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Sample records for early non-specific work-related

  1. Work-related factors and early retirement intention: a study of the Danish eldercare sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejbæk, Camilla Sandal; Nexo, Mette A.; Borg, Vilhelm

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Western countries are experiencing an ageing and shrinking workforce in the eldercare sector. This study investigated whether 12 different work-related factors are associated with early retirement intentions of employees in the Danish eldercare sector. We tested whether three hypotheses...... explained the increase of early retirement intention: (i) high job demands (four factors) and low resources (four factors); (ii) low job attitude (three factors); and (iii) high physical strain (one factor). METHODS: We included 2444 employees (aged 45-57 years) from two waves (T1 and T2) from a prospective...... study. Multinomial logistic regression models showed whether 12 work-related factors (T1) were associated with early retirement intention (T2); very early retirement intention and early retirement intention vs. normal retirement intention. RESULTS: Only 14% of the participants wished to retire...

  2. Selective depletion of non-specific T cells as an early event in T cell response to bacterial and viral infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jiu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Early T cell depletion occurs prior to the development of an effective immune response to infections.Both antigen-specific and non-specific T cells are induced to express early activation markers soon after microbial infections.This is followed by massive depletion of non-specific T cells and extensive proliferation of antigen-specific T cells.Proliferating antigen-specific cells exhibit a broad spectrum of late activation markers while non-specific cells exhibit no sign of further activation before succumbing to apoptosis.These results have crucial implications for the understanding of early events in the development of a robust T cell response.

  3. Early identification in primary health care of people at risk for sick leave due to work-related stress - study protocol of a randomized controlled trial (RCT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Sandheimer, Christine; Mardby, Ann-Charlotte; Larsson, Maria E. H.; Bultmann, Ute; Hange, Dominique; Hensing, Gunnel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early identification of persons at risk of sickness absence due to work-related stress is a crucial problem for society in general, and primary health care in particular. Tho date, no established method to do this exists. This project's aim is to evaluate whether systematic early identif

  4. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfien Van Dyck

    Full Text Available The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined.In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models.More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal.Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an

  5. Early identification in primary health care of people at risk for sick leave due to work-related stress - study protocol of a randomized controlled trial (RCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Sandheimer, Christine; Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Larsson, Maria E H; Bültmann, Ute; Hange, Dominique; Hensing, Gunnel

    2016-11-25

    Early identification of persons at risk of sickness absence due to work-related stress is a crucial problem for society in general, and primary health care in particular. Tho date, no established method to do this exists. This project's aim is to evaluate whether systematic early identification of work-related stress can prevent sickness absence. This paper presents the study design, procedure and outcome measurements, as well as allocation and baseline characteristics of the study population. The study is a two-armed randomized controlled trial with follow-up at 3, 6 and 12 months. Non-sick-listed employed women and men, aged 18 to 64 years, who had mental and physical health complaints and sought care at primary health care centers (PHCC) were eligible to participate. At baseline work-related stress was measured by the Work Stress Questionnaire (WSQ), combined with feedback at consultation, at PHCC. The preventive intervention included early identification of work-related stress by the WSQ, GP training in the use of WSQ, GP feedback at consultation and finding suitable preventive measures. A process evaluation was used to explore how to facilitate future implementation and structural use of the WSQ at the PHCC. The primary outcome to compare the preventive sick leave intervention by the general practitioner (GP) versus treatment as usual is sick leave data obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency register. Early screening for sick leave due to work-related stress makes it possible not only to identify those at risk for sick leave, but also to put focus on the patient's specific work-related stress problems, which can be helpful in finding suitable preventive measures. This study investigates if use of the WSQ by GPs at PHCCs, combined with feedback at consultation, prevents future sickness absence. ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT02480855 . Registered 20 May 2015.

  6. Early work-related physical exposures and low back pain in midlife: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, T; Viikari-Juntura, E; Viikari, J; Kähönen, M; Lehtimäki, T; Raitakari, O T; Solovieva, S

    2017-03-01

    To examine whether heavy physical workload in young adulthood increases the risk of local and radiating low back pain (LBP) in midlife. Longitudinal nationally representative Young Finns Study data among women (n=414) and men (n=324), aged 18-24 years in 1986 (baseline), were used. Physical heaviness of work was reported at baseline and follow-up (2007), and local and radiating LBP at follow-up. Covariates were age, smoking and body mass index. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between physical heaviness of work and LBP. Additionally, the mediating effect of back pain at baseline was examined (the Sobel test). After adjustment for the covariates, and as compared with sedentary/light physical workload, heavy physical workload was associated with radiating LBP among women (OR 4.09, 95% CI 1.62 to 10.31) and men (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.82). Among men, early back pain mediated the association (p value from the Sobel test=0.006). Among women, early exposure to physically heavy work showed the most consistent associations, while early and late exposures were associated with radiating and local LBP among men. Persistently heavy physical work was associated with radiating LBP among women and men. Physically heavy work at a young age can have a long-lasting effect on the risk of LBP, radiating LBP in particular. These results highlight the need to consider early and persistent exposures to prevent the adverse consequences of physical workload for the low back. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Does oral polio vaccine have non-specific effects on all-cause mortality? Natural experiments within a randomised controlled trial of early measles vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Andersen, Andreas; Martins, Cesário L; Fisker, Ane B; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton C; Benn, Christine S

    2016-01-01

    Background BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs). If an unplanned intervention with a vaccine (a natural experiment) modifies the estimated effect in a randomised controlled trial (RCT), this suggests NSEs. We used this approach to test NSEs of triple oral polio vaccine (OPV). Methods During an RCT of 2 doses of MV at 4.5 and 9 months versus 1 dose of MV at 9 months of age, we experienced 2 natural experiments with OPV. We assessed whether these OPV experiments modified the effect of 2-dose MV in the MV trial. Setting MV RCT conducted in urban Guinea-Bissau 2003–2009. Interventions Natural experiments with OPV due to missing vaccine and the implementation of OPV campaigns. Main outcome measure Changes in the mortality rate ratio (MRR) for 2-dose MV versus 1-dose MV. Results First, the MRR (2-dose/1-dose MV) overall was 0.70 (0.52 to 0.94), but the MRR was 1.04 (0.53 to 2.04) when OPV at birth (OPV0) was not given, suggesting that early priming with OPV was important for the effect of 2-dose MV. The effect of OPV0 depended on age of administration; the MRR (2-dose/1-dose MV) was 0.45 (0.29 to 0.71) for children receiving OPV0 in the first week of life, but 3.63 (0.87 to 15.2) for those receiving OPV0 after the first month of life (p=0.007, test of no interaction). Second, campaign-OPV may have reduced the difference between the randomisation groups since the MRR (2-dose/1-dose MV) was 0.60 (0.42 to 0.85) for children who had not received campaign-OPV before RCT-enrolment versus 0.72 (0.23 to 2.31) and 1.42 (0.70 to 2.90) for children who had received 1 or 2 doses of campaign-OPV-before-enrolment, respectively. Conclusions Bissau had no polio infection during this trial, so OPV0 and campaign-OPV may have NSEs since they modified the effect of 2-dose MV in an RCT. Different interventions may interact to a much larger effect than usually assumed. PMID:28011813

  8. The Effect of a Workplace-Based Early Intervention Program on Work-Related Musculoskeletal Compensation Outcomes at a Poultry Meat Processing Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Michael; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Johnston, Venerina

    2017-03-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to determine whether a workplace-based early intervention injury prevention program reduces work-related musculoskeletal compensation outcomes in poultry meat processing workers. Methods A poultry meatworks in Queensland, Australia implemented an onsite early intervention which included immediate reporting and triage, reassurance, multidisciplinary participatory consultation, workplace modifica tion and onsite physiotherapy. Secondary pre-post analyses of the meatworks' compensation data over 4 years were performed, with the intervention commencing 2 years into the study period. Outcome measures included rate of claims, costs per claim and work days absent at an individual claim level. Where possible, similar analyses were performed on data for Queensland's poultry meat processing industry (excluding the meatworks used in this study). Results At the intervention meatworks, in the post intervention period an 18 % reduction in claims per 1 million working hours (p = 0.017) was observed. Generalized linear modelling revealed a significant reduction in average costs per claim of $831 (OR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.59-0.93; p = 0.009). Median days absent was reduced by 37 % (p = 0.024). For the poultry meat processing industry over the same period, generalized linear modelling revealed no significant change in average costs per claim (OR 1.02; 95 % CI 0.76-1.36; p = 0.91). Median days absent was unchanged (p = 0.93). Conclusion The introduction of an onsite, workplace-based early intervention injury prevention program demonstrated positive effects on compensation outcomes for work-related musculoskeletal disorders in poultry meat processing workers. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the findings of the present study.

  9. Work-related stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the content and organisation of work in recent decades have resulted in an intensification of work, which is commonly regarded as a cause of stress. This report presents trends in the risks and consequences of work-related stress, and identifies how these can be prevented. The focus

  10. Work-related stress

    OpenAIRE

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the content and organisation of work in recent decades have resulted in an intensification of work, which is commonly regarded as a cause of stress. This report presents trends in the risks and consequences of work-related stress, and identifies how these can be prevented. The focus iswithin the European Working Conditions Observatory (EWCO) network of seven European countries in its initial phase: Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and Sweden. In many countr...

  11. Risk factors for development of non-specific musculoskeletal pain in preteens and early adolescents: a prospective 1-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auvinen Anssi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal pain symptoms are common in children and adolescents. These symptoms have a negative impact on children's physical and emotional well-being, but their underlying aetiology and risk factors are still poorly understood. Most of the previous cohort studies were conducted among mid and/or late adolescents and were mainly focused on a specific pain location (e.g. low back pain or neck pain. The purpose of this study is to estimate occurrence of new-onset pain symptoms, in all musculoskeletal locations, in preteens and early adolescents and investigate risk factors for development of these symptoms. Methods 1756 schoolchildren (mean age 10.8 were recruited from schools in southern Finland. Information was extracted as to whether they experienced musculoskeletal pain and a total of 1192 children were identified as free of musculoskeletal pain symptoms. Information was collected on factors which could potentially predict the development of musculoskeletal pain: headache, abdominal pain, sadness/feeling down, day-time tiredness, difficulty in falling asleep, waking up during nights, level of physical activity and hypermobility. These children were followed-up 1-year later and those with new episodes of non-traumatic and traumatic musculoskeletal pain symptoms were identified. Results A total of 1113 schoolchildren (93% of baseline pain-free children were found at one-year follow-up. New episodes of musculoskeletal pain were reported by 21.5% of these children. Of them 19.4% reported non-traumatic pain and 4.0% reported traumatic pain. The neck was the most commonly reported site with non-traumatic pain, while the lower limb was the most common site for traumatic pain. The independent risk factors for non-traumatic musculoskeletal pain were headache (OR = 1.68, [95% CI 1.16–2.44] and day-time tiredness (OR = 1.53, [95% CI 1.03–2.26]. The risk factors for traumatic musculoskeletal pain were vigorous exercise (OR = 3

  12. Pedagogical Work, Stress Regulation and Work-Related Well-Being among Early Childhood Professionals in Integrated Special Day-Care Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nislin, Mari A.; Sajaniemi, Nina K.; Sims, Margaret; Suhonen, Eira; Maldonado Montero, Enrique F.; Hirvonen, Ari; Hyttinen, Sirpa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between early childhood professionals' (ECPs) stress regulation (using salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase [AA] measurements), work engagement and the quality of their pedagogical work in integrated special day-care groups. Participants were 89 ECPs from 21 integrated special day-care…

  13. Pedagogical Work, Stress Regulation and Work-Related Well-Being among Early Childhood Professionals in Integrated Special Day-Care Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nislin, Mari A.; Sajaniemi, Nina K.; Sims, Margaret; Suhonen, Eira; Maldonado Montero, Enrique F.; Hirvonen, Ari; Hyttinen, Sirpa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between early childhood professionals' (ECPs) stress regulation (using salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase [AA] measurements), work engagement and the quality of their pedagogical work in integrated special day-care groups. Participants were 89 ECPs from 21 integrated special day-care…

  14. Joint Inflammation and Early Degeneration Induced by High-Force Reaching Are Attenuated by Ibuprofen in an Animal Model of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Driban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used our voluntary rat model of reaching and grasping to study the effect of performing a high-repetition and high-force (HRHF task for 12 weeks on wrist joints. We also studied the effectiveness of ibuprofen, administered in the last 8 weeks, in attenuating HRHF-induced changes in these joints. With HRHF task performance, ED1+ and COX2+ cells were present in subchondral radius, carpal bones and synovium; IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha increased in distal radius/ulna/carpal bones; chondrocytes stained with Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase- (TDT- mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL increased in wrist articular cartilages; superficial structural changes (e.g., pannus and reduced proteoglycan staining were observed in wrist articular cartilages. These changes were not present in normal controls or ibuprofen treated rats, although IL-1alpha was increased in reach limbs of trained controls. HRHF-induced increases in serum C1,2C (a biomarker of collagen I and II degradation, and the ratio of collagen degradation to synthesis (C1,2C/CPII; the latter a biomarker of collage type II synthesis were also attenuated by ibuprofen. Thus, ibuprofen treatment was effective in attenuating HRHF-induced inflammation and early articular cartilage degeneration.

  15. Work-related voice disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Eduardo Przysiezny; Luciana Tironi Sanson Przysiezny

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia is the main symptom of the disorders of oral communication. However, voice disorders also present with other symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining the voice (asthenia), vocal fatigue, variation in habitual vocal fundamental frequency, hoarseness, lack of vocal volume and projection, loss of vocal efficiency, and weakness when speaking. There are several proposals for the etiologic classification of dysphonia: functional, organofunctional, organic, and work-related...

  16. Work-related voice disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Przysiezny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia is the main symptom of the disorders of oral communication. However, voice disorders also present with other symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining the voice (asthenia, vocal fatigue, variation in habitual vocal fundamental frequency, hoarseness, lack of vocal volume and projection, loss of vocal efficiency, and weakness when speaking. There are several proposals for the etiologic classification of dysphonia: functional, organofunctional, organic, and work-related voice disorder (WRVD.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on WRVD and on the current Brazilian labor legislation.METHODS: This was a review article with bibliographical research conducted on the PubMed and Bireme databases, using the terms "work-related voice disorder", "occupational dysphonia", "dysphonia and labor legislation", and a review of labor and social security relevant laws.CONCLUSION: WRVD is a situation that frequently is listed as a reason for work absenteeism, functional rehabilitation, or for prolonged absence from work. Currently, forensic physicians have no comparative parameters to help with the analysis of vocal disorders. In certain situations WRVD may cause, work disability. This disorder may be labor-related, or be an adjuvant factor to work-related diseases.

  17. Non-specific ileojejunitis in Arequipa, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, V D; Fernan-Zegarra, L; Cruz, V M; Ballon, R; Picoaga, J L

    1978-09-09

    Non-specific ileojejunitis, characterised by mild to moderate structural changes in the intestinal mucosa and often associated with asymptomatic malabsorption, is known to occur in the tropics and in countries with hot climates. This acquired condition is probably related to environmental factors, and some consider it to be a subclinical form of tropical sprue. Changes in the intestinal mucosa typical of non-specific ileojejunitis were found in 10 indigenous Indians as well as 5 people of Latin stock living in the Southern Peruvian sierra, where tropical sprue has not as yet been demonstrated and which has a temperate climate.

  18. Non-specific X linked mental retardation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, B.; Turner, G; Mulley, J.; Gedeon, A; PARTINGTON, M.

    1991-01-01

    Non-specific X linked mental retardation (MRX) is mental retardation in persons of normal physical appearance who have no recognisable features apart from a characteristic pedigree. Review of published reports shows that there is clinical variability in the degree of mental retardation within families and genetic heterogeneity, based on gene localisation, between families. We propose a classification based on genetic localisation and a set of minimal clinical features that should be recorded ...

  19. Non-specific Effects of Vaccines and Stunting: Timing May Be Essential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike L.T. Berendsen

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: We found a general time-dependent pattern of non-specific effects of vaccination, with positive associations for vaccinations given early in life and negative associations for vaccinations given later in infancy. If confirmed in further research, our findings may provide a new perspective on the non-specific effects of vaccination.

  20. Ultrastructural changes in non-specific duodenitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Xin Wang; Li-Jiang Liu; Jing Guan; Xiao-Ling Zhao

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ultrastructural and morphological changes of non-specific duodenitis (NSD) in an attempt to grade them according to the extent of the lesions.METHODS: Biopsies were taken from the mucosa of duodenal bulb of 44 patients selected from the patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for epigastric discomforts. From each patient, two pinch biopsies on the same area were obtained from duodenal bulb. One was for scanning electron microscopy and the other was stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Warthin-Starry silver and both were then examined under light microscope. A total of 12 specimens (three from each degree of the normal and Ⅰ-Ⅲ of NSD diagnosed and graded by histology) selected from the 44patients were dehydrated, critical point dried, coated with gold palladium and examined under a JEOL JSM-30 scanning electron microscope (SEM) at 20 kV.RESULTS: According to the ultrastructural morphologic changes, non-specific duodenitis was divided into normal (as control group), mild, moderate and severe degrees according to results of SEM. The normal villi of duodenal bulb were less than 0.2 mm. There were inflammation cells,occasionally red blood cells and macrophages on the mucosal epithelial surface. Erosion and desquamation of epithelium could be seen. Three cases (25%, 3/12) had gastric metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) infection could be found in 5 cases (41.67%, 5/12) in duodenal bulb mucosa. The most distinctive feature was the ulcer-like defect on the surface of epithelial cells.CONCLUSION: Non-specific duodenitis is a separate entity disease caused by different factors. SEM is of value as an aid in the diagnosis of mucosal diseases of duodenum.

  1. The radiographic appearances of non-specific small intestinal ulceration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Thomas H.; Jackson, James E

    2002-02-01

    AIM: To determine the imaging characteristics of non-specific ulceration of the small intestine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The radiographic investigations undertaken in three patients originally referred for visceral angiography in whom a histological diagnosis of non-specific ulceration of the small bowel was subsequently made were retrospectively reviewed. Two men and one woman aged from 17 to 24 years all presented with anaemia requiring blood transfusion. Visceral angiography was available for review in all three patients, abdominal computed tomography in two, and a small bowel enema and white cell scintigraphy in one. RESULTS: In all three patients an angiographic abnormality was present within the ileum consisting of irregularity of the vasa recta, an area of subtle increased vascularity and early venous return. A long, non-branching vessel interpreted as a persistent vitello-intestinal artery was seen in two of these patients. A CT abnormality was present in two individuals consisting of a focal area of thickened small bowel. The single small bowel enema demonstrated a focal stricture and the white cell scan showed localized accumulation of radioactivity within the pelvis. CONCLUSION: Non-specific small intestinal ulceration may produce abnormalities that are discernible on barium studies, computed tomography, radiolabelled white cell scanning and visceral angiography. Recognition of these findings may allow a pre-operative diagnosis of this condition. Bryant, T.H. and Jackson, J.E. (2001)

  2. Work-related stress and psychosomatic medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Nakao Mutsuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This article introduces key concepts of work-related stress relevant to the clinical and research fields of psychosomatic medicine. Stress is a term used to describe the body's physiological and/or psychological reaction to circumstances that require behavioral adjustment. According to the Japanese National Survey of Health, the most frequent stressors are work-related problems, followed by health-related and then financial problems. Conceptually, work-related stress includes a varie...

  3. Work related learning, Identities, and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2005-01-01

    The basic societal transformation to a “learning society” presupposes learning and identity processes. In order to understand the conditions and dynamics of work related learning we need to theorize the subjective significance of work and we need to study work related learning processes in a way...

  4. Work Relations in Public Administration Institutiones

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Jarmila Guţă

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the way work relations develop between public administration institution clerks, their relations with their superiors, the main subordination types of public administration clerks. The paper also dwells on the role played by the head of an institution belonging to public administration in establishing the most favorable work relations, the behaviour the subordinates should have with the institution head, the way a superior exerts his prerogative of making a decision and the...

  5. Idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloli, Elizabeth A; Beckford, Rosemarie; Hadley, Ryan; Flaherty, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is an interstitial lung disease that may be idiopathic or secondary to connective tissue disease, toxins or numerous other causes. Idiopathic NSIP is a rare diagnosis and requires exclusion of these other possible causes. Patients typically present in mid-adulthood with dyspnoea, cough and often constitutional symptoms including fever and fatigue. The disease has a female predominance, and more than 50% of patients have never smoked. Physical exam features mild hypoxaemia and inspiratory rales. Pulmonary function tests demonstrate restriction and a low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include predominantly lower lobe subpleural reticular changes, traction bronchiectasis and ground-glass opacities; honeycombing is rarely seen. An evaluation of the underlying pathology is necessary for a firm diagnosis. Histologically, alveolar and interstitial mononuclear cell inflammation and fibrosis are seen in a temporally uniform pattern with preserved underlying alveolar architecture. NSIP must be differentiated from other parenchymal lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. A thorough exposure history and assessment for underlying connective tissue diseases are highly important, as positive findings in these categories would likely denote a case of secondary NSIP. A multi-disciplinary discussion that includes pulmonologist(s), radiologist(s) and pathologist(s) assists in reaching a consensus diagnosis and improves diagnostic accuracy. Treatment of idiopathic NSIP, although not well proven, is generally instituted in the form of immunosuppression. Prognosis is favourable compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, although the diagnosis still carries an attributable mortality. Herein we will summarize the clinical characteristics and management of idiopathic NSIP.

  6. DOES ELECTROMYOGRAPHY BIOFEEDBACK TRAINING REDUCE WORK-RELATED NECK PAIN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Faisal.C.K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of Electromyography (EMG biofeedback training in dental professionals to reduce upper trapezius muscle tension and thereby to reduce the work related neck pain. By reducing muscle activity in the neck and shoulder postural stabilizing muscles, EMG biofeedback training would be an effective mode of treatment in dental professionals for the management of work related neck pain. Subjects and Methods: This RCT included a total of 50 dental professionals (29 males and 21 females aged between 27-44 years (mean age of 36.4.They were randomly allocated equally into either experimental group who received EMG Biofeedback or the control group who received the conventional physiotherapy management. Patients in the control group were given Hot Packs, IFT and neck care advice. In addition to conventional Physiotherapy treatments, patients in the experimental group received an EMG Biofeedback training program for the bilateral trapezius. The treatments were given for 30-45 minutes/ day / 5 days in a week for 2 weeks. The outcome tools used were; Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Neck Disability Scale (NDI and both were measured before starting the treatment and at end of 2 weeks. Results & Conclusion: Adding EMG biofeedback training for the trapezius muscles along with conventional physiotherapy management is found to be an effective method of treatment in the management of chronic non specific neck pain patients.

  7. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders : prevention report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podniece, Z.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.

    2008-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can interfere with activities at work and can lead to reduced productivity, sickness absence and chronic occupational disability. The aim of this report is to systematic evaluate the effectiveness of interventions at the workplace since 2002 and to

  8. Knowledge work and work-related stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Work-related stress is an increasing problem in Europe. Earlier studies have stated that knowledge-work comprises working conditions which reflect a good psychosocial environment. Recent Danish studies, however, point at stress being an increasing problem in knowledge-intensive companies...... as good and stimulating, but has on the other hand sides to it which can cause frustration and stress. The implication of organisational characteristics of the knowledge-intensive companies studied is a transfer of the responsibility for ones own working-life. Consequently, issues are dealt...... with informally, individu-ally and incidentally. It is only when problems exist that enhanced support is offered in order to help an employee to cope or recover. As most workplace initiatives work at this tertiary level, the sources of work-related and organiza-tional stress are not reduced or eliminated...

  9. Cultural intelligence and work-related outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaegel, Christopher; Richter, Nicole Franziska; Taras, Vas

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade the research on cultural intelligence (CQ) has grown to a point that a quantitative synthesis of the existing empirical evidence on the relationship between CQ and various work-related outcomes is needed. Based on 88 studies (100 independent samples, 24,119 individuals......). The results of commonality analysis indicate that while the dimensions of CQ are highly correlated, the CQ dimensions show differential relationships with the different outcome variables, supporting the separability of the CQ dimensions....

  10. Knowledge work and work-related stress

    OpenAIRE

    Ipsen, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Work-related stress is an increasing problem in Europe. Earlier studies have stated that knowledge-work comprises working conditions which reflect a good psychosocial environment. Recent Danish studies, however, point at stress being an increasing problem in knowledge-intensive companies. These companies employ highly educated and com-petent people who apply their personal knowledge to generate new knowledge in close relationship with both custom-ers and colleagues. The employees are self-man...

  11. [Work related stress: from knowledge to practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G

    2009-01-01

    Work-related stress is a well documented condition, resulting from a distorted interaction between working conditions and individual coping resources, that may have a negative impact on workers' health and well-being, as well as nd on performance efficiency and productivity: hence high costs for workers companies and society. It is a complex multifaceted and multidimensional phenomenon, whose assessment needs a multidisciplinary approach (work management, psychology, physiology, ergonomics, sociology, medicine). That is why risk assessment and management require a careful analysis of work organization (i.e. working time, work load, autonomy, environment, human relations) and individual aspects (i.e. demography, personality, attitudes, motivation, coping strategies). The consequent actions, targeted to the individuals, groups and organizations, should be aimed at preventing or reducing work-related stress, on the one hand, and supporting and protecting the worker, on the other, considering cost/effectiveness and risk/benefit ratios. This can be achieveds to be done with the participation and close collaboration of all the social actors involved (employers, employees, technicians, work organization and occupational health experts), according to the European Framework Agreement on Work-related Stress, signed on October 2004 and included into the Italian Law Decree 81/2008.

  12. Work-related injuries in trade apprentices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, T; Hanson, M

    1997-12-01

    This study attempted to identify and describe all work-related injuries in a cohort of trade apprentices at the Canberra Institute of Technology over an approximate one-year period. In 997 persons followed for a total of 198,456 days of exposure there were 771 injuries of which 191 were classed as serious (defined as at least one day off work and/or received sutures and/or required hospital treatment). The most common circumstance of injury was a cut to the fingers or hand while using a sharp-edged, non-powered hand tool. At least 52 persons required hospital treatment and another 51 required suturing. Overall rates of injury were 222 (95 per cent confidence interval (CI) = 193 to 256) injuries per 1000 full time equivalents (FTEs) and 169 (95% CI = 147 to 193) injured persons per 1000 persons. Injury rates adjusted for stage (year of course) were significantly different between schools and were highest in the construction and engineering trades groups (chi 2(5) = 57.30, P work-related injury and provides important insights into the characteristics of work-related injuries in trade apprentices. These have significant implications for the safety expectations apprentices may bring to the workplace and for the appropriate targeting of occupational health and safety training of apprentices in the trade occupations.

  13. Work-related stress and psychosomatic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakao Mutsuhiro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article introduces key concepts of work-related stress relevant to the clinical and research fields of psychosomatic medicine. Stress is a term used to describe the body's physiological and/or psychological reaction to circumstances that require behavioral adjustment. According to the Japanese National Survey of Health, the most frequent stressors are work-related problems, followed by health-related and then financial problems. Conceptually, work-related stress includes a variety of conditions, such as overwork, unemployment or job insecurity, and lack of work-family balance. Job stress has been linked to a range of adverse physical and mental health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, insomnia, depression, and anxiety. Stressful working conditions can also impact employee well-being indirectly by directly contributing to negative health behaviors or by limiting an individual's ability to make positive changes to lifestyle behaviors, such as smoking and sedentary behavior. Over the past two decades, two major job stress models have dominated the occupational health literature: the job demand-control-support model and the effort-reward imbalance model. In both models, standardized questionnaires have been developed and frequently used to assess job stress. Unemployment has also been reported to be associated with increased mortality and morbidity, such as by cardiovascular disease, stroke, and suicide. During the past two decades, a trend toward more flexible labor markets has emerged in the private and public sectors of developed countries, and temporary employment arrangements have increased. Temporary workers often complain that they are more productive but receive less compensation than permanent workers. A significant body of research reveals that temporary workers have reported chronic work-related stress for years. The Japanese government has urged all employers to implement four approaches to comprehensive mind

  14. Work-related stress and psychosomatic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Mutsuhiro

    2010-05-26

    This article introduces key concepts of work-related stress relevant to the clinical and research fields of psychosomatic medicine. Stress is a term used to describe the body's physiological and/or psychological reaction to circumstances that require behavioral adjustment. According to the Japanese National Survey of Health, the most frequent stressors are work-related problems, followed by health-related and then financial problems. Conceptually, work-related stress includes a variety of conditions, such as overwork, unemployment or job insecurity, and lack of work-family balance. Job stress has been linked to a range of adverse physical and mental health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, insomnia, depression, and anxiety. Stressful working conditions can also impact employee well-being indirectly by directly contributing to negative health behaviors or by limiting an individual's ability to make positive changes to lifestyle behaviors, such as smoking and sedentary behavior. Over the past two decades, two major job stress models have dominated the occupational health literature: the job demand-control-support model and the effort-reward imbalance model. In both models, standardized questionnaires have been developed and frequently used to assess job stress. Unemployment has also been reported to be associated with increased mortality and morbidity, such as by cardiovascular disease, stroke, and suicide. During the past two decades, a trend toward more flexible labor markets has emerged in the private and public sectors of developed countries, and temporary employment arrangements have increased. Temporary workers often complain that they are more productive but receive less compensation than permanent workers. A significant body of research reveals that temporary workers have reported chronic work-related stress for years. The Japanese government has urged all employers to implement four approaches to comprehensive mind/body health care for stress

  15. Work related injury among aging women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tracie; Legarde, Brittany; Kim, Sunhun; Walker, Janiece; Blozis, Shelley; Umberson, Debra

    2013-02-01

    This article reports the experiences of women aged 55 to 75 with mobility impairments who attributed aspects of their limitations to workplace injuries and provides insight into worker's compensation policies. The study sample includes Mexican American (MA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women aged 55 to 75 who participated in a 4-year ethnographic study of disablement. Ninety-two of the 122 participants in the study attributed aspects of their functional limitations to employment, and their experiences were analyzed using data from 354 meetings. Using Lipscomb and colleagues' conceptual model of work and health disparities, the women's experiences were grouped into three categories according to type of injury, assistance gained, and the consequences of a workplace injury; the results have broad implications for policies that influence aging outcomes. Workplace injuries causing permanent functional limitations compound the effects of age and gender on employment outcomes. Policies addressing health disparities should consider work related influences.

  16. Work-related well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Soh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the different dimensions of well-being (namely, work engagement, job satisfaction, and psychological stress and possible predictors such as personality and perceived organizational support. A cross-sectional survey design was used, with a sample of 490 ambulance personnel in the United Kingdom. Significant correlations were found between the dimensions of job satisfaction, engagement, and stress. The results also supported a hierarchical model with job satisfaction, stress, and engagement loading onto one higher order factor of work well-being. Emotional stability and perceived organizational support were identified as significant predictors of well-being. The findings suggest the importance of measuring the work-related well-being of ambulance personnel holistically and present perceived organizational support as a possible area for interventions to improve well-being.

  17. Yoga treatment for chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, L Susan; Skoetz, Nicole; Pilkington, Karen; Vempati, Ramaprabhu; D'Adamo, Christopher R; Berman, Brian M

    2017-01-12

    Non-specific low back pain is a common, potentially disabling condition usually treated with self-care and non-prescription medication. For chronic low back pain, current guidelines state that exercise therapy may be beneficial. Yoga is a mind-body exercise sometimes used for non-specific low back pain. To assess the effects of yoga for treating chronic non-specific low back pain, compared to no specific treatment, a minimal intervention (e.g. education), or another active treatment, with a focus on pain, function, and adverse events. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, five other databases and four trials registers to 11 March 2016 without restriction of language or publication status. We screened reference lists and contacted experts in the field to identify additional studies. We included randomized controlled trials of yoga treatment in people with chronic non-specific low back pain. We included studies comparing yoga to any other intervention or to no intervention. We also included studies comparing yoga as an adjunct to other therapies, versus those other therapies alone. Two authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted outcome data, and assessed risk of bias. We contacted study authors to obtain missing or unclear information. We evaluated the overall certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 12 trials (1080 participants) carried out in the USA (seven trials), India (three trials), and the UK (two trials). Studies were unfunded (one trial), funded by a yoga institution (one trial), funded by non-profit or government sources (seven trials), or did not report on funding (three trials). Most trials used Iyengar, Hatha, or Viniyoga forms of yoga. The trials compared yoga to no intervention or a non-exercise intervention such as education (seven trials), an exercise intervention (three trials), or both exercise and non-exercise interventions (two trials). All trials were at high risk of performance and detection bias because

  18. Work-Related Psychosocial Hazards and Arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Li-Ping; Li, Chung-Yi; Hu, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    The association of psychosocial stress with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between arteriosclerosis and various work-related conditions among medical employees with various job titles.A total of 576 medical employees of a regional hospital in Taiwan with a mean age of 43 years and female gender dominance (85%) were enrolled. Arteriosclerosis was evaluated by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Workrelated conditions included job demands, job control, social support, shift work, work hours, sleep duration, and mental health. The crude relationship between each of the selected covariates and baPWV was indicated by Spearman correlation coefficients. A multiple linear regression model was further employed to estimate the adjusted associations of selected covariates with arteriosclerosis.The mean baPWV of participants was 11.4 ± 2.2 m/s, with the value for males being significantly higher than that for females. The baPWV was associated with gender, age, medical profession, work hours, work type, depression, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting glucose, and cholesterol. After being fully adjusted by these factors, only sleep duration of less than 6 hours and weekly work hours longer than 60 hours were significantly associated with increased risk of arteriosclerosis. The conditions of job demands, job control, social support, shift work, and depression showed no significant association with baPWV.Longer work hours and shorter sleep durations were associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis. These findings should make it easier for the employer or government to stipulate rational work hours in order to avoid the development of cardiovascular disease among their employees.

  19. Work-related stress in healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, G; Ricci, S; Fidanza, L; Sacco, C; De Cesare, D P; Ricci, P; Pimpinella, B; Giubilati, R; Suppi, A; Anzelmo, V; Tomei, F; Casale, T; Rosati, M V

    2016-01-01

    In the assessment of work-related stress it is crucial to find the factors that generate and increase it in order to identify categories of individuals at risk, to plan interventions for prevention, elimination or reduction of risk. The aim of the study is to assess the subjective stress in 68 workers of a large Italian company dealing with human health, through the use of a questionnaire-indicating tool, elaborated by the Italian National Institute for insurance against accidents at work (INAIL) and developed by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). We studied a final sample of 68 individuals (34 drivers/rescuers and 34 video display unit (VDU) operators). The questionnaire consists of 35 items (divided into six areas) with five possible answers each, that cover working conditions considered potential causes of stress. The drivers/rescuers had a better performance than the VDU operators, especially in the areas "demand", "relationships" and "role". We compared men and women in the two groups, finding that, in VDU operators, women had a better performance than men in all areas, except "role" and "changes", in which the overall scores were the same in men and women. In the drivers/rescuers women showed more critical scores in the items "relationships" and "change". The results show that: the questionnaire-indicating tool is useful, with a demonstrated effectiveness for the occupational physician during the visits and proven validity; additional future efforts should focus on understanding the psycho-social, organizational and individual problems related to stress and the consequent implementation of preventive measures.

  20. Work related stress and blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, A; Ricci, S; Tomei, F; Sacco, C; Pacchiarotti, A; Nardone, N; Ricci, P; Suppi, A; De Cesare, D P; Anzelmo, V; Giubilati, R; Pimpinella, B; Rosati, M V; Tomei, G

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate work-related subjective stress in a group of workers on a major Italian company in the field of healthcare through the administration of a valid "questionnaire-tool indicator" (HSE Indicator Tool), and to analyze any correlation between stress levels taken from questionnaire scores and blood glucose values. We studied a final sample consisting of 241 subjects with different tasks. The HSE questionnaire - made up of 35 items (divided into 7 organizational dimensions) with 5 possible answers - has been distributed to all the subjects in occasion of the health surveillance examinations provided by law. The questionnaire was then analyzed using its specific software to process the results related to the 7 dimensions. These results were compared using the Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression with the blood glucose values obtained from each subject. From the analysis of the data the following areas resulted critical, in other words linked to an intermediate (yellow area) or high (red area) condition of stress: sustain from managers, sustain from colleagues, quality of relationships and professional changes. A significant positive correlation (p <0.05) between the mean values of all critical areas and the concentrations of glucose values have been highlighted with the correlation index of Pearson. Multiple linear regression confirmed these findings, showing that the critical dimensions resulting from the questionnaire were the significant variables that can increase the levels of blood glucose. The preliminary results indicate that perceived work stress can be statistically associated with increased levels of blood glucose.

  1. 28 CFR 301.302 - Work-related death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work-related death. 301.302 Section 301... COMPENSATION Compensation for Work-Related Physical Impairment or Death § 301.302 Work-related death. A claim for compensation as the result of work-related death may be filed by a dependent of the...

  2. Work-related illness, work-related accidents, and lack of social security in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago Echeverri, María Teresa; Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto; Granja Palacios, Consuelo

    2017-08-01

    The impacts of neoliberal or market-based social security reforms in health have been extensively studied. How such reforms transformed employment-related insurance and entitlements, however, has received significantly less attention. This study aims to understand how the employment insurance system operates in Colombia and to assess how the experience of workers seeking social security entitlements relates to the system's structure. We conducted an ethnographic study of the Colombian Occupational Risk System between May 2014 and March 2016, with two main components: 1) analysis of the system itself through in-depth interviews with 32 people working in leadership positions and a systematic review of the system's most important legislation, and 2) a study of people who experienced problems receiving entitlements and were challenging the assessment of their work-related illness or accident. We conducted in-depth interviews with 22 people, followed up with half of them, and reviewed their case files. We found that difficulties accessing health care services, payments for medical leave, job reassignments, severance packages, and filing for pension benefits were common to all cases and resulted from overwhelming bureaucratic and administrative demands. Regional and national evaluation bodies dictate whether a given illness or accident is work-related, and establish a percentage of Loss of Wage Earning Capacity (LWEC). People's disabled bodies rarely reached the threshold of 50% LWEC to qualify for disability pensions. The lengthy process that workers were forced to endure to obtain work-related entitlements always involved the judiciary. The three competing for-profit financial sectors (health insurance, pension funds, and Occupational Risk Administrators) actively challenged workers' demands in order to increase their profits. We conclude that these for-profit sectors work contrary to the principles that sustain social security. Indeed, they push sick and disabled

  3. Aetiology and management of non-specific vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattani, I M; Gerken, A; Evans, B A

    1982-01-01

    In a study of 100 women with non-specific vaginitis, characterised by a vaginal discharge which was malodorous and pruritic in most cases and caused dyspareunia and dysuria in some, Gardnerella vaginalis was isolated in 46% of patients. When present, G vaginalis was significantly associated with Mycoplasma hominis and Bacteroides species. Isolation of G vaginalis was unrelated to the presenting symptoms. Treatment with povidone-iodine pessaries for two weeks produced no pronounced benefit, either clinically or microbiologically, compared with a placebo. Nevertheless, 68% of all patients followed reported improvement four weeks after the start of treatment. The findings suggest that G vaginalis is one cause of non-specific vaginitis, which is more likely to be seen in women using oral contraceptives and is usually cured spontaneously. PMID:7034858

  4. Non-specific Adaptive Reactions of Athletes: Evaluation and Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Naumova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work studies changes in non-specific adaptive reactions (NSAR of athletes who practice Wushu and Qigong and take Kladorod, a biological product made from plant material. The results of our study demonstrate the effectiveness of Kladorod as a remedy to enhance adaptive capacity with the possibility of application for training of athletes without any restrictions within the criteria of doping control.

  5. Specifying the non-specific components of acupuncture analgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vase, Lene; Baram, Sara; Takakura, Nobuari; Yajima, Hiroyoshi; Takayama, Miho; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Schou, Søren; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that acupuncture has pain-relieving effects, but the contribution of specific and especially non-specific factors to acupuncture analgesia is less clear. One hundred and one patients who developed pain ≥ 3 on a visual analog scale (VAS, 0-10) following third molar surgery were randomized to receive active acupuncture, placebo acupuncture, or no treatment for 30 min with acupuncture needles with potential for double-blinding. Patients’ perception of the treatment (active or placebo), and expected pain levels (VAS) were assessed prior to and halfway through the treatment. Looking at actual treatment allocation, there was no specific effect of active acupuncture (P = 0.240), but a large and significant non-specific effect of placebo acupuncture (P acupuncture (P acupuncture had significantly lower pain levels than those who believed they received placebo acupuncture. Expected pain levels accounted for significant and progressively larger amounts of the variance in pain ratings following both active and placebo acupuncture (up to 69.8%), This is the first study to show that under optimized blinding conditions non-specific factors such as patients’ perception of and expectations toward treatment are central to the efficacy of acupuncture analgesia and that these factors may contribute to self-reinforcing effects in acupuncture treatment To obtain an effect of acupuncture in clinical practice it may, therefore, be important to incorporate and optimize these factors. PMID:23707680

  6. Superior non-specific motor learning in the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Parent, Florence; de Beaumont, Louis; Théoret, Hugo; Lepage, Jean-Francois

    2017-07-20

    It is well established that blindness induces changes in cerebral function and structure, namely affecting the somatomotor regions. However, the behavioural significance of these changes on the motor system, and on motor learning in particular, remains elusive. In this study, we used a modified version of the serial reaction time task (SRTT) with auditory cues to assess sequence specific and non-specific motor learning in blind adults and sighted controls, and compare them with sighted controls performing the classic visual SRTT. Our results show that the auditory SRTT faithfully replicates the typical learning pattern obtained with the visual SRTT. On the auditory SRTT, blind individuals consistently showed faster reaction times than sighted controls, being at par with sighted individuals performing the visual SRTT. On the other hand, blind participants displayed a particular pattern of motor learning in comparison to both sighted groups; while controls improved prominently on sequence specific learning, blind individuals displayed comparable performance on both specific and non-specific learning, markedly outperforming the control groups on non-specific learning. These results show that blindness, in addition to causing long-term changes in cortical organisation, can also influence dynamic neuroplastic mechanisms in systems beyond those typically associated with compensatory sensory processing.

  7. Office workers' risk factors for the development of non-specific neck pain: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksaichol, Arpalak; Janwantanakul, Prawit; Purepong, Nithima; Pensri, Praneet; van der Beek, Allard J

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review prospective cohort studies to gain insights into risk factors for the development of non-specific neck pain in office workers as well as to assess the strength of evidence. Publications were systematically searched from 1980 - March 2011 in several databases. The following key words were used: neck pain paired with risk or prognostic factors and office or computer or visual display unit or visual display terminal. Relevant studies were retrieved and assessed for methodological quality by two independent reviewers. The strength of the evidence was based on methodological quality and consistency of the results. Five high-quality and two low-quality prospective cohort studies investigating the predictive value of 47 individual, work-related physical and work-related psychosocial factors for the onset of non-specific neck pain in office workers were included in this review. Strong evidence was found for female gender and previous history of neck complaints to be predictors of the onset of neck pain. Interestingly, for a large number of factors that have been mentioned in the literature as risk factors for neck pain, such as high physical leisure activity, low social support, and high psychosocial stress, we found no predictive value for future neck pain in office workers. Literature with respect to the development of non-specific neck pain in office workers is scant. Only female gender and previous history of neck complaints have been identified as risk factors that predict the onset of neck pain.

  8. Venous thromboembolism and subsequent permanent work-related disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braekkan, S K; Grosse, S D; Okoroh, E M; Tsai, J; Cannegieter, S C; Naess, I A; Krokstad, S; Hansen, J-B; Skjeldestad, F E

    2016-10-01

    Essentials The burden of venous thromboembolism (VTE) related to permanent work-related disability is unknown. In a cohort of 66 005 individuals, the risk of work-related disability after a VTE was assessed. Unprovoked VTE was associated with 52% increased risk of work-related disability. This suggests that indirect costs due to loss of work time may add to the economic burden of VTE.

  9. Carbohydrate malabsorption in patients with non-specific abdominal complaints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Non-specific abdominal complaints are a considerable problem worldwide. Many patients are affected and many differential diagnoses have to be considered.Among these, carbohydrate malabsorption seems to play an important role. However, so far, only incomplete absorption of lactose is broadly accepted, while the malabsorption of fructose and sorbitol is still underestimated, although in many parts of the world it is much more frequent. Despite the success of dietary interventions in many patients, there are still a lot of unanswered questions that make further investigations necessary.

  10. Dyskeratosis Congenita Associated Non-Specific Interstitial Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnati D. Desai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC is a rare inherited disorder of ectodermal dysplasia. It consists of a classical mucocutaneous triad of abnormal skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and leukoplakia. Pulmonary disease is seen in 10-15%. It is characterized by Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF, or Idiopathic Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis (IFPF. Non-specific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP has been reported rarely in children with DC and in an isolated adult patient. Our patient had classical clinical presentation of DC with pancytopenia and portal hypertension and clinic-radiological features of NSIP which is a rare association.

  11. Non-specific esterases in partly mineralized bovine enamel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, D; Kirkeby, S

    1990-01-01

    Activity for non-specific esterase was demonstrated in the matrix of developing bovine enamel with alpha-naphthyl acetate and 5-bromoindoxyl acetate as the esterase substrates. By use of high-performance liquid chromatography gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and electrophoresis three...... esterases were shown to be present in the enamel matrix. The enzymes showed highest activity at pH 6.5-7.5. In sections a strong reaction was observed in the secretory ameloblasts. The esterases may be proteolytic enzymes that participate in the degradation of the matrix proteins....

  12. Work-Related Daydreams: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarik, Christopher T.; Rowell, P. Clay; Currie, Lacy K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop and examine the work-related daydream construct. The content of undergraduate college students' daydream journals were analyzed using an exploratory qualitative research methodology. The data suggested that the work-related daydream phenomenon was a tangible and accessible process that presented fully developed…

  13. Non-specific sensor arrays for chemical detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin; Minor, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Non-specific chemical sensor arrays have been the subject of considerable research efforts over the past thirty years with the idea that, by analogy to vertebrate olfaction, they are potentially capable of rendering complex chemical assessments with relatively modest logistical footprints. However, the actual implementation of such devices in challenging "real world" scenarios has arguably continued to fall short of these expectations. This work examines the inherent limitations of such devices for complex chemical sensing scenarios, placing them on a continuum between simple univariate sensors and complex multivariate analytical instrumentation and analyzing their utility in general-purpose chemical detection and accurate chemical sensing in the presence of unknown "unknowns." Results with simulated and acquired data sets are presented with discussion of the implications in development of chemical sensor arrays suitable for complex scenarios.

  14. Managing work-related stress in the district nursing workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    This article aims to highlight the issue of work-related stress within the district nursing workplace. It will acknowledge how the management of work-related stress has previously been discussed within nursing literature and will consider the emerging relationship between staff working conditions, staff wellbeing and quality of patient care. It will reintroduce the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE's) Management Standards approach to tackling work-related stress, which provides management support to reduce environmental work stressors and encourage enabling work environments and a positive workplace culture.

  15. DOES ELECTROMYOGRAPHY BIOFEEDBACK TRAINING REDUCE WORK-RELATED NECK PAIN?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of Electromyography (EMG) biofeedback training in dental professionals to reduce upper trapezius muscle tension and thereby to reduce the work related neck pain. By reducing muscle activity in the neck and shoulder postural stabilizing muscles, EMG biofeedback training would be an effective mode of treatment in dental professionals for the management of work related neck pain. Subjects and Methods: This RCT included a total of 50...

  16. Level of Work Related Stress among Teachers in Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Agai–Demjaha

    2015-07-01

    CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers’ stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.

  17. Non specific aorto-arteritis. Clinical picture, diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miani, S; De Monti, M; Keller, G; Bordoni, M G; Bianchi, E; Giordanengo, F

    1999-06-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing clinical features, angiographic findings and evolution of Takayasu's arteritis and the criteria adopted to establish the indication for non-surgical versus operative treatment. Eighteen patients affected by non specific aortarteritis were observed and treated at our Department between 1973 and 1996. All patients met the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria of classification of Takayasu's arteritis. Sixteen patients were young females. Two patients were males. Nine patients underwent surgical procedures. One young female underwent a PTA. All eight asymptomatic patients were only medically treated. One patient died some days after an aorto-bicarotid bypass graft due to acute myocardial infarction. Two other patients died two and four years after intervention for renal and cardiac failure respectively. One patient after an aorto bicarotid bypass underwent a left hemiplegia due to thrombosis of the right graft branch. All the other 14 patients either surgically or medically treated are well and are under strict surveillance through rigorous follow-up. The 10 patients who underwent surgical or interventional radiological treatment were certainly the most seriously affected patients and were symptomatic (presented neurological disturbances or a severe hypertensive state). This fact explains, to some extent, the mortality and morbidity rate observed in this group. The seven medically treated patients were completely asymptomatic in spite of a major involvement of various vascular districts.

  18. Exploring work-related issues on corporate sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunoro, C M; Bolis, I; Sznelwar, L I

    2015-01-01

    In a research project about work-related issues and corporate sustainability conducted in Brazil, the goal was to better understand how work-related issues were addressed in the corporate context. Particularly, there are some specific initiatives that serve as guides to organizational decisions, which make their performance indicators for the context of corporate sustainability. 1) To explore the presence of work-related issues and their origins in corporate sustainability approach, analyzing a) corporate disclosures; b) sustainability guidelines that are identified as relevant in corporate disclosures; c) documents that are related to sustainable development and also identified as key-documents for these guidelines and initiatives. 2) To present the activity-centered ergonomics and psychodynamics of work contributions to work-related issues in a corporate sustainability approach. An exploratory study based on multiple sources of evidence that were performed from 2012 to 2013, including interviews with companies that engaged in corporate sustainability and document analysis using the content analysis approach. Work-related issues have been presented since the earliest sustainable development documents. It is feasible to construct an empirical framework for work-related issues and corporate sustainability approaches. 1) Although some authors argue that corporate sustainability has its roots based only on the environmental dimension, there is strong empirical evidence showing that social dimension aspects such as work-related issues have been present since the beginning. 2) Some indicators should be redesigned to more precisely translate the reality of some workplaces, particularly those indicators related to organizational design and mental health.

  19. Work-related post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogstad, M; Skorstad, M; Lie, A; Conradi, H S; Heir, T; Weisæth, L

    2013-04-01

    Work-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an important condition encountered by many occupational health practitioners. To carry out an in-depth review of the research on occupational groups that are at particular risk of developing work-related PTSD. A literature search was conducted in the databases OVID MEDLINE, OVID Embase, Ovid PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science and CSA Health and Safety Science Abstracts. Professionals such as police officers, firefighters and ambulance personnel often experience incidents that satisfy the stressor criterion for the PTSD diagnosis. Other professional groups such as health care professionals, train drivers, divers, journalists, sailors and employees in bank, post offices or in stores may also be subjected to work-related traumatic events. Work-related PTSD usually diminishes with time. Mental health problems prior to the traumatic event and weak social support increase the risk of PTSD. Prevention of work-related PTSD includes a sound organizational and psychosocial work environment, systematic training of employees, social support from colleagues and managers and a proper follow-up of employees after a critical event.

  20. Effects of Work-Related Stress on Work Ability Index among Iranian Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibi, Vahid; Mokarami, Hamidreza; Taban, Abrahim; Yazdani Aval, Mohsen; Samimi, Kazem; Salesi, Mahmood

    2016-03-01

    Work Ability Index (WAI) is a well-known and valid self-report tool that has been widely used in various studies to identify and avoid early retirement and work-related disability. Nevertheless, very few studies have been carried out to evaluate work ability in Iran. We aimed to investigate the WAI and the effect of work-related stress on it among Iranian workers. A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study was carried out among 449 workers from five working sectors in three big cities of Iran. Work ability and work-related stress were measured using the Persian version of WAI and the Persian version of Health and Safety Executive Stress Indicator Tool. More than a third of the workers surveyed (34.70%) did not have an appropriate level of work ability (WAI work-related stress and the mean score of WAI. Furthermore, the variables of body mass index, sleep quality, exercise activity, job tenure, and three subscales of work-related stress including demands, supervisor support, and role were significant predictors of WAI. According to the results of this study, the interventional programs must be focused on improving supervisors support, eliminating ambiguity and conflicts in the role of workers in their job and organization, reducing job demands, improving sleep quality, and increasing exercise activity.

  1. Relationship between work-related accidents and hot weather conditions in Tuscany (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Marco; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Crisci, Alfonso; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Orlandini, Simone

    2006-07-01

    Nowadays, no studies have been published on the relationship between meteorological conditions and work-related mortality and morbidity in Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hot weather conditions and hospital admissions due to work-related accidents in Tuscany (central Italy) over the period 1998-2003. Apparent temperature (AT) values were calculated to evaluate human weather discomfort due to hot conditions and then tested for work accident differences using non-parametric procedures. Present findings showed that hot weather conditions might represent a risk factor for work-related accidents in Italy during summer. In particular early warming days during June, characterized by heat discomfort, are less tolerated by workers than warming days of the following summer months. The peak of work-related accidents occurred on days characterized by high, but not extreme, thermal conditions. Workers maybe change their behaviour when heat stress increases, reducing risks by adopting preventive measures. Results suggested that days with an average daytime AT value ranged between 24.8 degrees C and 27.5 degrees C were at the highest risk of work-related accidents. In conclusion, present findings might represent the first step for the development of a watch/warning system for workers that might be used by employers for planning work activities.

  2. Work-Related Health Problems among Nursing Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Sasikala R; David, Shirley; Segaran, Florence; Venkatesh, K

    2014-01-01

    Work-related injuries among nursing personnel are quite frequent and costly problems in terms of both workers'pain and suffering as well as medical expenses, and lost work for organisations. A descriptive study was conducted in Christian Medical College, Vellore to assess the prevalence of selected work-related health problems among nursing personnel. Total of 500 Nursing personnel were included in the study. The instruments used were Modified Cornell Musculoskeletal discomfort questionnaire to assess and score the musculoskeletal discomfort and CEAP (C-clinical, E-Etiologic, A-Anatomic, P- Pathophysiologic) classification to assess the presence and grade the varicose veins. Results demonstrated that 84.4 percent of the participants had musculoskeletal discomfort and 29.6 percent of the participants had varicose veins. Findings of the study demonstrated that there is a need to increase the awareness among nurses regarding the problems and to follow specific strategies to prevent work-related health problems.

  3. Evolutionary history of the non-specific lipid transfer proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edstam, Monika M; Viitanen, Lenita; Salminen, Tiina A; Edqvist, Johan

    2011-11-01

    The non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are small, basic proteins characterized by a tunnel-like hydrophobic cavity, capable of transferring various lipid molecules between lipid bilayers. Most nsLTPs are synthesized with an N-terminal signal peptide that localizes the protein to the apoplastic space. The nsLTPs have only been identified in seed plants, where they are encoded by large gene families. We have initiated an analysis of the evolutionary history of the nsLTP family using genomic and EST information from non-seed land plants and green algae to determine: (1) when the nsLTP family arose, (2) how often new nsLTP subfamilies have been created, and (3) how subfamilies differ in their patterns of expansion and loss in different plant lineages. In this study, we searched sequence databases and found that genes and transcripts encoding nsLTPs are abundant in liverworts, mosses, and all other investigated land plants, but not present in any algae. The tertiary structures of representative liverwort and moss nsLTPs were further studied with homology modeling. The results indicate that the nsLTP family has evolved after plants conquered land. Only two of the four major subfamilies of nsLTPs found in flowering plants are present in mosses and liverworts. The additional subfamilies have arisen later, during land plant evolution. In this report, we also introduce a modified nsLTP classification system. © The Author 2011. Published by the Molecular Plant Shanghai Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS.

  4. Work-related stress: implications for the employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayham, D A

    1997-04-01

    This paper considers many of the aspects of work-related stress, including problems of definition, the legal duties and responsibilities of employers towards their employees concerning stress. It includes an outline of some of the possible financial consequences (and legal penalties) if employers do not, so far as is reasonably practicable, take appropriate action to remove, reduce or alleviate work-related stressors affecting their employees' health. The paper concludes with a summary of a range of coping strategies which will assist employers to comply with legislative requirements and duties.

  5. Non-specific low back pain: occupational or lifestyle consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stričević, Jadranka; Papež, Breda Jesenšek

    2015-12-01

    Nursing occupation was identified as a risk occupation for the development of low back pain (LBP). The aim of our study was to find out how much occupational factors influence the development of LBP in hospital nursing personnel. Non-experimental approach with a cross-sectional survey and statistical analysis. Nine hundred questionnaires were distributed among nursing personnel, 663 were returned and 659 (73.2 %) were considered for the analysis. Univariate and multivariate statistics for LBP risk was calculated by the binary logistic regression. The χ(2), influence factor, 95 % confidence interval and P value were calculated. Multivariate binary logistic regression was calculated by the Wald method to omit insignificant variables. Not performing exercises represented the highest risk for the development of LBP (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.7-4.4; p  10 kg (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.5-3.8; p < 0.001) and duration of employment ≥ 19 years (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.6-3.7; p < 0.001). The fourth ranked risk factor was better physical condition by frequent recreation and sports, which reduced the risk for the development of LBP (OR 0.4, 95 % CI 0.3-0.7; p = 0.001). Work with the computer ≥ 2 h per day as last significant risk factor also reduced the risk for the development of LBP (OR 0.6, 95 % CI 0.4-0.1; p = 0.049). Risk factors for LBP established in our study (exercises, duration of employment, frequent manual lifting, recreation and sports and work with the computer) are not specifically linked to the working environment of the nursing personnel. Rather than focusing on mechanical causes and direct workload in the development of non-specific LBP, the complex approach to LBP including genetics, psychosocial environment, lifestyle and quality of life is coming more to the fore.

  6. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders : back to work report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinder, A.; Yeomans, L.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.; Verjans, M.; Muylaert, K.; Broeck, V.de; Buffet, M.A.; Nevala, N.

    2007-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are impairments of bodily structures, such as muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments, nerves or the localised blood circulation system. MSDs can interfere with activities at work, and can cause an increase in sickness absence, and chronic occupational

  7. The Work-Related Attitudes of Australian Accounting Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Vasileva, Aleksandra; Baird, Kevin; Blair, Bill

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the work-related attitudes of Australian accounting academics. A survey of 350 academics provides an insight into the specific organisational and institutional factors associated with the dissatisfaction, stress levels, and propensity to remain of academics. Of particular concern is the lower level of satisfaction and…

  8. Maintaining work-related personal ties following retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozijnsen, M.R.; Stevens, N.L.; Tilburg, T.G. van

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the consequences of retirement for the continuation of work-related personal ties. The hypothesis is that their inclusion in personal networks after retirement has become more likely because these relationships have become less role based in today's social-cultural context. Data

  9. Maintaining work-related personal ties following retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozijnsen, M.R.; Stevens, N.L.; Tilburg, van T.G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study examines the consequences of retirement for the continuation of work-related personal ties. The hypothesis is that their inclusion in personal networks after retirement has become more likely because these relationships have become less role based in today’s social-cultural conte

  10. Guidelines for the management of work-related asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baur, X.; Sigsgaard, T.; Aasen, T.B.; Burge, P.S.; Heederik, D.; Henneberger, P.; Maestrelli, P.; Rooyackers, J.M.; Schlünssen, V.; Vandenplas, O.; Wilken, D.

    2012-01-01

    Work-related asthma, which includes occupational asthma and work-aggravated asthma, has become one of the most prevalent occupational lung diseases. These guidelines aim to upgrade occupational health standards, contribute importantly to transnational legal harmonisation and reduce the high socio-ec

  11. Management of work-related stress by Finnish occupational physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen-Amoroso, M; Liira, J

    2013-07-01

    Occupational stress is a serious threat to the well-being of employees and organizations and may cause ill-health and loss of productivity. Determining the methods that occupational health (OH) services and employers use to manage work-related stress can help to detect both barriers and facilitating factors for effective stress management. To examine stress management methods used by OH physicians in Finland. Anonymous, self-administered e-mail questionnaire to Finnish OH physicians. A total of 222 OH physicians responded. Neither OH services nor their client organizations used standardized tools to assess or manage work-related stress. Work-related stress was assessed using patient interviews. Physicians reported that the main method used to manage occupational stress was supporting the individual employee. Half of the physicians attempted to involve workplaces in stress management by asking their patients to contact their supervisors regarding stress issues. In order to tackle work-related stress consistently and effectively employers and OH services should have agreed standardized protocols for managing stress in the workplace.

  12. Learning to integrate statistical and work-related reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.; Mierlo, X. van; Akkerman, S.

    2012-01-01

    People typically find it hard to use mathematics and statistics they have learned at school in work contexts. We used a boundary-crossing approach to help apprentices in secondary vocational laboratory education integrate the statistics learned at school with work-related knowledge. In five one-hour

  13. Work-related stress: A survey of Indian anesthesiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Ganesh Bakshi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The majority of participants rated their stress as moderate-extreme and was higher in anesthesiologists working long hours, over the weekend and those handling high-risk patients. A majority of participants felt the survey made them think about work-related stress and expressed their willingness to participate in stress management programs.

  14. Equipment-based Pilates reduces work-related chronic low back pain and disability: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Dana Duval; Vinson, David R; Hampton, Michelle De Coux

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated effectiveness of an equipment-based Pilates protocol for reducing pain and disability in individuals with work-related chronic low back pain (CLBP). Twelve workers with non-specific CLBP participated in a quasi-experimental, one-group, pretest-posttest pilot study of supervised 6-week equipment-based Pilates exercise. Pain severity was assessed using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Physical function was assessed using the Oswestry disability index (ODI). The Pilates intervention significantly reduced pain (mean decrease in VAS 30.75 ± 20.27, p Pilates exercise reduced pain and disability in workers with CLBP. Further research is needed to investigate Pilates exercise for rehabilitation of work-related injuries in large populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among physical therapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheen Iqbal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health professions like dentistry, nursing and physical therapy have been reported at high risk for developing workrelated musculoskeletal disorders. Results of studies conducted in these occupational groups may help formulate prevention strategies. However, no such data among physical therapists has been reported in India. Material and Methods: We conducted an online survey among 100 physiotherapists in Delhi. Results: The response rate was 75%. The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders is found to be high since 92% of them reported to feel some pain after joining physical therapy which affects daily activities and even sometimes forces them to change their work. Physical therapists specialty, gender, furniture used in clinic and duration of patient contact are found to be related to the pain development (p < 0.05. Conclusions: We need to emphasize the role of ergonomics and techniques of patient handling in development of work-related pain symptoms. Med Pr 2015;66(4:459–469

  16. Work-related violence and incident use of psychotropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Burr, Hermann; Diderichsen, Finn;

    2011-01-01

    -reported data on work-related violence were merged with other data on purchases of medications through a national registry to estimate cause-specific hazard ratios during 3.6 years (1,325 days) of follow-up in the years 1996-2008. Outcomes were examined as competing risks, and analyses were adjusted for gender......Although the mental health consequences of domestic violence are well documented, empirical evidence is scarce regarding the mental health effects of violence in the workplace. Most studies have used data from small occupation-specific samples, limiting their generalizability. This article examines...... whether direct exposure to work-related violence is associated with clinically pertinent mental health problems, measured by purchases of psychotropics (antidepressants, anxiolytics, hypnotics), in a cross-occupational sample of 15,246 Danish employees free from using psychotropics at baseline. Self...

  17. Work-related violence and incident use of psychotropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Burr, Hermann; Diderichsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Although the mental health consequences of domestic violence are well documented, empirical evidence is scarce regarding the mental health effects of violence in the workplace. Most studies have used data from small occupation-specific samples, limiting their generalizability. This article examines...... whether direct exposure to work-related violence is associated with clinically pertinent mental health problems, measured by purchases of psychotropics (antidepressants, anxiolytics, hypnotics), in a cross-occupational sample of 15,246 Danish employees free from using psychotropics at baseline. Self......-reported data on work-related violence were merged with other data on purchases of medications through a national registry to estimate cause-specific hazard ratios during 3.6 years (1,325 days) of follow-up in the years 1996-2008. Outcomes were examined as competing risks, and analyses were adjusted for gender...

  18. Characteristics and outcomes of work-related open globe injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoff, Justin M; Turalba, Angela V; Andreoli, Michael T; Andreoli, Christopher M

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of patients treated for open globe injuries sustained at work and to compare these results to patients injured outside of work. Retrospective chart review of 812 consecutive patients with open globe injuries treated at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary between 1999 and 2008. A total of 146 patients with open globe injuries sustained at work were identified and their characteristics and outcomes were compared with the rest of the patients in the database. Of the patients injured at work, 98% were men, and the average age of the patients was 35.8 years (17-72 years). The most common mechanism of injury was penetrating trauma (56%); 38 patients examined had intraocular foreign bodies (IOFB). Nine work-related open globe injuries resulted in enucleation. There was a higher incidence of IOFBs (P = .0001) and penetrating injuries (P = .0005) in patients injured at work. Both the preoperative (P = .0001) and final best-corrected visual acuity (P = .0001) was better in the work-related group. The final visual acuity was better than 20/200 in 74.1% of cases of work-related open globe injuries. However, there was no difference observed in the rate of enucleations (P = .4). Work-related injuries can cause significant morbidity in a young population of patients. Based on average patient follow-up and final visual acuity, those injured at work do at least as well as, if not potentially better than, those with open globe injuries sustained outside of work. While the statistically higher rate of IOFB in the work population is not surprising, it does emphasize the importance of strict adherence to the use of eye protection in the workplace. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Work-related quality of life of Ugandan healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opollo, J G; Gray, J; Spies, L A

    2014-03-01

    To describe perceived work-related quality of life of Ugandan healthcare workers. A secondary aim was to seek participant input on ways to improve work environments. Poor patient outcomes, decreased employee motivation and decisions to leave the organization have been linked to poor work conditions. Interventions to correct healthcare worker shortage in developing countries require information about work quality of life. Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in health and educational settings in Uganda in July 2011. Participants completed the Biographical Information Scale demographic questionnaire and the validated 24-item Work-Related Quality of Life scale. Sample included 146 healthcare workers employed in various settings. Participants reported poorer quality of work life on the work conditions, control at work and home-work interface subscales. Participants perceived stress at work to be low and experienced higher job career satisfaction. There was a significant relationship between work-related quality of life, gender and hours worked. Participants' suggestions to improve work life ranged from simple no-cost suggestions to more complex system level interventions. Work-related quality of life was low in this convenience sample. Perceived stress at work was lower than expected, but may have been due to nurses' expectations of a normal work assignment. Predominantly women, the participants had significant caregiving responsibilities. Nurses must acquire a seat at the table where crucial decisions about nursing and its future are made. By advancing leadership skills, nurses can effectively advocate for organizational changes that address broad factors related to increasing job satisfaction, and retaining and attracting nurses. Nurses can influence work quality of life individually and collectively by identifying workplace concerns, demanding safe work environments, fostering teamwork and enhancing professional growth. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  20. Epidemiological aspects of studying work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Tim

    2011-02-01

    There are many challenges to conducting valid epidemiological research of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and interpreting reports describing the results. In particular, these concern the basic study design, selection of subjects, measurement of exposure and outcome, control of confounding and the limitations of workers' compensation data systems. Researchers and people interested in the research results need to be aware of the major potential problems and pay careful attention to them when designing, conducting and using the results of such research.

  1. [Work-related rhinitis - Is it always an occupational disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salski, Witold; Wiszniewska, Marta; Salska, Agata; Tymoszuk, Diana; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2016-12-22

    Rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper respiratory tract, characterized by a high prevalence and a complex pathogenesis. Work-related rhinitis (WRR) can be divided into occupational rhinitis (OR) and work-exacerbated rhinitis (WER). It is not only considered as a disease entity but also in the context of medical certification as the allergic disease associated with occupational exposure. Epidemiology of work-related rhinitis has been found to vary depending on the occupation and specific exposure, on the other hand the prevalence data may be underestimated due to the lack of uniform diagnostic criteria. This paper reviews the issues comprising the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with work-related rhinitis. It also discusses the significance of the disease in occupational medicine, particularly in terms of preventive worker care, general principles of good practice in primary and secondary WRR prevention and the necessary directions of changes in medical certification in the cases of occupational rhinitis. Med Pr 2016;67(6):801-815.

  2. Work-related stress among correctional officers: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotti, Sara

    2016-01-25

    Correctional officers (COs) are exposed to various factors likely to jeopardize their health and safety. Even if numerous studies have been focused on work-related stress among COs, few studies have been carried out in Italy. Indentify the work-related factors and comprehend how they negatively affect the COs' psychological health in the Italian penal system. A qualitative approach was employed. Twenty-eight COs employed in a detention block of an Italian jail were interviewed face-to-face. For the analyses of the text, Template Analysis technique was followed. The analyses of the text highlighted six macro-categories and thirteen categories hierarchically linked to them: A) Intrinsic work-related factors with six categories: demanding contact with prisoners, high level of responsibility, health risks, critical events, lack of intellectual and social stimulation, and conflict value; B) Factors related to the type of contract and work organization: challenging working hours contrasted with social time, and relocation; C) Social factors: relationships with colleagues and hierarchy; D) Organizational factors: organizational injustice, E) External factors: negative social image; F) Physical environmental factors: physical structure of the prison building. The results indicated that COs are at high risk of stress. More specifically, the analyses highlighted that the most stressful part of the COs' job concerns their relationship with the inmates.

  3. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among occupational therapists in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JuHyung

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to identify general characteristics of occupational therapists in Korea and to investigate the present conditions of their work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMD) in order to present preliminary data for its prevention and directions for improvement. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted by performing a survey about WRMD among 95 occupational therapists working in Korea. Frequency analysis was conducted for the work-related general characteristics of subjects and for parts of the body with musculoskeletal disorder, and a χ(2) test was used to analyze the association between the presence of WRMD characteristics and each general characteristic. [Results] The parts of the body involved the most were the shoulders, hands, and neck (in decreasing order), and the work-related general characteristics shown to be associated with WRMD were the gender and the mean length of employment period. [Conclusion] The results of this study revealed that occupational therapists in Korea were extremely vulnerable to WRMD, and that realistic measures should be prepared swiftly for its prevention and treatment.

  4. Non-specific binding in solid phase immunoassays for autoantibodies correlates with inflammation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Esin; Duus, Karen; Lydolph, Magnus Christian; Jørgensen, Charlotte Sværke; Laursen, Inga; Houen, Gunnar

    2014-01-31

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a validated and sensitive method for detection of human autoantibodies, but may have problems with specificity. Non-specific binding is a well-known problem often observed in tests for autoantibodies, when sera are incubated on plastic surfaces, e.g. an ELISA plate. To understand the mechanisms underlying non-specific immunoglobulin deposition, we here analyse the phenomenon in detail and we propose means of reducing false positive test results caused by non-specific binding. The level of non-specific binding, in sera with suspected autoreactivity, was analysed in non-coated and autoantigen-coated ELISA wells and 4-32% of sera showed a high level of non-specific binding depending on the assay conditions and serum properties. Non-specifically binding sera were found to contain increased concentrations of IgG and other inflammatory mediators. Moreover, non-specific binding could be induced in serum by increasing the concentration of IgG and incubating the serum at 40 °C. This suggests that non-specific binding immunoglobulins can be formed during inflammation with high immunoglobulin levels and elevated temperature. We show that the level of non-specific binding correlates with the IgG concentration and therefore propose that non-specific binding may be interpreted as an informative finding indicative of elevated IgG and inflammation.

  5. Back Schools for chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Patrícia; Heymans, Martijn W; van Tulder, Maurits W; Esmail, Rosmin; Koes, Bart W; Poquet, Nolwenn; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine; Maher, Christopher G

    2017-08-03

    Many people with low back pain (LBP) become frequent users of healthcare services in their attempt to find treatments that minimise the severity of their symptoms. Back School consists of a therapeutic programme given to groups of people that includes both education and exercise. However, the content of Back School has changed over time and appears to vary widely today. This review is an update of a Cochrane review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of Back School. We split the Cochrane review into two reviews, one focusing on acute and subacute LBP, and one on chronic LBP. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effect of Back School on pain and disability for adults with chronic non-specific LBP; we included adverse events as a secondary outcome. In trials that solely recruited workers, we also examined the effect on work status. We searched for trials in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, two other databases and two trials registers to 15 November 2016. We also searched the reference lists of eligible papers and consulted experts in the field of LBP management to identify any potentially relevant studies we may have missed. We placed no limitations on language or date of publication. We included only RCTs and quasi-RCTs evaluating pain, disability, and/or work status as outcomes. The primary outcomes for this update were pain and disability, and the secondary outcomes were work status and adverse events. Two review authors independently performed the 'Risk of bias' assessment of the included studies using the 'Risk of bias' assessment tool recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. We summarised the results for the short-, intermediate-, and long-term follow-ups. We evaluated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. For the outcome pain, at short-term follow-up, we found very low-quality evidence that Back School is more effective than no

  6. [Assessing work-related stress: an Italian adaptation of the HSE Management Standards Work-Related Stress Indicator Tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcatto, Francesco; D'Errico, Giuseppe; Di Blas, Lisa; Ferrante, Donatella

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a preliminary validation of an Italian adaptation of the HSE Management Standards Work-Related Stress Indicator Tool (IT), an instrument for assessing work-related stress at the organizational level, originally developed in Britain by the Health and Safety Executive. A scale that assesses the physical work environment has been added to the original version of the IT. 190 employees of the University of Trieste have been enrolled in the study. A confirmatory analysis showed a satisfactory fit of the eight-factors structure of the instrument. Further psychometric analysis showed adequate internal consistency of the IT scales and good criterion validity, as evidenced by the correlations with self-perception of stress, work satisfaction and motivation. In conclusion, the Indicator Tool proved to be a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of work-related stress at the organizational level, and it is also compatible with the instructions provided by the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy (Circular letter 18/11/2010).

  7. Work-related stress: A survey of Indian anesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Sumitra Ganesh; Divatia, Jigeeshu Vasishtha; Kannan, Sadhana; Myatra, Sheila Nainan

    2017-01-01

    Work-related stress is common among medical caregivers and concerns all perioperative care providers. Although anesthesiologists are known to experience stress, there are limited Indian data addressing this issue. This survey was conducted among Indian anesthesiologists to determine their awareness about work stress and views regarding prevention programs. A survey questionnaire was distributed to delegates visiting the exhibits at the national anesthesiology conference in 2011. The questionnaire had ten questions on the work pattern, five on work-related stress, nine on opinion regarding the need and willingness to participate in stress-related programs. There were 1178 responders. Forty-three percent were faculty in medical institutions, 26% were residents and 25% were in free-lance practice. Ninety-one percent of participants rated their stress as moderate-extreme. There was a significant correlation between the amount of stress and working for more than 8 h (P < 0.001), handling high risk patients (P = 0.002), working on weekends (P = 0.002), and carrying work back home (P < 0.001). Forty-one percent of respondents were very satisfied professionally. Seventy-six percent of doctors agreed that the questionnaire had made them think about work stress. Eighty-four percent of participants felt the need for stress management programs and 69% expressed their willingness to participate in the same. The majority of participants rated their stress as moderate-extreme and was higher in anesthesiologists working long hours, over the weekend and those handling high-risk patients. A majority of participants felt the survey made them think about work-related stress and expressed their willingness to participate in stress management programs.

  8. Work-related consumption drivers and consumption at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    The main message in this paper is that the discussion on sustainable consumption should also incorporate the consumption that occurs in relation to work and, more generally, the relationship between consumption at work and consumption at home. I start by considering how domestic consumption...... is encouraged by work-related factors and continue to consider how consumption activities occur in the workplace, so illustrating that production and consumption are intertwined. The main part of the paper deals in detail with the conceptual distinction between production and consumption. Inspiration is drawn...

  9. Work-related posttraumatic upper limb disorder. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, P; Nigrelli, M P; Malaguti, S; Panigazzi, M; Pierobon, A

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we describe a patient with mor-sensory loss in the right forearm and hand, which persisted more than 2 years after work-related crush trauma of the left hand. Radiographic and electromyographic investigations, somatosensory evoked potentials, CT scans of the encephalus as well as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the Roarschach test have been performed. On the basis of these investigations, we think this represents a case of conversion disorder with somatic features. Included is a brief overview of other psychological illness with physical findings involving the upper limb.

  10. Work-related consumption drivers and consumption at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    The main message in this paper is that the discussion on sustainable consumption should also incorporate the consumption that occurs in relation to work and, more generally, the relationship between consumption at work and consumption at home. I start by considering how domestic consumption...... is encouraged by work-related factors and continue to consider how consumption activities occur in the workplace, so illustrating that production and consumption are intertwined. The main part of the paper deals in detail with the conceptual distinction between production and consumption. Inspiration is drawn...

  11. Work- related Stress, over-nutrition and cognitive disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippoliti, F; Corbosiero, P; Canitano, N; Massoni, F; Ricciardi, M R; Ricci, L; Archer, T; Ricci, S

    2017-01-01

    Work-related stress may exert a negative impact on a variety of physical and psychological attributes relating to the health of employees and work organizations. Several studies conducted in Italy have shown that workers and employees who express less satisfaction show increased symptoms of obesity and cognitive disability. The latest evidence underlines the pathogenic relationship between stress and neurological disease through inflammatory neuro- immune activation. The aim of this review was to describe the relationship between workplace stress and adverse changes in lifestyle that develop into obesity, neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction. The molecular mechanisms involved and guidelines for the prevention of these trends are discussed briefly.

  12. Workplace conflicts and psychological work-related injuries: our experience in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Taino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, all countries regularly recognise mental disorders as workplace accidents (mainly post-traumatic stress disorders. However, there has been little emphasis on this emerging issue in Italy. Our discussion focuses on a recent case report regarding an employee who was affected by an acute anxiety disorder after a common workplace conflict with a coworker. Given that prolonged and unresolved relationship conflicts may result in more extreme forms of conflict known as workplace bullying, relationship conflicts should be minimised or prevented as early as possible. These conflicts can also lead to acute stress disorders, particularly in workers who are at-risk for stress disorders. To prevent psychological work-related injuries, occupational stakeholders should use assessments for work-related stress as a framework for addressing all organisational risk factors that are related to workplace relationships and conflict.

  13. Work-related stress and cognitive enhancement among university teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegel, Constantin; Sattler, Sebastian; Göritz, Anja S; Diewald, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Working conditions of academic staff have become increasingly complex and occupational exposure has risen. This study investigates whether work-related stress is associated with the use of prescription drugs for cognitive enhancement (CE). The study was designed around three web-based surveys (n1 = 1131; n2 = 936; n3 = 906) to which university teachers at four German universities were asked to respond. It assessed past CE-drug use and the willingness to use CE-drugs as factors influencing future use. Overlap among participants across the surveys allowed for analyses of stability of the results across time. Our study suggests a currently very low prevalence of CE-drug use as well as a low willingness to use such drugs. The results showed a strong association between perceptions of work-related stress and all measures of CE-drug use (when controlling for potential confounding factors). They also showed that past use of CE-drugs increased participants' willingness to use them again in the future, as did lower levels of social support. Two different measures showed that participants' moral qualms against the use of CE-drugs decreased their probability of using them. The results increase our knowledge about the prevalence of CE-drug use and our understanding of what motivates and inhibits the use of CE-drug.

  14. Work-Related Depression in Primary Care Teams in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Andréa Tenório Correia; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Susser, Ezra; Menezes, Paulo Rossi

    2016-11-01

    To identify work-related factors associated with depressive symptoms and probable major depression in primary care teams. Cross-sectional study among primary care teams (community health workers, nursing assistants, nurses, and physicians) in the city of São Paulo, Brazil (2011-2012; n = 2940), to assess depressive symptoms and probable major depression and their associations with job strain and other work-related conditions. Community health workers presented higher prevalence of probable major depression (18%) than other primary care workers. Higher odds ratios for depressive symptoms or probable major depression were associated with longer duration of employment in primary care; having a passive, active, or high-strain job; lack of supervisor feedback regarding performance; and low social support from colleagues and supervisors. Observed levels of job-related depression can endanger the sustainability of primary care programs. Public Health implications. Strategies are needed to deliver care to primary care workers with depression, facilitating diagnosis and access to treatment, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Preventive interventions can include training managers to provide feedback and creating strategies to increase job autonomy and social support at work.

  15. Day treatment of patients with severe work-related complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meesters Y

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ybe Meesters, Ernst H Horwitz, Carol JM van VelzenUniversity of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, University Center for Psychiatry, Groningen, The NetherlandsAbstract: A day treatment program was developed for patients suffering with severe work-related complaints who were unable to function at work because of this. The program consisted of a number of treatment modalities, including Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, protocolized nonverbal therapies, and activation. The main objective of all these therapies was to analyze participants' personal qualities and vulnerabilities when functioning at work and to teach them new coping strategies and social skills to reduce their vulnerability in stressful situations. The results of the program were assessed in terms of scores on a number of self-rating questionnaires and hours spent at work. In a follow-up assessment one year after the original program had finished, we found a significant reduction in complaints and an increase in the number of hours spent on the job. At the start of the program, patients worked 25.2% of their contracted hours; a year later, this had increased to 77.3%. Even though this natural field study has its limitations, the results of the day treatment program seem very promising.Keywords: work-related stress, burnout, day treatment 

  16. [Can work-related eye injuries be avoided?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Nils; Høvding, Gunnar; Riise, Trond; Moen, Bente E

    2004-11-04

    The eyes are among the organs most frequently hurt in occupational injuries. The characteristics of eye injuries were studied in order to suggest preventive measures. Analyses were performed on work-related eye injuries reported to the Norwegian Injury Surveillance System from a selection of emergency centres during the period 1990-2002, and on injuries reported by employers to the National Insurance Administration 1998-2001. The occurrence of injuries was stable over the period. Men sustained 94.4% of the injuries registered in injury surveillance system. The highest incidence was among those 20 to 24 years of age. Metal cutters and tools for polishing were involved in 25.7% of cases. Analyses of the injuries reported to the National Insurance Administration showed an odds ratio of 8.8 (95% CI 7.6-10.1) for injuries to workers in metal industry, 18.8 (95% CI 17.0-20.8) in automotive industry, and only 0.5 (95% CI 0.1-3.4) in oil refineries. Workers in oil refineries have a potentially hazardous work environment, but there, eye protection is mandatory. There was no decline in the incidence of work-related eye injuries from 1990 to 2002. Workers in metal industry have a high risk of injuries and employers should consider requiring the use of eye protection.

  17. Workplace strategies for the control of work-related risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    1993-10-01

    The prevention of work-related diseases and disorders, including those of neuropsychobehavioral nature, calls for integrated action to improve both job content and the working environment. Recent international labor standards have highlighted the importance of a good safety and health management system that ensures the assessment of risks and the appropriate control of these risks. Internationally, programs to cope with work-related risks place an increasing emphasis on participatory management of preventive measures, practical methods of risk assessment, and immediate improvements with the support of action-oriented training and information. Psychosocial factors, work performance, and job content need special attention. Workplace strategies must be developed by active participation of employers and workers, with their informed consent. These strategies and linked training activities should build on local practice and achievements rather than administrative models and be geared to the real local needs. In coping with the neurobehavioral effects, international sharing of positive experiences is useful especially with respect to: (i) providing information on potential neurobehavioral effects including labeling, safety datasheets, and precautions; (ii) providing practical advice about locally achieved improvements; (iii) providing action-oriented training; and (iv) creating opportunities for participatory workplace improvements.

  18. WORK RELATED MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: A SURVEY OF PHYSIOTHERAPISTS IN TRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Maheshwari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal system disorders are common among health care workers worldwide. They are common causes of severe long-term pain and physical disability. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are defined as “regional impairments of the muscles, tendons, nerves and joints. Physiotherapy can lead to WRMSDs in physiotherapist because of the nature of their profession. Despite of having expert knowledge of musculoskeletal injuries and injury prevention strategies they still report a high incidence of work-related injuries during their professional practice due to their training and continuous professional development Methods: A total of 100 Physiotherapists which included 78 females and 22 males in the age group of 21 to 40 years were recruited in the study. The subjects were taken as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria from Tricity. Results: Pearson’s correlation and Chi square analysis was used to determine correlation and the association of prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms with personal characteristics, job risk factors and coping strategies. The data obtained from this study documents that majority of Physiotherapists have experienced WRMSDs at some time. The prevalence of WRMSDs among Physiotherapists in Tricity is high (91%. The most common risk factors identified in the present study were dealing with an excessive number of patients in one day; continuing to work while injured or hurt; lifting or transferring dependent patients and work scheduling. In present study, the low back and neck regions were the most commonly affected site among physiotherapists (72.5% each followed by upper back (28.6 %, shoulder (20.9%, wrist and hand (17.6%, knee (12.1%, ankle and foot (12.1% and hip (7.70% Conclusions: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are an important health risk within the physiotherapy profession. The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among the Physiotherapists in Tricity is high that

  19. Maxillofacial trauma due to work-related accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hächl, O; Tuli, T; Schwabegger, A; Gassner, R

    2002-02-01

    Even though numerous reports on maxillofacial trauma exist, only a few give detailed information about work-related maxillofacial injuries. The purpose of this study was to reveal the significance of maxillofacial injuries related to accidents occurring at work by evaluating a large number of patients with maxillofacial injuries over a 9-year period. Out of the 8704 trauma patients treated between 1991 and 1999 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the University of Innsbruck, Austria, 463 (5.4%) were injured at work. All charts were reviewed and analyzed according to age, gender, cause of accident, occupation, type of injury, location and frequency of fractures. The highest incidence of maxillofacial injury was found among construction workers (a total of 124 patients, 26.8%), followed by craftsmen (102 patients, 22.0%) and office employees (69 patients, 14.9%). The sex distribution showed an overall male-to-female ratio of 11.8:1 and those in the age group most affected were between 20 and 29 years of age. The most frequent cause of injury was a blow in 48.4%, followed by falls and falls over obstacles, accounting for 27.9% and 7.1%, respectively. Of all trauma, 45.4% (210 persons) sustained 423 maxillofacial fractures, 31.7% (147 patients) suffered 232 dento-alveolar injuries, and 21.2% (98 people) showed 430 soft-tissue injuries. One-fifth (20.7%) of all patients displayed concomitant injuries with cerebral and cranial trauma being the most common. The probability of sustaining maxillofacial trauma at work is correlated to the nature of the occupation. Individuals (mostly men) using tools or machines at work are exposed to a much higher risk of work-related maxillofacial trauma.

  20. Work related injuries: estimating the incidence among illegally employed immigrants

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    Fadda Emanuela

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistics on occupational accidents are based on data from registered employees. With the increasing number of immigrants employed illegally and/or without regular working visas in many developed countries, it is of interest to estimate the injury rate among such unregistered workers. Findings The current study was conducted in an area of North-Eastern Italy. The sources of information employed in the present study were the Accidents and Emergencies records of a hospital; the population data on foreign-born residents in the hospital catchment area (Health Care District 4, Primary Care Trust 20, Province of Verona, Veneto Region, North-Eastern Italy; and the estimated proportion of illegally employed workers in representative samples from the Province of Verona and the Veneto Region. Of the 419 A&E records collected between January and December 2004 among non European Union (non-EU immigrants, 146 aroused suspicion by reporting the home, rather than the workplace, as the site of the accident. These cases were the numerator of the rate. The number of illegally employed non-EU workers, denominator of the rate, was estimated according to different assumptions and ranged from between 537 to 1,338 individuals. The corresponding rates varied from 109.1 to 271.8 per 1,000 non-EU illegal employees, against 65 per 1,000 reported in Italy in 2004. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that there is an unrecorded burden of illegally employed immigrants suffering from work related injuries. Additional efforts for prevention of injuries in the workplace are required to decrease this number. It can be concluded that the Italian National Institute for the Insurance of Work Related Injuries (INAIL probably underestimates the incidence of these accidents in Italy.

  1. Simplified immunoassay for rapid Dengue serotype diagnosis, revealing insensitivity to non-specific binding interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C.C.L. Loureiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Proof of concept of an immunoassay, which is easy to implement, for rapid Dengue virus (DENV serotype diagnosis, in the early infection stage, is reported. The four-layer assay is immobilized onto a thin gold film and relies on a low cost, disposable polymer biochip for optical surface plasmon resonance sensing and detection. The protocol comprises Neutravidin-Biotin mediated monoclonal antibody (MAB attachment as the functionalized sensing element. Formation of the MAB-DENV complex results in a pronounced thickness change that is optically recorded in real time, employing a microfluidic set-up. Virus presence is confirmed by atomic force microscopy from the same sample. Serum samples were collected from a patient in acute febrile state. Simultaneous serological analysis by means of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, independently, confirmed presence of DENV2 and DENV3. The protocol proved applicable in presence of strong non-specific binding interference that originates from, and is caused by, various blood, serum and other body fluid constituents. False positive indications for both, negative serum and blood control samples were not observed. The achievable limit of detection was estimated to be 2×104 particles/ml. Eventually, the method can be modified towards detection of other viruses by using the same protocol.

  2. Prevention and management of work-related cardiovascular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akizumi Tsutsumi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disorders (CVDs constitute a major burden for health of working populations throughout the world with as much as 50% of all causes of death and at least 25% of work disability. There are some changes in CVD risk factors among occupational classes. This is mainly due to the new types of work-related causes of morbidity associated with the recent developments in global work life, particularly in the industrialized countries. Meanwhile, in the developing countries or those in transition (e.g., in Eastern Europe, CVD mortality is increasing due to major socioeconomic changes, the demographic transition and rapid industrialisation and urbanisation, all leading to growing challenges to cardiovascular health. Better control of known risk factors (i.e., smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high blood glucose is effective to prevent CVD incidence. But the expected improvement has not been achieved. The obstacles of achieving such impact are due to lack of awareness, lack of policies and their implementation into practice and shortage of infrastructures and human resources. These are needed for wide-scale and long-term programme implementation. Considering the WHO Global Strategy on Occupational Health for All, the WHO Global Action Plan on Workers’ Health, the WHO Programme on Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases and the ILO Decent Work agenda, the 6th ICOH International Conference on Work Environment and Cardiovascular Diseases adopted the Tokyo Declaration.

  3. Work-Related Upper Limb Disorders: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Borisova Stoyneva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the complex interrelationship between physical factors, job stress, lifestyle and genetic factors on symptoms of work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs is demonstrated by a case report and discussion of the literature. A 58 year old woman with long lasting complaints of the upper limbs with increasing intensity and duration, generalisation, combined with skin thickness, Raynaud’s phenomenon, joint disorders, arterial and pulmonary hypertension, metabolic lipid dysfunctions is presented. Occupational history proves continuous duration of service at a job with occupational physical static load with numerous repetitive monotonous systematic motions of fingers and hands as a weaver of Persian rugs followed by work at an automated loom and variable labour activities. Though the complaints dated since the time she was a manual weaver, the manifestations of generalized joint degenerative changes, system sclerosis with Raynaud’s phenomenon with similar upper extremities signs and symptoms discount upper limbs musculoskeletal disorder as caused only or mainly by occupational risk factors. The main principles and criteria for occupational diagnosis of musculoskeletal upper limb disorders and legislative requirements for their reglamentation are discussed.

  4. Practical approaches to the assessment of work-related risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    1993-01-01

    The control of work-related risks calls for practical improvements in job content and the working environment. For assessment of risks, it is essential to resort to the most practical methods in the local context. Important common methods are examination of the process, equipment and organisation of work, walk-through surveys, evaluation of risk factors in the working environment, inquiries and questionnaires as well as monitoring of various health indicators. Biological tests and other health indicators can thus only be regarded as components of overall occupational health-risk assessment strategy, with their advantages, disadvantages and limitations. Important are the validity of biological tests and the ethical aspects related to their use, such as confidentiality of data and the individual worker's informed consent, preference being given to noninvasive-methods. Occupational health services should thus play a positive role by providing practical advice, training and information for participatory risk assessment keeping in view such an overall strategy that facilitates immediate preventive action. Biological monitoring should be applied when the additional guidance it provides on preventive action is essential. Proposals to use biological monitoring must emphasise this justification aspect.

  5. Work-Related Attitudes of Czech Generation Z: International Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kubátová,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present work-related attitudes of a sample of Czech Generation Z and their comparison to the results of an international research study. Currently, there are three important trends influencing the labor market: (1 the origin and development of a ubiquitous working environment, (2 the thriving of coworking centers, and (3 Generation Z's entering the labor market. Instead of traditional jobs, the bearers of human capital tend to choose independent work in an online environment, and often work in coworking centers. Using self-determination theory, we substantiate why they thrive better this way. Based on the results of an international research project focused on work attitudes among Generation Z and the results of a replication study we carried out in the Czech Republic, we attest that members of Generation Z may prefer independent virtual work in coworking centers, too. The total amount of available human capital, the lack of which is pointed out by companies, may grow thanks to new ways of working. Companies, which can use human capital of independent workers, gain a competitive advantage.

  6. A new non-specificity measure in evidence theory based on belief intervals

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    Yang Yi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the theory of belief functions, the measure of uncertainty is an important concept, which is used for representing some types of uncertainty incorporated in bodies of evidence such as the discord and the non-specificity. For the non-specificity part, some traditional measures use for reference the Hartley measure in classical set theory; other traditional measures use the simple and heuristic function for joint use of mass assignments and the cardinality of focal elements. In this paper, a new non-specificity measure is proposed using lengths of belief intervals, which represent the degree of imprecision. Therefore, it has more intuitive physical meaning. It can be proved that our new measure can be rewritten in a general form for the non-specificity. Our new measure is also proved to be a strict non-specificity measure with some desired properties. Numerical examples, simulations, the related analyses and proofs are provided to show the characteristics and good properties of the new non-specificity definition. An example of an application of the new non-specificity measure is also presented.

  7. A new non-specificity measure in evidence theory based on belief intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yi; Han Deqiang; Jean Dezert

    2016-01-01

    In the theory of belief functions, the measure of uncertainty is an important concept, which is used for representing some types of uncertainty incorporated in bodies of evidence such as the discord and the non-specificity. For the non-specificity part, some traditional measures use for reference the Hartley measure in classical set theory;other traditional measures use the simple and heuristic function for joint use of mass assignments and the cardinality of focal elements. In this paper, a new non-specificity measure is proposed using lengths of belief intervals, which represent the degree of imprecision. Therefore, it has more intuitive physical meaning. It can be proved that our new measure can be rewritten in a general form for the non-specificity. Our new measure is also proved to be a strict non-specificity measure with some desired properties. Numerical examples, simulations, the related analyses and proofs are provided to show the characteristics and good properties of the new non-specificity definition. An example of an application of the new non-specificity measure is also presented.

  8. Sectoral approach to managing work-related stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2005-01-01

    Working during pregnancy may expose women to several risk factors. According to recent findings of the National Survey on Working Conditions, information at an early stage on the consequences of the pregnancy for the working capacity of pregnant women, as well as implementing preventive measures, ca

  9. Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty and Work-Related Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Grant H; Taylor, Samuel A; Mahony, Gregory T; DePalma, Brian J; Grawe, Brian M; Nguyen, Joseph; Dines, Joshua S; Dines, David M; Warren, Russell F; Craig, Edward V; Gulotta, Lawrence V

    2016-01-01

    The average retirement age is increasing, and the indications for reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) are being broadened. The goal of the current study was to determine objective findings for rate of return to work and time to return to work after RTSA. The authors performed retrospective data collection for consecutive patients who underwent RTSA at their institution between 2007 and 2013. All patients were asked to complete a questionnaire about their work history and their ability to participate in work-related activities. A total of 40 patients reported working before surgery. Average patient age was 74.7 years (range, 56-82 years). Average follow-up was 2.6 years (range, 1-4.7 years). Average American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score improved from 34.0 to 81.7 (P<.001). Average visual analog scale pain score decreased from 6.5 to 0.7 (P<.001). Most patients (65.4%) classified their job as sedentary, 34.6% classified their job as light work, and no patients classified their job as heavy work. Of patients who worked preoperatively, 65% (n=26) returned to work after RTSA. Only a previous diagnosis of heart disease affected return to work (P=.04). Overall, average time to return to work was 2.3 months (range, 0.5-11 months). Patients with sedentary jobs returned to work more quickly (1.4 months) than those with light work (4.0 months). A total of 96.2% of patients reported good to excellent surgical outcomes. Of patients who worked before RTSA, 65% were still working at final follow-up. Only 5% of patients retired for reasons attributed to the operated shoulder. On average, patients returned to work less than 3 months after surgery.

  10. Work-Related Health Effects among Wastewater Treatment Plants Workers

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    MA Albatanony

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Raw sewage contains various pathogenic organisms including bacteria, viruses, fungus, worms and protozoa. Workers at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are exposed to these organisms as well as to H2S gas causing many health hazards. Objectives: To assess some work-related health effects among WWTPs workers with special emphasis on the most common infections as well as cardiopulmonary disorders. Methods: 43 workers at Berket Al-Sabih WWTPs were studied. An equal number of non-exposed comparison group were also studied. All participants were asked about their personal demographic data, symptoms suggesting infection, respiratory tract impairment and cardiovascular manifestations. Spirometric measurements were made at the end of the work shift. A resting standard 12-lead ECG was also taken for each participant. For those with a positive ECG finding, echocardiography was also performed. Serum examination for antibodies against hepatitis A virus (HAV and hepatitis E virus (HEV was also done. A heparinized blood sample to measure sulf-hemoglobin, as an indicator of H2S exposure, was taken. Stool was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for Leptospira spirochete. Results: WWTPs workers suffered from body ache, abdominal pain, wheeze, asthma and dyspnea more frequently than the comparison group (p<0.05. An obstructive pattern of pulmonary function impairment and a higher mean sulf-hemoglobin% were significantly more common among WWTPs workers than the comparison group. Antibody levels against HAV and HEV as well as frequency of positive stool PCR test results for L. spirochete were significantly higher among WWTPs workers than the comparison group. The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH according to ECG and mean ejection fraction (EF as measured by echocardiography were significantly more frequent in WWTPs workers than in the comparison group. Conclusion: WWTPs workers are high risk of developing various infections and

  11. Chronic non-specific low back pain; has cognitive behavioural therapy effect and

    OpenAIRE

    Hjermann, Mette Kristine

    2005-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) presents a major public health problem. Half of the population will report acute LBP during the last year; approximately 80-90% is non-specific. Many will develop chronic / intermittent LBP and a part of these patients will become unable to maintain daily function and working life. Although non-specific chronic LBP is common, there is little knowledge of its cause and right treatment. In this paper the cognitive chronification process is seen together with newer neurobiolo...

  12. Prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among hairdressers

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    Happiness Anulika Aweto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study has investigated the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs, the most commonly affected body parts, the risk factors of WMSDs and the coping strategies adopted by hairdressers. Material and Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. Two hundred and ninety-nine hairdressers (242 females and 57 males from salons in Surulere and Mushin Local Government Areas of Lagos State completed a 27-item questionnaire. They were selected using a non-probability consecutive sampling technique. The inferential analysis was conducted using the Chi2 test. The level of significance stood at p < 0.05. Results: The 12-month prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders stood at 75.6%. Two hundred and twenty-one (91.3% participants reported gradual onset of musculoskeletal disorders. One hundred and sixteen (47.9% participants had the onset of the WMSDs at the age range of 26–35 years. The most commonly affected body parts included the low back (76.3%, shoulder (62.5% and neck (46.3%. Some of the major job risk factors of the WMSDs that were identified included: working in the same position for long periods and attending to a large number of customers in 1 day. Taking sufficient rest breaks by participants was one of the coping strategies adopted by the participants. The mean number of years of working experience was 7.85±0.4 years. One hundred and twenty-four (41.5% participants had worked for 1–5 years. The Chi2 analysis showed that the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders were significantly associated with the age of a participant (Chi2 = 78.78, p = 0.001, years of working experience (Chi2 = 78.03, p = 0.001 and hours spent working in a standing position (Chi2 = 8.77, p = 0.01, respectively. Conclusions: The age of hairdressers, their years of working and the long hours they spent working in a standing position may be significant factors that contribute to the high prevalence of the WMSDs

  13. Work and work-related stress in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Vern L

    2012-09-01

    Work, in general, does not increase the risks of pregnancy complications. Work that is stressful, physically, psychologically, or both, has deleterious effects on pregnancy. Stressful work increases the risks of miscarriage, preterm labor, preterm birth, low birth weight, and preeclampsia. The greater the stress, the greater the risks of pregnancy complications. Women with a history of pregnancy complications should be counseled about reducing stressful work before pregnancy. Women with stressful jobs should be followed closely during pregnancy, and if signs of preterm labor or delayed fetal growth develop, then occupational stress should be decreased or eliminated. Some occupations expose pregnant women to teratogens such as organic solvents, heavy metals, or pesticides. A careful work history should be part of every preconception and early pregnancy visit.

  14. Entry into vocational rehabilitation program following work-related hand injury: Potential candidates

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    Yueh-Hsia Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This case-control study aimed to investigate the predictors of return to work (RTW following work-related major forearm, wrist or hand injury at the preparation stage of return to work. Material and Methods: A total of 80 clients were recruited and divided into 2 groups depending on their readiness of RTW. The groups were compared with each other with regard to their demographics, compensation status, hand injury severity, health perception, and time off work (TOW using correlation coefficient. Predictors of RTW were measured by logistic regression analysis. Results: There were no significant differences in demographics and the severity of hand injury between 2 groups. Self-perceived physical functioning (p = 0.04, vitality (p = 0.01, mental health (p = 0.03 and TOW (p = 0.001 were significantly different between Action group and Preparation group. With binary logistic regression analysis, self-perceived vitality (odds ratio (OR = 1.041 and TOW (OR = 0.996 were shown to be strongly predictive of RTW at the preparation stage of return to work. Conclusions: This study has shown that shorter TOW and better self-perceived vitality could predict early readiness for RTW after major work-related forearm, wrist or hand injury.

  15. [Anesthesia for non-specific surgery in a post-transplantation patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steib, A; Freys, G; Otteni, J C

    1993-01-01

    The increase of non specific surgeries in transplanted patients may be related to the better survival achieved by the efficacy of immunosuppressive therapy and improved surgical and intensive care conditions. Therefore, the anaesthetist may be mandated to give anaesthesia in such patients, treated in hospitals which are not involved in transplantation procedures. The ignorance of the main physiologic and pharmacological changes in the new grafted organ as well as the knowledge of high risks of rejection or infection contribute to the anxiety often encountered in front of these patients. The denervated heart is unable to respond to stimulations requiring the integrity of autonomic neural mechanisms. Modulation of cardiac output depends on intrinsic activity (Frank-Starling mechanism) and therefore of end diastolic volume (preload). The denervated transplanted lung shows inability to elicit cough reflex; the latter is totally abolished in case of tracheal anastomosis. These physiologic changes have no deleterious effects on early cardiac and pulmonary functions following transplantation. In the same way, renal, liver or pancreatic functions are restored after respective replacement. However chronic rejection occurs frequently in 50% of patients in a mean time of 5 years following surgery except for liver transplanted patients which seem to be better protected. It results in a progressive decrease in organ function tests. The preoperative assessment requires primary contact with the transplant center. This communication should give precious information about the last biological and functional results as well as about the immunosuppressive therapy. Standard preoperative investigations include measurements of haemoglobin, urea, electrolyte and creatinine concentrations, liver tests, ECG, chest X-ray and coagulation pattern. Previsible difficult intubation should be detected in case of previous pancreas transplantation. Immunosuppressive therapy and other treatments

  16. The Role of Non-specific and Specific Immune Systems in Poultry against Newcastle Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 which belong to Avulavirus genus and Paramyxoviridae family. The birds have abnormalities in humoral (bursa fabricius and cellular (thymus and spleen lymphoid organs. Lesions decrease the immune system. Immune system consists of non-specific and specific immune systems. The main components of non-specific immunity are physical and chemical barrier (feather and skin or mucosa, phagocytic cells (macrophages and natural killer, protein complement and the mediator of inflammation and cytokines. Interferons (IFNs belong to a group of cytokines that play a major role in the nonspecific or innate (natural immunity. The virulent ND virus encodes protein of V gene can be suppressed IFN type I. This leads to non-specific immune system fail to respond to the virulent strains resulting in severe pathogenicity. The defense mechanism of the host is replaced by specific immunity (adaptive immunity when natural immunity fails to overcome the infection. The specific immune system consists of humoral mediated immunity (HMI and cell-mediated immunity (CMI. The cells of immune system that react specifically with the antigen are B lymphocytes producing the antibodies, T lymphocytes that regulate the synthesis of antibodies and T cells as effector or the direct cytotoxic cells. Both non-specific and specific immunities are complementary against the invasion of ND virus in the birds. The objective of this article is to discuss the role of non specific and specific immune system in ND.

  17. Work-related Cerebro-Cardiovascular Diseases in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Cerebro-cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of compensable occupational diseases in Korea as in Japan or Taiwan. However, most countries accept only cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart diseases) as compensable occupational diseases if any, but not cerebrovascular diseases. Korea has a prescribed list of compensable occupational diseases. CVD was not included in the list until 1993. In the early 1990s, a case of cerebral infarction was accepted as occupational disease by the Supreme Court. The decision was based on the concept that workers' compensation system is one of the social security systems. In 1994, the government has established a diagnostic criterion of CVD. The crude rate of compensated cerebrovascular disease decreased by 60.0% from 18.5 in 2003 to 7.4 in 2008 per 100,000 workers, and that of compensated coronary heart disease decreased by 60.5% from 3.8 in 2003 to 1.5 in 2008 per 100,000 workers. The compensated cases of CVD dramatically increased and reached its peak in 2003. Since many preventive activities were performed by the government and employers, the compensated cases have slowly decreased since 2003 and sharply decreased after 2008 when the diagnostic criterion was amended. The strategic approach is needed essentially because CVDs are common, serious and preventable diseases which lead to economic burden. PMID:21258582

  18. [Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in dentistry professionals. 2. Prevention, ergonomic strategies and therapeutic programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorio, F; Franchignoni, F; Ferriero, G; Vercelli, S; Odescalchi, L; Augusti, D; Migliario, M

    2005-01-01

    In dental professionals the risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) can be minimized through a combination of prevention, ergonomic strategies, and specific therapeutic programs. Prevention includes early identification of symptoms, analysis of working posture and activity, and the evaluation of equipment (such as dental instruments, position of the dental unit, patient and operator chairs, and lighting). The ergonomic strategies are based on identifying the best daily timetable (including periodic pauses) and most efficient team organization, as well as establishing the correct position that should be held at the patient chair. Finally specific therapeutic programs are very important in preventing or treating WMSD. In fact, fitness exercises such as mobilization, stretching or muscular and cardiovascular training are recognized as fundamental for dental professionals, and when WMSD occurs physiatric care and physical therapy are recommended.

  19. Incidental neoplastics findings in paediatric {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scan patients with non-specific limp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddaford, S.; Morony, S. [Women`s and Children`s Hospital, North Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-06-01

    Full text: A group of patients who attended the Department of Nuclear Medicine with non-specific limp/hip pain, for a {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scan, had incidental findings of diffuse neoplastic involvement. A variety of oncology patients attend the Department annually for a {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scan. These include patients with Ewing`s osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, benign osteoid osteoma and neuroblastoma. We rarely see patients with leukemia. We found that of a number of patients with stage IV neuroblastoma 80% had presented to the Department with a non-specific limp/hip pain for investigation. The ESR in each case was either normal or raised, and previous radiological and ultrasound examination did not demonstrate any specific finding. The provisional diagnosis in each case was osteomyelitis or septic arthritis. In retrospect, a nuclear medicine {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scan was a clear advantage in assisting the diagnosis of neuroblastoma. A selection of these patient case studies is presented to demonstrate the value of the nuclear medicine bone scan incidental findings in the early diagnosis of neuroblastoma, and the subsequent monitoring and staging of this disease

  20. Coping with Work-Related Stress through Guided Imagery and Music (GIM): Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bolette Daniels; Hansen, Åse Marie; Gold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Long-term stress-related sick leave constitutes a serious health threat and an economic burden on both the single worker and the society. Effective interventions for the rehabilitation and facilitation of return to work are needed. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM), a psychotherapy intervention including relaxation, music listening, and imagery, on biopsychosocial measures of work-related stress. Twenty Danish workers on sick leave were randomized to music therapy versus wait-list control. Data collection was carried out at an occupational health ward in the period 2008-2010. Changes in salivary cortisol, testosterone, and melatonin were explored, and self-reported data on psychological stress symptoms (perceived stress, mood disturbance, sleep quality, physical distress symptoms, work readiness, well-being, anxiety, depression, immediate stress) were collected. Data regarding sick leave situation and job return were collected from participants throughout the study. Significant beneficial effects of GIM compared to wait-list after nine weeks with large effect sizes were found in well-being, mood disturbance, and physical distress, and in cortisol concentrations with a medium effect size. A comparison between early and late intervention as related to the onset of sick leave showed faster job return and significantly improved perceived stress, well-being, mood disturbance, depression, anxiety, and physical distress symptoms in favor of early intervention. In the whole sample, 83% of the participants had returned to work at nine weeks' follow-up. The results indicate that GIM is a promising treatment for work-related chronic stress, and further studies are recommended. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Non-Specific Disease Mimicking Malignancy: Two Cases of FDG Uptake in the Extremities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Eun Jung; Chun, Kyung Ah; Cho, Ihn Ho [Yeungnam University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    FDG PET is an imaging technique used to assess regional differences in glucose metabolism. A variety of diseases, including malignancy, can show abnormal FDG uptake in bone marrow. PET/CT demonstrated non-specific uptake in the extremities of two patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO). Both patients showed focal and symmetric FDG uptake in the bone marrow of the arms and legs. Although the results of these cases were not diagnostic, the unique uptake pattern of PET/CT should be considered a non-specific reactive change as well as malignancy or other possibilities in the initial deferential diagnosis.

  2. Employees work-related social-media use: his master's voice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; van der Meer, T.G.L.A.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the antecedents of work-related social-media use. To date the role of employees in organizational sense giving through work-related social-media use remains under investigated. The findings suggest that - in a work-related context - social media serve multiple functions: as a

  3. Employees work-related social-media use: his master's voice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; van der Meer, T.G.L.A.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the antecedents of work-related social-media use. To date the role of employees in organizational sense giving through work-related social-media use remains under investigated. The findings suggest that - in a work-related context - social media serve multiple functions: as a veh

  4. Tapping the potential for reducing work-related road deaths and injuries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2017-01-01

    Over 25,600 lives were lost on the road in the European Union in 2016, of those a large proportion were victims of work-related road (WRR) collisions. Even though the exact number is unknown, it is likely that up to 40% of all road deaths are work-related. Part I: Work-related road safety (WRRS) dat

  5. Tapping the potential for reducing work-related road deaths and injuries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2017-01-01

    Over 25,600 lives were lost on the road in the European Union in 2016, of those a large proportion were victims of work-related road (WRR) collisions. Even though the exact number is unknown, it is likely that up to 40% of all road deaths are work-related. Part I: Work-related road safety (WRRS)

  6. Assessment of non-specific visual complaints after acquired brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijling, Anne; Heutink, Joost; Melis-Dankers, Bart; de Vries, Stefanie; Cornelissen, Frans; Tucha, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Background: The majority of patients with visual disorders after Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) report non-specific visual complaints (NSVCs) like “blurred” or “foggy” vision, reduced contrast sensitivity, impaired adaptation to changes in light, an altered preferred illumination level, or a sensation

  7. A rapid challenge protocol for determination of non-specific bronchial responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, F; Nielsen, N H; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1986-01-01

    A rapid method for determination of non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity was developed. Resistance to breathing was determined by a modified expiratory airway interrupter technique and combined with a dosimeter-controlled nebulizer which made continuous determination of response possible during...

  8. Core outcome domains for clinical trials in non-specific low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chiarotto (Alessandro); R.A. Deyo (Richard); C.B. Terwee (Caroline); M. Boers (Maarten); R. Buchbinder (Rachelle); T.P. Corbin (Terry P.); L.O.P. Costa (Leonardo); N.E. Foster (Nadine); M. Grotle (Margreth); B.W. Koes (Bart); F.M. Kovacs (Francisco M.); C.-W.C. Lin (Chung-Wei Christine); C. Maher (Chris); A.M. Pearson (Adam M.); W.C. Peul (Wilco); M.L. Schoene (Mark L.); D.C. Turk (Dennis C.); M.W. van Tulder (Maurits); R.W.J.G. Ostelo (Raymond)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Inconsistent reporting of outcomes in clinical trials of patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) hinders comparison of findings and the reliability of systematic reviews. A core outcome set (COS) can address this issue as it defines a minimum set of outcomes that should

  9. The characteristics and clinical manifestation of subjects with non-specific pattern of pulmonary function tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德训

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the characteristics of pulmonary function and the clinical significance of non-specific pattern(NSP).Methods A total of 1 933 pulmonary function tests of adult patients were analyzed,and those with NSP were selected.The pulmonary function test results,clinical diagnosis and radiological manifestations were

  10. Depression Is Associated with Repeat Emergency Department Visits in Patients with Non-specific Abdominal Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Charles Meltzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with abdominal pain often return multiple times despite no definitive diagnosis. Our objective was to determine if repeat emergency department (ED use among patients with non-specific abdominal pain might be associated with a diagnosis of moderate to severe depressive disorder. Methods: We screened 987 ED patients for major depression during weekday daytime hours from June 2011 through November 2011 using a validated depression screening tool, the PHQ-9. Each subject was classified as either no depression, mild depression or moderate/ severe depression based on the screening tool. Within this group, we identified 83 patients with non-specific abdominal pain by either primary or secondary diagnosis. Comparing depressed patients versus non-depressed patients, we analyzed demographic characteristics and number of prior ED visits in the past year. Results: In patients with non-specific abdominal pain, 61.9% of patients with moderate or severe depression (PHQ9≥10 had at least one visit to our ED for the same complaint within a 365-day period, as compared to 29.2% of patients with no depression (PHQ9<5, (p=0.013. Conclusion: Repeat ED use among patients with non-specific abdominal pain is associated with moderate to severe depressive disorder. Patients with multiple visits for abdominal pain may benefit from targeted ED screening for depression.

  11. Intestinal perforation caused by non specific idiopathic ulcer of the small intestine. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, V; Racalbuto, A; Russello, D; Succi, L; Fragati, G; Catania, V

    1989-01-01

    A case of non specific idiopathic ulcer of the small intestine in a 79-year-old patient is reported. On admission he presented with acute abdomen and was submitted to wide intestinal resection. The features of this rare disease (only 370 cases described until 1987), which has an undefined etiopathogenesis, severe symptoms, and poses diagnostic problems, are discussed.

  12. Epidemiological studies of the relationship between occupational exposures and chronic non-specific lung disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heederik, D.

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis the relationship between occupational exposures, lung function and Chronic Non-Specific Lung Disease is studied. The study comprises an epidemiological analysis of data from the British Pneumoconiosis Field Research among coal miners and an analysis of data gathered in the Zutphen

  13. Optimization of the BLASTN substitution matrix for prediction of non-specific DNA microarray hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund, Aron Charles; Friis, Pia; Wernersson, Rasmus;

    2010-01-01

    DNA microarray measurements are susceptible to error caused by non-specific hybridization between a probe and a target (cross-hybridization), or between two targets (bulk-hybridization). Search algorithms such as BLASTN can quickly identify potentially hybridizing sequences. We set out to improve...

  14. Multiple chronic non-specific ulcer of small intestine characterized by anemia and hypoalbuminemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A female patient with anemia and hypoalbuminemia was admitted to our hospital due to an over 20-year history of recurrent dizziness,fatigue and ankle edema.She was diagnosed as multiple chronic nonspecific ulcer of the small intestine characterized by non-specific histology and persistent gastrointestinal bleeding.

  15. Hydrophobic fluorescent probes introduce artifacts into single molecule tracking experiments due to non-specific binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti-Domingues, Laura C; Tynan, Christopher J; Rolfe, Daniel J; Clarke, David T; Martin-Fernandez, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Single-molecule techniques are powerful tools to investigate the structure and dynamics of macromolecular complexes; however, data quality can suffer because of weak specific signal, background noise and dye bleaching and blinking. It is less well-known, but equally important, that non-specific binding of probe to substrates results in a large number of immobile fluorescent molecules, introducing significant artifacts in live cell experiments. Following from our previous work in which we investigated glass coating substrates and demonstrated that the main contribution to this non-specific probe adhesion comes from the dye, we carried out a systematic investigation of how different dye chemistries influence the behaviour of spectrally similar fluorescent probes. Single-molecule brightness, bleaching and probe mobility on the surface of live breast cancer cells cultured on a non-adhesive substrate were assessed for anti-EGFR affibody conjugates with 14 different dyes from 5 different manufacturers, belonging to 3 spectrally homogeneous bands (491 nm, 561 nm and 638 nm laser lines excitation). Our results indicate that, as well as influencing their photophysical properties, dye chemistry has a strong influence on the propensity of dye-protein conjugates to adhere non-specifically to the substrate. In particular, hydrophobicity has a strong influence on interactions with the substrate, with hydrophobic dyes showing much greater levels of binding. Crucially, high levels of non-specific substrate binding result in calculated diffusion coefficients significantly lower than the true values. We conclude that the physic-chemical properties of the dyes should be considered carefully when planning single-molecule experiments. Favourable dye characteristics such as photostability and brightness can be offset by the propensity of a conjugate for non-specific adhesion.

  16. Hydrophobic fluorescent probes introduce artifacts into single molecule tracking experiments due to non-specific binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Zanetti-Domingues

    Full Text Available Single-molecule techniques are powerful tools to investigate the structure and dynamics of macromolecular complexes; however, data quality can suffer because of weak specific signal, background noise and dye bleaching and blinking. It is less well-known, but equally important, that non-specific binding of probe to substrates results in a large number of immobile fluorescent molecules, introducing significant artifacts in live cell experiments. Following from our previous work in which we investigated glass coating substrates and demonstrated that the main contribution to this non-specific probe adhesion comes from the dye, we carried out a systematic investigation of how different dye chemistries influence the behaviour of spectrally similar fluorescent probes. Single-molecule brightness, bleaching and probe mobility on the surface of live breast cancer cells cultured on a non-adhesive substrate were assessed for anti-EGFR affibody conjugates with 14 different dyes from 5 different manufacturers, belonging to 3 spectrally homogeneous bands (491 nm, 561 nm and 638 nm laser lines excitation. Our results indicate that, as well as influencing their photophysical properties, dye chemistry has a strong influence on the propensity of dye-protein conjugates to adhere non-specifically to the substrate. In particular, hydrophobicity has a strong influence on interactions with the substrate, with hydrophobic dyes showing much greater levels of binding. Crucially, high levels of non-specific substrate binding result in calculated diffusion coefficients significantly lower than the true values. We conclude that the physic-chemical properties of the dyes should be considered carefully when planning single-molecule experiments. Favourable dye characteristics such as photostability and brightness can be offset by the propensity of a conjugate for non-specific adhesion.

  17. The impact of work-related and personal resources on older workers' fatigue, work enjoyment and retirement intentions over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stynen, Dave; Jansen, Nicole W H; Kant, IJmert

    2017-06-28

    This study aims to examine the impact of work-related and personal resources on older workers' retirement intentions by studying the pathways (fatigue and work enjoyment) from resources to retirement intentions, the buffering role of resources for psychological job demands, in a cross-sectional and longitudinal timeframe. Longitudinal results on a subsample of full-time, older workers (n = 1642) from the Maastricht Cohort Study suggest that over four years of follow-up personal resources like personal mastery and perceived health related to less (prolonged) fatigue and more work enjoyment. Personal mastery also related to later retirement intentions. A work-related resource like decision authority related to less prolonged fatigue. (Prolonged) fatigue related to earlier retirement intentions, suggesting that fatigue may be a pathway to early retirement. Finally, little evidence was found for effect modification by resources. This prospective study indicates that work-related and personal resources may be useful for prolonging working careers. Practitioner Summary: To date, the impact of work-related and personal resources on older workers' retirement intentions is rarely studied. As this prospective study shows that resources may impact older workers' (prolonged) fatigue, work enjoyment and retirement intentions, the monitoring and fostering of resources is of importance for prolonging their working careers.

  18. Work-related psychosocial stress and the risk of type 2 diabetes in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, K-Y; Xu, W; Mangialasche, F; Fratiglioni, L; Wang, H-X

    2017-06-01

    Although work-related psychosocial stress and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been investigated, the association between lifelong work stress and T2DM in later life remains unclear. This study examined whether high work stress increased the risk of T2DM risk in later life, accounting also for other sources of stress outside work, such as burden from household chores. From the population-based prospective study SNAC-K, 2719 diabetes-free participants aged ≥60 years were identified and followed up for 6 years. T2DM was ascertained by glycated haemoglobin level, self-report, hypoglycaemic medication use and clinical records. Levels of job control and demands over the whole working life were assessed by a validated matrix. Household chores load was assessed by hours spent on such chores. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between job strain and T2DM. During the 6-year follow-up, 154 incident cases of T2DM were identified. High job strain was associated with T2DM occurrence amongst the 60-year-old cohort (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.27-7.77), and only amongst women (OR = 6.18, 95% CI: 1.22-31.26), but not in men. When taking into account household chores load, a more pronounced risk of T2DM was associated with high job strain in combination with heavy household chores load in women aged 60 years at baseline (OR = 9.45, 95% CI: 1.17-76.53). Work-related psychosocial stress may increase the risk of T2DM only amongst women in their early 60s. The risk can be amplified by high household chores load. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  19. Factors associated with functional capacity test results in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Abbema, Renske; Lakke, Sandra E; Reneman, Michiel F; van der Schans, Cees P; van Haastert, Corrien J M; Geertzen, Jan H B; Wittink, Harriët

    2011-12-01

    Functional capacity tests are standardized instruments to evaluate patients' capacities to execute work-related activities. Functional capacity test results are associated with biopsychosocial factors, making it unclear what is being measured in capacity testing. An overview of these factors was missing. The objective of this review was to investigate the level of evidence for factors that are associated with functional capacity test results in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain. A systematic literature review was performed identifying relevant studies from an electronic journal databases search. Candidate studies employed a cross-sectional or RCT design and were published between 1980 and October 2010. The quality of these studies was determined and level of evidence was reported for factors that were associated with capacity results in at least 3 studies. Twenty-two studies were included. The level of evidence was reported for lifting low, lifting high, carrying, and static lifting capacity. Lifting low test results were associated with self-reported disability and specific self-efficacy but not with pain duration. There was conflicting evidence for associations of lifting low with pain intensity, fear of movement/(re)injury, depression, gender and age. Lifting high was associated with gender and specific self-efficacy, but not with pain intensity or age. There is conflicting evidence for the association of lifting high with the factors self-reported disability, pain duration and depression. Carrying was associated with self-reported disability and not with pain intensity and there is conflicting evidence for associations with specific self-efficacy, gender and age. Static lifting was associated with fear of movement/(re)injury. Much heterogeneity was observed in investigated capacity tests and candidate associated factors. There was some evidence for biological and psychological factors that are or are not associated with capacity results but there

  20. Air pollution from biodegradable wastes and non-specific health symptoms among residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Adverse health effects of exposure to high levels of air pollutants from biodegradable wastes have been well-studied. However, few investigations have examined the potential effects of chronic exposure to low-to-moderate levels on non-specific health symptoms among residents. Besides, most studies...... that environmental exposures play an important role in the genesis of non-specific symptoms among residents exposed to low-to-moderate air pollution from biodegradable wastes, although the effects seem to be indirect, relayed through stress-related mechanisms....... have relied on distances to waste sites to assign exposure status, and have not investigated whether the exposure-symptoms associations are direct or mediated by odor annoyance. In this study, individual-level exposures to a proxy indicator of biodegradable waste pollution (ammonia, NH3) in non...

  1. Specific and non-specific symptoms of colorectal cancer and contact to general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sanne; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Søndergaard, Jens

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To improve survival rates for colorectal cancer, referral guidelines have been implemented. First step in the diagnostic process is for the individual to recognize the symptoms and contact his/her general practitioner (GP) for evaluation. OBJECTIVES: To determine (i) the prevalence...... of specific and non-specific symptom experiences indicative of colorectal cancer, (ii) the proportion of subsequent contacts to GPs, (iii) to explore the possible differences in symptom experience and contact to GPs between age and sex. METHODS: A nationwide study of 100000 adults, aged 20 years and older......, were randomly selected in the general population and invited to participate in an internet-based survey. Items regarding experience of specific and non-specific alarm symptoms of colorectal cancer within the preceding 4 weeks and contact to GP were included. RESULTS: A total of 49706 subjects completed...

  2. Non-specific SIRT inhibition as a mechanism for the cytotoxicity of ginkgolic acids and urushiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckewaert, Lucie; Sacconnay, Lionel; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Nurisso, Alessandra; Simões-Pires, Claudia

    2014-09-02

    Ginkgolic acids and urushiols are natural alkylphenols known for their mutagenic, carcinogenic and genotoxic potential. However, the mechanism of toxicity of these compounds has not been thoroughly elucidated so far. Considering that the SIRT inhibitory potential of anacardic acids has been hypothesized by in silico techniques, we herein demonstrated through both in vitro and computational methods that structurally related compounds such as ginkgolic acids and urushiols are able to modulate SIRT activity. Moreover, their SIRT inhibitory profile and cytotoxicity were comparable to sirtinol, a non-specific SIRT inhibitor (SIRT1 and SIRT2), and different from EX-527, a SIRT1 specific inhibitor. This is the first report on the SIRT inhibition of ginkgolic acids and urushiols. The results reported here are in line with previously observed effects on the induction of apoptosis by this class of compounds, and the non-specific SIRT inhibition is suggested as a new mechanism for their in vitro cytotoxicity.

  3. Non-specific cellular uptake of surface-functionalized quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Kelf, T A; Sun, J; Kim, E J; Goldys, E M; Zvyagin, A V; 10.1088/0957-4484/21/28/285105

    2010-01-01

    We report a systematic empirical study of nanoparticle internalization into cells via non-specific pathways. The nanoparticles were comprised of commercial quantum dots (QDs) that were highly visible under a fluorescence confocal microscope. Surface-modified QDs with basic biologically-significant moieties, e.g. carboxyl, amino, streptavidin were used, in combination with the surface derivatization with polyethylene glycol (PEG) in a range of immortalized cell lines. Internalization rates were derived from image analysis and a detailed discussion about the effect of nanoparticle size, charge and surface groups is presented. We find that PEG-derivatization dramatically suppresses the non-specific uptake while PEG-free carboxyl and amine functional groups promote QD internalization. These uptake variations displayed a remarkable consistency across different cell types. The reported results are important for experiments concerned with cellular uptake of surface-functionalized nanomaterials, both when non-specifi...

  4. Recurrent activity in higher order, modality non-specific brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Joensson, Morten; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2011-01-01

    in the visual system as a response to visual stimulation. In contrast recurrent activity has never been demonstrated before in higher order modality non-specific regions. Using magneto-encephalography and Granger causality analysis, we tested in a paralimbic network the hypothesis that stimulation may enhance...... causal recurrent interaction between higher-order, modality non-specific regions. The network includes anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate/medial parietal cortices together with pulvinar thalami, a network known to be effective in autobiographic memory retrieval and self......-awareness. Autobiographic memory retrieval of previous personal judgments of visually presented words was used as stimuli. It is demonstrated that the prestimulus condition is characterized by causal, recurrent oscillations which are maximal in the lower gamma range. When retrieving previous judgments of visually presented...

  5. Bone growth, limb proportions and non-specific stress in archaeological populations from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhasi, R; Timpson, A; Thomas, M; Slaus, M

    2014-01-01

    The effect of environmental factors and, in particular, non-specific stress on the growth patterns of limbs and other body dimensions of children from past populations is not well understood. This study assesses whether growth of mediaeval and post-mediaeval children aged between 0-11.5 years from Adriatic (coastal) and continental Croatia varies by region and by the prevalence and type of non-specific stress. Dental ages were estimated using the Moorrees, Fanning and Hunt (MFH) scoring method. Growth of long bone diaphyses (femur, tibia, humerus, radius and ulna) was assessed by using a composite Z-score statistic (CZS). Clavicular length was measured as a proxy for upper trunk width, distal metaphyseal width of the femur was measured as a proxy for body mass and upper and lower intra-limb indices were calculated. Differences between sub-sets sampled by (a) region and (b) active vs healed non-specific stress indicators and (c) intra-limb indices were tested by Mann--Whitney U-tests and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Adriatic children attained larger dimensions-per-age than continental children. Children with healed stress lesions had larger dimensions-per-age than those with active lesions. No inter-regional difference was found in intra-limb indices. These findings highlight the complexity of growth patterns in past populations and indicate that variation in environmental conditions such as diet and differences in the nature of non-specific stress lesions both exert a significant effect on long bone growth.

  6. [Appendicitis versus non-specific acute abdominal pain: Paediatric Appendicitis Score evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada Arias, Marcos; Salgado Barreira, Angel; Montero Sánchez, Margarita; Fernández Eire, Pilar; García Saavedra, Silvia; Gómez Veiras, Javier; Fernández Lorenzo, José Ramón

    2017-02-18

    Non-specific acute abdominal pain is the most common process requiring differential diagnosis with appendicitis in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the Paediatric Appendicitis Score in differentiating between these two entities. All patients admitted due to suspicion of appendicitis were prospectively evaluated in our hospital over a two-year period. Cases of non-specific acute abdominal pain and appendicitis were enrolled in the study. Several variables were collected, including Score variables and C-reactive protein levels. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses and diagnostic accuracy studies (ROC curves) were performed. A total of 275 patients were studied, in which there were 143 cases of non-specific acute abdominal pain and 132 cases of appendicitis. Temperature and right iliac fossa tenderness on palpation were the variables without statistically significant differences, and with no discrimination power between groups. Pain on coughing, hopping, and/or percussion tenderness in the right lower quadrant was the variable with greater association with appendicitis. The Score correctly stratified the patients into risk groups. Substitution of temperature for C-reactive protein in the Score increased diagnostic accuracy, although with no statistically significant differences. The Paediatric Appendicitis Score helps in differential diagnosis between appendicitis and non-specific acute abdominal pain. It would be advisable to replace the temperature in the Score, since it has no discrimination power between these groups. C-reactive protein at a cut-off value of 25.5mg/L value could be used instead. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  7. Tissue Non-Specific Genes and Pathways Associated with Diabetes: An Expression Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hao; Li, Lianna; Liu, Shijian; Jiang, Fan; Griswold, Michael; Mosley, Thomas

    2017-01-21

    We performed expression studies to identify tissue non-specific genes and pathways of diabetes by meta-analysis. We searched curated datasets of the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and identified 13 and five expression studies of diabetes and insulin responses at various tissues, respectively. We tested differential gene expression by empirical Bayes-based linear method and investigated gene set expression association by knowledge-based enrichment analysis. Meta-analysis by different methods was applied to identify tissue non-specific genes and gene sets. We also proposed pathway mapping analysis to infer functions of the identified gene sets, and correlation and independent analysis to evaluate expression association profile of genes and gene sets between studies and tissues. Our analysis showed that PGRMC1 and HADH genes were significant over diabetes studies, while IRS1 and MPST genes were significant over insulin response studies, and joint analysis showed that HADH and MPST genes were significant over all combined data sets. The pathway analysis identified six significant gene sets over all studies. The KEGG pathway mapping indicated that the significant gene sets are related to diabetes pathogenesis. The results also presented that 12.8% and 59.0% pairwise studies had significantly correlated expression association for genes and gene sets, respectively; moreover, 12.8% pairwise studies had independent expression association for genes, but no studies were observed significantly different for expression association of gene sets. Our analysis indicated that there are both tissue specific and non-specific genes and pathways associated with diabetes pathogenesis. Compared to the gene expression, pathway association tends to be tissue non-specific, and a common pathway influencing diabetes development is activated through different genes at different tissues.

  8. Kinetics of antigen specific and non-specific polyclonal B-cell responses during lethal Plasmodium yoelii malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Rolland

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the kinetics and composition of the polyclonal B-cell activation associated to malaria infection, antigen-specific and non-specific B-cell responses were evaluated in the spleens of mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii 17 XL or injected with lysed erythrocytes or plasma from P. yoelii infected mice or with P. falciparum culture supernatants. Spleen/body weigth ratio, numbers of nucleated spleen cells and Immunoglobulin-containing and Immunoglobulin-secreting cells increased progressively during the course of infection,in parallel to the parasitemia. A different pattern of kinetics was observed when anti-sheep red blood cell and anti-trinitrophenylated-sheep red blood cell plaque forming cells response were studied: maximum values were observed at early stages of infection, whereas the number of total Immunoglobulin-containing and Immunoglobulin-secreting cells were not yet altered. Conversely, at the end of infection, when these latter values reached their maximum, the anti-sheep red blood cell and anti-trinitrophenylated-sheep red blood cell specific responses were normal or even infranormal. In mice injected with Plasmodium-derived material, a higher increase in antigen-specific PFC was observed, as compared to the increase of Immunoglobulin-containing and Immunoglobulin-secreting cell numbers. This suggested a "preferential" (antigen-plus mitogen-induced stimulation of antigen-specific cells rather than a generalized non-specific (mitogen-induced triggering of B-lymphocytes. On the basis of these and previous results, it is suggested that polyclonal B-cell activation that takes place during the course of infection appears as a result of successive waves of antigen-specific B-cell activation.

  9. Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to intraperitoneal injection of bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was studied to 60 individuals in two groups. Each bullfrog in bacterium-injected group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.2 ml bacterial suspension at a density of 5.2 × 106 CFU/ml, while each one in control group injected i.p. with 0.2 ml sterile saline solution (0.85%, w/v). Three bullfrogs in both groups were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 7, 11, 15 and 20 days post-injection (dpi) for the evaluation of non-specific immune parameters. It was observed that intraperitoneal injection of A. hydrophila significantly increased the number of leucocytes and that of NBT-positive cells in peripheral blood. Significant increases in serum bactericidal activity and serum acid phosphatase activity were also observed in the bacterium-injected frogs when compared with those in the control group. However, a significant reduction was detected in vitro in phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood phagocytes. No significant difference in changes in the number of peripheral erythrocytes, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity was detected between the two groups. It is suggested that bullfrogs may produce a series of non-specific immune reactions in response to the A. hydrophila infection.

  10. Non-specific cellular uptake of surface-functionalized quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelf, T A; Sreenivasan, V K A; Sun, J; Goldys, E M; Zvyagin, A V [MQ Photonics Centre, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia); Kim, E J, E-mail: azvyagin@science.mq.edu.au [Department of Science Education-Chemical Education Major, Daegu University, Gyeonbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-16

    We report a systematic empirical study of nanoparticle internalization into cells via non-specific pathways. The nanoparticles were comprised of commercial quantum dots (QDs) that were highly visible under a fluorescence confocal microscope. Surface-modified QDs with basic biologically significant moieties, e.g. carboxyl, amino, and streptavidin, were used, in combination with surface derivatization with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for a range of immortalized cell lines. Internalization rates were derived from image analysis and a detailed discussion about the effect of nanoparticle size, charge and surface groups is presented. We find that PEG derivatization dramatically suppresses the non-specific uptake while PEG-free carboxyl and amine functional groups promote QD internalization. These uptake variations displayed a remarkable consistency across different cell types. The reported results are important for experiments concerned with cellular uptake of surface-functionalized nanomaterials, both when non-specific internalization is undesirable and when it is intended for material to be internalized as efficiently as possible.

  11. Specific and non-specific interactions of ParB with DNA: implications for chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James A; Pastrana, Cesar L; Butterer, Annika; Pernstich, Christian; Gwynn, Emma J; Sobott, Frank; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Dillingham, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    The segregation of many bacterial chromosomes is dependent on the interactions of ParB proteins with centromere-like DNA sequences called parS that are located close to the origin of replication. In this work, we have investigated the binding of Bacillus subtilis ParB to DNA in vitro using a variety of biochemical and biophysical techniques. We observe tight and specific binding of a ParB homodimer to the parS sequence. Binding of ParB to non-specific DNA is more complex and displays apparent positive co-operativity that is associated with the formation of larger, poorly defined, nucleoprotein complexes. Experiments with magnetic tweezers demonstrate that non-specific binding leads to DNA condensation that is reversible by protein unbinding or force. The condensed DNA structure is not well ordered and we infer that it is formed by many looping interactions between neighbouring DNA segments. Consistent with this view, ParB is also able to stabilize writhe in single supercoiled DNA molecules and to bridge segments from two different DNA molecules in trans. The experiments provide no evidence for the promotion of non-specific DNA binding and/or condensation events by the presence of parS sequences. The implications of these observations for chromosome segregation are discussed.

  12. Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to intraperitoneal injection of bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjie; Zou, Wenzheng; Yan, Qingpi

    2008-08-01

    Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was studied to 60 individuals in two groups. Each bullfrog in bacterium-injected group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.2 ml bacterial suspension at a density of 5.2 × 106 CFU/ml, while each one in control group injected i.p. with 0.2 ml sterile saline solution (0.85%, w/v). Three bullfrogs in both groups were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 7, 11, 15 and 20 days post-injection (dpi) for the evaluation of non-specific immune parameters. It was observed that intraperitoneal injection of A. hydrophila significantly increased the number of leucocytes and that of NBT-positive cells in peripheral blood. Significant increases in serum bactericidal activity and serum acid phosphatase activity were also observed in the bacterium-injected frogs when compared with those in the control group. However, a significant reduction was detected in vitro in phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood phagocytes. No significant difference in changes in the number of peripheral erythrocytes, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity was detected between the two groups. It is suggested that bullfrogs may produce a series of non-specific immune reactions in response to the A. hydrophila infection.

  13. The effects of non-specific and specific concepts on tactical creativity in team ball sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmert, Daniel; Roth, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of various training approaches in team ball sports for the development of tactical creativity. Altogether, 135 children aged about 7 years took part in a 15-month field-based study. They participated either in non-specific treatment groups, a specific handball, soccer or field hockey group, or a control group. General and game-oriented tactical creativity were chosen as outcome measures. Our analysis of treatment-related effects showed that the non-specific groups displayed improvements in general creativity, whereas the specific groups showed improvements in the game-oriented creativity in which they were trained. Furthermore, clear transfer-related effects were observed. The analysis of group-related effects indicated no differences between the approaches. Only the soccer-specific group performed better in nearly all creative values. In conclusion, a non-specific concept appears to be a promising alternative to traditional specific treatments. This is further substantiated by several pedagogical, psychological, and medical arguments.

  14. [Organizational well-being and work-related stress in health care organizations: validation of the Work-related Stress Assessment Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccia, Anna; Lorini, Francesca; Ferretti, Fabio; Pozza, Andrea; Gaetani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The issue of the assessment of work-related stress has stimulated in recent years, the production of several theoretical paradigms and assessment tools. In this paper we present a new scale for the assessment of organizational well-being and work-related stress specific for healthcare organizations (Work-related Stress Assessment Scale - WSAS). The goal of the authors is to examine the psychometric properties of the scale, so that it can be used in the healthcare setting as a work-related stress assessment tool. The answers of 230 healthcare professionals belonging to different roles have been analyzed. The study was realized in 16 Units of the University Hospital "S. Maria alle Scotte "of Siena. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed the presence of five factors with good internal consistency and reliability, "relationship to the structure of proximity" (α = 0.93) "change" (α = 0.92), "organization of work "(α = 0.81)," relationship with the company / Governance "(α = 0.87)" working environment "(α = 0.83). The analysis of SEM (Structural Equation Models) has confirmed the goodness of the factor solution (NNFI = 0.835, CFI = 0.921, RMSEA = 0.060). The good psychometric qualities, the shortness and simplicity of the scale WSAS makes it a useful aid in the assessment of work-related stress in health care organizations.

  15. Does Leaders' Health (and Work-Related Experiences) Affect their Evaluation of Followers' Stress?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giorgi, Gabriele; Mancuso, Serena; Fiz Perez, Francisco Javier; Montani, Francesco; Courcy, Francois; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    .... The present research investigates the relationships between leaders' health, in terms of work-related stress, mental health, and workplace bullying and their evaluation of subordinates' stress...

  16. Bidirectional relations between work-related stress, sleep quality and perseverative cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laethem, Michelle; Beckers, Debby G J; Kompier, Michiel A J; Kecklund, Göran; van den Bossche, Seth N J; Geurts, Sabine A E

    2015-11-01

    In this longitudinal two-wave study, bidirectional relations between work-related stress and sleep quality were examined. Moreover, it was investigated whether perseverative cognition is a potential underlying mechanism in this association, related to both work-related stress and sleep quality. A randomly selected sample of Dutch employees received an online survey in 2012 and 2013. Of all invited employees, 877 participated in both waves. Structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data. We found evidence for reversed relations between work-related stress and sleep quality. Specifically, when controlling for perseverative cognition, work-related stress was not directly related to subsequent sleep quality, but low sleep quality was associated with an increase in work-related stress over time. Moreover, negative bidirectional associations over time were found between perseverative cognition and sleep quality, and positive bidirectional associations were found between work-related stress and perseverative cognition. Lastly, a mediation analysis showed that perseverative cognition fully mediated the relationship between work-related stress and sleep quality. The study findings suggest that perseverative cognition could be an important underlying mechanism in the association between work-related stress and sleep quality. The bidirectionality of the studied relationships could be an indication of a vicious cycle, in which work-related stress, perseverative cognition, and sleep quality mutually influence each other over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding work-related social media use: An extension of theory of planned behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Elving, W.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the motives of employees to engage in work related social media use - i.e. the use of personal social media accounts to communicate about work-related issues. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to explain this behavior. Because social media can enable users to express

  18. Reliability of a Scale of Work-Related Self-Efficacy for People with Psychiatric Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    Work-related self-efficacy at a core task level fits with the social cognitive career theory explaining the career development of people with severe mental illness. The aim of this study was to further investigate the psychometric properties of the "Work-related Self- Efficacy Scale" for use with people with psychiatric disabilities. Sixty…

  19. The Impact of Values-Job Fit and Age on Work-Related Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Ouweland, Loth; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2017-01-01

    Research shows that both individual and job-related factors influence a worker's work-related learning. This study combines these factors, examining the impact of fit between one's work values and job characteristics on learning. Although research indicates that fit benefits multiple work-related outcomes, little is known about the impact of fit…

  20. Age and work-related motives : Results of a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Dorien T. A. M.; De Lange, Annet H.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; Kanfer, Ruth; Dikkers, Josje S. E.

    2011-01-01

    An updated literature review was conducted and a meta-analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between age and work-related motives. Building on theorizing in life span psychology, we hypothesized the existence of age-related differences in work-related motives. Specifically, we propos

  1. Age and work-related motives: Results of a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, D.T.A.M.; Lange, A.H. de; Jansen, P.G.W.; Kanfer, R.; Dikkers, J.S.E.

    2011-01-01

    An updated literature review was conducted and a meta-analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between age and work-related motives. Building on theorizing in life span psychology, we hypothesized the existence of age-related differences in work-related motives. Specifically, we propos

  2. Are work-related stressors associated with diagnosis of more advanced stages of incident breast cancers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Stahlberg, Claudia; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between work-related stressors and breast cancer incidence and prognostic characteristics (estrogen receptor status, grade, lymph node status, size, stage) at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: The 18,932 women included in the Danish Nurse Cohort reported work-relat...

  3. Bidirectional relations between work-related stress, sleep quality and perseverative cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laethem, M. van; Beckers, D.G.J.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Kecklund, G.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Geurts, S.A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this longitudinal two-wave study, bidirectional relations between work-related stress and sleep quality were examined. Moreover, it was investigated whether perseverative cognition is a potential underlying mechanism in this association, related to both work-related stress and sleep qua

  4. Understanding work-related social media use: An extension of theory of planned behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Elving, W.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the motives of employees to engage in work related social media use - i.e. the use of personal social media accounts to communicate about work-related issues. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to explain this behavior. Because social media can enable users to express

  5. Bidirectional relations between work-related stress, sleep quality and perseverative cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laethem, M. van; Beckers, D.G.J.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Kecklund, L.G.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Geurts, S.A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this longitudinal two-wave study, bidirectional relations between work-related stress and sleep quality were examined. Moreover, it was investigated whether perseverative cognition is a potential underlying mechanism in this association, related to both work-related stress and sleep

  6. Non-specific immunological effects of selected routine childhood immunisations: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voysey, Merryn; McQuaid, Fiona; de Nie, Karlijn; Ryan, Rebecca; Orr, Olivia; Uhlig, Ulrike; Sande, Charles; O’Connor, Daniel; Pollard, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify and characterise non-specific immunological effects after routine childhood vaccines against BCG, measles, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies. Data sources Embase, PubMed, Cochrane library, and Trip searched between 1947 and January 2014. Publications submitted by a panel of experts in the specialty were also included. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies All human studies reporting non-specific immunological effects after vaccination with standard childhood immunisations. Studies using recombinant vaccines, no vaccine at all, or reporting only vaccine specific outcomes were excluded. The primary aim was to systematically identify, assemble, and review all available studies and data on the possible non-specific or heterologous immunological effects of BCG; measles; mumps, measles, and rubella (MMR); diphtheria; tetanus; and pertussis vaccines. Results The initial search yielded 11 168 references; 77 manuscripts met the inclusion criteria for data analysis. In most included studies (48%) BCG was the vaccine intervention. The final time point of outcome measurement was primarily performed (70%) between one and 12 months after vaccination. There was a high risk of bias in the included studies, with no single study rated low risk across all assessment criteria. A total of 143 different immunological variables were reported, which, in conjunction with differences in measurement units and summary statistics, created a high number of combinations thus precluding any meta-analysis. Studies that compared BCG vaccinated with unvaccinated groups showed a trend towards increased IFN-γ production in vitro in the vaccinated groups. Increases were also observed for IFN-γ measured after BCG vaccination in response to in vitro stimulation with microbial antigens from Candida albicans, tetanus toxoid, Staphylococcus aureas, lipopolysaccharide, and

  7. Identification of fluorescent compounds with non-specific binding property via high throughput live cell microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Nath

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compounds exhibiting low non-specific intracellular binding or non-stickiness are concomitant with rapid clearing and in high demand for live-cell imaging assays because they allow for intracellular receptor localization with a high signal/noise ratio. The non-stickiness property is particularly important for imaging intracellular receptors due to the equilibria involved. METHOD: Three mammalian cell lines with diverse genetic backgrounds were used to screen a combinatorial fluorescence library via high throughput live cell microscopy for potential ligands with high in- and out-flux properties. The binding properties of ligands identified from the first screen were subsequently validated on plant root hair. A correlative analysis was then performed between each ligand and its corresponding physiochemical and structural properties. RESULTS: The non-stickiness property of each ligand was quantified as a function of the temporal uptake and retention on a cell-by-cell basis. Our data shows that (i mammalian systems can serve as a pre-screening tool for complex plant species that are not amenable to high-throughput imaging; (ii retention and spatial localization of chemical compounds vary within and between each cell line; and (iii the structural similarities of compounds can infer their non-specific binding properties. CONCLUSION: We have validated a protocol for identifying chemical compounds with non-specific binding properties that is testable across diverse species. Further analysis reveals an overlap between the non-stickiness property and the structural similarity of compounds. The net result is a more robust screening assay for identifying desirable ligands that can be used to monitor intracellular localization. Several new applications of the screening protocol and results are also presented.

  8. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  9. Biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from non-specific vaginitis patients in Bombay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, D V; Barve, S M; Deodhar, L P

    1989-11-01

    The incidence and prevalent biotypes of G. vaginalis in patients with non-specific vaginitis from Bombay, was studied. Of 300 patients screened, 105 were diagnosed to have nonspecific vaginitis (NSV). G. vaginalis was isolated from 71 per cent patients with NSV; 34.6 and 29.3 per cent G. vaginalis were belonging to biotypes 5 and 1 respectively. In 55 per cent patient, G. vaginalis was associated with anaerobes. None of the isolated strains of G. vaginalis was sensitive to 5 micrograms metronidazole disc whereas 93 per cent of the strains were sensitive to 50 micrograms metronidazole disc.

  10. Non-specific Effects of Vaccines and Stunting: Timing May Be Essential

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination possesses effects on health beyond its target disease, the so called “non-specific effects”. We evaluate these effects, as well as the effect of timing of BCG and other vaccinations, on stunting in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) children under five. Methods: We use a Big Data design, including cross-sectional data for 368,450 children from 33 SSA countries. Logistic regression analysis is used with control factors at child, mother, househol...

  11. [Circumannular features of non-specific resistance in patients with osteoarthrosis in mid-lattitudes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titskaia, E V; Barabash, L V; Levitskiĭ, E F; Khon, V B

    2011-01-01

    Modified cosinor-analysis was used to calculate biorhythmologic characteristics (period, amplitude, phase, mesor) of the circumannual rhythm of neuroendocrine regulation parameters, the state of bioradical hemostasis, and protein components of non-specific resistance in patients with osteoarthrosis living in moderate climates. Near-annual rhythms of these parameters are described. The chronological analysis indicates that strenuouos activity of the regulatory systems responsible for adaptive reactions of the organism falls within the periods from March to May and from August to October. Variability of the above parameters is shown to be related to the efficacy of osteoarthrosis therapy in different phases of the near-annual rhythm.

  12. On the relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in patients with non-specific neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhe, Alexander; Fejer, René; Walker, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Increased center of pressure excursions are well documented in patients with non-specific neck pain. While a linear relationship between pain intensity and postural sway has been described in low back pain patients, no such investigation has been conducted in adults with non-specific neck pain....

  13. Perceived stress and self-esteem mediate the effects of work-related stress on depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Choi, Kyeong-Sook

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of perceived stress and self-esteem on work-related stress and depression. Two hundred and eighty-four Korean nurses participated in the study. The participants completed four questionnaires, including the Korean short version of the occupational stress scale, the perceived stress scale, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and the Beck depression inventory. Structural equation modelling was used to determine the relationships among work-related stress, perceived stress, self-esteem, and depression. Work-related stress was positively associated with depression. Perceived stress was inversely related to self-esteem and positively associated with work-related stress and depression, respectively. Self-esteem was negatively associated with work-related stress and depression. Structural equation modelling revealed that self-esteem and perceived stress fully mediate the relationship between work-related stress and depression. Future studies should further investigate the effect of psychological characteristics on work-related stress and symptoms of depression.

  14. Probing non-specific interactions of Ca{sup 2+}-calmodulin in E. coli lysate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, Michael P.; Kay, Lewis E., E-mail: kay@pound.med.utoronto.ca [University of Toronto, Departments of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Chemistry (Canada)

    2013-03-15

    The biological environment in which a protein performs its function is a crowded milieu containing millions of molecules that can potentially lead to a great many transient, non-specific interactions. NMR spectroscopy is especially well suited to study these weak molecular contacts. Here, non-specific interactions between the Ca{sup 2+}-bound form of calmodulin (CaM) and non-cognate proteins in Escherichia coli lysate are explored using Ile, Leu, Val and Met methyl probes. Changes in CaM methyl chemical shifts as a function of added E. coli lysate are measured to determine a minimum 'average' dissociation constant for interactions between Ca{sup 2+}-CaM and E. coli lysate proteins. {sup 2}H R{sub 2} and {sup 13}C R{sub 1} spin relaxation rates report on the binding reaction as well. Our results further highlight the power of methyl containing side-chains for characterizing biomolecular interactions, even in complex in-cell like environments.

  15. Non-specificity of Pitstop 2 in clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Willox

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Small molecule inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis are highly desired for the dissection of membrane trafficking pathways in the lab and for potential use as anti-infectives in the clinic. One inhibition strategy is to prevent clathrin from contacting adaptor proteins so that clathrin-mediated endocytosis cannot occur. “Pitstop” compounds have been developed that block only one of the four functional interaction sites on the N-terminal domain of clathrin heavy chain. Despite this limitation, Pitstop 2 causes profound inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In this study, we probed for non-specific activity of Pitstop 2 by examining its action in cells expressing clathrin heavy chain harbouring mutations in the N-terminal domain interaction sites. We conclude that the inhibition observed with this compound is due to non-specificity, i.e. it causes inhibition away from its proposed mode of action. We recommend that these compounds be used with caution in cells and that they should not be used to conclude anything of the function of clathrin's N-terminal domain.

  16. Non-specificity of Pitstop 2 in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willox, Anna K; Sahraoui, Yasmina M E; Royle, Stephen J

    2014-04-04

    Small molecule inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis are highly desired for the dissection of membrane trafficking pathways in the lab and for potential use as anti-infectives in the clinic. One inhibition strategy is to prevent clathrin from contacting adaptor proteins so that clathrin-mediated endocytosis cannot occur. "Pitstop" compounds have been developed that block only one of the four functional interaction sites on the N-terminal domain of clathrin heavy chain. Despite this limitation, Pitstop 2 causes profound inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In this study, we probed for non-specific activity of Pitstop 2 by examining its action in cells expressing clathrin heavy chain harbouring mutations in the N-terminal domain interaction sites. We conclude that the inhibition observed with this compound is due to non-specificity, i.e. it causes inhibition away from its proposed mode of action. We recommend that these compounds be used with caution in cells and that they should not be used to conclude anything of the function of clathrin's N-terminal domain.

  17. Characterization of a novel non-specific nuclease from thermophilic bacteriophage GBSV1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaobo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermostable enzymes from thermophiles have attracted extensive studies. In this investigation, a nuclease-encoding gene (designated as GBSV1-NSN was obtained from a thermophilic bacteriophage GBSV1 for the first time. Results After recombinant expression in Escherichia coli, the purified GBSV1-NSN exhibited non-specific nuclease activity, being able to degrade various nucleic acids, including RNA, single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA that was circular or linear. Based on sequence analysis, the nuclease shared no homology with any known nucleases, suggesting that it was a novel nuclease. The characterization of the recombinant GBSV1-NSN showed that its optimal temperature and pH were 60°C and 7.5, respectively. The results indicated that the enzymatic activity was inhibited by enzyme inhibitors or detergents, such as ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, citrate, dithiothreitol, β-mercaptoethanol, guanidine hydrochloride, urea and SDS. In contrast, the nuclease activity was enhanced by TritonX-100, Tween-20 or chaps to approximately 124.5% – 141.6%. The Km of GBSV1-NSN nuclease was 231, 61 and 92 μM, while its kcat was 1278, 241 and 300 s-1 for the cleavage of dsDNA, ssDNA and RNA, respectively. Conclusion Our study, therefore, presented a novel thermostable non-specific nuclease from thermophilic bacteriophage and its overexpression and purification for scientific research and applications.

  18. Enhancement of transport selectivity through nano-channels by non-specific competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Zilman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of living cells requires efficient and selective transport of materials into and out of the cell, and between different cellular compartments. Much of this transport occurs through nano-scale channels that do not require large scale molecular re-arrangements (such as transition from a 'closed' to an 'open' state and do not require a direct input of metabolic energy during transport. Nevertheless, these 'always open' channels are highly selective and pass only their cognate molecules, while efficiently excluding all others; indeed, these channels can efficiently transport specific molecules even in the presence of a vast excess of non-specific molecules. Such biological transporters have inspired the creation of artificial nano-channels. These channels can be used as nano-molecular sorters, and can also serve as testbeds for examining modes of biological transport. In this paper, we propose a simple kinetic mechanism that explains how the selectivity of such 'always open' channels can be based on the exclusion of non-specific molecules by specific ones, due to the competition for limited space inside the channel. The predictions of the theory account for the behavior of the nuclear pore complex and of artificial nanopores that mimic its function. This theory provides the basis for future work aimed at understanding the selectivity of various biological transport phenomena.

  19. Work-related stress, work/life balance and personal life coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawksley, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Work-related stress adversely affects personal performance, organizational efficiency and patient care as well as costing the NHS millions of pounds each year. Reducing the effects of work-related stress is a legal duty for all employers. There are a number of resources available to help both employees and employers, such as the Health and Safety Executive stress management standards. Personal life coaching is one approach to reducing work-related stress, which is well established amongst business and management executives as well as some public sector organizations.

  20. Individual Differences in Work-Related Well-Being: The Role of Attachment Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Lanciano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrating theories of adult attachment and well-being at the workplace, the present study tested the role of attachment style in predicting work-related well-being in terms of job satisfaction and job involvement, over and above dispositional trait measures (emotional traits and work-related traits. A sample of workers took part in a correlational study that explored the relationships among a adult attachment, b emotional traits, c work-related traits, and d work-related well-being indices. The results showed that both secure and anxious attachment style explained workers’ job involvement, whereas the secure and avoidant attachment styles explained workers’ job satisfaction. The current findings thus confirm and expand the literature's emphasis on studying the variables and processes that underlie people's mental health in the work setting, and have implications for assessing and promoting well-being in the workplace.

  1. Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance System (eWoRLD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A surveillance system that provides morbidity, mortality, and workplace exposures data on work-related respiratory diseases by geographic region, industry and...

  2. Work-related stress management between workplace and occupational health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen-Amoroso, Maritta; Liira, Juha

    2016-06-13

    Work-related stress has been evaluated as one of the most important health risks in Europe. Prevention of work related stress and interventions to reduce risk factors for stress in the workplace are conducted together by the enterprise and occupational health services. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of Finnish occupational physicians on the stress management with enterprises. From the Finnish Association of Occupational Health Physicians membership list 207 physicians responded to self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The data were analysed using SPSS 17.0. The client enterprises contacted occupational health services frequently about work-related stress. Collaboration between occupational health and enterprises was strongest in companies' own occupational health services and generally with most experienced physicians. Occupational health services and enterprises shared responsibility for managing work-related stress. Professional experience and close contact with organisation management favours successful stress management between occupational health and enterprises.

  3. Towards a Model of Work-Related Self: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor eKnez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Occupational work as personal and social identification can be conceptualized as one of the life goals that we strive for and find meaning in. A basic categorization of the phenomenon of work-related identity is suggested, based on psychological theories of identity, memory and relational schema. It distinguishes between organizational, workgroup and professional identity. The two former relate to the concepts of social identity and collective self and the latter to the concepts of personal identity and individual self. These are assumed to form functionally independent cognitive structures, leading to separate motivations and influences on work-related satisfaction. Given this, empirical research on the impact of work-related identity on employee satisfaction, in general terms, is reviewed. The article concludes with some prospective directions for future research by sketching a general model of work-related self. It is hypothesised to evolve by a causal progression from employment across time via emotional and cognitive components.

  4. Comparison of work-related fear-avoidance beliefs across different anatomical locations with musculoskeletal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon CB

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Corey B Simon¹, Sandra E Stryker², Steven Z George³1Department of Physical Therapy, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA; 2Life’s Work Physical Therapy, Portland, Oregon, USA; 3Department of Physical Therapy and Center for Pain Research and Behavioral Health, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USABackground: The influence of work-related fear-avoidance on pain and function has been consistently reported for patients with musculoskeletal low back pain. Emerging evidence suggests similar influences exist for other anatomical locations of musculoskeletal pain, such as the cervical spine and extremities. However, research is limited in comparing work-related fear-avoidance and associations with clinical outcomes across different anatomical locations. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between work-related fear-avoidance, gender, and clinical outcomes across four different musculoskeletal pain locations for patients being treated in an outpatient physical therapy setting.Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of data obtained prospectively from a cohort of 313 participants receiving physical therapy from an outpatient clinic.Results: No interaction was found between gender and anatomical location of musculoskeletal pain on work-related fear-avoidance scores. Work-related fear-avoidance scores were higher in the cervical group versus the lower extremity group; however, there were no other differences across anatomical locations. Work-related fear-avoidance influenced intake pain intensity in patients with spine pain but not extremity pain. Conversely, work-related fear-avoidance influenced intake function for participants with extremity pain but not spine pain. Similar results were observed for change scores, with higher work-related fear-avoidance being associated with more, not less, change in pain

  5. Comparison of brucella and non-specific epididymorchitis: gray scale and color Doppler ultrasonographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Adil [Department of Radiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Arastirma ve Uygulama Hastanesi, TR-63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey)]. E-mail: ozturka26@hotmail.com; Ozturk, Ebru [Department of Radiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Arastirma ve Uygulama Hastanesi, TR-63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Zeyrek, Fadile [Department of Microbiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Onur, Kahraman [Department of Urology, SSK Sanliurfa Hastanesi, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Sirmatel, Ocal [Department of Radiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Arastirma ve Uygulama Hastanesi, TR-63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Kat, Nurcan [Department of Radiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Arastirma ve Uygulama Hastanesi, TR-63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey)

    2005-11-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to find out if it is possible to differentiate between brucellar and non-specific epididymorchitis by comparing ultrasonography (US) and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) findings. Material and methods: Fifty-six patients diagnosed to have epididymorchitis both clinically and ultrasonographically were included to study. All of the patients were investigated serologically for brucella. Twenty-eight of those patients were admitted brucella epididymorchitis because of high agglutinations titers for brucella. The other 28 patients were admitted non-specific epididymorchitis because of normal agglutinations titers for brucella. Testicular size, echogenicity, hydrocele, internal echoes and/or septations within hydrocele, and scrotal skin thickness of normal and involved testis were compared by ultrasonography. Besides, pick systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, resistive index and pick systolic velocity ratio values were measured by bilateral testicular color Doppler ultrasonography in both groups. When the p-value is <0.05, the difference between groups is accepted as statistically significant. Results: Thickening of scrotal skin was seen in 17 of 28 patients with brucella epididymorchitis (BEPO) (67%) and in 25 of 28 patients with non-specific epididymorchitis (NEPO) (89.2%) (p < 0.01). There was no difference between groups regarding presence of hydrocele. However hydrocele seen in all patients was anechoic except for two patients (8.6%). Hydrocele seen in 18 of 22 patients with BEPO and hydrocele had internal echogenicity or septation (p < 0.001). Sizes of testes and epididymis were found to be increased in involved testis compared to normal testis. Testes of all patients with NEPO were homogenous with decreased echogenicity except for five patients (17.8%). However, 23 patients with BEPO (82%) found to have heterogenous testis (p < 0.001). Spectral measurements showed increased PSV and EDV values and decreased RI values in

  6. The clinical course and prognostic factors of non-specific neck pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghouts, J A; Koes, B W; Bouter, L M

    1998-07-01

    Neck pain occurs frequently in western societies. In the majority of cases, no specific cause can be identified. In order to gain insight into the clinical course and prognostic factors of non-specific neck pain, a systematic review was conducted. A computerized literature search was carried out to identify observational studies on non-specific neck pain and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on conservative treatment of non-specific neck pain. Two reviewers scored independently, the methodological quality of all identified publications, using a standardized set of 13 criteria which were divided into five categories according to: study population, study design, follow-up, outcome measures and analysis/data presentation. To determine prognosis per study, an overall percentage of recovery for the most important outcome measures (pain, general improvement, functional status, health care utilization and lost days of work) was calculated. In total 23 eligible publications were identified (six observational studies and 17 RCTs). Only seven of 23 studies scored 50% or more of the 13 items, indicating a generally poor quality of methods. The most prevalent methodological shortcomings appeared to be selection of the study population, the sample size and analysis techniques. Most information regarding the clinical course is available for the group of patients with complaints for more than 6 months, who are treated in a secondary care or an occupational setting. In this group of patients, 46% (median) had less pain, with a range of 22-79% and a general improvement that ranged between 37 and 95% (47% median). The reduction in the use of analgesics ranged between 32 and 80% (37% median). Six studies reported on prognostic factors. Bearing in mind the limited number of studies and the low methodological quality, there are some indications that the localization (radiation to the arms/neurologic signs) and radiologic findings (degenerative changes in the discs and joints) are not

  7. Non-specific histological variant of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor:a diagnostic challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanyang Chen; Bin Li; Boning Luo; Xiaoying Tian; Zhi Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective The accurate diagnosis of the non-specific variant of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) is very dif icult because it is characterized by absence of the histological hal mark of the “specific glioneuronal element” in lesions. We herein present two cases of the non-specific form of DNT to analyze the clinical, radiological, and histological features of this unusual subtype of DNT. Methods A 16-year-old and a 23-year-old patient had been treated for pharmacoresistant epilepsy for several years before undergoing referral to the hospital for further examination and treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that both patients had a smal , wel-demarcated cystic lesion within the cortex of the brain without obvious contrast enhancement or peritumoral edema. The lesions were total y resected and routinely examined using histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Results Both lesions exhibited similar histological appearances with cyst formation and mural nodule architecture. The glial nodules were mainly composed of oligodendrocyte-like components, and partly of piloid cel s resembling pilocytic astrocytoma. The cortex adjacent to the lesion in both cases was found to have the histological features of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) Type I. Immunohistochemical y, the oligoden-drocyte-like components were dif usely positive for Syn and Olig-2, but staining for CD34, p53, and IDH1 R132H was negative. The Ki-67 (MIB-1) labeling index was low, approximately 1%. There was no 1p/19q co-deletion in either lesion by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay. Neither patient received postoperative adjuvant treatment, and both underwent regular fol ow-up for at least 24 months. No signs of recurrence or epileptic attacks were observed during the fol ow-up period. Conclusion The non-specific variant of DNT is a diagnostic chal enge for pathologists in clinical practice, and dif erentiation from some low-grade gliomas needs to be considered

  8. Role of yoga and physical activity in work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dentists

    OpenAIRE

    Koneru, Suneetha; Tanikonda, Rambabu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Work-related musculoskeletal pain is one of the occupational hazards in dentists. Aims: To find the prevalence and severity of musculoskeletal pain in dentists, to compare musculoskeletal pain among dentists practicing yoga, those practicing physical activities, and those without any physical activity, and also to know the effects of sex, age, and workload on musculoskeletal pain. Materials and Methods: A self-reporting work-related questionnaire and the Nordic questionnaire for a...

  9. Work Related Stress, Burnout, Job Satisfaction and General Health of Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Khamisa; Brian Oldenburg; Karl Peltzer; Dragan Ilic

    2015-01-01

    Gaps in research focusing on work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses is evident within developing contexts like South Africa. This study identified the relationship between work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. A total of 1200 nurses from four hospitals were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study (75% response rate). Participants completed five questionnaires and multiple linear regression analysis was us...

  10. Understanding the Probability of a Disability Resulting from Work-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-15

    rate or disability probability and be related to worker characteristics such as gender . As a result, gender may appear to affect incidence rates and...work following a work- related injury. FECA staff members record a wealth of information in a database when they administer the program. The public ...Understanding the Probability of a Disability Resulting from Work- Related Injuries Nan L. Maxwell, PhD Mathematica Policy Research

  11. Work relation and the second law of thermodynamics in nonequilibrium steady states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Naoko

    2012-05-01

    We extend Jarzynski's work relation and the second law of thermodynamics to a heat conducting system, which is operated by an external agent. These extensions contain a nonequilibrium contribution expressed as the violation of the (linear) response relation caused by the operation. We find that a natural extension of the minimum work principle involves information about the time-reversed operation, and is far from straightforward. Our work relation may be tested experimentally especially when the temperature gradient is small.

  12. Can Muscle Soreness After Intensive Work-related Activities Be Predicted?

    OpenAIRE

    Soer, Remko; Jan H B Geertzen; van der Schans, Cees P; Johan W. Groothoff; Reneman, Michiel F

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: It is currently unknown whether specific determinants are predictive for developing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) after heavy work-related activities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether personal characteristics and performance measures are predictive for onset, intensity, and duration of DOMS after performing work-related activities during a Functional Capacity Evaluation in healthy participants. Methods: Included in this study were 197 healthy participants (102 m...

  13. The plant non-specific phospholipase C gene family. Novel competitors in lipid signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokotylo, Igor; Pejchar, Přemysl; Potocký, Martin; Kocourková, Daniela; Krčková, Zuzana; Ruelland, Eric; Kravets, Volodymyr; Martinec, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Non-specific phospholipases C (NPCs) were discovered as a novel type of plant phospholipid-cleaving enzyme homologous to bacterial phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipases C and responsible for lipid conversion during phosphate-limiting conditions. The six-gene family was established in Arabidopsis, and growing evidence suggests the involvement of two articles NPCs in biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as phytohormone actions. In addition, the diacylglycerol produced via NPCs is postulated to participate in membrane remodelling, general lipid metabolism and cross-talk with other phospholipid signalling systems in plants. This review summarises information concerning this new plant protein family and focusses on its sequence analysis, biochemical properties, cellular and tissue distribution and physiological functions. Possible modes of action are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Patent foramen ovale in trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias and hemicrania continua: a non-specific pathophysiological occurrence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Vanise; Freitas, Gabriel R de; Rodrigues, Bruno C B; Christoph, Daniel de H; Pinho, Carlos A de; Góes, Cristiana de Faria P; Vincent, Maurice B

    2010-08-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO), a relatively common abnormality in adults, has been associated with migraine. Few studies also linked PFO with cluster headache (CH). To verify whether right-to-left shunt (RLS) is related to headaches other than migraine and CH, we used transcranial Doppler following microbubbles injection to detect shunts in 24 CH, 7 paroxysmal hemicrania (PH), one SUNCT, two hemicrania continua (HC) patients; and 34 matched controls. RLS was significantly more frequent in CH than in controls (54% vs. 25%, p=0.03), particularly above the age of 50. In the HC+PH+SUNCT group, RLS was found in 6 patients and in 2 controls (p=0.08). Smoking as well as the Epworth Sleepiness Scale correlated significantly with CH, smoking being more frequent in patients with RLS. PFO may be non-specifically related to trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias and HC. The headache phenotype in PFO patients probably depends on individual susceptibility to circulating trigger factors.

  15. Non-specific symptoms as clues to changes in emotional well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blumberg Gari

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Somatic symptoms are a common reason for visits to the family physician. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between non-specific symptoms and changes in emotional well-being and the degree to which the physician considers the possibility of mental distress when faced with such patients. Methods - Patients who complained of two or more symptoms including headache, dizziness, fatigue or weakness, palpitations and sleep disorders over one year were identified from the medical records of a random sample of 45 primary care physicians. A control group matched for gender and age was selected from the same population. Emotional well-being was assessed using the MOS-SF 36 in both groups. Results - The study group and the control group each contained 110 patients. Completed MOS questionnaires were obtained from 92 patients, 48 patients with somatic symptoms and 44 controls. Sixty percent of the patients with somatic symptoms experienced decreased emotional well being compared to 25% in the control group (p = 0.00005. Symptoms of dizziness, fatigue and sleep disturbances were significantly linked with mental health impairments. Primary care physicians identified only 6 of 29 patients (21% whose responses revealed functional limitations due to emotional problems as suffering from an emotional disorder and only 6 of 23 patients (26% with a lack of emotional well being were diagnosed with an emotional disorder. Conclusions - Non-specific somatic symptoms may be clues to changes in emotional well-being. Improved recognition and recording of mental distress among patients who complain of these symptoms may enable better follow up and treatment.

  16. [Mechanisms underlying physiological functions of food factors via non-specific interactions with biological proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Akira

    2015-01-01

      We previously reported that zerumbone, a sesquiterpene found in Zingiber zerumbet SMITH, showed notable cancer preventive effects in various organs of experimental rodents. This agent up-regulated nuclear factor-E2-related factor (Nrf2)-dependent expressions of anti-oxidative and xenobiotics-metabolizing enzymes, leading to an increased self-defense capacity. On the other hand, zerumbone markedly suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, an inducible pro-inflammatory enzyme, by disrupting mRNA stabilizing processes. Binding experiments using a biotin derivative of zerumbone demonstrated that Keap1, an Nrf2 repressive protein, is one of its major binding proteins that promotes their dissociation for inducing Nrf2 transactivation. We then generated a specific antibody against zerumbone-modified proteins and found that zerumbone modified numerous cellular proteins in a non-specific manner, with global distribution of the modified proteins seen not only in cytoplasm but also the nucleus. Based on those observations, zerumbone was speculated to cause proteo-stress, a notion supported by previous findings that it increased the C-terminus of Hsc70 interacting protein-dependent protein ubiquitination and also promoted aggresome formation. Interestingly, zerumbone counteracted proteo-stress and heat stress via up-regulation of the protein quality control systems (PQCs), e.g., heat shock proteins (HSPs), ubiquitin-proteasome, and autophagy. Meanwhile, several phytochemicals, including ursolic acid and curcumin, were identified as marked HSP70 inducers, whereas most nutrients tested were scarcely active. Recent studies have revealed that PQCs play important roles in the prevention of many lifestyle related diseases, such as cancer, thus non-specific binding of phytochemicals to cellular proteins may be a novel and unique mechanism underlying their physiological activities.

  17. COMPARISON OF EFFECTIVENESS OF ISOMETRIC EXERCISES WITH AND WITHOUT STRETCHING EXERCISES IN NON SPECIFIC CERVICAL PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warda Hassan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical pain is a common condition and almost two thirds of population suffers with this condition. Cervical region is the commonest region for non-traumatic neck pain. Neck pain generates many muscular disturbances in the neck region and may result in tightness of muscles of cervical region. Stretching is considered as an effective mean of treating cervical pain. Isometric exercise is used to enhance the performance of muscles because it provides strength required to perform dynamic exercise. Both of the regimens either separately or combined are used in clinical settings to treat nonspecific cervical pain. This study aims to compare the results of cervical isometrics with and without stretching exercises in reducing non-specific cervical pain Methods: A randomized controlled trial research was performed at physiotherapy department of Mayo Hospital Lahore, Pakistan. A convenience sample of 40 participants was divided into two groups. The cervical isometric exercise was applied to group A and stretching plus isometric exercise to group B for 3 weeks. Nonspecific neck pain was analyzed by using visual analogue scale and goniometry for pre and post treatment assessment. Results: Isometric exercises play an effective role in relieving pain (p value is 0.03 and minimizing inability of the body to perform functional activities (p value is 0.004 in contrast to the patients of group A. Isometric exercises were applied to the patients of group A (Level of pain: pain value is 0.172 and (physical inability to perform functional activities has P value 0.201. Conclusion: The result showed that the patients with the complain of non-specific neck discomfort who were treated by cervical isometric alone, showed less improvement in pain relief in contrast to the patients who were treated by the cervical isometric long with stretching.

  18. Nanoparticles modify dendritic cell homeostasis and induce non-specific effects on immunity to malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Sue D; Kong, Ying Y; Hanley, Jennifer; Fuchsberger, Martina; Crimeen-Irwin, Blessing; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Many current vaccines to a specific pathogen influence responses to other pathogens in a process called heterologous immunity. We propose that their particulate nature contributes to non-specific effects. Herein, we demonstrate polystyrene nanoparticles modulate dendritic cell (DC) homeostasis, thereby promoting a persistent enhanced state of immune readiness to a subsequent infectious challenge. Particles (approximately 40 nm and 500 nm carboxylated polystyrene nanoparticles; PSNPs) alone or conjugated to a model antigen were injected in mice, and DCs in draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and bone-marrow (BM) quantified by flow cytometry. BM cells were tested for capacity to generate DCs upon culture with granulocyte and macrophage colony stimulating factor. Mice were challenged with Plasmodium yoelli. Blood parasitaemias were monitored by GIEMSA. Sera was analyzed for antibodies by ELISA. Intradermal administration of 40 nm PSNPs induced anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, increased numbers and proportions of DCs in the dLN, and increased the capacity of BM to generate DCs. Consistent with these unexpected changes, 40 nm PSNPs pre-injected mice had enhanced ability to generate immunity to a subsequent malarial infection. Intradermal administration of 40 nm PSNPs modifies DC homeostasis, which may at least in part explain the observed beneficial heterologous effects of current particulate vaccines. Further nanotechnological developments may exploit such strategies to promote beneficial non-specific effects. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. An investigation of somatosensory profiles in work related upper limb disorders: a case-control observational study protocol.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, Niamh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work related upper limb disorders constitute 45% of all occupational diseases and are a significant public health problem. A subgroup, non specific arm pain (NSAP), remains elusive in terms of understanding its pathophysiological mechanisms with its diagnosis based on the absence of specific clinical findings. One commonly proposed theory is that a neural tissue disorder is the primary dysfunction in NSAP and findings from previous studies lend some support to this theory. However, it is not clear if changes identified are simply a consequence of ongoing pain rather than due to specific neural changes. The presence of neuropathic pain has been investigated in several other musculoskeletal conditions but currently, there is no specific diagnostic tool or gold standard which permits an unequivocal diagnosis of neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study is to further describe the somatosensory profiles in patients with NSAP and to compare these profiles to a group of patients with MRI confirmed cervical radiculopathy who have been previously classified as having neuropathic pain. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Three groups of participants will be investigated: Groups 1 and 2 will be office workers with either NSAP or cervical radiculopathy and Group 3 will be a control group of non office workers without upper limb pain. Participants will undergo a clinical assessment, pain questionnaires (LANSS, Short Form McGill, DASH and TSK) and quantitative sensory testing comprising thermal detection and pain thresholds, vibration thresholds and pressure pain thresholds. DISCUSSION: The spectrum of clinically suspected neuropathic pain ranges from more obvious conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia to those with vague signs of nerve disorder such as NSAP. A thorough description of the somatosensory profiles of NSAP patients and a comparison with a more defined group of patients with evidence of neuropathic pain will help in the understanding of underlying neurophysiology in

  20. Patterns of work-related intimate partner violence and job performance among abusive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, Eric S; Galvez, Gino; Perrin, Nancy A; Hanson, Ginger C; Glass, Nancy

    2013-10-01

    This study assesses different types of work-related intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and their relationship to perpetrators' work performance and employment. We determine if groups of abusive men with similar patterns of work-related IPV exist and then examine whether the patterns are related to their characteristics, job performance, and employment outcomes. Participants were 198 adult men (60% Latino, 40% non-Latino) from batterer intervention programs (BIPs) who self-reported their lifetime work-related IPV and job outcomes. Five distinct clusters were identified and named based on the pattern (predominance or absence) of different work-related abusive behaviors reported: (a) low-level tactics, (b) job interference, (c) job interference with threatened or actual violence, (d) extreme abuse without jealousy and (e) extreme abuse. Analyses revealed significant differences between the clusters on ethnicity, parental status, partner's employment status, income, education, and (among Latinos only) acculturation. The probability of men's work-related IPV substantially impacting their own job performance was nearly 4 times greater among those in the extreme abuse cluster than those in the low-level tactics cluster. These data inform the development of employee training programs and workplace policies for reducing IPV that affects the workplace.

  1. [Work-related Stress and the Allostatic Load Index - A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauss, D; Li, J; Schmidt, B; Angerer, P; Jarczok, M N

    2015-09-24

    Objectives: Work-related stress is a growing social challenge and has been associated with reduced employee health, well-being, and productivity. One tool to measure the stress-related wear and tear of the body is the Allostatic Load Index (ALI). This review summarizes recent evidence on the association between work-related stress and ALI in working adults. Methods: A systematic literature search following the PRISMA-Statement was conducted in 21 databases including Medline, PubPsych, MedPilot, and Cochrane Register. Publications addressing work related-stress and medical parameters using ALI were considered. Data on study population, analytic techniques, and results were tabulated. Methodological quality was evaluated using a standardized checklist. Results: 9 articles were identified with a total of 3 532 employees from 5 countries reporting cross-sectional data from the years 2003-2013. Overall, 7 studies reported a positive and significant association between work-related stress and ALI, while 2 studies showed no or an insignificant association. Substantial heterogeneity was observed in methods applied and study quality. Conclusions: This systematic review provides evidence that work-related stress is associated with ALI in cross-sectional studies. This association needs to be demonstrated by future studies using longitudinal data on working populations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Work-related stress in Australia: The effects of legislative interventions and the cost of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robert; Ciccarelli, Marina; Babic, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare data published in 2002 shows a continued rise in health care costs to the Australian community due to the growing number of people diagnosed with mental health disorders. Those mental health disorders may originate from a number of sources, including work and non-work-related factors. The so called work-related stress claims in all Australian jurisdictions are the most expensive form of workers compensation claim. In the most part this is due to the lengthy period of absence (duration) and complicated medical care which are characteristic of these claims. In Australia, in the last decade, attempts have been made to reduce the costs of compensable stress-related claims by imposing special legislative thresholds on such claims. This 'back end' approach to cost reduction has resulted in an array of legislative formula designed to exclude work-related stress claims. This article surveys the various legislative provisions dealing with work-related stress claims in Australia and provides an analysis of their effectiveness. A range of options are presented as alternatives to the exclusion of particular forms of work-related stress claims. The use of a corporate citizenship approach to the prevention and management of stress claims is also discussed as a proactive alternative to occupational safety and health legislative provisions and the workers compensation legislative exclusions.

  3. Multiprofessional teamwork in work-related medical rehabilitation for patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Betje; Neuderth, Silke; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Bethge, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews indicate the effectiveness of multimodal rehabilitation. In Germany this has been shown, in particular, for work-related medical rehabilitation. A recently published guideline on work-related medical rehabilitation supports the dissemination of these programmes. The feasibility of this guideline was examined in a multicentre study. This paper presents findings on the relevance of multiprofessional teamwork for the implementation of successful work-related medical rehabilitation. Focus groups were conducted with 7 inpatient orthopaedic rehabilitation teams and examined using qualitative content analysis. Multiprofessional teamwork emerged inductively as a meaningful theme. All teams described multiprofessional teamwork as a work-related medical rehabilitation success factor, referring to its relevance for holistic treatment of multifactorially impaired patients. Although similar indicators of successful multiprofessional teamwork were named, the teams realized multiprofessional teamwork differently. We found 3 team types, corresponding to multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary team models. These types and models constitute a continuum of collaborative practice, which seems to be affected by context-related factors. The significance of multiprofessional teamwork for successful multimodal rehabilitation was underlined. Indicators of ideal multiprofessional teamwork and contextual facilitators were specified. The contingency approach to teamwork, as well as the assumption of multiprofessional teamwork as a continuum of collaborative practice, is supported. Stronger consideration of multiprofessional teamwork in the work-related medical rehabilitation guideline is indicated.

  4. Effect of Premenstrual Syndrome on Work-Related Quality of Life in Turkish Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahyaoglu Sut, Hatice; Mestogullari, Elcin

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the effects of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) on work-related quality of life in nurses. We aimed to investigate the effect of PMS on work-related quality of life in Turkish nurses. A total of 134 volunteer nurses were included in this cross-sectional study between January 2015 and March 2015. One hundred and thirty-four nurses completed a questionnaire regarding demographic data, the Premenstrual Syndrome Scale (PMSS), and the Work-Related Quality of Life Scale (WRQoL). The nurses were classified as having or not having premenstrual syndrome according to the PMSS. The average age was 29.5 ± 7.1 years and the prevalence of PMS was 38.1%. The total score of PMSS was significantly negatively correlated with the overall score (r = -0.341; p work (p = 0.179) in nurses with PMS were significantly lower than those of nurses without PMS (p work-related quality of life in their professional lives. Methods to help cope with cyclic premenstrual symptoms may be used, and as a result, productivity and work-related quality of life may increase.

  5. The relationships of character strengths with coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzer, Claudia; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits have often been highlighted to relate to how people cope with stressful events. The present paper focuses on character strengths as positive personality traits and examines two basic assumptions that were derived from a core characteristic of character strengths (i.e., to determine how individuals deal with adversities): (1) character strengths correlate with coping and (2) buffer the effects of work-related stress on job satisfaction. Two different samples (i.e., a mixed sample representing various occupations [N = 214] and a nurses sample [N = 175]) filled in measures for character strengths, coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction. As expected, intellectual, emotional, and interpersonal strengths were related to coping. Interpersonal strengths played a greater role for coping among nurses, as interactions with others are an essential part of their workday. Furthermore, intellectual strengths partially mediated the negative effect of work-related stress on job satisfaction. These findings open a new field for research on the role of personality in coping with work-related stress. Character strengths are trainable personal characteristics, and therefore valuable resources to improve coping with work-related stress and to decrease the negative effects of stress. Further research is needed to investigate this assumed causality.

  6. The relationships of character strengths with coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eHarzer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Personality traits have often been highlighted to relate to how people cope with stressful events. The present paper focuses on character strengths as positive personality traits and examines two basic assumptions that were derived from a core characteristic of character strengths (i.e., to determine how individuals deal with adversities: (1 Character strengths correlate with coping and (2 buffer the effects of work-related stress on job satisfaction. Two different samples (i.e., a mixed sample representing various occupations [N = 214] and a nurses sample [N = 175] filled in measures for character strengths, coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction. As expected, intellectual, emotional, and interpersonal strengths were related to coping. Interpersonal strengths played a greater role for coping among nurses, as interactions with others are an essential part of their workday. Furthermore, intellectual strengths partially mediated the negative effect of work-related stress on job satisfaction. These findings open a new field for research on the role of personality in coping with work-related stress. Character strengths are trainable personal characteristics, and therefore valuable resources to improve coping with work-related stress and to decrease the negative effects of stress. Further research is needed to investigate this assumed causality.

  7. Health status, job stress and work-related injury among Los Angeles taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin-Chieh; Delp, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Taxi drivers work long hours for low wages and report hypertension, weight gain, and musculoskeletal pain associated with the sedentary nature of their job, stressful working conditions, and poor dietary habits. They also experience a high work-related fatality rate. The objective of this study is to examine the association of taxi drivers' health status and level of job stress with work-related injury and determine if a potential interaction exists. A survey of 309 Los Angeles taxi drivers provides basic data on health status, job stress, and work-related injuries. We further analyzed the data using a Modified Poisson regression approach with a robust error variance to estimate the relative risk (RR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of work-related injuries. Focus group results supplemented and helped interpret the quantitative data. The joint effect of good health and low job stress was associated with a large reduction in the incidence of injuries, consistent with the hypothesis that health status and stress levels modify each other on the risk of work-related injury. These results suggest that the combination of stress reduction and health management programs together with changes in the stressful conditions of the job may provide targeted avenues to prevent injuries.

  8. Recovery of Work-Related Stress: Complaint Reduction and Work-Resumption are Relatively Independent Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vente, Wieke; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; Blonk, Roland W B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2015-09-01

    The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the association between predictors and work-resumption. Seventy-one patients on sickness-leave because of work-related stress complaints were followed over a period of 13 months. Predictors comprised personal (demographics, coping, cognitions), work-related (job-characteristics, social support), and illness-related (complaint duration, absence duration) variables. Dependent variables were distress complaints, burnout complaints, and work-resumption. Complaints reduced considerably over time to borderline clinical levels and work-resumption increased to 68% at 13 months. Predictors of stronger reduction of distress complaints were male gender, less working hours, less decision authority, more co-worker support, and shorter absence duration. Predictors of stronger reduction of burnout complaints were male gender, lower age, high education, less avoidant coping, less decision authority, more job security, and more co-worker support. Predictors of work-resumption were lower age and stronger reduction of burnout complaints. No indication for a mediating role of burnout complaints between the predictor age and work-resumption was found. Complaint reduction and work-resumption are relatively independent processes. Symptom reduction is influenced by individual and work-related characteristics, which holds promise for a multidisciplinary treatment approach for work-related stress.

  9. Midlife work-related stress is associated with late-life cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindi, Shireen; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Solomon, Alina; Hooshmand, Babak; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia

    2017-08-18

    To investigate the associations between midlife work-related stress and late-life cognition in individuals without dementia from the general population. The Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study population (n = 2000) was randomly selected from independent Finnish population-based surveys (baseline mean age 50 years). Participants underwent two re-examinations in late life (mean age 71 and 78 years, respectively). 1511 subjects participated in at least one re-examination (mean total follow-up 25 years). Work-related stress was measured using two questions on work demands administered in midlife. Multiple cognitive domains were assessed. Analyses were adjusted for several potential confounders. Higher levels of midlife work-related stress were associated with poorer performance on global cognition [β-coefficient, -0.02; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.05 to -0.00], and processing speed [β -0.03, CI -0.05 to -0.01]. Results remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders. Work-related stress was not significantly associated with episodic memory, executive functioning, verbal fluency or manual dexterity. This study shows that global cognition and processing speed may be particularly susceptible to the effects of midlife work-related stress.

  10. European Approaches to Work-Related Stress: A Critical Review on Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Zoni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, various international organizations have raised awareness regarding psychosocial risks and work-related stress. European stakeholders have also taken action on these issues by producing important documents, such as position papers and government regulations, which are reviewed in this article. In particular, 4 European models that have been developed for the assessment and management of work-related stress are considered here. Although important advances have been made in the understanding of work-related stress, there are still gaps in the translation of this knowledge into effective practice at the enterprise level. There are additional problems regarding the methodology in the evaluation of work-related stress. The European models described in this article are based on holistic, global and participatory approaches, where the active role of and involvement of workers are always emphasized. The limitations of these models are in the lack of clarity on preventive intervention and, for two of them, the lack of instrument standardization for risk evaluation. The comparison among the European models to approach work-related stress, although with limitations and socio-cultural differences, offers the possibility for the development of a social dialogue that is important in defining the correct and practical methodology for work stress evaluation and prevention.

  11. Nasal hyperreactivity in allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: a potential risk factor for non-specific building-related illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusterman, D; Murphy, M A

    2007-08-01

    Self-reported non-allergic nasal symptom triggers in non-allergic ('vasomotor') rhinitis overlap with commonly identified environmental exposures in non-specific building-related illness. These include extremes of temperature and humidity, cleaning products, fragrances, and tobacco smoke. Some individuals with allergic rhinitis also report non-allergic triggers. We wished to explore the phenotypic overlap between allergic and non-allergic rhinitis by ascertaining self-reported non-allergic nasal symptom triggers among allergic rhinitics. Sixty subjects without work-related respiratory exposures or symptoms, aged 19-68 years, stratified by age, gender and (skin test-proven) allergic rhinitis status, were queried with regard to self-reported non-allergic nasal symptom triggers (aggregate score 0-8). In this sample, the number of self-reported non-allergic triggers was bimodal, with peaks at 1 and 5. Forty-two percent of seasonal allergic rhinitic subjects reported more than three non-allergic triggers, compared with only 3% of non-allergic non-rhinitics (P < 0.01). Subjects over 35 years were more likely to report one or more non-allergic triggers, particularly tobacco smoke (P < 0.05). Allergic rhinitics reported more non-allergic symptom triggers than did non-allergic, non-rhinitics. As indexed by self-reported reactivity to non-specific physical and chemical triggers, both non-allergic rhinitics and a subset of allergic rhinitics may constitute susceptible populations for non-specific building-related illness. Judging by self-report, a substantial subset of individuals with allergic rhinitis--along with all individuals with nonallergic rhinitis (by definition)--are hyperreactive to non-allergic triggers. There is overlap between these triggers (elicited in the process of obtaining a clinical diagnosis) and environmental characteristics associated with ''problem buildings.'' Since individuals with self-identified rhinitis report an excess of symptoms in most

  12. Finnish occupational health nurses' view of work-related stress: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen-Amoroso, Maritta; Liira, Juha

    2014-03-01

    Occupational stress at work has been increasingly recognized as a major risk factor for chronic disease and poor quality of work life among employees. The purpose of this study was to examine how occupational health nurses in Finland manage work-related stress. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used with a sample of 354 Finnish occupational nurses who responded to the survey. No specific standardized tools to assess or handle work-related stress in occupational health services or their client companies were identified. Open-ended interviews together with burnout questionnaires were the most frequently used methods to assess the stress of employees. Interventions were directed at individual employees. A need for standardized stress assessment instruments and stress management by work organizations was found. Methods to cope with work-related stress should be developed by the occupational health team and companies' health resources departments to ensure the adoption of common protocols. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. The Norwegian Labour Inspectorate's Registry for Work-Related Diseases: data from 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Yogindra; Parker, David; Wergeland, Ebba; Wannag, Axel

    2008-01-01

    The Norwegian Labour Inspectorates (NLI's) Registry for Work-Related Diseases was established in 1920. Based on the principle of sentinel health events (SHE), its central purpose is to provide information to the NLI to enable workplace interventions and the prevention of hazardous exposures. Although physicians are required to report work-related diseases to the NLI, only 3% did so in 2006. There were 3392 cases of work-related diseases reported to the NLI by 561 physicians in 2006. Diseases of the ear (noise-induced hearing loss) comprised 59% (n=1987) of the cases, while 12% (n=398) of the cases were attributed to the diseases of the respiratory system and 7% (n =239) were diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Despite limitations, the registry continues to inform NLI's prevention strategies, supplements data concerning work-environment surveillance, and provides impetus for epidemiological studies.

  14. The Relationship between Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Work-related Risk Factors in Hotel Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Ju Jong; Mun, Hyeon Je; Lee, Kyung-Jae; Kim, Joo Ja

    2013-10-11

    To identify work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and any associated work-related risk factors, focusing on structural labor factors among hotel workers. A total of 1,016 hotel workers (620 men and 396 women) were analyzed. The questionnaire surveyed participants' socio-demographics, health-related behaviors, job-related factors, and work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms were assessed using the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. All analyses were stratified by gender, and multiple logistic regression modeling was used to determine associations between work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and work-related risk factors. The risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal symptoms was 1.9 times higher among male workers in the kitchen department than males in the room department (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.03-3.79), and 2.5 times higher among male workers with lower sleep satisfaction than those with higher sleep satisfaction (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.57-4.04). All of the aforementioned cases demonstrated a statistically significant association with work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Moreover, the risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal symptoms was 3.3 times higher among female workers aged between 30 and 34 than those aged 24 or younger (OR = 3.32, 95% CI = 1.56-7.04); 0.3 times higher among females in the back office department than those in the room department (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.12-0.91); 1.6 times higher among females on shift schedules than those who were not (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.02-2.59); 1.8 times higher among females who performed more intensive work than those who performed less intensive work (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.17-3.02), and; 2.1 times higher among females with lower sleep satisfaction than those with higher sleep satisfaction (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.34-3.50). All of the aforementioned cases also displayed a statistically significant association with work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. This study

  15. [Work-related behaviour and experience patterns and mental health: a study in psychotherapy trainees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Johanna; Sude, Kerstin; Löwe, Bernd; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2013-03-01

    In view of the fact that many reports have been published that emphasize the difficult conditions of the German psychotherapy training, the aim of this study was to investigate psychotherapy trainees´ work stress as well as work-related psychosocial risks and resources. Variables of interest were work-related behaviour and experience patterns (AVEM), effort-reward-imbalance, chronic stress and health-related quality of life. 321 participants completed an online survey. The distribution of work-related behaviour and experience patterns as well as the results regarding work overload and mental health are evidence of psychotherapy trainees' strain. AVEM-risk patterns are associated with effort-reward-imbalance, chronic stress and reduced mental health. These results clearly support claims for a modification of the psychotherapy training in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. The lack of correspondence between work-related disability and receipt of workers' compensation benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieler, Emily A; Burton, John F

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that many persons with disabilities caused by work do not receive workers' compensation benefits. Data from surveys of persons with disabilities were used to estimate the proportion of disability due to work-related injuries and diseases. Studies examining the proportion of workers with work-related disability who received workers' compensation benefits were reviewed. Legal and other factors explaining the lack of receipt of workers' compensation benefits were examined. Many workers with disabilities caused by work do not receive workers' compensation benefits. The obstacles to compensation include increasingly restrictive rules for compensability in many state workers' compensation programs. A substantial proportion of persons with work-related disabilities do not receive workers' compensation benefits. The solutions to this problem, such as providing healthcare to workers regardless of the source of injuries or diseases, are complicated and controversial, and will be difficult to implement. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Organizational options for preventing work-related stress in knowledge work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies point to work-related stress as an increasing problem for knowledge workers. However, the working life in knowledge-intensive companies is often described as good and stimulating. The aim of this study is to explore the organizational options for preventing work-related problems...... in knowledge work. This calls for a study of the characteristics of knowledge work, stress management interventions and an in-depth analysis of the organizational factors causing frustrations and work-related problems in relation to knowledge work. In a qualitative study, 27 respondents were interviewed...... productivity. Relevance to industry: The paper identifies organizational options on which managers, employees and ergonomists can focus when initiating new stress management practices and preventive changes aimed at redesigning knowledge work. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Balance Control Comparison between Subjects with and without Non-specific Low Back Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bin; LUO Chun; WANG Rongli; WANG Ninghua

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare the balance ability between normal people and non-specific low back pain (nsLBP) patients and explore the relationship between balance ability and muscle function in nsLBP patients. Method: Ten nsLBP patients as nsLBP group and 10 age and gender-matched healthy control subjects as control group were investigated. Posturography on balance platform and surface electromyography (sEMG) were performed to assess all the subjects' function of equilibrium and muscle activities of erector spinea(ES), muhifidus(MF), abdominal external oblique (EO), hamstring (HS) and maximal gluteus (MG) bilaterally. Result: The nsLBP subjects had greater sway on anterior-posterior direction (Y-speed and Y-extension, P=0.05) on feet-together posture and bigger main axis (P=0.023) on nature standing with eyes closed when compared with controls. The iEMG ratios of right MG in nature standing (eyes closed)/ nature standing (eyes open) and feet-together (eyes open)/nature standing (eyes open) in control group were significant higher than that in nsLBP group (P=0.03 and P=0.013). Conclusion: Balance evaluation combined with sEMG measurement on trank and lower limb muscles provided some quantitative information about functional deficits such as pestural control and muscle activities in nsLBP patients. This relationship should be emphasized in prevention and rehabilitation of nsLBP.

  19. Isolation and characterization of a non-specific endoglucanase from a metagenomic library of goat rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianbo; Huang, Shuai; Jiang, Haiqin; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Lvmu; Wang, Juhua; Fan, Caiyun

    2016-01-01

    A cellulase gene (cel28a) was isolated from a rumen microbial metagenome library of goat rumen microorganisms, cloned into E. coli, and expressed in active form. The gene has a length of 1596 bp obtained using a genome walking Kit and encodes a protein of 509 amino acids with a calculated MW of 55 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence was homologous with cellulases belonging to the glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GH5). The expressed protein showed activity toward carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and xylan, suggesting non-specific endoglucanase activity. The optimal conditions for endoglucanase and xylanase activities were 50 °C and pH 5.0. The metal ions (Ca(2+), Fe(2+), Mn(2+) and Co(2+)) stimulated the cellulase activity of cel28a, while the other metal ions and chemicals (Ni(2+), Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), SDS and EDTA) inhibited the cellulase activity. Further examination of substrate preference showed a higher activity with CMC, oat spelt xylan and birchwood xylan than with filter paper and microcrystalline cellulose, again suggesting that the protein was an endoglucanase with xylanase activity.

  20. Isolation and characterization of a non-specific lipid transfer protein from Chelidonium majus L. latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Robert; Józefiak, Damian; Sip, Anna; Kuźma, Dorota; Musidlak, Oskar; Goździcka-Józefiak, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are small basic proteins, which mostly play a role in intracellular lipid transport and antimicrobial defense. Recently it was shown using shotgun proteomic approach that the whole plant extract of Chelidonium majus L. (Papaveraceae) contains relatively abundant nsLTPs. Therefore the aim of the work was to isolate and characterize nsLTP from C. majus latex. Results obtained using PCR approach with degenerate primers showed the presence of nsLTP protein in C. majus root latex, named CmLTP 9.5. The protein consists of 93 aa with a molecular weight of 9.5kDa (NCBI GenBank accession no. ALT21495, coded by KP733898). The mature form of CmLTP 9.5 has a molecular weight of 7.147kDa and contains typical eight strictly conserved cysteine residues. A 3D model of CmLTP 9.5 displays a hydrophobic cavity. The isolated protein fraction tested using diffusion method and critical dilution assay showed strong antibacterial activity towards Gram-negative Campylobacter jejuni as well as Gram-positive Listeria greyi and Clostridium perfringens. Further studies using protein expression system are required to fully understand CmLTP 9.5 mode of action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lectin Histochemistry Of Cholesterol Cleft Granulomas In Non-Specific Interstitial Pneumonia (Nsip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mcclure

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cholesterol cleft granulomas with clusters of giant cells were noted to be a common feature of non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP. Objective: This study aimed to define the cell populations involved in the granulomas. Methods: The granulomas of 16 patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (five cases with the histological features ofNSIP, five with those ofUIP and six cases of respiratory bronchiolitis were examined histologically and by the use of irnmuno- and lectin histochemical markers. Results: Granulomas were discrete, compact and present only in alveolar spaces. The adjacent int~rstitium usually showed fibrous thickening although granulomas were absent. The granulomas contained central clefts surrounded by mononuclear and multinucleated giant cells, both of which were CD68 positive. The cells outside the granulomas and those lining the adjacent alveolar walls were AE 11 AE3 and CAMS .2 positive and CD68 negative. The application of an extended lectin panel demonstrated restricted glycoprofiles for multinucleated cells, alveolar macrophages and alveolar lining cells. The glycoproflies of the first two were similar to each other, but were different from the third. Conclusion: The mononuclear and multinucleated cells of cholesterol cleft granulomas are derived from the macrophage-mononuclear cell lineage and express glycoproteins with a high mannose content. The alveolar lining cells are type II pneumocytes which do not contribute to the granuloma cell population.

  2. Acupuncture for Chronic Non-Specific Low Back Pain: A Case Series Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture in treating chronic non-specific low back pain. Methods: Ten patients with chronic low back pain were selected to receive 9 acupuncture treatments over a three-week period with point selection based on syndrome differentiation in Chinese medicine. The BROM Instrument for assessment of back range of motion; subjective evaluation with Visual Analog Scale of Pain (VASP) ratings, Oswestry Disability ratings, objective measurements including Algometry, and Flexion and Extension ratings to investigate the range of motion were used for comparing the large, medium and small effect sizes of baseline, treatment and follow-up phases. Results: Clinical significance of pain relief was shown in all parameters assessed. A large effect size was detected in VASP, Oswestry and Algometry. A small effect size was demonstrated in Flexion/Extension. Needling over short period time (3 weeks) could relieve the pain, but the muscular-skeletal function measured by BROM persists. To treat patients exclusively by needling for statistical purposes can not be justified, because by merely relieving pain, permanent improvement in function may not be achieved. Conclusion: Acupuncture offers an effective alternative for the clinical management of chronic low back pain, significant improvement in most of the parameters evaluated, but the functional improvement was not as satisfactory as pain relieving. Further study with larger sample size focuses on long-term efficacy and functional improvement for chronic low back pain is recommended.

  3. [Oral cavity microflora in patients with non-specific ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrakova, O A; Muliar, E A; Voropaeva, E A; Babin, V N; Dubinin, A V; Briko, N I

    2009-01-01

    Results of study of microecological disorders in oral cavity of patients with non-specific ulcerative colitis (NSUC) and Crohn's disease (CD) and control subjects (patients with hypertension). Condition of mucosa was assessed on the basis of morphological data and electrophoretic mobility of cell nuclei, whereas structure of microbiocenosis and metabolic activity of microflora--on the basis of saliva bacterial culture and contents and profile of volatile fat acids in it. Detection rate of negative charge of the cell nuclei (decrease of functional activity of epithelium) was significantly higher in patients with NSUC and CD (66.6%) compared with controls (10%). This fact was directly related with hypercolonization of oral cavity by Gram-negative microflora. Lesions of mucosa which are characteristic of NSUC and CD and determined by pathologic immune mechanisms correlated with quantity of pathogenic microflora (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida). Marked differences of chromatograms' patterns were observed in patients with NSUC and CD indicating the suppression of anaerobic microflora in patients with CD and hypercolonization of oral cavity by anaerobic microflora in majority of patients with NSUC.

  4. Bioinformatics analysis of a non-specific nuclease from Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. palearctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Hua; Tang, Zhen-Xing; Fang, Xiu-Juan; Zhang, Zhi-Liang; Shi, Lu-E

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the physical and chemical characteristics, biological structure and function of a non-specific nuclease from Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. palearctica (Y. NSN) found in our group were studied using multiple bioinformatics approaches. The results showed that Y. NSN had 283 amino acids, a weight of 30,692.5 ku and a certain hydrophilic property. Y. NSN had a signal peptide, no transmembrane domains and disulphide bonds. Cleavage site in Y. NSN was between pos. 23 and 24. The prediction result of the secondary structure showed Y. NSN was a coil structure-based protein. The ratio of α-helix, β-folded and random coil were 18.73%, 16.96% and 64.31%, respectively. Active sites were pos. 124, 125, 127, 157, 165 and 169. Mg(2+) binding site was pos. 157. Substrate binding sites were pos. 124, 125 and 169. The analysis of multisequencing alignment and phylogenetic tree indicated that Y. NSN shared high similarity with the nuclease from Y. enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica 8081. The enzyme activity results showed that Y. NSN was a nuclease with good thermostability.

  5. NON-SPECIFIC METHODS FOR DETECTING RESIDUES OF CLEANING AGENTS DURING CLEANING VALIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGAN M. MILENOVIĆ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cleaning validation procedures are carried out in order to assure that residues of cleaning agents are within acceptable limits after the cleaning process. Cleaning agents often consist of a mixture of various surfactants which are in a highly diluted state after the water rinsing procedure has been completed. This makes it difficult to find appropriate analytical methods that are sensitive enough to detect the cleaning agents. In addition, it is advantageous for the analytical methods to be simple to perform and to give results quickly.In this study, three different non-specific analytical methods are compared: visual detection of foam, pH and conductivity measurements. The analyses were performed on different dilutions of the cleaning agents Bactericidal Hydroclean and Tickopur R33. The results demonstrated that the most appropriate method for these detergents are conductivity measurements, by which it is possible to detect concentrations of cleaning agents down to 10 µg/ml. In this case, pH is an inadequate method (non-linear and visual detection of foam is a semi-quantitative method. All these methods are easy to perform, gives a quick re-sults, and requires no expensive instrumentation.

  6. Real-time Monitoring of Non-specific Toxicity Using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Reporter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Karp

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is the simplest and most well-known representative of eukaryotic cells and thus a convenient model organism for evaluating toxic effects in human cells and tissues. Yeast cell sensors are easy to maintain with short generation times, which makes the analytical method of assessing antifungal toxicity cheap and less-time consuming. In this work, the toxicity of test compounds was assessed in bioassays based on bioluminescence inhibition and on traditional growth inhibition on agar plates. The model organism in both tests was a modified S. cerevisiae sensor strain that produces light when provided with D-luciferin in an insect luciferase reporter gene activity assay. The bioluminescence assay showed toxic effects for yeast cell sensor of 5,6-benzo-flavone, rapamycin, nystatin and cycloheximide at concentrations of nM to µM. In addition, arsenic compounds, cadmium chloride, copper sulfate and lead acetate were shown to be potent non-specific inhibitors of the reporter organism described here. The results from a yeast agar diffusion assay correlated with the bioluminescence assay results.

  7. Clinical and immunological features of chronic non-specific non-ulcerative colitis in infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the activity of cytokines for determination of their pathogenic role and effective action of the individual factors of the immune system in infants with chronic non&specific non&ulcerative colitis (CNNC. Patients and methods. It is studied 60 children in the age from 1 to 3 years with CNNC, who were under hospitalization. The control group consisted of 30 apparently healthy children of appropriate age. Immunological status of children was evaluated on the base of determination of cytokine concentration in the blood serum by the method of Enzyme-Immuno-Sorbent-Assay. Results. It is found that during the CNNC in infants and the concentration and ratio of the different groups of cytokines in the blood serum undergoes significant changes — increasing the concentration of pro&inflammatory cytokines (IL&1α, IL&6, IL&8, TNF-α and decreases the level of inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 is the IL-10, wherein the content growth factors is changing — by increased hepatocytes growth factor and reduced intestinal trefoil factor. Conclusions. Found changes of cytokines state can be regarded as a violation of the immunoregulatory mechanisms that is the basis of pathogenesis of the formation of a chronic inflammatory process in the infant's intestine.

  8. The research of Proactive Coping Behavior of Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija A. Yaroslavskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to study the patterns of using proactive coping and adherences to it's different types in patients with chronic non-specifi c lung diseases. Participants of the study (N=180 were 30 to 60 years old. The Proactive Coping Inventory was used to assess the patients' psychological status. According to the results of the study patients with chronic non-specifi c lung diseases use dif-ferent types of proactive coping behavior while solving problematic and stressful situations. The research revealed that patients with bronchial asthma don't have the skills of independent decision making, definition of objectives, considering of options in solving conflicts or other inconvenient situations sufficiently developed. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are less satisfied with the emotional support that they receive from their relatives and closest people, it's harder for them to reveal their feelings and emotions than for those who suffer from bronchial asthma and healthy ones. The results of the study may be useful in developing educational systems of proactive coping behavior skills for patients with chronic non-specific lung diseases for their health and well-being support.

  9. Non-specific interstitial pneumonia in cigarette smokers: a CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, Katharina [Georg August University of Goettingen, Department of Radiology, Goettingen (Germany); Milne, David [Green Lane Hospital, Department of Radiology, Auckland (New Zealand); Antoniou, Katerina M. [University of Crete, Department of Thoracic Medicine, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Nicholson, Andrew G. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Tennant, Rachel C.; Wells, Athol U. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, London (United Kingdom); Hansel, Trevor T. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Clinical Trials Unit, London (United Kingdom); Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The goal of this study was to seek indirect evidence that smoking is an aetiological factor in some patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Ten current and eight ex-smokers with NSIP were compared to controls including 137 current smokers with no known interstitial lung disease and 11 non-smokers with NSIP. Prevalence and extent of emphysema in 18 smokers with NSIP were compared with subjects meeting GOLD criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; group A; n = 34) and healthy smokers (normal FEV{sub 1}; group B; n = 103), respectively. Emphysema was present in 14/18 (77.8%) smokers with NSIP. Emphysema did not differ in prevalence between NSIP patients and group A controls (25/34, 73.5%), but was strikingly more prevalent in NSIP patients than in group B controls (18/103, 17.5%, P < 0.0005). On multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of emphysema increased when NSIP was present (OR = 18.8; 95% CI = 5.3-66.3; P < 0.0005) and with increasing age (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.99-1.11; P = 0.08). Emphysema is as prevalent in smokers with NSIP as in smokers with COPD, and is strikingly more prevalent in these two groups than in healthy smoking controls. The association between NSIP and emphysema provides indirect support for a smoking pathogenesis hypothesis in some NSIP patients. (orig.)

  10. Changes in Hematological, Biochemical and Non-specific Immune Parameters of Olive Flounder, , Following Starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hyun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Triplicate groups of fed and starved olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (body weight: 119.8±17.46 g, were examined over 42 days for physiological changes using hematological, biochemical, and non-specific immune parameters. No significant differences in concentrations of blood hemoglobin and hematocrit and plasma levels of total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, and cortisol were detected between fed and starved groups at any sampling time throughout the experiment. In contrast, plasma total protein concentrations were significantly lower in starved fish than in fed fish from day 7 onwards. Moreover, plasma lysozyme concentrations were significantly higher in starved flounder from day 21 onwards. This result confirms that the response of olive flounder to short-term (less than about 1.5 months starvation consists of a readjustment of metabolism rather than the activation of an alarm-stress response. The present results indicate that starvation does not significantly compromise the health status of fish despite food limitation.

  11. Influence of specific and non-specific solvent effects on frontal MO of DMABI system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampars, V.; Pastors, P.; Ornicane, G.

    2012-08-01

    Derivatives of 2-(4'-dimethylaminobenzylidene)-1,3-indandione (DMABI) are classical push-pull chromophores containing carbonyl groups like numerous other non-linear chromophores for electro-optical devices. The energy of the intramolecular charge transfer exciton of DMABI is determined by the difference of HOMO-LUMO energies and can be varied in width range by chemical modifications of the DMABI structure or by the nonspecific and specific solvent effects if the chromophore is incorporated into condensed environment. The condensed medium in a thin film (polymer or molecular glass) exhibits a solid state solvation effect similar to the effect of the organic solvents in a solution. The value of the medium effect depends on specific and non-specific interactions between the chromophore and medium. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the specific effects. The chromophores often contain few centres for specific interaction, and thus we have synthesised and investigated UV-Vis spectra of three derivatives of DMABI and also three derivatives of 4-aza-DMABI in solutions with strong H-bond donor properties. The experimentally obtained results show that the strong H-bond with carbonyl group lowers the intramolecular charge-transfer energy by 900 cm-1, the strong H-bond with carbonyl group and heterocyclic nitrogen in 4-aza-DMABI by 1500 cm-1 and the protonation of heterocyclic nitrogen in 4-aza-DMABI by 3250 cm-1 respectivelly.

  12. Sequence-non-specific effects generated by various types of RNA interference triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejniczak, Marta; Urbanek, Martyna O; Jaworska, Edyta; Witucki, Lukasz; Szczesniak, Michal W; Makalowska, Izabela; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J

    2016-02-01

    RNA interference triggers such as short interfering RNA (siRNA) or genetically encoded short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and artificial miRNA (sh-miR) are widely used to silence the expression of specific genes. In addition to silencing selected targets, RNAi reagents may induce various side effects, including immune responses. To determine the molecular markers of immune response activation when using RNAi reagents, we analyzed the results of experiments gathered in the RNAimmuno (v 2.0) and GEO Profiles databases. To better characterize and compare cellular responses to various RNAi reagents in one experimental system, we designed a reagent series in corresponding siRNA, D-siRNA, shRNA and sh-miR forms. To exclude sequence-specific effects the reagents targeted 3 different transcripts (Luc, ATXN3 and HTT). We demonstrate that RNAi reagents induce a broad variety of sequence-non-specific effects, including the deregulation of cellular miRNA levels. Typical siRNAs are weak stimulators of interferon response but may saturate the miRNA biogenesis pathway, leading to the downregulation of highly expressed miRNAs, whereas plasmid-based reagents induce known markers of immune response and may alter miRNA levels and their isomiR composition.

  13. Intramedullary non-specific inflammatory lesion of thoracic spine: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonelli Manila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several non-neoplastic lesions which mimick intramedullary spinal cord neoplasm in their radiographic and clinical presentation. These can be classified as either infectious (TB, fungal, bacterial, parasytic, syphilis, CMV, HSV and non-infectious (sarcoid, MS, myelitis, ADEM, SLE inflammatory lesions, idiopathic necrotizing myelopathy, unusual vascular lesions and radiation myelopathy. Although biopsy may be indicated in many cases, an erroneous diagnosis of intramedullary neoplasm can often be eliminated pre-operatively. Case description the authors report a very rare case of intramedullary non-specific inflammatory lesion of unknown origin, without signs of infection or demyelinization, in a woman who showed no other evidence of systemic disease. Conclusions Intramedullary lesions that mimick a tumor can be various and difficult to interpret. Preoperative MRI does not allow a certain diagnosis because these lesions have a very similar signal intensity pattern. Specific tests for infective pathologies are useful for diagnosis, but histological examination is essential for establishing a certain diagnosis. In our case the final histological examination and the specific tests that we performed have not cleared our doubts regarding the nature of the lesion that remains controversial.

  14. [Clinical evaluation of calcium-polycarbophil in the treatment of non-specific diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzi, G; Villani, V; Rubinetto, M P; Cianci, M; La Froscia, A; Barbara, L

    1993-09-01

    We performed a study on 10 patients aged between 26 and 54 males and females, affected by non-specific diarrhea. A single-blind clinical trial has been developed where Calcium-Polycarbophil was administered (2 cps t.i.d.) for a period of 8 weeks, half with placebo and half with drug in cross-over. No drop-out occurred. Number of evaluations, cramps and consistency of stools, have been evaluated before and after treatment. A definite decrease of evacuations per day and of cramps, when present, together with a higher consistency of stools, are reported when Calcium-Polycarbophil is administered, according to the favourable medical judgement. Haematochemical parameters, evaluated before, during and after the treatment didn't show any relevant variation, apart from slight increase (not statistically significant) of calcium both in blood and in urine). No other unwanted event has been detected. Hence, the high therapeutic index of Calcium-Polycarbophil makes it highly desirable in the treatment of diarrhea.

  15. The use of Functionalized Nanoparticles as Non-specific Compatibilizers for Polymer Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W Zhang; M Lin; A Winesett; O Dhez; L Kilcoyne; H Ade; M rubinstein; K Shafi; A Ulman; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The ability to form blends of polymers offers the opportunity of creating a new class of materials with enhanced properties. In addition to the polymer components, recent advances in nanoengineering have resulted in the development of nanosized inorganic particles that can be used to improve the properties of the blend, such as the flammability and the mechanical properties. While traditional methods using copolymer compatibilizers have been used to strengthen polymer blends, here, we show that the inorganic nanosized filler additive can also serve as a compatibilizer as it can localize to the interface between the polymers. We use experimental and theoretical studies to show the fundamental mechanisms by which inorganic fillers with large aspect ratio and at least one-dimension in the nanometer range, can act as non-specific compatibilizers for polymer blends. We examine a series of nanosized fillers, ranging from nanotubes to nanoclays (with varying aspect ratios) in a model polystyrene (PS)/poly(methylmethacyralate) (PMMA) blend. Using a number of experimental techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning tunneling X-ray microscopy (STXM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) we postulate that the mechanism of compatibilization occurs as a result of the fillers forming in situ grafts with the immiscible polymers. We also use theoretical studies to show that the aspect ratio and the bending energy of the fillers play a key role in the compatibilization process. Our results indicate that the compatibilization is a general phenomenon, which should occur with all large aspect ratio nanofiller additives to polymer blends.

  16. Clinical effect of deep water running on non-specific low back pain: A randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Cuesta-Vargas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate clinical effect of deep water running(DW R on non-specific low back pain. Outcome measures were pain, disability,general health and physical fitness.  Materials and methods: Experimental, randomized,  controlled trial involving 46 persons with CLBP over 15 weekswith two experimental processes, each three times a week. Evidence-basedProgram (EBP, personalized physical exercise program, manual therapy andhealth educa tion was the common process to which was added 20 minutes ofpersonalized intensity DW R at the aerobic threshold. Measurements were made at the beginning and end of the studyof pain, disability, general health and physical fitness.  R esults: The pain of CLBP were homogeneous at baseline.Significant changes between group were don’t found for pain in favour of the EBP+DW R group (p<0.3. The within-group differences were highly significant for all clinical and functional variables. The effect was clinically relevant forpain in the EBP+DW R group (0.70 and in the EBP group (0.58, and for disability degree it was also relevant in theEBP+DW R group (0.48 and relevant for the EBP group (0.36. Conclusion: Significant improvement was seen inCLBP when EBP was complemented with the high-intensity exercise of DW R.

  17. [Work-related diseases and the fitness to work in construction industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, M M; Bancone, C; Bigoni, F; Bresciani, M; Santini, M; Mosconi, G

    2012-01-01

    The construction industry is characterized by a high number of fatal and nonfatal injuries and even higher prevalence of work-related diseases. The aim of this work is to analyze the results of a research project that has among its objectives the study of the prevalence of work-related diseases and the fitness to work in construction industry. In the period 2003-2011 were evaluated 2069 construction workers, from 218 companies (average age 37.9 years, mean seniority 21.1 years, 17.1 in the construction industry). The prevalence of work-related diseases was 14.06%, in the first place the noise-induced hearing loss, followed by musculoskeletal disorders and entrapment neuropathies. The 24.7% of fitness to work was influenced by the presence of limitations, the 0.6% of the population was not suitable for the specific task. The prevalence of work-related diseases in construction industry is high, with a peak among the elderly, but also significant occurrence among young people. It is important the percentage of the population with health problems that limit the fitness to work.

  18. Work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna H; Netterstrøm, Bo; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2009-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) was systematically reviewed: 33 articles presented 51 analyses of studies involving male participants, 18 analyses involving female participants, and 8 analyses with both...

  19. Work-related risk factors for neck pain : results of a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, G.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to determine which work related physical and psychosocial risk factors exist which cause neck pain and absenteeism because of neck pain. There is some evidence for a positive relationship between he duration of sedentary posture at work and neck pain, and between twisting o

  20. Anesthesiologists work-related exhaustion: A comparison study with other hospital employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Riad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anesthesia is a demanding occupation due to long working hours, sustained vigilance, unpredictability of stressful situation, fear of litigation, competence, and production pressure. Work-related exhaustion can lead to several physical and psychological symptoms and delay decision making. The aim of this study was to evaluate how different work conditions affect personnel exhaustion by studying a sample of anesthesiologists comparing them with ophthalmologists and ancillary hospital staff Methods: One hundred fifty persons divided into three equal groups (50 each were invited to participate in this study. Subjects were asked to answer two self report questionnaires: The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20 and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 which used to assess work related exhaustion and mental health, respectively. Results: Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory scale (MFI 20 and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12 were significantly higher in anesthesiologists than in other groups ( P = 0.001. Different aspects of work-related exhaustion showed that general, physical and mental fatigue were significantly higher in anesthesiologists ( P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively. Reduced activity and reduced motivation were also higher in anesthesiologists compare to the other groups ( P = 0.005 and 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Work-related exhaustion under the current study is more obvious among anesthesiologists. Ophthalmologist and ancillary hospital employees felt that they had less stress at their work.

  1. Anesthesiologists work-related exhaustion: A comparison study with other hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riad, Waleed; Mansour, Afaf; Moussa, Ashraf

    2011-07-01

    Anesthesia is a demanding occupation due to long working hours, sustained vigilance, unpredictability of stressful situation, fear of litigation, competence, and production pressure. Work-related exhaustion can lead to several physical and psychological symptoms and delay decision making. The aim of this study was to evaluate how different work conditions affect personnel exhaustion by studying a sample of anesthesiologists comparing them with ophthalmologists and ancillary hospital staff One hundred fifty persons divided into three equal groups (50 each) were invited to participate in this study. Subjects were asked to answer two self report questionnaires: The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) which used to assess work related exhaustion and mental health, respectively. Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory scale (MFI 20) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12) were significantly higher in anesthesiologists than in other groups (P = 0.001). Different aspects of work-related exhaustion showed that general, physical and mental fatigue were significantly higher in anesthesiologists (P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). Reduced activity and reduced motivation were also higher in anesthesiologists compare to the other groups (P = 0.005 and 0.001, respectively). Work-related exhaustion under the current study is more obvious among anesthesiologists. Ophthalmologist and ancillary hospital employees felt that they had less stress at their work.

  2. Relationships among supervisor feedback environment, work-related stressors, and employee deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jei-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Man; Lee, Yin-Ling

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the employee deviance imposes enormous costs on organizational performance and productivity. Similar research supports the positive effect of favorable supervisor feedback on employee job performance. In light of such, it is important to understand the interaction between supervisor feedback environment and employee deviant behavior to streamline organization operations. The purposes of this study were to explore how the supervisor feedback environment influences employee deviance and to examine the mediating role played by work-related stressors. Data were collected from 276 subordinate-supervisor dyads at a regional hospital in Yilan. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test hypotheses. Structural equation modeling analysis results show that supervisor feedback environment negatively related to interpersonal and organizational deviance. Moreover, work-related stressors were found to partially mediate the relationship between supervisor feedback environment and employee deviance. Study findings suggest that when employees (nurses in this case) perceive an appropriate supervisor-provided feedback environment, their deviance is suppressed because of the related reduction in work-related stressors. Thus, to decrease deviant behavior, organizations may foster supervisor integration of disseminated knowledge such as (a) how to improve employees' actual performance, (b) how to effectively clarify expected performance, and (c) how to improve continuous performance feedback. If supervisors absorb this integrated feedback knowledge, they should be in a better position to enhance their own daily interactions with nurses and reduce nurses' work-related stress and, consequently, decrease deviant behavior.

  3. Does work-related training reduce the discrepancy between function requirements and competencies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Kappe; G.E. Bijwaard (Govert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe issue of lifelong learning is high on the political agenda. However, despite this political interest and the large economic literature on human capital, the impact of work-related training on the discrepancy between function requirements and the skills of the employee has been ignore

  4. Effectiveness of physical activity programs at worksites with respect to work-related outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Staal, B.J.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Beek, A.J. van der; Mechelen, W. van

    2002-01-01

    This paper systematically reviews the literature on the effectiveness of physical activity programs at worksites with respect to work-related outcomes. A computerized literature search, a reference search, and a manual search of personal databases were performed using the following inclusion

  5. Effectiveness of physical activity programs at worksites with respect to work-related outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Staal, B.J.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Beek, A.J. van der; Mechelen, W. van

    2002-01-01

    This paper systematically reviews the literature on the effectiveness of physical activity programs at worksites with respect to work-related outcomes. A computerized literature search, a reference search, and a manual search of personal databases were performed using the following inclusion criteri

  6. Work-related stress and burnout in physiotherapists – A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Mikołajewska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of some chronic conditions and some health risk factors in physiotherapists suggest that work-related stress and burnout may have a significant but underestimated impact on their health status and productivity. This paper presents the author’s attempt to review current knowledge of work-related stress and burnout in physiotherapists. This review was aimed at exploring the relationship between causes, consequences and ways of prevention of work-related stress and burnout in this occupational group. Searching PubMed, PEDro and Health Source: Nursing / Academic Edition was conducted in July 2014, with no starting date limitation and with specified keywords. The literature on work-related stress and burnout in physiotherapists has investigated their relationship with a large number of causes, consequences, and ways of prevention. Based on the research reviewed, the conclusion can be drawn that further strategies to increase awareness among the management staff and health professionals about the importance of prevention and stress management are required to decrease the prevalence of aforementioned pathologies. It was stressed that the majority of components of these strategies still require to be confirmed by future studies. Med Pr 2014;65(5:693–701

  7. Miniscalpel-Needle Treatment Is Effective for Work-Related Neck and Shoulder Musculoskeletal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuming Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are a group of painful disorders of muscles, tendons, and nerves, such as neck and shoulder MSD. This study was designed to use miniscalpel-needle (MSN technique as an intervention for work-related MSDs. Methods. Thirty-one patients with work-related MSDs and 28 healthy subjects were enrolled as controls in this study. The MSD symptoms of each patient were assessed by visual analog scale (VAS and neck disability index (NDI. Blood samples were collected from control subjects and MSD patients before and after treatment. Serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP and tumor necrosis factor (TNF were measured using ELISA. Results. Prior to MSN treatment, serum levels of CRP and TNF were significantly higher in the MSD patients than the healthy controls. Serum CRP levels correlated with VAS and NDI scores, and serum TNF levels correlated with NDI scores. Compared to pretreatment, VAS and NDI scores were significantly lower in MSD patients after MSN treatment, while serum CRP and TNF levels were significantly lower compared with the healthy control levels. Conclusions. Our results indicate that MSN may be an effective intervention for work-related MSDs and be associated with lower serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers.

  8. Voice Disorders in Teachers and Their Associations with Work-Related Factors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutiva, Lady Catherine Cantor; Vogel, Ineke; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a quantitative assessment of the occurrence of voice disorders among teachers and to identify associated work-related and individual factors in the teaching profession. Method: A systematic review was conducted using three computerized databases on the occurrence of voice disorders among teachers and their associations with…

  9. Longitudinal Analysis of Personal and Work-Related Factors Associated With Turnover Among Nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estryn-Behar, Madeleine; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Fry, Clementine; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin

    2010-01-01

    AB Background: Although many scholars have acknowledged the relationship between personal and work-related factors associated with job search and actual turnover, there is a lack of longitudinal designs that test this relationship empirically. Objectives: This longitudinal study examines specific

  10. Work Related Stress: Application of a Special Study to the General Business Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Denise M.; And Others

    There has been much recent attention given to stress and the negative side effects associated with excessive stress. Employers need to recognize the effect that stress can have on the productivity and attitudes of their employees. To examine work-related stress and to develop stress management strategies, a study was conducted of flight attendants…

  11. Who Attends Work-Related Training Five Years after Graduation? A Comparison across European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storen, Liv Anne

    2013-01-01

    What are the driving forces behind the unequal distribution of training after graduation among higher education graduates? Participation in lifelong learning is restricted here to work-related training. The paper aims at examining the mechanisms that cause variation in training rates, by taking into account fields of study, personal competency…

  12. Work-related lifelong learning for entrepreneurs in the agri-food sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, T.; Wesselink, R.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Mulder, M.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a study on work-related lifelong learning for entrepreneurs in the agri-food sector. Accordingly, learning needs, learning preferences, learning motivation and conditions in the context of lifelong learning were identified. The results indicate that technology, IT and entrepren

  13. Relationship of Dyadic Closeness with Work-Related Stress: A Daily Diary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Yoav; Ben-Ari, Adital

    2007-01-01

    We examined the association between work-related stress of both spouses and daily fluctuations in their affective states and dyadic closeness. Daily diary data from 169 Israeli dual-earner couples were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The findings indicate that work stress has no direct effect on dyadic closeness but rather is mediated by the…

  14. A new approach to measuring work-related well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsila, Reetta; Luukkaala, Tiina; Manka, Marja-Liisa; Nygard, Clas-Hakan

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a short questionnaire to assess work-related well-being from the organizational behaviour perspective. The short well-being questionnaire enables measuring longitudinal work-related well-being. Work-related well-being was assessed with a 147-item questionnaire covering both organizational and intrinsic factors of work-related well-being. The questionnaire consisted of 27 categories. The respondents were 114 women (65%) and 62 men (35%), mean age 39.2 years, in various occupations. From the extensive questionnaire a shorter questionnaire with 33 items was developed by principal component analysis. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure to test the sampling adequacy of 27 factor solutions varied from .62 to .91 and Cronbach?s α was .74-.94. Most κ values of the shorter questionnaire were .50-.94 (p < .001). The reliability of the short version was comparable to that of the original questionnaire. The short one could also be suitable for Internet and mobile questionnaire applications.

  15. The Work-Related Quality of Life Scale for Higher Education Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Julian A.; Van Laar, Darren; Easton, Simon; Kinman, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that higher education employees experience comparatively high levels of job stress. A range of instruments, both generic and job-specific, has been used to measure stressors and strains in this occupational context. The Work-related Quality of Life (WRQoL) scale is a measure designed to capture perceptions of the working…

  16. Recovery of Work-Related Stress: Complaint Reduction and Work-Resumption are Relatively Independent Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente, W. de; Kamphuis, J.H.; Blonk, R.W.; Emmelkamp, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the as

  17. Recovery of work-related stress: Complaint reduction and work-resumption are relatively independent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vente, W.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the a

  18. Effectiveness of a Multilevel Workplace Health Promotion Program on Vitality, Health, and Work-Related Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Snoijer, M.; Kok, B.P. de; Vlisteren, J. van; Hofstetter, H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the effectiveness of a workplace health promotion program on employees’ vitality, health, and work-related outcomes, and exploring the influence of organizational support and the supervisors’ role on these outcomes. Methods: The 5-month intervention included activities at

  19. The Social Patterning of Work-Related Insecurity and Its Health Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Marshall, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the association between work-related insecurity and health, with a focus on how this relationship is moderated by social location (gender, age and race). Drawing on longitudinal data from a Canadian labour market survey (1999-2004) the findings show that certain groups have a higher prevalence of exposure to certain types of…

  20. Wheat allergen exposure and the prevalence of work-related sensitization and allergy in bakery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Meijster, T.; Meijer, E.; Suarthana, E.; Heederik, D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Occupational airway diseases are common among bakers. The present study describes the association between exposure to wheat allergen levels and sensitization to wheat allergens, work-related upper and lower respiratory symptoms and asthma in bakery workers. Methods: As part of a Health S

  1. Disentangling longitudinal relations between physical activity, work-related fatigue, and task demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J.D. de; Claessens, B.J.C.; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Geurts, S.A.E.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Kompier, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal study examined ‘normal’, ‘reversed’, and ‘reciprocal’ relationships between (1) physical activity and work-related fatigue; and (2) physical activity and task demands. Furthermore, the effects of across-time change in meaningful physical activity groups on levels of

  2. Cognitive impairments in former patients with work-related stress complaints - one year later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Anita; Andersen, Lars Peter; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2016-11-01

    Patients on sick leave due to work-related stress often present with cognitive impairments. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to examine the long-term consequences of prolonged work-related stress in terms of cognitive functioning one year after initial professional care seeking. We tested a group of patients with work-related stress with a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery at two occasions, one year apart. At both time points, we compared the performance of patients with healthy controls matched pairwise on sex, age and length of education. This paper presents the results from the one-year follow-up. When adjusting for practice effects, patients improved on measures of prospective memory and processing speed. However, patients continued to perform worse than controls on all tests, though only half of the comparisons reached statistical significance. The effect sizes of the differences between the two groups at one-year follow-up were small to medium. In conclusion, former patients with prolonged work-related stress improved, but they continued to perform worse than controls after one year. In the acute phase, the largest impairments were related to executive function and mental speed but at follow-up memory impairments also became apparent.

  3. Relationship of Dyadic Closeness with Work-Related Stress: A Daily Diary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Yoav; Ben-Ari, Adital

    2007-01-01

    We examined the association between work-related stress of both spouses and daily fluctuations in their affective states and dyadic closeness. Daily diary data from 169 Israeli dual-earner couples were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The findings indicate that work stress has no direct effect on dyadic closeness but rather is mediated by the…

  4. Understanding Work-Related Stress and Practice of Professional Self-Care--An Innovative Pedagogical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    Social workers experience tremendous work-related stress--particularly among those providing direct services in healthcare settings. A review of related literature summarized several critical challenges faced by social workers who work with highly difficult clients in these settings, including (a) clients who engage in manipulative high-risk…

  5. Work-related stress and reward: an Australian study of multidisciplinary pediatric oncology healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, M J; Mukherjee, S; Williams, L K; DeGraves, S; Jackson, M; McCarthy, M C

    2015-11-01

    Managing staff stress and preventing long-term burnout in oncology staff are highly important for both staff and patient well-being. Research addressing work-related stress in adult oncology is well documented; however, less is known about this topic in the pediatric context. This study examined sources of work-related stress and reward specific to multidisciplinary staff working in pediatric oncology in Australia. Participants were 107 pediatric oncology clinicians, including medical, nursing, and allied health staff from two Australian pediatric oncology centers. Participants completed an online survey using two newly developed measures: the work stressors scale-pediatric oncology and the work rewards scale-pediatric oncology. The most commonly reported sources of both stress and reward are related to patient care and interactions with children. Results indicated that levels of work-related stress and reward were similar between the professional disciplines and between the two hospitals. Regression analyses revealed no demographic or organizational factors that were associated with either stress or reward. Work-related stress and reward are not mutually exclusive; particular situations and events can be simultaneously stressful and rewarding for healthcare providers. Although patient care and interactions with children was found to be the most stressful aspect of working in this speciality, it was also the greatest source of reward. Results are discussed in relation to workplace approaches to staff well-being and stress reduction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The Impact of Collegiality amongst Australian Accounting Academics on Work-Related Attitudes and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Sophia; Baird, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This study provides an insight into the collegiality of Australian accounting academics and the association of collegiality with their work-related attitudes and academic performance. Data were collected by a survey questionnaire from a random sample of 267 accounting academics within Australian universities. The results suggest a moderate level…

  7. Policy-level interventions and work-related psychosocial risk management in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leka, S.; Jain, A.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Cox, T.

    2010-01-01

    There exists a substantial degree of diversity across strategies to prevent and manage work- related psychosocial risks and their associated health effects. Whereas it is common to distinguish between organizational and individual interventions, the important level of policy- level interventions has

  8. Prevention of work related musculoskeletal disorders : setting priorities using the standardized Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrandt, V.H.

    2001-01-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders constitute a major problem to modern society. They are a major cause of work absenteeism and disability, thus constituting one of the most expensive disease categories. There is a great need for effective ways to prevent or reduce musculoskeletal problems. Give

  9. Work-Related Lifelong Learning for Entrepreneurs in the Agri-Food Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Thomas; Wesselink, Renate; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Mulder, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a study on work-related lifelong learning for entrepreneurs in the agri-food sector. Accordingly, learning needs, learning preferences, learning motivation and conditions in the context of lifelong learning were identified. The results indicate that technology, IT and entrepreneurial competencies will become of increasing…

  10. Can Muscle Soreness After Intensive Work-related Activities Be Predicted?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, Remko; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; van der Schans, Cees P.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: It is currently unknown whether specific determinants are predictive for developing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) after heavy work-related activities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether personal characteristics and performance measures are predictive for onset, intensity

  11. The Impact of Collegiality amongst Australian Accounting Academics on Work-Related Attitudes and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Sophia; Baird, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This study provides an insight into the collegiality of Australian accounting academics and the association of collegiality with their work-related attitudes and academic performance. Data were collected by a survey questionnaire from a random sample of 267 accounting academics within Australian universities. The results suggest a moderate level…

  12. Work-related determinants of return to work of employees on long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, M; Krol, B; Groothoff, JW

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the study is to identify work-related determinants of return to work (RTW) of employees who are on long-term sickness absence. Method. The study was based on a sample of 926 employees on sickness absence ( maximum duration of 12 weeks). The employees filled out a baseline

  13. Work-related factors associated with occupational exposure to static magnetic stray fields from MRI scanners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Kristel; Christopher-De Vries, Yvette; Cambron-Goulet, Évelyne; Kromhout, Hans

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aims to identify work-related and personal factors associated with workers' exposure to static magnetic fields (SMF) and motion-induced time-varying magnetic fields (TVMF) from MRI scanners. METHODS: Measurements of personal exposure to SMF and TVMF were performed among MRI staff

  14. The Work-Related Quality of Life Scale for Higher Education Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Julian A.; Van Laar, Darren; Easton, Simon; Kinman, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that higher education employees experience comparatively high levels of job stress. A range of instruments, both generic and job-specific, has been used to measure stressors and strains in this occupational context. The Work-related Quality of Life (WRQoL) scale is a measure designed to capture perceptions of the working…

  15. Academic and Work-Related Burnout: A Longitudinal Study of Working Undergraduate University Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…

  16. The Social Patterning of Work-Related Insecurity and Its Health Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Marshall, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the association between work-related insecurity and health, with a focus on how this relationship is moderated by social location (gender, age and race). Drawing on longitudinal data from a Canadian labour market survey (1999-2004) the findings show that certain groups have a higher prevalence of exposure to certain types of…

  17. Voice disorders in teachers and their associations with work-related factors : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutiva, Lady Catherine Cantor; Vogel, Ineke; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a quantitative assessment of the occurrence of voice disorders among teachers and to identify associated work-related and individual factors in the teaching profession. Method: A systematic review was conducted using three computerized databases on the occurrence of voice disorde

  18. The Effects of Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates during novel…

  19. Psychometric Properties of Work-Related Behavior and Experience Patterns (AVEM) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencer, R. Timucin; Boyacioglu, Hayal; Kiremitci, Olcay; Dogan, Birol

    2010-01-01

    "Work-Related Behaviour and Experience Patterns" (AVEM) has been developed with the intention of determining the occupation related behaviour and lifestyle models of professionals. This study has been conducted to test the validity and reliability of MEDYAM, the abbreviated Turkish equivalent of AVEM. 373 teachers from 10 different…

  20. How employees use Twitter to talk about work: a typology of work-related tweets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2015-01-01

    In organizational research employees' use of personal social media for work remains an understudied phenomenon. Yet, it is important to gain understanding of these online behaviors as they might have consequences on the individual and organizational level. We provide a typology for work-related Twit

  1. Work Socialization and Adolescents' Work-Related Values in Single-Mother African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…

  2. Basis for a functional capacity evaluation methodology for patients with work-related neck disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink, David D.; Jorritsma, Wim; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2007-01-01

    Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal complaint and a relationship with reduced work-related functional capacity is assumed. A validated instrument to test functional capacity of patients with neck pain is unavailable. The objective of this study was to develop a Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE)

  3. Disillusionment Trilogy: a Study of the Effects of Work-Related and Psychosocial Stress Through Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José FERNÁNDEZ GALINDO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, disorders derived from work-related and psychosocial stress are increasingly important. Here the influence of professional activities on personal and family life and on the psyche is analysed by means of three films filmed in different periods: the North American The Arrangement (1969, the Spanish The Green Pastures (1979 and the Canadian The Age of Ignorance (2007.

  4. Is Work-related Rumination Associated with deficits in Executive Functioning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Cropley

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWork-related rumination, that is, perseverative thinking about work during leisure time, has been associated with a range of negative health and wellbeing issues. The present paper examined the association between work-related rumination and cognitive processes centred around the theoretical construct of executive functioning. Executive functioning is an umbrella term for high level cognitive processes such as planning, working memory, inhibition, mental flexibility; and it underlies how people manage and regulate their goal directed behaviour. Three studies are reported. Study I, reports the results of a cross-sectional study of 240 employees, and demonstrates significant correlations between work-related rumination and three proxy measures of executive functioning: cognitive failures (.33, cognitive flexibility (-.24 and situational awareness at work (-.28. Study II (n = 939, expands on the findings from study 1 and demonstrates that workers reporting medium and high work-related rumination were 2.8 and 5 times, respectively, more likely to report cognitive failures relative to low ruminators. High ruminators also demonstrated greater difficulties with ‘lapses of attention’ (OR = 4.8, ‘lack of focus of attention’ (OR = 3.4, and ‘absent mindedness’ (OR = 4.3. The final study, examined the association between work-related rumination and executive functioning using interview data from 2460 full time workers. Workers were divided into tertiles low, medium and high. The findings showed that high work-related rumination was associated with deficits in starting (OR = 2.3 and finishing projects (OR = 2.4, fidgeting (OR = 1.9, memory (OR = 2.2, pursuing tasks in order (OR = 1.8, and feeling compelled to do things (OR = 2.0. It was argued that work-related rumination may not be related to work demands per se, but appears to be an executive functioning/control issue. Such findings are important for the design and delivery of

  5. Is Work-Related Rumination Associated with Deficits in Executive Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropley, Mark; Zijlstra, Fred R. H.; Querstret, Dawn; Beck, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Work-related rumination, that is, perseverative thinking about work during leisure time, has been associated with a range of negative health and wellbeing issues. The present paper examined the association between work-related rumination and cognitive processes centerd around the theoretical construct of executive functioning. Executive functioning is an umbrella term for high level cognitive processes such as planning, working memory, inhibition, mental flexibility; and it underlies how people manage and regulate their goal directed behavior. Three studies are reported. Study I, reports the results of a cross-sectional study of 240 employees, and demonstrates significant correlations between work-related rumination and three proxy measures of executive functioning: cognitive failures (0.33), cognitive flexibility (-0.24), and situational awareness at work (-0.28). Study II (n = 939), expands on the findings from study 1 and demonstrates that workers reporting medium and high work-related rumination were 2.8 and 5 times, respectively, more likely to report cognitive failures relative to low ruminators. High ruminators also demonstrated greater difficulties with ‘lapses of attention’ (OR = 4.8), ‘lack of focus of attention’ (OR = 3.4), and ‘absent mindedness’ (OR = 4.3). The final study, examined the association between work-related rumination and executive functioning using interview data from 2460 full time workers. Workers were divided into tertiles low, medium, and high. The findings showed that high work-related rumination was associated with deficits in starting (OR = 2.3) and finishing projects (OR = 2.4), fidgeting (OR = 1.9), memory (OR = 2.2), pursuing tasks in order (OR = 1.8), and feeling compelled to do things (OR = 2.0). It was argued that work-related rumination may not be related to work demands per se, but appears to be an executive functioning/control issue. Such findings are important for the design and delivery of intervention

  6. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen A

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] Musculoskeletal disorders are common causes of work-related disability in different professions involving the frequent practice of lifting, stooping, twisting, prolonged sitting, or standing. The dental profession is one such profession. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia, the factors associated with them, and their consequences and to propose preventive measures for them. [Subjects and Methods] A self-administered online questionnaire was sent to 225 members of the Saudi Dental Association. It included questions on demographic and professional characteristics, general medical history, and history of work-related musculoskeletal disorders before and after joining the dental profession. [Results] The questionnaire was completed by 65% of the respondents. Among them 85% reported that they had developed some pain due to work after joining the dental profession, and 42% reported that they were suffering pain at the time of the survey. Besides lower back, shoulder, and neck regions, the hands, upper back, and other regions like the elbows, buttocks, thighs, leg, and feet were areas in which they pain. [Conclusion] The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia is high, affecting their daily activities, sometimes even forcing them to change their work setting. Age, gender, specialty of work, work setting, number of contact hours with patients, etc., were all found to be related to their work-related pain. We need to emphasize the role of ergonomics, counseling, proper techniques of patient handling, etc., during the training of dental professionals so that they can work efficiently.

  7. Preventive Effects of Safety Helmets on Traumatic Brain Injury after Work-Related Falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Chul Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related traumatic brain injury (TBI caused by falls is a catastrophic event that leads to disabilities and high socio-medical costs. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of safety helmets on clinical outcomes and to compare the effect across different heights of fall. Methods: We collected a nationwide, prospective database of work-related injury patients who visited the 10 emergency departments between July 2010 and October 2012. All of the adult patients who experienced work-related fall injuries were eligible, excluding cases with unknown safety helmet use and height of fall. Primary and secondary endpoints were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs of safety helmet use and height of fall for study outcomes, and adjusted for any potential confounders. Results: A total of 1298 patients who suffered from work-related fall injuries were enrolled. The industrial or construction area was the most common place of fall injury occurrence, and 45.0% were wearing safety helmets at the time of fall injuries. The safety helmet group was less likely to have intracranial injury comparing with the no safety helmet group (the adjusted odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.42 (0.24–0.73, however, there was no statistical difference of in-hospital mortality between two groups (the adjusted ORs (95% CI: 0.83 (0.34–2.03. In the interaction analysis, preventive effects of safety helmet on intracranial injury were significant within 4 m height of fall. Conclusions: A safety helmet is associated with prevention of intracranial injury resulting from work-related fall and the effect is preserved within 4 m height of fall. Therefore, wearing a safety helmet can be an intervention for protecting fall-related intracranial injury in the workplace.

  8. Understanding and reducing work-related psychological distress in interns: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facey, A D; Tallentire, V; Selzer, R M; Rotstein, L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to collate and evaluate studies investigating either the factors influencing work-related psychological distress in postgraduate year one (PGY1) doctors or the strategies designed to reduce it. This is a systematic review conducted in May 2014. The data sources were key databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Embase) and manual searches of reference lists for relevant studies published in the last 15 years. This study is an empirical research designed either to elucidate the factors influencing work-related psychological distress in PGY1 doctors, or examine the effects of an intervention designed to reduce it. Key information was extracted into an electronic data extraction form, which incorporated elements of Murphy's model of work stress factors. A total of 21 studies was included in the review; 16 studies had examined the factors influencing work-related psychological distress, four studies had investigated strategies to reduce it, and a single study addressed both. Analysis of the findings of each individual study through the conceptual framework provided by Murphy's model revealed a discrepancy between the factors influencing work-related psychological distress and the focus of strategies designed to reduce it. Factors such as career progression and a PGY1 doctor's role within the organisation were not addressed in the interventions identified. Significant sources of psychological distress in PGY1 doctors remain overlooked by current interventions. Strategies designed to prevent or reduce psychological distress should be broad-based and grounded in both the literature exploring salient factors and existing theories of work-related stress.

  9. Midlife Work-Related Stress Increases Dementia Risk in Later Life: The CAIDE 30-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindi, Shireen; Hagman, Göran; Håkansson, Krister; Kulmala, Jenni; Nilsen, Charlotta; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Soininen, Hilkka; Solomon, Alina; Kivipelto, Miia

    2016-04-08

    To investigate the associations between midlife work-related stress and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and Alzheimer's disease later in life, in a large representative population. Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study participants were randomly selected from independent population-based surveys (mean age 50 years). A random sample of 2,000 individuals was invited for two reexaminations including cognitive tests (at mean age 71 and mean age 78), and 1,511 subjects participated in at least one reexamination (mean follow-up 28.5 years). Work-related stress was measured using two questions on work demands that were administered in midlife. Analyses adjusted for important confounders. Higher levels of midlife work-related stress were associated with higher risk of MCI (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.76), dementia (OR, 1.53; CI, 1.13-2.07), and Alzheimer's disease (OR, 1.55; CI, 1.19-2.36) at the first follow-up among the CAIDE participants. Results remained significant after adjusting for several possible confounders. Work-related stress was not associated with MCI and dementia during the extended follow-up. Midlife work-related stress increases the risk for MCI, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease in later life. The association was not seen after the extended follow-up possibly reflecting selective survival/participation, heterogeneity in dementia among the oldest old, and a critical time window for the effects of midlife stress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The role of work-related needs in the relationship between job crafting, burnout and engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Travaglianti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Knowing that it is imperative to better understand the antecedents and consequences of needs-supplies fit, the present research had two main objectives. Firstly we wanted to extend our knowledge about traditional psychological needs, for example highlighted through the Self-Determination Theory, by presenting more specific work-related needs. Secondly, following the new directions of organisational fit theories, we wanted to better understand how individuals make sense of fit.Research purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose more specific work-related needs in terms of employment quality and to test job crafting as an antecedent of needs-supplies fit (NS fit. We tested the double mediating role of NS fit (i.e. specific: based on more specific work-related needs, and general: based on global job perceptions between job crafting and individual outcomes namely burnout and work engagement.Motivation for the study: By taking into account more specific work-related needs, this study aimed to add more specific information to better help predict well-being at work. Moreover, the present research responds to the need to better understand how individuals make sense of fit.Research design, approach, and method: Data were collected in a Belgian Public Federal Service (N = 1500. Our research model was tested using Structural Equation Modelling with Mplus.Main findings: Results show, (1 that specific NS fit perception was positively related to a global NS fit perception and (2 the partial mediating role (specific and general of NS fit between job crafting and burnout and work engagement.Practical/managerial implications: Managers should encourage crafting behaviours and should know their team and that team’s specific needs.Contribution/added-value: By taking into account more specific work-related needs, our study suggests that needs-supplies may have more than one dimension. Moreover, it shows that job crafting is a way to increase NS

  11. Subjective health complaints, work-related stress and self-efficacy in Norwegian aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omholt, M L; Tveito, T H; Ihlebæk, C

    2017-03-01

    The European civilian aviation industry has undergone major changes in the last decade. Despite this, there is little knowledge about work-related stress and subjective health complaints (SHCs) affecting Norwegian aircrew. To investigate the relationships between work-related stress, self-efficacy and SHCs in commercial aircrew in Norway and to explore differences between cockpit and cabin crew. Aircrew members from the three major airlines operating from Norway completed an electronically distributed questionnaire. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate the association between work-related stress, self-efficacy and SHCs. There was a 21% response rate. Among the 843 study subjects, tiredness, sleep problems, bloating, low back pain, headaches and neck pain were the most prevalent SHCs. Cabin crew reported significantly higher numbers, prevalences and mean values for all SHCs compared with cockpit crew (P < 0.05). In total, 20% reported high stress levels. High levels of work-related stress were significantly associated with all SHC factors in both groups. Self-efficacy partly moderated the relationship between stress and psychological complaints in both cockpit and cabin crew, and for musculoskeletal complaints in cockpit crew. The model explained 23 and 32% of the variance in psychological complaints for cockpit and cabin crew, respectively. Commercial aircrew in Norway reported high numbers of SHCs, and high levels of work-related stress were associated with high numbers of SHC. More knowledge is needed on the physical, organizational and psychosocial stressors affecting cockpit and cabin crew in order to create a healthier work environment for these groups.

  12. Motor unit potential morphology differences in individuals with non-specific arm pain and lateral epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Linda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathophysiology of non-specific arm pain (NSAP is unclear and the diagnosis is made by excluding other specific upper limb pathologies, such as lateral epicondylitis or cervical radiculopathy. The purpose of this study was to determine: (i if the quantitative parameters related to motor unit potential morphology and/or motor unit firing patterns derived from electromyographic (EMG signals detected from an affected muscle of patients with NSAP are different from those detected in the same muscle of individuals with lateral epicondylitis (LE and/or control subjects and (ii if the quantitative EMG parameters suggest that the underlying pathophysiology in NSAP is either myopathic or neuropathic in nature. Methods Sixteen subjects with NSAP, 11 subjects with LE, eight subjects deemed to be at-risk for developing a repetitive strain injury, and 37 control subjects participated. A quantitative electromyography evaluation was completed using decomposition-based quantitative electromyography (DQEMG. Needle- and surface-detected EMG signals were collected during low-level isometric contractions of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB muscle. DQEMG was used to extract needle-detected motor unit potential trains (MUPTs, and needle-detected motor unit potential (MUP and surface detected motor unit potential (SMUP morphology and motor unit (MU firing rates were compared among the four groups using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Post hoc analyses were performed using Tukey's pairwise comparisons. Results Significant group differences were found for all MUP variables and for MU firing rate (p p p p p Conclusion The size-related parameters suggest that the NSAP group had significantly smaller MUPs and SMUPs than the control and LE subjects. Smaller MUPs and SMUPs may be indicative of muscle fiber atrophy and/or loss. A prospective study is needed to confirm any causal relationship between smaller MUPs and SMUPs and NSAP as found

  13. Persistent non-specific low back pain and patients' experience of general practice: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toye, Francine; Barker, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to present a conceptual analysis of patients' experience of general practice in relation to their persistent non-specific low back pain (PLBP). PLBP accounts for a considerable amount of the daily workload of the general practitioner (GP). GPs need to maintain a good relationship with their patient while following guidelines for best practice. The biomedical model can contribute to the tensions experienced by a person with PLBP and a shift in the prevailing model may facilitate the resolution of these tensions. Qualitative research can help clinicians to understand this process and thus facilitate the best possible outcome. We conducted a series of three in-depth interviews over a period of one year with 20 patients with PLBP who had been invited to attend a pain management programme. We used the methods of constructivist grounded theory to analyse the data. Several themes emerged that provide a deeper understanding of the context in which patient and GP negotiate their relationship. Patients describe how they have been fobbed off by a GP who is just a general practitioner and not an expert. This allowed patients to continue to use the biomedical model; I have something real but the GP lacks knowledge. To think that 'nothing can be done', would involve accepting the limits of medical knowledge. We also found that over time, as diagnosis and cure is not achieved, patient began to question the concept of the medical expert. This tension opens up the possibility for a shift away from the biomedical towards a biopsychosocial explanatory model.

  14. On the existence of a generalized non-specific task-dependent network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth eHugdahl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest the existence of a generalized task-related cortical network that is up-regulated whenever the task to be performed requires the allocation of generalized non-specific cognitive resources, independent of the specifics of the task to be performed. We have labelled this general purpose network, the extrinsic mode network (EMN as complementary to the default mode network (DMN, such that the EMN is down-regulated during periods of task-absence, when the DMN is up-regulated, and vice versa. We conceptualize the EMN as a cortical network for extrinsic neuronal activity, similar to the DMN as being a cortical network for intrinsic neuronal activity. The EMN has essentially a fronto-temporo-parietal spatial distribution, including the inferior and middle frontal gyri, inferior parietal lobule, supplementary motor area, inferior temporal gyrus, We further hypothesize that this network is always active regardless of the cognitive task being performed. We suggest that failure of network up- and down-regulation dynamics may provide neuronal underpinnings for cognitive impairments seen in many mental disorders, such as e.g. schizophrenia. We start by describing a common observation in functional imaging, the close overlap in fronto-parietal activations in healthy individuals to tasks that denote very different cognitive processes. We now suggest that this is because the brain utilizes the EMN network as a generalized response to tasks that exceeds a cognitive demand threshold and/or requires the processing of novel information. We further discuss how the EMN is related to the DMN, and how a network for extrinsic activity is related to a network for intrinsic activity. Finally we discuss whether the EMN and DMN networks interact in a common single brain system, rather than being two separate and independent brain systems.

  15. The amylase-to-creatinine clearance ratio--a non-specific response to acute illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, M J; Playforth, M J; Rashid, S A; Cooper, E H

    1982-01-01

    It was felt that the apparent specificity of the amylase-to-creatine clearance ratio (ACCR) in several previous studies of pancreatitis might reflect a failure to utilize adequately ill control subjects. The ACCR and the renal clearances of beta 2-microglobulin (B2-m), similarly related to creatinine (BCCR) as well as the urinary concentration of albumin, were compared in 27 patients with acute pancreatitis, 8 with a perforated peptic ulcer and 7 with mild biliary colic, during the first 5 days in hospital. Acute pancreatitis was graded as mild (6), moderate (14) or severe (7), using a combination of clinical data, diagnostic peritoneal lavage and multiple criteria. Further assessment of the severity of the acute illness was obtained from measurement of C-reactive protein (C-RP). Lowest C-RP levels were found in the patients with mild pancreatitis and biliary colic, and highest levels in the patients with severe pancreatitis and perforated ulcer (P less than 0.002). Similarly, ACCR and BCCR levels were significantly lower in the two mild groups than in the two severe ones (P less than 0.01 and less than 0.002 respectively), although plasma amylase was raised only in patients with pancreatitis and plasma B2-m was similar in all groups. Electrophoresis of urine showed dense bands of tubuloprotein in patients from both severe groups. Urine albumin was higher in severe pancreatitis than in perforated ulcer (P less than 0.1), perhaps indicating a more specific glomerular lesion in pancreatitis. Thus a rise in amylase clearance appeared to be related to the severity of the acute illness, and may be a component of a non-specific tubuloproteinuria. In this study patients with a perforated peptic ulcer had increases in ACCR similar to those seen in patients with severe pancreatitis, and we are therefore doubtful whether ACCR has any role in the clinical diagnosis of pancreatic disease.

  16. Wireless communication fields and non-specific symptoms of ill health: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin; Hug, Kerstin

    2011-05-01

    This is an update of a previous systematic review on the association between radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure and health-related quality of life that included studies published before August 2007 [1]. Since then, nine randomized trials addressed short-term exposures from close-to-body RF-EMF sources such as mobile phones, and two observational studies investigated the effects of mobile phone use on health-related quality of life. Six randomized trials addressed short-term far-field exposure arising, for instance, from mobile phone base stations, and eight studies evaluated the effects of environmental far-field RF-EMF exposure. In most of the randomized trials, no exposure-response association was observed. The sporadically reported associations did not show a consistent pattern regarding the type of symptoms or the direction of the effects (increase/decrease). Similarly, most of the recent observational studies did not show associations between RF-EMF exposure and non-specific symptoms. However, the exposure gradients were small and possible exposure misclassification is a limitation of these studies. Longitudinal studies as well as studies in children and adolescents are scarce. In summary, recent research did not indicate health-related quality of life to be affected by RF-EMF exposure in our everyday environment. Furthermore, none of the studies showed that individuals with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) were more susceptible to RF-EMF than the rest of the population. Nevertheless, the rapid technological development and anticipated increase in exposure levels warrant the conduct of further longitudinal studies. Due to the widespread use of wireless communication technologies potential adverse health effects would have major public health consequences.

  17. Is there a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in patients with non-specific low back pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhe, A.; Fejer, R.; Walker, B.

    2011-01-01

    pain intensity and postural sway in adults (aged 50 or less) with non-specific low back pain. Methods: Seventy-seven patients with non-specific low back pain and a matching number of healthy controls were enrolled. Center of pressure parameters were measured by three static bipedal standing tasks of 90...... compared to healthy controls. In addition, regression analysis revealed a significant and linear increase in postural sway with higher pain ratings for all included COP parameters. Statistically significant changes in mean sway velocity in antero-posterior and medio-lateral direction and sway area were......Background: Increased center of pressure excursions are well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby the altered postural sway includes both higher mean sway velocities and larger sway area. No investigation has been conducted to evaluate a relationship between...

  18. Pain relief is associated with decreasing postural sway in patients with non-specific low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhe, A.; Fejer, René; Walker, B.

    2012-01-01

    is maintained if pain levels change in adults with non-specific low back pain. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with non-specific low back pain and a matching number of healthy controls were enrolled. Postural sway was measured by three identical static bipedal standing tasks of 90 sec duration with eyes closed......Background: Increased postural sway is well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby a linear relationship between higher pain intensities and increasing postural sway has been described. No investigation has been conducted to evaluate whether this relationship...... in narrow stance on a firm surface. The perceived pain intensity was assessed by a numeric rating scale (NRS 11). The patients received three manual interventions (e. g. manipulation, mobilization or soft tissue techniques) at 3-4 day intervals, postural sway measures were obtained at each occasion. Results...

  19. Inter-tester reliability of a new diagnostic classification system for patients with non-specific low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tom Erik; Olsen, Steen; Laslett, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Most patients referred to physiotherapy with low back pain are without a precise medical diagnosis. Identification of subgroups of non-specific low back pain patients may improve clinical outcomes and research efficiency. A pathoanatomic classification system has been developed, classifying...... patients with non-specific low back pain into 12 different syndromes and three subcategories based on history and physical examination. The purpose of this study was to estimate the inter-tester reliability of clinical tests used as criteria for classifying patients. Ninety patients with chronic low back...

  20. Material nanosizing effect on living organisms: non-specific, biointeractive, physical size effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Fumio; Takashi, Noriyuki; Yokoyama, Atsuro; Uo, Motohiro; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Sato, Yoshinori; Abe, Shigeaki; Totsuka, Yasunori; Tohji, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Nanosizing effects of materials on biological organisms was investigated by biochemical cell functional tests, cell proliferation and animal implantation testing. The increase in specific surface area causes the enhancement of ionic dissolution and serious toxicity for soluble, stimulative materials. This effect originates solely from materials and enhances the same functions as those in a macroscopic size as a catalyst. There are other effects that become prominent, especially for non-soluble, biocompatible materials such as Ti. Particle size dependence showed the critical size for the transition of behaviour is at approximately 100 μm, 10 μm and 200 nm. This effect has its origin in the biological interaction process between both particles and cells/tissue. Expression of superoxide anions, cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β from neutrophils was increased with the decrease in particle size and especially pronounced below 10 μm, inducing phagocytosis to cells and inflammation of tissue, although inductively coupled plasma chemical analysis showed no dissolution from Ti particles. Below 200 nm, stimulus decreases, then particles invade into the internal body through the respiratory or digestive systems and diffuse inside the body. Although macroscopic hydroxyapatite, which exhibits excellent osteoconductivity, is not replaced with natural bone, nanoapatite composites induce both phagocytosis of composites by osteoclasts and new bone formation by osteoblasts when implanted in bone defects. The progress of this bioreaction results in the conversion of functions to bone substitution. Although macroscopic graphite is non-cell adhesive, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cell adhesive. The adsorption of proteins and nano-meshwork structure contribute to the excellent cell adhesion and growth on CNTs. Non-actuation of the immune system except for a few innate immunity processes gives the non-specific nature to the particle bioreaction and

  1. Sequential allergen desensitization of basophils is non-specific and may involve p38 MAPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witting Christensen, S K; Kortekaas Krohn, I; Thuraiaiyah, J; Skjold, T; Schmid, J M; Hoffmann, H J H

    2014-10-01

    Sequential allergen desensitization provides temporary tolerance for allergic patients. We adapted a clinical protocol to desensitize human blood basophils ex vivo and investigated the mechanism and allergen specificity. We included 28 adult, grass allergic subjects. The optimal, activating allergen concentration was determined by measuring activated CD63(+) CD193(+) SS(Low) basophils in a basophil activation test with 8 log-dilutions of grass allergen. Basophils in whole blood were desensitized by incubation with twofold to 2.5-fold increasing allergen doses in 10 steps starting at 1 : 1000 of the optimal dose. Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was assessed after 3 min of allergen stimulation (n = 7). Allergen specificity was investigated by desensitizing cells from multi-allergic subjects with grass allergen and challenging with optimal doses of grass, birch, recombinant house dust mite (rDer p2) allergen or anti-IgE (n = 10). Desensitization reduced the fraction of blood basophils responding to challenge with an optimal allergen dose from a median (IQR) 81.0% (66.3-88.8) to 35.4% (19.8-47.1, P desensitized with grass allergen. Challenge with grass allergen resulted in 39.6% activation (15.8-58.3). An unrelated challenge (birch, rDer p2 or anti-IgE) resulted in 53.4% activation (30.8-66.8, P = 0.16 compared with grass). Desensitization reduced p38 MAPK phosphorylation from a median 48.1% (15.6-92.8) to 26.1% (7.4-71.2, P = 0.047) and correlated with decrease in CD63 upregulation (n = 7, r > 0.79, P Desensitization attenuated basophil response rapidly and non-specifically at a stage before p38 MAPK phosphorylation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Construction and analysis of a plant non-specific lipid transfer protein database (nsLTPDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Nai-Jyuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs are small and basic proteins. Recently, nsLTPs have been reported involved in many physiological functions such as mediating phospholipid transfer, participating in plant defence activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens, and enhancing cell wall extension in tobacco. However, the lipid transfer mechanism of nsLTPs is still unclear, and comprehensive information of nsLTPs is difficult to obtain. Methods In this study, we identified 595 nsLTPs from 121 different species and constructed an nsLTPs database -- nsLTPDB -- which comprises the sequence information, structures, relevant literatures, and biological data of all plant nsLTPs http://nsltpdb.life.nthu.edu.tw/. Results Meanwhile, bioinformatics and statistics methods were implemented to develop a classification method for nsLTPs based on the patterns of the eight highly-conserved cysteine residues, and to suggest strict Prosite-styled patterns for Type I and Type II nsLTPs. The pattern of Type I is C X2 V X5-7 C [V, L, I] × Y [L, A, V] X8-13 CC × G X12 D × [Q, K, R] X2 CXC X16-21 P X2 C X13-15C, and that of Type II is C X4 L X2 C X9-11 P [S, T] X2 CC X5 Q X2-4 C[L, F]C X2 [A, L, I] × [D, N] P X10-12 [K, R] X4-5 C X3-4 P X0-2 C. Moreover, we referred the Prosite-styled patterns to the experimental mutagenesis data that previously established by our group, and found that the residues with higher conservation played an important role in the structural stability or lipid binding ability of nsLTPs. Conclusions Taken together, this research has suggested potential residues that might be essential to modulate the structural and functional properties of plant nsLTPs. Finally, we proposed some biologically important sites of the nsLTPs, which are described by using a new Prosite-styled pattern that we defined.

  3. Work-related empowerment of the multidisciplinary team at the Rheumatism Foundation Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Tarja; Savikko, Niina; Kukkurainen, Marjaleena; Kuokkanen, Liisa; Doran, Diane Irvine

    2006-04-01

    Carried out as part of a staff development project, this study describes the experiences of work-related empowerment within a multidisciplinary team at the Rheumatism Foundation Hospital in Finland. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire consisting of background variables and questions concerning verbal, behavioural and outcome empowerment. The questionnaire was sent to all members of the multidisciplinary team at the Rheumatism Foundation Hospital, with the exception of physicians, departmental secretaries and administrative personnel. The response rate was 58%. The data were examined using statistical methods. The multidisciplinary team felt quite strong verbal and behavioural empowerment, but was less confident in terms of outcome empowerment. Several factors were found to be associated with the different fields of empowerment. In conclusion, the multidisciplinary team felt quite strong work-related empowerment.

  4. The Relation between Work-related Psychosocial Factors and the Development of Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Conrad, Nicole; Bech, Per

    2008-01-01

    the evidence. Social support at work was associated with a decrease in risk for future depression, as all four studies dealing with this exposure showed  associations with relative risks of about 0.6. Even if this literature study has identified work-related psychosocial factors that in high......This review is based on a literature search made in January 2007 on request by the Danish National Board of Industrial Injuries. The search in PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO resulted in more than 1,000 publications. This was reduced to 14 after the titles, abstracts, and papers were evaluated...... by using the following criteria: 1) a longitudinal study, 2) exposure to work-related psychosocial factors, 3) the outcome a measure of depression, 4) relevant statistical estimates, and 5) nonduplicated publication. Of the 14 studies, seven used standardized diagnostic instruments as measures...

  5. Work-related stress assessment in a population of Italian workers. The Stress Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, Nicola; Giorgi, Gabriele; Cupelli, Vincenzo; Gioffrè, Pier Agostino; Rosati, Maria Valeria; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Breso-Esteve, Edgar; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    The present study shows detailed information about the reliability and validity of the psychosocial risk scale included in the Stress Questionnaire (SQ) developed by our research group. The primary purpose of this work is to test the factor structure of the psychosocial risk scale through a first-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using a large pooled dataset obtained from a population of 2026 employees of 15 Italian medium-large companies. Data were collected by a team of researchers who examined demographic variables, work-related stress, workplace bullying, mental health and other constructs. In addition to these substantive issues, the survey was designed to better understand response bias. After the evaluation of the results we conclude that the psychosocial risk scale reported a satisfactory reliability and validity. In addition, it allowed a careful measurement of work related stress, considering both leader's and follower's perspectives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sick company, stressed employee: analyzing the organizational health like influencing the work-related stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monize Sâmara Visentini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the perceived Organizational Health influence on workrelated stress at the restaurants employees in the Santa Maria-RS city. To that end, it was used a survey from employee of the three public and four private restaurants. There has been a factor analysis showed those five factors for work-related stress and four factors of organizational health. Through an examination of correlation showed the multidimensionality of these constructs. Given these results, to check the influence of the perception of organizational health on occupational stress, there was a regression analysis and found to be valid five models that serve the conditions necessary. However, these models have low power of explanation, indicating that the factors of occupational stress are not sufficient to explain the organizational health, should to investigate other aspects of the work environment that interfere in the perception of work-related stress

  7. Modifying behaviour to reduce over-speeding in work-related drivers: an objective approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnam, Sharon; Lewis, Ioni; Warmerdam, Amanda

    2014-03-01

    The goal of this study was to utilise an objective measurement tool, via an on-board Diagnostic tool (OBDII), to explore the effectiveness of a behaviour modification intervention designed to reduce over-speed violations in a group of work-related drivers. It was predicted that over-speed violations would be decreased following participation in a behaviour modification intervention where drivers received weekly feedback on their speeding performance and goal setting exercises. The final analysis included the on-road behaviour of 16 drivers, all of whom completed each stage of the intervention programme. As predicted, over-speed violations significantly decreased from pre-test to post-test, after controlling for kilometres driven. These findings offer practical guidance for industry in developing interventions designed to improve work-related driving behaviour.

  8. Work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamisa, Natasha; Oldenburg, Brian; Peltzer, Karl; Ilic, Dragan

    2015-01-12

    Gaps in research focusing on work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses is evident within developing contexts like South Africa. This study identified the relationship between work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. A total of 1200 nurses from four hospitals were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study (75% response rate). Participants completed five questionnaires and multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Staff issues are best associated with burnout as well as job satisfaction. Burnout explained the highest amount of variance in mental health of nurses. These are known to compromise productivity and performance, as well as affect the quality of patient care. Issues, such as security risks in the workplace, affect job satisfaction and health of nurses. Although this is more salient to developing contexts it is important in developing strategies and intervention programs towards improving nurse and patient related outcomes.

  9. Creative Expression and Its Evaluation on Work-Related Verbal Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Min; Werner, Christian; Cao, Guikang

    2015-01-01

    Two studies comparing Chinese and German samples by using work-related verbal creativity tasks examined the role of culture in creative expression thereby also exploring culture's potential influence on creativity judgements. In Study 1, German participants (N = 60) scored higher than Chinese...... respondents (N = 60) in a work-related unusual uses test on all objective creativity measures. Study 2 (Chinese: N = 59, German: N = 52) replicated these findings by applying an occupational creative problem-solving task evaluated by using the Consensual Assessment Technique with judges from China as well...... as Germany. We observed high consensus among judges of each country as well as between the two cultures. Both German and Chinese judges rated the German respondents’ outcomes higher on most creativity dimensions (e.g., originality). Overall, German judges provided lower ratings. Our research extends previous...

  10. Job satisfaction, occupational stress, burnout and work engagement as components of work-related wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan Rothmann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction, occupational stress, burnout and work engagement as dimensions of work-related wellbeing in a sample of members of the police force in South Africa. A survey design was used. Stratifed random samples of members of the police force (N = 677 were taken in the North West Province of South Africa. The Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire, Police Stress Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were used as measuring instruments. The results provided support for a four-factorial model of work-related wellbeing consisting of the following dimensions: job satisfaction (indicating pleasure vs. displeasure, occupational stress (indicating anxiety vs. comfort, burnout (indicating fatigue vs. vigour, and engagement (indicating enthusiasm vs. depression.

  11. Work Related Stress, Burnout, Job Satisfaction and General Health of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Khamisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaps in research focusing on work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses is evident within developing contexts like South Africa. This study identified the relationship between work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. A total of 1200 nurses from four hospitals were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study (75% response rate. Participants completed five questionnaires and multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Staff issues are best associated with burnout as well as job satisfaction. Burnout explained the highest amount of variance in mental health of nurses. These are known to compromise productivity and performance, as well as affect the quality of patient care. Issues, such as security risks in the workplace, affect job satisfaction and health of nurses. Although this is more salient to developing contexts it is important in developing strategies and intervention programs towards improving nurse and patient related outcomes.

  12. Work related perceived stress and muscle activity during standardized computer work among female computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsman, P; Thorn, S; Søgaard, K

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the associations between work-related perceived stress and surface electromyographic (sEMG) parameters (muscle activity and muscle rest) during standardized simulated computer work (typing, editing, precision, and Stroop tasks). It was part of the European case......-control study, NEW (Neuromuscular assessment in the Elderly Worker). The present cross-sectional study was based on a questionnaire survey and sEMG measurements among Danish and Swedish female computer users aged 45 or older (n=49). The results show associations between work-related perceived stress...... and trapezius muscle activity and rest during standardized simulated computer work, and provide partial empirical support for the hypothesized pathway of stress induced muscle activity in the association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulder....

  13. Job satisfaction, occupational stress, burnout and work engagement as components of work-related wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastiaan Rothmann

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction, occupational stress, burnout and work engagement as dimensions of work-related wellbeing in a sample of members of the police force in South Africa. A survey design was used. Stratifed random samples of members of the police force (N = 677) were taken in the North West Province of South Africa. The Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire, Police Stress Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Surv...

  14. Quality of Working Life of cancer survivors: associations with health- and work-related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Merel; Tamminga, Sietske J; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; de Boer, Angela G E M

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to (1) describe the Quality of Working Life (QWL) of cancer survivors and (2) explore associations between the QWL of cancer survivors and health- and work-related variables. Employed and self-employed cancer survivors were recruited through hospitals and patient organizations. They completed the Quality of Working Life Questionnaire for Cancer Survivors (QWLQ-CS) and health- and work-related variables in this cross-sectional study. The QWL scores of cancer survivors were described, and associations between QWL and health- and work-related variables were assessed. The QWLQ-CS was completed by 302 cancer survivors (28% male) with a mean age of 52 ± 8 years. They were diagnosed between 0 and 10 years ago with various types of cancer, such as breast cancers, gastrointestinal cancers, urological cancers, and haematological cancers. The QWL mean score of cancer survivors was 75 ± 12 (0-100). Cancer survivors had statistically significant lower QWL scores when they had been treated with chemotherapy or when they reported co-morbidity (p ≤ 0.05). Cancer survivors without managerial positions, with low incomes or physically demanding work, and who worked a proportion of their contract hours had statistically significantly lower QWL scores (p ≤ 0.05). This study described the QWL of cancer survivors and associations between QWL and health- and work-related variables. Based on these variables, it is possible to indicate groups of cancer survivors who need more attention and support regarding QWL and work continuation.

  15. Work-related risk factors for suicidal behaviour, protective factors and possibilities for prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Podlogar

    2016-01-01

    Work is an important part of adult life. As such it is closely connected to health and mental health. Aspects of occupation, work and employment can represent risk factors for suicidal behaviour or protective factors against it. Aim of this article is to present the known work-related risk factors for suicidal behaviour, protective factors and possibilities for preventive activities in this context. An important risk factor for suicidal behaviour is unemployment. Connection between unemployme...

  16. Depression and work related stress problems, with notes of comparative law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosi, Marilisa; Pettinelli, Roberto

    2013-09-01

    This paper supplies both a medical and legal analysis of work related stress problems, by going throught the role of prevention in the European legal system. The Authors, after reviewing the negative role that stress has in the management of the employment relationship, describe the main steps that have brought Europe to recognize the importance of the role of prevention, and to recognize the role of well-being in the workplace.

  17. The effects of compensatory workplace exercises to reduce work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Cristina Taubert de Freitas-Swerts; Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz Robazzi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain. METHOD: quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages...

  18. Newly graduated nurses’ empowerment regarding professional competence and other work-related factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kuokkanen, Liisa; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Numminen, Olivia; Isoaho, Hannu; Flinkman, Mervi; Meretoja, Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Background Although both nurse empowerment and competence are fundamental concepts of describing newly graduated nurses’ professional development and job satisfaction, only few studies exist on the relationship between these concepts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine how newly graduated nurses assess their empowerment and to clarify professional competence compared to other work-related factors. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional and correlational design was applied. ...

  19. Wheat sensitization and work-related symptoms in the baking industry are preventable. An epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houba, R; Heederik, D; Doekes, G

    1998-11-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among 393 workers from 21 bakeries to study the relationship between wheat allergen exposure and wheat sensitization and work-related allergic symptoms. Exposure to wheat allergens was characterized by a recently developed and validated immunoassay. Specific IgE antibodies against wheat flour and common allergens were measured by immunoassays, and work-related allergic symptoms were registered by questionnaire. A strong and positive association was found between wheat flour allergen exposure and wheat flour sensitization. This relationship was steepest and strongest in atopics. Prevalence ratios for high and medium wheat allergen exposure were 5.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-16.2), and 2.7 (0.5-14.5) for atopic workers, and 2.5 (0.8-7.5) and 1.4 (0. 3-6.4) for nonatopics, compared with workers with low wheat allergen exposure. In sensitized bakers those with an elevated allergen exposure had more often work-related symptoms, with prevalence ratios for high and medium wheat allergen exposure of 3.5 (CI 1.6-7. 5) and 2.6 (CI 0.9-7.8), respectively, compared with workers with low wheat allergen exposure. The existence of exposure-sensitization gradients suggests that work-related sensitization risk will be negligible when exposure levels will be reduced to average exposure concentration of 0.2 microgram/m3 wheat allergen or approximately 0.5 mg/m3 inhalable dust during a work shift.

  20. CLIPPERS among patients diagnosed with non-specific CNS neuroinflammatory diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrn-Jespersen, B M; Lindelof, Mette; Illes, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation with Pontine Perivascular Enhancement Responsive to Steroids (CLIPPERS) is an inflammatory CNS disorder characterized by 1) subacute onset of cerebellar and brainstem symptoms, 2) peripontine contrast-enhancing perivascular lesions with a "salt-and-pepper" appeara...... neurological deficits and progressive parenchymal atrophy on MRI may suggest neurodegenerative features, which emphasizes the need for early immunomodulatory treatment....

  1. Reducing work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) through design: Views of ergonomics and design practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punchihewa, Himan K G; Gyi, Diane E

    2015-01-01

    Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) affect the well-being of workers. Unfortunately, user requirements for design to reduce workplace risk factors for MSDs are not always effectively communicated to designers creating a mismatch between the user requirements and what is ultimately produced. To understand the views of practitioners of design and ergonomics regarding tools for participatory design and features they would like to see in such tools. An online questionnaire survey was conducted with a cohort of practitioners of ergonomics and design (n = 32). In-depth interviews were then conducted with a subset of these practitioners (n = 8). To facilitate discussion, a prototype integrated design tool was developed and demonstrated to practitioners using a verbalized walkthrough approach. According to the results of the questionnaire survey, the majority (70%) believed an integrated approach to participatory design would help reduce work-related MSDs and suggested ways to achieve this, for example, through sharing design information. The interviews showed the majority (n = 7) valued being provided with guidance on design activities and ways to manage and present information. It is believed that an integrated approach to design in order to help reduce work-related MSDs is highly important and a provision to evaluate design solutions would be desirable for practitioners of design and ergonomics.

  2. Work-related deaths among youth: Understanding the contribution of US child labor violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Kimberly J; Myers, Douglas J; Miller, Mary E

    2016-11-01

    Evidence shows that violations of the United States (US) child labor regulations are common. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the magnitude and nature of work-related deaths among youth involving violations of US child labor regulations. We analyzed Census of Fatal Occupational Injury data from 2001 to 2012 using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. Between 2001 and 2012, 406 workers under age 18 were recorded in the CFOI as having suffered a fatal work-related injury. Among these cases, 233 were covered by the US child labor regulations. Forty-three percent of these cases involved at least one violation. The majority of cases that were not covered by the regulations involved decedents working on their family's farms (N = 139). Violations of federal child labor regulations are a significant contributor to work-related deaths among youth in the United States. Increased investment in enforcement is needed to prevent further young worker deaths involving child labor violations. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:959-968, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The relationship between lifestyle, occupational health, and work-related factors with presenteeism amongst general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pit, Sabrina Winona; Hansen, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that general practitioners (GPs) are more likely to exhibit sickness presenteeism than other health professional groups or other high-income earners and less likely to take sick leave. This study aims to examine the relationship between lifestyle, occupational health, and work-related factors with presenteeism amongst GPs. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst GPs in 2011. Logistic regression was used to determine crude and adjusted odds ratios between lifestyle, occupational health, and work-related factors with presenteeism. Whilst adjusting for age and gender, exercising 1 to 3 times a week (odds ratio [OR] = 4.88), not having a good work-life balance (OR = 4.2), work-related sleep problems (OR = 2.55), moderate psychological distress (OR = 3.94), and poor or fair health (OR = 6.22) were associated with presenteeism. Increased burnout and reduced job satisfaction and workability due to the physical demands of the job were also associated with presenteeism. In conclusion, presenteeism amongst GPs can be addressed by implementing interventions in relation to physical activity, stress reduction, and sleep hygiene and improving work-life balance and the physical demands of the job.

  4. PSYCHOSOCIAL RISKS AND WORK-RELATED ACCIDENTS: RESEARCH STUDIES AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Osca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Work-related accidents are a problem of extreme importance due to their serious consequences. Available data on the level of personal injuries and on the economic cost of work accidents justify their study. However, the amount of variables involved, the difficulty of accessing the data and “experimental mortality”, among other reasons, may explain why this field is not a highly attractive one for researchers. Nevertheless, over the last few years, there has been a significant increase in research studies related to this area not only in our country but also in neighbouring countries. The economic crisis has aggravated this problem as employment has become more precarious. This article summarizes the principal results of two research projects carried out by the Social and Organizational Psychology Department of UNED on work-related accidents. The sample of the first study is made up of professional soldiers and the second comprises workers from two especially dangerous sectors, construction and agriculture. Following previous classifications that distinguish between personal, job and organizational variables, we review the main models and data obtained. Several practical recommendations to improve the research in this field as well as the prevention of work-related accidents can be found at the end of this article.

  5. The effects of compensatory workplace exercises to reduce work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Cristina Taubert de Freitas-Swerts

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain.METHOD: quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages: first: pre-test with the application of the questionnaires to the subjects; second: Workplace Exercise taking place twice a week, for 15 minutes, during a period of 10 weeks; third: post-test in which the subjects answered the questionnaires again. For data analysis, the descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics were used through the Wilcoxon Test.RESULTS: work-related stress was present in the assessed workers, but there was no statistically significant reduction in the scores after undergoing Workplace Exercise. However, there was a statistically significant pain reduction in the neck, cervical, upper, middle and lower back, right thigh, left leg, right ankle and feet.CONCLUSION: the Workplace Exercise promoted a significant pain reduction in the spine, but did not result in a significant reduction in the levels of work-related stress.

  6. Impact of work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention in physical therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung-Kwon; Seo, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Jang-Tae; Lee, A-Ram; Jeon, Ha-Neul; Han, Dong-Uk

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to provide basic data for solutions to reduce the turnover rate of physical therapists. It should help create efficient personnel and organization management by exploring the impact of the work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention and analyzing the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was conducted with 236 physical therapists working at medical institutions in the Daejeon and Chungcheong areas. For the analysis on the collected data, correlational and linear regression analyses were conducted using the SPSS 18.0 program and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. [Results] The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between turnover intention and work-related stress but a statistically significant negative correlation respectively between turnover intention and work environment. Work-related stress (β=0.415) had a significant positive impact on turnover intention and work environment (β=-0.387) had a significant negative impact on turnover intention. [Conclusion] To increase satisfaction level with the profession as well as the workplace for physical therapists, improvement of the work environment was the most necessary primary improvement.

  7. Subjective measures of work-related fatigue in automobile factory employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fu; Wang, Tianbo; Ning, Zuojiang

    2017-09-14

    Work-related fatigue is common among automobile factory employees. The purpose of this study was to assess fatigue of employees at a Chinese automobile factory. 238 employees (119 engineers and 119 workers) participated in this study. The following questionnaires were completed: demographic survey questionnaire, working condition questionnaire (WCQ), functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-fatigue (FACIT-F), subscales of multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI), and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Both engineers and workers experienced fatigue. The workers (35.6 years old, SD = 6.7) generally felt more fatigue than engineers (42.6 years old, SD = 6.4). The engineers claimed to be more satisfied with the working conditions than workers. The WCQ showed good properties for assessing work-related factors, which were significantly correlated with fatigue (r = 0.568 for engineers and r = 0.639 for workers). For engineers, general fatigue was observed regularly and frequently, and for workers, physical fatigue usually had a long duration. The fatigue was significantly correlated with work-related factors, especially working environment and monotony. For workers, the duration of the work day also affected their fatigue. Some improvements to the working condition in this automobile factory should be considered.

  8. Non-powered hand tool improvement research for prevention of work-related problems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rahul; Sain, Manoj Kumar; Meena, Makkhan Lal; Dangayach, Govind Sharan; Bhardwaj, Awadhesh Kumar

    2017-03-28

    In lower-middle-income countries, most of the work is performed manually using non-ergonomic hand tools which results in work-related health problems. Using hand tools designed in line with ergonomic principles may play an important role in reducing work-related health concerns significantly. Scientific databases (PubMed, EBSCOhost) and e-publishers were searched for articles from 1985 to 2015 using the following keywords: 'hand tool', 'ergonomics', 'usability' and 'design'. After applying selection criteria to 614 articles, 58 articles related to the physical design of hand tools were selected. Seventeen articles were related to hand tool improvement in the manufacturing sector. Musculoskeletal disorders were found to be the most frequently occurring work-related health problems. Most of the articles focused on product and qualitative variables for improvement in hand tools, while few articles considered human and task variables. Literature shows that hand tool improvement studies have been given less importance in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. However, some work of significance is reported in the agriculture sectors of these countries. Hence, it is concluded that ergonomic intervention in hand tools is much needed for those industries which employ traditional methods of working.

  9. The effects of compensatory workplace exercises to reduce work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas-Swerts, Fabiana Cristina Taubert; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain. METHOD: quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages: first: pre-test with the application of the questionnaires to the subjects; second: Workplace Exercise taking place twice a week, for 15 minutes, during a period of 10 weeks; third: post-test in which the subjects answered the questionnaires again. For data analysis, the descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics were used through the Wilcoxon Test. RESULTS: work-related stress was present in the assessed workers, but there was no statistically significant reduction in the scores after undergoing Workplace Exercise. However, there was a statistically significant pain reduction in the neck, cervical, upper, middle and lower back, right thigh, left leg, right ankle and feet. CONCLUSION: the Workplace Exercise promoted a significant pain reduction in the spine, but did not result in a significant reduction in the levels of work-related stress. PMID:25296147

  10. Work-related depression and associated factors in a shoe manufacturing factory in Haiphong City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khue Pham Minh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence and associated factors of work-related depression among the employees of a shoe manufacturing factory in Haiphong City, Vietnam. Material and Methods: We carried out this cross-sectional study among 420 workers in 2012 in Le Lai II Shoe Manufacturing Factory in Haiphong City, Vietnam using Karasek’s Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM IV tool for measuring depression. Results: The study results show that a relatively high proportion of workers (20.7% belongs to the high-strain group based on Karasek’s model. The prevalence of work-related depression among workers was relatively high (18.8%. The factors associated with depression at work were high psychological demand (adjusted OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.1–8.3, low social support (adjusted OR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.2–12.8, inadequate work protection materials (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 2.2–10.1 and work absenteeism (OR = 6.2, 95% CI: 2.5–18.9. Conclusions: Strengthening the social support network (involving supervisors and co‑workers, reducing psychological job demand and assuring work protection materials at the workplace may highly facilitate reducing work-related depression.

  11. Retirement planning and work-related variables in Chinese older nurses: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng-Cheng; Zhang, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Ying, Jie; Shi, Ying; Wang, Shou-Qi; Sun, Jiao

    2017-08-29

    To explore the situation of older nurses approaching retirement with regard to their retirement planning, and the relationship of their retirement planning behaviour with the job environment and job satisfaction under their current employment arrangements and other work-related variables. Nurse shortage has become a global phenomenon that can be alleviated by retaining older nurses in service. The Chinese government proposed the "Incremental Delay Retirement Age Policy." However, older nurses face delayed retirement but lack retirement plans. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among a convenience sample of older retiring nurses (n = 152; 84.92% response rate) recruited from every department of four large general hospitals in Changchun, Jilin Province from June to August 2016. The majority of the respondents presented poor retirement planning (n = 122, 80.3%). The independent variables of information exchange with patients, teamwork and personal growth and development explained approximately 16.6% of the variance in retirement planning. Nurse-patient communication and personal growth and development can promote retirement planning, but teamwork is negatively related to retirement planning. Retirement planning by Chinese older nurses is related to certain work-related variables. However, many other work-related variables were not associated with retirement planning and require further research. Overall, Chinese older retiring nurses must improve their retirement planning practices. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Work-related stress and mobbing: case series and gender differences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Stefano; Lanfranco, Andrea; Costa, Maria Cristina; Lumelli, Diego; Giorgi, Ines; Mazzacane, Fulvio; Scafa, Fabrizio; Candura, Stefano M

    2011-01-01

    The attention of international agencies and scientific community on mobbing (bullying) and work-related stress is increasing. However, research on gender differences and etiologic agents is still limited. This study describes the gender differences found in victims of mobbing and work-related stress in an Italian case series. Between 2001 and 2009, at the Occupational Medicine Unit of our Institution we examined 345 outpatients (197 women and 148 men) for suspected psychopathological work-related problems. After interdisciplinary diagnostic evaluation, the diagnosis of "mobbing syndrome" was formulated, according to international criteria (ICD-I0 and DSM-IV), in a minority of cases: 35 subjects. In the other workers, we found pre-existing psychiatric conditions (not related to work), or altered relationships dynamics with the colleagues. Significant gender differences emerged among people with "mobbing syndrome": there was a high prevalence of women (65%), with medium to high level of education; the most affected age group was between 34 and 45 years; several occupations were involved, with a clear preponderance of office workers. Women are mostly harassed for personal aspects related to emotional and relational factors; men for the content of their work. The knowledge of the phenomenon is an essential prerogative to contrast mobbing; this can be realized, at a preventive level, only through effective information and training for workers and employers, who have the legal obligation to preserve the integrity of the mental and physical status of their employees during the work.

  13. Work-related hand and lower-arm injuries in New Zealand, 1979 to 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, J D; Marshall, S W; Laing, R M

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of work-related hand and lower-arm injuries in New Zealand. Nonfatal hand and lower-arm injuries were identified from New Zealand's national database of hospital admissions for the period 1979 to 1988. Thirty-seven per cent (9714) of all such injuries (26,228) were work-related. Piercing and cutting instruments (38.5 per cent) and machinery (37.2 per cent) were the two most common agents of work-related hand and lower-arm injury. Specific occupations in which the number of cases was high included meat workers (n = 1020, 3.3 per 1000 employees), carpenters (n = 548, 2.2 per 1000), machine operators (n = 450, 11.9 per 1000) and sawmill workers (n = 498, 7.7 per 1000). The injury rate for meat workers, carpenter-joiners, machine operators and sawmillers increased significantly over the 10-year study period.

  14. Impact of work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention in physical therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung-kwon; Seo, Dong-kwon; Lee, Jang-Tae; Lee, A-Ram; Jeon, Ha-Neul; Han, Dong-Uk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to provide basic data for solutions to reduce the turnover rate of physical therapists. It should help create efficient personnel and organization management by exploring the impact of the work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention and analyzing the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was conducted with 236 physical therapists working at medical institutions in the Daejeon and Chungcheong areas. For the analysis on the collected data, correlational and linear regression analyses were conducted using the SPSS 18.0 program and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. [Results] The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between turnover intention and work-related stress but a statistically significant negative correlation respectively between turnover intention and work environment. Work-related stress (β=0.415) had a significant positive impact on turnover intention and work environment (β=−0.387) had a significant negative impact on turnover intention. [Conclusion] To increase satisfaction level with the profession as well as the workplace for physical therapists, improvement of the work environment was the most necessary primary improvement. PMID:27630432

  15. Work-related stress and role of personality in a sample of Italian bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergomi, Margherita; Modenese, Alberto; Ferretti, Enrica; Ferrari, Angela; Licitra, Giuseppe; Vivoli, Roberto; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Aggazzotti, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown that professional drivers are at risk of developing work-related stress. Stress may be responsible for a variety of adverse effects and may also be associated with an increased number of accidents. Perform an integrated, objective and subjective evaluation of work-related stress in bus drivers, that also considered the role of personality traits. Salivary α-amylase and cortisol were measured in 42 bus drivers. Subjective stress evaluation was performed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and Driver Stress Inventory (DSI). To evaluate personality traits, we administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) and the Impulsivity Inventory (IVE). Salivary biomarkers showed no associations with PSS-10 and personality traits. Cortisol levels were positively correlated with fatigue (r = 0.44) at the middle of the work-shift and with aggression (r = 0.51) at the end of a day off. At the end of the work-shift, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with hazard monitoring (r = -0.37) and salivary α-amylase was positively correlated with thrill-seeking (r = 0.36). Neuroticism (β= 0.44) and impulsiveness (β= 0.38) were predictors of perceived stress by multiple regression. An integrated method, considering both objective and subjective indicators, seems adequate to evaluate work-related stress in professional drivers. Personality traits are relevant in determining perception of stress.

  16. Cumulative exposure to work-related traumatic events and current post-traumatic stress disorder in New York City's first responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronazzo-Alman, Lupo; Eisenberg, Ruth; Shen, Sa; Duarte, Cristiane S; Musa, George J; Wicks, Judith; Fan, Bin; Doan, Thao; Guffanti, Guia; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Hoven, Christina W

    2017-04-01

    Cumulative exposure to work-related traumatic events (CE) is a foreseeable risk for psychiatric disorders in first responders (FRs). Our objective was to examine the impact of work-related CE that could serve as predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depression in FRs. Cross-sectional examination of previous CE and past-month PTSD outcomes and depression in 209 FRs. Logistic (probable PTSD; probable depression) and Poisson regressions (PTSD score) of the outcomes on work-related CE indexes, adjusting for demographic variables. Differences across occupational groups were also examined. Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined the sensitivity and specificity of CE indexes. All indexes were significantly and differently associated with PTSD; associations with depression were non-significant. The index capturing the sheer number of different incidents experienced regardless of frequency ('Variety') showed conceptual, practical and statistical advantages compared to other indexes. In general, the indexes showed poor to fair discrimination accuracy. Work-related CE is specifically associated with PTSD. Focusing on the variety of exposures may be a simple and effective strategy to predict PTSD in FRs. Further research on sensitivity and specificity of exposure indexes, preferably examined prospectively, is needed and could lead to early identification of individuals at risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-specific physical symptoms in relation to actual and perceived exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) : A multidisciplinary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, C.

    2015-01-01

    The association between non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) such as headache, fatigue, nausea and sleep problems and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the general population has been a subject of ongoing scientific debate and public concern. A limited number of epidemiological studies ha

  18. Reduction of chronic non-specific low back pain: A randomised controlled clinical trial on acupuncture and baclofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastqar Ali

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic non-specific low back pain (LBP is a prevalent (80% and multi-dimensional illness. This study aims to test whether acupuncture, baclofen, or combined treatment with acupuncture and baclofen alleviates symptoms of non-specific chronic LBP in men. Methods Eight-four (84 men aged 50-60 years with non-specific chronic LBP were randomly assigned to four groups: the baclofen group received only baclofen (30 mg/day; the acupuncture group received only acupuncture at selected acupoints; the acupuncture + baclofen group received combined treatment with acupuncture and baclofen treatments; and the control group received no pain reduction treatment. After five weeks of treatment, visual analogue scale (VAS and self-reported pain disability with the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ were conducted for outcome measures. Results After treatment, the baclofen, acupuncture and acupuncture + baclofen groups all had lower VAS and RDQ scores. Significantly higher reduction and improvement in VAS and RDQ scores were found in the acupuncture and acupuncture + baclofen groups compared to the baclofen group. Conclusion The present study indicates that the combined treatment of acupuncture and baclofen is more effective than baclofen treatment alone to reduce pain in patients with non-specific chronic LBP. Trial registration number ACTRN12609000698279

  19. Comparing non-specific physical symptoms in environmentally sensitive patients : Prevalence, duration, functional status and illness behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, Christos; Van Kamp, Irene; Hooiveld, Mariette; Yzermans, Joris; Lebret, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the potential clinical relevance of non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) reported by patients with self-reported environmental sensitivities. This study aimed to assess NSPS in people with general environmental sensitivity (GES) and idiopathic environmental intolera

  20. Comparing non-specific physical symptoms in environmentally sensitive patients: prevalence, duration, functional status and illness behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, C.; Kamp, I. van; Hooiveld, M.; Yzermans, J.; Lebret, E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the potential clinical relevance of non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) reported by patients with self-reported environmental sensitivities. This study aimed to assess NSPS in people with general environmental sensitivity (GES) and idiopathic environmental intolera

  1. Effect of multiple honey doses on non-specific acute cough in children. An open randomised study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli Sopo, S; Greco, M; Monaco, S; Varrasi, G; Di Lorenzo, G; Simeone, G

    2015-01-01

    Honey is recommended for non-specific acute paediatric cough by the Australian guidelines. Current available randomised clinical trials evaluated the effects of a single evening dose of honey, but multiple doses outcomes have never been studied. To evaluate the effects of wildflower honey, given for three subsequent evenings, on non-specific acute paediatric cough, compared to dextromethorphan (DM) and levodropropizine (LDP), which are the most prescribed over-the-counter (OTC) antitussives in Italy. 134 children suffering from non-specific acute cough were randomised to receive for three subsequent evenings a mixture of milk (90ml) and wildflower honey (10ml) or a dose of DM or LDP adjusted for the specific age. The effectiveness was evaluated by a cough questionnaire answered by parents. Primary end-point efficacy was therapeutic success. The latter was defined as a decrease in cough questionnaire score greater than 50% after treatment compared with baseline values. Three children were excluded from the study, as their parents did not complete the questionnaire. Therapeutic success was achieved by 80% in the honey and milk group and 87% in OTC medication group (p=0.25). Milk and honey mixture seems to be at least as effective as DM or LDP in non-specific acute cough in children. These results are in line with previous studies, which reported the health effects of honey on paediatric cough, even if placebo effect cannot be totally excluded. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. A systematic review on the effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine for chronic non-specific low-back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Rubinstein (Sidney); M. van Middelkoop (Marienke); T. Kuijpers (Ton); R.W.J.G. Ostelo (Raymond); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne); M.R. de Boer (Michiel Robert); B.W. Koes (Bart); M.W. van Tulder (Maurits)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this systematic review was to assess the effects of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT), acupuncture and herbal medicine for chronic non-specific LBP. A comprehensive search was conducted by an experienced librarian from the Cochrane Back Review Group (CBRG) in multiple data

  3. Associations of fatigue to work-related stress, mental and physical health in an employed community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, D M; Seidler, A; Nübling, M; Latza, U; Brähler, E; Klein, E M; Wiltink, J; Michal, M; Nickels, S; Wild, P S; König, J; Claus, M; Letzel, S; Beutel, M E

    2017-05-05

    While work-related fatigue has become an issue of concern among European employees, the relationship between fatigue, depression and work-related stressors is far from clear. The purposes of this study were (1) to determine the associations of fatigue with work-related stressors, severe medical disease, health behavior and depression in the working population and (2) to determine the unique impact of work-related stressors on fatigue. We used cross-sectional data of N = 7,930 working participants enrolled in the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) from 2007 to 2012 filled out the Personal Burnout Scale (PBS) of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), the PHQ-9, and a list of work-related stressors. A total of 27.5% reported increased fatigue, esp. women, younger persons with a lower social status and income, smokers, severely medically ill, previously and currently depressed participants. Fatigue was consistently associated with severe medical disease, health behavior and depression, which need to be taken into account as potential confounders when analyzing its relationship to work-related strains. Depression was consistently associated with work-related stressors. However, after statistically partialling out depression, fatigue was still significantly associated with work-related stress. Fatigue as an indicator of allostatic load is consistently associated with work-related stressors such as work overload after controlling for depression. The brief Personal Burn-out Scale is suitable for assessing work-related fatigue in the general population.

  4. PARASITIC INFECTION IN A YOUNG MAN PRESENTING WITH NON-SPECIFIC ABDOMINAL PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARNAZA A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 27-year-old man presented with a two-week history of central colicky abdominal pain associated with loose stools. Further history revealed that he had been exposed to contaminated waters. Stool investigation by direct wet stool smears revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica and Blastocystis hominis cysts. A diagnosis of amoebiasis secondary to E. histolytica and concurrent B. hominis infestation was made. We would like to emphasise the importance of clinical history including recent travel to endemic areas. Any suspicion of parasitic infection should prompt the clinician to investigate. Early diagnosisand management would prevent serious complications associated with E. Histolytica infection.

  5. Advice about Work-Related Issues to Peers and Employers from Head and Neck Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Trojanowski, Lucy; Tamminga, Sietske J; Ringash, Jolie; McQuestion, Maurene; Hoch, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory and descriptive study is to contribute to the sparse return-to-work literature on head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors. Interview participants were asked to reflect upon their work-related experience with cancer by answering two specific questions: (1) What advice would you give someone who has been newly diagnosed with head and neck cancer? (2) What advice would you give to employers of these people? Data were gathered through 10 individual semi-structured in-depth interviews with HNC clinic patients at a regional cancer center's head and neck clinic in Ontario, Canada. A constant comparative method of theme development was used. Codes identified in and derived from the data were discussed by research team members until consensus was reached. Codes with similar characteristics were grouped together and used to develop overarching themes. Work-related advice for peers focused on personal self-care and interactions within workplaces. Work-related advice to employers focused on demonstrating basic human values as well as the importance of communication. The study results suggest HNC clinic patients should be proactive with employers and help to set reasonable expectations and provide a realistic plan for work to be successfully completed. HNC clinic patients should develop communication skills to effectively disclose their cancer and treatment to employers. In this exploratory study, HNC clinic patients' advice was solution-focused underscoring the importance of self-care and pro-active communication and planning with employers. Employers were advised to demonstrate core human values throughout all phases of the work disability episode beginning at diagnosis.

  6. Work-related Musculoskeletal Pain among Different Dental Specialists in United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawi, Natheer H; Khatib, Hiba El; Rajoub, Lin; El-Sayed, Mariem; Naji, Rawand; Youssef, Reem; Kawas, Sausan Al

    2016-08-01

    Dentists are at a very high risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal pain. The present study aimed at studying the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among different dental specialists in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and correlating the region of pain with the type of clinical work done by the specialists. A sample of more than 100 dentists was chosen randomly from different emirates in UAE. An interview questionnaire was administered regarding the number of years of experience and the presence, region, duration, and type of musculoskeletal pain they experienced. Musculoskeletal pain is experienced by 83.3% of periodontists, 80% of conservative dentists, 77.8% of endodon-tists, 72.7% of orthodontists, 70% of oral surgeons, 63.6% of prosthodontists, 63% of general dental practitioners, and 50% of pedodontists. The results have also indicated that the region of experienced musculoskeletal pain does vary according to the specialty. From those dentists who experience work-related musculoskeletal pain, 80% of conservative dentists experience pain in neck and shoulders, 66.7% of periodontists, and 54.5% of orthodontists experience pain in the lower back region. More than 50% of endodontists experience pain in the neck and shoulders regions, and 39% of general dental practitioners who experience pain in the neck region. Preventive measures need to be taken to decrease the risk of dentists and dental specialists developing work-related musculoskeletal pain. The prevalence and distribution of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among registered general dental practitioners and dental specialists in UAE was not clearly documented. The study results indicated that the region that experienced musculoskeletal pain does vary according to the specialty.

  7. WORK RELATED INJURIES AMONG FISHERMEN – A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY IN FEW COASTAL AREAS OF SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The work of fishermen is considered one of the most dangerous and life-threatening professions all over the world.4 Many fishermen around the world suffer from fatal injuries every year due to harsh and dangerous environments. Hence, there is a need to know the pattern of injury and accordingly design preventive measures against work related injuries among the fishermen. OBJECTIVES  To estimate the prevalence and pattern of work related injuries among Fishermen.  To study the usage of PPE’s (Personal protective equipment’s among the Fishermen. METHODOLOGY A cross sectional study was conducted among 133 Fishermen in Four rural field practice areas of K. S. Hegde Medical Academy from July – September 2015. The sample size was arrived using prevalence of previous study. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. RESULTS Among 133 study subjects 125 were males and 8 were females. The mean age of the study subjects was 44 years. Majority (75.1% of them had their education up to primary level. Around 92.2% of the fishermen experienced some or other type of injury in their life time. Majority of the injuries were due to cuts. Majority (85.5% of the injuries were minor and 14.5% were severe. In the past 6 months 41% of the fishermen experienced injury mostly due to cuts and muscle strain. Most (58% of the injuries occurred in the sea. Only 11.7% were using PPEs, 64.7% of them had insurance and 27.1% of them utilized the facility of insurance. CONCLUSIONS Work related injuries among fishermen were high in and use of PPEs were low among the study subjects.

  8. Noise as an explanatory factor in work-related fatality reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshaies, Pierre; Martin, Richard; Belzile, Danny; Fortier, Pauline; Laroche, Chantal; Leroux, Tony; Nélisse, Hugues; Girard, Serge-André; Arcand, Robert; Poulin, Maurice; Picard, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Noise exposure in the workplace is a common reality in Québec, Canada as it is elsewhere. However, the extent to which noise acts as a causal or contributive factor in industrial work-related accidents has not been studied thoroughly despite its plausibility. This article aims to describe the importance or potential importance, during investigations looking into the specific causes of each work-related fatal accident, of noise as an explanatory factor. The written information contained in the accident reports pertaining to contextual and technical elements were used. The study used multiple case qualitative content analysis. This descriptive study was based on the content analysis of the 788 reports from the Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail du Québec [Workers' Compensation Board (WCB)] investigating the fatal work-related accidents between 1990 and 2005. The study was descriptive (number and percentages). Noise was explicitly stated as one of the explanatory factors for the fatal outcome in 2.2% (17/788) of the fatal accidents, particularly when the work involved vehicular movement or the need to communicate between workers. Noise was not typically considered a unique cause in the accident, notably because the investigators considered that the accident would have probably occurred due to other risk factors (for example, disregard of safety rules, shortcomings in work methods, and inadequate training). Noise is an important risk factor when communication is involved in work. Since noise is ubiquitous and may also interfere with vigilance and other risk factors for accidents, it may be a much more important contributing factor to accidents than is currently recognized.

  9. Work-related well-being of South African hospital pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan Rothmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Hospital pharmacists in South Africa are experiencing increased stress because of the high demand for their services, a lack of resources in hospital pharmacies, and the shortage of pharmacists in South Africa.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether job stress and coping strategies could predict the work-related well-being (burnout and work engagement of hospital pharmacists in South Africa.Motivation for the study: Information about the work-related well-being and coping strategies of hospital pharmacists could be used to plan individual and organisational interventions which can be used to retain them and to manage their well-being and performance.Research design, approach and method: A survey design was used. A stratified random sample (N = 187 of pharmacists in South African hospitals was studied. The Maslach Burnout Inventory – Human Services Survey, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Pharmacist Stress Inventory and the COPE questionnaire were administered.Main findings: The results showed that job related stress and three coping strategies (approach coping, avoidant coping, and turning to religion predicted burnout and work engagement of South African hospital pharmacists.Practical implications: Job stressors that are in the main responsible for the unfavourable work environment and that lead to the development of burnout amongst hospital pharmacists should be addressed. It is also important to enhance the coping capabilities of the hospital pharmacists.Contribution/value-add: The findings of this study provide insight into the factors impacting on the work-related well-being of hospital pharmacists in South Africa.

  10. Work-related muscoskeletal symptoms and work impairment among workers in Turkish companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye Mandıracıoğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Musculoskeletal disorders are major problems for the working population. The aims of study were to describe musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS and work impairment among workers and to analyze the relationships between these complaints and work related and individual factors. Method: This was a cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of 498 workers from four different companies in Izmir. A questionnaire including questions relating to socio-demographic characteristics, working conditions, lifestyle factors, body mass index, social relationships and job satisfaction was administered. The General Nordic Questionnaire for MSS was used to examine reported complaints over the past 12 months. Work activity impairment was evaluated by two items in this study. These attempted to determine whether health problems in the last 7 days affected daily life and working life. Results: Mean age was 35.3 ± 8.2 years (range 18-60 years; 79.2% of participants were male. 67.7% had experienced MSS in at least one body part during the past 12 months. Lower back pain was the most common MSS. There were no relationships between MSS and the following work-related factors: type of company, employment status, occupational category, career length, daily working hours, shift work, working overtime, night work, relationships with colleagues. Employees who were satisfied with their jobs and work conditions had a statistically significantly lower rate of complaints. There were significant correlations between poor posture and MSS. There was an association between MSS and work impairment. Conclusions: Musculoskeletal symptoms were a common problem among workers in the study population. An important risk was work-related poor posture.

  11. Cultural intelligence and work-related outcomes: A meta-analytic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaegel, Christopher; Richter, Nicole Franziska; Taras, Vas

    2017-01-01

    -cultural work context. Tests of the relative incremental validity show that CQ and its dimensions explain desirable work outcomes beyond the effect of personality traits and emotional intelligence. The results of commonality analysis reveal the unique and shared contribution of CQ dimensions in explaining......Over the last 15 years the research on cultural intelligence (CQ) has grown to a point that a quantitative synthesis of the existing empirical evidence on the relationship between CQ and work-related outcomes is needed to provide a foundation for future research in this direction. Based on 110...

  12. Proposed national strategies for the prevention of leading work-related diseases and injuries. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.

  13. How doctors apply semantic components to specify search in work-related information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Price, Susan L.; Delcambre, Lois L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Workplace searching is often context-specific and targets a “right answer” within some domain-specific aspect of the search topic. We have developed the semantic component (SC) model that allows searchers to specify a search within context-specific aspects of the main topic of documents. The goal...... of our study was to gain insight into how family practice physicians at sundhed.dk, a national healthcare portal in Denmark, applied the SC model to formulate queries to solve work-related search tasks. The results showed that doctors used the model purposively when choosing search facets and search...

  14. Relationship of chronotype to sleep, light exposure, and work-related fatigue in student workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeanne Sophie; Hébert, Marc; Ledoux, Elise; Gaudreault, Michaël; Laberge, Luc

    2012-04-01

    Students who work during the school year face the potential of sleep deprivation and its effects, since they have to juggle between school and work responsibilities along with social life. This may leave them with less time left for sleep than their nonworking counterparts. Chronotype is a factor that may exert an influence on the sleep of student workers. Also, light and social zeitgebers may have an impact on the sleep-related problems of this population. This study aimed to document sleep, light exposure patterns, social rhythms, and work-related fatigue of student workers aged 19-21 yrs and explore possible associations with chronotype. A total of 88 student workers (mean ± SD: 20.18 ± .44 yrs of age; 36 males/52 females) wore an actigraph (Actiwatch-L; Mini-Mitter/Respironics,Bend, OR) and filled out the Social Rhythm Metric for two consecutive weeks during the school year. Also, they completed the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion/Recovery Scale (OFER). Repeated and one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs), Pearson's chi-square tests, and correlation coefficients were used for statistical comparisons. Subjects slept an average of 06:28 h/night. Actigraphic sleep parameters, such as sleep duration, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, and sleep latency, did not differ between chronotypes. Results also show that evening types (n = 17) presented lower subjective sleep quality than intermediate types (n = 58) and morning types (n = 13). Moreover, evening types reported higher levels of chronic work-related fatigue, exhibited less regular social rhythms, and were exposed to lower levels of light during their waking hours (between 2 and 11 h after wake time) as compared to intermediate types and morning types. In addition, exposure to light intensities between 100 and 500 lux was lower in evening types than in intermediate types and morning

  15. Causes of work-related stress and individual strategies in knowledge work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Jensen, Per Langaa

    – it can be both exciting and stressful. With regard to causes, it is evident that the strains of knowledge work are often caused by the organization and management of the knowledge worker. Autonomy and individualized responsibility causes both a formal and informal transfer of responsibility...... to the individual for his or her working life. Self-managed knowledge workers thus experience that they stand alone when it comes to work-related problems and stress. The stress intervention applied is characteristically short-term and focused on the individual. The individual perspective consequently affects...

  16. Work-related post-traumatic stress reactions: the hidden dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, B.Z.

    A variety of occupational health hazards can cause employees to experience feelings of victimization and to develop work-related post-traumatic stress responses. The author presents assessment guidelines developed in work with people suffering from toxic exposures to help identify factors that can place employees at high risk for such stress responses. These guidelines can be adapted to evaluate employee reactions to any type of occupational injury. Clinicians also need to move beyond individual treatment approaches to address workplace and policy interventions.

  17. Reliability and Factorial Validity of Non-Specific and Tennis-Specific Pre-Planned Agility Tests; Preliminary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Damir; Uljevic, Ognjen; Peric, Mia; Spasic, Miodrag; Kondric, Miran

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Agility is an important quality in tennis, yet there is an evident lack of studies focussing on the applicability of tennis-specific agility performances and comparing them to equivalent non-specific agility performances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and factorial validity of three tests of pre-planned agility, performed in specific (with a tennis racquet) and non-specific (without a tennis racquet) conditions. The sample consisted of 33 tennis players (13 males and 20 females; age: 18.3 ± 1.1 years and 18.6 ± 1.3 years; body height: 185.4 ± 51 cm and 169.3 ± 4.2 cm, 74.0 ± 4.4 kg and 61.2 ± 3.1 kg, respectively). The variables comprised three agility tests: a 20-yard test, a T-test and the Illinois test, all performed in both specific and non-specific conditions. Between-subject and within-subject reliability were found to be high (Cronbach Alpha: 0.93 to 0.98; Coefficient of Variation: 3 to 8%), with better within-subject reliability and stability of the measurement for specific tests. Pearson’s product moment correlations between the non-specific and specific agility performances were high (r ≥0.84), while factor analysis extracted only one significant latent dimension on the basis of the Guttman-Kaiser criterion. The results of the 20-yard test were better when the test was conducted in the specific conditions (t-test = 2.66; p test, superior results were recorded in the non-specific conditions (t-test = 2.96; p test duration (about 20 s) and non-specific locomotion forms such as rotational movements. Considering the findings of the present study, when testing tennis-specific pre-planned agility, we suggest using tests of short duration (less than 10 s) and sport-specific types of locomotion. PMID:28210343

  18. Mannose-containing oligosaccharides of non-specific human secretory immunoglobulin A mediate inhibition of Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlesh K Murthy

    Full Text Available The role of antigen-specific secretory IgA (SIgA has been studied extensively, whereas there is a limited body of evidence regarding the contribution of non-specific SIgA to innate immune defenses against invading pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the effects of non-specific SIgA against infection with Vibrio cholerae O139 strain MO10 and biofilm formation. Seven day old infant mice deficient in IgA (IgA(-/- mice displayed significantly greater intestinal MO10 burden at 24 hr post-challenge when compared to IgA(+/+ pups. Importantly, cross-fostering of IgA(-/- pups with IgA(+/+ nursing dams reversed the greater susceptibility to MO10 infection, suggesting a role for non-specific SIgA in protection against the infection. Since biofilm formation is associated with virulence of MO10, we further examined the role of human non-specific SIgA on this virulence phenotype of the pathogen. Human non-specific SIgA, in a dose-dependent fashion, significantly reduced the biofilm formation by MO10 without affecting the viability of the bacterium. Such an inhibitory effect was not induced by human serum IgA, IgG, or IgM, suggesting a role for the oligosaccharide-rich secretory component (SC of SIgA. This was supported by the demonstration that SIgA treated with endoglycosidase H, to cleave the high-mannose containing terminal chitobiose residues, did not induce a reduction in biofilm formation by MO10. Furthermore, the addition of free mannose per se, across a wide dose range, induced significant reduction in MO10 biofilm formation. Collectively, these results suggest that mannose containing oligosaccharides within human non-specific secretory IgA can alter important virulence phenotypes of Vibrio cholerae such as biofilm formation, without affecting viability of the microorganism. Such effects may contribute significantly to innate immune defenses against invading pathogens in vivo in the gastrointestinal tract.

  19. Work-Related Violent Deaths in the US Taxi and Limousine Industry 2003 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumont Menéndez, Cammie K.; Socias-Morales, Christina; Daus, Matthew W.

    2017-01-01

    Objective We describe the magnitude and distribution of violent work-related deaths among taxi and limousine drivers, a high-risk population. Methods We analyzed rates using the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) for all violent work-related deaths in the taxi and limousine industry from 2003 to 2013. We described demographics, work characteristics, and other injury details, examining temporal trends for nativity and race/ethnicity. Results Men (adjusted rate ratio [RRadj] 6.1 [95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6–14.1]), blacks (RRadj 2.3 [95% CI 1.6–3.4]), Hispanics (RRadj 2.1 [95% CI 1.3–3.4]), and drivers in the South (RRadj 2.7 [95% CI 1.9–3.9]) had significantly higher fatality rates than comparison groups. Over time, the rates remained substantially higher compared with all workers. Conclusions The taxi and limousine industry continues to face a disproportionately dangerous working environment. Recommended safety measures implemented uniformly by cities, companies, and drivers could mitigate disparities. PMID:28665838

  20. Type D personality, depressive symptoms and work-related health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Denollet, Johan; Martens, Elisabeth J

    2012-02-01

    Personality may play a decisive role in perceiving work-related characteristics as stressful, leading to adverse health outcomes. Persons with a Distressed personality (Type D) experience increased negative emotions while inhibiting these emotions in social situations. We investigated the role of Type D personality on adverse health outcomes, sick leave, burnout and disability pension. The mediating role of depressive symptoms on this relation was assessed because Type D represents a vulnerability factor for depression. In a cross-sectional community sample of the Dutch population (n = 1,172) Type D personality was related to sick-leave (five categories of days per year), burnout, and disability pension, controlling for confounders. Individuals with Type D personality reported more burnout (27% vs 8%), disability pension (32% vs 11%), and had an increased incidence of short-term sick leave (χ(2 )= 13.1, p = 0.011) as compared to non-Type D's. Type D was significantly related to burnout (odds ratio (OR) = 4.16) and disability pension (OR = 2.62) independent of confounders. The Sobel test indicated significant mediation of depression on the relation between Type D personality and the work-related health outcomes. After mediation Type D personality remained significantly related to burnout, indicating a unique unshared effect. Type D personality is related to adverse health outcomes in the working population, mediated by depression, which warrants further research for this personality type.

  1. E-mailed standardized cognitive behavioural treatment of work-related stress: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwaard, Jeroen; Lange, Alfred; Bouwman, Manon; Broeksteeg, Janneke; Schrieken, Bart

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 7-week standardized cognitive behavioural treatment of work-related stress conducted via e-mail. A total of 342 people applied for treatment in reaction to a newspaper article. Initial screening reduced the sample to a heterogeneous (sub)clinical group of 239 participants. Participants were assigned randomly to a waiting list condition (n = 62), or to immediate treatment (n = 177). A follow-up was conducted 3 years after inception of the treatment. The outcome measures used were the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-42) and the Emotional Exhaustion scale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey (MBI-GS). Fifty participants (21%) dropped out. Both groups showed statistically significant improvements. Intention-to-treat analysis of covariance (ANCOVAs) revealed that participants in the treatment condition improved significantly more than those in the waiting control condition (0.001 or = d > or = 0.5 (anxiety)). The between-group effects ranged from d = 0.6 (stress) to d = 0.1 (anxiety). At follow-up, the effects were more pronounced, but this result requires replication in view of high attrition at follow-up. The results warrant further research on Internet-driven standardized cognitive behavioural therapy for work-related stress. Such research should include the direct comparison of this treatment with face-to-face treatment, and should address the optimal level of therapist contact in Internet-driven treatment.

  2. Work-related factors of presenteeism: The mediating role of mental and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohling, Rico; Buruck, Gabriele; Jungbauer, Kevin-Lim; Leiter, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Even though work-related factors have been found to play a crucial role in predicting presenteeism, studies investigating established theoretical frameworks of job design features and, in particular, underlying mechanisms are still very scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the areas of work life according to the Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS; Leiter & Maslach, 2004) on presenteeism. We examined mental and physical health as the underlying process of this relationship and assessed 2 presenteeism outcome measures and their relationship to each other-that is, the frequency of acts of presenteeism and work productivity. Using a cross-sectional design, the study was conducted in a sample of 885 employees from German public service. Results showed that the influence of some, but not all, areas of work life (workload, control, reward, and values) on both acts of presenteeism and health-related lost productivity was mediated by health indicators (well-being and musculoskeletal complaints). Moreover, we found a relationship between health-related lost productivity and acts of presenteeism. The present research clarifies the importance of work-related factors as antecedents of sickness presenteeism. The findings of our study also emphasize the necessity to include both acts of presenteeism and health-related lost productivity in presenteeism research and prevention. Presenteeism should be included as a measure in health prevention interventions because it reflects a crucial part of employee health that is not covered by other measures.

  3. [Evaluation of work-related stress in call-center workers: application of a methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansaloni, Gianluca; Cichella, Patrizia; Morelli, Carla; Alberghini, Villiam; Finardi, Elisabetta; Guglielmin, Antonia Maria; Nini, Donatella; Sacenti, Elisabetta; Stagni, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Several studies highlighting a correlation between call-center working conditions and psychosocial and ergonomic hazards. The aim of this study is to provide an operating methodology for the risk assessment of work-related stress. The study involved 554 call-centre workers employed in three insurance organizations and a mixed work group (worker, company and public health representative) for the study management was defined. We experimented an objective self-made checklist and then we administered a modified version of the OSI (Occupational Stress Indicator) questionnaire. We obtained complementary information from the two different data collection methods. The findings highlight a low level of perceived stress and health complaints compared with other studies previously carried out mainly in 'outsourcing' call centres: workers don't show stress symptoms without adopting coping strategies. Moreover the study underlines an acceptable level of work satisfaction, although there are low career opportunities. These results are probable due to the low job seniority associated to the high job security--the large majority of respondents, 87%, consisted of permanent workers--and the working time mainly consisted of daily shifts five days a week. Our methodology seems to be able to detect the level of work-related stress with a good degree of coherence. Furthermore the presence of a mixed work group determined a good level of involvement among the workers: 464 out of 554 operators completed and returned the questionnaire, representing a response rate of about 84%.

  4. Work-related violence against security guards--who is most at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, Tuula; Selin, Risto; Summala, Heikki; Virtanen, Marianna

    2011-01-01

    Studies on violence in the work of security guards are largely lacking. This study is unique in that it focuses on security guards (n=1,010) in Finland, and assesses the different forms, prevalence, and risk factors of the work-related violence they often face. Information to a survey instrument was obtained by first interviewing 30 volunteers. Then we made a cross-sectional mailed survey that was sent to a randomized group of 2,000 security guards. The response rate was 52. We found the prevalence of verbal aggression, threats of assault, and physical acts against security guards at least once a month to be 39%, 19%, and 15% respectively. As regards risk factors and who is most at risk, our results show that male gender, young age, low work experience, late working hours, and time pressure were associated with all three forms of work-related violence. Unlike other forms of violence, verbal aggression was highly prevalent outside the metropolitan area and directed towards both more and less experienced security guards. In prevention policies for violence, it is important to identify high-risk groups such as those who have less work experience.

  5. Investigating demographic, work-related and job satisfaction variables as predictors of motivation in Greek nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaki, Eleni; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Niakas, Dimitris

    2013-04-01

    To investigate whether demographic variables and work-related factors predict work motivation in Greek nurses. Nurses' motivation is crucial for an effective health-care system. Herzberg's and Maslow's motivation theories constitute the framework of this study. The sample consisted of 200 nurses from every sector and registration level in a University Hospital in Greece. The response rate was 76%. A previously developed and validated questionnaire addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements) on a five-point Likert scale. Most participants were women, married, between 36 years and 45 years old and higher education graduates. The highest mean score was recorded for 'achievements' (mean 4.07, SD 0.72), which emerged as the most important motivator. Job satisfaction, work sector and age were statistically significantly related to motivational factors. Nurses placed emphasis on motivators not strictly relating to economic rewards, but which can be seen as intrinsic and could lead to self-actualization. The constantly changing health sector requires that human resources and job context be a priority for health administrators. By promoting nurses' satisfaction and efficacy, an improvement in service quality is expected. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. The Spanish version of the Work-related Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (WAAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Francisco J; Odriozola-González, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Psychological flexibility, a key construct of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), has recently been found to be an important determinant of mental health and behavioral effectiveness in the workplace. This finding has led to designing a measure of psychological flexibility especially tailored to the workplace (the Work-related Acceptance and Action Questionnaire; WAAQ) in the hope that it may reveal even stronger associations with variables related to a work context. First, we back-translated the WAAQ into Spanish and then administered it to 209 workers, in addition to other relevant work-related measures. Data were very similar to those obtained with the original WAAQ version. The WAAQ showed a very good internal consistency (a = .92) and a clear one-factor structure. It also showed higher correlations with work-specific measures than a general measure of psychological inflexibility (the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II; AAQ-II). As hypothesized by the ACT theory, the correlation between the WAAQ and the AAQ-II was moderate but not so high as to suggest that they are assessing the same construct. This Spanish translation of the WAAQ emerges as a reliable and valid measure of psychological flexibility in relation to the workplace.

  7. Job satisfaction and work related variables in Chinese cardiac critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-E; While, Alison; Li, Shu-Jun; Ye, Wen-Qin

    2015-05-01

    To explore critical care nurses' views of their job satisfaction and the relationship with job burnout, practice environment, coping style, social support, intention to stay in current employment and other work-related variables. Nurse shortage is a global issue, especially in critical care. Job satisfaction is the most frequently cited factor linked to nurses' turnover. A convenience sample of cardiac critical care nurses (n = 215; 97.7% response rate) from 12 large general hospitals in Shanghai was surveyed from December 2010 to March 2011. Over half of the sample reported satisfaction with their jobs. Nurses with 10-20 years of professional experience and those who had taken all their holiday entitlement reported higher levels of job satisfaction. The independent variables of practice environment, intention to stay, emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment and positive coping style explained about 55% of the variance in job satisfaction. Chinese cardiac critical care nurses' job satisfaction was related to work related variables, which are amenable to managerial action. Our findings highlight the imperative of improving intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, together with the flexibility of work schedules to promote job satisfaction and staff retention. A clinical ladder system is needed to provide promotion opportunities for Chinese nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Patterns of daily energy management at work: relations to employee well-being and job characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru; de Bloom, Jessica; Korpela, Kalevi

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed at identifying subgroups of employees with similar daily energy management strategies at work and finding out whether well-being indicators and job characteristics differ between these subgroups. The study was conducted by electronic questionnaire among 1122 Finnish employees. First, subgroups of employees with unique and distinctive patterns of energy management strategies were identified using latent profile analysis. Second, differences in well-being indicators and job characteristics between the subgroups were investigated by means of ANCOVA. Four subgroups (i.e., patterns) were identified and named: Passives (n = 371), Averages (n = 390), Casuals (n = 272) and Actives (n = 89). Passives used all three (i.e., work-related, private micro-break and physical micro-break) strategies less frequently than other subgroups, whereas Actives used work-related and physical energy management strategies more frequently than other subgroups. Averages used all strategies on an average level. Casuals' use of all strategies came close to that of Actives, notably in a shared low use of private micro-break strategies. Active and Casual patterns maintained vigor and vitality. Autonomy and social support at work played a significant role in providing opportunities for the use of beneficial energy management strategies. Autonomy and support at work seem to support active and casual use of daily energy management, which is important in staying energized throughout the working day.

  9. PERCEPTION OF SUPERVISOR SUPPORT, PERSONALITY TRAITS OF EMPLOYEES AND THEIR SATISFACTION WITH WORK-RELATED FACETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Hadzic

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The planned downsizing in many organizations which are under the state ownership in Serbia produce a high level of uncertainty and a very specific organi-zational environment. Investigation of the satisfaction with work-related facets of the employees at the beginning of organizational changes is a very important step toward the building of an appropriate strategy for human resource management. We investigate the moderating effect of the variable “supervisor support“ on the correla-tions between variables “Big Five personality traits of employees” and “satisfaction with work-related facets”.Sample consists of 117 employees from a big state owned organization during an important organizational change. The following instruments are used: Big Five Locator - BFL, Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire - CSQ and Job Satisfac-tion Questionnaire - JS.Our results prove that the variable “supervisor support” moderate the correlati-ons between variable “personality trait conscientiousness” and variables “satisfacti-on with pay” and “satisfaction with benefit”; the correlation between variable “personality trait openness” and variable “satisfaction with pay”; the correlations between variable “personality trait negative affectivity” and variables ”satisfaction with pay”, “satisfaction with benefit”, and “satisfaction with recognition”.

  10. Healthcare Work and Organizational Interventions to Prevent Work-related Stress in Brindisi, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ettorre, Gabriele; Greco, Mariarita

    2015-03-01

    Organizational changes that involve healthcare hospital departments and care services of health districts, and ongoing technological innovations and developments in society increasingly expose healthcare workers (HCWs) to work-related stress (WRS). Minimizing occupational exposure to stress requires effective risk stress assessment and management programs. The authors conducted an integrated analysis of stress sentinel indicators, an integrated analysis of objective stress factors of occupational context and content areas, and an integrated analysis between nurses and physicians of hospital departments and care services of health districts in accordance with a multidimensional validated tool developed in Italy by the National Network for the Prevention of Work-Related Psychosocial Disorders. The purpose of this retrospective observational study was to detect and analyze in different work settings the level of WRS resulting from organizational changes implemented by hospital healthcare departments and care services of health districts in a sample of their employees. The findings of the study showed that hospital HCWs seemed to incur a medium level risk of WRS that was principally the result of work context factors. The implementation of improvement interventions focused on team development, safety training programs, and adopting an ethics code for HCWs, and it effectively and significantly reduced the level of WRS risk in the workplace. In this study HCW resulted to be exposed to occupational stress factors susceptible to reduction. Stress management programs aimed to improve work context factors associated with occupational stress are required to minimize the impact of WRS on workers.

  11. Woodworking injuries: a comparative study of work-related and hobby-related accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, F; Bonin, S; Jeunet, L; Pauchot, J; Tropet, Y; Obert, L

    2014-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to describe the injury characteristics and demographics of patients injured during woodworking activities, upon their arrival to the emergency department in a regional of France where this industry is prevalent. The secondary objective was to compare patient and injury characteristics for work-related and hobby-related accidents. A cohort of 87 patients who had suffered a woodworking accident over a two-year period was evaluated; 79 were available for follow-up. The context and circumstances of the accident, nature and location of the injuries and patient demographics were recorded. Hobby-related accidents accounted for two-thirds of the accidents (51/79). Most of the injured workers were either loggers (35%) or carpenters (46%). The hand was injured in 53 cases (67%). Work-related accidents resulted in significantly more serious consequences in terms of hospital stay, work stoppage, resumption of work or retraining than hobby-related accidents. For the workplace accidents, 86% occurred on new machines; more than 25% of the machines involved in accidents at home were over 15 years. Sixty-eight per cent of workers were wearing their safety gear, while only 31% of those injured during recreational woodworking wore the appropriate gear. Several elements of prevention should be improved: information about the need to maintain the equipment, protect the worker with suitable clothing, and learn which maneuvers are considered hazardous. Safety gear should be regularly inspected in the workplace.

  12. Work-related non-crash heavy vehicle driver fatalities in Australia, 2000-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher B; Ibrahim, Joseph E; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the nature and mechanisms of a case series of Australian work-related non-crash heavy vehicle driver fatalities. The study used existing population-based mortality data on non-crash work-related heavy vehicle (gross vehicle mass >4.5 t) driver fatalities reported to Australian coroners between 2000 and 2009. There were 47 fatalities with a mean age of 46.5 years. Available toxicology detected that six of 16 drivers consumed illegal drugs or alcohol. The most frequent task was attending to cargo (n=22, 47%); 31 (66%) fatalities occurred when the driver was working alone. Brake issues (n=21, 45%) were the most frequent contributing factor, and crushing the most common mechanism (n=33, 70%), particularly between the vehicle and another object (n=22, 47%). Fatalities occurred in most jurisdictions averaging 4.7 per year overall. A large number of truck drivers die performing non-driving tasks. Crushing following vehicle rolling accounts for almost 50% of fatalities. Considering this pathway may provide prevention opportunities.

  13. Life satisfaction and work-related satisfaction among anesthesiologists in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaszynska, Ewelina; Stankiewicz-Rudnicki, Michal; Szatko, Franciszek; Wieczorek, Andrzej; Gaszynski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the level of life and job satisfaction of Polish anesthesiologists and to explore the impact of extrinsic-hygiene and intrinsic-motivating determinants. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among consultant anesthesiologists in Lodz region. The questionnaire concerned patient care, burden, income, personal rewards, professional relations, job satisfaction in general, and life satisfaction. Respondents were asked to rate their level of satisfaction for each item on a seven-point Likert scale (1: extremely dissatisfied; 7: extremely satisfied). 86.03% of anesthesiologists were satisfied with their economic status, 77.94% found their health status satisfactory, and 52.21% viewed their personal future optimistically. In general, 71.32% of anesthesiologists were satisfied with their current job situation. Among the less satisfying job aspects were work-related stress (2.49; SD = 1.23), administrative burden (2.85; SD = 1.47), workload (3.63; SD = 1.56), and leisure time (3.09; SD = 1.44). Considerable work-related stress leads to job dissatisfaction among anesthesiologists. There is an association between job satisfaction and health status, social life, and economic status. Working for long hours by anesthesiologists results in a high risk of burnout.

  14. Precipitin response of potato processing workers to work-related microbial allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Skórska, Czesława; Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Cholewa, Grazyna; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Milanowski, Janusz; Góra, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Serum samples from 61 potato processing workers and 30 urban dwellers not exposed to organic dusts (as a reference group) were examined in agar-gel precipitation test performed by Ouchterlony double diffusion method with the antigens of 12 microorganisms associated with organic dusts. Each serum was tested twice: not concentrated, and three-fold concentrated, for the detection of low levels of precipitins. The antibody response of workers to the antigen of coryneform bacterium Agromyces ramosus was high, at both not concentrated and 3-fold concentrated sera (respectively 29.5% and 45.9%)--significantly greater than in reference group (p potato workers to antigen of Penicillium citrinum was high only at 3-fold concentrated sera (55.7%)--significantly higher compared to reference group (p potato workers to other antigens was either unspecific or low, showing no significant difference compared to reference group. Twenty eight out of 61 examined potato processing workers (45.9%) reported the occurrence of the work-related pulmonary symptoms. The frequency of positive precipitin reactions to Agromyces ramosus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Penicillium citrinum and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus was significantly greater in the subgroup of 28 workers reporting work-related pulmonary symptoms compared to 33 asymptomatic workers (p potato processing workers.

  15. [Examination of work-related stress and coping strategies among ambulance- and air-ambulance workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiszler, Bence; Karamánné Pakai, Annamária; Szabó, Zoltán; Raposa, László Bence; Pónusz, Róbert; Radnai, Balázs; Endrei, Dóra

    2016-11-01

    Among Hungary's health sector workers the presence of a high level of stress is known, which can affect the individual. The aim of the authors was to uncover major risk factors causing work-related stress, as well as its extent, and positive and negative coping strategies among ground and aerial rescue workers. From June until October 2015, a national survey was conducted among Hungarian rescue workers. An own questionnaire and Rahe Stress and coping validated short questionnaire online form were used. A total of 141 persons took part in the survey. As compared to air-ambulance workers, ground rescue workers were exposed to higher work-related stress effects (p<0.01), resulting in a much larger variety of physical and psychological symptoms (p<0.05). Based on Global Stress and Coping Index effective coping mechanisms were observed among air rescue workers (p<0.01). It is important to perform regular professional theoretical and practical training. Human resource management should pay attention on occupational stress reduction. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(45), 1802-1808.

  16. The Association between Work-Related Rumination and Heart Rate Variability: A Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropley, Mark; Plans, David; Morelli, Davide; Sütterlin, Stefan; Inceoglu, Ilke; Thomas, Geoff; Chu, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between perseverative cognition in the form of work-related rumination, and heart rate variability (HRV). We tested the hypothesis that high ruminators would show lower vagally mediated HRV relative to low ruminators during their leisure time. Individuals were classified as being low (n = 17) or high ruminators (n = 19), using the affective scale on the work-related rumination measure. HRV was assessed using a wrist sensor band (Microsoft Band 2). HRV was sampled between 8 pm and 10 pm over three workday evenings (Monday to Wednesday) while individuals carried out their normal evening routines. Compared to the low ruminators, high affective ruminators demonstrated lower HRV in the form of root mean square successive differences (RMSSDs), relative to the low ruminators, indicating lower parasympathetic activity. There was no significant difference in heart rate, or activity levels between the two groups during the recording periods. The current findings of this study may have implications for the design and delivery of interventions to help individuals unwind post work and to manage stress more effectively. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:28197087

  17. Life Satisfaction and Work-Related Satisfaction among Anesthesiologists in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Gaszynska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the level of life and job satisfaction of Polish anesthesiologists and to explore the impact of extrinsic-hygiene and intrinsic-motivating determinants. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among consultant anesthesiologists in Lodz region. The questionnaire concerned patient care, burden, income, personal rewards, professional relations, job satisfaction in general, and life satisfaction. Respondents were asked to rate their level of satisfaction for each item on a seven-point Likert scale (1: extremely dissatisfied; 7: extremely satisfied. Results. 86.03% of anesthesiologists were satisfied with their economic status, 77.94% found their health status satisfactory, and 52.21% viewed their personal future optimistically. In general, 71.32% of anesthesiologists were satisfied with their current job situation. Among the less satisfying job aspects were work-related stress (2.49; SD = 1.23, administrative burden (2.85; SD = 1.47, workload (3.63; SD = 1.56, and leisure time (3.09; SD = 1.44. Conclusions. Considerable work-related stress leads to job dissatisfaction among anesthesiologists. There is an association between job satisfaction and health status, social life, and economic status. Working for long hours by anesthesiologists results in a high risk of burnout.

  18. Effects of personal exposures on pulmonary function and work-related symptoms among sawmill workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandryk, J; Alwis, K U; Hocking, A D

    2000-06-01

    Three green mills and two dry mills were studied for personal exposure to wood dust and biohazards associated with wood dust and their correlation to lung function and work-related symptoms among sawmill workers. The levels of exposure to endotoxin, (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan, bacteria and fungi were high in green mills compared with dry mills. Compared with dry mill workers, green mill workers had significantly high prevalence of regular cough, chronic bronchitis, regular blocked nose, regular sneezing, sinus problems, flu-like symptoms, and eye and throat irritation. Significant positive correlations were found among endotoxin and Gram (-)ve bacteria, (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan and fungi, and endotoxin and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan exposure levels. Significant dose-response relationships were found for personal exposures and lung function, and lung function and work-related respiratory symptoms. The significant correlations found for respirable fractions show that not only inhalable but also respirable fractions are important in determining potential health effects of exposure to wood dust. The management and employees of the sawmilling industry should be educated on the potential health effects of wood dust. Wood dust should be controlled at the source.

  19. Production of Solar Cells in Space from Non Specific Ores by Utilization of Electronically Enhanced Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    An ideal method of construction in space would utilize some form of the Universal Differentiator and Universal Constructor as described by Von Neumann (1). The Universal Differentiator is an idealized non ore specific extractive device which is capable of breaking any ore into its constituent elements, and the Universal Constructor can utilize these elements to build any device with controllability to the nanometer scale. During the Human Exploration Initiative program in the early 1990s a conceptual study was done (2) to understand whether such devices were feasible with near term technology for the utilization of space resources and energy. A candidate system was proposed which would utilize electronically enhanced sputtering as the differentiator. Highly ionized ions would be accelerated to a kinetic energy at which the interaction between them and the lattice elections in the ore would be at a maximum. Experiments have shown that the maximum disintegration of raw material occurs at an ion kinetic energy of about 5 MeV, regardless of the composition and structure of the raw material. Devices that could produce charged ion beams in this energy range in space were being tested in the early 1990s. At this energy, for example an ion in a beam of fluorine ions yields about 8 uranium ions from uranium fluoride, 1,400 hydrogen and oxygen atoms from ice, or 7,000 atoms from sulfur dioxide ice. The ions from the disintegrated ore would then be driven by an electrical field into a discriminator in the form of a mass spectrometer, where the magnetic field would divert the ions into collectors for future use or used directly in molecular beam construction techniques. The process would require 10-7 Torr vacuum which would be available in space or on the moon. If the process were used to make thin film silicon solar cells (ignoring any energy inefficiency for beam production), then energy break even for solar cells in space would occur after 14 days.

  20. Statistical analysis on protein-protein interface in crystals:Specific and non-specific interfaces are differentially distributed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Dan; ZENG Zonghao

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of contact areas, or fractions of contacting, of protein-protein interfaces in crystals of pure polypeptides contains two components: a major exponential distribution and a minor flatter distribution. Suppose the two components belong to specific and non-specific contacts, respectively, then the probability of a contact with a given area, or fraction of contacting, can be estimated. By dividing the whole database into two sub-databases, one of them is known to contain more specific contacts than the other, this hypothesis is confirmed and it is also proved that the fraction of contacting is more effective than the contact area on discriminating specific and non-specific contacts in protein crystals.

  1. Inter-tester reliability of a new diagnostic classification system for patients with non-specific low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tom Erik; Olsen, Steen; Laslett, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Most patients referred to physiotherapy with low back pain are without a precise medical diagnosis. Identification of subgroups of non-specific low back pain patients may improve clinical outcomes and research efficiency. A pathoanatomic classification system has been developed, classifying......% and the kappa coefficient was 0.62 for the mutually exclusive syndromes in the classification system. Agreement rates for each of the syndromes ranged from 74% to 100% and kappa coefficients ranged from 0.44 to 1.00. The findings suggest the inter-tester reliability of the system is acceptable. The relatively...... patients with non-specific low back pain into 12 different syndromes and three subcategories based on history and physical examination. The purpose of this study was to estimate the inter-tester reliability of clinical tests used as criteria for classifying patients. Ninety patients with chronic low back...

  2. Comparative effectiveness of manipulation, mobilisation and the Activator instrument in treatment of non-specific neck pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Peter

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck pain is a common problem and different forms of manual therapy are used in its treatment. The purpose of this systematic review was to critically appraise the literature that directly compared manipulation, mobilisation and the Activator instrument for non-specific neck pain. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, MANTIS and CINAHL were searched from their inception to October 2005 for all English language randomised clinical trials that directly compared manipulation, mobilisation and the Activator instrument. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to select the studies and these studies were then evaluated using validated criteria. Results Five such studies were identified. The methodological quality was mostly poor. Findings from the studies were mixed and no one therapy was shown to be more effective than the others. Conclusion Further high quality research has to be done before a recommendation can be made as to the most effective manual method for non-specific neck pain.

  3. The impact of different breast support garments on larger breasted women with non-specific back pain - Abstract

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract\\ud \\ud Background: Larger breasted women are at higher risk of wearing ill-fitting breast-support garments. Failure to support breasts during everyday activity can lead to physiological conditions including back and breast pain. This study aimed to identify initial and short-term (4 weeks) biomechanical change and patient reported outcome measures (PROMS) in larger breasted women with non-specific back pain (NSBP) when wearing different breast-support garments.\\ud \\ud Methods & Resul...

  4. Utility of craniosacral therapy in treatment of patients with non-specific low back pain. Preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białoszewski, Dariusz; Bebelski, Marcin; Lewandowska, Monika; Słupik, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Non-specific low back pain is an increasingly common musculoskeletal ailment. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of craniosacral therapy techniques in the treatment of patients with lumbosacral spine overload and to compare its effectiveness to that of trigger point therapy, which is a recognised therapeutic approach. The study enrolled 55 randomly selected patients (aged 24-47 years) with low back pain due to overload. Other causes of this condition in the patients were ruled out. The participants were again randomly assigned to two groups: patients treated with craniosacral therapy (G-CST) and patients treated with trigger point therapy (G-TPT). Multiple aspects of the effectiveness of both therapies were evaluated with the use of: an analogue scale for pain (VAS) and a modified Laitinen questionnaire, the Schober test and surface electromyography of the multifidus muscle. The statistical analysis of the outcomes was based on the basic statistics, the Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon's signed rank test. The statistical significance level was set at p≤0.05. Both groups demonstrated a significant reduction of pain measured with the VAS scale and the Laitinen questionnaire. Moreover, the resting bioelectric activity of the multifidus muscle decreased significantly in the G-CST group. The groups did not differ significantly with regard to the study parameters. 1. Craniosacral therapy and trigger point therapy may effectively reduce the intensity and frequency of pain in patients with non-specific low back pain. 2. Craniosacral therapy, unlike trigger point therapy, reduces the resting tension of the multifidus muscle in patients with non-specific lumbosacral pain. The mechanism of these changes requires further research. 3. Craniosacral therapy and trigger point therapy may be clinically effective in the treatment of patients with non-specific lumbosacral spine pain. 4. The present findings represent a basis for conducting further and prospective

  5. Efficacy of manipulation for non-specific neck pain of recent onset: design of a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Manipulation is a common treatment for non-specific neck pain. Neck manipulation, unlike gentler forms of manual therapy such as mobilisation, is associated with a small risk of serious neurovascular injury and can result in stroke or death. It is thought however, that neck manipulation provides better results than mobilisation where clinically indicated. There is long standing and vigorous debate both within and between the professions that use neck manipulation as well a...

  6. Clinimetric evaluation of methods to measure muscle functioning in patients with non-specific neck pain: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Neck pain is a significant health problem in modern society. There is evidence to suggest that neck muscle strength is reduced in patients with neck pain. This article provides a critical analysis of the research literature on the clinimetric properties of tests to measure neck muscle strength or endurance in patients with non-specific neck pain, which can be used in daily practice. Methods A computerised literature search was performed in the Medline, CINAHL and Embase da...

  7. Massage and modality effects on treatment of sub-acute and chronic non specific low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Panahi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low back pain (LBP is the second most common medical complaint. It’s estimated that about 70-85% of the population will suffer at least one episode of LBP during their life. The aim of present study was to compare the effects of massage and modality in patient with sub-acute and chronic non-specific LBPMethods: In this clinical trial study 30 women (MeanAge: 33.96±10.93 with sub-acute and chronic non-specific LBP (Mean pain-duration:9.68±3.38 were included in the study and randomized into two equal groups; massage and modality. Patients in both group underwent 10 sessions treatment period. Pain (numerical-pain-scale,NRS, functional disability index (oswestry-disability-index,ODI and lumbar-flexion(modified-schober-testwere recorded before and immediately after treatment period. Data was analyzed using paired t-test and independent sample t-test.Results: Significant improvement showed in both groups separately in pain-intensity, disability level, and flexion after treatment (P<0.001. Statically significant improvement was seen in massage group in comparison to modality group for NRS & ODI after treatment (PNRS=0.015, PODI=0.013. There was a not significant change in point of lumber flexion between two groupsConclusion: The results showed that both massage and modality had beneficial effects on the improvement of pain, functional disability and lumbar flexion in patients with non-specific LBP. It seems that massage is better than modality for non-specific LBP in a short period of time.

  8. Comparative effectiveness of manipulation, mobilisation and the Activator instrument in treatment of non-specific neck pain: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Miller Peter; Gemmell Hugh

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Neck pain is a common problem and different forms of manual therapy are used in its treatment. The purpose of this systematic review was to critically appraise the literature that directly compared manipulation, mobilisation and the Activator instrument for non-specific neck pain. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, MANTIS and CINAHL) were searched from their inception to October 2005 for all English language randomised clinical trials that directly compared manipulatio...

  9. Comparative effectiveness of manipulation, mobilisation and the Activator instrument in treatment of non-specific neck pain: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gemmell, Hugh; Miller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background Neck pain is a common problem and different forms of manual therapy are used in its treatment. The purpose of this systematic review was to critically appraise the literature that directly compared manipulation, mobilisation and the Activator instrument for non-specific neck pain. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, MANTIS and CINAHL) were searched from their inception to October 2005 for all English language randomised clinical trials that directly compared manipulation, mobili...

  10. Results of a Pilates exercise program in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, M C; Rodríguez-Torres, J; Cabrera-Martos, I; Díaz-Pelegrina, A; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, M E; Castellote-Caballero, Y

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effects of a Pilates exercise program on disability, pain, lumbar mobility, flexibility and balance in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. Randomized controlled trial. University laboratory. A total of 54 patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. Patients were randomly allocated to an experimental group ( n=27) included in a Pilates exercise program or to a control group ( n=27) receiving information in a form of a leaflet. Disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and Oswestry Disability Index), current, average and pain at it least and at its worst (Visual Analogue Scales), lumbar mobility (modified Shober test), flexibility (finger-to-floor test) and balance (single limb stance test) were measured at baseline and after the intervention. A between-group analysis showed significant differences in the intervention group compared to the control group for both disability scores, the Rolland-Morris questionnaire (mean change±standard deviation of 5.31±3.37 and 2.40±6.78 respectively and between-groups mean difference of 3.2 ± 4.12, p=0.003) and the Oswestry Disability Index ( pPilates exercise program is effective in improving disability, pain, flexibility and balance in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

  11. [Application of aspartic acid as a non-specific binding inhibitor in the enrichment of phosphopeptides with titanium dioxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Ming; Bi, Wei; Lu, Zhuang; Song, Lina; Jia, Wei; Zhang, Yangjun; Qian, Xiaohong; Cai, Yun

    2010-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of metal oxides widely used for phosphopeptide enrichment in phosphoproteomic research nowadays. However it can bind to some non-phosphorylated peptides containing one or more aspartic acid residues and/or glutamic acid residues. These non-phosphorylated peptides can be eluted along with phosphorylated peptides and cause the reduction of the selectivity. Conventional inhibitors for the non-specific binding of non-phosphorylated peptides can often contaminate the ion source of mass spectrometry and therefore their applications are limited in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In this study, aspartic acid was reported as a novel non-specific binding inhibitor for phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium dioxide. Firstly, the tryptic peptide mixtures of 3 and 9 standard proteins were used for the comparison of the enrichment efficiency of titanium dioxide. The effects with the presence of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and no-inhibitor in the enrichment systems were compared separately. The results showed that aspartic acid can greatly improve the selectivity of titanium dioxide for phosphopeptide enrichment. Then, aspartic acid was used for the enrichment of tryptic peptide mixture of C57BL/6J mouse liver lysate and good results were also obtained which demonstrated that aspartic acid was a promising non-specific binding inhibitor for complex biological samples. Besides, no contamination in the ion source occurred during the mass spectrometric analysis.

  12. [Design of an educational tool for Primary Care patients with chronic non-specific low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cerrillo, Juan Luis; Rondón-Ramos, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Current scientific evidence on the management of chronic non-specific low back pain highlights the benefits of physical exercise. This goal is frequently undermined due to lack of education of the subjects on the multifactorial, benign, and non-specific nature of low back pain, which can lead to a chronic disease with genuine psychosocial risk factors. Its influence may not only interfere with individual decision to adopt more adaptive coping behaviors, but also with the endogenous mechanisms of pain neuromodulation. Thus, the educational strategies and control of these factors have become important objectives to be incorporated into the management of the disorder and research guidelines. This paper presents the theoretical models and the scientific basis on which it has based the design of an educational tool for patients with chronic non-specific low back pain treated in Primary Care physiotherapy. Structure, content and objectives are also presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. The effectiveness of isometric exercises as compared to general exercises in the management of chronic non-specific neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad; Soomro, Rabail Rani; Ali, Syed Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of isometric exercises as compared to general exercises in chronic non-specific neck pain. For this randomised controlled trial total 68 patients (34 each group) with chronic non-specific neck pain were recruited from Alain Poly Clinic and Institute of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi between May, 2012 and August, 2012. Simple randomisation method was used to assign participants into isometric exercise group and general exercise groups. The isometric exercise group performed exercises for neck muscle groups with a rubber band and general exercises group performed active range of movement exercises for all neck movements. Patients in both groups received 3 supervised treatment sessions per week for 12 weeks. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), North wick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire and goniometer were used to assess pain, disability and neck range of movements at baseline and after 12 weeks. Both interventions showed statistically significant improvements in pain, function and range of movement p = 0.001f or isometric exercise group, p = 0.04 for general exercises group and p = 0.001 for range of movement. However, mean improvements in post intervention VAS score and North wick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire score was better in isometric exercises group as compared to general exercise group. In conclusion, both interventions are effective in the treatment of chronic non-specific neck pain however; isometric exercises are clinically more effective than general exercises.

  14. The role of social capital in reducing non-specific psychological distress: the importance of controlling for omitted variable bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Richard M; Brown, Timothy T; Rice, Jennifer K

    2007-08-01

    This paper examines the relationship between area-level social capital and non-specific psychological distress. It demonstrates that not controlling for non-time-varying omitted variables can seriously bias research findings. We use data from three cross-sections of the US National Health Interview Survey (1999, 2000, and 2001): 37,172 observations nested within 58 Metropolitan Statistical Areas. We also add data from the Area Resource File and County Business Patterns. We use a validated measure of social capital, the Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), which measures structural social capital. We estimate a two-level multilevel linear model with a random intercept. Non-specific psychological distress is measured using a valid and reliable indicator, the K6. Individual-level variables include sex, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, family income, smoking status, exercise status, and number of visits to a health professional. Area-level covariates include the PSCI, the unemployment rate, psychiatrists per 1000 population, non-psychiatric physicians per 1000 population, and area-level indicators to account for non-time-varying area-level omitted variable bias. Time dummies are also included. We find that lagged area-level social capital is negatively related to non-specific psychological distress among individuals whose family income is less than the median. These associations are much larger when we control for non-time-varying area-level omitted variables.

  15. Is there a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in patients with non-specific low back pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejer René

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased center of pressure excursions are well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby the altered postural sway includes both higher mean sway velocities and larger sway area. No investigation has been conducted to evaluate a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in adults (aged 50 or less with non-specific low back pain. Methods Seventy-seven patients with non-specific low back pain and a matching number of healthy controls were enrolled. Center of pressure parameters were measured by three static bipedal standing tasks of 90 sec duration with eyes closed in narrow stance on a firm surface. The perceived pain intensity was assessed by a numeric rating scale (NRS-11, an equal number of patients (n = 11 was enrolled per pain score. Results Generally, our results confirmed increased postural instability in pain sufferers compared to healthy controls. In addition, regression analysis revealed a significant and linear increase in postural sway with higher pain ratings for all included COP parameters. Statistically significant changes in mean sway velocity in antero-posterior and medio-lateral direction and sway area were reached with an incremental change in NRS scores of two to three points. Conclusions COP mean velocity and sway area are closely related to self-reported pain scores. This relationship may be of clinical use as an objective monitoring tool for patients under treatment or rehabilitation.

  16. Return to work expectations of workers on long-term non-work-related sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampere, Maite; Gimeno, David; Serra, Consol; Plana, Manel; López, Juan Carlos; Martínez, José Miguel; Delclos, George L; Benavides, Fernando G

    2012-03-01

    Despite suggestions that worker perception might be the best predictor of return to work (RTW), there still is limited research on time to RTW in workers with lengthy non-work-related sick leave. Prospective cohort study of 663 workers with a current long-term non-work-related sick leave episode recruited during the first medical visit in a mutua (Spanish health insurance company) and followed until their sick leave episode ended. Workers completed a baseline questionnaire regarding their perceptions of sick leave episode and expectations of RTW (i.e., health status, work ability, expectations and time required to RTW, self-efficacy and self-perceived connection between health and job). Time to RTW was established based on the mutua's register. Cox regression models were used to examine the associations of worker perception and expectation of RTW with time to RTW within the study population as a whole as well as in three diagnostic subgroups (i.e., musculoskeletal disorders, mental disorders and other physical conditions). As a whole, time to RTW was longer for workers reporting poor health [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.71, 95%CI 0.59-0.85], extremely reduced work ability (HR = 0.69, 95%CI 0.53-0.88), a longer period of time required to RTW (HR = 0.36, 95%CI 0.25-0.52) and lack of expectation of returning to the same job (HR = 0.13, 95%CI 0.06-0.31). Workers with musculoskeletal and other physical conditions showed a similar pattern to whole study population, while workers with mental disorders did not. Self-required time and RTW expectations are important prognostic factors in sick listed workers by all types of health conditions certified as non-work-related. Questioning the workers on their perceptions and expectations of RTW during medical visits could help health care professionals to identify individuals at risk of long-term sickness absence and facilitate triage and management of the patient.

  17. Low back pain and work-related factors among nurses in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Kyung Ja; Cho, Sung-Hyun

    2011-02-01

    To examine the relationship of low back pain prevalence and treatment to personal and work-related characteristics among intensive care unit nurses. Back pain is the most common work-related health problem among nurses. A cross-sectional study including a survey conducted in 2007. The study sample included 1345 nurses in 65 intensive care units in 22 South Korean hospitals. Back pain prevalence was measured by the frequency of back pain (always, once a week, once a month or once in two or more months) during the past year. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between back pain and personal and work-related characteristics. The mean age of nurses was 27.2 years. Overall, 90.3% of nurses had back pain at least once a month (21.9% always, 40.7% once a week and 27.7% once a month). Only 18.3% had received medical treatment for their back pain. Compared with neonatal intensive care unit nurses, who had the lowest prevalence, nurses in other specialties, excluding paediatric intensive care units, had a greater likelihood of back pain. Specialty medical (e.g. cardiology, neurology) intensive care unit nurses had the greatest probability of back pain and treatment. Perceiving staffing as inadequate and working 6 or more night shifts per month were related to a 64% increase (OR = 1.64; 95% CI =1.16-2.33) and 48% increase (OR =1.48; 95% CI = 1.10-1.99) in back pain, respectively. Nurses with 2-4 years of working experience in intensive care units had the greatest probability of back pain and treatment. A high prevalence of back pain was found in intensive care unit nurses, even though they comprise a very young workforce in Korea. Improving nurse staffing, reducing the frequency of night shifts and assessing risk factors in specific intensive care unit specialties are suggested to decrease back pain prevalence. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Investigation Effect of Biorhythm on Work-Related Accidents in The Metal Industry (A Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanollah Habibi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Biorhythm is one of the newest subjects in the field of cognition of mental ergonomics which can be very effective in reduction of work-related accidents or mistakes with no apparent reason. With evaluating Biorhythm individuals can intervention action to reduce job accidents carried out. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship Biorhythm and work-related accidents in the metal industry. This research is a cross-sectional and analytical-descriptive in the metal industrial Isfahan city of 120 work-related accidents during 2015. The required information was collected from available documents in HSE unit of the company biorhythm charts were drawn based on a date of accidents and participants birthdays, using natural Biorhythm Software V3.02 Conduct. Finally، the data were analyzed using spss version 20 and descriptive statistics.This study showed that the frequency of accidents in critical days and negative section of physical cycle was more than expected. Also the frequency of accidents in critical days and negative section of emotional and intellectual cycles was less than expected. Most type of injury, including cuts to 35.8 percent and the lowest type of injury was torsion with 5 percent. Most limb injury, hands and fingers with 51.7 percent and the lowest limb injury were back at 2.5 percent. Accidents outbreak in physical cycles was 38.3 percent. These 120 accidents in additionally were causing 120 loss of working days in effect accident. Most percent of loss of working days were for 20 to 30 days with of 39.2 percent. Most percent of loss of working days were for 20 to 30 days with of 39.2 percent. Due to the physical nature of the work activities in the metal industry can be stated that the study showed that in physical work activities, frequency of accidents in critical days and negative section of physical cycle in which the person is not physically ready to do the job was more than expected. Therefore, by training

  19. Individual and work related risk factors for neck pain among office workers: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnie, B; Danneels, L; Van Tiggelen, D; De Loose, V; Cambier, D

    2007-05-01

    Work related neck disorders are common problems in office workers, especially among those who are intensive computer users. It is generally agreed that the etiology of work related neck disorders is multidimensional which is associated with, and influenced by, a complex array of individual, physical and psychosocial factors. The aim of the current study was to estimate the one-year prevalence of neck pain among office workers and to determine which physical, psychological and individual factors are associated with these prevalences. Five hundred and twelve office workers were studied. Information was collected by an online questionnaire. Self-reported neck pain during the preceding 12 months was regarded as a dependent variable, whereas different individual, work-related physical and psychosocial factors were studied as independent variables. The 12 month prevalences of neck pain in office workers was 45.5%. Multivariate analysis revealed that women had an almost two-fold risk compared with men (OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.22-3.13). The odds ratio for age indicates that persons older than 30 years have 2.61 times more chance of having neck pain than younger individuals (OR = 2.61, 95% CI 1.32-3.47). Being physically active decreases the likelihood of having neck pain (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.14-2.99). Significant associations were found between neck pain and often holding the neck in a forward bent posture for a prolonged time (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.20-3.38), often sitting for a prolonged time (OR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.17-3.62) and often making the same movements per minute (OR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.02-2.60). Mental tiredness at the end of the workday (OR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.29-3.26) and shortage of personnel (OR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.06-2.76) are significantly associated with neck pain. The results of this study indicate that physical and psychosocial work factors, as well as individual variables, are associated with the frequency of neck pain. These association patterns suggest also

  20. EXPLORING PHYSICIANS' DISSATISFACTION AND WORK-RELATED STRESS: DEVELOPMENT OF THE PhyDis SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pedrazza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research, all over the world, is starting to recognize the potential impact of physicians’ dissatisfaction and burnout on their productivity, that is, on their intent to leave the job, on their work ability, on the amount of sick leave days, on their intent to continue practicing, and last but not least, on the quality of the services provided, which is an essential part of the general medical care system. It was interest of the provincial medical board’s ethical committee to acquire information about physician’s work-related stress and dissatisfaction. The research group was committed to define the indicators of dissatisfaction and work-related stressors. Focus groups were carried out, 21 stressful experience’s indicators were identified; we developed an online questionnaire to assess the amount of perceived stress relating to each indicator at work (3070 physicians were contacted by e-mail; quantitative and qualitative data analysis were carried out. The grounded theory perspective was applied in order to assure the most reliable procedure to investigate the concepts’ structure of work-related stress. We tested the five dimensions' model of the stressful experience with a confirmatory factor analysis: Personal Costs; Decline in Public Image and Role Uncertainty; Physician's Responsibility toward hopelessly ill Patients; Relationship with Staff and Colleagues; Bureaucracy. We split the sample according to attachment style (secure and insecure -anxious and avoidant-. Results show the complex representation of physicians’ dissatisfaction at work also with references to the variable of individual difference of attachment security/insecurity. The discriminant validity of the scale was tested. The original contribution of this paper lies on the one hand in the qualitative in depth inductive analysis of physicians’ dissatisfaction starting from physicians’ perception, on the other hand, it represents the first attempt to analyze the

  1. Coping With Staff Burnout and Work-Related Posttraumatic Stress in Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colville, Gillian A; Smith, Jared G; Brierley, Joe; Citron, Kim; Nguru, Noreen M; Shaunak, Priyanka D; Tam, Olivia; Perkins-Porras, Linda

    2017-07-01

    To examine the associations with symptoms of 1) burnout and 2) work-related posttraumatic stress, in adult and pediatric intensive care staff, focusing on the particular contributions of resilience and coping strategies. Point prevalence cross-sectional study. Three adult ICUs and four PICUs. Three hundred seventy-seven ICU staff. None. Brief Resilience Scale, abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory, Trauma Screening Questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Prevalence of burnout (defined as high emotional exhaustion or high depersonalization) was 37%. Prevalence of clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms was 13%. There was a degree of overlap between burnout and other measures of distress, most notably for anxiety (odds ratio, 10.56; 95% CI, 4.12-27.02; p < 0.001). Hierarchical logistic regression demonstrated that self-reported resilience was strongly associated with decreased likelihood of meeting criteria for both forms of work-related distress (burnout: odds ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.36-0.74; p < 0.001 and posttraumatic stress: odds ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.16-0.46; p < 0.001) and that physicians were twice as likely as nurses to be at risk of reporting burnout (odds ratio, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.18-3.78; p = 0.012). After controlling for resilience, profession, and setting, the following coping strategies were independently associated with outcomes: attending debriefing reduced risk of burnout (odds ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.21-0.95; p = 0.036), whereas the odds of posttraumatic stress were less if staff used talking to seniors (odds ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20-0.92; p = 0.029) or hobbies (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.23-0.93; p = 0.030) to cope with stress at work. Venting emotion (odds ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.12-3.31; p = 0.018) and using alcohol (odds ratio, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.26-4.20; p = 0.006) were associated with a doubling in risk of reporting burnout. The use of particular coping strategies was systematically associated with symptoms of burnout

  2. Somatic development disorders of children with non specific inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowska, Katarzyna; Iwańczak, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Frequency of inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) tends to increase in developing countries. Nearly 25% of cases affects pediatric patients. Inflammatory bowel diseases are often associated with weight loss and stunting in children. Moreover, weight and height deficiencies are often early symptoms. Initially, nonspecific or latent course of disease delays the diagnostic process. Malnutrition in inflammatory bowel diseases can be caused by disorders of digestion and nutrients' absorption, intestinal loss, increased energy expenditure and appetite impairment. Nutritional deficiencies and inflammatory agents lead to disturbance of tissue metabolism - muscle and bone - and retardation of somatic development of affected children. Thus, deficiencies of muscle mass, bone mineral density and body height are observed. Insufficient normalization of somatic features may be the consequence of recurrent nature of disease and specificity of pharmacological treatment. Present work deals with the current state of knowledge concerning the somatic development disorders of children with inflammatory bowel diseases. Abnormal nutritional status, bone mineral density deficits and growth failure of patients have been discussed in the context of their relations and dependencies on inflammatory, nutritional and therapeutic factors.

  3. CLIPPERS among patients diagnosed with non-specific CNS neuroinflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrn-Jespersen, B M; Lindelof, M; Illes, Zsolt; Blaabjerg, Morten; Lund, E L; Klausen, C; Christiansen, I; Sellebjerg, F; Kondziella, D

    2014-08-15

    Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation with Pontine Perivascular Enhancement Responsive to Steroids (CLIPPERS) is an inflammatory CNS disorder characterized by 1) subacute onset of cerebellar and brainstem symptoms, 2) peripontine contrast-enhancing perivascular lesions with a "salt-and-pepper" appearance on MRI, and 3) angiocentric, predominantly T-lymphocytic infiltration as revealed by brain biopsy. Inflammatory diseases including neuroinfections, CNS lymphoma and neurosarcoidosis must be excluded. Since CLIPPERS was described in 2010, many patients might have been misdiagnosed in the past. We therefore searched medical records from a large tertiary neurological center, the Department of Neurology at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, for patients discharged between 1999 and 2013 with a diagnosis of "sarcoidosis with other localization", "other acute disseminating demyelination", "other demyelinating disease in the CNS" or "encephalitis, myelitis or encephalomyelitis". Of 206 identified patients, 24 had been examined by brain biopsy and were included for further evaluation. Following clinical, neuroradiological and neuropathological review, 3 patients (12.5%) were reclassified as having CLIPPERS. Median long-term follow-up was 75 months. The present results suggest that clinical re-evaluation of patients previously diagnosed with unspecified inflammatory demyelinating CNS disease or atypical neurosarcoidosis may increase the detection rate of CLIPPERS. Further, potentially severe neurological deficits and progressive parenchymal atrophy on MRI may suggest neurodegenerative features, which emphasizes the need for early immunomodulatory treatment.

  4. A narrowly endemic photosynthetic orchid is non-specific in its mycorrhizal associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Madhav; Sharma, Jyotsna; Taylor, Donald Lee; Yadon, Vern L

    2013-04-01

    Mycorrhizal association is a common characteristic in a majority of land plants, and the survival and distribution of a species can depend on the distribution of suitable fungi in its habitat. Orchidaceae is one of the most species-rich angiosperm families, and all orchids are fully dependent on fungi for their seed germination and some also for subsequent growth and survival. Given this obligate dependence, at least in the early growth stages, elucidating the patterns of orchid-mycorrhizal relationships is critical to orchid biology, ecology and conservation. To assess whether rarity of an orchid is determined by its specificity towards its fungal hosts, we studied the spatial and temporal variability in the host fungi associated with one of the rarest North American terrestrial orchids, Piperia yadonii. The fungal internal transcribed spacer region was amplified and sequenced by sampling roots from eight populations of P. yadonii distributed across two habitats, Pinus radiata forest and maritime chaparral, in California. Across populations and sampling years, 26 operational taxonomic units representing three fungal families, the Ceratobasidiaceae, Sebacinaceae and Tulasnellaceae, were identified. Fungi belonging to the Sebacinaceae were documented in orchid roots only at P. radiata forest sites, while those from the Ceratobasidiaceae and Tulasnellaceae occurred in both habitats. Our results indicate that orchid rarity can be unrelated to the breadth of mycorrhizal associations. Our data also show that the dominance of various fungal families in mycorrhizal plants can be influenced by habitat preferences of mycorrhizal partners.

  5. [Risk assessment of work related stress: examination and operative difficulties in sanitary field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofano, G; Piscina, G; Fantasia, D; Bologna, I; Murri, G; Tobia, L; Paoletti, A

    2012-01-01

    Work related stress can highly negatively affect not only company's productivity but also other aspects causing increased costs for absenteeism, increased number of work accident and near miss, higher turnover, reduced quality of products and services, reduced capability of renewal, and so on. In agreement with the Italian legislative decree 81/08 we evaluated stress level of workers of three different sanitary structures located in the middle of Italy. 305 workers (physicians, nurses, technicians, auxiliary nurse, white collars) were submitted to a questionnaire designed by our team of work. The sector reporting higher stress level was represented by nurses, the sector with lower stress level was made of technicians. We proposed a set of measures aiming to reduce the load of stress based on the assumption that in this sector is fundamental to develop strategies of intervention both at organizational and individual level.

  6. [Functions of participatory ergonomics programs in reducing work-related musculoskeletal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, M J; Liu, J J; Yao, H Y

    2016-08-10

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are most commonly seen in all the occupational non-fatal injuries and illnesses for workers, especially those who are involved in labor-intensive industries. Participatory ergonomics is frequently used to prevent musculoskeletal disorders. This paper gives an overview of a historical perspective on the use of participatory ergonomics approach in reducing the health effects of labor-intensive industries. Progress, barriers and facilitators on the organization, implementation and evaluation of participatory ergonomics programs are studied. Participatory ergonomics seems a successful method to develop, prioritize measures to prevent MSDs. Participatory ergonomics can help industries reduce musculoskeletal injuries and disorders, improve workplace condition and promote health conditions of the workers.

  7. Building-related risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings.

  8. Constant negotiating: managing work-related musculoskeletal disorders while remaining at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Young, Joanne; Solberg, Shirley; Gaudine, Alice

    2014-02-01

    We used grounded theory to explore processes and strategies used by workers affected by work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) while they remained in the workplace, and we developed a theory to describe the overall process. Participants included 25 workers affected by WMSDs who were currently employed in various workplaces in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The theoretical model has five main phases: (a) becoming concerned, (b) getting medical help, (c) dealing with the workplace, (d) making adjustments to lifestyle, and (e) taking charge, each with separate subphases. Constant negotiating was the core variable that explained the overall process, with workers engaged in negotiations with others in occupational, health, and social contexts. Using a two-dimensional figure, we illustrate the negotiation strategies workers used. We discuss implications for health care, workplaces, education, and research for creating a culture of understanding and respect for injured workers who wish to remain working after developing WMSDs.

  9. Personal And Work-Related Correlates Of Mental Health In Slovak Women In Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Krawczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two samples of Slovak women in higher education were surveyed in order to determine the extent to which the personal attributes of locus of control and life satisfaction and work-related attributes of role conflict and ambiguity are related to mental health symptomatology. The personal attribute of external locus of control correlated positively with symptoms of psychological distress. Life satisfaction correlated negatively with mental health. Role conflict and ambiguity each correlated positively with all symptoms of psychological distress. Moderating effects of locus of control and life satisfaction were not found. Results are discussed in relation to findings from similar surveys of U.S. women in higher education and with respect to changes in higher education in post-communist Central and Eastern European countries.

  10. Does Leaders' Health (and Work-Related Experiences) Affect their Evaluation of Followers' Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Gabriele; Mancuso, Serena; Fiz Perez, Francisco Javier; Montani, Francesco; Courcy, Francois; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2015-09-01

    Stressed workers suffer from severe health problems which appear to have increased. Poor leadership is especially considered a source of stress. Indeed, supervisors might perceive their subordinates to be similar to them as far as stress is concerned and this might more widespread in organizations than previously thought. The present research investigates the relationships between leaders' health, in terms of work-related stress, mental health, and workplace bullying and their evaluation of subordinates' stress. Five regression models were formulated to test our hypothesis. This is a cross-sectional study among 261 Italian leaders, using supervisor self-assessment and leaders' assessments of their subordinates. Leaders' health was related to their evaluation of staff stress. Job demand, lack of job control, and lack of support by colleagues and supervisors evaluated in their subordinates were particularly associated with the leaders' own health. Implications for developing healthy leaders are finally discussed.

  11. Associations between work-related musculoskeletal disorders, quality of life, and workplace stress in physical therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Min, Kyoung Sam

    2016-08-05

    This study was performed to determine the associations between work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), quality of life (QoL), and workplace stress among physical therapists (PTs) in South Korea. Self-reporting questionnaires were given to 855 PTs. Variables examined included general characteristics, WMSDs, QoL, and workplace stress. Of the 788 PTs who responded, 745 (94.5%) reported WMSDs affecting at least one body site. The most affected WMSDs site was the shoulder (23.3%), and the most reported number of body sites affected by WMSDs was one (50.9%). QoL was significantly improved (pworkplace stress, and age. Factors affecting workplace stress included number of body sites affected by WMSDs, QoL, work hours, and gender. The results showed a high prevalence of WMSDs among PTs in South Korea, and this negatively affected both QoL and workplace stress.

  12. [Factors associated with work-related accidents in the informal commercial sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Marcela Andrade; Nery, Adriana Alves; Rios, Polianna Alves Andrade; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Cardoso, Jefferson Paixão

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to estimate the incidence of non-fatal work-related accidents in the informal commercial sector and analyze associated socio-demographic, occupational, workplace, and health factors, in a cross-sectional survey of 434 workers in the business district of Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2013. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with accidents. Incidence of accidents in the previous 12 months was estimated at 32.3%, and multivariate analysis showed higher odds of accidents in male sex workers (OR = 1.61), young individuals (OR = 4.62), meat or poultry workers (OR = 9.55), and workers performing heavy physical work (OR = 1.71). The results show the need for public policies to prevent accidents in the informal commercial sector.

  13. Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Cotton Spinning Occupation : An Ergonomic Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Ikhar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cotton spinning is an important operation in small scale and cottage textile industries in India. A large number of women workers in these industries perform cotton spinning task adopting squatting posture in traditional workshops. A Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (DMQ was used to evaluate 40 operators regarding work related musculoskeletal disorders WMSDs. 50% operators were suffering with musculoskeletal complaints due to working conditions . They were observed and evaluated with the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA technique and their exposure to the WMSDs was assessed. From the observations and analysis of the result it was concluded that the health of spinning operators were highly affected due to improper body postures and workload. Twisting, bending and over reaching are the resultant of poorly designed workstations. These actions force them into non neutral position that increases the overall discomfort and pain at the lower back, neck and shoulders. Certain aspects regarding the ergonomic evaluation for those workers are discussed in this study.

  14. Prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among the brick field workers of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Banibrata

    2014-01-01

    Brick field industry is one of the most important and oldest industries in India, where millions of workers suffered from work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The main aim of the present investigation was to assess the prevalence of WMSDs among brick field workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 216 brick field workers. A modified Nordic questionnaire was applied among them. In brick making industry, the workers adopt different unfavorable actions, such as frequent bending; bending and twisting of the body; and working above shoulder height, which may lead to severe pain in different parts of the body, especially lower back (brick carriers: 90%; moulders: 92%; fireman: 75%; stackers: 88%) and neck (brick carriers: 89%; moulders: 88%; fireman: 54%; stackers: 72%), It was concluded from the study that health of the brick field workers was highly affected due to working in different awkward postures for long periods.

  15. Handle with Care: the American Nurses Association's campaign to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, A B

    2006-01-01

    In response to the significant number and severity of work-related back injuries and other musculoskeletal disorders among nurses, the American Nurses Association (ANA) has launched the Handle With Care(R) campaign. The campaign seeks to build a health care industry-wide effort to prevent back and other musculoskeletal injuries. This is being done through developing partnerships and coalitions, education and training, increasing use of assistive equipment and patient-handling devices, reshaping nursing education to incorporate safe patient handling, and pursuing federal and state ergonomics policy by highlighting technology-oriented safe-patient handling benefits for patients and nurses. In the absence of ergonomics regulations at national or state levels that protect health care workers, ANA has taken on alternative approaches to encourage a movement to control ergonomic hazards in the health care workplace and prevent back injuries among the nation's nursing workforce.

  16. Effects of organizational change on work-related empowerment, employee satisfaction, and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuokkanen, Liisa; Suominen, Tarja; Härkönen, Eeva; Kukkurainen, Marja-Leena; Doran, Diane

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a longitudinal quantitative study on nurses' views on factors promoting and impeding empowerment and examines the relationship between work-related empowerment and background variables in one hospital. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed statistically. Nurses gave lowest assessments of promoting factors on the second measurement occasion, a time when the organization was going through major changes. Both job satisfaction and motivation showed a positive relationship with factors promoting empowerment. Organizational changes have a direct effect on the work environment in terms of empowerment and job satisfaction. To cope successfully with changes, special attention must be paid to personnel management. It seems that factors promoting and impeding empowerment can be used to measure effects of organizational changes as well.

  17. Assessment and Management of Work-Related Stress in Hospital Emergency Departments in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ettorre, Gabriele; Greco, Maria Rita

    2016-01-01

    Recent changes in the organization of the healthcare system, triggered by the current economic crisis in Italy, require interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of work-related stress (WRS) on healthcare workers' health status and well-being. Emergency department (ED) personnel appear to be particularly vulnerable to WRS as a consequence of specific occupational risk factors. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to analyze the level of WRS after improvement interventions implemented by the management staff of the ED and focused on work context factors. The assessment of WRS showed that nurses and physicians of the ED are exposed to a medium level of risk; the improvement interventions aimed at reducing WRS were focused on: (1) function and organizational culture; (2) role within the occupational organization; and (3) relationships at work policy. These interventions were found to be significantly effective in reducing the risk of WRS.

  18. Perceived competence and warmth influence respect, liking and trust in work relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleszkiewicz Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies confirmed the positive effect of trust on human relations and performance in organizations. As a social judgment, trust should be related to perceived competence and warmth as two basic dimensions of person perception. Surprisingly, to date no attempts have been made to examine the influence of attributed competence and warmth on social judgments in interpersonal relations at work. To this end, we examine the influence of perceived competence and warmth on trust, liking and respect in upward and downward work relations. A study involving 190 middle-stage managers revealed that the two fundamental dimensions of social cognition (competence and warmth influence respect, liking and trust. Competence had a stronger effect on respect than warmth; the opposite was true for liking. Trust was conditioned by both competence and warmth to an equal, high extent. At the same time, warmth expressed by supervisors led to higher results in liking, respect and trust in them than warmth expressed by subordinates.

  19. Limitations and consequences caused by work-related diseases in the worker’s lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Caroline Rodrigues

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impacts of work-related diseases in the worker’s lives, as well as analyze the contributions of studies to the nursing science, especially in the area of occupational health nursing. It is an integrative review with the following guiding question: What are the limitations and consequences caused by cumulative trauma disorders (CTD in the worker’s lives reported in the nursing scientific production during the last five years (2006 to 2010. The descriptors used were: Cumulative Trauma Disorders and Occupational Health. We selected 14 articles and these were grouped according to common purposes, main limitations and consequences of CTD, and relevant information to contributions of studies in the area of Occupational Health Nursing. We concluded that the scientific production on this subject brings few effective contributions, and that further studies are needed to subsidize care strategies aimed at promoting health and quality of life of these workers.

  20. Coping styles moderate the relationships between exposure to community violence and work-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Cody B; Johnson, Jennie; Coyle, Tom

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify coping strategies used by employees exposed to community violence and their relationships to work-related outcomes. In study 1, Mexican Maquiladora employees who experienced community violence reported their coping strategies. Results identified 3 strategies: social, solitary, and maladaptive coping. In study 2, another sample completed measures of violence exposure, strain, coping, and turnover intention. Supervisors provided performance evaluations. Community violence predicted the use of all 3 strategies. Social coping lessened the effects of community violence on turnover while maladaptive strategies predicted increased psychological strain. Results indicate that workers use a variety of coping strategies in response to community violence that both lessen and magnify the effects of violence exposure and impact their psychological strain, turnover intention, and job performance. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Association among Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders, Job Stress, and Job Attitude of Occupational Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Hyuck; Park, Ji-Hyuk

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the associations among work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), job stress, and job attitude of occupational therapists in South Korea. Self-reporting questionnaires were distributed to 150 occupational therapists. Of the 128 occupational therapists who responded, 110 (85.9%) reported WMSDs affecting at least one body site. The most affected WMSDs site was the low back (26.8%), and the most reported number of body site affected by WMSDs was one (53.9%). As a result, there were significant differences in job stress and job attitude depending on the age, work experience, working hour, presence or absence of WMSDs, and number of site of pain. Factors influencing job attitude included job stress, the presence or absence of WMSDs and duration of pain. The results showed that the occurrence of WMSDs in occupational therapists was associated with increased job stress and negative job attitude.

  2. Coping with Work-Related Stress through Guided Imagery and Music (GIM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Bolette Daniels; Hansen, Åse Marie; Gold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term stress-related sick leave constitutes a serious health threat and an economic burden on both the single worker and the society. Effective interventions for the rehabilitation and facilitation of return to work are needed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine...... the effects of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM), a psychotherapy intervention including relaxation, music listening, and imagery, on biopsychosocial measures of work-related stress. METHODS: Twenty Danish workers on sick leave were randomized to music therapy versus wait-list control. Data collection...... was carried out at an occupational health ward in the period 2008-2010. Changes in salivary cortisol, testosterone, and melatonin were explored, and self-reported data on psychological stress symptoms (perceived stress, mood disturbance, sleep quality, physical distress symptoms, work readiness, well...

  3. [Work-related stress and mental health - can work lead to mental disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptáček, Radek; Vňuková, Martina; Raboch, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    In the past two decades, special attention was paid to mental health issues. The available literature suggests, for example, the relationship between the workload and mental discomfort and the occurrence of myocardial infarction. This article focuses mainly on the issue of work-related stress and its impact on mental health. In this context, it must be acknowledged that possible psychological problems due to work are not only employees problem. These difficulties can significantly affect performance - and thus they should be the concern of the employer, but also of customers, clients and patients who come into contact with the worker who might develop some mental problems, due to the nature of his work and working conditions. This article provides an overview of the various factors affecting the mental health of employees. These are, for example, work demands, working hours and workplace relations. In conclusion, it brings results of Czech study examining job stress among working population.

  4. Work-related boredom and depressed mood from a daily perspective: The moderating roles of work centrality and need satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.L.M. van; Hooft, E.A.J. van

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to advance insight into inter- and intrapersonal processes that may affect the associations between work-related boredom and employee well-being. We employed a daily perspective to examine (1) the relations between work-related boredom and depressed mood at the end of the workday

  5. Individual and Group Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Work-Related Stress Complaints and Sickness Absence: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente, W.de; Kamphuis, J.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Work-related stress is widespread and can lead to long-term absenteeism and work disability. Cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) has demonstrated effectiveness in treating psychopathology but has only rarely been tested in clinical samples with work-related stress. A randomized controlled trial was

  6. Influence of work-related characteristics and work ability on changing employer or leaving the profession among nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, A.; Robroek, S.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Schouteten, R.L.J.; Hasselhorn, H.M.; Burdorf, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate how work-related characteristics and work ability influence nursing staff decisions to change employer or leave the profession. Background Previous cross-sectional studies have indicated that decreased work ability and unfavourable work-related characteristics are important

  7. Individual and Group Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Work-Related Stress Complaints and Sickness Absence: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente, W.de; Kamphuis, J.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Work-related stress is widespread and can lead to long-term absenteeism and work disability. Cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) has demonstrated effectiveness in treating psychopathology but has only rarely been tested in clinical samples with work-related stress. A randomized controlled trial was

  8. Boredom at work: Towards a dynamic spillover model of need satisfaction, work motivation, and work-related boredom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.L.M. van; Hooft, E.A.J. van

    2017-01-01

    Boredom occurs regularly at work and can have negative consequences. This study aimed to increase insight in the antecedents and processes underlying the development of work-related boredom by (a) examining whether work-related need satisfaction and the quality-of-work motivation mediate the associa

  9. Work-related boredom and depressed mood from a daily perspective: The moderating roles of work centrality and need satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.L.M. van; Hooft, E.A.J. van

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to advance insight into inter- and intrapersonal processes that may affect the associations between work-related boredom and employee well-being. We employed a daily perspective to examine (1) the relations between work-related boredom and depressed mood at the end of the workday an

  10. 7 CFR 650.21 - Working relations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and related State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES COMPLIANCE WITH NEPA Related Environmental Concerns § 650.21 Working relations... representatives of EPA and state environmental agencies in matters of mutual concern within his state. (d... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Working relations with the U.S....

  11. Boredom at work: Towards a dynamic spillover model of need satisfaction, work motivation, and work-related boredom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.L.M. van; Hooft, E.A.J. van

    2017-01-01

    Boredom occurs regularly at work and can have negative consequences. This study aimed to increase insight in the antecedents and processes underlying the development of work-related boredom by (a) examining whether work-related need satisfaction and the quality-of-work motivation mediate the

  12. Work related musculoskeletal disorders among hospital nurses in rural Maharashtra, India: a multi centre survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak B. Anap

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nurses have one of the highest rates of MSD of any occupation. Although en number of studies were done to find out prevalence of Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs among nurses across the world, there is limited information on its prevalence in Rural Maharashtra. This study investigated prevalence of WMSDs, job risk factors and the coping strategies towards reducing the risk of development of WMSDs among nurses from selected hospitals in rural Maharashtra, India. Validated questionnaires were distributed to 250 nurses working rural hospitals across Maharashtra but only 228 questionnaires were returned and 212 complete questionnaires were included for study. On Analysis we found that 89.1% nurses had experienced work-related musculoskeletal pain or discomfort at sometime in their occupational lives. WMSDs was highest in the low back (48.2%, followed by the shoulder (34.6%, neck (33.1 and knee (29 %. Other regions with less prevalence were Thoracic (10.5%, Feet and ankle (7.6%, Elbow ( 1.88% and Hip (1.6 %. Priority was given to getting help to handle heavy patients ( 57.1 %, nursing procedure modification in order to avoid stress injury ( 50.2 % coping strategies. Our study Concluded that high prevalence of LBP, Shoulder, neck and Knee pain over a 12-month period among nurses working in Rural hospitals in Maharashtra state , and certain risk factors like working in same position for long time, bending, twisting, lifting and treating excessive number of patients were strongly associated with WMSDs. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(2.000: 101-107

  13. Interventions to improve work outcomes in work-related PTSD: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonato Sarah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Posttraumatic stress disorder acquired at work can be debilitating both for workers and their employers. The disorder can result in increased sick leave, reduced productivity, and even unemployment. Furthermore, workers are especially unlikely to return to their previous place of employment after a traumatic incident at work because of the traumatic memories and symptoms of avoidance that typically accompany the disorder. Therefore, intervening in work-related PTSD becomes especially important in order to get workers back to the workplace. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and Web of Science. The articles were independently screened based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, followed by a quality assessment of all included articles. Results The systematic search identified seven articles for inclusion in the review. These consisted of six research articles and one systematic review. The review focused specifically on interventions using real exposure techniques for anxiety disorders in the workplace. In the research articles addressed in the current review, study populations included police officers, public transportation workers, and employees injured at work. The studies examined the effectiveness of EMDR, cognitive-behavioural techniques, and an integrative therapy approach called brief eclectic psychotherapy. Interestingly, 2 of the 6 research articles addressed add-on treatments for workplace PTSD, which were designed to treat workers with PTSD who failed to respond to traditional evidence-based psychotherapy. Conclusions Results of the current review suggest that work-related interventions show promise as effective strategies for promoting return to work in employees who acquired PTSD in the workplace. Further research is needed in this area to determine how different occupational groups with specific types of traumatic exposure might respond differently to work

  14. Tiring job and work related injury road crashes in the GAZEL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiron, Mireille; Bernard, Marlène; Lafont, Sylviane; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2008-05-01

    The objective was to describe at-work and commuting crashes occurring in a cohort of French employees and to investigate occupational risk factors. The subjects were employees of the French national electricity and gas companies, Electricité de France and Gaz de France (EDF-GDF), who volunteered to join a research cohort (the GAZEL cohort which included 20,625 participants in 1989). Only crashes with injuries were considered. Crashes for the periods 1989--2001 were recorded together with the type of journey (commuting, work, private), the type of road-user, self-estimated responsibility, and injuries sustained by the subject. Annual incidences for gender/age groups and socio-occupational groups were computed for each of the two types of work related crashes. Occupational risk factor analyses were conducted using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with time-dependent covariates adjusting for the main confounders. A total of 146,285 person years at work were observed. Two indicators of self-reported work fatigue were associated with the occurrence of at-work crashes: "nervously tiring work" for males (RR=1.6, 95% CI [1.1; 2.3]), sustained standing for females (RR=3.0, 95% CI [1.0; 8.4]), adjusting for health status, location of residence, type of family, transport mode and mileage. As regards crashes while commuting, a self-reported uncomfortable position at work was a risk factor among women (RR=1.9, 95% CI [1.1; 3.3]). On the other hand, these occupational factors were not linked to road crashes in private trips. Work related road crashes seem then to be a matter for a specific prevention. Preventing employees from becoming exhausted should be considered as the first way to initiate such a prevention.

  15. Work-related outcome after acute coronary syndrome: Implications of complex cardiac rehabilitation in occupational medicine

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    Monica Lamberti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Coronary heart disease is frequent in the working-age population. Traditional outcomes, such as mortality and hospital readmission, are useful for evaluating prognosis. Fit-for-work is an emerging outcome with clinical as well as socioeconomic significance. We describe the possible benefit of a cardiac rehabilitation (CR program for return to work (RTW after acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Material and Methods: We evaluated 204 patients with recent ACS. They were divided into 4 groups on the basis of their occupational work load: very light (VL, light (L, moderate (M, and heavy (H. Work-related outcomes were assessed with the Work Performance Scale (WPS of the Functional Status Questionnaire and as “days missed from work” (DMW in the previous 4 weeks. The variables considered for outcomes were percent ejection fraction, functional capacity expressed in metabolic equivalents (METs, and participation or non-participation in the CR program (CR+ and CR–. Results: One hundred thirty (66% patients took part in the CR program. Total WPS scores for CR+ and CR– subgroups were VL group: 18±4 vs. 14±4 (p < 0.001, L group: 18±3 vs. 14±3 (p < 0.0001, M group: 19±3 vs. 16±3 (p < 0.003, and H group: 20±4 vs. 17±3 (p < 0.006. Fewer DMW were reported by the CR+ group. Conclusions: Non-participation in CR was a consistent cause of poorer work-related outcomes. Our findings indicate that CR and occupational counseling play a very important role in worker recovery and subsequent reintegration in the workplace, in particular among clerical workers.

  16. Systematic review: work-related stress and the HSE management standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, K; Limbert, C; Deacy, C; O'Reilly, A; Scott, S; Thirlaway, K

    2013-10-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has defined six management standards representing aspects of work that, if poorly managed, are associated with lower levels of employee health and productivity, and increased sickness absence. The HSE indicator tool aims to measure organizations' performance in managing the primary stressors identified by the HSE management standards. The aims of the study are to explore how the HSE indicator tool has been implemented within organizations and to identify contexts in which the tool has been used, its psychometric properties and relationships with alternative measures of well-being and stress. Studies that matched specific criteria were included in the review. Abstracts were considered by two researchers to ensure a reliable process. Full texts were obtained when abstracts met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen papers were included in the review. Using factor analysis and measures of reliability, the studies suggest that the HSE indicator tool is a psychometrically sound measure. The tool has been used to measure work-related stress across different occupational groups, with a clear relationship between the HSE tool and alternative measures of well-being. Limitations of the tool and recommendations for future research are discussed. The HSE indicator tool is a psychometrically sound measure of organizational performance against the HSE management standards. As such it can provide a broad overview of sources of work-related stress within organizations. More research is required to explore the use of the tool in the design of interventions to reduce stress, and its use in different contexts and with different cultural and gender groups.

  17. Work-related heat stress concerns in automotive industries: a case study from Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyappan, Ramalingam; Sankar, Sambandam; Rajkumar, Paramasivan; Balakrishnan, Kalpana

    2009-11-11

    Work-related heat stress assessments, the quantification of thermal loads and their physiological consequences have mostly been performed in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries (many of which are also tropical), limited attempts have been made to create detailed job-exposure profiles for various sectors. We present here a case study from Chennai in southern India that illustrates the prevalence of work-related heat stress in multiple processes of automotive industries and the efficacy of relatively simple controls in reducing prevalence of the risk through longitudinal assessments. We conducted workplace heat stress assessments in automotive and automotive parts manufacturing units according to the protocols recommended by NIOSH, USA. Sites for measurements included indoor locations with process-generated heat exposure, indoor locations without direct process-generated heat exposure and outdoor locations. Nearly 400 measurements of heat stress were made over a four-year period at more than 100 locations within eight units involved with automotive or automotive parts manufacturing in greater Chennai metropolitan area. In addition, cross-sectional measurements were made in select processes of glass manufacturing and textiles to estimate relative prevalence of heat stress. Results indicate that many processes even in organised large-scale industries have yet to control heat stress-related hazards adequately. Upwards of 28% of workers employed in multiple processes were at risk of heat stress-related health impairment in the sectors assessed. Implications of longitudinal baseline data for assessing efficacy of interventions as well as modelling potential future impacts from climate change (through contributions from worker health and productivity impairments consequent to increases in ambient temperature) are described. The study re-emphasises the need for recognising heat stress as an important occupational health risk in both formal

  18. Near Work Related Parameters and Myopia in Chinese Children: the Anyang Childhood Eye Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ming Li

    Full Text Available To examine the associations of near work related parameters with spherical equivalent refraction and axial length in Chinese children.A total of 1770 grade 7 students with mean age of 12.7 years were examined with cycloplegic autorefraction and axial length. Questions were asked regarding time spent in near work and outdoors per day, and near work related parameters.Multivariate models revealed the following associations with greater odds of myopia: continuous reading (> 45min, odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.8; close television viewing distance (≤ 3m, OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3; head tilt when writing, OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7, and desk lighting using fluorescent vs. incandescent lamp, OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0. These factors, together with close reading distance and close nib-to-fingertip distance were significantly associated with greater myopia (P<0.01. Among near work activities, only reading more books for pleasure was significantly associated with greater myopia (P=0.03. Television viewing distance (≤ 3 m, fluorescent desk light, close reading distance (≤20 cm and close nib-to-fingertip distance (≤ 2 cm were significantly associated with longer axial length (P<0.01. Reading distance, desk light, and reading books for pleasure had significant interaction effects with parental myopia.Continuous reading, close distances of reading, television viewing and nib-to-fingertip, head tilt when writing, reading more books for pleasure and use of fluorescent desk light were significantly associated with myopia in 12-year-old Chinese children, which indicates that visual behaviors and environments may be important factors mediating the effects of near work on myopia.

  19. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among physical therapists: A comprehensive narrative review

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    Mohammad Milhem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare workers, especially those with direct patient contact are amongst professions with the highest rate of workrelated musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs, physical therapists (PTs being one of them. Our objective was to review current knowledge relating to the prevalence, risk factors and prevention of WMSDs among PTs. Pubmed, Google Scholar and PEDro databases were searched for terms relating to WMSDs in PTs from inception to 2015. The prevalence of WMSDs among PTs was high, with lifetime prevalence reported as 55–91%, and 12-month prevalence ranges 40–91.3%, and the lower back as the most frequently affected, with estimates of a lifetime prevalence ranging 26–79.6%, and a 12-month prevalence ranging 22–73.1%, followed most often by the neck, upper back and shoulders. The major risk factors for workrelated low back pain (LBP were: lifting, transferring, repetitive movements, awkward and static postures, physical load, treating a large number of patients in a single day and working while injured. Low back pain seems to be age- and genderrelated with a higher prevalence in females, younger PTs and PTs working in rehabilitation settings. Physical therapists, as a consequence of work-related LBP, may seek treatment, modify their daily living and leisure (lifestyle activities, use aids and equipment or change their specialty area either within the profession or by leaving it. Skills and knowledge as to correct body mechanics do not prevent work-related injuries. Mechanical aids used for a patient transfer should be adopted by PTs and new strategies should be developed to reduce their WMSDs without compromising the quality of treatment. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(5:735–747

  20. Work related injuries in Washington State's Trucking Industry, by industry sector and occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline K; Williams, Jena

    2014-04-01

    The trucking industry continues to have some of the highest work-related injury and illness rates and costs of any industry in the United States. Until recently, little focus has been placed on addressing non-motor vehicle collision related injuries within the trucking industry. Drivers are exposed to multiple physical risk factors that contribute to occupational injuries in order to complete their job duties, such as loading/unloading freight, decoupling trailers, strapping down loads and ingress and egress from the cab and trailer. About one-fourth of all truck driver injuries in the United States are related to slips, trips, and falls near the truck. The purpose of this descriptive study is to report on recent injuries in the trucking industry in Washington State. Data are presented by occupation and industry sector, in order to better understand the magnitude of specific injuries in terms of time-loss days and workers' compensation costs. All accepted, compensable (time-loss) claims from 2005 to 2010 within the trucking industry in Washington State were reviewed. Counts, rates, median and quartile data are presented. Logistic regression models are presented to identify factors associated with more severe claims. Non-traumatic musculoskeletal disorders of the neck, back and upper extremities are the most frequent injuries across all industry sectors and occupations in the trucking industry. Vehicle related claims had the highest median costs and time loss days and Courier and Messenger claims had the highest risk for higher time loss claims. Injuries varied substantially by sector and within sectors by occupation. It is important to review work-related injuries within the trucking industry by sector and occupation in order to maximize limited resources for injury prevention within this important sector. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: a Survey of Physiotherapists in Saurashtra Region

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    Buddhadev Neeti P

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapists working in India are at high risk of Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMD. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, identify the risk factors and coping strategies for WRMDs among physiotherapists of Saurashtra region. Methods: A self administered semi structure questionnaire was sent via e-mail to 34 physiotherapists of Saurashtra region. The questionnaire consisted of demographic information including age and clinical experience; self reports of work related musculoskeletal injuries, perceived job related risk factors and strategies or responses that are adopted for prevention were obtained. The data obtained were analyzed using the Microsoft Excel 2007. Results: The questionnaire was returned by 29 physiotherapists, giving a response rate of 85%. Of 29 subjects, 20 were affected by WRMDs in at least one body part in last one year. Low back (35% followed by neck (25% and shoulders (15% were the most commonly affected region. The risk factors quoted by most of the respondents were managing large number of patients in a day, adoption of constant uncomfortable postures and manual therapy techniques. The most commonly adopted coping strategy identified was decreased patients contact hours (22.2%. Conclusions: Physiotherapists who provide their services in prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal injuries are suffering from occupational musculoskeletal injuries. Incidence of WRMDs is very high. Risk factors and the coping strategies of WRMDs among physiotherapists of Saurashtra region are identified. Further research is required to build up effective preventive or ergonomic strategies. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000: 179-181

  2. Work-Related Eye Injuries: Important Occupational Health Problem in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikitmongkol, Voraporn; Leeungurasatien, Thidarat; Sengupta, Sabyasachi

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine demographics, clinical characteristics, and factors associated with work-related eye injury in Northern Thailand. A prospective case series. Eye injuries from any cause treated at a university-based hospital in Northern Thailand from March 2007 to June 2008 were included. In addition to comprehensive eye examination and standard treatments, patients' occupation, type of activity at the time of injury, alcohol consumption, and eye protection were studied. Eye injuries were classified based on the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System. Demographic and clinical data were documented using a form adapted from the United States Eye Injury Registry. Of the 101 eyes (97 patients) with work-related injury, 94% were men with a mean age of 39.5 ± 12.9 years (range, 19-72 years). Ninety-eight percent (95/97 patients) did not use protective eyewear. Open-globe injuries were found in 58/101 (57%) eyes. Agricultural workers experienced a higher number of open-globe injuries (37/58 eyes, 64%), whereas construction workers experienced a higher number of closed-globe injuries (25/43 eyes, 58%). In multivariable logistic regression models, nailing (odds ratio, 97.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-363.4; P = 0.01) and motorized grass trimming (odds ratio, 14.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-206.2; P = 0.05) were significantly associated with open-globe injuries when compared with closed-globe injuries. Significantly greater numbers of eyes with open-globe injuries had final vision equivalent to legal blindness (visual acuity, Thailand. Protective eyewear should be aggressively promoted among workers engaged in nailing and motorized grass trimming.

  3. Non-work-related personal events contribute to depressive symptoms in Japanese discretionary workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogami, Ayumi; Muto, Takashi; Haruyama, Yasuo; Yoshikawa, Toru

    2013-08-01

    In Japan, the number of workers with depressive symptoms has increased recently, and long working hours are considered one of the main contributing factors. Currently, the number of workers engaging in discretionary work is small but is expected to increase, as a diverse method of employment is believed to contribute to workers' well-being. However, the factors related to discretionary workers' depressive symptoms are unclear. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with depressive symptoms in discretionary workers. The subjects were 240 male discretionary workers in a Japanese insurance company. A cross-sectional study was performed using a questionnaire that includes demographic characteristics, living and working conditions, work-related and non-work-related stressful events, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Depressive symptoms were assessed as more than 16 points on the CES-D. Multiple logistic regression models were employed to estimate odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of depressive symptoms in relation to possible factors. Thirty-six subjects (15.5%) showed depressive symptoms. The depressive symptoms were significantly related to age (p = 0.04), presence of child(ren) (p = 0.02), and length of employment (p = 0.01), but unrelated to working hours. Subjects who reported "financial matters" (OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.89-10.72) and "own event" such as divorce or illness (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.13-7.61) were more likely to show depressive symptoms. In conclusion, mental health measures for discretionary workers should focus on addressing financial difficulties and consultations and assistance in personal health and family issues.

  4. Work-related heat stress concerns in automotive industries: a case study from Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyappan, Ramalingam; Sankar, Sambandam; Rajkumar, Paramasivan; Balakrishnan, Kalpana

    2009-01-01

    Background Work-related heat stress assessments, the quantification of thermal loads and their physiological consequences have mostly been performed in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries (many of which are also tropical), limited attempts have been made to create detailed job-exposure profiles for various sectors. We present here a case study from Chennai in southern India that illustrates the prevalence of work-related heat stress in multiple processes of automotive industries and the efficacy of relatively simple controls in reducing prevalence of the risk through longitudinal assessments. Methods We conducted workplace heat stress assessments in automotive and automotive parts manufacturing units according to the protocols recommended by NIOSH, USA. Sites for measurements included indoor locations with process-generated heat exposure, indoor locations without direct process-generated heat exposure and outdoor locations. Nearly 400 measurements of heat stress were made over a four-year period at more than 100 locations within eight units involved with automotive or automotive parts manufacturing in greater Chennai metropolitan area. In addition, cross-sectional measurements were made in select processes of glass manufacturing and textiles to estimate relative prevalence of heat stress. Results Results indicate that many processes even in organised large-scale industries have yet to control heat stress-related hazards adequately. Upwards of 28% of workers employed in multiple processes were at risk of heat stress-related health impairment in the sectors assessed. Implications of longitudinal baseline data for assessing efficacy of interventions as well as modelling potential future impacts from climate change (through contributions from worker health and productivity impairments consequent to increases in ambient temperature) are described. Conclusions The study re-emphasises the need for recognising heat stress as an important

  5. Counterbalancing work-related stress? Work engagement among intensive care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mol, Margo M C; Nijkamp, Marjan D; Bakker, Jan; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Kompanje, Erwin J O

    2017-05-20

    Working in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is increasingly complex and is also physically, cognitively and emotionally demanding. Although the negative emotions of work-related stress have been well studied, the opposite perspective of work engagement might also provide valuable insight into how these emotional demands may be countered. This study focused on the work engagement of ICU professionals and explored the complex relationship between work engagement, job demands and advantageous personal resources. This was a cross-sectional survey study among ICU professionals in a single-centre university hospital. Work engagement was measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, which included items about opinions related to the respondent's work environment. Additionally, 14 items based on the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy were included to measure empathic ability. A digital link to the questionnaire was sent in October 2015 to a population of 262 ICU nurses and 53 intensivists. The overall response rate was 61% (n=193). Work engagement was negatively related both to cognitive demands among intensivists and to emotional demands among ICU nurses. No significant relationship was found between work engagement and empathic ability; however, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability were highly correlated with work engagement. Only the number of hours worked per week remained as a confounding factor, with a negative effect of workload on work engagement after controlling for the effect of weekly working hours. Work engagement counterbalances work-related stress reactions. The relatively high workload in ICUs, coupled with an especially heavy emotional burden, may be acknowledged as an integral part of ICU work. This workload does not affect the level of work engagement, which was high for both intensivists and nurses despite the known high job demands. Specific factors that contribute to a healthy and successful work life among ICU professionals need

  6. Risk factors for work-related symptoms in northern California office workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.

    1991-10-01

    In most episodes of health complaints reported in office buildings in the last-twenty years, causal factors have not been identified. In order to assess risk factors for work-related symptoms in office workers, a reanalysis was performed of previous studies, and an epidemiologic study was conducted. The reanalysis of data, showed remarkable agreement among studies. Air-conditioned buildings were consistently associated with higher prevalence of headache, lethargy, and eye, nose, or throat problems. Humidification was not a necessary factor for this higher prevalence. Mechanical ventilation without air-conditioning was not associated with higher symptom prevalence. A study was conducted among 880 office workers, within 12 office buildings selected without regard to worker complaints, in northern California. A number of factors were found associated with prevalence of work-related symptoms, after adjustment in a logistic regression model for personal, psychosocial, job, workspace, and building factors. Two different ventilation types were associated with increases Ln symptom prevalence, relative to workers in naturally ventilated buildings: mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation, without air conditioning and with operable windows; and air-conditioning with sealed windows. No study buildings were humidified. In both these ventilation types, the highest odds ratios (ORs) found were for skin symptoms (ORs-5.0, 5.6) and for tight chest or difficulty breathing (ORs-3.6, 4.3). Use of carbonless copies or photocopiers, sharing a workspace, carpets, new carpets, new walls, and distance from a window were associated with symptom increases. Cloth partitions and new paint were associated with symptom decreases.

  7. Factors Associated with Functional Capacity Test Results in Patients With Non-Specific Chronic Low Back Pain : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Abbema, Renske; Lakke, Sandra E.; Reneman, Michiel F.; van der Schans, Cees P.; van Haastert, Corrien J. M.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Wittink, Harriet

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Functional capacity tests are standardized instruments to evaluate patients' capacities to execute work-related activities. Functional capacity test results are associated with biopsychosocial factors, making it unclear what is being measured in capacity testing. An overview of these f

  8. Factors associated with functional capacity test results in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Wittink; J.H. Geertzen; C.J. Haastert; S.E. Lakke; Dr. C.P. van der Schans; R. van Abbema; M.F. Reneman

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Functional capacity tests are standardized instruments to evaluate patients' capacities to execute work-related activities. Functional capacity test results are associated with biopsychosocial factors, making it unclear what is being measured in capacity testing. An overview of these f

  9. Work-Related Quality of Life among Medical Residents at a University Hospital in Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsila, Nattamon; Chaiear, Naesinee; Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Tiamkao, Somsak

    2015-12-01

    1) To assess work-related quality of life (WRQOL) among medical residents at a university hospital in northeast Thailand. 2) To determine the strength of the association between personal and working condition components and WRQOL among medical residents. A descriptive study was used to describe the WRQOL among medical residents. The study population comprised of all 375 residents affiliated with the university hospital. The Thai version of a self-administered work-related quality of life scale-2 was used for data collection. Testing the reliability revealed a Cronbach's alpha of 0.908. Questionnaires were completed by 259 of 375 (68.3%). The study found that the mean rating by residents for overall WRQOL was 113.8 out of 170 (SD 14.8). Most rated WRQOL as moderate (76.6%). The seven sub-factors were rated as moderate to high for employee engagement and control at work, moderate for home/work interface, general well-being and working conditions, high-moderate for job career satisfaction, and low-moderate for stress at work. Relationships between the personal and working condition components and WRQOL were analyzed using binary logistic regression. Residents in minor specialties had a higher WRQOL than those in major specialties (OR 2.522, 95% CI: 1.37, 4.63). Residents who had less than eight duty shifts/week had a higher WRQOL than those with more than eight duty shifts/week (OR 2.263, 95% CI: 1.16, 4.41). Similarly, residents working with less than 80 hours/week had a higher WRQOL than those working more than 80 hours/week (OR 2.344, 95% CI: 1.17, 4.72). A subgroup analyzes of those working in minor specialties showed the trend that working less than eight shifts/month and working less than 80 hours/week had the potential association with good quality of work-life (QWL). This phenomenon is presented in the subgroup analyses of those working in major specialties. Therefore, working hours and number of shifts might have played important role in contributing good QWL

  10. Interpersonal interactions, job demands and work-related outcomes in pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Caroline A; Nadkarni, Anagha

    2012-04-01

    Objectives  The objective of this study was to examine the interaction between job demands of pharmacists and resources in the form of interpersonal interactions and its association with work-related outcomes such as organizational and professional commitment, job burnout, professional identity and job satisfaction. The job demands-resources (JD-R) model served as the theoretical framework. Methods  Subjects for the study were drawn from the Pharmacy Manpower Project Database (n = 1874). A 14-page mail-in survey measured hospital pharmacists' responses on the frequency of occurrence of various job-related scenarios as well as work-related outcomes. The study design was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Responses were collected on a Likert scale. Descriptive statistics, reliability analyses and correlational and multiple regression analyses were conducted using SPSS version 17 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Key findings  The 566 pharmacists (30% response rate) who responded to the survey indicated that high-demand/pleasant encounters and low-demand/pleasant encounters occurred more frequently in the workplace. The strongest correlations were found between high-demand/unpleasant encounters and frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion. Multiple regression analyses indicated that when controlling for demographic factors high-demand/unpleasant encounters were negatively related to affective organizational commitment and positively related to frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion. Low-demand/pleasant encounters were positively related to frequency and intensity of personal accomplishment. Low-demand/unpleasant encounters were significantly and negatively related to professional commitment, job satisfaction and frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion, while high-demand/pleasant encounters were also related to frequency and intensity of emotional exhaustion Conclusion  Support was found for the JD-R model and the proposed interaction effects

  11. The Non-Specific Binding of Fluorescent-Labeled MiRNAs on Cell Surface by Hydrophobic Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Lu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs about 22 nt long that play key roles in almost all biological processes and diseases. The fluorescent labeling and lipofection are two common methods for changing the levels and locating the position of cellular miRNAs. Despite many studies about the mechanism of DNA/RNA lipofection, little is known about the characteristics, mechanisms and specificity of lipofection of fluorescent-labeled miRNAs.Therefore, miRNAs labeled with different fluorescent dyes were transfected into adherent and suspension cells using lipofection reagent. Then, the non-specific binding and its mechanism were investigated by flow cytometer and laser confocal microscopy. The results showed that miRNAs labeled with Cy5 (cyanine fluorescent dye could firmly bind to the surface of adherent cells (Hela and suspended cells (K562 even without lipofection reagent. The binding of miRNAs labeled with FAM (carboxyl fluorescein to K562 cells was obvious, but it was not significant in Hela cells. After lipofectamine reagent was added, most of the fluorescently labeled miRNAs binding to the surface of Hela cells were transfected into intra-cell because of the high transfection efficiency, however, most of them were still binding to the surface of K562 cells. Moreover, the high-salt buffer which could destroy the electrostatic interactions did not affect the above-mentioned non-specific binding, but the organic solvent which could destroy the hydrophobic interactions eliminated it.These results implied that the fluorescent-labeled miRNAs could non-specifically bind to the cell surface by hydrophobic interaction. It would lead to significant errors in the estimation of transfection efficiency only according to the cellular fluorescence intensity. Therefore, other methods to evaluate the transfection efficiency and more appropriate fluorescent dyes should be used according to the cell types for the accuracy of results.

  12. Global trend according to estimated number of occupational accidents and fatal work-related diseases at region and country level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Päivi; Leena Saarela, Kaija; Takala, Jukka

    2009-01-01

    Although occupational accidents and work-related diseases have been of interest for a long time, due to lack of proper recording and notification systems the official numbers of occupational accidents and work-related diseases are missing for many countries. Presently, the demand for effectiveness and an interest in the economic aspects of accidents have increased prevention activities at company and country levels. Occupational accident data of selected countries and of World Health Organization regional divisions together with the global burden of disease were used in estimating global occupational accidents and fatal work-related diseases. The trend of global occupational accidents and work-related diseases is presented at region and country levels. The years 1998, 2001, and 2003 are compared in the case of occupational accidents and the years 2000 and 2002 in the case of work-related diseases. The total number of occupational accidents and fatal work-related diseases has increased, but the fatality rates per 100,000 workers have decreased. There were almost 360,000 fatal occupational accidents in 2003 and almost 2 million fatal work-related diseases in 2002. Every day more than 960,000 workers get hurt because of accidents. Each day 5,330 people die because of work-related diseases. Information on occupational accidents and work-related diseases is needed so that countries may understand better the importance of occupational health and safety at country and company level. Especially companies in developing countries are not familiar with occupational safety and health. Statistical data is essential for accident prevention; it is a starting point for the safety work.

  13. Epidemiological studies of the non-specific effects of vaccines: II--methodological issues in the design and analysis of cohort studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrington, C P; Firth, M J; Moulton, L H

    2009-01-01

    We review sources of bias which can affect non-randomized cohort studies of non-specific effects of vaccines on child mortality. Using examples from the literature on non-specific effects, we describe different sources of selection and information bias, and, where possible, outline analysis...

  14. Prognosis and course of work-participation in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: A 12-month follow-up cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, K.; Luijsterburg, P.A.J.; Pool-Goudzwaard, A.; Heymans, M.W.; Ronchetti, I.; Miedema, H.S.; Koes, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical course of, and prognostic factors for, work-participation in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. METHODS: A total of 1,608 patients with chronic non-specific low back pain received a multidisciplinary therapy and were evaluated at baseline an

  15. Costs of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in developing countries: Colombia case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrahita, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    The real burden of occupational diseases, specifically work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), and its impact on workers' productivity is not known. The situation is critical in developing countries where only cases that cause workers' disability are recorded. In this study, the incidence of MSDs in Colombia was estimated by using the age and gender specific double incidence rate of repetitive strain injuries diseases in Finland for 2002. The results showed that the estimated number of MSDs recorded in Colombia during 2005 was 23,477 cases at the rate of 11.6 cases per 10,000 workers. The estimated total cost of these MSD cases relative to workers' productivity was 171.7 million US Dollars, representing around 0.2% of Colombia's Gross Domestic Product for 2005. The systematic appraisal of the incidence of MSDs and their associated cost on workers' productivity are necessary in developing countries to reduce the costly impact on productivity and to increase workers' well-being.

  16. Risk for work-related fatigue among the employees on semiconductor manufacturing lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Hsieh, Hui-I; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2015-03-01

    To examine the potential risk factors for work-related fatigue (WRF) among workers in modern industries, the authors analyzed the records of need-for-recovery questionnaires and health checkup results for 1545 employees. Compared with regular daytime workers, and after adjusting for confounders, the workers adapting to day-and-night rotating shift work (RSW) had a 4.0-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.7-5.9) increased risk for WRF, higher than the 2.2-fold risk (95% CI = 1.5-3.3) for persistent shift workers. Based on highest education level, the male employees with university degrees had the highest adjusted odds ratio (a-OR) 2.8 (95% CI = 1.0-7.8) for complaining of WRF versus compulsory education group. For female workers, currently married/cohabiting status was inversely associated with WRF (a-OR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.2-0.9), and child-rearing responsibility moderately increased WRF risk (a-OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.0-3.7). Day-and-night RSW and the adaptation, educational levels of males, and domestic factors for females contributed to WRF among semiconductor manufacturing employees.

  17. Work-related risk factors for suicidal behaviour, protective factors and possibilities for prevention

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    Tina Podlogar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Work is an important part of adult life. As such it is closely connected to health and mental health. Aspects of occupation, work and employment can represent risk factors for suicidal behaviour or protective factors against it. Aim of this article is to present the known work-related risk factors for suicidal behaviour, protective factors and possibilities for preventive activities in this context. An important risk factor for suicidal behaviour is unemployment. Connection between unemployment and suicidality is complex and can be explained in two ways: (i underlying vulnerability leads to both unemployment and suicidal behaviour, while (ii the connection is also thought be causal to some extent. The addressed topic is very important in the period of economic recession, when unemployment rates are high and adverse changes in terms of working conditions can occur. Different psycho-social and other working conditions are also connected to suicidal behaviour. Efficient preventive activities include approaches on multiple levels: active politics of solving economic crisis and improving the labour market conditions, creating and maintaining stimulating working conditions, raising awareness and mental health promotion among the employees, gatekeeper training, and restriction of means for suicide in occupations with access to them. Due to complexity of suicidal behaviour there is a need for further research, which would contribute to better understanding of specific risk factors and especially protective factors in vulnerable groups.

  18. Work related determinants of breastfeeding discontinuation among employed mothers in Malaysia

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    Darus Azlan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross-sectional study assesses factors that contribute to discontinuing breastfeeding among employed mothers in Malaysia. Methods A structured questionnaire was used in conducting this study involving all government health clinics in Petaling district between July and September 2006. Respondents were Malaysian women with children between the ages of six to twelve months who were formally employed. Factors studied were selected socio-demographic and work-related characteristics. Results From a total of 290 respondents, 51% discontinued breastfeeding. The majority (54% of mothers who discontinued breastfeeding had breastfed their babies for less than three months. Compared to Malay mothers, the risk of breastfeeding discontinuation were higher among Chinese (AOR 3.7, 95% CI: 1.7, 7.8 and Indian mothers (AOR 7.3, 95% CI 1.9, 27.4. Not having adequate breastfeeding facilities at the workplace was also a risk factor for breastfeeding discontinuation (AOR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.05, 3.1. Conclusion It is important that workplaces provide adequate breastfeeding facilities such as a room in which to express breast milk and a refrigerator, and allow mothers flexible time to express breast milk.

  19. A new quantitative approach to measure perceived work-related stress in Italian employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevenini, Gabriele; Fratini, Ilaria; Gambassi, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    We propose a method for a reliable quantitative measure of subjectively perceived occupational stress applicable in any company to enhance occupational safety and psychosocial health, to enable precise prevention policies and intervention and to improve work quality and efficiency. A suitable questionnaire was telephonically administered to a stratified sample of the whole Italian population of employees. Combined multivariate statistical methods, including principal component, cluster and discriminant analyses, were used to identify risk factors and to design a causal model for understanding work-related stress. The model explained the causal links of stress through employee perception of imbalance between job demands and resources for responding appropriately, by supplying a reliable U-shaped nonlinear stress index, expressed in terms of values of human systolic arterial pressure. Low, intermediate and high values indicated demotivation (or inefficiency), well-being and distress, respectively. Costs for stress-dependent productivity shortcomings were estimated to about 3.7% of national income from employment. The method identified useful structured information able to supply a simple and precise interpretation of employees' well-being and stress risk. Results could be compared with estimated national benchmarks to enable targeted intervention strategies to protect the health and safety of workers, and to reduce unproductive costs for firms.

  20. Noise as an explanatory factor in work-related fatality reports

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    Pierre Deshaies

    2015-01-01

    The study used multiple case qualitative content analysis. This descriptive study was based on the content analysis of the 788 reports from the Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail du Québec [Workers′ Compensation Board (WCB] investigating the fatal work-related accidents between 1990 and 2005. The study was descriptive (number and percentages. Noise was explicitly stated as one of the explanatory factors for the fatal outcome in 2.2% (17/788 of the fatal accidents, particularly when the work involved vehicular movement or the need to communicate between workers. Noise was not typically considered a unique cause in the accident, notably because the investigators considered that the accident would have probably occurred due to other risk factors (for example, disregard of safety rules, shortcomings in work methods, and inadequate training. Noise is an important risk factor when communication is involved in work. Since noise is ubiquitous and may also interfere with vigilance and other risk factors for accidents, it may be a much more important contributing factor to accidents than is currently recognized.

  1. Manicurists and pedicurists – Occupation group at high risk of work-related dermatoses

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    Marta Kieć-Świerczyńska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years occupational skin and respiratory diseases have been more and more frequently diagnosed in small production and service enterprises. The awareness of occupational exposure and its possible health effects among their workers and employers is not sufficient. Beauty salons, in addition to hairdressers and beauticians, frequently employ manicurists and pedicurists. The workers often happen to perform various activities interchangeably. The health status of beauty salons workers has rarely been assessed. The most numerous reports concern hairdressers. In this occupational group, the occurrence of skin lesions induced by wet work and frequent allergy to metals, hair dyes and bleaches and perm solutions has been emphasized, while information about health hazards for being a manicurist or pedicurist in beauty salons is seldom reported. The aim of this paper is to present professional activities (manicure and pedicure, methods of nail stylization, occupational exposure and literature data on work-related adverse health effects in manicurists and pedicurists. Wet work and exposure to solvents, fragrances, resins, metals, gum, detergents may cause skin disorders (contact dermatitis, urticaria, angioedema, photodermatoses, conjunctivitis, anaphylaxis, respiratory tract diseases, including asthma. The discussed occupations are also associated with the increased incidence of bacterial (particularly purulent, viral and fungal infections and cancer. Med Pr 2013;64(4:579–591

  2. Link between Work-Related Prosocial Orientation and Professional Capability of Employees: A Preliminary Exploratory Investigation

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    Małgorzata Adamska-Chudzińska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the link between work-related prosocial orientation of organizations and professional capabilities of employees suggesting that the prosocial orientation impacts the level of professional capability and proactive engagement. The article applies three main methods: literature studies, in-depth questionnaire surveys and multi-person method of assessment. The applied sub-measures for both leading constructs were formed and collinearity was tested using linear correlation coefficient. In prosocial environments psychological predispositions as essential aspects of personality and determinants of human behaviour, activate and stimulate professional activity. The implementation of a prosocial orientation leads to significant growth in professional capability and can influence employees’ entrepreneurial behaviour. An important aspect of employee proactive behaviour is building an internal policy based on prosocial mechanisms. Effective stimulation of prosocial and proactive attitudes and actions requires the creation of an environment where activities are realized alongside social values and with respect for individual personal determinants of activity. Considerations and findings presented in the paper contribute to the area of determinants of effective and lasting proactive employee development. The use of the multi-person method can be considered valuable in behavioural research in entrepreneurship.

  3. Lean production and work-related musculoskeletal disorders: overviews of international and Swedish studies.

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    Brännmark, Mikael; Håkansson, Malin

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed at summarizing the knowledge of the relationship between Lean and work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD), and WMSD risk factors, in manufacturing companies. Literature search processes identified 23 publications studying this, in scientific journals. Eight included measurements of WMSD; three were mostly negative, two showed mixed results, one showed no results and two were mostly positive. Eighteen publications included measurements of WMSD risk factors; seven showed mostly negative results, eight showed mixed results, two showed mostly positive results and one was inconclusive. Three literature reviews were identified, which studied this question; two were mostly negative, while the third was inconclusive. Also, 12 publications of grey literature studying Lean and WMSD risk factors in Swedish organizations were identified; nine showed mixed results, two showed mostly positive results and one showed mostly negative results. Due to the varying quality and study design of the publications, together with the few identified studies, it is difficult to compare them. The context and the implementation also likely affect the results. The general conclusion was that a Lean implementation may increase the risk of WMSD and risk factors for WMSD, if it is not accompanied with an ergonomic intervention.

  4. [In-depth assessment of work-related stress in a major company undergoing restructuring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, Andrea; Pelagalli, Maria Felicia; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Livigni, Lucilla; Guidi, Stefano; Moscatelli, Maurizia; Mascioli, Marco; D'Orsi, Fulvio; Zolla, Antonella; Bagnara, Sebastiano

    2015-07-08

    An in-depth assessment of work-related stress was conducted in a major national telecommunications company undergoing major changes. The assessment was made on three homogeneous groups of workers and covered a large representative sample of the corresponding populations. To identify the main sources of stress for the three populations of workers, stimulate a discussion on the possible corrective actions, and assess the impact of the on-going organizational changes on workers' health. The assessment started with an analysis of the objective stress indicators listed in the INAIL (National Insurance Institute for Occupational Diseases and Accidents) Checklist. This was followed by a combination of qualitative and quantitative investigations on work context and tasks and on the subjective perceptions of workers, which were carried out by using: semi-structured interviews with management, field observations of work tasks, focus groups and questionnaires (GHQ-12, HSE Indicator Tool, ad-hoc questionnaire). The assessment allowed identification of the critical areas to be addressed with specific interventions: relationship with the company, work performance, work organization, and equipment. the investigation allowed to identification of specific practical actions (improvement of technological tools; professional development through training courses) as well as strategic actions ( re-establish relationship of trust with the company) so as to mitigate the workers' level of stress. Analysis of the results also showed that the three targeted populations differed in the degree of acceptance and understanding of the organizational changes.

  5. [Work-related musculoskeletal diseases in dental professionals. 1. Prevalence and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorio, F; Vercelli, S; Ferriero, G; D'Angelo, F; Migliario, M; Franchignoni, M

    2005-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a sharp rise in the incidence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD). All occupations are involved; in dental professionals (dentists, dental hygienists and dental auxiliaries) this problem occurs in 54-93% of subjects, with higher risk in elderly subjects and women. Spine, shoulder, elbow and hand are mostly involved. Prevention of WMSD is becoming crucial and requires the identification and modification of risk factors. Individual characteristics of the worker--such as gender, age, stature, physical condition, strength, etc.--may contribute to the occurrence of these musculoskeletal disorders. Moreover, the specific occupation and work organisation may be the source of ergonomic hazards. Awkward postures, prolonged repetitive movements, intense work schedules or fast work pace represent important risk factors for WMSD. Sometimes the dentist's workstation is not suited to the specific professional characteristics and an ergonomic improvement is needed. Finally, factors connected with professional equipment (such as vibrations, or sharp and hard surfaces causing pressure points) may also contribute to generating WMSD in dental professionals.

  6. Work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Nanna H; Netterstrøm, Bo; Gyntelberg, Finn; Kristensen, Tage S; Nielsen, Finn; Steptoe, Andrew; Theorell, Töres

    2009-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) was systematically reviewed: 33 articles presented 51 analyses of studies involving male participants, 18 analyses involving female participants, and 8 analyses with both genders. Twenty of the studies originated in the Nordic countries, and the major dimensions of the Demand-Control Model were the focus of 23 articles. A balanced evaluation of the studies indicates moderate evidence that high psychologic demands, lack of social support, and iso-strain are risk factors for IHD among men. Studies performed during recent years have not shown evidence for lack of control as a risk factor for IHD. Several studies have shown that job strain is a risk factor, but in the more recent ones, these associations can be fully explained by the association between demands and disease risk. Insufficient evidence was found for a relationship between IHD and effort-reward imbalance, injustice, job insecurity, or long working hours. Studies involving women are too few to draw any conclusion concerning women, work stress, and IHD.

  7. [Work-related disability among postal employees: incidence, duration, and social security costs in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Flávia Alves Neves; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh

    2014-06-01

    This study analyzed the characteristics of Brazilian postal workers that received sick leave benefits in 2008. The databases were from the Unified Benefits System (SUB) and the National Registry of Social Information (CNIS). The incidence rate was 556.5 benefits per 10,000 employees, and the leading causes of work-related sick leave were injuries, musculoskeletal disorders, and mental disorders. Areas most frequently reported in injuries were knees and legs, wrists and hands, ankles and feet, and shoulders and arms, with higher incidence rates in men. Women were more affected by musculoskeletal disorders and mental disorders. Average sick leave lasted longer in men, and the incidence of benefits increased with age. The States with the highest incidence rates were Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás, and Santa Catarina, and security benefits averaged BRL 1,847.00. Postal work may involve additional risk of injuries to the limbs, due to the long distances carrying heavy weight, assault, and dog bites.

  8. The reported incidence of work-related musculoskeletal disease in the UK: MOSS 1997-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, N M; Meyer, J D; Chen, Y; Holt, D L; McDonald, J C

    2001-10-01

    Consultant rheumatologists participate in surveillance of work-related musculoskeletal conditions under the Musculoskeletal Occupational Surveillance Scheme (MOSS), which has been in operation since 1997. During the first 3 years of the scheme, an estimated total of 8070 cases and 8442 diagnoses were obtained, an average of slightly less than 2700 estimated cases each year. Disorders of the upper limb accounted for approximately 66% (5502) of the total, with hand/wrist/arm conditions (3693 cases) comprising the majority of these. Conditions of the lumbar spine and trunk (13% of cases), the cervical spine (12%) and the shoulder (12%) were also frequently reported. Pain with ill-defined pathology was reported in 35% of cases with hand and forearm disorders. Overall, 82% of cases were related to repetitive rather than single injury. The largest numbers of cases were seen in workers in craft occupations (1659) and in clerical and secretarial workers (1524). High rates of musculoskeletal conditions, particularly of upper limb disorders, are notable in mining. In most occupations, and overall, women were at greater risk than men.

  9. [From surveillance to work-related accident prevention: the contribution of the ergonomics of the activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Mendes, Renata Wey Berti

    2012-10-01

    Work-related accidents are complex phenomena determined by the work organization process, the dimensions of which are usually invisible to surveillance agents. The scope of this paper was a case study based on documentary evidence to analyze and compare the success of an intervention conducted at a meat processing and packaging factory, by focusing on checking health and safety norms in 1997, and incorporating ergonomic concepts in 2008. In 1997, surveillance actions focused primarily on visible risk factors. Despite fulfilling sanitation requirements, the company still had an annual accident rate of 26% in 2008, which motivated the search for a new approach. In 2008, it was seen that accidents were caused by a vicious cycle involving intense work, technical inadequacy, absenteeism and high turnover (84%) that led the company to recruit inexperienced workers. This scenario was aggravated by authoritarian management practices. The ergonomics of the activity contributed to the understanding of organizational causes -thus superseding the normative aspects of traditional surveillance - which revealed the importance of ensuring that surveillance actions for prevention are more effective.

  10. Allied Health Professionals and Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Systematic Review

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    Sarah P. Anderson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Work-related musculoskeletal injuries and disorders (WMSD are a significant issue in the health care sector. Allied Health professionals (AHP in this sector are exposed to physical and psychosocial factors associated with increased risk of developing a WMSD. Clarification of relevant hazard and risk factors for AHP is needed to improve understanding and inform WMSD risk management. A systematic analysis of the literature was undertaken to determine prevalence and risk factors for WMSD in AHP. Databases of Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL (EBSCO, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were reviewed. This quality of articles was low. Outcome measures were varied, with prevalence rates of WMSD reported from 28% to 96% over a one-year time period. The lower back was the most commonly affected body part. Relevant factors identified with the development of WMSD included inexperience in the role and area of employment. Future research needs to focus on undertaking high quality prospective studies to determine the factors associated with WMSD development in AHP.

  11. Long Working Hours and Work-related Cerebro-cardiovascular Disease in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHUNG, Yun Kyung; KWON, Young-jun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a good discriminatory cutoff for long working hours as a surrogate of chronic overload at work, which is associated with the approval of workers’ compensation claims for work-related cerebro-cardiovascular disease (WR-CVD) in Korea. We evaluated weekly working hours for four weeks prior to the onset of disease for all manufacturing industry claimants (N=319) of WR-CVD in 2010. The discrimination of long working hours in predicting approval of worker’s compensation pertaining to WR-CVD was compared across cases. The cutoff was calculated with sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve with 95% CI using the receiver operating curve (ROC) method. The cutoff point was thus calculated to be 60.75 h (AUC=0.89, 95% CI [0.84–0.93]), showing a sensitivity value of 65% and specificity of 94%. This is the first study to report that long working hours could be a predictor with good discrimination and high specificity of approval of WR-CVD cases. In Korea, long working hours and widespread chronic overload at work are recognized as a social problem. Our study results suggest an appropriate cutoff for working hours as an indicator of chronic overload for the purpose of approving claims of WR-CVD. Furthermore, these results could contribute to improving the consistency of evaluation. PMID:23892901

  12. Can live bi-plane sonography reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the wrist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Ben; Elliott, Simon T

    2013-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a recognized problem affecting up to 81% of sonographers. Live bi-plane imaging is a new technology derived from matrix transducers, which allows the operator to scan in more than one plane simultaneously and can reduce the off-axis movement of the scanning arm when assessing abdominal organs. This study was performed to assess if using a bi-planar technique would reduce stressful movements of the wrist. Twelve patients were scanned by three operators (four each) using both a standard scanning abdominal protocol and a live bi-plane abdominal protocol using an iu22 scanner (Philips Healthcare, Bothell, WA) and an X6-1 probe with a bi-axial flexible electrogoniometer measuring the postural stresses on the scanning wrist throughout the study. Significant flexion/extension and radial/ulnar deviations were markedly reduced using the bi-plane scanning protocol compared to the standard B-mode protocol, with an average reduction in significant repetitive wrist movements of 71.6% (p = <0.001). Bi-planar ultrasound scanning technique may reduce stressful movements on the scanning arm and might reduce the likelihood of WMSD assuming there are no other contributing factors. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Associations between neck musculoskeletal complaints and work related factors among public service computer workers in Kaunas

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    Gintaré Kaliniene

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Information technologies have been developing very rapidly, also in the case of occupational activities. Epidemiological studies have shown that employees, who work with computers, are more likely to complain of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between neck MSD and individual and work related factors. Materials and Methods: The investigation which consisted of two parts - a questionnaire study (using Nordic Musculoskeletal questionnaire and Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire and a direct observation (to evaluate ergonomic work environment using RULA method was carried out in three randomly selected public sector companies of Kaunas. The study population consisted of 513 public service office workers. Results: The survey showed that neck MSDs were very common in the investigated population. The prevalence rate amounted to 65.7%. According to our survey neck MSDs were significantly associated with older age, bigger work experience, high quantitative and cognitive job demands, working for longer than 2 h without taking a break as well as with higher ergonomic risk score. The fully adjusted model working for longer than 2 h without taking a break had the strongest associations with neck complaints. Conclusion: It was confirmed, that neck MSDs were significantly associated with individual factors as well as conditions of work, therefore, preventive acions against neck complaints should be oriented at psychosocial and ergonomic work environment as well as at individual factors.

  14. Immediate effects of Tuina techniques on working-related musculoskeletal disorder of professional orchestra musicians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cludia Maria Sousa; Luis Moreira; Daniela Coimbra; Jorge Machado; Henry J Greten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Musicians are a prone group to suffer from working-related musculoskeletal disorder (WRMD). Conventional solutions to control musculoskeletal pain include pharmacological treatment and rehabilitation programs but their efifciency is sometimes disappointing. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this research is to study the immediate effects of Tuina techniques on WRMD of professional orchestra musicians from the north of Portugal. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS:We performed a prospective, controled, single-blinded, randomized study. Professional orchestra musicians with a diagnosis of WRMD were randomly distributed into the experimental group (n=39) and the control group (n=30). During an individual interview, Chinese diagnosis took place and treatment points were chosen. Real acupoints were treated by Tuina techniques into the experimental group and non-speciifc skin points were treated into the control group. Pain was measured by verbal numerical scale before and immediately after intervention. RESULTS:After one treatment session, pain was reduced in 91.8% of the cases for the experimental group and 7.9% for the control group. CONCLUSION:Although results showed that Tuina techniques are effectively reducing WRMD in professional orchestra musicians of the north of Portugal, further investigations with stronger measurements, double-blinding designs and bigger simple sizes are needed.

  15. Abnormal liver function and central obesity associate with work-related fatigue among the Taiwanese workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Cheng Lin; Jong-Dar Chen; Chao-Jen Chen

    2008-01-01

    AIM: TO examine the associations between objective health indicators and high need for recovery (NFR) after work, one of the subjective presentations of work related-fatigue, among apparently healthy workers in modern workplaces. METHODS: From October to December, 2007, an annual health examination was performed for the workers from an electronics manufacturing factory in Taiwan. Health records of 1216 workers with a relatively homogeneous socioeconomic status were used for analysis. The health checkups included personal and NFR scale questionnaires, physical examinations, blood tests for biochemistry and hematology. The workers within the top tertile NFR score were defined as high-NFR workers. RESULTS: After adjusted for potential confounders, the workers with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and central obesity had a significantly higher NFR after work, with increased risks of 1.4-fold [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-2.0] and 1.8-fold (95% CI = 1.2-2.7), respectively. Shiftworkers had a 2.0-fold (95% CI = 1.5-2.6) increased risk for high-NFR. The associations between high-NFR and lipid profiles, blood sugar, hematology indexes or blood pressure were insignificant after controlling for confounders. CONCLUSION: For apparently healthy workers, high NFR after work is not simply a subjective experience. Objective health measures, such as elevated ALT and increased waist circumference, should be carefully evaluated for the apparently healthy workers having a higher NFR after work.

  16. Under-recording of work-related injuries and illnesses: An OSHA priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Kathleen M; Hodgson, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    A 2009 Government Accounting Office (GAO) report, along with numerous published studies, documented that many workplace injuries are not recorded on employers' recordkeeping logs required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and consequently are under-reported to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), resulting in a substantial undercount of occupational injuries in the United States. OSHA conducted a Recordkeeping National Emphasis Program (NEP) from 2009 to 2012 to identify the extent and causes of unrecorded and incorrectly recorded occupational injuries and illnesses. OSHA found recordkeeping violations in close to half of all facilities inspected. Employee interviews identified workers' fear of reprisal and employer disciplinary programs as the most important causes of under-reporting. Subsequent inspections in the poultry industry identified employer medical management policies that fostered both under-reporting and under-recording of workplace injuries and illnesses. OSHA corroborated previous research findings and identified onsite medical units as a potential new cause of both under-reporting and under-recording. Research is needed to better characterize and eliminate obstacles to the compilation of accurate occupational injury and illness data. Occupational health professionals who work with high hazard industries where low injury rates are being recorded may wish to scrutinize recordkeeping practices carefully. This work suggests that, although many high-risk establishments manage recordkeeping with integrity, the lower the reported injury rate, the greater the likelihood of under-recording and under-reporting of work-related injuries and illnesses. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korea Provoked by Workers' Collective Compensation Claims against Work Intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongmug; Kim, Youngki; Lee, Young-Il; Koh, Sangbaek; Kim, Inah; Lee, Hoonkoo

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the process of workers' problems with work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), the introduction of risk assessments (RA) for their prevention, and the consequences of this process in Korea. In 1997, economic crisis caused a rapid increase of massive layoffs, worker dispatch system introduction, job insecurity, and use of irregular workers resulting in work intensification. Work intensification increased WMSDs, which created massive workers' compensation collective claims. Workers argued for the reduction of work intensity. The RAs introduced as a consequence of the workers' struggle is unique in the world. Whereas these RAs were expected to play a pivotal role in WMSDs prevention, they dis not due to workers' lack of engagement after the compensation struggle. In fact, changes in the compensation judgment system and criteria have resulted in lower compensation approval rates leading to lower workers' compensation claims. The Korean experience provides insight into WMSDs causes in a globalized world. In such a the globalized world, work intensification as the result of work flexibility could be an international trend.

  18. Multiple risk factors for work-related injuries and illnesses in korean-chinese migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Chae, Duckhee; Yi, Kwan Hyung; Im, Soye; Cho, Sung Hye

    2015-01-01

    Korean-Chinese currently represent the largest group of migrant workers in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of risk factors on the occurrence of work-related injuries and illnesses (WII). Data for 486 Korean-Chinese migrant workers were drawn from the 2010 Migrant Workers' Health and Safety Survey in Korea. Logistic regression was used to identify the association between WII and multiple risk factors. Individual health status (OR = 3.83, 95% CI [2.01, 7.30]), safety training (OR = 0.39, 95% CI [0.18, 0.85]), job satisfaction (OR = 1.90, 95% CI [1.07, 3.38]), physical and chemical hazard exposure (OR = 1.05, 95% CI [1.02, 1.08]), and length of stay (OR = 1.01, 95% CI [1.00, 1.01]) were identified as risk factors for WII. The findings suggest the need for a comprehensive approach to assess WII risk factors, including personal, work organization and psychosocial demands, and acculturation in Korean-Chinese migrant workers.

  19. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Truck Drivers and Official Workers

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    Abolfazl Mozafari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs are common among drivers and official workers. Musculoskeletal disorders are frequent causes of absenteeism in many countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and risk factors associated with these symptoms. A total of 346 workers and truck drivers were participated in this case-control study. All the participants were interviewed using a self- administered questionnaire containing demographic data and a Nordic questionnaire about presence site and characteristics of pain. Then the data were gathered, and the prevalence of the mentioned parameters and the relationship between variables in the questionnaire were analyzed statistically. The results of this study revealed that 78.6% out of truck drivers and 55.5% out of official workers had musculoskeletal disorders in on-year and there was a significant difference between two groups in this regard (PP<0.001. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that the musculoskeletal troubles have a high frequency among the drivers and official workers. Both groups usually remain on a prolonged uncomfortable postures and high static muscle load which may imply a risk for development of the troubles.

  20. [Guilty victims: a model to perpetuate impunity for work-related accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade Gouveia; Iguti, Aparecida Mari; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes reports and data from the investigation of severe and fatal work-related accidents by the Regional Institute of Criminology in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Some 71 accident investigation reports were analyzed from 1998, 1999, and 2000. Accidents involving machinery represented 38.0% of the total, followed by high falls (15.5%), and electric shocks (11.3%). The reports conclude that 80.0% of the accidents are caused by "unsafe acts" committed by workers themselves, while the lack of safety or "unsafe conditions" account for only 15.5% of cases. Victims are blamed even in situations involving high risk in which not even minimum safety conditions are adopted, thus favoring employers' interests. Such conclusions reflect traditional reductionist explanatory models, in which accidents are viewed as simple, unicausal phenomena, generally focused on slipups and errors by the workers themselves. Despite criticism in recent decades from the technical and academic community, this concept is still hegemonic, thus jeopardizing the development of preventive policies and the improvement of work conditions.

  1. Assessment of work-related accidents associated with waste handling in Belo Horizonte (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Marcos Pg; Pereira, Amanda F; Greco, Dirceu B; Cairncross, Sandy; Heller, Leo

    2017-08-01

    As more urban solid waste is generated, managing it becomes ever more challenging and the potential impacts on the environment and human health also become greater. Handling waste - including collection, treatment and final disposal - entails risks of work accidents. This article assesses the perception of waste management workers regarding work-related accidents in domestic and health service contexts in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. These perceptions are compared with national data from the Ministry of Social Security on accidents involving workers in solid waste management. A high proportion of accidents involves cuts and puncture injuries; 53.9% among workers exposed to domestic waste and 75% among those exposed to health service waste. Muscular lesions and fractures accounted for 25.7% and 12.5% of accidents, respectively. Data from the Ministry of Social Security diverge from the local survey results, presumably owing to under-reporting, which is frequent in this sector. Greater commitment is needed from managers and supervisory entities to ensure that effective measures are taken to protect workers' health and quality of life. Moreover, workers should defend their right to demand an accurate registry of accidents to complement monitoring performed by health professionals trained in risk identification. This would contribute to the improved recovery of injured workers and would require managers in waste management to prepare effective preventive action.

  2. Relationship Between Healthy Life Style and Work-Related Factors Among Call Center Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Gustainienė

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Health-related issues are becoming very popular both in the broad spheres of the society and in organizations. Taking care of employee health helps the employer with maintaining and improving organizational effectiveness. The aim of the study was to identify and assess the relationship between the Five-Factor Wellness Model and work-related factors such as interpersonal conflicts, organizational constraints, workload, work-family conflict, decision latitude, transformational leadership, psychological job characteristics and perceived organizational support. The subjects of the study were 177 employees of a call center. Healthy lifestyle was measured applying a Five-Factor Wellness questionnaire (Myers, Sweeney 2005b. Physical symptoms, interpersonal conflicts, organizational constraints and workload were measured using respective scales designed by Spector and Jex (2007. Decision latitude was measured employing Karasek (1985 questionnaire. Work-family conflict was measured referring to a subscale of negative work-home interaction (Geurts et al. 2005. A transformational leadership style was measured using General Scale of transformational leadership (Carless et al. 2000. Perceived organizational support was measured using a short version of Perceived Organizational Support scale (Eisenberger et al. 1986. Research findings show that healthy lifestyle as measured by the Five-Factor Wellness Model was predicted by lower work-family conflict, whereas physical symptoms - by marked work-family conflict, decision latitude and gender (female.

  3. Long working hours and work-related cerebro-cardiovascular disease in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yun Kyung; Kwon, Young-jun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a good discriminatory cutoff for long working hours as a surrogate of chronic overload at work, which is associated with the approval of workers' compensation claims for work-related cerebro-cardiovascular disease (WR-CVD) in Korea. We evaluated weekly working hours for four weeks prior to the onset of disease for all manufacturing industry claimants (N=319) of WR-CVD in 2010. The discrimination of long working hours in predicting approval of worker's compensation pertaining to WR-CVD was compared across cases. The cutoff was calculated with sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve with 95% CI using the receiver operating curve (ROC) method. The cutoff point was thus calculated to be 60.75 h (AUC=0.89, 95% CI [0.84-0.93]), showing a sensitivity value of 65% and specificity of 94%. This is the first study to report that long working hours could be a predictor with good discrimination and high specificity of approval of WR-CVD cases. In Korea, long working hours and widespread chronic overload at work are recognized as a social problem. Our study results suggest an appropriate cutoff for working hours as an indicator of chronic overload for the purpose of approving claims of WR-CVD. Furthermore, these results could contribute to improving the consistency of evaluation.

  4. Getting going and letting go: Religiosity fosters opportunity-congruent coping with work-related uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Clemens M; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Tomasik, Martin J; Wasilewski, Jacek

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated how religiosity relates to goal engagement (i.e., investing time and effort; overcoming obstacles) and goal disengagement (i.e., protecting self-esteem and motivational resources against failure experiences; distancing from unattainable goals) in coping with perceived work-related uncertainties (e.g., growing risk of job loss) that arise from current social change. We hypothesised that religiosity not only expands individuals' capacities for both engagement and disengagement but also fosters an opportunity-congruent pattern of engagement and disengagement, promoting engagement especially under favourable opportunities for goal-striving in the social ecology and facilitating disengagement especially under unfavourable opportunities. Multilevel analyses in a sample of N = 2089 Polish adults aged 20-46 years partly supported these predictions. Religiosity was associated with higher goal engagement, especially under favourable economic opportunities for goal-striving in the social ecology (as measured by the regional net migration rate). For disengagement, the results were more mixed; religiosity was related to higher self-protection independently of the economic opportunity structure and predicted higher goal-distancing only under the most unfavourable opportunities. These results suggest that religiosity can promote different coping strategies under different conditions, fostering a pattern of opportunity-congruent engagement and, to some extent, disengagement that is likely to be adaptive. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. Work-related psychosocial hazards among emergency medical responders (EMRS in Mansoura city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Omar Khashaba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research was done to assess levels of psychosocial stress and related hazards [(burnout, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD] among emergency medical responders (EMRs. Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted upon (140 EMRs and a comparative group composed of (140 nonemergency workers. The groups studied were subjected to semistructured questionnaire including demographic data, survey for job stressors, Maslach burn out inventory (MBI, Beck depression inventory (BDI, and Davidson Trauma scale for PTSD. Results: The most severe acute stressors among EMRs were dealing with traumatic events (88.57%, followed by dealing with serious accidents (87.8% and young victims (87.14%. Chronic stressors were more commonly reported among EMRs with statistically significant differences (P 0.05. There was increased risk of PTSD for those who had higher stress levels from death of colleagues [odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval (CI] = 2.2 (0.7-7.6, exposure to verbal or physical assault OR (95% CI = 1.6 (0.5-4.4 and dealing with psychiatric OR (95% CI 1.4 (0.53.7 (P > 0.05 Conclusion: EMRs group had more frequent exposure to both acute and chronic work-related stressors than comparative group. Also, EMRs had higher levels of EE, DP, and PTSD compared with comparative group. EMRs are in need for stress management program for prevention these of stress related hazards on health and work performance.

  6. Job stress dimension and work-related musculoskeletal disorders among southeast Nigerian physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaraogu, Ukachukwu Okoroafor; Ezema, Charles Ikechukwu; Nwosu, Chinenye Kosisochukwu

    2017-09-01

    Although publications describe physical demands of the job in the physiotherapy profession, there is a dearth of literature on job stress dimensions (JSDs), and their relationship to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). To investigate JSDs and their relationship to WMSDs among physiotherapists currently practicing in southeast Nigeria. A cross-sectional study using items related to the Job Content Questionnaire and the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. Data were summarized with descriptive statistics, and the relationship between WMSDs and JSDs was analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test. A total of 126 physiotherapists responded. There were high levels of stress in most of the job dimensions investigated: 82.1% and 22.8% of the physiotherapists had WMSDs in at least one body region in the last 12 months and the last 7 days respectively. The lower back was the most commonly affected in both periods. No specific domain was related to development of WMSDs. Over 80% of physiotherapists in southeast Nigeria have WMSDs. However, despite high levels of physical demands on the job, physiotherapists have job control and good social support. Intervention programs aimed at reducing WMSDs in physiotherapists should focus on risk factors that target the physical demands of the job.

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Work Well Index: A Short Questionnaire for Work-Related Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauss, Daniel; Li, Jian; Angerer, Peter

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of a short questionnaire for work-related stress entitled Work Well index (WWi) and its interaction with different variables of self-reported health. An online survey was conducted in a sample of 1,218 employees (51% female) in four countries of an international insurance company. Internal consistency reliability, factorial validity, convergent validity and criterion validity of the 10-item WWi were analyzed. Good internal consistency reliability of the WWi was obtained (Cronbach's α coefficient = 0.85). Confirmatory factor analysis showed a satisfactory model fit of the data (AGFI = 0.92). The WWi was highly correlated to conceptually close constructs such as demand-control, effort-reward imbalance and workplace social capital (p < 0.001). Moreover, the 10-item WWi was significantly (p < 0.001) associated with elevated risk of self-rated health, absenteeism, presenteeism and depression (odds ratio 1.63, 1.36, 2.08, 2.95, respectively). We conclude that this short questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument measuring psychosocial stress at work. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The impact of specific and non-specific immunity on the ecology of Streptococcus pneumoniae and the implications for vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasche, Stefan; Edmunds, W John; Miller, Elizabeth; Goldblatt, David; Robertson, Chris; Choi, Yoon Hong

    2013-11-22

    More than 90 capsular serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae coexist despite competing for nasopharyngeal carriage and a gradient in fitness. The underlying mechanisms for this are poorly understood and make assessment of the likely population impact of vaccination challenging. We use an individual-based simulation model to generalize widely used deterministic models for pneumococcal competition and show that in these models short-term serotype-specific and serotype non-specific immunity could constitute the mechanism governing between-host competition and coexistence. We find that non-specific immunity induces between-host competition and that serotype-specific immunity limits a type's competitive advantage and allows stable coexistence of multiple serotypes. Serotypes carried at low prevalence show high variance in carriage levels, which would result in apparent outbreaks if they were highly pathogenic. Vaccination against few serotypes can lead to elimination of the vaccine types and induces replacement by others. However, in simulations where the elimination of the targeted types is achieved only by a combination of vaccine effects and the competitive pressure of the non-vaccine types, a universal vaccine with similar-type-specific effectiveness can fail to eliminate pneumococcal carriage and offers limited herd immunity. Hence, if vaccine effects are insufficient to control the majority of serotypes at the same time, then exploiting the competitive pressure by selective vaccination can help control the most pathogenic serotypes.

  9. Sex-differential and non-specific effects of routine vaccinations in a rural area with low vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Nielsen, Jens; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined the potential sex-differential and non-specific effects of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and measles vaccine (MV) in a rural area of Senegal. METHODS: The 4133 children born in the area between 1996 and 1999 were included in the study. V.......54 (1.03-2.31) for DTP-vaccinated children who had not received MV (p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The sequence of routine vaccinations is important for the overall impact on child survival and these vaccines are associated with sex-differential effects.......BACKGROUND: We examined the potential sex-differential and non-specific effects of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and measles vaccine (MV) in a rural area of Senegal. METHODS: The 4133 children born in the area between 1996 and 1999 were included in the study....... Vaccinations were provided at three health centres. Vaccine information was collected through 3-monthly home visits. The survival analysis compared the effects of BCG and DTP according to the following sequence of vaccinations: BCG-first, BCG+DTP1-first, or DTP1-first. We compared DTP and MV between 9 and 24...

  10. The effectiveness of acupuncture in treating chronic non-specific low back pain: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchinson Amanda J P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder defined as pain and soreness, muscle tension, or stiffness in the lumbosacral area of the spine which does not have a specific cause. Low back pain results in high health costs and incapacity to work causing an economic burden to society. The optimal management of non-specific low back pain appears to be undecided. Recently published guidelines support the use of acupuncture for treating non-specific low back pain and it has become a popular alternative treatment modality for patients with low back pain. Methods A comprehensive systematic literature search was conducted through Medline using Ovid and Medical Subject Headings for randomized controlled trials published in the last 10 years. The outcomes scored were subjective pain scores and functional outcome scores. Results Eighty two randomized studies were identified, of which 7 met our inclusion criteria. Three studies found a significant difference in pain scores when comparing acupuncture, or sham acupuncture, with conventional therapy or no care. Two studies demonstrated a significant difference between acupuncture treatment and no treatment or routine care at 8 weeks and 3 months. Three studies demonstrated no significant difference between acupuncture and minimal/sham acupuncture with no difference in pain relief or function over 6 to 12 months. Conclusions This review provides some evidence to support acupuncture as more effective than no treatment, but no conclusions can be drawn about its effectiveness over other treatment modalities as the evidence is conflicting.

  11. Individuals with non-specific low back pain use a trunk stiffening strategy to maintain upright posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie L; Henry, Sharon M; Raasch, Christine C; Hitt, Juvena R; Bunn, Janice Y

    2012-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that individuals with non-specific low back pain (LBP) have altered movement coordination. However, the relationship of this neuromotor impairment to recurrent pain episodes is unknown. To assess coordination while minimizing the confounding influences of pain we characterized automatic postural responses to multi-directional support surface translations in individuals with a history of LBP who were not in an active episode of their pain. Twenty subjects with and 21 subjects without non-specific LBP stood on a platform that was translated unexpectedly in 12 directions. Net joint torques of the ankles, knees, hips, and trunk in the frontal and sagittal planes as well as surface electromyographs of 12 lower leg and trunk muscles were compared across perturbation directions to determine if individuals with LBP responded using a trunk stiffening strategy. Individuals with LBP demonstrated reduced peak trunk torques, and enhanced activation of the trunk and ankle muscle responses following perturbations. These results suggest that individuals with LBP use a strategy of trunk stiffening achieved through co-activation of trunk musculature, aided by enhanced distal responses, to respond to unexpected support surface perturbations. Notably, these neuromotor alterations persisted between active pain periods and could represent either movement patterns that have developed in response to pain or could reflect underlying impairments that may contribute to recurrent episodes of LBP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Myalgias or non-specific muscle pain in Arab or Indo-Pakistani patients may indicate vitamin D deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badsha, Humeira; Daher, Mirna; Ooi Kong, Kok

    2009-08-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (fibromyalgia or muscle pain in a musculoskeletal clinic in the United Arab Emirates. Consecutive patients who were diagnosed with fibromyalgia and/or non-specific musculoskeletal pain (ICD-9 729.1) were screened for vitamin D deficiency. Patients were seen at follow-up after treatment with vitamin D was given. Improvement was assessed by a simple questionnaire. Patients (139) with muscle pain were seen in 2007. Average age was 40 +/- year; 95% were female; 69 (49%) were Arab, of whom 92% were veiled; 43 (30%) Indian of whom 11% were veiled; 23 (16%) were Caucasian; and four were East Asian (3%) and all wore western clothes. One hundred three (74%) of these patients had a low vitamin D level. Vitamin D deficiency was most common among Arab patients (86%) and Indo-Pakistani (87%) and least common among the Caucasians (8%) and was equally prevalent among veiled and non-veiled patients. Treatment resulted in clinical improvement in 90% of patients. Non-specific muscle pains among Arab and Indian-Pakistani populations may indicate vitamin D deficiency, and prompt treatment can result in resolution of symptoms.

  13. Do whiplash patients differ from other patients with non-specific neck pain regarding pain, function or prognosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Arianne P; Lewis, Martyn; Schellingerhout, Jasper M; Heymans, Martijn W; Dziedzic, Krysia; de Vet, Henrica C W; Koes, Bart W

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated whether patients with self-reported whiplash differed in perceived pain, functional limitation and prognosis from patients with other painful neck complaints. Data from three Dutch trials and an English trial were used all evaluating conservative treatment in neck pain patients in primary care. All patients had non-specific neck pain. Information on any trauma or injury came from self-report at baseline. We compared frequencies of baseline variables and outcome at short-term and long term for whiplash and non-trauma neck pain patients separately. The total study population consisted of 804 neck pain patients. Of these patients 133 reported (16.5%) that an injury was the cause of their neck pain. In all trials there were 17-18% more male patients in the whiplash group. At follow-up pain decreased between 12 and 28%, function 10%, and 25-50% of patients recovered in all trials. Post-treatment improvements in pain, function and recovery were comparable between whiplash and non-trauma patients. We also found no different prognostic factors between whiplash and non-trauma patients. Overall we found in a population with mild to moderate pain no clinically relevant differences between patients with self-reported whiplash and patients with other painful neck complaints. The findings suggest that whiplash patients with mild to moderate pain should not be considered a specific subgroup of patients with non-specific neck pain.

  14. Effect of flexibility exercise on lumbar angle: a study among non-specific low back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purepong, Nithima; Jitvimonrat, Anusorn; Boonyong, Sujitra; Thaveeratitham, Premtip; Pensri, Praneet

    2012-04-01

    The study investigated the influence of lumbar flexibility exercise on the lumbar angle among patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP). Pre-experimental one-group pretest-posttest design trial was conducted at Health Service Center, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand. Thirty-five non-specific LBP patients with limitation in lower back range of motion and without neurological deficits were recruited (based on the LBP guidelines by RCGP 1999). Lumbar flexibility exercise program developed based on McKenzie therapy was performed individually each day for 2 weeks. Patients attended an exercise program daily in the first week under the supervision of a physiotherapist. The exercise program consisted of 7 sets a day (3-2-2 in the morning-afternoon-evening) in series of 10 repetitions for each set for 2 weeks. Lumbar angle was measured at the beginning and at the end of 2 weeks in order to determine the range of motion improved. The results indicated that the low back pain symptom improved as well as the angle.

  15. Pentamidine binds to tRNA through non-specific hydrophobic interactions and inhibits aminoacylation and translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Zhang, Yi

    2008-03-01

    The selective and potent inhibition of mitochondrial translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by pentamidine suggests a novel antimicrobial action for this drug. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay, T1 ribonuclease footprinting, hydroxyl radical footprinting and isothermal titration calorimetry collectively demonstrated that pentamidine non-specifically binds to two distinct classes of sites on tRNA. The binding was driven by favorable entropy changes indicative of a large hydrophobic interaction, suggesting that the aromatic rings of pentamidine are inserted into the stacked base pairs of tRNA helices. Pentamidine binding disrupts the tRNA secondary structure and masks the anticodon loop in the tertiary structure. Consistently, we showed that pentamidine specifically inhibits tRNA aminoacylation but not the cognate amino acid adenylation. Pentamidine inhibited protein translation in vitro with an EC(50) equivalent to that binds to tRNA and inhibits tRNA aminoacylation in vitro, but drastically higher than that inhibits translation in vivo, supporting the established notion that the antimicrobial activity of pentamidine is largely due to its selective accumulation by the pathogen rather than by the host cell. Therefore, interrupting tRNA aminoacylation by the entropy-driven non-specific binding is an important mechanism of pentamidine in inhibiting protein translation, providing new insights into the development of antimicrobial drugs.

  16. Perceptually specific and perceptually non-specific influences on rereading benefits for spatially transformed text: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M

    2012-12-01

    The present study used eye tracking methodology to examine rereading benefits for spatially transformed text. Eye movements were monitored while participants read the same target word twice, in two different low-constraint sentence frames. The congruency of perceptual processing was manipulated by either applying the same type of transformation to the word during the first and second presentations (i.e., the congruent condition), or employing two different types of transformations across the two presentations of the word (i.e., the incongruent condition). Perceptual specificity effects were demonstrated such that fixation times for the second presentation of the target word were shorter for the congruent condition compared to the incongruent condition. Moreover, we demonstrated an additional perceptually non-specific effect such that second reading fixation times were shorter for the incongruent condition relative to a baseline condition that employed a normal typography (i.e., non-transformed) during the first presentation and a transformation during the second presentation. Both of these effects (i.e., perceptually specific and perceptually non-specific) were similar in magnitude for high and low frequency words, and both effects persisted across a 1 week lag between the first and second readings. We discuss the present findings in the context of the distinction between conscious and unconscious memory, and the distinction between perceptually versus conceptually driven processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence that brief self-affirming implementation intentions can reduce work-related anxiety in downsize survivors.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, JI; Harris, PR

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Workers were recruited from a UK further education college during a period of organisational downsizing. The study assessed the effects of a brief health psychology intervention on work-related stress in downsize survivors. Design and Methods: Sixty-six employees were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: one in which they were asked to create a work-related self-affirming implementation intention (WS-AII), or a control. Feelings of anxiety and depression wer...

  18. Organisational interventions for improving wellbeing and reducing work-related stress in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghieh, Ali; Montgomery, Paul; Bonell, Christopher P; Thompson, Marc; Aber, J Lawrence

    2015-04-08

    The teaching profession is an occupation with a high prevalence of work-related stress. This may lead to sustained physical and mental health problems in teachers. It can also negatively affect the health, wellbeing and educational attainment of children, and impose a financial burden on the public budget in terms of teacher turnover and sickness absence. Most evaluated interventions for the wellbeing of teachers are directed at the individual level, and so do not tackle the causes of stress in the workplace. Organisational-level interventions are a potential avenue in this regard. To evaluate the effectiveness of organisational interventions for improving wellbeing and reducing work-related stress in teachers. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ASSIA, AEI, BEI, BiblioMap, DARE, DER, ERIC, IBSS, SSCI, Sociological Abstracts, a number of specialist occupational health databases, and a number of trial registers and grey literature sources from the inception of each database until January 2015. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, and controlled before-and-after studies of organisational-level interventions for the wellbeing of teachers. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Four studies met the inclusion criteria. They were three cluster-randomised controlled trials and one with a stepped-wedge design.Changing task characteristicsOne study with 961 teachers in eight schools compared a task-based organisational change intervention along with stress management training to no intervention. It found a small reduction at 12 months in 10 out of 14 of the subscales in the Occupational Stress Inventory, with a mean difference (MD) varying from -3.84 to 0.13, and a small increase in the Work Ability Index (MD 2.27; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.64 to 2.90; 708 participants, low-quality evidence).Changing organisational characteristicsTwo studies compared teacher

  19. Effect of chair types on work-related musculoskeletal discomfort during vaginal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ruchira; Carranza Leon, Daniel A; Morrow, Melissa M; Vos-Draper, Tamara L; Mc Gree, Michaela E; Weaver, Amy L; Woolley, Sandra M; Hallbeck, Susan; Gebhart, John B

    2016-11-01

    Evidence supports that surgeons are at high risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The objective of the study was to compare the effect of different chairs on work-related musculoskeletal discomfort for surgeons during vaginal operations. This crossover study randomly assigned 4 surgeons to 4 chair types using a 4 × 4 Latin square model: a conventional round stool, a round stool with a backrest, a saddle chair with a backrest, and a Capisco chair. Subjective assessments of surgeon discomfort were performed with a validated body discomfort survey, and workload was assessed with the surgical task load index. The objective postural load was quantified with inertial measurement units of the modified rapid upper limb assessment limits. Subjective and objective assessments of chair comfort were performed with an 11 point scale and seat interface pressure-mapped distributions, respectively. The primary outcome was the difference in body discomfort scores between pre- and postsurgery measurements. Secondary outcomes were the differences in chair comfort scores, postural load, and seating interface pressure-mapped distribution. For each outcome, comparisons among the chair types were based on fitting a linear mixed model that handled the surgeon as a random effect and the chair type as a fixed effect. Data were collected for 48 vaginal procedures performed for pelvic organ prolapse. Mean (SD) duration of surgery was 122.3 (25.1) minutes. Surgeons reported body discomfort during 31 procedures (67.4%). Subjective increase in discomfort from the preoperative state was noted most commonly in the lower back (n = 14, 30.4%), followed by right shoulder (n = 12, 26.1%), upper back (n = 8, 17.4%), hips and buttocks (n = 7, 15.2%), left shoulder (n = 6, 13.0%), right or left thigh (n = 6, 13.0%), and neck (n = 6, 13.0%). Pre- and postsurgery body discomfort scores did not differ with respect to chair type. Chair discomfort scores for the round stool and the saddle

  20. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among construction workers in the United States from 1992 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuanwen; Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Choi, Sang D; Dement, John

    2017-05-01

    Examine trends and patterns of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among construction workers in the USA, with an emphasis on older workers. WMSDs were identified from the 1992-2014 Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII), and employment was estimated from the Current Population Survey (CPS). Risk of WMSDs was measured by number of WMSDs per 10 000 full-time equivalent workers and stratified by major demographic and employment subgroups. Time series analysis was performed to examine the trend of WMSDs in construction. The number of WMSDs significantly dropped in the US construction industry, following the overall injury trends. However, the rate of WMSDs in construction remained higher than in all industries combined; the median days away from work increased from 8 days in 1992 to 13 days in 2014, and the proportion of WMSDs for construction workers aged 55 to 64 years almost doubled. By occupation, construction labourers had the largest number of WMSD cases, while helpers, heating and air-conditioning mechanics, cement masons and sheet metal workers had the highest rates of WMSDs. The major cause of WMSDs in construction was overexertion, and back injuries accounted for more than 40% of WMSDs among construction workers. The estimated wage loss for private wage-and-salary construction workers was $46 million in 2014. Construction workers continue to face a higher risk of WMSDs. Ergonomic solutions that reduce overexertion-the primary exposure for WMSDs-should be adopted extensively at construction sites, particularly for workers with a higher risk of WMSDs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.