic operations and surgical delivery respectively, that confirms lack of reliable indicators differences. The method of continuous noninvasive total hemoglobin estimation with multiwave spectrophotometry on the Masimo Rainbow SET technology can be recommended for use in obstetrics and gynecology.

  17. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  18. Fluid challenge: tracking changes in cardiac output with blood pressure monitoring (invasive or non-invasive).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhal, Karim; Ehrmann, Stephan; Perrotin, Dominique; Wolff, Michel; Boulain, Thierry

    2013-11-01

    To assess whether invasive and non-invasive blood pressure (BP) monitoring allows the identification of patients who have responded to a fluid challenge, i.e., who have increased their cardiac output (CO). Patients with signs of circulatory failure were prospectively included. Before and after a fluid challenge, CO and the mean of four intra-arterial and oscillometric brachial cuff BP measurements were collected. Fluid responsiveness was defined by an increase in CO ≥10 or ≥15% in case of regular rhythm or arrhythmia, respectively. In 130 patients, the correlation between a fluid-induced increase in pulse pressure (Δ500mlPP) and fluid-induced increase in CO was weak and was similar for invasive and non-invasive measurements of BP: r² = 0.31 and r² = 0.29, respectively (both p area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) of 0.82 (0.74-0.88), similar (p = 0.80) to that of non-invasive Δ500mlPP [AUC of 0.81 (0.73-0.87)]. Outside large gray zones of inconclusive values (5-23% for invasive Δ500mlPP and 4-35% for non-invasive Δ500mlPP, involving 35 and 48% of patients, respectively), the detection of responsiveness or unresponsiveness to fluid was reliable. Cardiac arrhythmia did not impair the performance of invasive or non-invasive Δ500mlPP. Other BP-derived indices did not outperform Δ500mlPP. As evidenced by large gray zones, BP-derived indices poorly reflected fluid responsiveness. However, in our deeply sedated population, a high increase in invasive pulse pressure (>23%) or even in non-invasive pulse pressure (>35%) reliably detected a response to fluid. In the absence of a marked increase in pulse pressure (<4-5%), a response to fluid was unlikely.

  19. Connective tissue diseases and noninvasive evaluation of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardita G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio Ardita, Giacomo Failla, Paolo Maria Finocchiaro, Francesco Mugno, Luigi Attanasio, Salvatore Timineri, Michelangelo Maria Di SalvoCardiovascular Department, Angiology Unit, Ferrarotto Hospital, Catania, ItalyAbstract: Connective tissue diseases (CTDs are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to accelerated atherosclerosis. In patients with autoimmune disorders, in addition to traditional risk factors, an immune-mediated inflammatory process of the vasculature seems to contribute to atherogenesis. Several pathogenetic mechanisms have been proposed, including chronic inflammation and immunologic abnormalities, both able to produce vascular damage. Macrovascular atherosclerosis can be noninvasively evaluated by ultrasound measurement of carotid or femoral plaque. Subclinical atherosclerosis can be evaluated by well-established noninvasive techniques which rely on ultrasound detection of carotid intima-media thickness. Flow-mediated vasodilatation and arterial stiffness are considered markers of endothelial dysfunction and subclinical atherosclerosis, respectively, and have been recently found to be impaired early in a wide spectrum of autoimmune diseases. Carotid intima-media thickness turns out to be a leading marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and many studies recognize its role as a predictor of future vascular events, both in non-CTD individuals and in CTD patients. In rheumatic diseases, flow-mediated dilatation and arterial stiffness prove to be strongly correlated with inflammation, disease damage index, and with subclinical atherosclerosis, although their prognostic role has not yet been conclusively shown. Systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and likely antiphospholipid syndrome are better associated with premature and accelerated atherosclerosis. Inconclusive results were reported in systemic sclerosis.Keywords: rheumatic disease, subclinical atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness

  20. Noninvasive Assessment of Tumor Cell Proliferation in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Edinger

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Revealing the mechanisms of neoplastic disease and enhancing our ability to intervene in these processes requires an increased understanding of cellular and molecular changes as they occur in intact living animal models. We have begun to address these needs by developing a method of labeling tumor cells through constitutive expression of an optical reporter gene, noninvasively monitoring cellular proliferation in vivo using a sensitive photon detection system. A stable line of HeLa cells that expressed a modified firefly luciferase gene was generated, proliferation of these cells in irradiated severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice was monitored. Tumor cells were introduced into animals via subcutaneous, intraperitoneal and intravenous inoculation and whole body images, that revealed tumor location and growth kinetics, were obtained. The number of photons that were emitted from the labeled tumor cells and transmitted through murine tissues was sufficient to detect 1×103 cells in the peritoneal cavity, 1×104 cells at subcutaneous sites and 1×106 circulating cells immediately following injection. The kinetics of cell proliferation, as measured by photon emission, was exponential in the peritoneal cavity and at subcutaneous sites. Intravenous inoculation resulted in detectable colonies of tumor cells in animals receiving more than 1×103 cells. Our demonstrated ability to detect small numbers of tumor cells in living animals noninvasively suggests that therapies designed to treat minimal disease states, as occur early in the disease course and after elimination of the tumor mass, may be monitored using this approach. Moreover, it may be possible to monitor micrometastases and evaluate the molecular steps in the metastatic process. Spatiotemporal analyses of neoplasia will improve the predictability of animal models of human disease as study groups can be followed over time, this method will accelerate development of novel therapeutic

  1. Operational indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the operational indicators related to budget, travel costs and tickets, the evolution of the annual program for regulatory inspection, the scientific production, requested patents and the numbers related to the production of the services offered by the Institution

  2. Non-invasive examination method for cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    CT is superior in the diagnosis of the characteristics and the region of cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) to the examination with RI. The RI examination can only demonstrate the cerebrovascular diseases with large area disturbance of the cerebral cortex, that passed some days after the attack. Moreover, it is difficult to detect the small lesions or the lesions localized in the deep area such as the basal nucleus and the internal capsule by this method. A slight decrease and retardation in unilateral cerebral blood flow (under 20%, within 1.5 second) found by RI-angiography does not always indicate the side of the lesion of cerebrovascular diseases. It is expected that non-invasive examination method for CVD is improved more, and that more precise estimation method for regional cerebral circulation is developed. (Tsunoda, M.)

  3. Fetal motion estimation from noninvasive cardiac signal recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglari, Hadis; Sameni, Reza

    2016-11-01

    Fetal motility is a widely accepted indicator of the well-being of a fetus. In previous research, it has be shown that fetal motion (FM) is coherent with fetal heart rate accelerations and an indicator for active/rest cycles of the fetus. The most common approach for FM and fetal heart rate (FHR) assessment is by Doppler ultrasound (DUS). While DUS is the most common approach for studying the mechanical activities of the heart, noninvasive fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) and magnetocardiogram (MCG) recording and processing techniques have been considered as a possible competitor (or complement) for the DUS. In this study, a fully automatic and robust framework is proposed for the extraction, ranking and alignment of fetal QRS-complexes from noninvasive fetal ECG/MCG. Using notions from subspace tracking, two measures, namely the actogram and rotatogram, are defined for fetal motion tracking. The method is applied to four fetal ECG/MCG databases, including twin MCG recordings. By defining a novel measure of causality, it is shown that there is significant coherency and causal relationship between the actogram/rotatogram and FHR accelerations/decelerations. Using this measure, it is shown that in many cases, the actogram and rotatogram precede the FHR variations, which supports the idea of motion-induced FHR accelerations/decelerations for these cases and raises attention for the non-motion-induced FHR variations, which can be associated to the fetal central nervous system developments. The results of this study can lead to novel perspectives of the fetal sympathetic and parasympathetic brain systems and future requirements of fetal cardiac monitoring.

  4. Digestive enzyme ratios are good indicators of hatchling yolk reserve and digestive gland maturation in early life stages of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L.: application of these new tools in ecology and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Georges; Martinez, A S; Le Pabic, C; Le Bihan, E; Robin, J P; Koueta, N

    2018-01-01

    In Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), the digestive gland matures during the first month post-hatching, while a shift from intracellular acid to extracellular alkaline digestion occurs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of using enzymatic ratios for the description of digestive system maturation in early life stages of S. officinalis. Second, it is intended to apply these new tools as eco-physiological indicators for understanding the impact of cuttlefish eggs' life history from different spawning sites of the English Channel on digestive performance of juveniles. An experimental rearing was performed over 35 days after hatching (DAH) on juveniles from wild collected eggs in 2010 and 2011. Four digestive enzyme activities and their ratios [i.e., trypsin, cathepsin, acid (ACP), and alkaline (ALP) phosphatase, ALP/ACP, and trypsin/cathepsin] were studied along with histological features (e.g., internal yolk surface and digestive gland development). The two enzyme ratios were good indicators of digestive system maturation allowing the study of the digestive gland's development. They were highly correlated to juveniles' weight increase and histological features of the gland in early DAH. These ratios described more accurately the shift occurring between the intracellular acid and the extracellular alkaline modes of digestion in S. officinalis and were more specific than separated enzyme activities. Their application as eco-physiological tools revealed that enzyme ratios reflected yolk content and digestive gland development in new hatching juveniles. Finally, ALP/ACP ratio was shown to be a powerful tool to describe growth performance of S. officinalis which is useful for aquaculture optimization.

  5. Non-invasive assessment of gastric activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, R.H.; Brown, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    There have been many suggestions for the routine clinical use of the electro-enterogram, but with the exception of the reported usage in the USSR no significant penetration into medical practice has been reported elsewhere. Amongst the many suggestions have been the possible application of electrical stimulation via surface electrodes to overcome post-operative inhibition of intestinal electrical activity, which can be recorded via surface electrodes. Gastric emptying studies have shown that duodenal ulceration is associated with changes in the rate and pattern of emptying of solid meals. Identifiable patterns in the electro-gastrogram following a metal might have diagnostic application. There is some evidence of correlations of electrical activity and pathology in the large intestine. In the colon diverticular disease has been shown to change the frequency content of the slow wave electrical activity and there is some evidence that this might be recorded from surface electrodes. A major obstacle to progress remains the inability to relate non-invasive recordings to intestinal motility. The best hope may be the use of direct and yet non-invasive methods of obtaining motility and in this context real-time ultrasound imaging is probably the most promising technique. The electro-gastrogram has certainly been shown to allow recording of gastric slow wave activity and there is a reasonable hope that further methods of analysis will allow inferential information on motility to be obtained. The following section makes brief mention of these techniques

  6. The Use of Fetal Noninvasive Electrocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Lakhno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is one of the severe complications of pregnancy that leads to fetal deterioration. The aim was to survey the validity of fetal distress diagnostics in case of Doppler ultrasonic umbilical vein and arteries blood flow velocity investigation and ECG parameters analysis obtained from maternal abdominal signal before labor in preeclamptic patients. Fetal noninvasive ECG and umbilical arterial and venous Doppler investigation were performed in 120 patients at 34–40 weeks of gestation. And 30 of them had physiological gestation and were involved in Group I. In Group II 52 pregnant women with mild-moderate PE were observed. 38 patients with severe PE were monitored in Group III. The most considerable negative correlation was determined in pair Apgar score 1 versus T/QRS (R=-0.50; p<0.05. So the increased T/QRS ratio was the most evident marker of fetal distress. Fetal noninvasive ECG showed sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 98.4% and, therefore, was determined as more accurate method for fetal monitoring.

  7. Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilatory Support Begins During Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, John R

    2017-12-01

    The goal of sleep doctors has been to titrate away apneas and hypopneas using noninvasive ventilation, a term that has become synonymous with continuous positive airway pressure and bilevel positive airway pressure at the lowest effective bilevel settings. It is now time to appreciate noninvasive ventilatory support as an alternative to invasive mechanical ventilation. This article discusses mechanisms of action, two paradigms, and ancillary techniques for noninvasive ventilatory support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Noninvasive radioisotopic technique for detection of platelet deposition in mitral valve prostheses and quantitation of visceral microembolism in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Fuster, V.; Rao, S.A.; Forshaw, P.L.; Kaye, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    A noninvasive technique has been developed in the dog model for imaging, with a gamma camera, the platelet deposition on Bjoerk-Shiley mitral valve prostheses early postoperatively. At 25 hours after implantation of the prosthesis and 24 hours after intravenous administration of 400 to 500 microCi of platelets labeled with indium-111, the platelet deposition in the sewing ring and perivalvular cardiac tissue can be clearly delineated in a scintiphotograph. An in vitro technique was also developed for quantitation of visceral microemboli in brain, lungs, kidneys, and other tissues. Biodistribution of the labeled platelets was quantitated, and the tissue/blood radioactivity ratio was determined in 22 dogs in four groups: unoperated normal dogs, sham-operated dogs, prosthesis-implanted dogs, and prosthesis-implanted dogs treated with dipyridamole before and aspirin and dipyridamole immediately after operation. Fifteen to 20% of total platelets were consumed as a consequence of the surgical procedure. On quantitation, we found that platelet deposition on the components of the prostheses was significantly reduced in prosthesis-implanted animals treated with dipyridamole and aspirin when compared with prosthesis-implanted, untreated dogs. All prosthesis-implanted animals considered together had a twofold to fourfold increase in tissue/blood radioactivity ratio in comparison with unoperated and sham-operated animals, an indication that the viscera work as filters and trap platelet microemboli that are presumably produced in the region of the mitral valve prostheses. In the dog model, indium-111-labeled platelets thus provide a sensitive marker for noninvasive imaging of platelet deposition on mechanical mitral valve prostheses, in vitro evaluation of platelet microembolism in viscera, in vitro quantitation of surgical consumption of platelets, and evaluation of platelet-inhibitor drugs

  9. A New Method for Noninvasive Genetic Sampling of Saliva in Ecological Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lobo

    Full Text Available Noninvasive samples for genetic analyses have become essential to address ecological questions. Popular noninvasive samples such as faeces contain degraded DNA which may compromise genotyping success. Saliva is an excellent alternative DNA source but scarcity of suitable collection methods makes its use anecdotal in field ecological studies. We develop a noninvasive method of collection that combines baits and porous materials able to capture saliva. We report its potential in optimal conditions, using confined dogs and collecting saliva early after deposition. DNA concentration in saliva extracts was generally high (mean 14 ng μl(-1. We correctly identified individuals in 78% of samples conservatively using ten microsatellite loci, and 90% of samples using only eight loci. Consensus genotypes closely matched reference genotypes obtained from hair DNA (99% of identification successes and 91% of failures. Mean genotyping effort needed for identification using ten loci was 2.2 replicates. Genotyping errors occurred at a very low frequency (allelic dropout: 2.3%; false alleles: 1.5%. Individual identification success increased with duration of substrate handling inside dog's mouth and the volume of saliva collected. Low identification success was associated with baits rich in DNA-oxidant polyphenols and DNA concentrations <1 ng μl(-1. The procedure performed at least as well as other noninvasive methods, and could advantageously allow detection of socially low-ranked individuals underrepresented in sources of DNA that are involved in marking behaviour (faeces or urine. Once adapted and refined, there is promise for this technique to allow potentially high rates of individual identification in ecological field studies requiring noninvasive sampling of wild vertebrates.

  10. Clinical application of noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Chuanlong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic fibrosis is the common outcome of chronic liver diseases of various causes. At present, liver biopsy is the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis, but it has limitations and is invasive, which leads to the development of noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis. The article mainly introduces the technology and application of noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis from the aspects of clinical manifestation, serology, and radiology. It has pointed out the clinical value of these noninvasive diagnosis techniques, and it discusses the progress in clinical research and its limitations for noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis.

  11. Noninvasive ventilation in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bellone

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The term noninvasive ventilation (NIV encompasses two different modes of delivering positive airway pressure, namely continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP and bilevel positive airway pressure (bilevel-PAP. The two modes are different since CPAP does not actively assist inspiration whereas bilevel-PAP does. Bilevel-PAP is a type of noninvasive ventilation that helps keep the upper airways of the lungs open by providing a flow of air delivered through a face mask. The air is pressurized by a machine, which delivers it to the face mask through long, plastic hosing. With bilevel-PAP, the doctor prescribes specific alternating pressures: a higher pressure is used to breathe in (inspiratory positive airway pressure and a lower pressure is used to breath out (expiratory positive airway pressure. Noninvasive ventilation has been shown to reduce the rate of tracheal intubation. The main indications are exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE. This last is a common cause of respiratory failure with high incidence and high mortality rate. Clinical findings of ACPE are related to the increased extra-vascular water in the lungs and the resulting reduced lung compliance, increased airway resistance and elevated inspiratory muscle load which generates a depression in pleural pressure. These large pleural pressure swings are responsible for hemodynamic changes by increasing left ventricular afterload, myocardial transmural pressure, and venous return. These alterations can be detrimental to patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Under these circumstances, NIV, either by CPAP or bilevel-PAP, improves vital signs, gas exchange, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics by reducing left ventricular afterload and preload. In the first randomized study which compared the effectiveness of CPAP plus medical treatment vs medical treatment alone, the CPAP group showed a significant decrease in its

  12. Noninvasive photoacoustic computed tomography of mouse brain metabolism in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junjie; Xia, Jun; Maslov, Konstantin; Avanaki, Mohammadreza R. N.; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Demchenko, Alexei V.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-03-01

    To control the overall action of the body, brain consumes a large amount of energy in proportion to its volume. In humans and many other species, the brain gets most of its energy from oxygen-dependent metabolism of glucose. An abnormal metabolic rate of glucose and/or oxygen usually reflects a diseased status of brain, such as cancer or Alzheimer's disease. We have demonstrated the feasibility of imaging mouse brain metabolism using photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT), a fast, noninvasive and functional imaging modality with optical contrast and acoustic resolution. Brain responses to forepaw stimulations were imaged transdermally and transcranially. 2-NBDG, which diffuses well across the blood-brain-barrier, provided exogenous contrast for photoacoustic imaging of glucose response. Concurrently, hemoglobin provided endogenous contrast for photoacoustic imaging of hemodynamic response. Glucose and hemodynamic responses were quantitatively unmixed by using two-wavelength measurements. We found that glucose uptake and blood perfusion around the somatosensory region of the contralateral hemisphere were both increased by stimulations, indicating elevated neuron activity. The glucose response amplitude was about half that of the hemodynamic response. While the glucose response area was more homogenous and confined within the somatosensory region, the hemodynamic response area showed a clear vascular pattern and spread about twice as wide as that of the glucose response. The PACT of mouse brain metabolism was validated by high-resolution open-scalp OR-PAM and fluorescence imaging. Our results demonstrate that 2-NBDG-enhanced PACT is a promising tool for noninvasive studies of brain metabolism.

  13. Noninvasive treatment alternative for intractable startle epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Klinkenberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a treatment alternative for intractable, startle-provoked, epileptic seizures in four children aged between 8 and 14. Three of the four children had symptomatic localization-related epilepsy. They all suffered from intractable epilepsy precipitated by sudden sounds. The fact that seizures tended to occur with high frequency – more than one seizure a day – had a clear impact on daily life. Clinical seizure pattern demonstrated asymmetric tonic posturing in all four children. Three children experienced several seizure types including focal seizure onset. All children had focal neurological signs or learning disabilities or a combination of both. Our noninvasive treatment method using psychoeducational counseling and sound generators was applied in four children, resulting in a seizure frequency reduction of ≥50% in two of them.

  14. Ultrasonography for Noninvasive Assessment of Portal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Hitoshi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2017-07-15

    Portal hypertension is a major pathophysiology in patients with cirrhosis. Portal pressure is the gold standard to evaluate the severity of portal hypertension, and radiological intervention is the only procedure for pressure measurement. Ultrasound (US) is a simple and noninvasive imaging modality available worldwide. B-mode imaging allows broad applications for patients to detect and characterize chronic liver diseases and focal hepatic lesions. The Doppler technique offers real-time observation of blood flow with qualitative and quantitative assessments, and the application of microbubble-based contrast agents has improved the detectability of peripheral blood flow. In addition, elastography for the liver and spleen covers a wider field beyond the original purpose of fibrosis assessment. These developments enhance the practical use of US in the evaluation of portal hemodynamic abnormalities. This article reviews the recent progress of US in the assessment of portal hypertension.

  15. Noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Allyson C; Ramkumar, Mukund; Nguyen, Tam; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2009-02-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that can modulate activity in specific regions of the cortex. At this point, their use in brain stimulation is primarily investigational; however, there is clear evidence that these tools can reduce pain and modify neurophysiologic correlates of the pain experience. TMS has also been used to predict response to surgically implanted stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain. Furthermore, TMS and tDCS can be applied with other techniques, such as event-related potentials and pharmacologic manipulation, to illuminate the underlying physiologic mechanisms of normal and pathological pain. This review presents a description and overview of the uses of two major brain stimulation techniques and a listing of useful references for further study.

  16. Noninvasive Retinal Markers in Diabetic Retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blindbæk, Søren Leer; Torp, Thomas Lee; Lundberg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    The retinal vascular system is the only part of the human body available for direct, in vivo inspection. Noninvasive retinal markers are important to identity patients in risk of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Studies have correlated structural features like retinal vascular caliber...... and fractals with micro- and macrovascular dysfunction in diabetes. Likewise, the retinal metabolism can be evaluated by retinal oximetry, and higher retinal venular oxygen saturation has been demonstrated in patients with diabetic retinopathy. So far, most studies have been cross-sectional, but these can only...... retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. The Department of Ophthalmology at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, has a strong tradition of studying the retinal microvasculature in diabetic retinopathy. In the present paper, we demonstrate the importance of the retinal vasculature not only as predictors of long...

  17. Epilepsy surgery in children and non-invasive evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Kiyotaka; Sawamura, Atsushi; Yoshida, Katsunari; Tsuda, Hiroshige; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Shigeya

    2001-01-01

    The technique of EEG recording using subdural and depth electrodes has became established, and such invasive EEG is available for epilepsy surgery. However, a non-invasive procedure is required for evaluation of surgical indication for epilepsy patients, particular for children. We analyzed the relationship between the results of presurgical evaluation and seizure outcome, and investigated the role of invasive EEG in epilepsy surgery for children. Over the past decade, 22 children under 16 years of age have been admitted to our hospital for evaluation of surgical indication. High-resolution MR imaging, MR spectroscopy, video-EEG monitoring, and ictal and interictal SPECT were used for presurgical evaluation. Organic lesions were found on MR images from 19 patients. Invasive EEG was recorded in only one patient with occipital epilepsy, who had no lesion. Surgical indication was determined in 17 children, and 6 temporal lobe and 11 extratemporal lobe resections were performed under intraoperative electrocorticogram monitoring. The surgical outcome was excellent in 14 patients who had Engel's class I or II. Surgical complications occurred in two children who had visual field defects. The results showed that a good surgical outcome could be obtained using an intraoperative electrocorticogram, without presurgical invasive EEG, for localization-related epilepsy in children. The role of invasive EEG should be reevaluated in such children. (author)

  18. Epilepsy surgery in children and non-invasive evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, Kiyotaka; Sawamura, Atsushi; Yoshida, Katsunari; Tsuda, Hiroshige; Tanaka, Tatsuya [Asahikawa Medical Coll., Hokkaido (Japan); Tanaka, Shigeya

    2001-04-01

    The technique of EEG recording using subdural and depth electrodes has became established, and such invasive EEG is available for epilepsy surgery. However, a non-invasive procedure is required for evaluation of surgical indication for epilepsy patients, particular for children. We analyzed the relationship between the results of presurgical evaluation and seizure outcome, and investigated the role of invasive EEG in epilepsy surgery for children. Over the past decade, 22 children under 16 years of age have been admitted to our hospital for evaluation of surgical indication. High-resolution MR imaging, MR spectroscopy, video-EEG monitoring, and ictal and interictal SPECT were used for presurgical evaluation. Organic lesions were found on MR images from 19 patients. Invasive EEG was recorded in only one patient with occipital epilepsy, who had no lesion. Surgical indication was determined in 17 children, and 6 temporal lobe and 11 extratemporal lobe resections were performed under intraoperative electrocorticogram monitoring. The surgical outcome was excellent in 14 patients who had Engel's class I or II. Surgical complications occurred in two children who had visual field defects. The results showed that a good surgical outcome could be obtained using an intraoperative electrocorticogram, without presurgical invasive EEG, for localization-related epilepsy in children. The role of invasive EEG should be reevaluated in such children. (author)

  19. [A Case of Noninvasive Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast in a Male].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yamato; Ishiba, Toshiyuki; Oda, Goshi; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Aburatani, Tomoki; Ogo, Taiichi; Nakashima, Yutaka; Baba, Hironobu; Hoshino, Naoaki; Nishioka, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Tatsuyuki; Itoh, Takashi; Kirimura, Susumu; Kobayashi, Hirotoshi

    2017-11-01

    Breast cancer in male is rare, accounting for 1%of all breast cancers.Among male breast cancers, noninvasive carcinoma is extremely rare.We experienced a case of noninvasive carcinoma of the breast in a male.A 72-year-old male was referred to our hospital with a chief complaint of the tumor and blood secretion from the left nipple.Mammography revealed a highdensity mass.Ultrasound examination revealed low echoic mass at the E area, and it measured 1.5 cm.Core needle biopsy failed to provide a definitive diagnosis, and we performed an excisional biopsy of the tumor.The pathological diagnosis was noninvasive ductal carcinoma.He underwent a mastectomy without sentinel lymph node biopsy because the resection margin was positive.The patient received no adjuvant therapy and the patient's postoperative course was uneventful for 1 year.As there have been few reports on male noninvasive ductal carcinoma, we do not have evidence for indication of the sentinel lymph nodes and postoperative adjuvant therapy such as tamoxifen.We may confuse the treatment policy.

  20. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in acute asthmatic attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soroksky

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterised by reversible airway obstruction. In most patients, control of disease activity is easily achieved. However, in a small minority, asthma may be fatal. Between the two extremes lie patients with severe asthmatic attacks, refractory to standard treatment. These patients are at an increased risk of recurrent severe attacks, with respiratory failure, and mechanical ventilation. Invasive mechanical ventilation of the asthmatic patient is associated with a higher risk of complications and, therefore, is a measure of last resort. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV is another treatment modality that may be beneficial in patients with severe asthmatic attack who are at an increased risk of developing respiratory failure. These patients have the potential to benefit from early respiratory support in the form of NPPV. However, reports of NPPV in asthmatic patients are scarce, and its usage in asthmatic attacks is, therefore, still controversial. Only a few reports of NPPV in asthma have been published over the last decade. These studies mostly involve small numbers of patients and those who have problematic methodology. In this article we review the available evidence for NPPV in asthma and try to formulate our recommendations for NPPV application in asthma based on the available evidence and reports.

  1. 21 CFR 870.5550 - External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker... § 870.5550 External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive). (a) Identification. An external transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive) is a device used to supply a periodic electrical pulse intended to...

  2. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brønfort, Gert; Haas, Mitchell; Evans, Roni L.; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Assendelft, Willem J.J.; Bouter, Lex M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Non-invasive physical treatments are often used to treat common types of chronic/recurrent headache. Objectives: To quantify and compare the magnitude of short- and long-term effects of non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headaches. Search methods: We searched the

  3. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronfort, G.; Nilsson, N.; Haas, M.; Evans, R.; Goldsmith, C. H.; Assendelft, W. J.; Bouter, L. M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive physical treatments are often used to treat common types of chronic/recurrent headache. OBJECTIVES: To quantify and compare the magnitude of short- and long-term effects of non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headaches. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the

  4. An uncommon case of noninvasive ocular surface squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We describe a rare case of noninvasive OSSN involving the entire cornea in a human immunodeficiency virus‑negative patient. The patient was successfully treated with no recurrence, after intact surgical removal, mitomycin C treatment, and cryotherapy. Keywords: Noninvasive ocular surface squamous neoplasia, ocular ...

  5. Techniques for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Arterial Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S. Meidert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since both, hypotension and hypertension, can potentially impair the function of vital organs such as heart, brain, or kidneys, monitoring of arterial blood pressure (BP is a mainstay of hemodynamic monitoring in acutely or critically ill patients. Arterial BP can either be obtained invasively via an arterial catheter or non-invasively. Non-invasive BP measurement provides either intermittent or continuous readings. Most commonly, an occluding upper arm cuff is used for intermittent non-invasive monitoring. BP values are then obtained either manually (by auscultation of Korotkoff sounds or palpation or automatically (e.g., by oscillometry. For continuous non-invasive BP monitoring, the volume clamp method or arterial applanation tonometry can be used. Both techniques enable the arterial waveform and BP values to be obtained continuously. This article describes the different techniques for non-invasive BP measurement, their advantages and limitations, and their clinical applicability.

  6. Noninvasive Monitoring of Pneumococcal Meningitis and Evaluation of Treatment Efficacy in an Experimental Mouse Model*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagath L. Kadurugamuwa

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive real-time in vivo bioluminescent imaging was used to assess the spread of Streptococcus pneumoniae throughout the spinal cord and brain during the acute stages of bacterial meningitis. A mouse model was established by lumbar (LP or intracisternal (IC injection of bioluminescent S. pneumoniae into the subarachnoid space. Bacteria replicated initially at the site of inoculation and spread progressively from the spinal cord to the brain or from the brain down to the cervical part of the spinal column and to the lower vertebral levels. After 24 hr, animals showed strong bioluminescent signals throughout the spinal canal, indicating acute meningitis of the intracranial and intraspinal meninges. A decline in bacterial cell viability, as judged by a reduction in the bioluminescent signal, was observed over time in animals treated with ceftriaxone, but not in untreated groups. Mice treated with the antibiotic survived infection, whereas all mice in untreated groups became moribund, first in the IC group then in the LP group. No untreated animal survived beyond 48 hr after induction of infection. Colony counts of infected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF correlated positively with bioluminescent signals. This methodology is especially appealing because it allows detecting infected mice as early as 3 hr after inoculation, provide temporal, sequential, and spatial distribution of bacteria within the brain and spinal cord throughout the entire disease process and the rapid monitoring of treatment efficacy in a nondestructive manner. Moreover, it avoids the need to sacrifice the animals for CSF sampling and the potential manipulative damage that can occur with other conventional methods.

  7. Serum Hepatocyte Growth Factor as A Non-Invasive Marker For Evaluation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgawad, M.R.; Wahba, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The change and the prognostic value of serum hepatocyte growth factor and AFP level in patients with cirrhosis and/or primary liver cancer (HCC) were investigated. The level of serum hepatocyte growth factor was determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and AFP was determined by using radioimmunoassay in 29 patients with cirrhosis. Twenty five patients with primary liver cancer (13 patients without nodular cirrhosis and 12 patients with nodular cirrhosis) were categorized according to tumour size (≤ or >5 cm) and the level of AFP (≤ or > 200 ng/dl). The correlation between serum AFP and hepatocyte growth factor were significantly increased (P 0.05). Serum AFP can significantly discriminate between all studied groups (P 0.001) except for the comparison between control and cirrhosis (P>0.05), and also between HCC and HCC without nodular cirrhosis and HCC with cirrhosis (P>0.05). Serum HGF and AFP levels were positively affected by tumour size and nodular cirrhosis (P<0.001). Also, serum HGF level was highly affected by the levels of serum AFP in HCC patients. Non-significant correlation was observed between serum hepatocyte growth factor and AFP in control, cirrhosis, cirrhosis and HCC patients with AFP ? 200 ng/dl. It could be concluded that the over expressions of the hepatocyte growth factor and AFP may indicate an adverse prognosis for patients with cirrhosis and/or liver cancer. The sustained high level of serum hepatocyte growth factor in cirrhosis and/or HCC could be considered a factor related to early tumour diagnosis, so, serum HGF level may be used as a non-invasive marker in diagnosis and prognosis of liver malignancy. However, further studies are highly recommended to evaluate the role of HGF or its constituents in diagnosis and/or therapy in the future in a larger cohort of patients with different stages of liver malignancy

  8. Alteration of Political Belief by Non-invasive Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawke, Caroline; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-01-01

    People generally have imperfect introspective access to the mechanisms underlying their political beliefs, yet can confidently communicate the reasoning that goes into their decision making process. An innate desire for certainty and security in ones beliefs may play an important and somewhat automatic role in motivating the maintenance or rejection of partisan support. The aim of the current study was to clarify the role of the DLPFC in the alteration of political beliefs. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on the association between the DLPFC (a region involved in the regulation of cognitive conflict and error feedback processing) and reduced affiliation with opposing political candidates. As such, this study used a method of non-invasive brain simulation (tRNS) to enhance activity of the bilateral DLPFC during the incorporation of political campaign information. These findings indicate a crucial role for this region in political belief formation. However, enhanced activation of DLPFC does not necessarily result in the specific rejection of political beliefs. In contrast to the hypothesis the results appear to indicate a significant increase in conservative values regardless of participant's initial political orientation and the political campaign advertisement they were exposed to. PMID:26834603

  9. Noninvasive patient fixation for extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, Frank; Debus, Juergen; Frank, Claudia; Herfarth, Klaus; Pastyr, Otto; Rhein, Bernhard; Bahner, Malte L.; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the setup accuracy that can be achieved with a novel noninvasive patient fixation technique based on a body cast attached to a recently developed stereotactic body frame during fractionated extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Thirty-one CT studies (≥ 20 slices, thickness: 3 mm) from 5 patients who were immobilized in a body cast attached to a stereotactic body frame for treatment of para medullary tumors in the thoracic or lumbar spine were evaluated with respect to setup accuracy. The immobilization device consisted of a custom-made wrap-around body cast that extended from the neck to the thighs and a separate head mask, both made from Scotchcast. Each CT study was performed immediately before or after every second or third actual treatment fraction without repositioning the patient between CT and treatment. The stereotactic localization system was mounted and the isocenter as initially located stereo tactically was marked with fiducials for each CT study. Deviation of the treated isocenter as compared to the planned position was measured in all three dimensions. Results: The immobilization device can be easily handled, attached to and removed from the stereotactic frame and thus enables treatment of multiple patients with the same stereotactic frame each day. Mean patient movements of 1.6 mm ± 1.2 mm (laterolateral [LL]), 1.4 mm ± 1.0 mm (anterior-posterior [AP]), 2.3 mm ± 1.3 mm (transversal vectorial error [VE]) and < slice thickness = 3 mm (cranio caudal [CC]) were recorded for the targets in the thoracic spine and 1.4 mm ± 1.0 mm (LL), 1.2 mm ± 0.7 mm (AP), 1.8 mm ± 1.2 mm (VE), and < 3 mm (CC) for the lumbar spine. The worst case deviation was 3.9 mm for the first patient with the target in the thoracic spine (in the LL direction). Combining those numbers (mean transversal VE for both locations and maximum CC error of 3 mm), the mean three-dimensional vectorial patient movement and thus the mean overall

  10. Non-invasive brain stimulation in the detection of deception: scientific challenges and ethical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luber, Bruce; Fisher, Carl; Appelbaum, Paul S; Ploesser, Marcus; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2009-01-01

    Tools for noninvasive stimulation of the brain, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have provided new insights in the study of brain-behavior relationships due to their ability to directly alter cortical activity. In particular, TMS and tDCS have proven to be useful tools for establishing causal relationships between behavioral and brain imaging measures. As such, there has been interest in whether these tools may represent novel technologies for deception detection by altering a person's ability to engage brain networks involved in conscious deceit. Investigation of deceptive behavior using noninvasive brain stimulation is at an early stage. Here we review the existing literature on the application of noninvasive brain stimulation in the study of deception. Whether such approaches could be usefully applied to the detection of deception by altering a person's ability to engage brain networks involved in conscious deceit remains to be validated. Ethical and legal consequences of the development of such a technology are discussed. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Noninvasive detection of cardiac repair after acute myocardial infarction in rats by 111In fab fragment of monoclonal antibody specific for tenascin-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Kenichi; Uehara, Tomoya; Arano, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (MI) causes heart failure, and thus it is important to evaluate cardiac repair as the early stage of LV remodeling. Tenascin-C (TNC), an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, is transiently and abundantly expressed in the heart during the early stage of tissue remodeling after MI. However, it is not expressed in healthy adult heart. This study was undertaken to develop a new noninvasive diagnostic technique to detect cardiac repair after acute MI using 111 In Fab fragment of a monoclonal antibody specific for TNC. 111 In-anti-TNC-Fab was injected intravenously in 13 rats at 1 (D1, n=3), 3 (D3, n=5), and 5 (D5, n=5) days after producing MI and in 5 sham-operated rats (S). We performed autoradiography and dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography imaging (SPECT) of 111 In-anti-TNC-Fab and 99m Tc methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI). The radioactivity in the heart was significantly higher in D (D1, 0.45±0.06% injected-dose/g; D3, 0.64±0.12; D5, 0.38±0.07) than S (0.27±0.06, P 111 In-anti-TNC-Fab, which was complementary to the perfusion image. The results of the present study indicated that we can localize the infarcted region in the heart by ex vivo and in vivo imaging methods using 111 In-anti-TNC-Fab, and suggested the potential usefulness of noninvasive detection of cardiac repair. (author)

  12. Advancing ecological understandings through technological transformations in noninvasive genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beja-Pereira, Albano; Oliveira, Rita; Alves, Paulo C; Schwartz, Michael K; Luikart, Gordon

    2009-09-01

    Noninvasive genetic approaches continue to improve studies in molecular ecology, conservation genetics and related disciplines such as forensics and epidemiology. Noninvasive sampling allows genetic studies without disturbing or even seeing the target individuals. Although noninvasive genetic sampling has been used for wildlife studies since the 1990s, technological advances continue to make noninvasive approaches among the most used and rapidly advancing areas in genetics. Here, we review recent advances in noninvasive genetics and how they allow us to address important research and management questions thanks to improved techniques for DNA extraction, preservation, amplification and data analysis. We show that many advances come from the fields of forensics, human health and domestic animal health science, and suggest that molecular ecologists explore literature from these fields. Finally, we discuss how the combination of advances in each step of a noninvasive genetics study, along with fruitful areas for future research, will continually increase the power and role of noninvasive genetics in molecular ecology and conservation genetics. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Stroke rehabilitation using noninvasive cortical stimulation: aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylius, Veit; Zouari, Hela G; Ayache, Samar S; Farhat, Wassim H; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2012-08-01

    Poststroke aphasia results from the lesion of cortical areas involved in the motor production of speech (Broca's aphasia) or in the semantic aspects of language comprehension (Wernicke's aphasia). Such lesions produce an important reorganization of speech/language-specific brain networks due to an imbalance between cortical facilitation and inhibition. In fact, functional recovery is associated with changes in the excitability of the damaged neural structures and their connections. Two main mechanisms are involved in poststroke aphasia recovery: the recruitment of perilesional regions of the left hemisphere in case of small lesion and the acquisition of language processing ability in homotopic areas of the nondominant right hemisphere when left hemispheric language abilities are permanently lost. There is some evidence that noninvasive cortical stimulation, especially when combined with language therapy or other therapeutic approaches, can promote aphasia recovery. Cortical stimulation was mainly used to either increase perilesional excitability or reduce contralesional activity based on the concept of reciprocal inhibition and maladaptive plasticity. However, recent studies also showed some positive effects of the reinforcement of neural activities in the contralateral right hemisphere, based on the potential compensatory role of the nondominant hemisphere in stroke recovery.

  14. Noninvasive Diagnostic Technique in Stenotic Coronary Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Vasilyev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the sensitivity and specificity of combined stress echocardiography (EchoCG using dipyri-damole and dobutamine in diagnosing and defining the extent of stenotic coronary lesions in coronary heart disease (CHD in a group of critically ill patients who are unable to perform a physical exercise.Materials and methods: the study included 57 male patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome who underwent stress EchoCG using dipyridamole in high doses in combination with dobutamine, as well as coronary angiography.Results: stress EchoCG could bring up to the diagnostic criteria in all the patients, of whom 9 patients were found at coronary angiography to have no coronary lesion, 34 and 14 patients had one- and many-vessel lesions, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of combined stress EchoCG were significantly higher than those of EchoCG used in the diagnosis of CHD.Conclusion: stress EchoCG using dipyridamole in combination with dobutamine is a highly informative safe noninvasive technique for diagnosing CHD, its helps to identify patients with atypical acute coronary syndrome and to form a group of patients to be subject to urgent coronarography and angiosurgical intervention. The pattern of segmental contractile disorders at the height of exercise during combined stress Echo-CG makes it possible to define the site of stenotic coronary atherosclerosis with 97.3% sensitivity and to diagnose many-vessel lesion with 100% sensitivity and 100%specificity.

  15. Noninvasive Remote Sensing Techniques for Infrastructures Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Palombo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analyzing the potentialities of noninvasive remote sensing techniques used for detecting the conservation status of infrastructures. The applied remote sensing techniques are ground-based microwave radar interferometer and InfraRed Thermography (IRT to study a particular structure planned and made in the framework of the ISTIMES project (funded by the European Commission in the frame of a joint Call “ICT and Security” of the Seventh Framework Programme. To exploit the effectiveness of the high-resolution remote sensing techniques applied we will use the high-frequency thermal camera to measure the structures oscillations by high-frequency analysis and ground-based microwave radar interferometer to measure the dynamic displacement of several points belonging to a large structure. The paper describes the preliminary research results and discusses on the future applicability and techniques developments for integrating high-frequency time series data of the thermal imagery and ground-based microwave radar interferometer data.

  16. Non-invasive assessment of in-vitro embryo quality to improve transfer success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Although IVF has been performed routinely for many years to help couples with fertility problems and in relation to modern breeding of farm animals, pregnancy rates after transfer to a recipient have not improved during the last decade. Early prediction of the viability of in-vitro developed...... subjectively. The simple morphological approach is, however, inadequate for the prediction of embryo quality, and several studies have focused on developing new non-invasive methods using molecular approaches based particularly on proteomics, metabolomics and most recently small non-coding RNA, including micro...

  17. Portable non-invasive brain-computer interface: challenges and opportunities of optical modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Clara A.; Hendrickson, Scott M.; Swett, Bruce A.; Fitch, Michael J.; Walter, Erich C.; McLoughlin, Michael P.; Chevillet, Mark A.; Blodgett, David W.; Hwang, Grace M.

    2017-05-01

    The development of portable non-invasive brain computer interface technologies with higher spatio-temporal resolution has been motivated by the tremendous success seen with implanted devices. This talk will discuss efforts to overcome several major obstacles to viability including approaches that promise to improve spatial and temporal resolution. Optical approaches in particular will be highlighted and the potential benefits of both Blood-Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) and Fast Optical Signal (FOS) will be discussed. Early-stage research into the correlations between neural activity and FOS will be explored.

  18. Occlusal overload investigations by noninvasive technology: fluorescence microscopy and en-face optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcauteanu, Corina; Negrutiu, Meda; Sinescu, Cosmin; Demjan, Enikö; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study is the early detection and monitoring of occlusal overload in bruxing patients. En-Face Optical coherence tomography (eF-OCT) and fluorescence microscopy (FM) were used for the imaging of several anterior teeth extracted from patients with light active bruxism. We found a characteristic pattern of enamel cracks, that reached the tooth surface. We concluded that the combination of the en-Face OCT and FM is a promising non-invasive alternative technique for reliable monitoring of occlusal overload.

  19. Nanoparticle exposure biomonitoring: exposure/effect indicator development approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Desvergne, C.; Dubosson, M.; Lacombe, M.; Brun, V.; Mossuz, V.

    2015-05-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (NP) is more and more widespread in various industrial sectors. The inhalation route of exposure is a matter of concern (adverse effects of air pollution by ultrafine particles and asbestos). No NP biomonitoring recommendations or standards are available so far. The LBM laboratory is currently studying several approaches to develop bioindicators for occupational health applications. As regards exposure indicators, new tools are being implemented to assess potentially inhaled NP in non-invasive respiratory sampling (nasal sampling and exhaled breath condensates (EBC)). Diverse NP analytical characterization methods are used (ICP-MS, dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray analysis). As regards effect indicators, a methodology has been developed to assess a range of 29 cytokines in EBCs (potential respiratory inflammation due to NP exposure). Secondly, collaboration between the LBM laboratory and the EDyp team has allowed the EBC proteome to be characterized by means of an LC-MS/MS process. These projects are expected to facilitate the development of individual NP exposure biomonitoring tools and the analysis of early potential impacts on health. Innovative techniques such as field-flow fractionation combined with ICP-MS and single particle-ICPMS are currently being explored. These tools are directly intended to assist occupational physicians in the identification of exposure situations.

  20. Nanoparticle exposure biomonitoring: exposure/effect indicator development approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie-Desvergne, C; Dubosson, M; Mossuz, V; Lacombe, M; Brun, V

    2015-01-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (NP) is more and more widespread in various industrial sectors. The inhalation route of exposure is a matter of concern (adverse effects of air pollution by ultrafine particles and asbestos). No NP biomonitoring recommendations or standards are available so far. The LBM laboratory is currently studying several approaches to develop bioindicators for occupational health applications. As regards exposure indicators, new tools are being implemented to assess potentially inhaled NP in non-invasive respiratory sampling (nasal sampling and exhaled breath condensates (EBC)). Diverse NP analytical characterization methods are used (ICP-MS, dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray analysis). As regards effect indicators, a methodology has been developed to assess a range of 29 cytokines in EBCs (potential respiratory inflammation due to NP exposure). Secondly, collaboration between the LBM laboratory and the EDyp team has allowed the EBC proteome to be characterized by means of an LC-MS/MS process. These projects are expected to facilitate the development of individual NP exposure biomonitoring tools and the analysis of early potential impacts on health. Innovative techniques such as field-flow fractionation combined with ICP-MS and single particle-ICPMS are currently being explored. These tools are directly intended to assist occupational physicians in the identification of exposure situations. (paper)

  1. Evaluation of noninvasive tests for the preoperative staging of carcinoma of the esophagus: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inculet, R.I.; Keller, S.M.; Dwyer, A.; Roth, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to define the usefulness of conventional full-lung linear tomography, radionuclide liver plus spleen and bone scans, and thoracic and abdominal computed tomography for the preoperative staging of carcinoma of the esophagus. Thirty-three patients with carcinoma of the esophagus were studied. The computed tomographic (CT) scan of the thorax and upper abdomen was the single most accurate noninvasive study. With computed tomography, the relationship of the tumor to the tracheobronchial tree was the feature most useful in predicting local resectability. In all patients with the finding of tracheobronchial compression by the tumor, the tumor could not be resected completely. The predictive value of this CT finding in patients with locally unresectable tumor was high (0.83), indicating its usefulness in assessing unresectability. The CT finding of visible separation between tumor mass and tracheobronchial tree was present in 10 of 14 patients with locally resectable tumor (predictive value, 0.63). However, tumor abutting the tracheobronchial tree without compression was a poor predictor of unresectability (predictive value, 0.36). The radionuclide bone scan was the only other noninvasive study to demonstrate a metastasis not evident by CT scan. The combination of chest and abdominal CT scan, bone scan, and bronchoscopy before operation will accurately stage the majority of patients with esophageal cancer but no noninvasive test is of sufficient reliability to exclude patients from operative resection if otherwise indicated

  2. Non-invasive determination of the complete elastic moduli of spider silks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Kristie J.; Akhenblit, Paul; McKiernan, Keri; Yarger, Jeffery L.

    2013-03-01

    Spider silks possess nature’s most exceptional mechanical properties, with unrivalled extensibility and high tensile strength. Unfortunately, our understanding of silks is limited because the complete elastic response has never been measured—leaving a stark lack of essential fundamental information. Using non-invasive, non-destructive Brillouin light scattering, we obtain the entire stiffness tensors (revealing negative Poisson’s ratios), refractive indices, and longitudinal and transverse sound velocities for major and minor ampullate spider silks: Argiope aurantia, Latrodectus hesperus, Nephila clavipes, Peucetia viridans. These results completely quantify the linear elastic response for all possible deformation modes, information unobtainable with traditional stress-strain tests. For completeness, we apply the principles of Brillouin imaging to spatially map the elastic stiffnesses on a spider web without deforming or disrupting the web in a non-invasive, non-contact measurement, finding variation among discrete fibres, junctions and glue spots. Finally, we provide the stiffness changes that occur with supercontraction.

  3. A new brain stimulation method: Noninvasive transcranial magneto–acoustical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yi; Chen Yu-Dong; Li Xiao-Li

    2016-01-01

    We investigate transcranial magneto–acoustical stimulation (TMAS) for noninvasive brain neuromodulation in vivo. TMAS as a novel technique uses an ultrasound wave to induce an electric current in the brain tissue in the static magnetic field. It has the advantage of high spatial resolution and penetration depth. The mechanism of TMAS onto a neuron is analyzed by combining the TMAS principle and Hodgkin–Huxley neuron model. The anesthetized rats are stimulated by TMAS, resulting in the local field potentials which are recorded and analyzed. The simulation results show that TMAS can induce neuronal action potential. The experimental results indicate that TMAS can not only increase the amplitude of local field potentials but also enhance the effect of focused ultrasound stimulation on the neuromodulation. In summary, TMAS can accomplish brain neuromodulation, suggesting a potentially powerful noninvasive stimulation method to interfere with brain rhythms for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. (paper)

  4. Noninvasive Ventilation Intolerance: Characteristics, Predictors, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinhua; Duan, Jun; Bai, Linfu; Zhou, Lintong

    2016-03-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) intolerance is one reason for NIV failure. However, the characteristics, predictors, and outcomes of NIV intolerance are unclear. A prospective observational study was performed in the respiratory intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. Subjects with acute respiratory failure who used NIV were enrolled. Initially, continuous use of NIV was encouraged. However, if the subject could not tolerate NIV, it was used intermittently. NIV intolerance was defined as termination of NIV due to subject refusal to receive it because of discomfort, even after intermittent use was attempted. A total of 961 subjects were enrolled in the study. Of these, 50 subjects (5.2%) experienced NIV intolerance after a median 2.4 h of NIV support. Age (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.963-0.996) and heart rate (OR = 1.02, 95% CI 1.006-1.030) measured before NIV were 2 independent risk factors of NIV intolerance. After 1-2 h of NIV, independent risk factors of NIV intolerance were heart rate (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.016-1.044) and breathing frequency (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.027-1.099). Intolerant subjects had no improvement in mean arterial pressure, heart rate, or breathing frequency after the NIV intervention. Moreover, intolerant subjects had a higher intubation rate (44.0% vs 25.8%, P = .008) and higher mortality (34.0% vs 22.4%, P = .08). The three most common complaints were that NIV worsened subjects' distress (46%), that NIV resulted in dyspnea (26%), and that the flow or pressure of NIV was too strong to bear (16%). NIV intolerance worsened subjects' outcomes. Younger subjects with a high heart rate and breathing frequency may be more likely to experience NIV intolerance. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. Criteria to evaluate bone mineralization in cattle. II. Noninvasive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.N.; McDowell, L.R.; Lawrence, L.A.; Wilkinson, N.S.; Ferguson, P.W.; Warnick, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the capabilities of dual photon absorptiometry (PA), radiographic photometry (RP), and ultrasound (U) to estimate bone mineral content (BMC) and bone strength of a group of bovine third metacarpals (McIII). Metacarpals were chosen for evaluating BMC and bone strength because of their accessibility and susceptibility to biomechanical stress. The right and left McIII of 14 Angus heifers (24 to 32 mo of age) were collected at slaughter and all soft tissues (including periosteum) were removed. The BMC was estimated at both the midpoint and 3 cm proximal to the midpoint on the McIII diaphysis. Metacarpals then were tested by three-point bending to determine breaking load (BL) and breaking strength (BS). Bones were reassembled and two 2-cm sections were removed, one at the midpoint and one 1 cm proximal to the midpoint section. Sections then were ashed and ash content was expressed as grams per 2-cm slice and defined as BMC. Correlation coefficients (r) between BMC vs PA, RP, and U were .908 (P < .0001), .967 (P < .0001), and .565 (P < .0001), respectively; r values between BS vs PA, RP, and U were .406 (P < 05), .429 (P < .05), and .499 (P < .01), respectively, and r values between BL vs PA, RP, and U were .870 (P < .0001), .865 (P < .0001), and .588 (P < .001), respectively. These data indicate that noninvasive techniques are useful in predicting BMC and BL in the bovine

  6. Noninvasive optical monitoring multiple physiological parameters response to cytokine storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zebin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Cancer and other disease originated by immune or genetic problems have become a main cause of death. Gene/cell therapy is a highlighted potential method for the treatment of these diseases. However, during the treatment, it always causes cytokine storm, which probably trigger acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure. Here we developed a point-of-care device for noninvasive monitoring cytokine storm induced multiple physiological parameters simultaneously. Oxy-hemoglobin, deoxy-hemoglobin, water concentration and deep-tissue/tumor temperature variations were simultaneously measured by extended near infrared spectroscopy. Detection algorithms of symptoms such as shock, edema, deep-tissue fever and tissue fibrosis were developed and included. Based on these measurements, modeling of patient tolerance and cytokine storm intensity were carried out. This custom device was tested on patients experiencing cytokine storm in intensive care unit. The preliminary data indicated the potential of our device in popular and milestone gene/cell therapy, especially, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell immunotherapy (CAR-T).

  7. Use of Noninvasive Ventilation During Feeding Tube Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Paolo; Volpato, Eleonora; Valota, Chiara; D'Ascenzo, Salvatore; Alunno, Chiara Bani; Lax, Agata; Nicolini, Antonello; Ticozzi, Nicola; Silani, Vincenzo; Bach, John R

    2017-11-01

    Parenteral nutrition is indicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) when dysphagia, loss of appetite, and difficulty protecting the airways cause malnutrition, severe weight loss, dehydration, and increased risk of aspiration pneumonia. The aim of this review is to compare percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), radiologically inserted G-tube (RIG), and percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy (PRG) in patients with ALS, performed with or without noninvasive ventilation (NIV). We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the EBSCO Online Research Database, and Scopus up to December 2015. A priori selection included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomized trials, and prospective and retrospective studies. The primary outcome was 30-d survival. We found no RCTs or quasi-RCTs. Seven studies about the implementation of the PEG/RIG procedure during the use of NIV and 5 studies without NIV were included. In another study of 59 subjects undergoing open gastrostomy, all with vital capacity NIV at full ventilatory support settings, there were no respiratory complications. Thus, the use of NIV during the implementation of these procedures, especially when used at full ventilatory support settings of pressure preset 18-25 cm H 2 O, can support alveolar ventilation before, during, and after the procedures and prevent respiratory complications. The procedures investigated appear equivalent, but the methodological quality of the studies could be improved. Possible benefits with regard to nutrition parameters, quality of life, and psychological features need to be further investigated. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  8. A noninvasive multimodal technique to monitor brain tumor vascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Vishal; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Laug, Walter E.

    2007-09-01

    Determination of tumor oxygenation at the microvascular level will provide important insight into tumor growth, angiogenesis, necrosis and therapeutic response and will facilitate to develop protocols for studying tumor behavior. The non-ionizing near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique has the potential to differentiate lesion and hemoglobin dynamics; however, it has a limited spatial resolution. On the other hand, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has achieved high spatial resolution with excellent tissue discrimination but is more susceptible to limited ability to monitor the hemoglobin dynamics. In the present work, the vascular status and the pathophysiological changes that occur during tumor vascularization are studied in an orthotopic brain tumor model. A noninvasive multimodal approach based on the NIRS technique, namely steady state diffuse optical spectroscopy (SSDOS) along with MRI, is applied for monitoring the concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water within tumor region. The concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water within tumor vasculature are extracted at 15 discrete wavelengths in a spectral window of 675-780 nm. We found a direct correlation between tumor size, intratumoral microvessel density and tumor oxygenation. The relative decrease in tumor oxygenation with growth indicates that though blood vessels infiltrate and proliferate the tumor region, a hypoxic trend is clearly present.

  9. A noninvasive multimodal technique to monitor brain tumor vascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Vishal; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Laug, Walter E

    2007-01-01

    Determination of tumor oxygenation at the microvascular level will provide important insight into tumor growth, angiogenesis, necrosis and therapeutic response and will facilitate to develop protocols for studying tumor behavior. The non-ionizing near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique has the potential to differentiate lesion and hemoglobin dynamics; however, it has a limited spatial resolution. On the other hand, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has achieved high spatial resolution with excellent tissue discrimination but is more susceptible to limited ability to monitor the hemoglobin dynamics. In the present work, the vascular status and the pathophysiological changes that occur during tumor vascularization are studied in an orthotopic brain tumor model. A noninvasive multimodal approach based on the NIRS technique, namely steady state diffuse optical spectroscopy (SSDOS) along with MRI, is applied for monitoring the concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water within tumor region. The concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water within tumor vasculature are extracted at 15 discrete wavelengths in a spectral window of 675-780 nm. We found a direct correlation between tumor size, intratumoral microvessel density and tumor oxygenation. The relative decrease in tumor oxygenation with growth indicates that though blood vessels infiltrate and proliferate the tumor region, a hypoxic trend is clearly present

  10. New trend in non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, M; Carrera, P; Lampasona, V; Galbiati, S

    2015-12-07

    The presence of fetal DNA in maternal plasma represents a source of genetic material which can be obtained non-invasively. To date, the translation of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis from research into clinical practice has been rather fragmented, and despite the advances in improving the analytical sensitivity of methods, distinguishing between fetal and maternal sequences remains very challenging. Thus, the field of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of genetic diseases has yet to attain a routine application in clinical diagnostics. On the contrary, fetal sex determination in pregnancies at high risk of sex-linked disorders, tests for fetal RHD genotyping and non-invasive assessment of chromosomal aneuploidies are now available worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Noninvasive particle sizing using camera-based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance measurements are useful for noninvasive inspection of optical properties such as reduced scattering and absorption coefficients. Spectroscopic analysis of these optical properties can be used for particle sizing. Systems based on optical fiber probes are commonly employed...

  12. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in children by noninvasive stool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in children by noninvasive stool Antigen Enzyme Immunoassay. Augustine O. Ebonyi, Emeka Ejeliogu, Stanley T. Odigbo, Martha Omoo Ochoga, Stephen Oguche, Anejo-Okopi A. Joseph ...

  13. Noninvasive studies of human visual cortex using neuromagnetic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aine, C.J.; George, J.S.; Supek, S.; Maclin, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    The major goals of noninvasive studies of the human visual cortex are: to increase knowledge of the functional organization of cortical visual pathways; and to develop noninvasive clinical tests for the assessment of cortical function. Noninvasive techniques suitable for studies of the structure and function of human visual cortex include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), scalp recorded event-related potentials (ERPs), and event-related magnetic fields (ERFs). The primary challenge faced by noninvasive functional measures is to optimize the spatial and temporal resolution of the measurement and analytic techniques in order to effectively characterize the spatial and temporal variations in patterns of neuronal activity. In this paper we review the use of neuromagnetic techniques for this purpose. 8 refs., 3 figs

  14. Non-invasive beamforming add-on module

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    An embodiment of a non-invasive beamforming add-on apparatus couples to an existing antenna port and rectifies the beam azimuth in the upstream and downstream directions. The apparatus comprises input circuitry that is configured to receive one

  15. Comparing the Validity of Non-Invasive Methods in Measuring Thoracic Kyphosis and Lumbar Lordosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yousefi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the purpose of this article is to study the validity of each of the non-invasive methods (flexible ruler, spinal mouse, and processing the image versus the one through-Ray radiation (the basic method and comparing them with each other.Materials and Methods: for evaluating the validity of each of these non-invasive methods, the thoracic Kyphosis and lumber Lordosis angle of 20 students of Birjand University (age mean and standard deviation: 26±2, weight: 72±2.5 kg, height: 169±5.5 cm through fours methods of flexible ruler, spinal mouse, and image processing and X-ray.Results: the results indicated that the validity of the methods including flexible ruler, spinal mouse, and image processing in measuring the thoracic Kyphosis and lumber Lordosis angle respectively have an adherence of 0.81, 0.87, 0.73, 0.76, 0.83, 0.89 (p>0.05. As a result, regarding the gained validity against the golden method of X-ray, it could be stated that the three mentioned non-invasive methods have adequate validity. In addition, the one-way analysis of variance test indicated that there existed a meaningful relationship between the three methods of measuring the thoracic Kyphosis and lumber Lordosis, and with respect to the Tukey’s test result, the image processing method is the most precise one.Conclusion as a result, this method could be used along with other non-invasive methods as a valid measuring method.

  16. Behind a mask: tricks, pitfalls, and prejudices for noninvasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Stefano

    2013-08-01

    It is difficult to exactly date the beginning of mechanical ventilation, but there are no doubts that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) was the first method of ventilatory support in clinical practice. The technique had a sudden increase in popularity, so that it is now considered, according to criteria of evidence-based medicine, the first-line treatment for an episode of acute respiratory failure in 4 pathologies (the Fabulous Four): COPD exacerbation, cardiogenic pulmonary edema, pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised patients, and in the weaning of extubated COPD patients. The so-called emerging applications are those for which the evidence has not achieved level A, mainly because the number or sample size of the published studies does not allow conclusive meta-analysis. These emerging applications are the post-surgical period, palliation of dyspnea, asthma attack, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, and to prevent extubation failure. Potentially "risky business" uses include for respiratory failure from pandemic diseases and ARDS, where probably the "secret" for success is early use. Healthcare is rich in evidence-based innovations, yet even when such innovations are implemented successfully in one location, they often disseminate slowly, if at all, so their clinical use remains limited and heterogeneous. The low rate of NIV use in some hospitals relates to lack of knowledge about or experience with NIV, insufficient confidence in the technique, lack of NIV equipment, and inadequate funding. But NIV use has been increasing around the world, thanks partly to improved technologies. The skill and confidence of clinicians in NIV have improved with time and experience, but NIV is and should remain a team effort, rather than the property of a single local "champion," because, overall, NIV is beautiful!

  17. Clinical application of noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    ZHU Chuanlong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is the common outcome of chronic liver diseases of various causes. At present, liver biopsy is the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis, but it has limitations and is invasive, which leads to the development of noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis. The article mainly introduces the technology and application of noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis from the aspects of clinical manifestation, serology, and radiology. It has pointed out the clinical value o...

  18. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Stauber, Rudolf E; Lackner, Carolin

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of hepatic fibrosis is important for determining prognosis, guiding management decisions, and monitoring disease. Histological evaluation of liver biopsy specimens is currently considered the reference test for staging hepatic fibrosis. Since liver biopsy carries a small but significant risk, noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis are desirable. This editorial gives an overview on noninvasive methods currently available to determine hepatic fibrosis and their diagnostic accur...

  19. Determination of the differential expression of mitochondrial long non-coding RNAs as a noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Alexis; Burzio, Verónica; Landerer, Eduardo; Borgna, Vincenzo; Gatica, Sebastian; Ávila, Rodolfo; López, Constanza; Villota, Claudio; de la Fuente, Rodrigo; Echenique, Javiera; Burzio, Luis O; Villegas, Jaime

    2012-12-18

    Bladder cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality with a high recurrence rate. Early detection of bladder cancer is essential in order to remove the tumor, to preserve the organ and to avoid metastasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the differential expression of mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (sense and antisense) in cells isolated from voided urine of patients with bladder cancer as a noninvasive diagnostic assay. The differential expression of the sense (SncmtRNA) and the antisense (ASncmtRNAs) transcripts in cells isolated from voided urine was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The test uses a multiprobe mixture labeled with different fluorophores and takes about 1 hour to complete. We examined the expression of these transcripts in cells isolated from urine of 24 patients with bladder cancer and from 15 healthy donors. This study indicates that the SncmtRNA and the ASncmtRNAs are stable in cells present in urine. The test reveals that the expression pattern of the mitochondrial transcripts can discriminate between normal and tumor cells. The analysis of 24 urine samples from patients with bladder cancer revealed expression of the SncmtRNA and down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs. Exfoliated cells recovered from the urine of healthy donors do not express these mitochondrial transcripts. This is the first report showing that the differential expression of these mitochondrial transcripts can detect tumor cells in the urine of patients with low and high grade bladder cancer. This pilot study indicates that fluorescent in situ hybridization of cells from urine of patients with different grades of bladder cancer confirmed the tumor origin of these cells. Samples from the 24 patients with bladder cancer contain cells that express the SncmtRNA and down-regulate the ASncmtRNAs. In contrast, the hybridization of the few exfoliated cells recovered from healthy donors revealed no expression of these mitochondrial transcripts. This assay

  20. Determination of the differential expression of mitochondrial long non-coding RNAs as a noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas Alexis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality with a high recurrence rate. Early detection of bladder cancer is essential in order to remove the tumor, to preserve the organ and to avoid metastasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the differential expression of mitochondrial non-coding RNAs (sense and antisense in cells isolated from voided urine of patients with bladder cancer as a noninvasive diagnostic assay. Methods The differential expression of the sense (SncmtRNA and the antisense (ASncmtRNAs transcripts in cells isolated from voided urine was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The test uses a multiprobe mixture labeled with different fluorophores and takes about 1 hour to complete. We examined the expression of these transcripts in cells isolated from urine of 24 patients with bladder cancer and from 15 healthy donors. Results This study indicates that the SncmtRNA and the ASncmtRNAs are stable in cells present in urine. The test reveals that the expression pattern of the mitochondrial transcripts can discriminate between normal and tumor cells. The analysis of 24 urine samples from patients with bladder cancer revealed expression of the SncmtRNA and down-regulation of the ASncmtRNAs. Exfoliated cells recovered from the urine of healthy donors do not express these mitochondrial transcripts. This is the first report showing that the differential expression of these mitochondrial transcripts can detect tumor cells in the urine of patients with low and high grade bladder cancer. Conclusion This pilot study indicates that fluorescent in situ hybridization of cells from urine of patients with different grades of bladder cancer confirmed the tumor origin of these cells. Samples from the 24 patients with bladder cancer contain cells that express the SncmtRNA and down-regulate the ASncmtRNAs. In contrast, the hybridization of the few exfoliated cells recovered from healthy donors

  1. Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Using Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yu K.; Yuen, Tony; Jiang, Peiyong; Pina, Christian; Chan, K. C. Allen; Khattab, Ahmed; Liao, Gary J. W.; Yau, Mabel; Kim, Se-Min; Chiu, Rossa W. K.; Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone

    2014-01-01

    Context: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive condition that arises from mutations in CYP21A2 gene, which encodes for the steroidogenic enzyme 21-hydroxylase. To prevent genital ambiguity in affected female fetuses, prenatal treatment with dexamethasone must begin on or before gestational week 9. Currently used chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis provide genetic results at approximately 14 weeks of gestation at the earliest. This means that mothers who want to undergo prenatal dexamethasone treatment will be unnecessarily treating seven of eight fetuses (males and three of four unaffected females), emphasizing the desirability of earlier genetic diagnosis in utero. Objective: The objective of the study was to develop a noninvasive method for early prenatal diagnosis of fetuses at risk for CAH. Patients: Fourteen families, each with a proband affected by phenotypically classical CAH, were recruited. Design: Cell-free fetal DNA was obtained from 3.6 mL of maternal plasma. Using hybridization probes designed to capture a 6-Mb region flanking CYP21A2, targeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS) was performed to analyze genomic DNA samples from parents and proband to determine parental haplotypes. Plasma DNA from pregnant mothers also underwent targeted MPS to deduce fetal inheritance of parental haplotypes. Results: In all 14 families, the fetal CAH status was correctly deduced by targeted MPS of DNA in maternal plasma, as early as 5 weeks 6 days of gestation. Conclusions: MPS on 3.6 mL plasma from pregnant mothers could potentially provide the diagnosis of CAH, noninvasively, before the ninth week of gestation. Only affected female fetuses will thus be treated. Our strategy represents a generic approach for noninvasive prenatal testing for an array of autosomal recessive disorders. PMID:24606108

  2. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for fetal sex determination: benefits and disadvantages from the service users' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Celine; Hill, Melissa; Skirton, Heather; Chitty, Lyn S

    2012-11-01

    Prenatal fetal sex determination is clinically indicated for women who are at risk of having a child with a serious genetic disorder affecting a particular sex. Ultrasound has been the traditional method used, but early fetal sex determination using non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) can now be performed using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. The study aim was to assess the views and experiences of service users who had used NIPD for fetal sex determination. In this paper, we report on the perceived benefits and disadvantages. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was used. A total of 44 participants (38 women and 6 partners of participating women) were recruited. Participants' views and experiences of NIPD were overwhelmingly positive. Concerning benefits over traditional methods, three themes emerged: (1) technical aspects of technology; (2) timing; and (3) enhanced decision-making. Practical advantages of NIPD included avoiding miscarriage, and there were a number of psychological advantages associated with timing such as perceived control, early re-engagement, normalization of pregnancy and peace of mind. Participants also valued NIPD as it enabled a stepwise approach to decision-making. A number of disadvantages were discussed including concerns about social sexing and increased bonding at a time in pregnancy when miscarriage risk is high. However, participants felt these were fairly minor in comparison with the advantages of NIPD. Until definitive genetic diagnosis using NIPD is available, NIPD for fetal sex determination is perceived as a good interim measure with a number of notable advantages over traditional methods.

  3. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for fetal sex determination: benefits and disadvantages from the service users' perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Celine; Hill, Melissa; Skirton, Heather; Chitty, Lyn S

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal fetal sex determination is clinically indicated for women who are at risk of having a child with a serious genetic disorder affecting a particular sex. Ultrasound has been the traditional method used, but early fetal sex determination using non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) can now be performed using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. The study aim was to assess the views and experiences of service users who had used NIPD for fetal sex determination. In this paper, we report on the perceived benefits and disadvantages. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was used. A total of 44 participants (38 women and 6 partners of participating women) were recruited. Participants' views and experiences of NIPD were overwhelmingly positive. Concerning benefits over traditional methods, three themes emerged: (1) technical aspects of technology; (2) timing; and (3) enhanced decision-making. Practical advantages of NIPD included avoiding miscarriage, and there were a number of psychological advantages associated with timing such as perceived control, early re-engagement, normalization of pregnancy and peace of mind. Participants also valued NIPD as it enabled a stepwise approach to decision-making. A number of disadvantages were discussed including concerns about social sexing and increased bonding at a time in pregnancy when miscarriage risk is high. However, participants felt these were fairly minor in comparison with the advantages of NIPD. Until definitive genetic diagnosis using NIPD is available, NIPD for fetal sex determination is perceived as a good interim measure with a number of notable advantages over traditional methods. PMID:22453293

  4. Cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and new diagnostic imaging techniques: the role of noninvasive image methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa JA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available José Augusto A Barbosa¹, Alexandre B Rodrigues¹, Cleonice Carvalho C Mota¹, Márcia M Barbosa², Ana C Simões e Silva¹¹Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; ²Ecocenter, Socor Hospital, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, BrazilAbstract: Obesity is a major public health problem affecting adults and children in both developed and developing countries. This condition often leads to metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A large number of studies have been carried out to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction in obese patients. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis and the development of coronary artery disease, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Noninvasive methods in the field of cardiovascular imaging, such as measuring intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilatation, tissue Doppler, and strain, and strain rate, constitute new tools for the early detection of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. These techniques will certainly enable a better evaluation of initial cardiovascular injury and allow the correct, timely management of obese patients. The present review summarizes the main aspects of cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and discusses the application of recent noninvasive imaging methods for the early detection of cardiovascular alterations.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, endothelium dysfunction, obesity, strain and strain rate, tissue Doppler

  5. Breath Analysis as a Potential and Non-Invasive Frontier in Disease Diagnosis: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a small number of diseases, particularly cardiovascular (CVDs, oncologic (ODs, neurodegenerative (NDDs, chronic respiratory diseases, as well as diabetes, form a severe burden to most of the countries worldwide. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of efficient diagnostic tools, particularly those enabling reliable detection of diseases, at their early stages, preferably using non-invasive approaches. Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach relying only on the characterisation of volatile composition of the exhaled breath (EB that in turn reflects the volatile composition of the bloodstream and airways and therefore the status and condition of the whole organism metabolism. Advanced sampling procedures (solid-phase and needle traps microextraction coupled with modern analytical technologies (proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, e-noses, etc. allow the characterisation of EB composition to an unprecedented level. However, a key challenge in EB analysis is the proper statistical analysis and interpretation of the large and heterogeneous datasets obtained from EB research. There is no standard statistical framework/protocol yet available in literature that can be used for EB data analysis towards discovery of biomarkers for use in a typical clinical setup. Nevertheless, EB analysis has immense potential towards development of biomarkers for the early disease diagnosis of diseases.

  6. Breath analysis as a potential and non-invasive frontier in disease diagnosis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge; Porto-Figueira, Priscilla; Cavaco, Carina; Taunk, Khushman; Rapole, Srikanth; Dhakne, Rahul; Nagarajaram, Hampapathalu; Câmara, José S

    2015-01-09

    Currently, a small number of diseases, particularly cardiovascular (CVDs), oncologic (ODs), neurodegenerative (NDDs), chronic respiratory diseases, as well as diabetes, form a severe burden to most of the countries worldwide. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of efficient diagnostic tools, particularly those enabling reliable detection of diseases, at their early stages, preferably using non-invasive approaches. Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach relying only on the characterisation of volatile composition of the exhaled breath (EB) that in turn reflects the volatile composition of the bloodstream and airways and therefore the status and condition of the whole organism metabolism. Advanced sampling procedures (solid-phase and needle traps microextraction) coupled with modern analytical technologies (proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, e-noses, etc.) allow the characterisation of EB composition to an unprecedented level. However, a key challenge in EB analysis is the proper statistical analysis and interpretation of the large and heterogeneous datasets obtained from EB research. There is no standard statistical framework/protocol yet available in literature that can be used for EB data analysis towards discovery of biomarkers for use in a typical clinical setup. Nevertheless, EB analysis has immense potential towards development of biomarkers for the early disease diagnosis of diseases.

  7. The Coordinated Noninvasive Studies (CNS) Project. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    subjects with a periSylvian HA in this range, all have indications of subtle neurological dysfunction: JLM mild learning disorder; mild dyslexia JS...made available, it is possible that "early intervention " techniques might be developed that could relieve these individuals of their terrible...mild dyslexia , 2) stuttering, 3) central auditory dysfunction, and 4) hyperactivity/ substance addiction. Plante and colleagues (see references) have

  8. Tattoo-based noninvasive glucose monitoring: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandodkar, Amay J; Jia, Wenzhao; Yardımcı, Ceren; Wang, Xuan; Ramirez, Julian; Wang, Joseph

    2015-01-06

    We present a proof-of-concept demonstration of an all-printed temporary tattoo-based glucose sensor for noninvasive glycemic monitoring. The sensor represents the first example of an easy-to-wear flexible tattoo-based epidermal diagnostic device combining reverse iontophoretic extraction of interstitial glucose and an enzyme-based amperometric biosensor. In-vitro studies reveal the tattoo sensor's linear response toward physiologically relevant glucose levels with negligible interferences from common coexisting electroactive species. The iontophoretic-biosensing tattoo platform is reduced to practice by applying the device on human subjects and monitoring variations in glycemic levels due to food consumption. Correlation of the sensor response with that of a commercial glucose meter underscores the promise of the tattoo sensor to detect glucose levels in a noninvasive fashion. Control on-body experiments demonstrate the importance of the reverse iontophoresis operation and validate the sensor specificity. This preliminary investigation indicates that the tattoo-based iontophoresis-sensor platform holds considerable promise for efficient diabetes management and can be extended toward noninvasive monitoring of other physiologically relevant analytes present in the interstitial fluid.

  9. Non-invasive prediction of hematocrit levels by portable visible and near-infrared spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Kato, Yukiko Hakariya; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2009-10-01

    After blood donation, in some individuals having polycythemia, dehydration causes anemia. Although the hematocrit (Ht) level is closely related to anemia, the current method of measuring Ht is performed after blood drawing. Furthermore, the monitoring of Ht levels contributes to a healthy life. Therefore, a non-invasive test for Ht is warranted for the safe donation of blood and good quality of life. A non-invasive procedure for the prediction of hematocrit levels was developed on the basis of a chemometric analysis of visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectra of the thumbs using portable spectrophotometer. Transmittance spectra in the 600- to 1100-nm region from thumbs of Japanese volunteers were subjected to a partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis and leave-out cross-validation to develop chemometric models for predicting Ht levels. Ht levels of masked samples predicted by this model from Vis-NIR spectra provided a coefficient of determination in prediction of 0.6349 with a standard error of prediction of 3.704% and a detection limit in prediction of 17.14%, indicating that the model is applicable for normal and abnormal value in Ht level. These results suggest portable Vis-NIR spectrophotometer to have potential for the non-invasive measurement of Ht levels with a combination of PLSR analysis.

  10. Non-invasive peripheral nerve stimulation via focused ultrasound in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Matthew E.; Lee, Stephen A.; Yang, Georgiana; Kim, Seaok; Wang, Qi; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2018-02-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) has been employed on a wide range of clinical applications to safely and non-invasively achieve desired effects that have previously required invasive and lengthy procedures with conventional methods. Conventional electrical neuromodulation therapies that are applied to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are invasive and/or non-specific. Recently, focused ultrasound has demonstrated the ability to modulate the central nervous system and ex vivo peripheral neurons. Here, for the first time, noninvasive stimulation of the sciatic nerve eliciting a physiological response in vivo is demonstrated with FUS. FUS was applied on the sciatic nerve in mice with simultaneous electromyography (EMG) on the tibialis anterior muscle. EMG signals were detected during or directly after ultrasound stimulation along with observable muscle contraction of the hind limb. Transecting the sciatic nerve downstream of FUS stimulation eliminated EMG activity during FUS stimulation. Peak-to-peak EMG response amplitudes and latency were found to be comparable to conventional electrical stimulation methods. Histology along with behavioral and thermal testing did not indicate damage to the nerve or surrounding regions. The findings presented herein demonstrate that FUS can serve as a targeted, safe and non-invasive alternative to conventional peripheral nervous system stimulation to treat peripheral neuropathic diseases in the clinic.

  11. Noninvasive optical diagnosis of low back pain with the aid of Chinese cupping procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nanxi; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a complex disease that can be cause by a variety of reasons. Now LBP has become a very common and severe disease among kinds of occupational groups with showing a younger trend. The traditional diagnosis relies on complicated imaging modalities and other dangerous and invasive methods. Noninvasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is noninvasive and convenient, and has been successful used in point-of-care diagnosis. Here, we attempt to explore NIRS's application in in low back pain diagnosis and the effect of aid-use of Chinese cupping procedure. 13 LBP patients and 13 healthy subjects participated in NIRS measurements of concentrations of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobins (Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]) at the middle of the lumbar spine. It was showed that there was significant differences (p < 0.001) between healthy subjects and LBP patients after cupping procedure, while insignificant before cupping. Moreover, it was found that healthy subjects showed stronger responses to cupping procedure than LBP patients, with prominently higher concentration of Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]. It indicates the potential of NIRS in noninvasive, measurable and straightforward monitoring/therapeutic effect evaluation of LBP with bedside and point-of-care monitoring capability.

  12. Facial pressure zones of an oronasal interface for noninvasive ventilation: a computer model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Souto Barros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of an oronasal interface (OI for noninvasive ventilation, using a three-dimensional (3D computational model with the ability to simulate and evaluate the main pressure zones (PZs of the OI on the human face. METHODS: We used a 3D digital model of the human face, based on a pre-established geometric model. The model simulated soft tissues, skull, and nasal cartilage. The geometric model was obtained by 3D laser scanning and post-processed for use in the model created, with the objective of separating the cushion from the frame. A computer simulation was performed to determine the pressure required in order to create the facial PZs. We obtained descriptive graphical images of the PZs and their intensity. RESULTS: For the graphical analyses of each face-OI model pair and their respective evaluations, we ran 21 simulations. The computer model identified several high-impact PZs in the nasal bridge and paranasal regions. The variation in soft tissue depth had a direct impact on the amount of pressure applied (438-724 cmH2O. CONCLUSIONS: The computer simulation results indicate that, in patients submitted to noninvasive ventilation with an OI, the probability of skin lesion is higher in the nasal bridge and paranasal regions. This methodology could increase the applicability of biomechanical research on noninvasive ventilation interfaces, providing the information needed in order to choose the interface that best minimizes the risk of skin lesion.

  13. Cell-free nucleic acids as noninvasive biomarkers for colorectal cancer detection

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Hicham

    2014-08-27

    Cell-free nucleic acids (CFNA) have been reported by several authors in blood, stool, and urine of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). These genetic biomarkers can be an indication of neoplastic colorectal epithelial cells, and can thus potentially be used as noninvasive tests for the detection of the disease in CRC patients and monitor their staging, without the need to use heavier and invasive tools. In a number of test-trials, these genetic tests have shown the advantage of non-invasiveness, making them well accepted by most of the patients, without major side effects. They have also shown a promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of malignant and premalignant neoplasms. Moreover, costs for performing such tests are very low. Several studies reported and confirmed the proof of the principle for these genetic tests for screening, diagnosis, and prognosis; the main challenge of translating this approach from research to clinical laboratory is the validation from large and long-term randomized trials to prove sustainable high sensitivity and specificity. In this paper, we present a review on the noninvasive genetics biomarkers for CRC detection described in the literature and the challenges that can be encountered for validation processes.

  14. Cell-free nucleic acids as noninvasive biomarkers for colorectal cancer detection

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Hicham

    2014-01-01

    Cell-free nucleic acids (CFNA) have been reported by several authors in blood, stool, and urine of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). These genetic biomarkers can be an indication of neoplastic colorectal epithelial cells, and can thus potentially be used as noninvasive tests for the detection of the disease in CRC patients and monitor their staging, without the need to use heavier and invasive tools. In a number of test-trials, these genetic tests have shown the advantage of non-invasiveness, making them well accepted by most of the patients, without major side effects. They have also shown a promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of malignant and premalignant neoplasms. Moreover, costs for performing such tests are very low. Several studies reported and confirmed the proof of the principle for these genetic tests for screening, diagnosis, and prognosis; the main challenge of translating this approach from research to clinical laboratory is the validation from large and long-term randomized trials to prove sustainable high sensitivity and specificity. In this paper, we present a review on the noninvasive genetics biomarkers for CRC detection described in the literature and the challenges that can be encountered for validation processes.

  15. High-resolution ultrasound imaging and noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of blood variables in peripheral blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is being widely used in clinics to obtain diagnostic information non-invasively and in real time. A high-resolution ultrasound imaging platform, Vevo (VisualSonics, Inc.) provides in vivo, real-time images with exceptional resolution (up to 30 microns) using high-frequency transducers (up to 80 MHz). Recently, we built optoacoustic systems for probing radial artery and peripheral veins that can be used for noninvasive monitoring of total hemoglobin concentration, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and concentration of important endogenous and exogenous chromophores (such as ICG). In this work we used the high-resolution ultrasound imaging system Vevo 770 for visualization of the radial artery and peripheral veins and acquired corresponding optoacoustic signals from them using the optoacoustic systems. Analysis of the optoacoustic data with a specially developed algorithm allowed for measurement of blood oxygenation in the blood vessels as well as for continuous, real-time monitoring of arterial and venous blood oxygenation. Our results indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic technique (unlike pure optical approaches and other noninvasive techniques) is capable of accurate peripheral venous oxygenation measurement; and 2) peripheral venous oxygenation is dependent on skin temperature and local hemodynamics. Moreover, we performed for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) a comparative study of optoacoustic arterial oximetry and a standard pulse oximeter in humans and demonstrated superior performance of the optoacoustic arterial oximeter, in particular at low blood flow.

  16. Early hospital discharge and early puerperal complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Villalobos, Dolores; Hernández-Garduño, Adolfo; Salinas, Aarón; González, Dolores; Walker, Dilys; Rojo-Herrera, Guadalupe; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the association between time of postpartum discharge and symptoms indicative of complications during the first postpartum week. Women with vaginal delivery at a Mexico City public hospital, without complications before the hospital discharge, were interviewed seven days after delivery. Time of postpartum discharge was classified as early (25 hours). The dependent variable was defined as the occurrence and severity of puerperal complication symptoms. Out of 303 women, 208 (68%) were discharged early. However, women with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care had lower odds of presenting symptoms in early puerperium than women without early discharge and inadequate prenatal care (OR 0.36; 95% confidence intervals = 0.17-0.76). There was no association between early discharge and symptoms of complications during the first postpartum week; the odds of complications were lower for mothers with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care.

  17. Welfare indicators in laying hens in relation to nest exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, M; Tauson, R; Holm, L

    2016-01-01

    Consumer concerns about the welfare of laying hens are increasing, leading to increased interest in identifying reliable ways to assess welfare. The present study evaluated invasive and non-invasive welfare indicators in relation to a stressful challenge. The study included 126 Lohmann Selected...

  18. Noninvasive Hemodynamic Measurements During Neurosurgical Procedures in Sitting Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Patrick; Tzanova, Irene; Gööck, Tilman; Hagen, Frank; Schmidtmann, Irene; Engelhard, Kristin; Pestel, Gunther

    2017-07-01

    Neurosurgical procedures in sitting position need advanced cardiovascular monitoring. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to measure cardiac output (CO)/cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume (SV), and invasive arterial blood pressure measurements for systolic (ABPsys), diastolic (ABPdiast) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) are established monitoring technologies for these kind of procedures. A noninvasive device for continuous monitoring of blood pressure and CO based on a modified Penaz technique (volume-clamp method) was introduced recently. In the present study the noninvasive blood pressure measurements were compared with invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring, and the noninvasive CO monitoring to TEE measurements. Measurements of blood pressure and CO were performed in 35 patients before/after giving a fluid bolus and a change from supine to sitting position, start of surgery, and repositioning from sitting to supine at the end of surgery. Data pairs from the noninvasive device (Nexfin HD) versus arterial line measurements (ABPsys, ABPdiast, MAP) and versus TEE (CO, CI, SV) were compared using Bland-Altman analysis and percentage error. All parameters compared (CO, CI, SV, ABPsys, ABPdiast, MAP) showed a large bias and wide limits of agreement. Percentage error was above 30% for all parameters except ABPsys. The noninvasive device based on a modified Penaz technique cannot replace arterial blood pressure monitoring or TEE in anesthetized patients undergoing neurosurgery in sitting position.

  19. Noninvasive external cardiac pacing for thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.D.; Warren, S.E.; Gervino, E.V.

    1988-01-01

    Improvements in noninvasive external cardiac pacing have led to a technique with reliable electrical capture and tolerable patient discomfort. To assess the use of this modality of pacing in combination with thallium scintigraphy as a noninvasive pacing stress test, we applied simultaneous noninvasive cardiac pacing, hemodynamic monitoring, and thallium-201 scintigraphy in 14 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization for chest pain syndromes. Two patients had normal coronary arteries, while the remaining 12 had significant coronary artery disease. Thallium scintigraphic responses to pacing were compared to routine exercise thallium stress testing in nine of these 14 patients. All patients were noninvasively paced to more than 85% of the age-predicted maximum heart rate. Twelve patients demonstrated reversible thallium defects, which corresponded in 11 cases to significant lesions seen on coronary angiography. Of nine patients who underwent both pacing and exercise thallium stress tests, comparable maximal rate-pressure products were achieved. Moreover, thallium imaging at peak pacing and during delayed views did not differ significantly from exercise thallium scintigraphy. A limiting factor associated with the technique was local patient discomfort, which occurred to some degree in all patients. We conclude that noninvasive external cardiac pacing together with thallium scintigraphy is capable of detecting significant coronary artery disease and may be comparable to routine exercise thallium stress testing. This new modality of stress testing could be useful in patients unable to undergo the exercise required for standard exercise tolerance testing, particularly if improvements in the technology can be found to reduce further the local discomfort

  20. Effects of nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation on visceral organ mass and indices of intestinal growth and vascularity in primiparous ewes at parturition and during early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on visceral organ mass and intestinal growth and vascularization in ewes at parturition and during early lactation. Primiparous Rambouillet ewes (n = 84) were allocated to 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of tr...

  1. Intrauterine transfusion and non-invasive treatment options for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn - review on current management and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiers, Carolien; van Kamp, Inge; Oepkes, Dick; Lopriore, Enrico

    2017-04-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) remains a serious pregnancy complication which can lead to severe fetal anemia, hydrops and perinatal death. Areas covered: This review focusses on the current prenatal management, treatment with intrauterine transfusion (IUT) and promising non-invasive treatment options for HDFN. Expert commentary: IUTs are the cornerstone in prenatal management of HDFN and have significantly improved perinatal outcome in the past decades. IUT is now a relatively safe procedure, however the risk of complications is still high when performed early in the second trimester. Non-invasive management using intravenous immunoglobulin may be a safe alternative and requires further investigation.

  2. Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ahmed; Yuen, Tony; Sun, Li; Yau, Mabel; Barhan, Ariella; Zaidi, Mone; Lo, Y M Dennis; New, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    A major hallmark of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is genital ambiguity noted at birth in affected females, which leads to psychological and psychosexual issues in adult life. Attempts to correct genital ambiguity through surgical intervention have been partially successful. Fetal hyperandrogenemia and genital ambiguity have been shown to be preventable by prenatal administration of low-dose dexamethasone initiated before the 9th week of gestation. In 7 of 8 at-risk pregnancies, the unaffected fetus is unnecessarily exposed to dexamethasone for weeks until the diagnosis of classical CAH is ruled out by invasive procedures. This therapeutic dilemma calls for early prenatal diagnosis so that dexamethasone treatment can be directed to affected female fetuses only. We describe the utilization of cell-free fetal DNA in mothers carrying at-risk fetuses as early as 6 gestational weeks by targeted massively parallel sequencing of the genomic region including and flanking the CYP21A2 gene. Our highly personalized and innovative approach should permit the diagnosis of CAH before genital development begins, therefore restricting the purposeful administration of dexamethasone to mothers carrying affected females. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Smartphone based non-invasive salivary glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Anuradha; Jha, Sandeep Kumar

    2017-12-15

    The present work deals with the development of a non-invasive optical glucose biosensor using saliva samples and a smartphone. The sensor was fabricated with a simple methodology by immobilization of Glucose oxidase enzyme along with a pH responsive dye on a filter paper based strip. The strip changes color upon reaction with glucose present in saliva and the color changes were detected using a smartphone camera through RGB profiling. This standalone biosensor showed good sensitivity and low interference while operating within 20 s response time. We used various means for improvements such as the use of slope method instead of differential response; use of a responsive pH indicator and made numerous tweaks in the smartphone app. Calibration with spiked saliva samples with slopes for (R + G + B) pixels revealed an exponentially increasing calibration curve with a linear detection range of 50-540 mg/dL, sensitivity of 0.0012 pixels sec -1 /mg dL -1 and LOD of 24.6 mg/dL. The biosensor was clinically validated on both healthy and diabetic subjects divided into several categories based on sex, age, diabetic status etc. and correlation between blood and salivary glucose has been established for better standardization of the sensor. Correlation of 0.44 was obtained between blood and salivary glucose in healthy individuals whereas it was 0.64 and 0.94 in case of prediabetic and diabetic patients respectively. The developed biosensor has the potential to be used for mass diagnosis of diabetes especially in such areas where people remain prohibited from routine analysis due to high healthcare cost. Apart from that, a smartphone would be the only device the user needs for this measurement, along with a disposable low cost test strip. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Noninvasive 133Xe inhalation method for cerebral blood flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Shigeharu; Kobatake, Keitaro; Shinohara, Yukito

    1991-01-01

    Recent development of the 133 Xe inhalation technique has made it possible to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) noninvasively. Recording of the head curves from the frontal and temporal areas during inhalation of 133 Xe, however, is contaminated by the artifact from the air passages. A method based on Fourier transforms was reported to be able to eliminate air passage artifact (APA) effectively. However, it was pointed out that such an algorithm does not give a complete correction if the artifact seen by the head detectors differs in shape from that recorded from the airways at the mouth, which may happen when there is a slow isotope convection in the nasal and sinus cavities. The purpose of this study was to compare the CBF values calculated by the Fourier method with those by the conventional method of Obrist (VM method). Mean hemispheric gray matter flow (F 1 ) calculated by the VM method in 11 subjects, including normal volunteers and patients with various neurological diseases, was 69.2±13.2 mg/100 g brain/ min, whereas F 1 calculated by the Fourier method in the same subjects was 64.4±13.5, indicating that APA can be effectively eliminated by the Fourier method. The F 1 values calculated by the Fourier method from the frontal and temporal regions were relatively high, and closer to the F 1 values calculated by the VM method. The size of the APA was large in these regions. It was concluded that the deformed APA contaminated the results in these regions, and could not be eliminated effectively by the Fourier method. It is suggested that the shape of the head curve and the size of APA should be carefully examined to ensure that CBF data are reliable. (author)

  5. Non-invasive Assessments of Adipose Tissue Metabolism In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Borowsky, Francis E; Quinn, Kyle P; Bernstein, David L; Georgakoudi, Irene; Kaplan, David L

    2016-03-01

    Adipose tissue engineering is a diverse area of research where the developed tissues can be used to study normal adipose tissue functions, create disease models in vitro, and replace soft tissue defects in vivo. Increasing attention has been focused on the highly specialized metabolic pathways that regulate energy storage and release in adipose tissues which affect local and systemic outcomes. Non-invasive, dynamic measurement systems are useful to track these metabolic pathways in the same tissue model over time to evaluate long term cell growth, differentiation, and development within tissue engineering constructs. This approach reduces costs and time in comparison to more traditional destructive methods such as biochemical and immunochemistry assays and proteomics assessments. Towards this goal, this review will focus on important metabolic functions of adipose tissues and strategies to evaluate them with non-invasive in vitro methods. Current non-invasive methods, such as measuring key metabolic markers and endogenous contrast imaging will be explored.

  6. Noninvasive physiologic assessment of coronary stenoses using cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Sun, Zhonghua; Fan, Zhanming

    2015-01-01

    Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) has become an important noninvasive imaging modality in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). CCTA enables accurate evaluation of coronary artery stenosis. However, CCTA provides limited information on the physiological significance of stenotic lesions. A noninvasive "one-stop-shop" diagnostic test that can provide both anatomical significance and functional significance of stenotic lesions would be beneficial in the diagnosis and management of CAD. Recently, with the introduction of novel techniques, such as myocardial CT perfusion, CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT), and transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG), CCTA has emerged as a noninvasive method for the assessment of both anatomy of coronary lesions and its physiological consequences during a single study. This review provides an overview of the current status of new CT techniques for the physiologic assessments of CAD.

  7. Noninvasive Physiologic Assessment of Coronary Stenoses Using Cardiac CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary CT angiography (CCTA has become an important noninvasive imaging modality in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD. CCTA enables accurate evaluation of coronary artery stenosis. However, CCTA provides limited information on the physiological significance of stenotic lesions. A noninvasive “one-stop-shop” diagnostic test that can provide both anatomical significance and functional significance of stenotic lesions would be beneficial in the diagnosis and management of CAD. Recently, with the introduction of novel techniques, such as myocardial CT perfusion, CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT, and transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG, CCTA has emerged as a noninvasive method for the assessment of both anatomy of coronary lesions and its physiological consequences during a single study. This review provides an overview of the current status of new CT techniques for the physiologic assessments of CAD.

  8. Technology for noninvasive mechanical ventilation: looking into the black box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Farré

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Current devices for providing noninvasive respiratory support contain sensors and built-in intelligence for automatically modifying ventilation according to the patient's needs. These devices, including automatic continuous positive airway pressure devices and noninvasive ventilators, are technologically complex and offer a considerable number of different modes of ventilation and setting options, the details of which are sometimes difficult to capture by the user. Therefore, better predicting and interpreting the actual performance of these ventilation devices in clinical application requires understanding their functioning principles and assessing their performance under well controlled bench test conditions with simulated patients. This concise review presents an updated perspective of the theoretical basis of intelligent continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive ventilation devices, and of the tools available for assessing how these devices respond under specific ventilation phenotypes in patients requiring breathing support.

  9. Noninvasive studies of peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, J.S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Plethysmography probably is the oldest method for measuring blood flow. In this method, measurements are made of changes in volume of an organ or region of tissue. In the modern practice of vascular surgery, the use of plethysmography has been expanded to include detection of not only arterial occlusive disease but also carotid artery disease and venous problems. Several types of plethysmographs are now available for clinical use in the evaluation of arterial occlusions. These are volume, strain-gauge, and photoelectric plethysmographs. The water-filled volume recorder, popular in the early use of plethysmography, is now obsolete and has been replaced by the air-filled volume plethysmograph, notably, the pulse-volume recorder. For clinical application, the newer plethysmographs, such as the strain-gauge, photopletyhsmograph, and pulse-volume recorder, are now standard equipment in many vascular laboratories. They are discussed in this article

  10. PULSE WAVE VELOCITY AND CENTRAL AORTIC PRESSURE IN OBESE CHILDREN ACCORDING TO THE NON-INVASIVE ARTERIOGRAPHY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kozhevnikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents information value of non-invasive arteriography, which reveals early signs of cardiovascular pathology formation in children, using a large number of trials in children. The authors examined predictors of cardiovascular catastrophes’ development, confirmed in adults: aortic wall’s stiffness, central aortic pressure and pulse pressure – that have not been sufficiently studied in children yet. The article shows that the high-technology method of non-invasive arteriography allows revealing changes of these parameters in children on the preclinical stage. It also shows their correlation with body mass index, fatty hepatosis, direct correlation of weight gain with connection of pulse wave velocity and central blood pressure and importance of follow-up evaluation of these parameters. Heterogeneity of the group of obese children in terms of these parameters is a premise for development of individual approach to control and prevention of cardiovascular complications’ development risk in childhood.

  11. Real time elastography - a non-invasive diagnostic method of small hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Liana; Iacob, Speranta; Iacob, Razvan; Dumbrava, Mona; Becheanu, Gabriel; Herlea, Vlad; Gheorghe, Cristian; Lupescu, Ioana; Popescu, Irinel

    2009-12-01

    Small nodules (under 3 cm) detected on ultrasound (US) in cirrhotics represent the most challenging category for noninvasive diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To evaluate real-time sonoelastography as a noninvasive tool for the diagnosis of small HCC nodules in cirrhotic patients. 42 cirrhotic patients with 58 nodules (1-3 cm) were evaluated with real-time elastography (Hitachi EUB-6500); the mean intensity of colors red, blue, green were measured using a semi-quantitative method. Analysis of histograms for each color of the sonoelastography images was performed for quantifying the elasticity of nodule tissue in comparison with the cirrhotic liver tissue. AUROC curves were constructed to define the best cut-off points to distinguish malignant features of the nodules. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. 595 sonoelastography images from 42 patients (25 men; 17 women) were analyzed. The mean age was 56.4 +/- 0.7 years and 69% patients were in Child-Pugh class A, 19% class B, 11% class C. For the mean intensity of green color AUROC=0.81, a cut-off value under 108.7 being diagnostic for HCC with a Sp=91.1%, Se=50%, PPV=92.1%, NPV=47.1%. Mean intensity of blue color proved to be an excellent diagnostic tool for HCC (AUROC=0.94); for a cut-off value greater than 128.9, Sp=92.2%, Se=78.9%, PPV=95.4%, NPV=68%. Independent predictive factors of HCC for a small nodule in cirrhotic patients were: blue color over 128.9 at sonoelastography and hypervascular appearance at Doppler US. US elastography is a promising method for the non-invasive diagnosis of early HCC. Blue color at elastography and hypervascular aspects are independent predictors of HCC.

  12. The Evaluation of a Noninvasive Respiratory Volume Monitor in Pediatric Patients Undergoing General Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Morad, Andrea D; Cravero, Joseph P; Harvey, Brian C; Bernier, Rachel; Halpin, Erin; Walsh, Brian; Nasr, Viviane G

    2017-12-01

    Pediatric patients following surgery are at risk for respiratory compromise such as hypoventilation and hypoxemia depending on their age, comorbidities, and type of surgery. Quantitative measurement of ventilation in nonintubated infants/children is a difficult and inexact undertaking. Current respiratory assessment in nonintubated patients relies on oximetry data, respiratory rate (RR) monitors, and subjective clinical assessment, but there is no objective measure of respiratory parameters that could be utilized to predict early respiratory compromise. New advances in technology and digital signal processing have led to the development of an impedance-based respiratory volume monitor (RVM, ExSpiron, Respiratory Motion, Inc, Waltham, MA). The RVM has been shown to provide accurate real-time, continuous, noninvasive measurements of tidal volume (TV), minute ventilation (MV), and RR in adult patients.In this prospective observational study, our primary aim was to determine whether the RVM accurately measures TV, RR, and MV in pediatric patients. A total of 72 pediatric patients (27 females, 45 males), ASA I to III, undergoing general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were enrolled. After endotracheal intubation, continuous data of MV, TV, and RR were recorded from the RVM and an in-line monitoring spirometer (NM3 monitor, Phillips Healthcare). RVM and NM3 measurements of MV, TV, and RR were compared during a 10-minute period prior to the incision ("Presurgery") and a 10-minute period after the end of surgery ("Postsurgery"). Relative errors were calculated over 1-minute segment within each 10-minute period. Bias, precision, and accuracy were calculated using Bland-Altman analyses and paired-difference equivalence tests were performed. Combined across the Presurgery and Postsurgery periods, the RVM's mean measurement bias (RVM - NM3 measurement) for MV was -3.8% (95% limits of agreement) (±1.96 SD): (-19.9% to 12.2%), for TV it was -4.9 (-21.0% to 11.3%), and

  13. Development of magnetic resonance technology for noninvasive boron quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, K.M.

    1990-11-01

    Boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) were developed in support of the noninvasive boron quantification task of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) program. The hardware and software described in this report are modifications specific to a GE Signa trademark MRI system, release 3.X and are necessary for boron magnetic resonance operation. The technology developed in this task has been applied to obtaining animal pharmacokinetic data of boron compounds (drug time response) and the in-vivo localization of boron in animal tissue noninvasively. 9 refs., 21 figs

  14. Performance test results of noninvasive characterization of RCRA surrogate waste by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Propp, W.A.

    1997-11-01

    A performance evaluation to determine the feasibility of using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) for noninvasive, quantitative assay of mixed waste containers was sponsored by DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD), the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The evaluation was conducted using a surrogate waste, based on Portland cement, that was spiked with three RCRA metals, mercury, cadmium, and lead. The results indicate that PGNAA has potential as a process monitor. However, further development is required to improve its sensitivity to meet regulatory requirements for determination of these RCRA metals

  15. Cost Analysis of Noninvasive Helmet Ventilation Compared with Use of Noninvasive Face Mask in ARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwadwo Kyeremanteng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive care unit (ICU costs have doubled since 2000, totalling 108 billion dollars per year. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS has a prevalence of 10.4% and a 28-day mortality of 34.8%. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV is used in up to 30% of cases. A recent randomized controlled trial by Patel et al. (2016 showed lower intubation rates and 90-day mortality when comparing helmet to face mask NIV in ARDS. The population in the Patel et al. trial was used for cost analysis in this study. Projections of cost savings showed a decrease in ICU costs by $2527 and hospital costs by $3103 per patient, along with a 43.3% absolute reduction in intubation rates. Sensitivity analysis showed consistent cost reductions. Projected annual cost savings, assuming the current prevalence of ARDS, were $237538 in ICU costs and $291682 in hospital costs. At a national level, using yearly incidence of ARDS cases in American ICUs, this represents $449 million in savings. Helmet NIV, compared to face mask NIV, in nonintubated patients with ARDS, reduces ICU and hospital direct-variable costs along with intubation rates, LOS, and mortality. A large-scale cost-effectiveness analysis is needed to validate the findings.

  16. Noninvasive risk stratification of lethal ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death after myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Yodogawa, MD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of lethal ventricular arrhythmias leading to sudden cardiac death is one of the most important and challenging problems after myocardial infarction (MI. Identification of MI patients who are prone to ventricular tachyarrhythmias allows for an indication of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement. To date, noninvasive techniques such as microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA, signal-averaged electrocardiography (SAECG, heart rate variability (HRV, and heart rate turbulence (HRT have been developed for this purpose. MTWA is an indicator of repolarization abnormality and is currently the most promising risk-stratification tool for predicting malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Similarly, late potentials detected by SAECG are indices of depolarization abnormality and are useful in risk stratification. However, the role of SAECG is limited because of its low predictive accuracy. Abnormal HRV and HRT patterns reflect autonomic disturbances, which may increase the risk of lethal ventricular arrhythmias, but the existing evidence is insufficient. Further studies of noninvasive assessment may provide a new insight into risk stratification in post-MI patients.

  17. Outcomes of Noninvasively Treated Idiopathic Toe Walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Kerstin; Karch, Nataliia; Goede, Fabian; Vaske, Bernhard; von Lewinski, Gabriela; Noll, Yvonne; Thren, Anneke

    2018-03-01

    Idiopathic toe walking (ITW) causes a common problem in pediatric orthopaedics. In the literature, numerous treatment options have been reported, but consensus about the management of ITW is still missing. The aim of the current study was to evaluate conservative treatment with pyramidal insoles. A total of 193 patients underwent conservative treatment between January 2010 and June 2013. Mean age at the beginning of the treatment was 7.75 ± 0.23 years (range 2.0-17.0 years). For all patients, demographic data, comorbid diseases, passive range of motion (ROM), persistent toe walking, and performed operations were retrospectively evaluated. Following operative treatment was defined failure. Eight (4.15%) patients underwent Achilles tendon lengthening operation after mean therapy time of 2.72 years (range 0.1-7.0 years), 174 cases were treated successfully (90.16%). In 50 cases, toe walking suspended completely after mean therapy time of 2.83 years. In cases of failure, patients were older at diagnosis and at the beginning of the treatment. Mean passive ROM increased over the time. In cases of failure, ROM decreased from the first to the second examination. Conservative treatment of ITW using pyramidal insoles can be effective. Ankle dorsiflexion significantly improved in the patients who were successfully treated. Therapy should start early. A decrease of ROM under therapy should lead to critical revisal of individual therapy. Therapeutic, level IV: Case series.

  18. Role of some biomarkers in chronic pelvic pain for early detection of endometriosis in infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Ahmed Foda

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: Serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels are reliable non-invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis of early stages of endometriosis because they increased significantly in early cases than in late cases. CA125, Hs-CRP & VEGF are significantly increased in late cases, so they cannot be used for early diagnosis.

  19. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Novel Non-Invasive Tool to Assess Spiny Lobster Nutritional Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodemann, Thomas; Carter, Chris G.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid non-invasive monitoring of spiny lobster nutritional condition has considerable application in the established fishery, live market and prospective aquaculture. The aim of this research was to test the feasibility of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a novel non-invasive tool to assess the nutritional condition of three lobster species. Lobster (n = 92) abdominal muscle dry matter (AMDM) and carbon content (AMC) correlated significantly with indices of nutritional condition including hepatopancreas dry matter (HPDM; rho = 0.83, 0.78), total lipid content (HPTL; rho = 0.85, 0.87) and haemolymph total protein (TP; rho = 0.89, 0.87 respectively). Abdominal muscle nitrogen content (AMN) was a poor correlate of nutritional condition. Models based on FT-NIR scanning of whole lobster tails successfully predicted AMDM, AMN and AMC (RMSECV = 1.41%, 0.35% and 0.91%; R2 = 0.75, 0.65, 0.77, respectively), and to a lower accuracy HPDM, HPTL and TP (RMSECV = 6.22%, 8.37%, 18.4 g l-1; R2 = 0.51, 0.70, 0.83, respectively). NIRS was applied successfully to assess the condition of spiny lobsters non-invasively. This pilot study paves the way for the development of crustacean condition models using portable non-invasive devices in the laboratory or in the field. PMID:27442242

  20. It’s More Than a Blood Test: Patients’ Perspectives on Noninvasive Prenatal Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Farrell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT offers pregnant women a new risk assessment tool for fetal aneuploidy that is superior to conventional screening tests. We conducted focus groups with women who were currently pregnant or had recently delivered in the past year to characterize their perspectives about NIPT and to explore factors they would consider during decision making about its use. Women identified accuracy, early timing, testing ease, and determination of fetal sex as advantages of NIPT over other screens, and the noninvasive method of NIPT as an advantage over diagnostic tests. False positive and false negative results, anxiety, cost and insurance coverage were seen as disadvantages of NIPT. Women who do not want fetal aneuploidy information most likely will not undergo NIPT, despite its advantages over other screening tests. However, given its advantages, the decision to have NIPT is straightforward for women who want genetic information about the fetus. Women emphasized the need to make autonomous, private, and informed choices about NIPT, as they would with any prenatal genetic testing option. These perspectives may guide clinicians to conduct effective and clinically relevant counseling with pregnant women who consider utilizing this new genetic technology.

  1. Non-invasive ventilation with neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Howard; Beck, Jennifer; Dunn, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is a mode of ventilation in which both the timing and degree of ventilatory assist are controlled by the patient. Since NAVA uses the diaphragm electrical activity (Edi) as the controller signal, it is possible to deliver synchronized non-invasive NAVA (NIV-NAVA) regardless of leaks and to monitor continuously patient respiratory pattern and drive. Advantages of NIV-NAVA over conventional modes include improved patient-ventilator interaction, reliable respiratory monitoring and self-regulation of respiratory support. In theory, these characteristics make NIV-NAVA an ideal mode to provide effective, appropriate non-invasive support to newborns with respiratory insufficiency. NIV-NAVA has been successfully used clinically in neonates as a mode of ventilation to prevent intubation, to allow early extubation, and as a novel way to deliver nasal continuous positive airway pressure. The use of NAVA in neonates is described with an emphasis on studies and clinical experience with NIV-NAVA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical, social and ethical issues associated with non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Blanche; Edwards, Samantha; Chitty, Lyn S; Lewis, Celine

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT), based on analysis of cell-free foetal DNA, is rapidly becoming a preferred method to screen for chromosomal aneuploidy with the technology now available in over 90 countries. This review provides an up-to-date discussion of the key clinical, social and ethical implications associated with this revolutionary technology. Stakeholders are positive about a test that is highly accurate, safe, can be perfomed early in pregnancy, identifies affected pregnancies that might otherwise have been missed and reduces the need for invasive testing. Nevertheless, professional societies currently recommend it as an advanced screening test due to the low false positive rate (FPR). Despite the practical and psychological benefits, a number of concerns have been raised which warrant attention. These include the potential for routinisation of testing and subsequent impact on informed decision-making, an "easy" blood test inadvertently contributing to women feeling pressured to take the test, fears NIPT will lead to less tolerance and support for those living with Down syndrome and the heightened expectation of having "perfect babies". These issues can be addressed to some extent through clinician education, patient information and establishing national and international consensus in the development of comprehensive and regularly updated guidelines. As the number of conditions we are able to test for non-invasively expands it will be increasingly important to ensure pre-test counselling can be delivered effectively supported by knowledgeable healthcare professionals.

  3. Non-invasive imaging of zebrafish with spinal deformities using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Liane; Beaudette, Kathy; Patten, Kessen; Beaulieu-Ouellet, Émilie; Strupler, Mathias; Moldovan, Florina; Boudoux, Caroline

    2013-03-01

    A zebrafish model has recently been introduced to study various genetic mutations that could lead to spinal deformities such as scoliosis. However, current imaging techniques make it difficult to perform longitudinal studies of this condition in zebrafish, especially in the early stages of development. The goal of this project is to determine whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a viable non-invasive method to image zebrafish exhibiting spinal deformities. Images of both live and fixed malformed zebrafish (5 to 21 days postfertilization) as well as wild-type fish (5 to 29 days postfertilization) were acquired non-invasively using a commercial SD-OCT system, with a laser source centered at 930nm (λ=100nm), permitting axial and lateral resolutions of 7 and 8μm respectively. Using two-dimensional images and three-dimensional reconstructions, it was possible to identify the malformed notochord as well as deformities in other major organs at different stages of formation. Visualization of the notochord was facilitated with the development of a segmentation algorithm. OCT images were compared to HE histological sections and images obtained by calcein staining. Because of the possibility of performing longitudinal studies on a same fish and reducing image processing time as compared with staining techniques and histology, the use of OCT could facilitate phenotypic characterization in studying genetic factors leading to spinal deformities in zebrafish and could eventually contribute to the identification of the genetic causes of spinal deformities such as scoliosis.

  4. Heart rate index: an indicator of left ventricular ejection fraction. Comparison of left ventricular ejection fraction and variables assessed by exercise test in patients studied early after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    1992-01-01

    The present study compares the variables assessed by standard exercise test with the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) measured by multigated radionuclide angiocardiography (MUGA) in 77 patients early after myocardial infarction. The exercise test and MUGA were performed within two weeks...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...

  5. Invasive and noninvasive dental analgesia techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estafan, D J

    1998-01-01

    Although needle-administered local anesthesia has been an essential tool of modern dentistry, it has also been responsible for many patients' fears of dental visits. Several new techniques have recently evolved that may offer viable alternatives. Two of these operate via electronic mechanisms that interfere with pain signals, two others involve transmucosal modes of administration, and a fifth technique involves an intraosseous pathway for anesthesia administration. Each of these techniques has different indications for dental procedures, but none is intended to replace needle administration in dentistry. This overview highlights the salient features of these alternative dental anesthesia techniques.

  6. Urinary biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Emily; Nisenblat, Vicki; Farquhar, Cindy; Fraser, Ian; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M. Louise

    2015-01-01

    About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis which is a costly chronic disease that causes pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the 'gold standard' diagnostic test for endometriosis, but it is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no simple non-invasive

  7. Blood biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Shaikh, Rabia; Farquhar, Cindy; Jordan, Vanessa; Scheffers, Carola S.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M. Louise

    2016-01-01

    About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis, a costly chronic disease causing pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive or minimally invasive

  8. A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive methods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Puneet Khanna

    for Hb estimation from the laboratory [total haemoglobin mass (tHb)] and arterial blood gas (ABG) machine (aHb), using ... A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive methods of haemoglobin estimation in patients undergoing intracranial surgery. 161 .... making decisions for blood transfusions based on these results.

  9. Noninvasive photoacoustic computed tomography of mouse brain metabolism in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Junjie; Xia, Jun; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Demchenko, Alexei V.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of imaging mouse brain metabolism using photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT), a fast, noninvasive and functional imaging modality with optical contrast and acoustic resolution. Brain responses to forepaw stimulations were imaged transdermally and transcranially. 2-NBDG, which diffuses well across the blood–brain-barrier, provided exogenous contrast for photoacoustic imaging of glucose response. Concurrently, hemoglobin provided endogenous contrast for ...

  10. Direct numerical simulation of noninvasive channel healing in electrical field

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive channel healing is a new idea to repair the broken pipe wall, using external electric fields to drive iron particles to the destination. The repair can be done in the normal operation of the pipe flow without any shutdown of the pipeline

  11. Sensitive Monogenic Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis by Targeted Haplotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Carlo; Geeven, Geert; de Wit, Elzo; Verstegen, Marjon J A M; Jansen, Rumo P.M.; van Kranenburg, Melissa; de Bruijn, Ewart; Pulit, Sara L.; Kruisselbrink, Evelien; Shahsavari, Zahra; Omrani, Davood; Zeinali, Fatemeh; Najmabadi, Hossein; Katsila, Theodora; Vrettou, Christina; Patrinos, George P.; Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne; Splinter, Erik; Beekman, Jeffrey M.; Kheradmand Kia, Sima; Te Meerman, Gerard J; Ploos van Amstel, Hans Kristian; de Laat, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    During pregnancy, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in maternal blood encompasses a small percentage of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA), an easily accessible source for determination of fetal disease status in risk families through non-invasive procedures. In case of monogenic heritable disease, background

  12. The findings of noninvasive cardiovascular diagnosis with multihelical computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fed'kyiv, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    The patients aged of 25-82 underwent the multihelical computed tomography, 508 of them with coronary artery disease and 109 are under control. The findings of MHCT-analysis of the coronary arteries at their atherosclerotic involvement were presented with the use of quantitative assessment of coronary artery calcinosis according to Agatston's technique and noninvasive MHCT-coronagraphy.

  13. Eggshell membranes as a noninvasive sampling for molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noninvasive sampling is of prime essential on conservation genetics and molecular ecology. It is particularly preferred to use in the genetic identification of individuals and genetic analysis. A simple and efficient sampling is described for molecular studies from eggshell membranes in an endemic population of Chinese ...

  14. Noninvasive molecular screening for oral precancer in Fanconi anemia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smetsers, Stephanie E.; Velleuer, Eunike; Dietrich, Ralf; Wu, Thijs; Brink, Arjen; Buijze, Marijke; Deeg, Dorly J H; Soulier, Jean; Leemans, C. René; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J M; Brakenhoff, Ruud H.

    2015-01-01

    LOH at chromosome arms 3p, 9p, 11q, and 17p are wellestablished oncogenetic aberrations in oral precancerous lesions and promising biomarkers to monitor the development of oral cancer. Noninvasive LOH screening of brushed oral cells is a preferable method for precancer detection in patients at

  15. A noninvasive monitoring device for anesthetics in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Power, Deborah M.; Fuentes, Juan; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2010-01-01

    A noninvasive device capable of recording both gill and lateral fin movements was assembled and used to analyze initial and post-treatment activity frequency (Hz) in fish exposed to anesthetics. Exposure of platy fish (Xiphosphorus maculatus) to saponins from quillaja bark (0.185 mM and 0.555 m...

  16. Eyeblink Conditioning: A Non-Invasive Biomarker for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a classical conditioning paradigm typically used to study the underlying neural processes of learning and memory. EBC has a well-defined neural circuitry, is non-invasive, and can be employed in human infants shortly after birth making it an ideal tool to use in both developing and special populations. In addition,…

  17. The Role of Noninvasive Techniques in Stroke Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maxwell Bernad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS have provided insight into understanding how neural connections are altered in consequence to cerebrovascular injury. The first part of this review will briefly survey some of the methodological issues and limitations related to noninvasive poststroke motor recovery studies. The second section will investigate some of the different neural mechanisms that underlie neurorehabilitation in stroke patients. The third part will explore our current understanding of motor memory processing, describe the neural structures that subserve motor memory consolidation, and discuss the current literature related to memory reconsolidation in healthy adults. Lastly, this paper will suggest the potential therapeutic applications of integrating noninvasive tools with memory consolidation and reconsolidation theories to enhance motor recovery. The overall objective of this work is to demonstrate how noninvasive technologies have been utilized in the multidisciplinary field of clinical behavioral neuroscience and to highlight their potential to be employed as clinical tools to promote individualized motor recovery in stroke patients.

  18. Non-invasive technology to determine the haemoglobin level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Predonation haemoglobin (Hb) check has been done traditionally by the copper sulphate (CuSO4), or the haemocue haemoglobinometer methods. Both of these require a fingerprick of the donor to obtain capillary blood samples. It is thought that a non-invasive, but accurate method of Hb check will reduce ...

  19. Novel idea to monitor and measure blood hemoglobin noninvasively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring blood hematocrit noninvasively is reviewed in this paper. Although there is an inclination to measure the hematocrit by determining the bioelectrical impedance of the blood, in vitro experimental methods still remain practically inapplicable. The blood sample size is determined when blood samples are examined.

  20. Muscle perfusion and metabolic heterogeneity: insights from noninvasive imaging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Kjaer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in noninvasive imaging techniques have enabled the study of local changes in perfusion and metabolism in skeletal muscle as well as patterns of heterogeneity in these variables in humans. In this review, the principles of these techniques along with some recent findings...... on functional heterogeneity in human skeletal muscle will be presented....

  1. Noninvasive microbubble-based pressure measurements: a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Michiel; Postema, M.A.B.; Bouakaz, Ayache; de Jong, N.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a noninvasive method to measure local hydrostatic pressures in fluid filled cavities. The method is based on the disappearance time of a gas bubble, as the disappearance time is related to the hydrostatic pressure. When a bubble shrinks, its response to ultrasound changes. From

  2. Genetic diversity of Przewalski's gazelle using noninvasive DNA and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cynthia

    2015-04-01

    Apr 1, 2015 ... noninvasive DNA and its implications for conservation. Hairui Duo1,2 ... Wild Animal Species in China since 1989 (Wang and Xie,. 2004; Li, 2010) ..... highway traffic on diumal activity of the critically endangered. Przewalski's ...

  3. Noninvasive methods to measure airway inflammation: future considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnussen, H.; Holz, O.; Sterk, P. J.; Hargreave, F. E.

    2000-01-01

    This last contribution to the series focuses on open questions regarding: 1) methodological issues; and 2) the potential clinical application of the noninvasive methods such as induced sputum and the analysis of exhaled air for the assessment of airway inflammation. In addition their potential

  4. Non-invasive terahertz field imaging inside parallel plate waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    We present a non-invasive broadband air photonic method of imaging of the electric field of THz pulses propagating inside a tapered parallel plate waveguide. The method is based on field-enhanced second harmonic generation of the fundamental laser beam in an external electric field. We apply...

  5. Imaging modalities for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Farquhar, Cindy; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M. Louise

    2016-01-01

    About 10% of women of reproductive age suffer from endometriosis. Endometriosis is a costly chronic disease that causes pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy, the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, no non-invasive tests that can

  6. Plasma Atrial Natriuretic Peptide as a non-invasive biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma Atrial Natriuretic Peptide as a non-invasive biochemical marker of dyspnoea in congestive heart failure patients. ... University of Mauritius Research Journal ... score assessed by a 10 graded visual analogue scale in the control group (mean score = 1) and an increased from 1.6 to 6.4 in the heart failure patients.

  7. Use of noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation in cardiogenic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hongisto, Mari; Lassus, Johan; Tarvasmaki, Tuukka

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite scarce data, invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) is widely recommended over non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for ventilatory support in cardiogenic shock (CS). We assessed the real-life use of different ventilation strategies in CS and their influence on outcome focusing on the...

  8. Non-invasive in vivo measurement of macular carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A non-invasive in vivo method for assessing macular carotenoids includes performing Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) on a retina of a subject. A spatial representation of carotenoid levels in the macula based on data from the OCT of the retina can be generated.

  9. Endometrial biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Devashana; Hull, M. Louise; Fraser, Ian; Miller, Laura; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Johnson, Neil; Nisenblat, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis, which is a costly, chronic disease that causes pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but it is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive tests

  10. Blood biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Shaikh, Rabia; Farquhar, Cindy; Jordan, Vanessa; Scheffers, Carola S.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M. Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis, a costly chronic disease causing pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive or minimally

  11. Non-invasive multilevel groundwater samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, E.; Heiser, J.

    1993-01-01

    Two non-intrusive, passive multilayer groundwater sampling devices are described which collect data simultaneously at small vertical intervals in the same well, without disturbing the geohydrological environment. One system uses membranes, the other uses remotely operated stainless steel cylinders connected in tandem. When used in several wells sufficient information is collected to allow a three dimensional characterization of contaminants and flow in the aquifer. The systems were used during field trials at Savannah River Laboratory in November 1991 and June 1992, and collected water quality and flow data over a 3 meter interval below the water table in each of two wells. Data from 1991 indicate weak vertical profiles in temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH over the 3 m sampling interval. Other measurements indicated a relatively uniform horizontal specific discharge of about 6 cm/year over the same sampling interval. No statistically significant vertical structure was evident for discharge. This presentation will compare this information with data obtained from field trials in June 1992

  12. Impact of Reclassification on Thyroid Nodules with Architectural Atypia: From Non-Invasive Encapsulated Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas to Non-Invasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ji Jeon

    Full Text Available The follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC, especially the encapsulated non-invasive subtype, is a controversial entity. Recent study suggested using 'non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP' for these indolent carcinomas. We evaluated the impact of reclassification from non-invasive encapsulated FVPTCs (EFVPTCs to NIFTPs in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules with architectural atypia.We reviewed 1301 thyroid nodules with architectural atypia in core needle biopsy (CNB specimens obtained from March 2012 to February 2013. Nodules were classified into atypia of undetermined significance with architectural atypia (AUS-A, 984, 76% or follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN, 317, 24%. Among them, diagnostic surgery was performed in 384 nodules (30%.In total, 160 nodules (42% presented final malignant diagnoses including 39 non-invasive encapsulated FVPTCs (10%. The malignancy rate was estimated to be 7-35% in AUS-A nodules and 28-49% in FN/SFN nodules. After reclassification, the malignancy rate was much decreased and estimated to be 5-24% in AUS-A nodules, and 23-39% in FN/SFN nodules. Thyroid nodules with final malignant diagnoses were significantly more likely to have a FN/SFN CNB diagnosis, malignant US features and concomitant nuclear atypia in CNB specimens. However, these factors could not differentiate NIFTPs from other malignancies.After reclassification of non-invasive EFVPTCs to NIFTPs, the malignancy rate of thyroid nodules with architectural atypia in CNB specimens was decreased. However, there were no preoperative factors differentiating other malignancies from NIFTPs. The presence of malignant US features or concomitant nuclear atypia might help clinicians deciding diagnostic surgery but, these features also might indicate NIFTPs.

  13. Non-invasive assessment of kidney allograft fibrosis with shear wave elastography: A radiological-pathological correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Maggie Km; Law, Helen Kw; Tse, Kin Sun; Chan, Kwok Wah; Chan, Gary Cw; Yap, Desmond Yh; Mok, Maggie My; Kwan, Lorraine Py; Tang, Sydney Cw; Choy, Bo Ying; Chan, Tak Mao

    2018-02-14

    To evaluate the use of shear wave elastography in assessment of kidney allograft tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Shear wave elastography assessment was carried out by two independent operators in kidney transplant recipients who underwent allograft biopsy for clinical indications (i.e. rising creatinine >15% or proteinuria >1 g/day). Allograft biopsies were interpreted by the same pathologist according to the 2013 Banff Classification. A total of 40 elastography scans were carried out (median creatinine 172.5 μmol/L [interquartile range 133.8-281.8 μmol/L]). Median tissue stiffness at the cortex (22.6 kPa [interquartile range 18.8-25.7 kPa] vs 22.3 kPa [interquartile range 19.0-26.5 kPa], P = 0.70) and medulla (15.0 kPa [interquartile range 13.7-18.0 kPa] vs 15.6 kPa [interquartile range 14.4-18.2 kPa]) showed no significant differences between the two observers. Interobserver agreement was satisfactory (intraclass correlation coefficient of the cortex 0.84, 95% CI 0.70-0.92 and intraclass correlation coefficient of the medulla 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.94). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for detection of tubulointerstitial fibrosis were estimated to be 0.75 (95% CI 0.61-0.89), 0.85 (95% CI 0.75-0.95) and 0.65 (95% CI 0.53-0.78) for cortical, medullary tissue stiffness and serum creatinine, respectively. Shear wave elastography can be used as a non-invasive tool to evaluate kidney allograft fibrosis with reasonable interobserver agreement and superior test performance to serum creatinine in detecting early tubulointerstitial fibrosis. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  14. Evaluación de la fibrosis hepática en la hepatitis crónica por virus C mediante la aplicación prospectiva del Sabadell's NIHCED score: Sabadell's Non Invasive, Hepatitis C Related-Cirrhosis Early Detection Score Prospective evaluation of liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis C infection using the Sabadell NIHCED: non-invasive hepatitis C related cirrhosis early detection index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bejarano

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la hepatitis crónica por VHC cursa de forma asintomática desarrollando cirrosis hepática y sus complicaciones en un 20-40% de los casos. En estudios previos se ha demostrado que la fibrosis avanzada es un factor pronóstico fundamental. El método gold standard para la valoración del grado de fibrosis es la biopsia hepática. Nuestro grupo ha validado un índice predictivo, el NIHCED (Sabadell's Non Invasive, Hepatitis C related-Cirrosis Early Detection Score, basado en datos demográficos, analíticos y ecográficos para determinar la presencia de cirrosis. Objetivo: nuestro objetivo es el de evaluar si el NIHCED predice la presencia de fibrosis avanzada en los pacientes con hepatitis crónica por virus C. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo donde se incluyeron pacientes con hepatitis crónica por VHC. Se les realizó una biopsia hepática y el NIHCED. El grado de fibrosis se correlacionó con el valor del NIHCED mediante curva de ROC y el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman. Resultados: se incluyeron un total de 321 pacientes (ratio hombre/mujer 1,27 con una edad media de 48 ± 14 años. La biopsia hepática mostró que 131 (30,5% no tenían fibrosis o era expansión portal, mientras que 190 (69,5% tenían fibrosis avanzada o cirrosis. Para un punto de corte de 6 puntos, la sensibilidad fue del 72%, especificidad del 76,3%, VPP del 81%, VPN del 63,7% y una precisión diagnóstica del 72,5%, con un área bajo la curva fue de 0,787 y un coeficiente de correlación de Spearman de r = 0,65. Conclusiones: el NIHCED predice la presencia de fibrosis avanzada en un elevado porcentaje de pacientes sin necesidad de realizar biopsia hepática.Introduction: liver disease resulting from chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection follows an asymptomatic course towards cirrhosis and its complications in 20-40% of cases. Earlier studies demonstrated that advanced fibrosis is a prognostic factor. The "gold standard" for the evaluation

  15. Non-Invasive Evaluation of Cystic Fibrosis Related Liver Disease in Adults with ARFI, Transient Elastography and Different Fibrosis Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Karlas, Thomas; Neuschulz, Marie; Oltmanns, Annett; Güttler, Andrea; Petroff, David; Wirtz, Hubert; Mainz, Jochen G.; Mössner, Joachim; Berg, Thomas; Tröltzsch, Michael; Keim, Volker; Wiegand, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis-related liver disease (CFLD) is present in up to 30% of cystic fibrosis patients and can result in progressive liver failure. Diagnosis of CFLD is challenging. Non-invasive methods for staging of liver fibrosis display an interesting diagnostic approach for CFLD detection. AIM: We evaluated transient elastography (TE), acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI), and fibrosis indices for CFLD detection. METHODS: TE and ARFI were performed in 55 adult CF patient...

  16. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekas, Jean; Langlois, Sylvie; Ravitsky, Vardit; Audibert, François; van den Berg, David Gradus; Haidar, Hazar; Rousseau, François

    2016-01-01

    Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening) was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women.

  17. NON-INVASIVE MONITORING OF FOETAL ANAEMIA IN KELL SENSITIZED PREGNANCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Zaibunnisa; Sheikh, Sana Sadiq

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of Kell sensitized pregnancy with good neonatal outcome. Anti-K antibodies were detected in maternal serum in early pregnancy as a part of routine antibody screening test. The middle cerebral artery doppler monitoring and serial titers were carried out to screen for foetal anaemia. Despite of rising antibody titers, serial middle cerebral artery doppler was normal and did not showed foetal anaemia. The pregnancy was carried out till term and patient delivered at 37 weeks of pregnancy with no evidence of foetal anaemia. This case underlines the need of general screening on rare antibodies in all pregnant women and that non-invasive monitoring of foetal anaemia can be done with anti-k titers and middle cerebral artery Doppler.

  18. Indications for body MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dujardin, M. [Department of Radiology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, BEFY, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: martine.dujardin@gmail.com; Vandenbroucke, F. [Department of Radiology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: frederik.vandenbroucke@az.vub.ac.be; Boulet, C. [Department of Radiology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: cedric.boulet@az.vub.ac.be; Op de Beeck, B. [Department of Radiology, UZA and Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: bart.op.de.beeck@uza.be; Mey, J. de [Department of Radiology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, BEFY, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: johan.demey@az.vub.ac.be

    2008-02-15

    The lack of ionizing radiation use in MRI makes the high spatial resolution technique very appealing. Also, the easy access to multiplanar imaging and the fact that gadolinium-DTPA is well tolerated and not nephrotoxic makes MRI a robust alternative in the healthy as well as the renal compromised patient. Furthermore, MRI adds advanced possibility for tissue characterization and pathology detection and dynamic imaging can be performed. Specific contrast agents specific to the hepatobiliary or the reticuloendothelial system can help with additional information in problem cases. The role of MRI for different organs is discussed and a review of the literature is given. We concluded that MRI is considered a useful and non-invasive diagnostic tool for the detection of hepatic iron concentration, to correct misdiagnosis (pseudolesions) from US and CT in focal steatosis and to help with focal lesion detection and characterization, in the healthy and especially in the cirrhotic liver, where MRI is superior to CT. Moreover, MRCP is excellent for identifying the presence and the level of biliary obstruction in malignant invasion and is considered in the literature as a non-invasive screening tool for common bile duct stones, appropriately selecting candidates for preoperative ERCP and sparing others the need for an endoscopic procedure with its associated complications. MRI is the first choice modality for adrenal evaluation in contemporary medical imaging. It is a useful examination in renal as well as splenic pathology and best assesses loco-regional staging, i.e. arterial involvement in pancreatic cancer.

  19. Prediction of hyperbilirubinemia by noninvasive methods in full-term newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Furlan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The noninvasive screening methods for bilirubin determination were studied prospectively in a group of full-term healthy newborns with the aim of early prediction of pathological neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Laboratory determination of bilirubin (Jendrassik-Grof (JG was compared to the noninvasive transcutaneous bilirubin (TcBIL together with the determination of bilirubin in cord blood.Methods: The study group consisted of 284 full-term healthy consecutively born infants in the period from March to June 2011. The whole group was divided into a group of physiological (n=199, and a group of pathological hyperbilirubinemia (n=85 according to the level of total bilirubin (220 μmol/L. Bilirubin in cord blood (CbBIL and from capillary blood at the age of three days was determined according to the JG, on the 3rd day TcBIL was also detected by Bilicheck bilirubinometer. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Mann-Whitney tests were used for the statistical analysis.Results: Bilirubin concentrations were statisti cally significantly different (CbBIL (p<0,001 on the 3rd day control sample (p<0,001, TcBil (p<0,001 between the groups of newborns with physiological (n=199 and pathological (n=85 hyperbilirubinemia. Using the cut-off value of cord blood bilirubin 28 μmol/L, we could predict the development of pathological hyperbiliru binemia with 98.8% prognostic specificity, and with 100% sensitivity that newborns will not require a phototherapy (all irradiated newborns were taken into account. We confirmed an excellent agreement between bilirubin concentrations determined by the TcBIL and JG methods for both groups of healthy full-term newborns.Conclusion: Based on our results, we could recommend that determination of the cord blood bilirubin in combination with the measurement of TcBIL should be implemented into practice for early prediction of pathological hyperbilirubinemia in full-term healthy newborns. The advantages of both methods in the routine

  20. Fetal Echocardiography and Indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Atahan Güven

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart diseases are encountered in 0.8% of live births and are among the most frequently diagnosed malformations. At least half of these anomalies end up with death or require surgical interventions and are responsible for 30% of the perinatal mortality. Fetal echocardiography is the sum of knowledge, skill and orientation rather than knowing the embryologic details of the fetal heart. The purpose of fetal echocardiography is to document the presence of normal fetal cardiac anatomy and rhythm in high risk group and to define the anomaly and arrhythmia if present. A certain sequence should be followed during the evaluation of fetal heart. Sequential segmental analysis (SSA and basic definition terminology made it possible to determine a lot of complex cardiac anomalies during prenatal period. By the end of 1970’s, Shinebourne started using sequential segmental analysis for fetal cardiac evaluation and today, prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease is possible without any confusion. In this manner, whole fetal heart can be evaluated as the relation of three segments (atria, ventricles and the great arteries with each other, irrelevant of complexity of a possible cardiac anomaly. Presence of increased nuchal thickness during early gestation and abnormal four-chamber-view during ultrasonography by the obstetrician presents a clear indication for fetal echocardiography,however, one should keep in mind that 80-90% of the babies born with a congenital heart disease do not have a familial or maternal risk factor. In addition, it should be remembered that expectant mothers with diabetes mellitus pose an indication for fetal echocardiography.

  1. Comparison of the in vitro and in vivo dissolution rates of two diuranates and research on an early urinary indicator of renal failure in humans and animals poisoned with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henge-Napoli, M.H.; Rongier, E.; Ansoborlo, E.; Chalabreysse, J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the solubility of industrial calcined diuranate in various in vitro systems and to test the sensitivity of biological parameters in detecting renal alterations after intoxication in animals and in human subjects. The dissolution rates in in vitro static and dynamic tests are consistent for each solution for both types of test. The in vivo results are comparable to the in vitro results obtained with Gamble solution for both compounds. The excretion kinetics observed are compared with the values calculated from ICRP standards. Urinary GGT excretion measurements are found to be a satisfactory indicator of uranium-induced kidney alterations. GGT excretion increases for injected doses exceeding 50 μg.kg -1 . Initial results in human subjects suggest that following accidental exposure to uranium, GGT is a more sensitive indicator of kidney damage than glycosuria. (author)

  2. Recovery of the cardiac frequency to the minute post effort as early indicator of myocardial ischemia; Recuperacion de la frecuencia cardiaca al minuto postesfuerzo como indicador temprano de isquemia miocardica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez M, L [Centro Medico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the recovery cardiac frequency like ischemia indicator, due to the immediate reactivity of the parasympathetic nervous system in the post-effort. It is obtained as conclusion that a slow descent of the cardiac frequency to the first minute of the post-effort is a predictor ischemia index when correlating it with the risk evaluated by cardiac SPECT with a high specificity; being this a marker of simple calculating in the daily practice. (Author)

  3. Closed-loop controlled noninvasive ultrasonic glucose sensing and insulin delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Joo; Werner, Jacob; Jaiswal, Devina; Smith, Nadine Barrie

    2010-03-01

    To prevent complications in diabetes, the proper management of blood glucose levels is essential. Previously, ultrasonic transdermal methods using a light-weight cymbal transducer array has been studied for noninvasive methods of insulin delivery for Type-1 diabetes and glucose level monitoring. In this study, the ultrasound systems of insulin delivery and glucose sensing have been combined by a feedback controller. This study was designed to show the feasibility of the feedback controlled ultrasound system for the noninvasive glucose control. For perspective human application, in vivo experiments were performed on large animals that have a similar size to humans. Four in vivo experiments were performed using about 200 lbs pigs. The cymbal array of 3×3 pattern has been used for insulin delivery at 30 kHz with the spatial-peak temporal-peak intensity (Isptp) of 100 mW/cm2. For glucose sensing, a 2×2 array was operated at 20 kHz with Isptp = 100 mW/cm2. Based on the glucose level determined by biosensors after the ultrasound exposure, the ultrasound system for the insulin delivery was automatically operated. The glucose level of 115 mg/dl was set as a reference value for operating the insulin delivery system. For comparison, the glucose levels of blood samples collected from the ear vein were measured by a commercial glucose meter. Using the ultrasound system operated by the close-loop, feed-back controller, the glucose levels of four pigs were determined every 20 minutes and continuously controlled for 120 minutes. In comparison to the commercial glucose meter, the glucose levels determined by the biosensor were slightly higher. The results of in vivo experiments indicate the feasibility of the feedback controlled ultrasound system using the cymbal array for noninvasive glucose sensing and insulin delivery. Further studies on the extension of the glucose control will be continued for the effective method of glucose control.

  4. Non-invasive brain-to-brain interface (BBI: establishing functional links between two brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Schik Yoo

    Full Text Available Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS is capable of modulating the neural activity of specific brain regions, with a potential role as a non-invasive computer-to-brain interface (CBI. In conjunction with the use of brain-to-computer interface (BCI techniques that translate brain function to generate computer commands, we investigated the feasibility of using the FUS-based CBI to non-invasively establish a functional link between the brains of different species (i.e. human and Sprague-Dawley rat, thus creating a brain-to-brain interface (BBI. The implementation was aimed to non-invasively translate the human volunteer's intention to stimulate a rat's brain motor area that is responsible for the tail movement. The volunteer initiated the intention by looking at a strobe light flicker on a computer display, and the degree of synchronization in the electroencephalographic steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials (SSVEP with respect to the strobe frequency was analyzed using a computer. Increased signal amplitude in the SSVEP, indicating the volunteer's intention, triggered the delivery of a burst-mode FUS (350 kHz ultrasound frequency, tone burst duration of 0.5 ms, pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, given for 300 msec duration to excite the motor area of an anesthetized rat transcranially. The successful excitation subsequently elicited the tail movement, which was detected by a motion sensor. The interface was achieved at 94.0±3.0% accuracy, with a time delay of 1.59±1.07 sec from the thought-initiation to the creation of the tail movement. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a computer-mediated BBI that links central neural functions between two biological entities, which may confer unexplored opportunities in the study of neuroscience with potential implications for therapeutic applications.

  5. Hospitals' Patterns of Use of Noninvasive Ventilation in Patients With Asthma Exacerbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Mihaela S; Nathanson, Brian H; Priya, Aruna; Pekow, Penelope S; Lagu, Tara; Steingrub, Jay S; Hill, Nicholas S; Goldberg, Robert J; Kent, David M; Lindenauer, Peter K

    2016-03-01

    Limited data are available on the use of noninvasive ventilation in patients with asthma exacerbations. The objective of this study was to characterize hospital patterns of noninvasive ventilation use in patients with asthma and to evaluate the association with the use of invasive mechanical ventilation and case fatality rate. This cross-sectional study used an electronic medical record dataset, which includes comprehensive pharmacy and laboratory results from 58 hospitals. Data on 13,558 patients admitted from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed. Initial noninvasive ventilation (NIV) or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) was defined as the first ventilation method during hospitalization. Hospital-level risk-standardized rates of NIV among all admissions with asthma were calculated by using a hierarchical regression model. Hospitals were grouped into quartiles of NIV to compare the outcomes. Overall, 90.3% of patients with asthma were not ventilated, 4.0% were ventilated with NIV, and 5.7% were ventilated with IMV. Twenty-two (38%) hospitals did not use NIV for any included admissions. Hospital-level adjusted NIV rates varied considerably (range, 0.4-33.1; median, 5.2%). Hospitals in the highest quartile of NIV did not have lower IMV use (5.4% vs 5.7%), but they did have a small but significantly shorter length of stay. Higher NIV rates were not associated with lower risk-adjusted case fatality rates. Large variation exists in hospital use of NIV for patients with an acute exacerbation of asthma. Higher hospital rates of NIV use does not seem to be associated with lower IMV rates. These results indicate a need to understand contextual and organizational factors contributing to this variability. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Toward noninvasive detection and monitoring of malaria with broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chris; Tromberg, Bruce J.; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.

    2018-02-01

    Despite numerous advances, malaria continues to kill nearly half a million people globally every year. New analytical methods and diagnostics are critical to understanding how treatments under development affect the lifecycle of malaria parasites. A biomarker that has been gaining interest is the "malaria pigment" hemozoin. This byproduct of hemoglobin digestion by the parasite has a unique spectral signature but is difficult to differentiate from hemoglobin and other tissue chromophores. Hemozoin can be detected in blood samples, but only utilizing approaches that require specialized training and facilities. Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) is a noninvasive sensing technique that is sensitive to near-infrared absorption and scattering and capable of probing centimeter-deep volumes of tissue in vivo. DOS is relatively low-cost, does not require specialized training and thus potentially suitable for use in low-resource settings. In this work, we assess the potential of DOS to detect and quantify the presence of hemozoin noninvasively and at physiologically relevant levels. We suspended synthetic hemozoin in Intralipid-based tissue-simulating phantoms in order to mimic malaria infection in multiply-scattering tissue. Using a fiber probe that combines frequency-domain and continuous-wave broadband DOS (650-1000 nm), we detected hemozoin concentrations below 250 ng/ml, which corresponds to parasitemia sensitivities comparable to modern rapid diagnostic tests. We used the experimental variability to simulate and estimate the sensitivity of DOS to hemozoin in tissue that includes hemoglobin, water, and lipid under various tissue oxygen saturation levels. The results indicate that with increased precision, it may be possible to detect Hz noninvasively with DOS.

  7. Ultrafast Spectroscopic Noninvasive Probe of Vertical Carrier Transport in Heterostructure Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    ARL-TR-7618 ● MAR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Ultrafast Spectroscopic Noninvasive Probe of Vertical Carrier Transport in...US Army Research Laboratory Ultrafast Spectroscopic Noninvasive Probe of Vertical Carrier Transport in Heterostructure Devices by Blair C...Spectroscopic Noninvasive Probe of Vertical Carrier Transport in Heterostructure Devices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  8. Invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation for treatment of neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Leis, Stefan; Höller, Peter; Thon, Natasha; Thomschewski, Aljoscha; Golaszewski, Stefan; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2014-01-01

    Past evidence has shown that invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation may be effective for relieving central pain. To perform a topical review of the literature on brain neurostimulation techniques in patients with chronic neuropathic pain due to traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and to assess the current evidence for their therapeutic efficacy. A MEDLINE search was performed using following terms: "Spinal cord injury", "Neuropathic pain", "Brain stimulation", "Deep brain stimulation" (DBS), "Motor cortex stimulation" (MCS), "Transcranial magnetic stimulation" (TMS), "Transcranial direct current stimulation" (tDCS), "Cranial electrotherapy stimulation" (CES). Invasive neurostimulation therapies, in particular DBS and epidural MCS, have shown promise as treatments for neuropathic and phantom limb pain. However, the long-term efficacy of DBS is low, while MCS has a relatively higher potential with lesser complications that DBS. Among the non-invasive techniques, there is accumulating evidence that repetitive TMS can produce analgesic effects in healthy subjects undergoing laboratory-induced pain and in chronic pain conditions of various etiologies, at least partially and transiently. Another very safe technique of non-invasive brain stimulation - tDCS - applied over the sensory-motor cortex has been reported to decrease pain sensation and increase pain threshold in healthy subjects. CES has also proved to be effective in managing some types of pain, including neuropathic pain in subjects with SCI. A number of studies have begun to use non-invasive neuromodulatory techniques therapeutically to relieve neuropathic pain and phantom phenomena in patients with SCI. However, further studies are warranted to corroborate the early findings and confirm different targets and stimulation paradigms. The utility of these protocols in combination with pharmacological approaches should also be explored.

  9. Noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) through maternal plasma DNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Haojun; Xie, Yifan; Li, Xuchao

    2016-01-01

    developed a noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) based on SNP typing with maternal plasma DNA sequencing. We evaluated the influence factors (minor allele frequency (MAF), the number of total SNP, fetal fraction and effective sequencing depth) and designed three different selective SNP panels......Short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been already used to perform noninvasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal plasma DNA. The frequently used technologies were PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and SNP typing array, respectively. Here, we...... paternity test using STR multiplex system. Our study here proved that the maternal plasma DNA sequencing-based technology is feasible and accurate in determining paternity, which may provide an alternative in forensic application in the future....

  10. Commercial landscape of noninvasive prenatal testing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashwin; Sayres, Lauren C; Cho, Mildred K; Cook-Deegan, Robert; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini

    2013-06-01

    Cell-free fetal DNA-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) could significantly change the paradigm of prenatal testing and screening. Intellectual property (IP) and commercialization promise to be important components of the emerging debate about clinical implementation of these technologies. We have assembled information about types of testing, prices, turnaround times, and reimbursement of recently launched commercial tests in the United States from the trade press, news articles, and scientific, legal, and business publications. We also describe the patenting and licensing landscape of technologies underlying these tests and ongoing patent litigation in the United States. Finally, we discuss how IP issues may affect clinical translation of NIPT and their potential implications for stakeholders. Fetal medicine professionals (clinicians and researchers), genetic counselors, insurers, regulators, test developers, and patients may be able to use this information to make informed decisions about clinical implementation of current and emerging noninvasive prenatal tests. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Noninvasive optical inhibition with a red-shifted microbial rhodopsin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chuong, Amy S; Miri, Mitra L; Busskamp, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Optogenetic inhibition of the electrical activity of neurons enables the causal assessment of their contributions to brain functions. Red light penetrates deeper into tissue than other visible wavelengths. We present a red-shifted cruxhalorhodopsin, Jaws, derived from Haloarcula (Halobacterium......) salinarum (strain Shark) and engineered to result in red light-induced photocurrents three times those of earlier silencers. Jaws exhibits robust inhibition of sensory-evoked neural activity in the cortex and results in strong light responses when used in retinas of retinitis pigmentosa model mice. We also...... demonstrate that Jaws can noninvasively mediate transcranial optical inhibition of neurons deep in the brains of awake mice. The noninvasive optogenetic inhibition opened up by Jaws enables a variety of important neuroscience experiments and offers a powerful general-use chloride pump for basic and applied...

  12. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Pediatric ADHD: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Belen; Boes, Aaron D.; Laganiere, Simon; Rotenberg, Alexander; Jeurissen, Danique; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in the pediatric population. The clinical management of ADHD is currently limited by a lack of reliable diagnostic biomarkers and inadequate therapy for a minority of patients that do not respond to standard pharmacotherapy. There is optimism that noninvasive brain stimulation may help to address these limitations. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two methods of noninvasive brain stimulation that modulate cortical excitability and brain network activity. TMS can be used diagnostically to probe cortical neurophysiology, while daily use of repetitive TMS or tDCS can induce long-lasting and potentially therapeutic changes in targeted networks. In this review we highlight research showing the potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications of TMS and tDCS in pediatric ADHD. We also discuss the safety and ethics of using these tools in the pediatric population. PMID:26661481

  13. Efficacy of noninvasive modalities of diagnosis of thrombophlebitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, R.W.; Klatte, E.C.; Park, H.M.; Siddiqui, A.R.; Bendick, P.J.; Dilley, R.S.; Glover, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    In a blind prospective study of 158 limbs, Doppler ultrasound, pneumoplethysmography, and radionuclide venography (RNV) using 99 mTc-MAA were compared to phlebography as methods of detecting thrombophlebitis. All three noninvasive modalities were very insensitive to isolated thrombus below the knee. In patients with extension of thrombus above the knee and isolated thrombus in the deep veins of the upper limb, Doppler ultrasound had a sensitivity of 81% and RNV had a sensitivity of 77%. All of the noninvasive modalities were found to be dependent on venous occlusion. Overall, pneumoplethysmography had a sensitivity of 28% and specificity of 96%, compared with 56% and 91%, respectively, for Doppler ultrasound and 51% and 84% for RNV. Based on these findings, phlebography would still seem to be the modality of choice in the diagnosis of thrombophlebitis

  14. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm, Martin C., Jr.; Austen, William G., Jr.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-05-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases.

  15. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm Jr., Martin C.; Austen Jr., William G.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases. PMID:25965851

  16. Gender differences in the association between stop-signal reaction times, body mass indices and/or spontaneous food intake in pre-school children: an early model of compromised inhibitory control and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, R D; Rivera, J; Silveira, P P; Steiner, M; Gaudreau, H; Hamilton, J; Kennedy, J L; Davis, C; Dube, L; Fellows, L; Wazana, A; Matthews, S; Meaney, M J

    2015-04-01

    Poor inhibitory control is associated with overeating and/or obesity in school-age children, adolescents and adults. The current study examined whether an objective and reliable marker of response inhibition, the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), is associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores and/or food intake during a snack test in pre-school children. The current sample consisted of 193 pre-school children taking part in a longitudinal study of early brain development (Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (the MAVAN project)). Linear mixed-effect models were used to examine whether the SSRT measured at age 48 months associated with BMI z-scores and/or dietary intake during a laboratory-based snack test. After controlling for significant covariates including maternal BMI, there was a significant gender by SSRT interaction effect in predicting 48-month BMI z-scores. Post-hoc analysis revealed an association between longer SSRTs (poor response inhibition) and higher BMIs in girls but not boys. Across both girls and boys, longer SSRTs were associated with greater intake of carbohydrates and sugars during the snack test. The association between SSRT scores and BMI z-scores in girls was not statistically mediated by carbohydrate or sugar intake. At 48 months of age, slower response inhibition on the Stop-Signal Task associates with higher BMI z-scores in girls, and with higher intake of carbohydrates and sugars during a snack test across both genders. Ongoing follow-up of these children will help clarify the implications of these associations for longer term macronutrient intake, eating-related pathology and/or pathological weight gain over time.

  17. Noninvasive measurement of an index of renal blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, T.A.; Rees, R.S.; Bowen, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for the noninvasive measurement of an index of renal blood flow is described. The method utilizes ultrasound determined renal volume and radionuclide assessment of the mean transit time of a pertechnetate bolus through the kidneys. From this information a value for flow is calculated according to compartmental analysis principles. There is good correlation between renal blood flow estimated by this technique and that determined by microsphere injection

  18. An Image Registration Based Technique for Noninvasive Vascular Elastography

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, Sina; Makkiabadi, Bahador; Mirbagheri, Alireza; Soozande, Mehdi; Manwar, Rayyan; Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    Non-invasive vascular elastography is an emerging technique in vascular tissue imaging. During the past decades, several techniques have been suggested to estimate the tissue elasticity by measuring the displacement of the Carotid vessel wall. Cross correlation-based methods are the most prevalent approaches to measure the strain exerted in the wall vessel by the blood pressure. In the case of a low pressure, the displacement is too small to be apparent in ultrasound imaging, especially in th...

  19. Non-invasive biomarkers and pulmonary function in smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Borrill, Zo? L; Roy, Kay; Vessey, Rupert S; Woodcock, Ashley A; Singh, Dave

    2008-01-01

    Zoë L Borrill1, Kay Roy1, Rupert S Vessey2, Ashley A Woodcock1, Dave Singh11Medicines Evaluation Unit, University of Manchester, Wythenshawe Hospital, Southmoor Rd, Manchester, UK; 2Glaxo Smith Kline, Philadelphia, USAAbstract: Limited information exists regarding measurement, reproducibility and interrelationships of non-invasive biomarkers in smokers. We compared exhaled breath condensate (EBC) leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 8-isoprostane, exhaled nitric oxide, induced sputum, spirometr...

  20. Applicability of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickmilder Marc

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With its inclusion under Action 3 in the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004–2010 of the European Commission, human biomonitoring is currently receiving an increasing amount of attention from the scientific community as a tool to better quantify human exposure to, and health effects of, environmental stressors. Despite the policy support, however, there are still several issues that restrict the routine application of human biomonitoring data in environmental health impact assessment. One of the main issues is the obvious need to routinely collect human samples for large-scale surveys. Particularly the collection of invasive samples from susceptible populations may suffer from ethical and practical limitations. Children, pregnant women, elderly, or chronically-ill people are among those that would benefit the most from non-invasive, repeated or routine sampling. Therefore, the use of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring should be promoted as an ethically appropriate, cost-efficient and toxicologically relevant alternative for many biomarkers that are currently determined in invasively collected matrices. This review illustrates that several non-invasively collected matrices are widely used that can be an valuable addition to, or alternative for, invasively collected matrices such as peripheral blood sampling. Moreover, a well-informed choice of matrix can provide an added value for human biomonitoring, as different non-invasively collected matrices can offer opportunities to study additional aspects of exposure to and effects from environmental contaminants, such as repeated sampling, historical overview of exposure, mother-child transfer of substances, or monitoring of substances with short biological half-lives.

  1. First Trimester Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis: A Computational Intelligence Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neocleous, Andreas C; Nicolaides, Kypros H; Schizas, Christos N

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the potential value of using machine learning techniques such as artificial neural network (ANN) schemes for the noninvasive estimation, at 11-13 weeks of gestation, the risk for euploidy, trisomy 21 (T21), and other chromosomal aneuploidies (O.C.A.), from suitable sonographic, biochemical markers, and other relevant data. A database(1) (1)The dataset can become available for academic purposes by communicating directly with the authors.

  2. Noninvasive ventilation reduces energy expenditure in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Georges , Marjolaine; Morélot-Panzini , Capucine; Similowski , Thomas; Gonzalez-Bermejo , Jesus

    2014-01-01

    International audience; BackgroundAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) leads to chronic respiratory failure. Diaphragmatic dysfunction, a major driver of dyspnea and mortality, is associated with a shift of the burden of ventilation to extradiaphragmatic inspiratory muscles, including neck muscles. Besides, energy expenditure is often abnormally high in ALS, and this is associated with a negative prognostic value. We hypothesized that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) would relieve inspiratory nec...

  3. The predictive value of respiratory function tests for non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilanus, T B M; Groothuis, J T; TenBroek-Pastoor, J M C; Feuth, T B; Heijdra, Y F; Slenders, J P L; Doorduin, J; Van Engelen, B G; Kampelmacher, M J; Raaphorst, J

    2017-07-25

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves survival and quality of life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. The timing of referral to a home ventilation service (HVS), which is in part based on respiratory function tests, has shown room for improvement. It is currently unknown which respiratory function test predicts an appropriate timing of the initiation of NIV. We analysed, retrospectively, serial data of five respiratory function tests: forced vital capacity (FVC), peak cough flow (PCF), maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) and sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP) in patients with ALS. Patients who had had at least one assessment of respiratory function and one visit at the HVS, were included. Our aim was to detect the test with the highest predictive value for the need for elective NIV in the following 3 months. We analysed time curves, currently used cut-off values for referral, and respiratory function test results between 'NIV indication' and 'no-NIV indication' patients. One hundred ten patients with ALS were included of whom 87 received an NIV indication; 11.5% had one assessment before receiving an NIV indication, 88.5% had two or more assessments. The NIV indication was based on complaints of hypoventilation and/or proven (nocturnal) hypercapnia. The five respiratory function tests showed a descending trend during disease progression, where SNIP showed the greatest decline within the latest 3 months before NIV indication (mean = -22%). PCF at the time of referral to the HVS significantly discriminated between the groups 'NIV-indication' and 'no NIV-indication yet' patients at the first HVS visit: 259 (±92) vs. 348 (±137) L/min, p = 0.019. PCF and SNIP showed the best predictive characteristics in terms of sensitivity. SNIP showed the greatest decline prior to NIV indication and PCF significantly differentiated 'NIV-indication' from 'no NIV-indication yet' patients with ALS. Currently used cut-off values might be

  4. Thiomers: potential excipients for non-invasive peptide delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Krauland, Alexander H; Leitner, Verena M; Palmberger, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    In recent years thiolated polymers or so-called thiomers have appeared as a promising alternative in the arena of non-invasive peptide delivery. Thiomers are generated by the immobilisation of thiol-bearing ligands to mucoadhesive polymeric excipients. By formation of disulfide bonds with mucus glycoproteins, the mucoadhesive properties of these polymers are improved up to 130-fold. Due to formation of inter- and intramolecular disulfide bonds within the thiomer itself, dosage forms such as tablets or microparticles display strong cohesive properties resulting in comparatively higher stability, prolonged disintegration times and a more controlled release of the embedded peptide drug. The permeation of peptide drugs through mucosa can be improved by the use of thiolated polymers. Additionally some thiomers exhibit improved inhibitory properties towards peptidases. The efficacy of thiomers in non-invasive peptide delivery could be demonstrated by various in vivo studies. Tablets comprising a thiomer and pegylated insulin, for instance, resulted in a pharmacological efficacy of 7% after oral application to diabetic mice. Furthermore, a pharmacological efficacy of 1.3% was achieved in rats by oral administration of calcitonin tablets comprising a thiomer. Human growth hormone in a thiomer-gel was applied nasally to rats and led to a bioavailability of 2.75%. In all these studies, formulations comprising the corresponding unmodified polymer had only a marginal or no effect. According to these results drug carrier systems based on thiomers seem to be a promising tool for non-invasive peptide drug delivery.

  5. Noninvasive glucose monitoring using saliva nano-biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people worldwide live with diabetes and several millions die from it each year. A noninvasive, painless method of glucose testing would highly improve compliance and glucose control while reducing complications and overall disease management costs. To provide accurate, low cost, and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a unique, disposable saliva nano-biosensor. More than eight clinical trials on real-time noninvasive salivary glucose monitoring were carried out on two healthy individuals (a 2–3 h-period for each trial, including both regular food and standard glucose beverage intake with more than 35 saliva samples obtained. Excellent clinical accuracy was revealed as compared to the UV Spectrophotometer. By measuring subjects’ salivary glucose and blood glucose in parallel, we found the two generated profiles share the same fluctuation trend but the correlation between them is individual dependent. There is a time lag between the peak glucose values from blood and from saliva. However, the correlation between the two glucose values at fasting is constant for each person enabling noninvasive diagnosis of diabetes through saliva instead of blood. Furthermore, a good correlation of glucose levels in saliva and in blood before and 2 h after glucose intake was observed. Glucose monitoring before and 2 h after meals is usually prescribed by doctors for diabetic patients. Thus, this disposable biosensor will be an alternative for real-time salivary glucose tracking at any time.

  6. Noninvasive Respiratory Management of Patients With Neuromuscular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, John R

    2017-08-01

    This review article describes definitive noninvasive respiratory management of respiratory muscle dysfunction to eliminate need to resort to tracheotomy. In 2010 clinicians from 22 centers in 18 countries reported 1,623 spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA1), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis users of noninvasive ventilatory support (NVS) of whom 760 required it continuously (CNVS). The CNVS sustained their lives by over 3,000 patient-years without resort to indwelling tracheostomy tubes. These centers have now extubated at least 74 consecutive ventilator unweanable patients with DMD, over 95% of CNVS-dependent patients with SMA1, and hundreds of others with advanced neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) without resort to tracheotomy. Two centers reported a 99% success rate at extubating 258 ventilator unweanable patients without resort to tracheotomy. Patients with myopathic or lower motor neuron disorders can be managed noninvasively by up to CNVS, indefinitely, despite having little or no measurable vital capacity, with the use of physical medicine respiratory muscle aids. Ventilator-dependent patients can be decannulated of their tracheostomy tubes.

  7. Current methods of non-invasive ventilatory support for neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ramadan A; Roehr, Charles Christoph; Schmalisch, Gerd

    2011-09-01

    Non-invasive ventilatory support can reduce the adverse effects associated with intubation and mechanical ventilation, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, sepsis, and trauma to the upper airways. In the last 4 decades, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used to wean preterm infants off mechanical ventilation and, more recently, as a primary mode of respiratory support for preterm infants with respiratory insufficiency. Moreover, new methods of respiratory support have been developed, and the devices used to provide non-invasive ventilation (NIV) have improved technically. Use of NIV is increasing, and a variety of equipment is available in different clinical settings. There is evidence that NIV improves gas exchange and reduces extubation failure after mechanical ventilation in infants. However, more research is needed to identify the most suitable devices for particular conditions; the NIV settings that should be used; and whether to employ synchronized or non-synchronized NIV. Furthermore, the optimal treatment strategy and the best time for initiation of NIV remain to be identified. This article provides an overview of the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in newborn infants, and the clinical applications of NIV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-invasive genetic censusing and monitoring of primate populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandjelovic, Mimi; Vigilant, Linda

    2018-03-01

    Knowing the density or abundance of primate populations is essential for their conservation management and contextualizing socio-demographic and behavioral observations. When direct counts of animals are not possible, genetic analysis of non-invasive samples collected from wildlife populations allows estimates of population size with higher accuracy and precision than is possible using indirect signs. Furthermore, in contrast to traditional indirect survey methods, prolonged or periodic genetic sampling across months or years enables inference of group membership, movement, dynamics, and some kin relationships. Data may also be used to estimate sex ratios, sex differences in dispersal distances, and detect gene flow among locations. Recent advances in capture-recapture models have further improved the precision of population estimates derived from non-invasive samples. Simulations using these methods have shown that the confidence interval of point estimates includes the true population size when assumptions of the models are met, and therefore this range of population size minima and maxima should be emphasized in population monitoring studies. Innovations such as the use of sniffer dogs or anti-poaching patrols for sample collection are important to ensure adequate sampling, and the expected development of efficient and cost-effective genotyping by sequencing methods for DNAs derived from non-invasive samples will automate and speed analyses. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Non-invasive ventilation after surgery in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, C; Castioni, C A; Livigni, S; Bersano, E; Cantello, R; Della Corte, F; Mazzini, L

    2014-04-01

    Surgery in patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) presents a particular anesthetic challenge because of the risk of post-operative pulmonary complications. We report on the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) to prevent post-operative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in nine patients affected by ALS enrolled in a phase-1 clinical trial with stem cell transplantation. All patients were treated with autologous mesenchymal stem cells implanted into the spinal cord with a surgical procedure. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with remifentanil and sevoflurane. No muscle relaxant was used. After awakening and regain of spontaneous breathing, patients were tracheally extubated. Non-invasive ventilation through nasal mask was delivered and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation and continuous positive pressure ventilation were started. The average time on NIV after surgery was 3 h and 12 min. All patients regained stable spontaneous breathing after NIV discontinuation and had no episodes of respiratory failure until the following day. Our case series suggest that the use of NIV after surgery can be a safe strategy to prevent PPCs in patients affected by ALS. The perioperative procedure we chose for these patients appeared safe even in patients with advanced functional stage of the disease. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Humidification during invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation: 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Ruben D; Walsh, Brian K

    2012-05-01

    We searched the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases for articles published between January 1990 and December 2011. The update of this clinical practice guideline is based on 184 clinical trials and systematic reviews, and 10 articles investigating humidification during invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation. The following recommendations are made following the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) scoring system: 1. Humidification is recommended on every patient receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. 2. Active humidification is suggested for noninvasive mechanical ventilation, as it may improve adherence and comfort. 3. When providing active humidification to patients who are invasively ventilated, it is suggested that the device provide a humidity level between 33 mg H(2)O/L and 44 mg H(2)O/L and gas temperature between 34°C and 41°C at the circuit Y-piece, with a relative humidity of 100%. 4. When providing passive humidification to patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation, it is suggested that the HME provide a minimum of 30 mg H(2)O/L. 5. Passive humidification is not recommended for noninvasive mechanical ventilation. 6. When providing humidification to patients with low tidal volumes, such as when lung-protective ventilation strategies are used, HMEs are not recommended because they contribute additional dead space, which can increase the ventilation requirement and P(aCO(2)). 7. It is suggested that HMEs are not used as a prevention strategy for ventilator-associated pneumonia.

  11. Allograft Pancreatectomy: Indications and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, S; Powelson, J A; Taber, T E; Goble, M L; Mangus, R S; Fridell, J A

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the indications, surgical techniques, and outcomes of allograft pancreatectomy based on a single center experience. Between 2003 and 2013, 47 patients developed pancreas allograft failure, excluding mortality with a functioning pancreas allograft. Early graft loss (within 14 days) occurred in 16, and late graft loss in 31. All patients with early graft loss eventually required allograft pancreatectomy. Nineteen of 31 patients (61%) with late graft loss underwent allograft pancreatectomy. T