WorldWideScience

Sample records for early nineteenth century

  1. Galvanic cultures: electricity and life in the early nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morus, I R

    1998-01-01

    Electricity has long proved to be a powerful tool for investigating the properties of life. Towards the beginning of the nineteenth century new discoveries and inventions in electricity stimulated a new popular fascination with such questions. Electricity seemed a good way of understanding the machinery of life. It was the key to unlocking the secrets of vitality. Looking at these early nineteenth-century debates and discussions provides a good way of focusing on the cultural connections and ramifications of science. As electricity provided tools for understanding life, it provided tools for understanding culture also.

  2. Arctic marine climate of the early nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Brohan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The climate of the early nineteenth century is likely to have been significantly cooler than that of today, as it was a period of low solar activity (the Dalton minimum and followed a series of large volcanic eruptions. Proxy reconstructions of the temperature of the period do not agree well on the size of the temperature change, so other observational records from the period are particularly valuable. Weather observations have been extracted from the reports of the noted whaling captain William Scoresby Jr., and from the records of a series of Royal Navy expeditions to the Arctic, preserved in the UK National Archives. They demonstrate that marine climate in 1810–1825 was marked by consistently cold summers, with abundant sea-ice. But although the period was significantly colder than the modern average, there was considerable variability: in the Greenland Sea the summers following the Tambora eruption (1816 and 1817 were noticeably warmer, and had less sea-ice coverage, than the years immediately preceding them; and the sea-ice coverage in Lancaster Sound in 1819 and 1820 was low even by modern standards.

  3. Nineteenth-Century English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg......The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg...

  4. Regionalism and Development in Early Nineteenth Century Spanish America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Douglas

    An understanding of regionalism in early 19th century Spanish America is crucial to any understanding of this region's economic development. Regionalism became the barrier to the kind of integrated national economy that some writers claim could have been implemented had it not been for the imposition of dependency by external forces. This…

  5. Intertransitions between Islam and Eastern Orthodoxy in Kazakhstan (Nineteenth-Early Twentieth Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadvokasova, Zakish T.; Orazbayeva, Altynay I.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the historical facts related to conversion of indigenous people of the Kazakh steppe from Islam to Christianity and the conversion of the Russian migrants from Orthodoxy to Islam in Kazakhstan in the nineteenth-early twentieth century. The study deals with the laws that were detrimental to Islam and reforms…

  6. Violent Inscriptions: Border Crossings in Early Nineteenth-Century American Literary History

    OpenAIRE

    Schilz, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    AbstractViolent Inscriptions:Border Crossings in Early Nineteenth-Century American Literary HistoryLisa SchilzMy dissertation, Violent Inscriptions: Trauma, Translation, and Trans-nation in the Borderlands, stages convergences among a multilingual, multicultural web of texts and textual traces—Comanche, Ojibwe, Mexican, U.S., German—that thematize and register violence in the early national period. While 1848 has rightly been proclaimed as a (or even the) significant periodizing marker for Am...

  7. Urban Forms and Civic Space in Nineteenth to Early Twentieth Century Bangkok and Rangoon

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Elizabeth Howard; Osiri, Navanath

    2013-01-01

    Buddhist spaces in Bangkok and Rangoon both had long common traditions prior to nineteenth and early twentieth-century colonial incursions. Top–down central city planning with European designs transformed both cities. While Siamese kings personally initiated civic change that began to widen economic and social interaction of different classes, British models segregated European, Burmese, Indian, and Chinese populations to exacerbate social differences. In addition, the Siamese rulers maintain...

  8. Julia Rush's diary: coping with loss in the early nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielman, S B; Melges, F T

    1986-09-01

    Julia Rush (1759-1848), wife of Benjamin Rush (1745-1813), recorded her thoughts over a 33-year period in an unpublished devotional journal. Many of the entries relate to her experience of the loss of Benjamin Rush. Although the diary is inadequate as a source of understanding psychodynamic processes at work, it provides considerable information about Julia Rush's coping behavior. An analysis of this journal reveals that she used three major coping strategies to deal with the loss of her husband: ritualized language, time marking, and cognitive reframing. These devotional meditations also illuminate the way early nineteenth-century religious views shaped Julia Rush's response to loss.

  9. Neptunism and Transformism: Robert Jameson and other Evolutionary Theorists in Early Nineteenth-Century Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Bill

    2016-08-01

    This paper sheds new light on the prevalence of evolutionary ideas in Scotland in the early nineteenth century and establish what connections existed between the espousal of evolutionary theories and adherence to the directional history of the earth proposed by Abraham Gottlob Werner and his Scottish disciples. A possible connection between Wernerian geology and theories of the transmutation of species in Edinburgh in the period when Charles Darwin was a medical student in the city was suggested in an important 1991 paper by James Secord. This study aims to deepen our knowledge of this important episode in the history of evolutionary ideas and explore the relationship between these geological and evolutionary discourses. To do this it focuses on the circle of natural historians around Robert Jameson, Wernerian geologist and professor of natural history at the University of Edinburgh from 1804 to 1854. From the evidence gathered here there emerges a clear confirmation that the Wernerian model of geohistory facilitated the acceptance of evolutionary explanations of the history of life in early nineteenth-century Scotland. As Edinburgh was at this time the most important center of medical education in the English-speaking world, this almost certainly influenced the reception and development of evolutionary ideas in the decades that followed.

  10. Priestley's Shadow and Lavoisier's Influence: Electricity and Heat in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Amy

    In the late eighteenth century, Joseph Priestley argued that any complete theory of heat also had to explain electrical phenomena, which manifested many similar effects to heat. For example, sparking or heating a sample of trapped air caused a reduction in the volume of air and made the gas toxic to living organisms. Because of the complexity of electrical and thermal phenomena, Antoine Lavoisier did not address electrical action in his published works. Rather, he focused on those effects produced by heating alone. With the success of Lavoisier's caloric theory of heat, natural philosophers and chemists continued to debate the relationship between heat and electricity. In this presentation, I compare and contrast the fate of caloric in early-nineteenth-century electrical studies via the work of two scientists: Humphry Davy in Britain and Robert Hare in America.

  11. Medical confidentiality in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: an Anglo-German comparison1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Summary Professional secrecy of doctors became an issue of considerable medico-legal and political debate in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in both Germany and England, although the legal preconditions for this debate were quite different in the two countries. While in Germany medical confidentiality was a legal obligation and granted in court, no such statutory recognition of doctors’ professional secrecy existed in England. This paper is a comparative analysis of medical secrecy in three key areas - divorce trials, venereal disease and abortion - in both countries. Based on sources from the period between c.1870 and 1939, our paper shows how doctors tried to define the scope of professional secrecy as an integral part of their professional honour in relation to important matters of public health. PMID:21077462

  12. Educational Ideas in Geography Education in Sweden during the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries: The Relationship between Maps and Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennerdal, Pontus

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of the geography education of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Sweden are typically offered to contrast with current ideas in geography education, and the content of geography textbooks is the focus of this comparison. The role of maps and visual pedagogy are ignored, and the educational ideas developed from regional…

  13. Educational Ideas in Geography Education in Sweden during the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries: The Relationship between Maps and Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennerdal, Pontus

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of the geography education of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Sweden are typically offered to contrast with current ideas in geography education, and the content of geography textbooks is the focus of this comparison. The role of maps and visual pedagogy are ignored, and the educational ideas developed from regional…

  14. Resisting Conformity: Anglican Mission Women and the Schooling of Girls in Early Nineteenth-Century West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    The origins of modern schooling in early nineteenth-century Africa have been poorly researched. Moreover, histories of education in Africa have focused largely on the education of boys. Little attention has been paid to girls' schooling or to the missionary women who sought to construct a new feminine Christian identity for African girls. In the…

  15. Widening horizons?: the geography of the marriage market in nineteenth and early-twentieth century Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekamper, P.; van Poppel, F.W.A.; Mandemakers, K.; P. Gutmann, Myron; D. Deane, Glenn; R. Merchant, Emily; M. Sylvester, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Historical studies suggest that nineteenth- and twentieth-century processes of national integration in the countries of Western Europe fundamentally changed interactions between individuals living in different parts of those countries. These studies, however, were rarely able to provide direct evide

  16. On the surgical treatment of facial paralysis in the early nineteenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Robert C. van; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A.

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of facial paralysis is generally considered to have been nonsurgical until the end of the nineteenth century. However, the authors discovered recently that already in the 1840s the celebrated German facial reconstructive surgeons Dieffenbach and von Langenbeck applied the technique of

  17. Exposure to the Eyes of God: Monitorial Schools and Evangelicals in Early Nineteenth-Century England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedra, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Through a close analysis of the links between nineteenth-century Protestant missionary thought and the British and Foreign School Society (BFSS) this article suggests that to distinguish Enlightenment educational and social reform from evangelism is mistaken. Emblematic of the social reform projects which emerged in England as responses to the…

  18. A Left Handed Compliment: A newly discovered, early nineteenth-century lithograph by John Lewis Marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Snowman, Janet

    2010-01-01

    A newly discovered, early nineteenth-century lithograph by John Lewis Marks (b. ca. 1795-1796, d. ca. 1857-1861), entitled A Left Handed Compliment, is described. In this humorous print a young boy is using his left hand to draw the face of an elderly woman who is his grandmother, and she is shocked at the boy's suggestion that he will, “just see if I can't touch off your old Phizog left handed”. The source of the joke about the left-handed compliment is obscure, but more than likely it is sexual in origin. Glued to the verso of the print are early versions of two prints by Robert Seymour (1798-1836), the illustrator of Dickens' Pickwick Papers, suggesting a possible link between Marks and Seymour. From the hatch patterns on the Seymour engravings, it appears that Seymour may himself have been left-handed and perhaps therefore the butt of the joke. An alternative possibility is that Phizog is a reference to Dickens' later illustrator whose pseudonym was Phiz. It is also just conceivable that the young boy is Marks's own young son, Jacob. The print can be placed in the context of a scatological English vernacular humour that extends from Shakespeare through to Donald McGill and into the present day.

  19. Other than healing: medical practitioners and the business of life assurance during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, M W

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore briefly the nature, development and implications of the relationship between medical practitioners and life assurance companies. The aim is to elucidate the development both of the medical profession and the life insurance business--two important aspects of economic and social change in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries which are usually treated separately. The focus is primarily, though not exclusively, on Scottish companies as they carried out a disproportionately large amount of the UK life assurance business by the mid-nineteenth century. The insurance industry's increasing, and increasingly systematic, tapping of medical expertise enabled it to raise profits by reducing losses on standard policies and by venturing out into types of business previously thought too risky. While nineteenth-century medical therapeutics may have left much to be desired, medical involvement in insurance suggests that medical practitioners were by no means ineffective. At the same time, a substantial proportion of the medical profession gained valuable part-time appointments which helped to alter the diagnostic techniques of the profession more generally. Thus insurance turns out to be an especially important element in the 'non-healing' aspects of medicine, with spin-offs for the healing side as well.

  20. How to Tell a Fairy Tale With Images: Narrative Theories and French Paintings from the Early Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margriet Hoogvliet

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article first discusses theoretical approaches to the question of pictorial narrative, and argues that images can generate a narrative, but do so by different means than texts. Consequently, visual narratives should not be analysed using the same criteria as developed for textual narratives. Based on this idea, the article further analyses two French paintings from the early nineteenth century that represent a fairy tale by visual means alone, and which can be considered as paintings that tell a fairy tale: Petit Chaperon rouge (c. 1820 by Fleury François Richard, and Peau d’âne (1819 by Jean‐Antoine Laurent.

  1. Nineteenth-century aether theories

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffner, Kenneth F

    2013-01-01

    Nineteenth-Century Aether Theories focuses on aether theories. The selection first offers information on the development of aether theories by taking into consideration the positions of Christiaan Huygens, Thomas Young, and Augustin Fresnel. The text then examines the elastic solid aether. Concerns include Green's aether theory, MacCullagh's aether theory, and Kelvin's aether theory. The text also reviews Lorentz' aether and electron theory. The development of Lorentz' ideas of the stagnant aether and electrons; Lorentz' theorem of corresponding states and its development; and Lorentz' respons

  2. Chemistry beyond the academy: diversity in Scotland in the early nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert G W

    2010-03-01

    Outside formal university chemistry classes in Scotland, which existed mainly to fulfil the requirements of medical courses, chemistry teaching was available from extramural lecturers. This form of teaching was often aimed at medical students, who could fulfil their graduation requirements if the lecturer had approved status. However, most of those attending would not have been seeking any formal qualification: there was a wave of enthusiasm among people from many walks of life about gaining chemical knowledge. Audiences included fashionable gentlefolk, manufacturers and industrialists, apprentice surgeons, mechanics, and artisans. Much of the teaching was at a highly proficient level, chemists of the stature of Thomas Thomson, Andrew Ure, Andrew Fyfe, Edward Turner, William Gregory, Thomas Graham, David Boswell Reid and George Wilson all offering classes. For several such teachers, it was the first step in a career that would later lead to significant academic or governmental appointments. In an Appendix, the article lists forty-eight chemists who have been identified as having taught extramurally between the later eighteenth and mid-nineteenth centuries.

  3. The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Alan Henry

    2015-08-01

    The term "revolution" in scientific contexts usually refers either to the beginnings of modern western science in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, or to the two great revolutions of early twentieth century physics. Comparison of what was known at the beginning of the nineteenth century with what was known at the end, however, shows that century to have been one of transformation in astronomy, and in the other sciences, that amounts to "revolution". Astronomers in 1800 knew neither the nature of the Sun nor the distances of the stars. Developments in instrumentation enabled the first determinations of stellar parallax in the 1830s, and later enabled the solar prominences to be studied outside the brief momemnts of total eclipses. The development of photography and of spectroscopy led to the birth of observational astrophysics, while the greater understanding of the nature of heat and the rise of thermodynamics made possible the first attempts to investigate the theory of stellar structure. Nothing was known in 1800 of extra-galactic objects apart from some tentative identifcations by William Herschel but, by the end of the century, the discovery of the spiral structure of some nebulae had led some to believe that these were the "island universes" about which Kant had speculated. Of course, astrophysics and cosmology would be much further developed in the twentieth century and those of us whose careers spanned the second half of that century look back on it as a "golden age" for astronomy; but the nineteenth century was undoubtedly a time of rapid transformation and can be reasonably described as as one of the periods of revolution in astronomy.

  4. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    2009-01-01

    It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country....... The duties on grain in Malta were therefore not protectionist, but rather for revenue purposes, in contrast to the UK Corn Laws. Taxing an inelastic demand for foreign wheat by Maltese, who were unable to grow enough food to support themselves, was certainly an effective way of raising revenue, but probably...

  5. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country....... The duties on grain in Malta were therefore not protectionist, but rather for revenue purposes, in contrast to the UK Corn Laws. Taxing an inelastic demand for foreign wheat by Maltese, who were unable to grow enough food to support themselves, was certainly an effective way of raising revenue, but probably...

  6. Periodontal disease in a Portuguese identified skeletal sample from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasterlain, Sofia N; Cunha, Eugénia; Hillson, Simon

    2011-05-01

    Periodontal status was investigated in 600 adult dentitions belonging to the identified osteological collections curated at the University of Coimbra, Portugal. These collections date to a point temporally intermediate between the large epidemiological studies of the 20th century and archaeological collections that antedate the 19th century. The aim of this study is to compare periodontal data derived from contemporary samples with statistics compiled from epidemiological studies to determine if factors such as age-at-death, sex, and tooth type are essential or not to account for in future archaeological studies of periodontitis. Periodontal disease status was assessed based on the textural and architectural variations of the interdental septum and the extent of bone loss. Overall, the frequency of periodontitis within the Coimbra collections is 73.8%. Men were more susceptible to periodontal disease than women. Gingivitis was widespread in the younger age groups. Destructive periodontitis was observed early in adulthood, rising steadily with age. The most susceptible sites to periodontal breakdown were located in the posterior region of the upper jaw. Some variation in reported frequencies of periodontitis was found in epidemiological reports, which might result from variation in methods for identifying the pathology, differences in the age composition of the samples examined, variation in oral hygiene and/or diet, or some other factors. Regarding the pattern of distribution of periodontal disease, Coimbra results were similar to comparable modern epidemiological surveys, making clear the importance of considering sex, age, and oral distribution of periodontitis in future archaeological studies.

  7. Informal Learning in Late-Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth-Century Greece: Greek Children's Literature in Historical and Political Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    After Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire (1827), a newly formed Greek state looked to retrieve its past through the teaching of a Greek national history. For much of the nineteenth century Greek schools forged common religious, linguistic, and historical ties among the Greek people through the teaching of a Greek historical past (Zervas…

  8. The early modern kidney--nephrology in and about the nineteenth century. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2013-01-01

    The 19th century was a period of momentous scientific discoveries, technological achievements, and societal changes. A beneficiary of these revolutionary upheavals was medical empiricism that supplanted the rationalism of the past giving rise to early modern scientific medicine. Continued reliance on sensory data now magnified by technical advances generated new medical information that could be quantified with increasing precision, verified by repeated experimentation, and validated by statistical analysis. The institutionalization and integration of these methodologies into medical education were a defining step that assured their progress and perpetuation. Major advances were made in the nosography of diseases of the kidney, notably that of the diagnosis of progressive kidney disease from the presence of albuminuria by Richard Bright (1789-1858); and of renal structure and function, notably the demonstration of the continuity of the glomerular capsule with the tubular basement membrane by William Bowman (1816-1892), and the arguments for hemodynamic physical forces mediated glomerular filtration by Carl Ludwig (1816-1895) and for active tubular transport by Rudolf Heidenhain (1834-1897). Improvements in microscopy and tissue processing were instrumental in describing the cellular ultrastructure of the glomerulus and tubular segments, but their integrated function remained to be elucidated. The kidney continued to be considered a tubular secretory organ and its pathology attributed to injury of the interstitium (interstitial nephritis) or tubules (parenchymatous nephritis). © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Marie Rozette and her world: class, ethnicity, gender, and race in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard B

    2011-01-01

    In 1790, Marie Rozette, a freedwoman of Indian origin on Mauritius, executed a series of notarial acts which revealed that she possessed a small fortune in cash assets as well as slaves and substantial landed property in one of the island’s rural districts. The life of this former slave between 1776, when she first appears in the archival record, and her death in 1804 provides a vantage point from which to gain a subaltern perspective on aspects of Mascarene social and economic history, as well as developments in the wider Indian Ocean world during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Marie Rozette’s life history challenges the notion that free persons of color in Mauritius were little more than an “unappropriated” people, and invites us to consider how supposedly marginalized individuals were able to cross various socio-economic and cultural boundaries. More specifically, her life affords an opportunity to consider the ways in which class, ethnicity, and gender, as well as race, interacted to create a distinctive Creole society in Mauritius, the nature and dynamics of which bear directly on our knowledge and understanding of the free colored experience elsewhere in the European colonial slave plantation world.

  10. Moral transgression, disease and holistic health in the Livingstonia Mission in late nineteenth and early twenttieth-century Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hokkanen, Markku

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ideas of morality and health, and connections between moral transgression and disease in both Scottish missionary and Central African thought in the context of the Livingstonia Mission of the Presbyterian Free Church of Scotland in Malawi during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.2 By concentrating on debates, conflicts and co-operation between missionaries and Africans over the key issues of beer drinking and sexual morality, this article explores the emergence of a new ‘moral hygiene’ among African Christian communities in Northern Malawi.

    Este artículo analiza las ideas sobre moralidad y salud, así como las relaciones entre transgresión moral y enfermedad, tanto en el pensamiento misionero escocés como en el pensamiento del África central, en el contexto de la Misión de Livingstonia de la Iglesia Libre Presbiteriana de Escocia en Malawi entre finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX. Centrándose en las conversaciones, los conflictos y la colaboración entre los misioneros y los africanos sobre cuestiones clave como el consumo de cerveza y la moralidad sexual, este artículo estudia la aparición de una nueva «higiene moral» entre las comunidades cristianas africanas en Malawi del norte.

  11. THE ROLE OF QUALITY: SPANISH WOOL IN PORTUGUESE TRADE IN THE EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY

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    Maria Cristina Moreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-referencing qualitative and quantitative statistics from handwritten Portuguese trade sources shows the Spanish in the first half of the 19th century using Portuguese trade to introduce their wool in English and other markets. High quality Spanish merino wool played a key role in Portuguese trade during this period, particularly in the golden years of 1809-1819 and 1825. Its quality intensified both legal trade and smuggling.

  12. The origins of the birth control movement in England in the early nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W L

    1975-01-01

    The origins of the birth control movement in England in the 19th cen tury are discussed. The impact of Malthus's "Essay on the Principle of Population" and the activities of such thinkers and reformers as Jermy Bentham, James and John Stuart Mill, Francis Plance, Richard Carlile, Robert Dale Owen, and Charles Knowlton are discussed. The social debate that arose during the century is discussed.

  13. Phonetics of English in the nineteenth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Work on speech sound and the sound systems of languages can be traced back in the British Isles at least as far as the sixteenth century. It was, however, only in the nineteenth century that the word ‘phonetics' was actually coined, and it was also at this time that a wider interest in the subjec...

  14. [The history of spondylolisthesis. The nineteenth century: early case reports, terminology, etiology and pathogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenzka, D

    2015-12-01

    The author describes the history of research and development of knowledge on lumbar spondylolisthesis. Based on the available literature, early case reports, creation of the terminology and etiological concepts are presented.

  15. Phonetics of English in the nineteenth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    grew. This was reflected in the appearance of a large number of books and other publications dealing with speech sound, and also in the application of phonetics to such diverse areas as language teaching, elocution, teaching the deaf, shorthand writing and dialectology. The nineteenth century can...

  16. Greeks in the Russian Empire and their Role in the Development of Trade and Shipping in the Black and Azov Seas (nineteenthearly twentieth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksei Shliakhov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to survey the role of Greek entrepreneurs in the development of trade and shipping in the Black and Azov Sea area. Based on hitherto under-analyzed Ukrainian archival records of Greek communities (in Odessa, Izmail, Nikolaiev, Kherson, Feodosiia, Berdiansk, Mariupol, Taganrog, Rostov-upon-Don and Kerch, the article explores the professional activities of Greek merchants, captains, engineers, pilots and sailors during the nineteenth century and the early twentieth.

  17. Irish return migration in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, M

    1985-01-01

    This study is concerned with return migration to Ireland from the United States during the nineteenth century. The author first notes that the rate of return migration was relatively low. Reasons for returning are then considered, including inheritance and poor health. Data on 671 Irish returnees from passenger lists of ships arriving in the United Kingdom from the United States between 1858 and 1867 are analyzed with regard to sex, marital status, age, occupations, and impact of returnees.

  18. Nineteenth Century Public And Private Spheres

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    SIMA REMINA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate the public and private spheres. The former represents the area in which each of us carries out their daily activities, while the latter is mirrored by the home. Kate Chopin and Charlotte Perkins Gilman are two salient nineteenth-century writers who shape the everyday life of the historical period they lived in, within their literary works that shed light on the areas under discussion.

  19. The Secularization of Geology Textbooks in the United States in the Nineteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmer, Paul William

    This historical study traces in detail the gradual change in point of view in nineteenth century geology textbooks from religious fundamentalism to secularism. Scientific progress is identified as a major factor in bringing about this change. In the early decades of the nineteenth century authors stressed that geology was in accord with Christian…

  20. Contesting Law and Order: Legal and Judicial Reform in Southern Thailand in the Late Nineteenth to Early Twentieth Century

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    Piyada Chonlaworn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines legal and judicial reform in Thailand (then Siam imposed in the southern Malay provinces, once a sultanate kingdom of Pattani, in the 1890s and 1910s. Legal and judicial reform was one of the three main reforms Siam imposed countrywide at the end of the nineteenth century as an attempt to modernize the country and defend it against Western colonial powers. However, Siam’s rule and reform in the Malay region, especially during the reign of King Chulalongkorn, is viewed by recent studies as colonial modernity in itself. These measures included the appointment of a Siamese commissioner in the Malay region, the enforcement of Thai law, and Siam’s endeavor to preserve local practices such as Islamic family law and courts, which resembled those of the British and Dutch East Indies. While the notion of Siam’s inner colonialism is not entirely wrong, this paper argues that there is also another side of the coin that should be considered especially when looking from legal and judicial perspective. Right after a new regulation was imposed in 1901, it was clear that local people were ready to make use of the new judicial system. This is partly because the new system, regardless of its shortcomings, gave local people, including Malay ruling elites, opportunities to file cases against their enemies or demand justice.

  1. [The Iconographic Archive: what does the Visual Culture of the Origins of French Psychiatry in the Early Nineteenth Century reveal to us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubinville, Ginette

    This article constructs a new history of the birth of psychiatry that of its visual culture, through the study of heretofore unpublished and neglected archives.The analysis of artworks commissioned by the first French psychiatrists at the beginning of the nineteenth century highlights, in an exceptional way, the recognition of subjectivation and autonomy of the mentally sick person, which is the inherent hope of psychiatry's initial project.The artists who fulfilled the first psychiatrists' commissions expressed this ideal, which was conveyed both by the humanist philanthropy of early psychiatry and by the artistic vocabulary of the nineteenth century. These works thus display both a search for subjective expression and for objectivity. Some artists recognized this subjectivity in the sick persons: either in their portrayals of the ill as autonomous individuals; in portraits of psychiatrists, which infer the presence of the sick persons under the scrutiny of the doctor; and in the asylum architecture that addressed itself to the sick individual's sensibility and cognition.

  2. Freedom of Speech as Protected by the States: A Review of Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century State Court Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbeck, Dale A.

    While some analysts have asserted that the First Amendment was intended to prohibit laws against seditious libel (speech overtly critical of the government), the judicial record reveals a willingness to tolerate some onerous infringements on free expression. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, 25 states passed "sedition" or…

  3. 'Poisoned History': A Comparative Study of Nationalism, Propaganda and the Treatment of War and Peace in the Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, William E.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the evidence of nationalism, propaganda, and the treatment of war and peace in the school curriculum and textbooks within four countries during the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century: (1) Britain; (2) France; (3) Germany; and (4) the United States. (CMK)

  4. Nineteenth-Century Anglo-Irish Cervantine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Altuna-García de Salazar

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available To commemorate the fourth centenary of the publication of the first part of the Spanish masterpiece of all times Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes, this article approaches in an introductory manner some of the literary productions which sprang from Cervantes’s original within the Irish context. In the case of Ireland the Cervantine inspiration, albeit minor and neglected, has also been present; and, it is most probably the nineteenth century which provides the most ample and varied response to Cervantes’s masterpiece in many a different way. Our aim is to see briefly how the legacy of Don Quixote found distinct expression on the Emerald Isle. Indeed, all these Cervantine contributions from Ireland during the nineteenth century were also deeply imbued with the politics of literature and society in a country which experienced historical, social and cultural turmoil. The reference to Cervantes as a key writer in Spanish letters will not only be reduced to his masterpiece of all times; but, will also be tackled in critical pieces of importance in Ireland.

  5. Fairy tales, children’s books and schools in Sweden and Italy in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Historical comparisons and pedagogical remarks

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    William Grandi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some historical parallels in the field of children’s literature and education between Sweden and Italy in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Sweden and Italy are at the opposite ends of Europe, but they exhibited some interesting similarities in children’s book and pedagogy during those decades. Suffice it to say that two of the most important European education experts of the time – the Swede Ellen Key and the Italian Maria Montessori – were in relationship, appreciated each other’s work and exchanged ideas and remarks on educational and social issues. Parallels cannot obscure the large differences between the two nations, but there were also convergences that must be examined: researches on folktales, mass education and education of the élite were important issues in both countries. Moreover the convergences will intensify further in the coming decades, because Sweden and Italy belong to the same European context.

  6. "They increase in beauty and elegance": transforming cadavers and the epistemology of dissection in early nineteenth-century American medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Rachel N

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the origins of the practice of dissection in American medical education in order to both understand the function of dissection in medical education and challenge conventional wisdom about that function. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, American medical schools increasingly made human dissection a crucial part of their curricula, privileging use of the human cadaver over any other anatomical model. In this paper, I break apart the claims that American physicians made at that time regarding the unique pedagogic usefulness of the cadaver, and I juxtapose those claims against the realities of the dissection process. In doing so, I show how the realities of dissection differed sharply from the depictions given by physicians. In the conclusion, I argue that the cadaver still remained epistemologically and ontologically useful to the medical profession, although not necessarily for the reasons physicians explicitly stated.

  7. Empiricism and Rationalism in Nineteenth-Century Histories of Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzo, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper traces the ancestry of a familiar historiographical narrative, according to which early modern philosophy was marked by the development of empiricism, rationalism, and their synthesis by Kant. It is often claimed that this narrative became standard in the nineteenth century because of the influence of Thomas Reid, Kant and his disciples, or German and British idealists. I argue that the narrative became standard at the turn of the twentieth century. Among the factors that allowed it to become standard are its aptness to be adopted by philosophers of the most diverse persuasions, its simplicity and suitability for teaching.

  8. Veterinary entomology, colonial science and the challenge of tick-borne diseases in South Africa during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K

    2008-12-01

    This article provides an historical overview of developments in veterinary entomology during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. During that period state employed entomologists and veterinary scientists discovered that ticks were responsible for transmitting a number of livestock diseases in South Africa. Diseases such as heartwater, redwater and gallsickness were endemic to the country. They had a detrimental effect on pastoral output, which was a mainstay of the national economy. Then in 1902 the decimating cattle disease East Coast fever arrived making the search for cures or preventatives all the more urgent. Vaccine technologies against tick-borne diseases remained elusive overall and on the basis of scientific knowledge, the South African state recommended regularly dipping animals in chemical solutions to destroy the ticks. Dipping along with quarantines and culls resulted in the eradication of East Coast fever from South Africa in the early 1950s. However, from the 1930s some ticks evolved a resistance to the chemical dips meaning that diseases like redwater were unlikely to be eliminated by that means. Scientists toiled to improve upon existing dipping technologies and also carried out ecological surveys to enhance their ability to predict outbreaks. Over the longer term dipping was not a panacea and ticks continue to present a major challenge to pastoral farming.

  9. Ann Eliza Young: A Nineteenth Century Champion of Women's Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Jack B.

    Concentrating on the efforts of such nineteenth century women's rights advocates as Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, communication researchers have largely overlooked the contributions made to the cause by Ann Eliza Young. The nineteenth wife of Mormon leader Brigham Young, Ann Eliza Young left her husband and took to the speaker's…

  10. The College of Physicians in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, G C

    2001-01-01

    For much of the nineteenth century (during which there were 16 Presidents) events within the College were dominated by widespread demands for medical reform, culminating in the great Medical Reform Act of 1858. This led to major changes within the College, including an overhaul of the system(s) of elections; the old licentiates disappeared (to be replaced by the new licentiates), whilst introduction of the membership (by examination) was instituted. The style of Presidential elections was also changed. Internal College activities centred on the Library and on the London Pharmacopoeia. Early in the century, the College once again moved geographically, this time from the City to the West End of London. Regarding contemporary issues, including medical advances (notably introduction of the 'germ-theory' of disease causation) and important social changes (dominated by Poor Law reform), the College's input proved minimal.

  11. Music, neurology, and psychology in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Amy B; Johnson, Julene K

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines connections between research in music, neurology, and psychology during the late-nineteenth century. Researchers in all three disciplines investigated how music is processed by the brain. Psychologists and comparative musicologists, such as Carl Stumpf, thought in terms of multiple levels of sensory processing and mental representation. Early thinking about music processing can be linked to the start of Gestalt psychology. Neurologists such as August Knoblauch also discussed multiple levels of music processing, basing speculation on ideas about language processing. Knoblauch and others attempted to localize music function in the brain. Other neurologists, such as John Hughlings Jackson, discussed a dissociation between music as an emotional system and language as an intellectual system. Richard Wallaschek seems to have been the only one from the late-nineteenth century to synthesize ideas from musicology, psychology, and neurology. He used ideas from psychology to explain music processing and audience reactions and also used case studies from neurology to support arguments about the nature of music. Understanding the history of this research sheds light on the development of all three disciplines-musicology, neurology, and psychology.

  12. Labour, land, and capital markets in early modern Southeast Asia from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomgaard, P.

    2009-01-01

    Factor markets of sorts did exist in the more highly developed areas of early modern Southeast Asia, and they became more efficient in the course of time (although not in a linear process). However, in other more remote areas land was hardly ever sold, labour could not be hired and money was rare. N

  13. Clocks, horses, trains: the aural space-time complex in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries

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    Sam Halliday

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers time’s relationship with space in the experience of sound, as depicted in a range of texts from 1875-1948. Though some of these texts view time and space as incommensurable―most notably, Henri Bergson’s Time and Free Will, whose criticism of “spatialised” time is a touchstone throughout the essay―the majority consider the two categories as cognate, and as pragmatically, if not ontologically inseparable. Each of the three objects named in the essay’s title appear as yielding knowledge, though of a kind dependent on what Bergson (in his early work at least considers, paradoxically, to be founded upon misperception. Aside from Bergson himself, the essay considers fiction by Faulkner, Proust, Patrick Hamilton, and Olaf Stapledon; poetry by Wallace Stevens; the psychology of William James; the physiology of John Hughlings Jackson; and the musical aesthetics of Edmund Gurney and Vernon Lee.

  14. Nineteenth century exercise clinics for the treatment of scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaesser, S; Butler, A R

    2014-01-01

    Scoliosis is the abnormal lateral curvature and rotation of the spine. In the past this deformity has been linked with moral depravity, as in the case of Richard III. Treatment for scoliosis began with Hippocrates's use of boards and axial distortion. Today, bracing and surgery are used either to correct the deformity or to prevent further progression. In the past, however, exercise regimens have been used in the belief that strengthening back muscles would reduce curvature progression. This approach was pioneered by Per Henrik Ling in the early nineteenth century and was continued by his followers Mathius Roth and Franz Berwald and, most notably, by Gustav Zander. Even today a few clinics, particularly in Eastern Europe, still use exercise in the treatment of scoliosis. Whether it is effective remains debatable, but even if progression is not prevented the patient's general health will benefit from an exercise regimen.

  15. Fathers of orthopaedics in Germany (eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries): Lorenz Heister in Helmsted; Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in Berlin; Heine and family in Würzburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    In orthopaedic medicine in Germany, Lorenz Heister, practicing in the eighteenth century, is considered one of the fathers of German surgery and is renowned for his books on management of hemorrhage, wounds, fractures, bandaging, instrumentation and surgery. After Heister, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, orthopaedic medicine in Germany developed uniformly. In a period when few doctors were interested in a separate discipline of orthopaedics, Germany led in this field. Heine devoted himself to the development of the new profession of orthopaedics, and in 1816, he opened the first orthopaedic institute on German soil in the former monastery of St. Stephen, which later became known as the Karolinen-Institut. Along with Heine and his family, the special development of orthopaedics in Berlin may be attributed to the work of Dieffenbach who, in 1832, became professor at the University of Berlin and in 1840 director of the Clinical Institute for Surgery at Charité Hospital.

  16. Theories of Space and the Nineteenth-Century Novel

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    Isobel Armstrong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the construction of a spatial and interspatial subject in the nineteenth-century novel, examining initially the epistemologies of space developed by Kant and Hegel, and concluding with discussion of two further theorists of space, Bachelard and Lefebvre. It deploys this rich array of theorization to illuminate strategies through which the nineteenth-century novelist creates situatedness in language, asking how 'does' the novel represent space, and arguing that if we take away this almost miraculous verbal construction of space there is not much left to the novel.

  17. From Sentiment to Sentimentality: A Nineteenth-Century Lexicographical Search

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    Marie Banfield

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The brief account of the lexicographical history of the word ‘sentiment' in the nineteenth century, and the table of definitions which follows it, grew from my increasing sense of the shifting and ambivalent nature of the term in the literature of the period, despite the resonance and the proverbial solidity of phrases such as ‘Victorian sentiment' and ‘Victorian sentimentality'. The table is self explanatory, representing the findings of a search, among a wide range of nineteenth-century dictionaries over the period, for the changing meanings accrued by the word ‘sentiment' over time, its extensions and its modifications. The nineteenth-century lexicographical history of the word ‘sentiment' has its chief roots in the Eighteenth-century enlightenment, with definitions from Samuel Johnson and quotations from John Locke, chiefly based on intellect and reason. The nineteenth century generated a number of derivatives of the word over a period of time to express altered modes of feeling, thought and moral concern. The history of the word ‘sentiment' offers a psychological as well as a linguistic narrative.

  18. Transatlantic Irritability: Brunonian sociology, America and mass culture in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The widespread influence exerted by the medical theories of Scottish doctor, John Brown, whose eponymously named Brunonianism radically simplified the ideas of his mentor, William Cullen, has not been generally recognised. However, the very simplicity of the Brunonian medical model played a key role in ensuring the dissemination of medical ideas about nervous irritability and the harmful effects of overstimulation in the literary culture of the nineteenth century and shaped early sociological thinking. This chapter suggests the centrality of these medical ideas, as mediated by Brunonianism, to the understanding of Romanticism in the nineteenth century, and argues that Brunonian ideas shaped nineteenth-century thinking about the effects of mass print culture in ways which continue to influence contemporary thinking about the effects of media.

  19. A History of Optics from Greek Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century

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    Darrigol, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    This book is a long-term history of optics, from early Greek theories of vision to the nineteenth-century victory of the wave theory of light. It shows how light gradually became the central entity of a domain of physics that no longer referred to the functioning of the eye; it retraces the subsequent competition between medium-based and corpuscular concepts of light; and it details the nineteenth-century flourishing of mechanical ether theories. The author critically exploits and sometimes completes the more specialized histories that have flourished in the past few years. The resulting synth

  20. Women's Rights Movements in the Nineteenth Century: Conflict and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Janet

    1978-01-01

    Historical review of the function of social conflict in the nineteenth century women's rights movements. Considers whether suffrage and a move toward equality could have been accomplished without major philosophical differences. Differences between the Stanton and Anthony suffrage group and the Stone and Blackwell suffrage group are discussed.…

  1. Monetary Romanticism, Currency and Central Banks in the Nineteenth Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    How do monetary institutions, such as currencies and central banks, interrelate to the construction of national communities? Using the national conflict between the Danish state and the Duchies of Schleswig-Holstein in the nineteenth century as an exemplary case, this article demonstrates how bot...

  2. Factors Strengthening School Geography's Curricular Position in the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Zachary A.; Boehm, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the evolution of geography in the United States' K-12 education system throughout the Nineteenth Century to understand the causes of variations, shifts in focus, and relative importance placed on geography. A broad theoretical framework, based on the work of sociologists of education and education…

  3. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinheimer, F.D.

    2005-01-01

    The paper lists the whereabouts of surviving pre-nineteenth century bird collections containing altogether about 1500-3000 specimens. They are found in more than 50 institutions world-wide, with Berlin, Leiden, Paris, Stockholm, Tring and Vienna museums each holding more than 200 bird specimens from

  4. Time, Domesticity and Print Culture in Nineteenth-Century Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Maria

    In this innovative study, Damkjær shows that nineteenth-century texts gave domesticity not just a spatial, but also a temporal dimension. Novels by Dickens and Gaskell, as well as periodicals, cookery books and albums, all showed domesticity as a process. Damkjær argues that texts’ material form...

  5. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinheimer, F.D.

    2005-01-01

    The paper lists the whereabouts of surviving pre-nineteenth century bird collections containing altogether about 1500-3000 specimens. They are found in more than 50 institutions world-wide, with Berlin, Leiden, Paris, Stockholm, Tring and Vienna museums each holding more than 200 bird specimens from

  6. Local/global: women artists in the nineteenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherry, D.; Helland, J.

    2006-01-01

    Local/Global: Women Artists in the Nineteenth Century is the first book to investigate women artists working in disparate parts of the world. This major new book offers a dazzling array of compelling essays on art, architecture and design by leading writers: Joan Kerr on art in Australia by resident

  7. Management of proximal humeral fractures in the nineteenth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of fractures of the proximal humerus have troubled patients and medical practitioners since antiquity. Preradiographic diagnosis relied on surface anatomy, pain localization, crepitus, and impaired function. During the nineteenth century, a more thorough understanding...... of the pathoanatomy and pathophysiology of proximal humeral fractures was obtained, and new methods of reduction and bandaging were developed....

  8. Léon Marillier and the veridical hallucination in late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century French psychology and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maléfan, Pascal; Sommer, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent research on the professionalization of psychology at the end of the nineteenth century shows how objects of knowledge which appear illegitimate to us today shaped the institutionalization of disciplines. The veridical or telepathic hallucination was one of these objects, constituting a field both of division and exchange between nascent psychology and disciplines known as 'psychic sciences' in France, and 'psychical research' in the Anglo-American context. In France, Leon Marillier (1862-1901) was the main protagonist in discussions concerning the concept of the veridical hallucination, which gave rise to criticisms by mental specialists and psychopathologists. After all, not only were these hallucinations supposed to occur in healthy subjects, but they also failed to correspond to the Esquirolian definition of hallucinations through being corroborated by their representation of external, objective events.

  9. The Invention of Counting: The Statistical Measurement of Literacy in Nineteenth-Century England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, David

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the invention of counting literacy on a national basis in nineteenth-century Britain. Through an analysis of Registrar Generals' reports, it describes how the early statisticians wrestled with the implications of their new-found capacity to describe a nation's communications skills in a single table and how they were unable…

  10. The Invention of Counting: The Statistical Measurement of Literacy in Nineteenth-Century England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, David

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the invention of counting literacy on a national basis in nineteenth-century Britain. Through an analysis of Registrar Generals' reports, it describes how the early statisticians wrestled with the implications of their new-found capacity to describe a nation's communications skills in a single table and how they were unable…

  11. A contextual analysis of nervous force in medico-scientific and literary writings in English of the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, J Wayne

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns the context of use of the term "nervous force," as it appears in scientific and literary publications in English over the course of the nineteenth century and the first two decades of the twentieth century. The context of use, loss, or waste of nervous force and the context of nervous force as an expression of an attribute are analyzed in 189 scientific and 105 literary writings. Both contexts appeared in literary writings, where nervous force expresses the attributes of strength, forcefulness, vigor, or energy and use, loss or waste of nervous force explains such nonmorbid conditions as why someone is tired or needs rest. Only the context of use-loss-waste appeared in the medico-scientific literature, but here it explained both nonmorbid conditions (for example, effects of old age) and morbid conditions (like epilepsy). Changes in the number of these references give insights into the medico-scientific and the literary disciplines. Discussions include why nervous force is associated with explanation of disease, the persistence of its use in this capacity, and its influence on a similar use in literary writings.

  12. Zooming Albanian factor in the nineteenth century through Western lenses

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    MA. Arben Salihu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The developments of the nineteenth century were determining for the history of Balkan region as it shaped the future of many generations to come, resulting in (mainly growing discontents that led to several wars during the last century. It was beginning of the decay of the Ottoman Empire that many longed for, and many nations used every opportunity to take a full advantage of it. The aim of this work is to explore exclusively (only Western sources in an attempt to provide, as much as possible, an objective and neutral picture. Therefore, the idea behind the decision to examine non-Balkan sources is impartiality, in order to bring the reader as close as possible to the reality of the nineteenth century. A number of nineteenth century books, magazines and newspapers of the time, by respective Western authors, are explored and analysed. Reading and examining a large volume of data and information of this period, offers a unique sense of feeling, similar to that of living the nineteenth century world. Albanians, who have historically populated the heart of Balkans, are focal point of this region (in many of the regional and international sources for this particular period, vis-à-vis the Ottoman governance as well as relations with other regional neighbours. Their contribution to the history of nations in the region was unquestionably critical, but their conduct in relations to their own cause has produced an unproductive image, portrayed often with confused and incomprehensible deeds. By using authentic sources of the time, the study intends to develop arguments on many points raised, like population and religion. This work also touches briefly the sensitive issue of education in the region and initial Albanian inputs in the history of Balkan education map. Finally the study concludes that Albanians’ altruism and largely visionless focus, produced a relatively expected detrimental outcome.

  13. Awkward Appendages: Comic Umbrellas in Nineteenth-Century Print Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In nineteenth-century comic writing, the umbrella represents a troublesome material world: umbrellas were always threatening to break, flip inside out or to disappear and reappear in the most mysterious fashion. The umbrella was a trope for oddness, resistance and perversity of intent. With the h......In nineteenth-century comic writing, the umbrella represents a troublesome material world: umbrellas were always threatening to break, flip inside out or to disappear and reappear in the most mysterious fashion. The umbrella was a trope for oddness, resistance and perversity of intent....... With the help of Alenka Zupančič’s theory of comedy, this article argues that the umbrella in the cultural imagination marks an unreliable world of signs. Umbrellas, with their troublesome peripatetic nature, become arbiters of human destiny. Comic writers, including Robert Louis Stevenson in ‘The Philosophy...

  14. [Hippocrates and the nineteenth-century French medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In-sok

    2003-12-01

    Hippocrates, the father of medicine, has been represented in many ways throughout the history of medicine. His influence on later medicine took different forms from one epoch to another. Hippocrates' medical doctrine was quite influential until Renaissance period, and with the arrival of modern medicine, the method or the spirit of Hippocrates had been valued more highly than his medical doctrine. Nineteenth century French medicine shows us how the influence of Hippocrates is still vivid even in the nineteenth century. Hippocrates, as the author of the Air, Water, Places, became the founder of environmental medicine with the flourishing of meteorological medicine. And in the hands of medical ideologies he also became a proclaimer of the ideology that stressed the correspondence between men, society and nature. Laennec represented Hippocrates as the true pioneer in Clinical Medicine to which he himself made a great contribution. These various images of Hippocrates show us the universal nature of his medicine.

  15. Individuality and Interpretation in Nineteenth-Century German Historicism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jacques

    The methodological controversy in the humanities and the social sciences between the advocates of an explanatory approach similar to that of the natural sciences (erklären) and the proponents of an interpretative perspective (verstehen) has its roots in a wide-ranging cultural transformation that took place in Europe around 1800. Traditionally, this transformation has been described as the shift from Enlightenment to Romanticism, involving, among other things, the rise of a new, expressivist conception of art and the substitution of a universal notion of rationality by an emphasis on the incommensurability of individual ages and cultures. A different account of the cultural transformation of the early nineteenth century is given by Foucault (1966, 314-354). According to Foucault, a fundamental epistemological rupture took place in the period around 1800, which he describes as the shift from the classical to the modern épistémè. A crucial aspect of the rise of the modern épistémè is the discovery of man as a transcendental subject that can also be the object of empirical knowledge. Furthermore, in contrast with the emphasis on stable taxonomies of the classical age, the modern épistémè perceives the order of things as essentially historical.

  16. On Heroines in English Women Literature in the Nineteenth Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jianli

    2016-01-01

    The nineteenth century is a golden age of English women literature. A group of women writers publish a large number of great works, create a group of impressive images of women, which make up epic of the women literature. This article analyzes this phenomenon from the aspect of women in literary works-heroines. They stand for the women writers at that times and try to speak for the female sex for the unfairness of the world.

  17. The pronunciamiento in nineteenth-century Mexico : the case of Jalisco (1821-1852)

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Rosie

    2012-01-01

    The pronunciamiento was a political practice with its origins in early nineteenth-century Spain. It was a form of political petitioning usually undertaken by coalitions of military and civilian actors to make demands against regional and national governments and negotiate political change. The petitions were generally accompanied with the threat of the use of military force should the demands not be met. As such, pronunciamientos have been defined by Will Fowler as “forceful negotiations.” Th...

  18. Sir William Wilde and provision for the blind in nineteenth-century Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, S

    2016-05-01

    As Assistant Commissioner for the Census of Ireland Sir William Wilde worked as an early epidemiologist, providing information regarding the deaf-and-dumb and the blind in mid-nineteenth-century Ireland. As a social agitator he focussed the attention of the authorities to the plight of the blind and their inability to earn a living and support themselves. This paper highlights his contribution to the provision for the blind in Ireland.

  19. Adelene Buckland, Novel Science: Fiction and the Invention of Nineteenth-Century Geology

    OpenAIRE

    Talairach-Vielmas, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the nineteenth century, geological and paleontological discoveries created many sensations. Increasing evidence of a primeval world unsettled beliefs about the origins of the Earth and of mankind. Rewriting the history of the earth strongly impacted not only scientific knowledge but also the economic and cultural life of the nation, as Adelene Buckland’s Novel Science: Fiction and the Invention of Nineteenth-Century Geology explains. Geology was not new in the nineteenth century bu...

  20. Adelene Buckland, Novel Science: Fiction and the Invention of Nineteenth-Century Geology

    OpenAIRE

    Talairach-Vielmas, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the nineteenth century, geological and paleontological discoveries created many sensations. Increasing evidence of a primeval world unsettled beliefs about the origins of the Earth and of mankind. Rewriting the history of the earth strongly impacted not only scientific knowledge but also the economic and cultural life of the nation, as Adelene Buckland’s Novel Science: Fiction and the Invention of Nineteenth-Century Geology explains. Geology was not new in the nineteenth century bu...

  1. Azaria's antecedents: stereotyping infanticide in late nineteenth-century Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kociumbas, J

    2001-01-01

    Recent historical studies have reconsidered the plight of white women accused of infanticide in Australia, casting new light especially on the motives of single women and mothers of large families. Still unredeemed and largely unanalysed, however, is the baby-farmer. This article explores stereotypes of this bête noire of the nineteenth-century city, addressing concurrent medicalisation of the maternal body, child-birth, infant feeding and foster care. In so doing it also analyses representations of the midwife and the wet-nurse, along with their essentialised opposite, the good mother, who abided by the newly defined "rights of the child".

  2. Observing by hand sketching the nebulae in the nineteenth century

    CERN Document Server

    Nasim, Omar W

    2014-01-01

    Today we are all familiar with the iconic pictures of the nebulae produced by the Hubble Space Telescope's digital cameras. But there was a time, before the successful application of photography to the heavens, in which scientists had to rely on handmade drawings of these mysterious phenomena.           Observing by Hand sheds entirely new light on the ways in which the production and reception of handdrawn images of the nebulae in the nineteenth century contributed to astronomical observation. Omar W. Nasim investigates hundreds of unpublished observing books and paper records from six ninete

  3. Nineteenth-Century Digital Worlds: Hilary Fraser Interviews Jerome McGann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Fraser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hilary Fraser discusses nineteenth-century digital humanities with Jerome McGann, thinking about the institutional history of '19: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century' in the context of 'RaVoN', the 'Rossetti Archive', and NINES. The discussion addresses the institutional and disciplinary challenges in integrating digital skills in humanities training; digital environments that preserve, reconstitute, and enhance nineteenth-century scholarship online, supplement the transient nineteenth-century paper archive, and respond to the technical, ethnographic, and archaeological problems posed by work that cuts across medium boundaries.

  4. Rewriting the history of Chinese families in nineteenth-century Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnall, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The nineteenth-century Chinese population in Australia was made up mostly of men, drawing many commentators to the conclusion these men faced an absence of family life, resulting in prostitution, gambling, opium use and other so-called vices. Recent research has, however, expanded and complicated our knowledge of Chinese families in New South Wales and Victoria, particularly concerning the extent to which Chinese men and white Australian women formed intimate relationships. This article traces the origins of the misconceptions about Chinese families in nineteenth-century Australia, and considers how new directions in scholarship over the past decade are providing methods for enlarging our knowledge. It argues that instead of being oddities or exceptions, Chinese-European families were integral to the story of Australia's early Chinese communities.

  5. August Knoblauch and amusia: a nineteenth-century cognitive model of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julene K; Graziano, Amy B

    2003-02-01

    Early models of human cognition can be traced to nineteenth-century investigations of brain and behavior. Influential neurologists such as Wernicke, Kussmaul, and Lichtheim constructed diagrammatic models to illustrate current theories of cognition. Language was the most commonly studied cognitive function during this time; however, investigators also studied other cognitive functions, such as music and visual processing. While a number of nineteenth-century neurologists made observations about music abilities in aphasic patients, August Knoblauch, a German physician and anatomist, was the first to propose a diagrammatic model of music (1888/1890). He described a detailed cognitive model of music processing, hypothesized the existence of nine disorders of music production and perception, and coined the term "amusia." Knoblauch's model is the earliest cognitive model of music and is largely unrecognized as an important part of the history of neurology, neuropsychology, and music cognition. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science (USA)

  6. The Lazy Reader: Labor, Books, and Disease in Nineteenth-Century Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aselmeyer, Norman

    Looking at nineteenth-century Germany, this article investigates the origin of the idea that fiction causes disease, among both the bourgeoisie and the working class. I argue that the socially constructed notions of reading addiction, which were consistent with medical concepts at that time, touched the bourgeois virtues of industriousness and health. However, little has been written about the transfer of the bourgeois attitudes towards reading to the German working class. The study of workers' autobiographies shows that social circumstances and the emulation of bourgeois values and attitudes resulted in appropriating the concept of lazy readers in the working class. The paper follows the paths from the early nineteenth century accusation of readers to the working class's perception of novels causing disease around 1900.

  7. Metaphors of Collecting in Late Nineteenth Century Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Mendelson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At the same time that Aby Warburg was assembling his library and organizing his 'Bildatlas Mnemosyne', art critics and writers theorized late nineteenth-century collecting in Paris in metaphoric terms. Over and again, art collections were described as a bouquet, a conversation, a book, or indeed as a painting in and of itself put together by an ‘amateur’. By creating an ensemble, the amateur proposed a metaphorical mode of knowledge similar to that celebrated by Aby Warburg. This article considers the ways in which the arrangement and spaces of the late nineteenth-century amateurs, as seen in newspaper articles, sales catalogue essays and other texts and photographs, positioned the collector of paintings, but also of drawings and prints and rare books, in contradistinction to the development of the museum and proposed alternative modes of viewing and of knowing. The interdisciplinarity of Warburg’s focus on image, word, orientation and action is paralleled in many private collections.

  8. Silencing Deafness: Displacing Disability in the Nineteenth Century

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    Esme Cleall

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the way in which the language of displacement and silence were used in nineteenth-century discussions of deafness and connects this tendency to the marginalised place deaf experience occupies historically. Throughout the nineteenth century, a period which saw the consolidation of ‘the deaf and dumb’ as a social category, the word ‘forgetting’ crept into numerous discussions of deafness by both deaf and hearing commentators. Some, such as the educationalist Alexander Graeme Bell, were overt in their desire to forget deafness, demanding disability was ‘bred out’ and deaf culture condemned to the forgotten past. Others used the term ambivalently and sometimes metaphorically discussing the deaf as ‘forgotten’ by society, and ‘children of silence’. Some even pleaded that people who were deaf were not forgotten. But, though varied, the use of the imagery of forgetting and silence to evoke deafness is recurrent, and may, therefore, be seen to reveal something about how deaf experience can be approached as a displacement where deafness was spatially and imaginatively marginalised. I argue that one of the consequences of the conceptual framing of deafness through the language of forgetting was actively to silence deafness and to neutralise the idea that disability should be marginal and could be forgotten.

  9. American neurophysiology and two nineteenth-century American Physiological Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, J Wayne

    2017-01-01

    This article contrasts two American Physiological Societies, one founded near the beginning of the nineteenth century in 1837 and the other founded near its end in 1887. The contrast allows a perspective on how much budding neuroscience had developed during the nineteenth century in America. The contrast also emphasizes the complicated structure needed in both medicine and physiology to allow neurophysiology to flourish. The objectives of the American Physiological Society of 1887 were (and are) to promote physiological research and to codify physiology as a discipline. These would be accomplished by making physiology much more inclusive than traditionally accepted by raising research standards, by giving prestige to its members, by providing members a source of professional interchange, by protecting its members from antivivisectionists, and by promoting physiology as fundamental to medicine. The quantity of neuroscientific experiments by its members was striking. The main organizers of the society were Silas Weir Mitchell, John Call Dalton, Henry Pickering Bowditch, and Henry Newell Martin. The objective of the American Physiological Society of 1837 was to disperse knowledge of the "laws of life" and to promote human health and longevity. The primary organizers were William Andrus Alcott and Sylvester Graham with the encouragement of John Benson. Its technique was to use physiological information, not create it as was the case in 1887. Its object was to disseminate the word that healthy eating will improve the quality of life.

  10. The professional and the scientist in nineteenth-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucier, Paul

    2009-12-01

    In nineteenth-century America, there was no such person as a "professional scientist". There were professionals and there were scientists, but they were very different. Professionals were men of science who engaged in commercial relations with private enterprises and took fees for their services. Scientists were men of science who rejected such commercial work and feared the corrupting influences of cash and capitalism. Professionals portrayed themselves as active and useful members of an entrepreneurial polity, while scientists styled themselves as crusading reformers, promoters of a purer science and a more research-oriented university. It was this new ideology, embodied in these new institutions, that spurred these reformers to adopt a special name for themselves--"scientists". One object of this essay, then, is to explain the peculiar Gilded Age, American origins of that ubiquitous term. A larger goal is to explore the different social roles of the professional and the scientist. By attending to the particular vocabulary employed at the time, this essay tries to make clear why a "professional scientist" would have been a contradiction in terms for both the professional and the scientist in nineteenth-century America.

  11. Practice and the science of medicine in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worboys, Michael

    2011-03-01

    A generation ago the nineteenth century was at the heart of medical historical scholarship, as the era when modem medicine was born. Over the last decade or so things have changed: other centuries vie for center stage, and former key "turning points," like hospital medicine and laboratory medicine, are now seen in terms of continuities on longer timescales. But though chronologically reframed, the modes of medicine still appear chiefly at the level of programmatic intentions, including rhetorical uses of science. This essay argues that work in this vein needs to be complemented with equal attention to the performative aspects of practice--in the clinic, in the laboratory, and in the field--and that historians of medicine still have much to learn from the "practice turn" in the history of science.

  12. Shaping the Voice of the People in Nineteenth-Century Operas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lajosi, K.; Baycroft, T.; Hopkin, D.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses how and why did opera gain importance in the nineteenth century. The general political and social trends of the day were represented in these operas. Instead of gods (Orpheo), kings (L’incoronazione di Poppea) or aristocrats (Don Giovanni) nineteenth-century operas presented t

  13. A Taqriz for a Nineteenth Century Indonesian Manuscript

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    Nico J.G. Kaptein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In medieval Arabic literature a taqr³§ is a written endorsement of a certain text, which a prestigious scholar provides at the request of another scholar to support the latter’s new writing. In this sense it can be compared to the contemporary “blurb”, to advertise a new book. The taqr³§ is important because it connects and offers insights into active networks of like-minded scholars. Unfortunately this topic is still insufficiently studied and the present paper aims to make a contribution to this subject. The research examines an original taqr³§ from the nineteenth century which a scholar in Batavia obtained from his former teacher in Mecca. The paper shows that the taqr³§ is also in existence in more modern times and even beyond the Arab world.

  14. [Controversies surrounding pain and inhalation anesthesia in nineteenth century Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Torres, B; Márquez-Espinós, C; de Las Mulas-Béjar, M

    2001-05-01

    The introduction of inhaled anesthetics to Spain in 1847 brought appearances by enthusiastic promotors, prudent and reserved admirers and stubborn adversaries - sparking controversy over the use of the new gases. In some cases debate involved the discussion of various concepts of pain, as is shown by heated exchanges among Eusebio Castelo Serra, Manuel Santos Guerra and Zacarías Benito González in the pages of the journal Boletín de Medicina, Cirugía y Farmacia, in three articles appearing between 1850 and 1851 on the concept of pain: Sobre el dolor de las enfermedades y principalmente en las operaciones quirúrgicas, Modificación de dos instrumentos and Estudios sobre el dolor. Investigation into the authors' biographies and an analysis of the content of the articles has permitted us to reconstruct some aspects of the concept of pain in Spain in the middle of the nineteenth century.

  15. Musical iconography by travel artists in nineteenth century Brazil

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    Renato Moreira Varoni de Castro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines musical scenes with plucked chordophones in the works of the two most important travel artists in nineteenth century Brazil, the French painter Jean-Baptiste Debret, and the German artist Johann Moritz Rugendas. Differently from expected, their illustrations do not register any figure eight-shaped chordophone as the traditional viola and violão. Rather, one finds unknown, oval and piriform, instruments. However, beyond classificatory organology interests, this article points out the multidimensionality of the visual mediation of musical phenomena by such artists, indicating the need for cultural, political, and social contextualization, including the artistic conventions, as a condition for a better use of those images as musical evidence of the past.

  16. Creating Citizenship in the Nineteenth-Century South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    one that Creating Citizenship in the Nineteenth-Century South stands as a smart, exciting, and most welcome contribution to southern history and southern studies."--Michele K. Gillespie, author of Free Labor in an Unfree World "Combining historical and cultural studies perspectives, eleven well...... of belonging, giving shape to a person’s rights, duties, and identity, exerting a powerful historical influence in the making of the modern world. The pioneering essays in this volume are the first to address the evolution and significance of citizenship in the South from the antebellum era, through the Civil...... at Northumbria University, is the author of Radio and the Struggle for Civil Rights in the South. Martyn Bone, associate professor of American literature at the University of Copenhagen, is the author of The Postsouthern Sense of Place in Contemporary Fiction....

  17. Creating Citizenship in the Nineteenth-Century South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    one that Creating Citizenship in the Nineteenth-Century South stands as a smart, exciting, and most welcome contribution to southern history and southern studies."--Michele K. Gillespie, author of Free Labor in an Unfree World "Combining historical and cultural studies perspectives, eleven well...... of History at the University of Florida, is the author of Links: My Family in American History. David Brown, senior lecturer in American studies at the University of Manchester, is the coauthor of Race in the American South: From Slavery to Civil Rights. Brian Ward, professor in American Studies...... at Northumbria University, is the author of Radio and the Struggle for Civil Rights in the South. Martyn Bone, associate professor of American literature at the University of Copenhagen, is the author of The Postsouthern Sense of Place in Contemporary Fiction....

  18. Critical views about sports in the late Nineteenth Century

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    Gabriel Angelotti Pasteur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyzes the criticisms made by intellectuals of the nineteenth century towards sports. From different fields of knowledge (evolutionary philosophy, anthropology and economics Herbert Spencer (1860/1904, Edward Tylor (1881/1973 and Thorstein Veblen (1899/2005 agreed to question the primacy of sports over traditional practices, rituals and folk. These authors, without reaching the ends of the luddites respect of industrial machines, extolled the unfavorable aspects of physical exercises, planting a seed of doubt that continues to this day. The importance of knowing these arguments lies in the way they faced the sporting phenomenon when it began to be institutionalized in a new set of corporal, transformative exercises and apparently a generator of fitness and health

  19. Crisis and Correspondence: Style in the Nineteenth Century

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    Mari Hvattum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In his manifesto 'Das Kunstwerk der Zukunft' (1850, Richard Wagner characterised the nineteenth century as a time of crisis. Echoing Saint-Simon, he defined this crisis as a discrepancy between the spirit of the age and the actual, historical conditions. Evoking some of the most potent concepts of modern thinking—Zeitgeist, genius, and the Gesamtkunstwerk—Wagner outlined an aesthetic theory by which the artwork (including architecture simultaneously reflects and shapes its context, serving both as a mirror of its age and an agent of change.      Wagner’s seemingly paradoxical notion of art provides an apt introduction to historicist thinking. Obsessed with the idea of correspondence (or the lack of it between art and its times, nineteenth-century thinkers such as Heinrich Hübsch, Carl Bötticher and Gottfried Semper all responded to the perceived crisis. While Hübsch and Bötticher sought to alleviate the crisis by redefining this correspondence for a modern world, Semper presented a far more radical alternative. Not only did he see the current crisis as inevitable; he welcomed it as a necessary dissolution of an old order, out of which a new architecture could emerge. He thus anticipated modernists, such as Sigfried Giedion, for whom historicism was a necessary melt-down; an apocalypse, preparing for the advent of modernism. In this essay, I propose that crisis and style are intrinsically linked in modern thinking. To look closely at this coupling may throw new light not only on historicism but also on the noticeable unease with which the notion of style is treated in contemporary architectural history.

  20. Suppressing Synonymy with a Homonym: The Emergence of the Nomenclatural Type Concept in Nineteenth Century Natural History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, J.

    2016-01-01

    ‘Type’ in biology is a polysemous term. In a landmark article, Paul Farber (Journal of the History of Biology 9(1): 93–119, 1976) argued that this deceptively plain term had acquired three different meanings in early nineteenth century natural history alone. ‘Type’ was used in relation to three

  1. Suppressing Synonymy with a Homonym: The Emergence of the Nomenclatural Type Concept in Nineteenth Century Natural History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, J.

    2016-01-01

    ‘Type’ in biology is a polysemous term. In a landmark article, Paul Farber (Journal of the History of Biology 9(1): 93–119, 1976) argued that this deceptively plain term had acquired three different meanings in early nineteenth century natural history alone. ‘Type’ was used in relation to three dist

  2. Don Quijote in Nineteenth-Century English Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Garrido Ardila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article brings to light a group of Cervantine English literary works hitherto unknown to present-day Cervantes studies: seven theatrical adaptations of Don Quixote (two anonymous ones in addition to those by Charles Dibdin, Joseph Moser, G. A. Macfarren, C. A. Maltby and P. Milton, a comedy with a Quixotic title (by George Dance, and five Quixotic fictions (two anonymous, in addition to those by Lily Spender, Maurice Hewlett and A. T. Quiller-Couch. Three of these plays, had been noted by Leopoldo Rius in 1899 (Moser, Macfarren, Maltby; the other four are presented for the first time here. In order to chart a fuller and more complete history of Don Quixote on the English stage, this article provides relevant information on those seven plays. An examination of these works reinforces the previous theses that underscore the essentially comical nature of Quixotic plays in nineteenth-century England, a fact of relevance in the study of the English reception of Don Quixote in the course of that century.

  3. Nineteenth century air pollution variations in Paris inferred from Eiffel Tower potential gradient measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, R G

    2003-01-01

    Early surface measurements of atmospheric Potential Gradient were made in many European cities in the nineteenth century (C19th). The data was usually obtained at hourly resolution, and good accounts of the calibration of the instruments are also often available. The PG measurements made by Chauveau on the Eiffel Tower, soon after its completion in the 1890s, are particularly notable. Atmospheric electrical proxy techniques in combination with simple boundary layer meteorology are used to determine air pollution levels. The C19th PG measurements in both polluted and clean Parisian air present a unique resource for European air pollution and atmospheric composition studies.

  4. In vitro characterization of a nineteenth-century therapy for smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, William; Mitnik, Chandra; Denzler, Karen L; White, Stacy; Waters, Robert; Jacobs, Bertram L; Rochon, Yvan; Olson, Victoria A; Damon, Inger K; Langland, Jeffrey O

    2012-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, smallpox ravaged through the United States and Canada. At this time, a botanical preparation, derived from the carnivorous plant Sarracenia purpurea, was proclaimed as being a successful therapy for smallpox infections. The work described characterizes the antipoxvirus activity associated with this botanical extract against vaccinia virus, monkeypox virus and variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. Our work demonstrates the in vitro characterization of Sarracenia purpurea as the first effective inhibitor of poxvirus replication at the level of early viral transcription. With the renewed threat of poxvirus-related infections, our results indicate Sarracenia purpurea may act as another defensive measure against Orthopoxvirus infections.

  5. In vitro characterization of a nineteenth-century therapy for smallpox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Arndt

    Full Text Available In the nineteenth century, smallpox ravaged through the United States and Canada. At this time, a botanical preparation, derived from the carnivorous plant Sarracenia purpurea, was proclaimed as being a successful therapy for smallpox infections. The work described characterizes the antipoxvirus activity associated with this botanical extract against vaccinia virus, monkeypox virus and variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. Our work demonstrates the in vitro characterization of Sarracenia purpurea as the first effective inhibitor of poxvirus replication at the level of early viral transcription. With the renewed threat of poxvirus-related infections, our results indicate Sarracenia purpurea may act as another defensive measure against Orthopoxvirus infections.

  6. Mortuary styles and modes of sociability in nineteenth-century Brazilian cemeteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Motta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The analytical focus of this work is the social treatment meted out to the dead and burial forms in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. How might one read and understand the attitudes and social meanings of a given time from its system of funerary objects, funerary practices and styles? When subjected to the reading, embodied in tombs, the devices and burial styles translate not only accommodations and balances, but also tensions and significant changes in the relationships that the living establish with their dead.

  7. Digital Nineteenth-Century Serials for the Twenty-First Century: A Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel Brake

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this conversation, Laurel Brake and James Mussell discuss journals and digitization. They were both editors of the Nineteenth Century Serials Edition (ncse, a digitized edition of six nineteenth-century newspapers and periodicals published in 2008. The conversation takes in the digitization of historical periodicals in the broader context of contemporary, born-digital periodical titles. Nineteenth-century newspapers and periodicals present particular challenges: there are so many of them; they are poorly catalogued; runs are fragmented; and they survive in many forms. As well as this troublesome archive, they also consider the problems posed by periodical form itself. Is there a place for periodicity in an always-on digital world? Birkbeck was the base for ncse from 2005 to 2008, and Brake and Mussell were both involved with '19' in its first few years. They discuss the potential of born-digital periodicals like '19' and consider how, to date, '19' has exploited its medium. In many ways this anniversary issue — combining text, audio, and video and marking a particular moment — exemplifies how much more work there is to do.

  8. Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy and Fanny Hensel: two cases of intracerebral hemorrage and great composers of the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2014-05-01

    The composer Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy and his sister, Fanny Hensel, both died in 1847 of intracerebral hemorrhage. Also their father and grandfather had died of cerebral strokes. Their cases show the dramatic progress of an arteriovenous malformation in the nineteenth century, but also the development of new romantic styles in the history of western music. Since the late nineteenth and the early twentieth century, neurology and neurosurgery had developed as highly specialized medical subjects. Today, neurosurgery is a highly developed medical subject, and the neurosurgeon uses high-tech equipment for neurosurgical procedures and intensive care. But before the 1960s, when modern neurosurgery began with the invention of the surgical microscope and other techniques, neurosurgical and neurological treatments were only helpless attempts with an experimental character to help a patient with a fatal disease. In the middle of the nineteenth century, symptoms of strokes or brain tumors were know, but medical knowledge and equipment were lacking. The cases of the Mendelssohn family are an interesting review of early neurology and the cultural life of the nineteenth century.

  9. Characterization of chilean copper slag smelting nineteenth century

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    Amin Nazer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to characterize four copper smelters slag nineteenth century, from abandoned landfills in Atacama Region - Chile, using the techniques of X-ray fluorescence (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, particle analysis by laser diffraction (ADL, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Copper slags studied were chemically classified as acidic slags, this slags presented higher SiO2 content (38–49% than Fe2O3 (18–37% and a significant amount of CaO (8–26% and Al2O3 (8.5%. Mineralogy and structure was varied, presenting one of them an amorphous structure and the remaining three, a crystalline structure with partially amorphous character. The majority mineral phases presented in the copper slag were diopside, fayalite, magnetite, cristobalite and clinoferrosilita. Calcium levels indicate that the slags could have cementitious properties for use as a binder in construction materials. Moreover, the significant amount of slag available and CuO content (0.6–1.2% show that may be of interest as raw material for metal recovery.

  10. Surgery and national identity in late nineteenth-century Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    For historians of medicine, the professor Theodor Billroth of the University of Vienna was the leading European surgeon of late nineteenth century and the personification of intervention by organ or body part removal. For social and political historians, he was a German nationalist whose book on medical education heralded the rise of anti-Semitism in the Austrian public sphere. This article brings together and critically reassesses these two hitherto separate accounts to show how, in a period of dramatic social and political change, Viennese surgery split into two camps. One, headed by Billroth, was characterized by an alliance with the German educational model, German nationalism leading to racial anti-Semitism and an experimental approach to the construction of surgical procedure, which heavily relied on the methods of pathological physiology. The other, which followed a long Austrian tradition, stood for a clinically-oriented and strictly organized medical education that catered to an ethnically and socially diverse population and, simultaneously, for an anatomically oriented surgery, largely of the locomotor apparatus. This study shows how, in a major centre of medical education and capital of a multiethnic empire, surgical and national identities were forged together. PMID:18053931

  11. [The development of German social medicine in the nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J C

    1994-01-01

    In his influential treatise System einer vollständigen medizinischen Polizey, Johann Peter Frank (1745-1821) made significant contributions to the establishment of the concept of medical police, which has been understood as the forerunner of social medicine. Cameralism, the German version of mercantilism, became the very basis on which Frank and other German writers developed the framework of medical police. 'Medical reform' was the catchword of German medical men in the 1840s. The medical reform movement of 1848 was partially caused by a deep political, economic, and social crisis. Although Industrial Revolution began in Germany later than in England and France during the first half of the nineteenth century, by 1848 the formation of German industrial working-class made medical reformers recognize the causal relationships between social and health problems. The outstanding figures in the German medical reform movement of this period were Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902), Solomon Neumann and Rudolf Leubuscher. In his famous Report on the Typhus Epidemic in Upper Silesia, Virchow proposed several radical measures that could be used against the epidemic: the absolute separation of the schools from the church, the establishment of self-government in the state and community, unlimited democracy, road building, and the improvement of agriculture and horticulture. ...

  12. Forms of corruption in Serbia in the nineteenth century

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    Deretić Nataša Lj.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a continuation of the story on corruption in Serbia and its goal is to give an overview of the forms of corruption in the history of Serbia as an independent state (1804-1918. The process of developing modern state institutions in the nineteenth-century Serbia did not always run smoothly for the simple reason that the path of modernization of Serbia was hindered by fossilised patterns of patriarchal Serbian society, reluctant to give way to new socio-economic relations. The situation was additionally burdened by two greatest evils inherited from the Ottoman rule - bribery and corruption, which were readily accepted both in the newly established state after the First Serbian Uprising and at the time of the foundation of the Principality of Serbia. Miloš Obrenović gained absolute power during his first and second rule and corruption inevitably followed as a consequence. In theory, there is almost universal agreement that Prince Milos managed to achieve more by bribery than by wars. However, later rules of Serbia were no strangers to abuse of power either. Thus there is a record of Prince Aleksandar Karađorđević having been described as 'the greatest patron of serious abuse' at St. Andrew's Day Assembly in 1858.

  13. [Medicine and orientalism in the late nineteenth century Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Chan

    2002-06-01

    The paper investigates medical missionaries that exerted a significant role in establishing Western medicine in the late nineteenth century Chosun, in relation to orientalism, an academically popularized concept introduced by Edward Said. Historical analysis is focused on several important medical missionaries such as Horace N. Allen, William B. Scranton, John W. Heron, C. C. Vinton, and Oliver R. Avison to explain how their activism as medical missionary contributed to the formation of medical orientalism in which Western medicine was 'taught, studied, administered, and judged' in that period. In addition, I explore into how medical orientalism was in service of Japanese imperialism by showing that medical missionaries had to be under imperial surveillance by Japanese colonizers. The article explores the medical system of the Koryo Dynasty period and its social characteristics. First, the structure of medical system and roles of medical institutions during the Koryo Dynasty period will be summarized. Then the characteristics of the medical system will be identified through exploring the principles of its formation in a view of social recognition of medical care and a view of social recognition of medical care and a view of public policy.

  14. Workers' compensation boards and nineteenth century French railway firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béland, François

    2008-01-01

    WCBs are able to provide fast access to high-quality healthcare to workers through their role as parallel payers in a publicly financed healthcare system. On the positive side, added funding from WCBs may help public facilities to fund and keep costly medical expertise. On the negative side, WCBs may drive them to accept much-needed funding below true costs of care and to crowd out public-pay patients. Some studies showed that governments were expecting from policies supporting parallel private payers the benefits hoped for by Hurley et al, while some of their negative effects could not be avoided. The combination of cost shifting from public-pay to private-pay patients, and of crowding out, are the ingredients of a Dupuit's case wherein third-class passengers riding the nineteenth century French railway system were subsidizing first- and second-class passengers. With the pressure for allowing private financing of healthcare throughout Canada, the Canadian healthcare system may be ripe for a ride toward subsidization of private-pay patients by the public purse, with a little help from WCBs.

  15. The Victorian Meme Machine: Remixing the Nineteenth-Century Archive

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    Bob Nicholson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In summer 2014 Bob Nicholson began working with the British Library Labs on a new project that aims to find and revive Victorian jokes. It began with two key aims: to build a high-quality, open access, research database of one million Victorian jokes; and to share these jokes with modern audiences in creative new ways, including the use of images, videos, performances, and social media. This article explains the rationale behind the project and outlines the work done so far. Part one explains why Victorian jokes are worthy of academic attention and demonstrates how the most laboured of puns can reveal new insights into nineteenth-century culture and society. Part two explores the relationship between Victorian jokes and existing digital archives and considers the pros and cons of liberating them from the restrictions imposed by these collections. Finally, part three documents the progress made so far. In particular, it reflects on the development of the ‘Mechanical Comedian’ tool and attempts to release one hundred ‘remixed’ versions of Victorian jokes onto social media.

  16. The Nineteenth-Century Education as a Construction of Resistances in Female Professors

    OpenAIRE

    Meléndez Ferrer, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Nineteenth-century Education is a social construction birthed from cultural control of the patriarchy that takes form in the heteronormativity of the Enlightenment Era. A debate regarding this Education involves considering several elements: feminist approaches, resistance, and patriarchal domination. It is crucial to analyze the visions that support the Nineteenth-century Education as female professors’ resistance-building mechanism within their social practices. There is, thus, a reference ...

  17. The Law and the Lady: Consent and Marriage in Nineteenth-Century British Literature

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    While many scholars have written on women and marriage in nineteenth-century British history and fiction, this dissertation, The Law and the Lady: Consent and Marriage in Nineteenth-Century British Literature, is the first to apply consent theory to those unions. Modern consent theory dictates that for individuals to consent, they must be autonomous, capable, educated, mature, and volunteering, and they must express consent with opportunities to retract those expressions. This dissertation as...

  18. "A terrible piece of bad metaphysics"? Towards a history of abstraction in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century probability theory, mathematics and logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburgt, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation provides a contribution to a new history of exact thought in which the existence of a break between "non-modern" and "modern" abstraction is put forward to account for the possibility of the "modernization" of probability theory, mathematics and logic during the 19th- and early 20t

  19. Shared Concerns: Thoughts on British Literature and British Music in the Long Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Allis

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available As part of the growth of interdisciplinary studies, a number of recent writings have focused upon links between music and literature in the long nineteenth century. In addition to the general significance of music in the work of individual authors and poets, scholars have highlighted particular imagery used in the literary representation of music (charting its effect on narrative and characterisation, and explored the literary reception of several composers. Within this growing body of literature, references to nineteenth- and early twentieth-century British music are significant by their absence. This article therefore aims to redress the balance by suggesting that there are connections between British music and literature in this period, and that these connections are significant. A number of approaches are discussed to highlight their potential, including composer-author affinities, collaborations, generic parallels, hidden narratives, and the suggestion that musical settings of texts can represent critical ‘readings' of those texts. A range of examples (with musical illustrations and sound clips suggest how this particular interdisciplinary focus can lead to the reassessment of individual musical and literary works, and help to explore wider cultural connections within the Victorian and Edwardian era.

  20. Suppressing Synonymy with a Homonym: The Emergence of the Nomenclatural Type Concept in Nineteenth Century Natural History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteveen, Joeri

    2016-02-01

    'Type' in biology is a polysemous term. In a landmark article, Paul Farber (Journal of the History of Biology 9(1): 93-119, 1976) argued that this deceptively plain term had acquired three different meanings in early nineteenth century natural history alone. 'Type' was used in relation to three distinct type concepts, each of them associated with a different set of practices. Important as Farber's analysis has been for the historiography of natural history, his account conceals an important dimension of early nineteenth century 'type talk.' Farber's taxonomy of type concepts passes over the fact that certain uses of 'type' began to take on a new meaning in this period. At the closing of the eighteenth century, terms like 'type specimen,' 'type species,' and 'type genus' were universally recognized as referring to typical, model members of their encompassing taxa. But in the course of the nineteenth century, the same terms were co-opted for a different purpose. As part of an effort to drive out nomenclatural synonymy - the confusing state of a taxon being known to different people by different names - these terms started to signify the fixed and potentially atypical name-bearing elements of taxa. A new type concept was born: the nomenclatural type. In this article, I retrace this perplexing nineteenth century shift in meaning of 'type.' I uncover the nomenclatural disorder that the new nomenclatural type concept dissolved, and expose the conceptual confusion it left in its tracks. What emerges is an account of how synonymy was suppressed through the coinage of a homonym.

  1. Laura Answers Back: Lord Byron, Christina Rossetti and the Canzoniere in Nineteenth-Century England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    This essay partly gives a brief survey of the status of the Canzoniere in nineteenth-century England when the collection was finally translated in full into English, and partly traces the significance of Laura in English literature after eighteenth-century biographies had transformed her from...

  2. [Investigations of psychic/spiritual phenomena in the nineteenth century: somnambulism and spiritualism, 1811-1860].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Marcelo Gulão; Alberto, Klaus Chaves; Moreira-Almeida, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In the early nineteenth century, investigations into the nature of psychic/spiritual phenomena, like trances and the supposed acquisition of information unattainable using normal sensory channels, prompted much debate in the scientific arena. This article discusses the main explanations offered by the researchers of psychic phenomena reported between 1811 and 1860, concentrating on the two main movements in the period: magnetic somnambulism and modern spiritualism. While the investigations of these phenomena gave rise to multiple theories, they did not yield any consensus. However, they did have implications for the understanding of the mind and its disorders, especially in the areas of the unconscious and dissociation, constituting an important part of the history of psychology and psychiatry.

  3. Engines for experiment: laboratory revolution and industrial labor in the nineteenth-century city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierig, Sven

    2003-01-01

    This article brings together what until now have been separate fields of nineteenth-century history: the development of experimental physiology, the growth of mechanized industry, and the city, where their threads intertwined. The main argument is that the laboratory in the city employed the same technological and organizational approaches to modernize that the city used to industrialize. To bring the adoption of technology into focus, the article discusses laboratory research as it developed after the introduction of small-scale power engines. With its machines, the industrialized city provided not only the key metaphor of the nineteenth-century life sciences but also a key technology that shifted experimental practices in animal research from a kind of preindustrial craft to a more mechanized production of knowledge. With its "factory-laboratories," the late-nineteenth-century city became the birthplace for the first living, data-producing hybird---part animal and part machine.

  4. The cosmos of the Paris apartment: working-class family life in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eliza

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Bachelard's notion of “cosmicity” this article investigates the living conditions of Parisian working-class families in the second half of the nineteenth century. Nineteenth-century social critics claimed that the lack of privacy in urban apartments made decent family life impossible. However, evidence from judicial dossiers concerning attentat à la pudeur (intimate assault against children) illuminates the lived experience of children and their families in Paris apartments. Rather than a sharp divide between public and private, children experienced their apartment homes as the core of a social and spatial world under the surveillance of parents, neighbors, and other children.

  5. Scientists, Teachers and the "Scientific" Textbook: Interprofessional Relations and the Modernisation of Elementary Science Textbooks in Nineteenth-Century Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultén, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    In research on the development of a nineteenth-century "science for the people", initiatives by scientists or people well-trained in science has been emphasised, while the writings, roles and initiatives of elementary teachers are normally just mentioned in passing. In this study the development of nineteenth-century elementary science…

  6. [Improvement of public health in London in the nineteenth century and the probably limited role of the new sewage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Roeleveld, N.

    2007-01-01

    --London was one of the most rapidly expanding cities in the world in the nineteenth century, but the water supply and sanitary conditions were extremely poor. --In the nineteenth century, there were many theories regarding the causes and spread of epidemic diseases. The miasma theory, which

  7. Aspects of birth control in nineteenth century New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facer, W A

    1980-01-01

    2 legal enactments in the late (19th century impinged on birth control in New Zealand. The Offensive Publications Act (1892) aimed at mischievous and indecent advertisements, particularly of a medical nature. The Post Office Acts Amendment Act gave any postmaster the right to detain and destroy any publication of an indecent, immoral or obscene nature. In 1887 Dr. Charles James Russell was arrested for attempting to procure an abortion. He was charged with unlawfully aborting Mary Bowern, Kate Fisher, and Annie Connelly. Mary Bowern and Isabella Wilson were also charged with Dr. Russell with having unlawfully used an instrument with intent to procure the abortion of Annie Connolly. Lack of evidence freed Isabella Wilson, but as an example to other women, Mary Bowern was sentenced to 12 months prison with hard labor. Dr. Russell told the court that some 50 years ago it was the custom to leave the woman at deaths's door before an abortion could be performed. Lately the medical authorities had been in favor of early assistance to the patient. What he had done was in accordance with the medical works he owned. The judge in the Supreme Court of Christchurch said that these statements were inconsistent with having pleaded guilty. The peace and honor of the community was at stake, therefore, Dr. Russell was sentenced to penal servitude for 7 years to run concurrently in each case. The attack on contraception continued in 1901 with a bill seeking to ban all contraceptives.

  8. Silence as Borderland: A Semiotic Approach to the "Silent" Pupil in Nineteenth-Century Vocal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegaerts, Josephine

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of the nineteenth-century educational soundscape lies a paradox. Whilst "modern" classrooms generally strived for orderly silence, the goal of its educational practices was the production of competent "citizens". Middle-class boys in particular were expected to acquire a voice fit for business, the professions, or…

  9. Matilda Joslyn Gage: A Nineteenth-Century Women's Rights Historian Looks at Witchcraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the ideas of the nineteenth century female historian, Matilda Joslyn Gage, who authored the book, "Woman, Church, and State." Focuses on Gage's ideas about women's history, particularly related to the role of the church and women persecuted for witchcraft. (CMK)

  10. The Rationalisation of the Body: Physical Education in Hungary in the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Miklos

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights how "turnen", the modernised form of earlier gymnastic exercises, emerged in Hungary in the second part of the nineteenth century. It is argued that although the advocates of the "turnen" movement are gradually squeezed from the spheres of modern competitive sports, their strategies of expansion are successful: earlier…

  11. The Organization of Knowledge and Bibliographic Classification in Nineteenth-Century America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisser, Katherine M.

    2009-01-01

    Bibliographic classification is culturally bound. This research examines the classification systems created for social libraries in the first half of the nineteenth century in the United States. Social libraries are defined as institutions that have voluntary membership and are dependent on membership fees. Seventeen classified catalogs were…

  12. Those Scribbling Women: A Cultural Study of Mid-Nineteenth Century Romances for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Jo Anne Y.

    1985-01-01

    Situates the mid-nineteenth century feminine romance within its social, political, and historical context in order to reveal the cultural authority for its existence. Focuses on "The Lamplighter" by Maria Cummins as an archetypal novel representative of its genre. (SRT)

  13. Teaching Nineteenth-Century Aesthetic Prose: A Writing-Intensive Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews a writing-intensive course on nineteenth-century aesthetic prose devised for the undergraduate curriculum of the School of English and Drama at Queen Mary, University of London, and considers the results to date. Using examples of students' coursework, the article examines the use of logbooks and creative exercises, considers…

  14. "The Business of Life": Educating Catholic Deaf Children in Late Nineteenth-Century England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangion, Carmen M.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the debates in late nineteenth-century Britain regarding the education of deaf children revolved around communication. For many Victorians, sign language was unacceptable; many proponents of oralism attempted to "normalise" the hearing impaired by replacing deaf methods of communication with spoken language and lipreading. While…

  15. "The Business of Life": Educating Catholic Deaf Children in Late Nineteenth-Century England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangion, Carmen M.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the debates in late nineteenth-century Britain regarding the education of deaf children revolved around communication. For many Victorians, sign language was unacceptable; many proponents of oralism attempted to "normalise" the hearing impaired by replacing deaf methods of communication with spoken language and lipreading. While debates on…

  16. The Influence of Positivism in the Nineteenth Century Astronomy in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santilli, Haydee; Cornejo, Jorge Norberto

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the influence of positivism in Argentina astronomical culture in the nineteenth century. We did the analysis from two dimensions, scientific knowledge development and science teaching. Because Argentina was a very young country at that time, it was of singular importance, not only the development of scientific knowledge…

  17. Dragons in English: The Great Change of the Late Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    The impetus for the incredible variety found in the modern literary dragon is commonly seen to stem from the creative genius of either E. Nesbit or Kenneth Grahame. However, examination of dragon stories in the late nineteenth century shows that several different authors, on both sides of the Atlantic, were producing similar stories at about the…

  18. Dragons in English: The Great Change of the Late Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    The impetus for the incredible variety found in the modern literary dragon is commonly seen to stem from the creative genius of either E. Nesbit or Kenneth Grahame. However, examination of dragon stories in the late nineteenth century shows that several different authors, on both sides of the Atlantic, were producing similar stories at about the…

  19. Marketing Pedagogy: Nonprofit Marketing and the Diffusion of Monitorial Teaching in the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressler, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the spread of one of the first pedagogical concepts available worldwide during the first half of the nineteenth century: the monitorial system. Its wide diffusion depended, to a considerable extent, on the work of voluntary organisations. The article investigates the work of the two most important of these, the British and…

  20. Those Scribbling Women: A Cultural Study of Mid-Nineteenth Century Romances for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Jo Anne Y.

    1985-01-01

    Situates the mid-nineteenth century feminine romance within its social, political, and historical context in order to reveal the cultural authority for its existence. Focuses on "The Lamplighter" by Maria Cummins as an archetypal novel representative of its genre. (SRT)

  1. Enlightened Paternalism: The Prohibition of Corporal Punishment in Spanish Public Schools in the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirera Miralles, Carles

    2015-01-01

    In order to analyse the cultural values of Spanish liberalism, this paper describes the prohibition of corporal punishment in secondary education. The evolution of education laws and codes during the nineteenth century reveals great hope and confidence in building up an academic authority based exclusively on the power of reason and capable of…

  2. Viral nationalism: romantic intellectuals on the move in nineteenth-century Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Leerssen

    2011-01-01

    Intellectuals were important to the spread of nationalist ideology in nineteenth-century Europe for a variety of reasons. Firstly, their works facilitated the international spread of the discourse of nationalism; secondly, they mediated between the fields of political institutions and cultural refle

  3. KRAR: Nineteenth century turtle-shell masks from Mabuyag collected by Samuel McFarlane

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Philp, Jude

    2015-01-01

    .... The majority of items were krar, turtle-shell masks. This paper uses archival resources to present the circumstances of the transactions between McFarlane and European museums which purchased the krar from him in the late nineteenth century to answer...

  4. The Emotional Economies of Protestant Missions to Aboriginal People in Nineteenth-Century Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise

    2014-01-01

    Taking Norbert Elias’ ideas about emotional change as its foil, this paper explores the changing role and function of emotion on late-nineteenth century Protestant missions in Australia. Like Elias, though for religious rather than historical reasons, missionaries during this period conceived...

  5. The Influence of Positivism in the Nineteenth Century Astronomy in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santilli, Haydee; Cornejo, Jorge Norberto

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the influence of positivism in Argentina astronomical culture in the nineteenth century. We did the analysis from two dimensions, scientific knowledge development and science teaching. Because Argentina was a very young country at that time, it was of singular importance, not only the development of scientific knowledge…

  6. Teaching the French Revolution: Lessons and Imagery from Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harison, Casey

    2002-01-01

    This article considers the "myths" and negative images of the French Revolution which were fashioned in the United States by examining interpretations found in nineteenth and twentieth-century American school texts. The texts are part of the Floyd Family Collection at Indiana State University, representing books used in Indiana schools,…

  7. Not Russian Enough? Nationalism and Cosmopolitanism in Nineteenth-Century Russian Opera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Helmers

    2014-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, Russian composers and critics were encouraged to cultivate a national style to distinguish their music from the dominant Italian, French, and German traditions. Not Russian Enough? explores this aspiration for a nationalist musical tradition as it was carried out in the co

  8. Not Russian Enough: The Negotiation of Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Russian Opera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmers, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Nineteenth-century Russian music has often been considered something ‘special’. This is a conviction widespread among audiences, musicians, critics and scholars alike; a belief eagerly stimulated and exploited in the marketing of this music outside Russia, and that continues to contribute to its app

  9. The Intellectual Climate of the Late Nineteenth Century and the Fate of American Normal Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, David

    2008-01-01

    In 1839 the first normal school in the United States opened in Lexington, Massachusetts. Heralded as "an instrument of great good" (Everett 1863, 769) and a spring in which was coiled "a vigor whose uncoiling may wheel the spheres" (Ogren 2005, 16), normal schools continued to grow in numbers throughout the nineteenth century and produced…

  10. Trends and risk factors of maternal mortality in late-nineteenth-century Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ory, B.E.; van Poppel, F.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Using family reconstitution data from the Dutch provinces of Groningen, Drenthe, and Zeeland, trends and risk factors of maternal death from 1846 to 1902 are studied. Findings confirm other studies of maternal mortality trends for the Netherlands in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and

  11. Cuban Sugar Industry: Transnational Networks and Engineering Migrants in Mid-Nineteenth Century Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curry Machado, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Technological innovation was central to nineteenth-century Cuba’s lead in world sugar manufacture. Along with steam-powered machinery came migrant engineers, indispensable aliens who were well rewarded for their efforts. These migrant engineers remained perennial outsiders, symbolic of Cuba's growin

  12. Organizing Democracy : Reflections on the Rise of Political Organizations in the Nineteenth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, M.J.; Velde, te H.

    2017-01-01

    This book explores the new types of political organization that emerged in Western Europe and the United States during the nineteenth century, from popular meetings to single-issue organizations and political parties. The development of these has often been used to demonstrate a movement towards

  13. Trends and risk factors of maternal mortality in late-nineteenth-century Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ory, B.E.; van Poppel, F.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Using family reconstitution data from the Dutch provinces of Groningen, Drenthe, and Zeeland, trends and risk factors of maternal death from 1846 to 1902 are studied. Findings confirm other studies of maternal mortality trends for the Netherlands in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and sho

  14. Secularizing funerary culture in nineteenth-century Belgium: A product of political and religious controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Spiegeleer, Christoph; Tyssens, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Modern historiography of collective attitudes, practices, and conflicts surrounding death often focuses on the institutional history of cemeteries and nonreligious funerals in 19th-century France. Institutional and cultural discussions concerning funerals and cemeteries also divided nineteenth-century Belgium. This article explores emblematic civil burials and the secularization of cemeteries in major Belgian cities. The article distinguishes different dimensions of the secularization of death and highlights the particular nature of Belgian funerary conflicts and burial reform within a broader European context.

  15. Single Parenthood and Childhood Outcomes in the Mid-Nineteenth Century Urban South

    OpenAIRE

    Howard Bodenhorn

    2006-01-01

    Families are the core social institution and a growing body of research documents the costs of single parenthood for children in the twentieth century. This study documents racial differences in the incidence and costs of single parenthood in the mid-nineteenth century. Data from the urban South reveal two notable consequences of single parenthood. First, white children residing with single mothers left school earlier than children residing with two parents. Black children in single mother ho...

  16. [Portable antiquities: transporation, ruins, and communications in nineteenth-century archeology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorny, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The article addresses an issue in nineteenth-century archeology: the transformation of ancient American ruins into scientific evidence. It focuses specifically on the case of Palenque, a city discovered in the jungle in the late eighteenth century. The archeological exploration of this find, which occurred shortly after Central American and Mexican independence, entailed efforts to make these ruins portable. The article analyzes some of the means devised and used in their transportation.

  17. The Role of Women in Music in Nineteenth-Century Dublin

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    During the nineteenth century the position of women in music grew throughout Europe, and Ireland was no exception. In Dublin, women went from participating in the city's musical culture as performers to participating as teachers, composers, organisers, performers and writers. In the first half of the century, private music teachers such as Mrs Allen represented women's first steps into promoting Irish music. With the re-organisation of the Royal Irish Academy of Music in 185...

  18. Lost Purity. Social in Nineteenth and Twentieth-century Feminisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Persano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ‘Social Purity’ appears in a part of the French and Anglo-Saxon (Britain and the United States nineteenth-twentieth century’s feminisms, as a mean for many claims: from the full recognition of sexual difference in Hubertine Auclert’s social and ‘differentialist’ republicanism in France to Josephine Butler’s refusal of any purity imposed from above in England, until the absolute turn of the idea of women’s moral superiority and the equal and opposite force to the final exit from ‘the social’ by the American ‘New Womanism’, individualizing and de-feminizing the act of sexual liberation. All this in a continuous play of actions and reactions, sometimes paradoxical, weaving together suffragism and anti-suffragism, contestation of the conjugal complementarity and the never overcome temptations of hetero or self-control.

  19. Heredity, evolution and development in their (epistemic) environment at the turn of the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, Federica Turriziani

    2016-03-01

    During the early 1870s a young zoologist who worked as a Privatdozent delivering lectures at different Prussian universities invested much of his family wealth and solicited his fellows' contributions to establish a research facility by the sea. The young zoologist happened to be called Anton Dohrn. From the time it opened its doors, the Anton Dohrn Zoological Station - or Naples Zoological Station, as it was originally called - played a crucial role in shaping life sciences as it facilitated research aimed at explaining the mechanics of inheritance. During the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth, zoologists attempted to explain how evolutionary changes occur within a population and become stabilized. In so doing, they looked at developmental processes as well as environmental pressure, coming up with different hypotheses to explain inheritance. In some cases, their research was highly speculative, whereas in other cases they conducted cytological observations to identify the material basis of heredity. Research on evolution and development has been carried out in different places, and zoological stations like the one in Naples have played a major role in this story. However, numerous biological institutions active at the turn of the twentieth century have not received much attention from historians.

  20. American veterinary history: before the nineteenth century. 1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, Bert W

    2014-11-01

    With the development of our present day domesticated animals in America (during the 16th and 17th centuries), it was not long before animal diseases became troublesome and destructive (especially during the latter half of the 18th century). Though veterinary medicine became rather firmly established in many European countries (including England) during the latter half of the 18th century, veterinary medicine was relatively nonexistent in America, with only self-styled animal doctors and farriers (with their empirical and often destructive remedies).

  1. The Long-term Pattern of Maritime Trade in Java from the Late Eighteenth Century to the Mid-Nineteenth Century

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMADA, Ryuto

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the trade pattern of Java from the late eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century from a long-term perspective. There is no comprehensive data on Javanese trade during the period in question, with information on local and regional trade being particularly scarce. To fill in the missing pieces and identify a broad trend, this paper attempts to examine data on both the late eighteenth century and the second quarter of the nineteenth century and put them together...

  2. Re-presenting science: Visual and didactic practice in nineteenth-century chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Christopher Owen

    This dissertation argues that there is no divide between scientific and didactic practice in chemistry: they are one in the same. Similarly, it argues that representation is inherently re-presentation, which is to say, there is also no divide between the production and the reproduction of scientific knowledge. These arguments are based upon visual practices of nineteenth-century chemistry, in which chemists made knowledge through careful practices of visual representation. The historical argument begins with two post-alchemical systems of representation, the chemical characters of Jean Henri Hassenfratz and Pierre Auguste Adet, introduced in the Nomenclature chimique of 1787, and John Dalton's atomic symbols. It argues that although the symbols of both systems did not survive, the visual practices within which they were situated did. Focusing on the teaching of American chemists Benjamin Silliman and Robert Hare, it examines chemical didactics after Dalton, including the visual practices of Dalton's colleague, William Wollaston. The larger context of visual practices in the nineteenth-century figures in the history of chemistry. Anschauung, or reflection on direct observation or perception, was at the core of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi and Friedrich Frobel's reforms in early education. It also influenced chemical practice. Frobel's kindergarten modeling practices, the kindergarten movement in mid-century England, and Anschauungsunterricht, or teaching through images, have historical links with chemical representation, in particular the use of graphical formulas by Alexander Crum Brown and Edward Frankland. Crum Brown's formulas and Frankland's Lecture Notes for Chemical Students form the center of an investigation of the didactic, rhetorical, typographical, and personal factors involved in representational practices in chemistry, and the production of chemical knowledge on the page. These aspects of chemical practice in turn influenced chemical atomism. The

  3. Furniture, Funds and Fquipment of the Schools in the Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antón COSTA RICO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article there is an attempt to reconstruct the typology of the primary school scene in Europe as regards furniture, funds and equipment of the schools in the first two thirds of the ninteenth century, as a background of the Spanish scene. After writing a synthetic exposition of the recommendations made on the matter by the Spanish writers, the author reviews the normative dictates of the nineteenth century and contrasts theory, law and the school practice, this one traditionally away from the theoretical and normative prescriptions. There is an intention to contribute to a better knowledge of the Spanish school practice, particularly, in the first half of the nineteenth century, period on which there is still a relative semidarkness in the educational historiography

  4. Ambiguous cells: the emergence of the stem cell concept in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehle, Andreas-Holger

    2011-12-20

    This paper elucidates the origins of scientific work on stem cells. From the late nineteenth century onwards, the notion of stem cells became customary in scientific communities of Imperial Germany. Adopting the term Stammzelle from Ernst Haeckel, Theodor Boveri was influential in introducing the concept in embryological studies and early genetics around 1900, describing a capacity of stem cells for self-renewal as well as differentiation. At the same time, blood stem cells were conceptualized by histologists such as Ernst Neumann and Artur Pappenheim in studies of physiological haematopoiesis and various forms of leukaemia. Furthermore, building on Julius Cohnheim's theory that tumours arise from 'embryonic remnants' in the adult body, pathologists aimed at identifying the cells of origin, particularly in the embryo-like teratomas. Embryonic stem cells thus assumed an ambiguous status, partly representing common heritage and normal development, and partly being seen as potential causes of cancer if they had been left behind or displaced during ontogeny. In the 1950s and 1960s experimental research on teratocarcinomas by Leroy Stevens and Barry Pierce in the USA brought together the strands of embryological and pathological work. Alongside the work of Ernest McCulloch and James Till at the Ontario Cancer Institute from the early 1960s on stem cells in haematopoiesis, this led into the beginnings of modern stem cell research.

  5. MIGRATION AND CHINESE ENTREPRENEURS IN MAZATLAN. SINCE ARRIVING IN MID- NINETEENTH CENTURY UNTIL THEIR EXPULSION IN 1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arturo Román Alarcón

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese migration to Mazatlan and Mexico, began in the mid-nineteenth century, via San Francisco. They were the most important foreign colony from the early decades of the twentieth century. On arrival the Chinese population lacked capital as largely devoted to provide their services as domestic workers, especially farmers and craft activities related to repairing and making shoes. With the advent of the twentieth century and the accumulation of some capital, began its foray into the retail trade, which was the domain of national merchants. The commercial importance of the Chinese was one of the causes of the hostility of Mexican traders, which coupled with the counter-arguments raised by the Labor Law, Health Code, the culmination of the Treaty with China and the effects of the 1929 crisis, served as sustenance for their expulsion in 1932.

  6. CORRUPTION ONSET IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY IN KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaukhar Kaliyeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study discloses the public officers’ corruption at the end of 19th century. I have post-evaluated tsarist Russia legislative acts. We have emphasized legal-social essence of corruption. We have tried to reveal and proof that giving presents and gifts in return for various assistance in a Kazakh society is a regular thing. We have manifested the reasons for corruption among the governmental officials. Based on the research we have concluded that corruption was distinctive for the governmental officials of the peripheral region because of its specific features, legal traditions and incomplete legislative system of Russia, which by the end of the 19th century spread in Kazakhstan.

  7. Mid-nineteenth century smoke concentrations near London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R. G.; Aplin, K. L.

    Measurements of atmospheric electricity began at Kew Observatory, London (51°28'N, 0°19'W) in 1843, with recording apparatus installed by Lord Kelvin in 1861. The measured electric potential gradient (PG) at Kew has always been influenced by smoke pollution, causing a December PG maximum and July minimum. Theory links PG variations with aerosol concentrations, and the 20th century smoke measurements made at Kew permit smoke concentrations to be retrieved from 19th century PG data. Absolute calibration of the 1862-1864 PG is achieved by considering changes in the global electric circuit, for which the geomagnetic aa-index is used as a proxy. The mean annual PG in 1863 is estimated as 363±29 V m -1, and the mean smoke concentration found is 0.17±0.05 mg m -3. Diurnal variations in smoke pollution differ between the seasons, and change in their character after the advent of motor traffic.

  8. Comparative study of white porcelain from the common use of nineteenth and twentieth centuries with PXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Wislley Dueli da; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The technique of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is widely used for qualitative and quantitative researches on the chemical composition of various types of samples, such as archaeological, art and cultural heritage materials or samples. The great advantage of this technique is that it allows a nondestructive and simultaneous multielement analysis. It has a low cost and portable system device that can be used in situ. The study of archaeological artifacts and cultural heritage by means of analytical techniques with hand held devices becomes increasingly routine today. Several types of portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) have been used in many different situations involving in situ analysis covering a wide range of geometries, detectors, voltage and current applied in the X-ray tubes. This study aims to identify and compare the main elements that make up samples of ceramic pottery for common use by the late nineteenth and early and late twentieth century, as a way of using the methodology of analysis by EDXRF equipment PXRF - LFNA - 02. Being able to identify that the key element present in the glaze of ceramics from the early twentieth century was the Pb, it was possible to classify the samples as faience cream ware and not pearlware as it was guided by conventional archaeological analysis, where the rating was based only on color enamel porcelain. Elements such as K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr are also found in different concentrations depending on the clay used in the manufacture of earthenware, maker of the period and that it was produced. From analysis of the type EDXRF is possible to compare different manufacturing techniques, both in enamel and in ceramic slurry and often even the color of his pieces. (author)

  9. Hypothesis: the reversal of the relation between economic growth and health progress in Sweden in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was caused by electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milham, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The expected decline of health indicators with economic recessions and improvement with economic growth in the nineteenth century Sweden was reversed in the twentieth century, giving the counterintuitive pattern of higher mortality and lower life expectancy in economic expansions and improvement of these indices in recessions. The change or "tipping point" occurred at the end of the nineteenth century or early in the twentieth century when electrification was introduced into Sweden. All 5 of the reversals of annual industrial electric energy use in the US between 1912 and 1970 were accompanied by recessions with lowered GDP, increased unemployment, decreased mortality and increased life expectancy. The health indices were not related to residential electricity use. The mortality improvement between 1931 and 1932 by state in the US strongly favored urban areas over rural areas. Rural unemployment by state in 1930 was significantly positively correlated with residential electrification percentage by state in 1930. The health effects of economic change are mediated by electrical exposure.

  10. Laboratories and the rise of the physics profession in the nineteenth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Melba

    1983-06-01

    There were no established research laboratories before the nineteenth century. Galileo had a small shop, Hooke was a curator of instruments, Boyle worked at home, Newton in his college rooms. Scientists were often amateurs with their own laboratory facilities. Even in universities they could obtain prominence as individuals, but took students only privately, as assistants or apprentices. There was no profession of physics to which one could aspire as a career. The tradition of modern research laboratories and the research school can be traced to Liebig in chemistry, and the extension to physics can be attributed in large part to Gustav Magnus of the University of Berlin, who also invented the physics colloquium. German universities continued to lead the way throughout the second half of the nineteenth century, but by 1900 other industrialized countries (especially Britain, France, and the United States) had developed research schools leading to careers in physics. Research laboratories were also being established by industry and officially by governments.

  11. [Humors and odors: body order and social order in nineteenth-century Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, T A

    Archeological diggings in household garbage deposits from nineteenth-century Rio have uncovered an abundance of equipment used in the elimination of fecal material and phlegm. These findings formed the basis for an analysis and interpretation of the era's attitudes regarding body fluids, as adopted when the mentalities of the new 'bourgeois' segments - then undergoing a process of rise and consolidation - were impregnated by Hippocratic humoralism. The text shows how the introduction of a 'body order' was fundamental in building and keeping the social order in the nineteenth century. It likewise shows how the ideology of hygienization was one of the most important and efficacious strategies for underpinning the bourgeoisie's (victorious) project to achieve hegemony.

  12. Mediating objects: scientific and public functions of models in nineteenth-century biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the scientific and public functions of two- and three-dimensional models in the context of three episodes from nineteenth-century biology. I argue that these models incorporate both data and theory by presenting theoretical assumptions in the light of concrete data or organizing data through theoretical assumptions. Despite their diverse roles in scientific practice, they all can be characterized as mediators between data and theory. Furthermore, I argue that these different mediating functions often reflect their different audiences that included specialized scientists, students, and the general public. In this sense, models in nineteenth-century biology can be understood as mediators between theory, data, and their diverse audiences.

  13. From forensic toxicology to biological chemistry: Normal arsenic and the hazards of sensitivity during the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertomeu-Sánchez, José Ramón

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews the cultural meanings, social uses and circulations of arsenic in different legal, medical and popular settings. The focus is on nineteenth-century France. In the first section, I review the advent of the Marsh test for arsenic, which is commonly regarded as a milestone in the history of toxicology. I claim that the high sensitivity of the Marsh test introduced puzzling problems for forensic doctors, the most disturbing one being the so-called 'normal arsenic.' I reconstruct early research on normal arsenic and the ensuing controversies in courts, academies and salons. A report from the French Academy of Science converted normal arsenic from a big discovery to an experimental mistake. In the next section, I study how these disturbing conclusions were perceived by toxicologists all over Europe and how normal arsenic disappeared from view by the middle of the nineteenth century. Finally, I review the return of normal arsenic thanks to Armand Gautier and Gabriel Bertrand, who introduced an innovative research framework and so prompted the displacement of arsenic from criminal toxicology to pharmacology and nutrition science. The last section will also show that the issue of normal arsenic was recaptured in public debates concerning criminal poisoning at the beginning of the twentieth century. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. "Not to intrude": a Danish perspective on gender and class in nineteenth-century dairying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This study follows the thread of gender divisions in dairying in Denmark and the American Midwest in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Gender organization of dairying shifted at this time in diverse European and North American contexts. As agriculture mechanized and production scale increased, access to advanced education and international markets became critical. Women, who had been in the forefront of the development of dairying, ceded their leadership to men as these changes occurred. While some scholars see this shift as a strategic loss for women, this study finds that variables of class, marital status, rural demographics, and alternative occupations mediated the rural women's experience of change. Not all women experienced the change as a loss. The question of which women were invested in dairying is critical to understanding the course of change. Increasingly, middle-class farm women were turning away from the hard work of dairying and investing themselves in new ways in the upward mobility of their family farms. Rural life shaped distinct gender patterns in European and American history, and the rural experience shaped the larger trajectory of women's economic and political evolution, even though few rural women were involved in the organized women's movement.

  15. Eighteenth and nineteenth century dental restoration, treatment and consequences in a British nobleman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, M; Chandler, J; Boyle, A; Kneller, P; Haslam, R

    2000-12-01

    This paper examines unusual eighteenth and nineteenth century dental treatment and its consequences, in a nobleman excavated from beneath St. Nicholas' Church, Sevenoaks, Kent, UK in the early 1990s. This rare archaeological case exhibits erosion of dental enamel on the labial surface of all the anterior dentition. A programme of historical research suggests that this might be attributed to the application of an acid-based dental tincture or the use of an abrasive substance to whiten the teeth. Palliative treatment for the consequence of this application was prescribed by Dr Robert Blake of Dublin. Further, it bears witness to three dental restorations, two of gold and one tin. The two gold (foil) fillings are an occlusal in the upper-right second molar and a cervical on the labial surface of the upper left canine. The tin filling is an occlusal in the upper left second molar. Excavation of the carious tissue appears to have been undertaken using a spoon shaped implement.

  16. Regulatory support of physical education of youth students in the late of nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрій Васильович Черпак

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the various instructions and regulations of the late of nineteenth century, which devoted to organizational forms, means and methods of physical education of the younger generation. Prerequisites specified in their development associated with poor health status of youth students, awareness of the importance of physical development and spread of ideas in many countries about the need for physical education

  17. Resources for the study of nineteenth-century American poetry : a selective guide

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This survey essay provides an overview of print and electronic resources for the study of nineteenth-century American poetry. As does the volume as a whole, it focuses on (currently) less-studied poets such as the sentimental-domestic tradition (Lydia Huntley Sigourney, Frances Sargent Osgood) and the schoolroom/fireside poets (Oliver Wendell Holmes, John Greenleaf Whittier, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, William Cullen Bryant).

  18. Labor's Response to Industrialization in the Late-nineteenth-century America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Ruizhi; Guo Yanzhi

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is an attempt to reveal labor's response to industrialization in the late nineteenth century from the perspective of labor's economic conditions. The fast growth of industrialization and the backward economic conditions of American laborers formed a sharp contrast. Labor responded violently by means of labor movement including major labor organizations and influential strikes. Through the study a vivid picture of labor's struggle for their basic economic rights was unfolded.

  19. Ottoman state intervention in agriculture: beginning of credit banking within the nineteenth century Ottoman Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Emiralioğlu, Mevhibe Pınar

    1997-01-01

    Ankara : Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent University, 1997. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1997. Includes bibliographical references leaves 93-97. This thesis is a study on the importance of the Credit Funds for the agricultural life of the Ottoman Empire in the second half of the nineteenth century. In this context, special importance is given to the bureaucratic and financial efforts of the government and its ministries at spreading the Funds...

  20. No Rest for the Wicked? Exploring Sleep in Nineteenth-century Gothic Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Manal

    2016-01-01

    Sleep has long been overlooked in critical literature. It is often viewed as a state of passivity and so, an invalid area of research. However, this thesis argues that the depiction of sleep and sleepers in nineteenth-century gothic literature is reflective of historically-specific anxieties regarding sexuality and gender roles, such as those related to the New Woman, prostitution, and homosexuality. Similarly, concerns regarding urbanisation and scientific progress, particularly in relation ...

  1. [The empacho in Mexico during the nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Navarro, Roberto; Coronado, María Luisa

    2009-01-01

    During the 19th century, empacho as a nosological entity prompted academic research by such renowned Mexican clinicians as Miguel F. Jiménez, Eduardo Liceaga, Fernando Altamirano, José Peon y Contreras, among others. Empacho is often the result of excessive eating or difficulty in digestion of certain foods, especially fruits with a peel (oranges, limes, grapefruits, apples, etc.) and legumes (beans, sweet pea, chick peas). Empacho has a greater effect on children under the age of two. It is clinically identified by diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, restlessness, the presence of abdominal distension, abdominal dullness to percussion, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and meteorism. The most common treatments during the 19th century sought to evacuate gastrointestinal content immediately through vomiting or purgative medication. The general population often used medicinal plants to provoke gastrointestinal purges, while academic doctors most frequently used castor oil as a laxative and ipecacuanha to induce vomiting. This work presents a description and analysis of the general characteristics of the popular illness, empacho. The information comes from doctors, pharmacists, homeopaths, botanists and popular groups.

  2. Introduction: Verbal and Visual Interactions in Nineteenth-Century Print Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Calè

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Volumes of George Cruikshank's 'Scraps and Sketches', a publication of miscellaneous images vaguely intended to be cut and pasted in home-made albums and scrapbooks; a catalogue of the 1857 Manchester Art Treasures Exhibition customised by the doodles and marginalia of its owner and her friends; a job-lot of nineteenth-century illustrated children's publications, in which the magic lantern show is miniaturized into the format of the book – the objects featured in the lead articles of this issue of 19 evoke the contents of a house sale more than a scholarly journal. Akin to the type of material described by Walter Benjamin as ‘booklike creations from fringe areas', they don't add up to any of the cohesive themes featured in previous issues, such as history, literature, or sentimentality. They have been, however, ‘salvaged' by collectors and thus given a chance to ‘renew the old world'. The essays and reviews in this issue have been selected or developed from papers and workshops given at the conference The Verbal and the Visual in Nineteenth-Century Culture (23-24 June 2006 organised by the Birkbeck Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies. Given the wealth of papers on far more canonical literary and visual practices featured at that conference, our selection might seem perverse in its insistence on odds and ends...

  3. Globalisation, the Terms of Trade and Argentina’s Expansion in the Long Nineteenth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Following Tulio Halperín Donghi’s pioneering work, historians have tried to explain why Argentina experienced a dramatic export-led expansion in the first half of the nineteenth century despite a lack of price incentives. This paradox is resolved by a new estimate of Argentina’s terms of trade. It suggests that they probably improved by at least 2,000 per cent from the 1780s to the first decade of the twentieth century, so there were considerable price incentives for export-led growth. Labour...

  4. Nefro-urological mortality causes in Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz) in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral, D; Suárez-Guzmán, F J

    2014-11-01

    The causes of mortality from nefro-urologic diseases in Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz) during the nineteenth century will be our object of study. We have analyzed the death registry books of the parishes in Jerez. The percentage of deaths from nefro-urologic diseases compared to other pathologies is 0.8%, being most affected males in age ranges from 25-34 and 65-75 years of age. The months with the highest mortality were July, December and January. Due to the deficient death registrations in the first decades of the century, the results should be taken with caution.

  5. "Your Whole Effort Has Been to Create Desire": Reproducing Knowledge and Evading Censorship in the Nineteenth- Century Subscription Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglionesi, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Historians once regarded the passage of the Comstock Laws in 1873 as a death knell for the public discourse on gender, sex, and reproduction that thrived in the early nineteenth-century United States, but this view has given way to a more complex appreciation of the strategies available to actors seeking knowledge about the body. I examine some of these strategies in late-century health and hygiene manuals. Although certain discourses about sex became closed off, others persisted and evolved in the interstices of Comstock's regulatory state. Readers' demand for information did not abate in 1873; savvy publishers found different ways to meet it, utilizing suggestion, allusion, and nontextual cues from which active readers could extract useful knowledge. A once-public debate about the morality, effectiveness, and appropriate use of contraception had become coded in the pages of health and hygiene manuals, pointing readers to the burgeoning mass market for contraceptive devices as a locus of reproductive control.

  6. Anaesthetic Bodies and the Absence of Feeling: Pain and Self-Mutilation in Later Nineteenth-Century Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Chaney

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the overlapping ways in which self-inflicted injury was understood in relation to an absence of pain during the long nineteenth century, arguing that a clear distinction between bodily and mental suffering cannot be made in this period. The medical view that self-infliction of injury must necessarily be pathological is shown to have emerged from earlier philosophical approaches to pain. This was cemented by the formation of a somatic model of self-mutilation, based on the concept of cutaneous anaesthesia, particularly in the work of Wilhelm Griesinger in Germany. In contrast, the words of asylum patients provide a much broader spectrum of ways in which injuries might have been understood. Nonetheless, the meanings attributed generally emphasize self-mutilation as a response to physical, rather than emotional, pain, indicating the widespread nature of physical aetiologies of insanity. Such a somatic approach also permeated psychological models of self-inflicted injury in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as shown through examination of Richard von Krafft-Ebing’s concept of ‘sexual anaesthesia’, William James’s association of anaesthesia with the absence of emotion, and self-mutilation and fixed ideas in the work of Pierre Janet. The study of self-mutilation thus provides an interesting angle from which to explore the complexity of notions of body and mind, in relation to concepts of pain.

  7. Animal experiments, vital forces and courtrooms: Mateu Orfila, François Magendie and the study of poisons in nineteenth-century France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertomeu-Sánchez, José Ramón

    2012-01-01

    The paper follows the lives of Mateu Orfila and François Magendie in early nineteenth-century Paris, focusing on their common interest in poisons. The first part deals with the striking similarities of their early careers: their medical training, their popular private lectures, and their first publications. The next section explores their experimental work on poisons by analyzing their views on physical and vital forces in living organisms and their ideas about the significance of animal experiments in medicine. The last part describes their contrasting research on the absorption of poisons and the divergences in their approaches, methods, aims, standards of proof, and intended audiences. The analysis highlights the connections between nineteenth-century courtrooms and experimental laboratories, and shows how forensic practice not only prompted animal experimentation but also provided a substantial body of information and new research methods for dealing with major theoretical issues like the absorption of poisons.

  8. Intersection of economics, history, and human biology: secular trends in stature in nineteenth-century Sioux Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, J M

    1995-06-01

    An unusual confluence of historical factors may be responsible for nineteenth-century Sioux being able to sustain high statures despite enduring adverse conditions during the early reservation experience. An exceptionally long span of Dakota Sioux history was examined for secular trends using a cross-sectional design. Two primary sources were used: One anthropometric data set was collected in the late nineteenth century under the direction of Franz Boas, and another set was collected by James R. Walker in the early twentieth century. Collectively, the data represent the birth years between 1820 and 1880 for adult individuals 20 years old or older. Adult heights (n = 1197) were adjusted for aging effects and regressed on age, with each data set and each sex analyzed separately. Tests for differences between the adult means of age cohorts by decade of birth (1820-1880) were also carried out. Only one sample of adults showed any convincing secular trend (p < 0.05): surprisingly, a positive linear trend for Walker's sample of adult males. This sample was also the one sample of adults that showed significant differences between age cohorts. The failure to find any negative secular trend in this population of Amerindians is remarkable, given the drastic socioeconomic changes that occurred with the coming of the reservation period (ca. 1868). Comparisons with contemporary white Americans show that the Sioux remained consistently taller than whites well into the reservation period and that Sioux children (Prince 1989) continued to grow at highly favorable rates during this time of severe conditions. A possible explanation for these findings involves the relatively favorable level of subsistence support received by most of the Sioux from the US government, as stipulated by various treaties. Conservative estimates suggest that the Sioux may have been able to sustain net levels of per capita annual meat consumption that exceeded the US average for several years before 1893.

  9. The beginnings of psychology in France: who was a "scientific" psychologist in the nineteenth century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroy, Jacqueline; Plas, Régine

    2006-01-01

    During the last thirty years of the nineteenth century in France, a psychology calling itself "positive," "experimental," or "physiological" was developing in opposition to the official philosophy, eclectic spiritualism. Its bases were set forth by Hippolyte Taine and Théodule Ribot, who popularised foreign models among the academic and scientific public, opposing spiritualism on the one hand, and Auguste Comte's positivism on the other. At the end of the century, Pierre Janet put into practice Ribot's programme for psychology, while differentiating himself from Ribot on the question of the relationship between psychology and physiology. Meanwhile, Alfred Binet, influenced by Taine in the first part of his work, went on to develop "individual psychology," and Gabriel Tarde tried to establish "interpsychology," which never managed to become recognised as a discipline in its own right. We intend to reposition these "scientific" psychologists and their works in that intellectual, institutional, and political context existing in late-nineteenth-century France. We aim to show that "scientific" psychology was able to find its place in that context only within philosophy, by means of a strategy of co-existing insertion and differentiation. If a new discipline did emerge, it was only after compromise, and with limited institutionalisation.

  10. Typhoid Fever in Nineteenth-Century Colombia: Between Medical Geography and Bacteriology

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA, MÓNICA

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses how the Colombian medical elites made sense of typhoid fever before and during the inception of bacteriological ideas and practices in the second half of the nineteenth century. Assuming that the identity of typhoid fever has to be understood within the broader concerns of the medical community in question, I show how doctors first identified Bogotá’s epidemics as typhoid fever during the 1850s, and how they also attached specificity to the fever amongst other continuous f...

  11. Honour and subsistence: invention, credit and surgery in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Sally

    2016-12-01

    The origins of contemporary exclusion of surgical methods from patenting lie in the complexities of managing credit claims in operative surgery, recognized in the nineteenth century. While surgical methods were not deemed patentable, surgeons were nevertheless embedded within patent culture. In an atmosphere of heightened awareness about the importance of 'inventors', how surgeons should be recognized and rewarded for their inventions was an important question. I examine an episode during the 1840s which seemed to concretize the inapplicability of patents to surgical practice, before looking at alternatives to patenting, used by surgeons to gain social and financial credit for inventions.

  12. [The invention of animals: a history of Mexican veterinary medicine in the nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Blanca Irais Uribe

    2015-12-01

    This article analyzes a phenomenon I call "the invention of animals," that is, the way in which veterinary medicine and the practices of physiology, microbiology and zootechnics produced new and different ways of thinking about, studying, understanding, regulating, legislating, commercializing, exploiting and experiencing "the animal." In particular, the text focuses on the evolution of this phenomenon in Mexico during the nineteenth century, since during this period the impact of these disciplines on animal bodies led to significant changes in the fields of human medicine, public health, and livestock production.

  13. The Living Dead: the Uncanny and Nineteenth-Century Moral Panic over Premature Burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Wójcicka

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The fear of premature burial during the nineteenth century escalated to a phenomenon of moral panic. Fueled by the imperfections of the cardiorespiratory standard of death, which allowed for mistakes in pronouncing a person dead, and by the feeling of the uncanny connected to doubts whether an object – a corpse – is animate or inanimate, the moral panic surfaced in a number of forms, including literature, journalism, but also science and legislation. The present study shows how these forms were both an effect of the panic and, simultaneously, a factor which served to uphold and shape it further.

  14. Disciplinary power and the role of the subject at a nineteenth-century Danish asylum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamre, Bjørn

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the ways in which psychiatric practice and power were constituted in a Danish asylum at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The point of departure will be a complaint by a former patient questioning the practice at the asylum in 1829. In an analysis of this narrative...... the study draws upon Foucauldian concepts like disciplinary power, confession, pastoral power and subjectivation. I will argue that the critique of the patient provides us with an example of the way that disciplinary power works in the case of an informal indictment of the methods and practice at an asylum...

  15. Reflections on divorce in Bessarabia in the first half of the nineteenth century: the adultery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Felea

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article covers a topic related to family history - divorce, insufficiently treated in historiography. In this study based on concrete examples from Bessarabia, it will be presented the daily reality in the problem of divorce granted for adultery and how the canons of the church were respected in the first half of the nineteenth century. As sources of research were used documents from the funds of the State Archives of Republic of Moldova, showing the fact of initiation of divorce processes by representatives of different social classes: nobles, townspeople, peasants, soldiers etc.

  16. Darwinism and cultural struggles in rural Askov and metropolitan Copenhagen in nineteenth-century Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    of students and artists assembled around Brandes in the capital of Copenhagen - the only Danish city hosting a university in the late nineteenth century - and used Darwinism in their cultural struggle against what they regarded as reactionary Christian and conservative values which dominated in the country......, around 1900 as Darwinism was widely criticized in scientific circles, a young generation of Grundtvigians transformed evolutionary theory into ‘safe science' and made it a legitimate subject at several folk high schools in the country. This paper argues that the cultural differences between metropolitan...

  17. [The women's contribution to occupational health at the end of the nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century Italian working class was mainly represented by women. An extraordinary women movement (Laura Solera Mantegazza, Gualberta Adelaide Beccari, Anna Maria Mozzoni, Ersilia Majno Bronzini, Nina Rignano Sullam, Giuseppina Poggiolini among others) including the first Italian women physicians (Anna Kuliscioff, Maria Montessori, Gina Lombroso, Linita Beretta and the very close to become physician Anna Fraentzel Celli) build up associations, journals, books, schools, researches, and petitions. The first law on women and child labour (1902), the First Congress on Occupational illnesses (1906), the birth of the Clinica del Lavoro (1910) represent only part of this contribution which has been almost forgotten and should be enlightened.

  18. William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse astronomy and the castle in nineteenth-century Ireland

    CERN Document Server

    Mollan, R Charles

    2015-01-01

    This is a revealing account of the family life and achievements of the Third Earl of Rosse, a hereditary peer and resident landlord at Birr Castle, County Offaly, in nineteenth-century Ireland, before, during and after the devastating famine of the 1840s. He was a remarkable engineer, who built enormous telescopes in the cloudy middle of Ireland. The book gives details, in an attractive non-technical style which requires no previous scientific knowledge, of his engineering initiatives and the astronomical results, but also reveals much more about the man and his contributions - locally in the

  19. Controvérsias sobre o atomismo no século XIX Controversies on atomism in the nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Marinho Oki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article reviews aspects of the controversy in nineteenth-century physical sciences between atomists and anti-atomists, and the scientific, philosophical and methodological aspects about the atomic debates. The meanings of the atom concept used by physicists and chemists in that century are also discussed.

  20. The Long-term Pattern of Maritime Trade in Java from the Late Eighteenth Century to the Mid-Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuto Shimada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the trade pattern of Java from the late eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century from a long-term perspective. There is no comprehensive data on Javanese trade during the period in question, with information on local and regional trade being particularly scarce. To fill in the missing pieces and identify a broad trend, this paper attempts to examine data on both the late eighteenth century and the second quarter of the nineteenth century and put them together with the scattered data available on the first half of the nineteenth century. This paper suggests, first, that while it is known that Java’s economic relations with the outside world were heavily oriented toward trade with the Netherlands, this trend began in the late eighteenth century rather than with the introduction of the Cultivation System in 1830. Second, Java’s coastal trade also began to develop in the late eighteenth century. This trade was conducted by European traders and Asian indigenous traders, including overseas Chinese traders settled in Java. Third, trade with the Outer Islands declined in the late eighteenth century but resumed its expansion in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Fourth, intra-Asian trade with the region outside insular Southeast Asia declined in the long run, along with the decline and bankruptcy of the VOC, which had successfully engaged in this branch of intra-Asian trade since the seventeenth century.

  1. Tampa Bay coastal wetlands: nineteenth to twentieth century tidal marsh-to-mangrove conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Roy, Laura C.; McIvor, Carole C.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, mangroves dominate the tidal wetlands of Tampa Bay, Florida, but an examination of historic navigation charts revealed dominance of tidal marshes with a mangrove fringe in the 1870s. This study's objective was to conduct a new assessment of wetland change in Tampa Bay by digitizing nineteenth century topographic and public land surveys and comparing these to modern coastal features at four locations. We differentiate between wetland loss, wetland gain through marine transgression, and a wetland conversion from marsh to mangrove. Wetland loss was greatest at study sites to the east and north. Expansion of the intertidal zone through marine transgression, across adjacent low-lying land, was documented primarily near the mouth of the bay. Generally, the bay-wide marsh-to-mangrove ratio reversed from 86:14 to 25:75 in 125 years. Conversion of marsh to mangrove wetlands averaged 72 % at the four sites, ranging from 52 % at Old Tampa Bay to 95 % at Feather Sound. In addition to latitudinal influences, intact wetlands and areas with greater freshwater influence exhibited a lower rate of marsh-to-mangrove conversion. Two sources for nineteenth century coastal landscape were in close agreement, providing an unprecedented view of historic conditions in Tampa Bay.

  2. Women and education. The case of the Vedrunas in the Basque Country, Nineteenth and Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Berdote Alonso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The social representation of a woman as a wife and mother in the nineteenth century determined her lack of instruction and, therefore, high rates of illiteracy among women. Despite clear legislative support, scarcity of state economic sources to support the education of girls in the nineteenth century made their access to schools difficult. This reality, coupled with other circumstances, laid the foundation for new religious teaching congregations dedicated to women’s education. This paper analyses the model of education for women provided by the Carmelite Sisters of Charity from the time of their arrival to the Basque Country (1870 until the beginning of the Second Republic (1931. The analysis focuses on three elements: the process of the new foundations, pedagogical and curricular organization of the schools, and incorporation of the Basque language into the educational process. In order to analyse the model, the researcher has consulted as a primary source the Statutes of each school, which belonged to the provincial archive of the Congregation. The research carried out suggests that the Carmelite Sisters of Charity demonstrated a high degree of adaptability to the local village communities by offering the Basque lessons in certain schools while also maintaining their core mission of Christianising and educating girls.

  3. The Nineteenth Century Revised: Towards a New Narrative of Europe’s Past

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    Bo Stråth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The conventional history of Europe, connecting the Enlightenment heritage with our time, makes a huge detour around the violent nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth one. The article explores the European peace utopias of 1815, 1918 and 1951, and their eventual loss of suggestive force, and argues that they link today’s global Europe to the post-Napoleonic world two hundred years ago. This connection, through a series of illusions and disillusions about the nature of politics, represents a different view on the nineteenth and twentieth century than the conventional teleological narrative about fulfilment of the Enlightenment promise of progress. The analysis of the bicentenary chain of shifts between postwar, prewar and war should not be read in terms of a teleology necessitating a new war; the point is, rather to draw attention to the fragility and openness of historical processes. The new narrative outlined here emphasizes that there was no necessity in the development towards today’s Europe; the story is full of alternatives, and highlights the role as well as the responsibility of human agency. No solution appears as a necessary result of impersonal forces, everything has depended, and continues to depend, on human choice.

  4. Treaty-Port English in Nineteenth-Century Shanghai: Speakers, Voices, and Images

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    Jia Si

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the introduction of English to the treaty port of Shanghai and the speech communities that developed there as a result. English became a sociocultural phenomenon rather than an academic subject when it entered Shanghai in the 1840s, gradually generating various social activities of local Chinese people who lived in the treaty port. Ordinary people picked up a rudimentary knowledge of English along trading streets and through glossary references, and went to private schools to improve their linguistic skills. They used English to communicate with foreigners and as a means to explore a foreign presence dominated by Western material culture. Although those who learned English gained small-scale social mobility in the late nineteenth century, the images of English-speaking Chinese were repeatedly criticized by the literati and official scholars. This paper explores Westerners’ travel accounts, as well as various sources written by the new elite Chinese, including official records and vernacular poems, to demonstrate how English language acquisition brought changes to local people’s daily lives. I argue that treaty-port English in nineteenth-century Shanghai was not only a linguistic medium but, more importantly, a cultural agent of urban transformation. It gradually molded a new linguistic landscape, which at the same time contributed to the shaping of modern Shanghai culture.

  5. Meaningful, entertaining, popular and ‘Bavarian’: art into design in nineteenth century Munich

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    Stefan Muthesius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among European regional stereotypes few come across as strongly and consistently as ‘Bavaria’. Its strength is derived from the ways in which it appears to be firmly and comprehensively grounded in its land and its people. This article traces the way in which some of the stereotype’s associated forms and images, principally those related to the domestic environment, were first conceived during the nineteenth century. The principal claim is that it was the nineteenth century artists, architects and designers in the Kunststadt Munich, who, helped by the critics, arrived at very specific valorisations of their designs, which could then be applied in an essentialist way to all artefacts of the region, old or new. The article divides the Munich design activities into two phases. During the 1850s designers aimed for a poetic and ‘volkstümlich / popular’ kind of decoration of common objects, including scenes from Bavarian ‘folk’ poetry. In the second phase, during the 1870s and 1880s, interest turned more directly to the domestic environment of Alpine houses, valorising a plain wooden character. Clearly, an absolute belief in in a primeval and unchanging ‘Bavaria’ cannot be entertained any more. But neither should one classify it all as modern kitsch. The latter attitude must be the reason why the subject has hardly been touched on in the copious art histories of Munich so far.

  6. Spreading the Spirit Word: Print Media, Storytelling, and Popular Culture in Nineteenth-Century Spiritualism

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    Simone Natale

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spiritualists in the nineteenth century gave much emphasis to the collection of evidences of scientific meaning. During séances, they used instruments similar to those employed in scientific practice to substantiate their claims. However, these were not the only source of legitimization offered in support of the spiritualist claims. In fact, writers who aimed to provide beliefs in spiritualism with a reliable support relied very often on the testimonies of eyewitness that were reported in a narrative fashion. This article interrogates the role of such anecdotal testimonies in nineteenth-century spiritualism. It argues that they played a twofold role: on one side, they offered a form of evidentiary proof that was complementary to the collection of mechanical-based evidences; on the other side, they circulated in spiritualist publications, creating opportunities to reach a wide public of readers that was made available by the emergence of a mass market for print media. Able to convince, but also to entertain the reader, anecdotal testimonies were perfectly suited for publications in spiritualist books and periodicals. The proliferation of anecdotal testimonies in spiritualist texts, in this regard, hints at the relevance of storytelling in the diffusion of beliefs about religious matters as well as scientific issues within the public sphere. By reporting and disseminating narrative testimonies, print media acted as a channel through which spiritualism’s religious and scientific endeavors entered the field of a burgeoning popular culture.

  7. Analysis of primary education in the province of Badajoz during the nineteenth century

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    Teresa FRAILE PRIETO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The nineteenth century was a crucial moment for the development of primary education in the Spanish State. Public education becomes stable alongside the political and social vicissitudes of the country, establishing a solid foundation that is essential to understand the current organizational structures, as well as some of their burdens. From the data collected in previous publications, this research develops information relating to the province of Badajoz from 1957 to 1900, as a particular case study to present an overview of what was the primary education in the XIX century. Starting on these data, we can draw some conclusions about the demographic and socio-political distribution of public elementary schools at this turning point for the Spanish education.

  8. Military morality transformed: weapons and soldiers on the nineteenth-century battlefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gervase

    2011-01-01

    The increased lethality of nineteenth-century “arms of precision” caused military formations to disperse in combat, transforming the ordinary soldier from a near automaton, drilled to deliver random fire under close supervision, into a moral agent who exercised a degree of choice about where, when, and how to fire his weapon. The emerging autonomy of the soldier became a central theme in contemporary tactical debates, which struggled to reconcile the desire for discipline with the individual initiative necessary on the battlefield. This tactical conundrum offers revealing insights about human aggression and mass violence. Its dark legacy was the propagation of military values into civilian society, thus paving the way for the political soldiers of the twentieth century.

  9. [A nosology for supernatural phenomena and the construction of the 'possessed' brain in the nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Valeria Portugal; Ortega, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    At the end of the twentieth century, supernatural phenomena such as so called trances and possession by spirits received a scientific classification, which includes the numerous diagnoses of the dominant psychiatry. At the end of the nineteenth century we can observe a process of scientific categorization of phenomena considered to have originated in superstition or popular imagination. In this work we show how trances and spiritual possession were studied by Franz Anton Mesmer and his followers when developing the concept of magnetism; by James Braid during the creation of his theory of hypnosis; and by Jean Martin Charcot, which marked the entry of hysteria into nosological classification. Despite the differences between these schools, we identify the use of the brain and cerebral metaphors as the foundation of theories of the mind.

  10. Tropical Cyclones and Climate Controls in the Western Atlantic Basin during the First Half of the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, C. J.; Dodds, S. F.; Rodgers, M. D.; Patwardhan, A.

    2008-12-01

    This study describes new comprehensive reconstructions of individual Western Atlantic Basin tropical cyclones for each year of the first half of the nineteenth century in the Western Atlantic Basin that are directly compatible and supplement the National Hurricane Center's HURDAT (Atlantic basin hurricane database). Data used for reconstructing tropical cyclones come from ship logbooks, ship protests, diaries, newspapers, and early instrumental records from more than 50 different archival repositories in the United States and the United Kingdom. Tropical cyclone strength was discriminated among tropical storms, hurricanes, major hurricanes, and non-tropical lows at least at tropical storm strength. The results detail the characteristics of several hundred storms, many of them being newly documented, and tracks for all storms were mapped. Overall, prominent active periods of tropical cyclones are evident along the western Atlantic Ocean in the 1830s but Caribbean and Gulf coasts exhibit active periods as being more evident in the 1810s and 1820s. Differences in decadal variations were even more pronounced when examining time series of activity at the statewide scale. High resolution paleoclimate and historical instrumental records of the AMO, NAO, ENSO, Atlantic SSTs, West African rainfall, and volcanic activity explain how different modes in these forcing mechanisms may explain some of the multidecadal and interannual variations. The early nineteenth century active hurricane activity appears to be particularly unique in corresponding with a low (negative index) AMO period, and as they relate to particular synoptic-scale patterns in the latter part of the Little Ice Age. Model simulations offer some hypotheses on such patterns, perhaps suggesting increased baroclinic-related storms and a slight later possible shift in the seasonal peak of tropical cyclones for some areas at times. Some years, such as 1806, 1837, 1838, 1842, and 1846 have particularly very active

  11. Nineteenth-century collapse of a benthic marine ecosystem on the open continental shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašových, Adam; Kidwell, Susan M

    2017-06-14

    The soft-sediment seafloor of the open continental shelf is among the least-known biomes on Earth, despite its high diversity and importance to fisheries and biogeochemical cycling. Abundant dead shells of epifaunal suspension-feeding terebratulid brachiopods (Laqueus) and scallops on the now-muddy mainland continental shelf of southern California reveal the recent, previously unsuspected extirpation of an extensive offshore shell-gravel ecosystem, evidently driven by anthropogenic siltation. Living populations of attached epifauna, which formerly existed in a middle- and outer-shelf mosaic with patches of trophically diverse muds, are restricted today to rocky seafloor along the shelf edge and to the sandier shelves of offshore islands. Geological age-dating of 190 dead brachiopod shells shows that (i) no shells have been produced on the mainland shelf within the last 100 years, (ii) their shell production declined steeply during the nineteenth century, and (iii) they had formerly been present continuously for at least 4 kyr. This loss, sufficiently rapid (less than or equal to 100 years) and thorough to represent an ecosystem collapse, coincides with intensification of alluvial-plain land use in the nineteenth century, particularly livestock grazing. Extirpation was complete by the start of twentieth-century urbanization, warming, bottom fishing and scientific surveys. The loss of this filter-feeding fauna and the new spatial homogeneity and dominance of deposit- and detritus-feeders would have altered ecosystem functioning by reducing habitat heterogeneity and seawater filtering. This discovery, attesting to the power of this geological approach to recent ecological transitions, also strongly increases the spatial scope attributable to the negative effects of siltation, and suggests that it has been under-recognized on continental shelves elsewhere as a legacy of coastal land use. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. William Keith Brooks and the naturalist's defense of Darwinism in the late-nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Richard

    2015-06-01

    William Keith Brooks was an American zoologist at Johns Hopkins University from 1876 until his death in 1908. Over the course of his career, Brooks staunchly defended Darwinism, arguing for the centrality of natural selection in evolutionary theory at a time when alternative theories, such as neo-Lamarckism, grew prominent in American biology. In his book The Law of Heredity (1883), Brooks addressed problems raised by Darwin's theory of pangenesis. In modifying and developing Darwin's pangenesis, Brooks proposed a new theory of heredity that sought to avoid the pitfalls of Darwin's hypothesis. In so doing he strengthened Darwin's theory of natural selection by undermining arguments for the inheritance of acquired characteristics. In later attacks on neo-Lamarckism, Brooks consistently defended Darwin's theory of natural selection on logical grounds, continued to challenge the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, and argued that natural selection best explained a wide range of adaptations. Finally, he critiqued Galton's statistical view of heredity and argued that Galton had resurrected an outmoded typological concept of species, one which Darwin and other naturalists had shown to be incorrect. Brooks's ideas resemble the "biological species concept" of the twentieth century, as developed by evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr and others. The late-nineteenth century was not a period of total "eclipse" of Darwinism, as biologists and historians have hitherto seen it. Although the "Modern Synthesis" refers to the reconciliation of post-Mendelian genetics with evolution by natural selection, we might adjust our understanding of how the synthesis developed by seeing it as the culmination of a longer discussion that extends back to the late-nineteenth century.

  13. Mercury (not always rising and the social economy of nineteenth-century Peru

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    José R. Deustua

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the Peruvian mining industry of mercury or azogue in the nineteenth century.Mercury was a crucial component for Andean and Mexican silver mining during colonialtimes and still in the first century of Republican Peru. However, it was not the booming industrythat occurred at the end of the sixteenth century, in the second half of the seventeenth, and at thesecond half of the eighteenth century with production peaks at 13 000, 8000 and 7000 quintalsper year. During the nineteenth century it was rather a relative modest industry («not always rising» but also had moments of peak and decline. The article discusses production figures from the1950 by engineers Fernandez Concha, Yates, and Kent, with new statistics coming from archivalsources, which shows important regional levels of production and articulation with silver miningcenters such as Cerro de Pasco. The article also shows that mercury production was not limitedto the old colonial Huancavelica mine of Santa Bárbara but to other areas in the Huancavelicaregion, such as Angaraes and Lircay, or beyond Hunacavelica, such as Chonta in Cerro de Pascoor even Chachapoyas. It also focuses on the conflictive dynamics that mining production meantfor criollo business people, the government, merchants, and indigenous workers. There wereseveral business efforts to revitalize the mine of Santa Bárbara as well as to invest in Huancavelicamercury mining in combination with government initiatives and actions, but it is also clear theaction of mercury merchants, rescatires, who many times rather dealt with workers and humachis,independent laborers or small entrepreneurs, many times Andean Quechua peasants, who ratherbenefitted during the down cycles in mercury production. Finally, after analyzing this particularindustry, the author reflects on the meaning of economic development and historical studies tocriticize U.S. economic historians such as Stephen Haber (from Stanford University

  14. Welsh settlement patterns in a nineteenth-century Australian gold town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The adjacent gold mining settlements of Ballarat and Sebastopol in the colony of Victoria are universally acknowledged as the major focal point for Welsh immigrants in Australia in the second half of the nineteenth century. Here, the Welsh had congregated in sufficient numbers to establish an identifiable and highly visible ethnolinguistic community. Factors such as the necessity of acquiring the English language, movement out of the mining industry, high rates of exogamy, the failure to unite within one religious denomination and the conscious desire to integrate into mainstream Australian society, all served to undermine the integrity of that community. This paper argues that the more fundamental issue of residential propinquity was of primary importance in this process; that it was the failure of the Welsh immigrant group to establish and maintain long term exclusively Welsh areas of settlement that ensured the eventual dilution and absorption of the Welsh as a distinct community.

  15. A White Atlantic? The Idea of American Art in Nineteenth-Century Britain

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    Tim Barringer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with the contention that 'American art' is a powerful retrospective construction, rooted in the institutional practices of art history and museology. Through a focus on the experiences of expatriate American artists (John Singleton Copley and Benjamin West in London at the start of the nineteenth century, and the genre or landscape painting in transatlantic art (including the work of the British artist Thomas Cole, this essay exposes the complex and dynamic cultural interrelationship that existed between the United States and Europe in the period. It extends Paul Gilroy's and Joseph Roach's recent concept of the 'Black Atlantic', in which they argue that a single cultural zone brought together London and New Orleans, Kingston, Jamaica and the ports of the Ivory coast, to analyse the cultural and performative exchanges that were also taking place between America and Europe (particularly Great Britain, and that have hitherto been neglected in dominant art history narratives.

  16. Marmoreal Sisterhoods: Classical Statuary in Nineteenth-Century Women’s Writing

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    Patricia Pulham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the deployment of statuary in nineteenth-century women’s poetry. It considers the importance of classical sculpture in the work of the Romantic writer Felicia Hemans before proceeding to examine its significance in poems by later Irish and American poets including Frances Sargent Osgood, Emily Henrietta Hickey, Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, Eliza C. Hall, Henrietta Cordelia Ray, and Emma Lazarus. Focusing primarily on the Pygmalion myth and how it is overtly or covertly evoked in their works, it argues that their literary engagement with sculpture permits ways in which mythical women, in particular Pygmalion’s Galatea, may be reclaimed and reinvented for subversive and liberatory purposes.

  17. [Slaves in purgatory: the Tucunduba Leprosarium (Pará, nineteenth century)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique, Márcio Couto

    2012-12-01

    The article analyzes the experience of the slaves interned at the Tucunduba Leprosarium in Belém, state of Pará during the nineteenth century. The slaves were freed once they showed the marks of their leprosy, and expectations were that they would submit to the segregation policy meant to keep them from contact with the rest of the population. The documentation produced by Santa Casa de Misericórdia hospital in Pará and by the province's political authorities reveals the strategies the slaves devised in response to this policy; they used their numerical predominance at the leprosarium to create a network of solidarity that allowed them to recreate their lives and stand in opposition to the type of nation that the era's hygienist theories envisioned.

  18. Art and the teaching of pathological anatomy at the University of Florence since the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Gabriella; Santi, Raffaella; Taddei, Gian Luigi

    2009-07-01

    In 1840, the University of Florence was the first university in Italy to confer a Professorship in Pathological Anatomy. The origin of this teaching post is linked to the history of the Pathology Museum founded in 1824 by the Florentine Accademia Medico-Fisica. The Museum houses anatomical specimens and waxworks depicting pathological conditions in the nineteenth century. Both the need to instruct medical students in pathology without resorting to corpse dissection and the difficulty of the lengthy preservation of anatomical preparations made it necessary to produce life-sized wax duplicates of diseased parts of the body. Through the history of the Pathology Museum of Florence, we describe how pathology developed and, in particular, how pathologists from a literary circle laid the foundations of modern surgical pathology in Italy. Museum visits for the medical students guided by lecturers are still today a component of the course of Pathological Anatomy.

  19. "Womb with a View": The Introduction of Western Obstetrics in Nineteenth-Century Siam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Quentin Trais

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the historical confrontation between Western obstetrical medicine and indigenous midwifery in nineteenth-century Siam (Thailand). Beginning with the campaign of medical missionaries to reform Siamese obstetrical care, it explores the types of arguments that were employed in the contest between these two forms of expert knowledge. Missionary-physicians used their anatomical knowledge to contest both particular indigenous obstetrical practices and more generalized notions concerning its moral and metaphysical foundations. At the same time, by appealing to the health and well-being of the consorts and children of the Siamese elite, they gained access to the intimate spaces of Siamese political life. The article contends that the medical missionary campaign intersected with imperial desires to make the sequestered spaces of Siamese political life more visible and accessible to Western scrutiny. It therefore reveals the imbrication of contests over obstetrical medicine and trade diplomacy in the imperial world.

  20. From antiquity to Olympic revival: sports and Greek national historiography (nineteenth-twentieth centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouri, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the historiography of Greek sport from the foundation of the Greek state (1830) until 1982 and its links with Greek national history, which also took shape primarily during the nineteenth century. The gradual 'nationalisation' of sport as an element of Greek national character since antiquity corresponded to changes in perceptions of the national past reflected in historiography. The ancient Olympic Games, Byzantine contests and exercises, the competitions of the klephts and armatoloi (militia soldiers) during the Ottoman rule and the modern revival of the Olympic Games were all successively integrated in a national history of sport confirming national continuity and unity. However this particular genre of national historiography did not gain academic recognition until recently. The authors of histories of physical exercise and sport were amateurs or physical education instructors and could not ensure to their work the authority of a separate discipline.

  1. Disease and cure in Mozambican health service reports from the end of the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Ana Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century, health service reports constituted a repository of information on the main diseases in Mozambique and the impacts of their frequency, as well as on the procedures and methods used to fight disease within a regional framework whose description indicates a broad knowledge of the characteristics and potentials of the various districts and of the living conditions of the people. The objective of this article is to highlight that these reports constitute a privileged source not only for the study of the process of cementing Portuguese colonial rule in Mozambique, but also for the study of tropical medicine from a perspective that takes into account the specific conditions of the region, and which provides historical information on the analysis of the problems related to disease and cure.

  2. Darwinism and cultural struggles in rural Askov and metropolitan Copenhagen in nineteenth-century Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    In the 1870s, when Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species and Descent of Man were translated into Danish by the botanist-turned-poet J. P. Jacobsen, evolutionary thought played a seminal role in the modern breakthrough advocated by the freethinker and literary critic Georg Brandes. A group...... of students and artists assembled around Brandes in the capital of Copenhagen - the only Danish city hosting a university in the late nineteenth century - and used Darwinism in their cultural struggle against what they regarded as reactionary Christian and conservative values which dominated in the country....... At the same time in the village of Askov in rural Jutland, a liberal fraction of the Evangelical-Lutheran State Church, the Grundtvigians, had a stronghold at their high-profile folk high school. Here materialism and Darwinism associated with the Brandes circle were tabooed and later condemned. However...

  3. Made real: artifice and accuracy in nineteenth-century scientific illustration

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    Dr Boris Jardine

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In their 1992 essay ‘The image of objectivity’, and again in Objectivity (2007, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison describe the development of ‘mechanical objectivity’. Nineteenth-century scientists, they argue, pursued ‘truth-to-nature’ by enlisting ‘self-registering instruments, cameras, wax molds, and a host of other devices […] with the aim of freeing images from human interference’. This emphasis on self-recording devices and the morals of machinery, important as it is, tends to focus our attention away from the often messy and convoluted means of image reproduction – by lithograph, hand-coloured engraving or photomechanical process, and often involving steps that seem sharply at odds with narratives of increasing standardization and scientific restraint. This essay draws on the Science Museum’s pictorial collections in order to look again at the construction of objectivity, this time from the point of view of making and reproducing images. Case studies are presented of the Luke Howard collection of cloud drawings and James Nasmyth’s lunar photographs, suggesting that scientists were more flexible in their approach to depictions of the truth than has previously been supposed, and that ‘manufactured’ may be a better term than ‘mechanical’ when we talk of objectivity in the nineteenth century. But this is also a reflexive story, about the collections of the Science Museum – an institution whose own history is, I argue in conclusion, particularly tied up with issues of accuracy, depiction and genre. These are brought together in the consideration of ‘atmosphere’ – a term as important for the historian of science as for the exhibition curator.

  4. The Image of the Jesuit in Russian Literary Culture of the Nineteenth Century

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    Elizabeth Harrison

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available My paper will examine figure of the Jesuit in nineteenth-century literature, a theme which evolves from my thesis on the image of Catholicism. The nineteenth century is of special interest in conjunction with the study of Russian attitudes to religion since it was a crucial time in the formation of Russian national identity. My paper will begin by outlining who the Jesuits are and what role they play in world history. Then I will briefly summarise the influence of the Jesuits on Russian history and how this may have affected how they were viewed in literature. I will then use some examples from some well-known texts and analyse how the Jesuit appears as a character in Russian plays and novels of this period. Starting with Pushkin’s drama about the Time of Troubles Boris Godunov and comparing this with Khomiakov’s drama, Dmitriii Samozvanets, I will outline how the Jesuit appears as Machiavellian schemer. Next I will discuss the 1840s and 1850s and the Jesuit polemics with Slavophile thinkers. Lastly, I will look at some examples from Dostoevskii’s Idiot and Tolstoi’s Voina i Mir and discuss the portrayal of Jesuits as eloquent speakers who were attempting to convert Russians. I will argue that although Jesuits are often neglected as minor characters in Russian literature, examining this theme can inform us about how Russian national identity was being formulated, and Russian writer’s response to how they felt Russian religious identity was being challenged.

  5. The Craft of Reference: The Welsh Language and the Division of Labor in Nineteenth Century Slate Quarries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, H. Paul

    2001-01-01

    Discusses ideologies of language and the division of labor in nineteenth century Wales, where the slate quarries drew their labor exclusively from monoglot Welsh populations. The division between labor and capital in these quarries correlated to a virtually categorical linguistic opposition between Welsh quarriers and English owners, with the…

  6. Imperial Russia as Dar al-Islam? Nineteenth-Century Debates on Ijtihad and Taqlid among the Volga Tatars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Muslims of the Russian Empire provide us with some interesting cases of how local Islamic scholars used the language and genres of Islamic law to describe their situation in a "northern" and non-Muslim state. The development of Islamic law in nineteenth-century Russia was influenced by close con

  7. Dumb O Jemmy and Others: Deaf people, Interpreters and the London Courts in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Christopher; Woll, Bencie

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews eighteenth- and nineteenth-century proceedings of the London Central Criminal Court (Old Bailey) that involved deaf people. The use, role, and status of sign language and interpreters in these settings are described. These proceedings provide important information about deaf people's experiences within the court system of the…

  8. The Power of Deaf Poetry: The Exhibition of Literacy and the Nineteenth-Century Sign Language Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmail, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that poetry written by nineteenth-century British and American deaf poets played an important role in the period's sign language debates. By placing the publication of this poetry in the context of public exhibitions of deaf students, I suggest that the poetry was mobilized to publicly defend the linguistic and intellectual…

  9. "Clearing the Sill of the World": Jane Eyre and the Power of Education in the Nineteenth-Century Novel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nancy L.; Rainey, William

    2009-01-01

    The idea of education in nineteenth-century women's writing revolves around social class, social mores, and the subtleties of the writer's imagination. Nowhere can this be seen more vividly and thoroughly than in Charlotte Bronte's novel, "Jane Eyre". The book's opening scene, striking in its symbolic detail, highlights and foreshadows the…

  10. Moral Treatment of the Insane: Provisions for Lifelong Learning, Cultural Engagement, and Creativity in Nineteenth-Century Asylums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Maureen; Hamilton, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The current interest in the role of lifelong learning and cultural engagement for change is not new. This article looks at a most unusual precedent and a neglected area in the historiography of adult education--the use of cultural education provision in asylums in the nineteenth century to promote cure and restoration of the "insane" to…

  11. Public Expenditure on Education and Economic Growth in the USA in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Earlier studies of France, Germany and the UK suggest that a common framework exists to explain the relationship between public expenditure on education and economic growth in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This article shows that while a similar relationship exists in the USA, US policies were particularly committed to the educational…

  12. Education in the Working-Class Home: Modes of Learning as Revealed by Nineteenth-Century Criminal Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, Rosalind

    2015-01-01

    The transmission of knowledge and skills within the working-class household greatly troubled social commentators and social policy experts during the first half of the nineteenth century. To prove theories which related criminality to failures in working-class up-bringing, experts and officials embarked upon an ambitious collection of data on…

  13. Through the Looking-Glass: How Nineteenth Century Asylums Shaped School Architecture and Notions of Intellectual Abnormality Shaped Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, David J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper utilizes Henri Lefebvre's work to examine nineteenth century school architecture, in relation to asylums. The deployment of the asylums occurred in unison with the development of public schools. Based on archival research this paper seeks an examination of this interrelated development. The social/spatial arrangement of asylums and…

  14. Moral Treatment of the Insane: Provisions for Lifelong Learning, Cultural Engagement, and Creativity in Nineteenth-Century Asylums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Maureen; Hamilton, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The current interest in the role of lifelong learning and cultural engagement for change is not new. This article looks at a most unusual precedent and a neglected area in the historiography of adult education--the use of cultural education provision in asylums in the nineteenth century to promote cure and restoration of the "insane" to…

  15. History, Nation and School Inspections: The Introduction of Citizenship Education in Elementary Schools in Late Nineteenth-Century Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evertsson, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    It was in the late nineteenth century that teaching in Sweden's elementary schools began its transformation from a religious education to a broader, national citizenship education that included history and geography. International research has pointed to a connection between the introduction of school inspections and the reform of public education…

  16. A New Educational Model and the Crisis of Modern Terminologies: A View of Egypt in the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    alSamara, Kinda

    2017-01-01

    The beginning of modern Arab education coincided with the Arab Awakening in the nineteenth century. The modern educational system witnessed its most important developments in the Arab world, as shown by the case of Egypt, under the Ottoman Empire. Examining a new model of education as shown in the literary sources of the Arab Awakening, one finds…

  17. Between Secularism/s: Islam and the Institutionalisation of Modern Higher Education in Mid-Nineteenth Century British India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This paper problematises clean distinctions between secular and religious by tracing the history of modern higher education of Muslims in British colonial India. Grounded in the interpretive research tradition and with an empirical focus on the formative mid-nineteenth century, the article argues that relational notions between singular secularism…

  18. Between Secularism/s: Islam and the Institutionalisation of Modern Higher Education in Mid-Nineteenth Century British India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This paper problematises clean distinctions between secular and religious by tracing the history of modern higher education of Muslims in British colonial India. Grounded in the interpretive research tradition and with an empirical focus on the formative mid-nineteenth century, the article argues that relational notions between singular secularism…

  19. Ecology and power in the periphery of Maasina : the case of the Hayre in the nineteenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de M.; Dijk, van H.

    2001-01-01

    This article explores political tensions between successive nineteenth-century rulers of the inland delta of the Niger in central Mali (the Fulbe Diina of Hamdullahi and the Futanke successors of al-Hajj Umar) and the pastoral interests of the Fulbe chiefdoms on their eastern periphery, in a region

  20. Education and Iconography of the Republic: Patriotic Symoblism in the Frontispieces of Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century American Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Educational materials such as textbooks often reflect and define a culture through the use of symbols and metaphors. The use of visual metaphors in frontispieces of reading and spelling texts during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries show the emergence of a patriotic iconography. (DF)

  1. Feeling the Spirit: Spiritualism, Literary Aesthetics, and the Reformation of the Senses in Nineteenth-Century America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Tracy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation attempts to explain how nineteenth-century American Spiritualist literature may have made readers feel like they were hearing voices, touching the dead, seeing celestial spaces, or enjoying other sensory proofs of the afterlife. Spiritualists believed that, while all human beings possessed faculties designed to perceive the dead,…

  2. Working women in France, nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Where, when, and which women were in work at marriage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdeman, Richard L.; van Leeuwen, Marco H D; Rébaudo, Danièle; Pélissier, Jean Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We look at women's labour force participation for the whole of France in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. We study to what extent young women were working at the time of their marriage, in which occupations, and how differences in labour force participation might be explained. Using a sample

  3. "Bad Things": Child Abuse and the Nineteenth-Century Spanish National School for the Deaf and Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plann, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This article draws on contemporary insights from the fields of psychology, sociology, and social welfare to analyze the potential threats of abuse posed by residential schools for deaf and blind children. It also examines an alleged episode of sexual abuse at the nineteenth century Spanish National School for deaf and blind children; the alleged…

  4. Trying Leviathan: The Nineteenth-Century New York Court Case that Put the Whale and Challenged the Order of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of Trying Leviathan: The Nineteenth-Century New York Court Case that Put the Whale and Challenged the Order of Nature. D. Graham Burnett. 2007. Princeton University Press. Pp. 304 color plates, halftones, bibliography, index. $29.95(cloth. ISBN 9780691129501.

  5. Patterns of national identity development among the Balkan orthodox Christians during the nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovich Slobodan G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the development of national identities among Balkan Orthodox Christians from the 1780s to 1914. It points to pre-modern political subsystems in which many Balkan Orthodox peasants lived in the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The Serbian and Greek uprisings/revolutions are analyzed in the context of the intellectual climate of the Enlightenment. Various modes of penetration of the ideas of the Age of Revolution are analyzed as well as the ways in which new concepts influenced proto-national identities of Serbs and Romans/Greeks. The author accepts Hobsbawm’s concept of proto-national identities and identifies their ethno-religious identity as the main element of Balkan Christian Orthodox proto-nations. The role of the Orthodox Church in the formation of ethno-religious proto-national identity and in its development into national identity during the nineteenth century is analyzed in the cases of Serbs, Romans/ Greeks, Vlachs/Romanians and Bulgarians. Three of the four Balkan national movements fully developed their respective national identities through their own ethnic states, and the fourth (Bulgarian developed partially through its ethnic state. All four analyzed identities reached the stage of mass nationalism by the time of the Balkan Wars. By the beginning of the twentieth century, only Macedonian Slavs kept their proto-national ethno-religious identity to a substantial degree. Various analyzed patterns indicate that nascent national identities coexisted with fluid and shifting protonational identities within the same religious background. Occasional supremacy of social over ethnic identities has also been identified. Ethnification of the Orthodox Church, in the period 1831-1872, is viewed as very important for the development of national movements of Balkan Orthodox Christians. A new three-stage model of national identity development among Balkan Orthodox Christians has been proposed. It is

  6. Psychicones: Visual Traces of the Soul in Late Nineteenth-Century Fluidic Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethes, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    The article discusses attempts to visualise the soul on photographic plates at the end of the nineteenth century, as conducted by the French physician Hippolyte Baraduc in Paris. Although Baraduc refers to earlier experiments on fluidic photography in his book on The Human Soul (1896) and is usually mentioned as a precursor to parapsychological thought photography of the twentieth century, his work is presented as a genuine attempt at photographic soul-catching. Rather than producing mimetic representations of thoughts and imaginations, Baraduc claims to present the vital radiation of the psyche itself and therefore calls the images he produces psychicones. The article first discusses the difference between this method of soul photography and other kinds of occult media technologies of the time, emphasising the significance of its non-mimetic, abstract character: since the soul itself was considered an abstract entity, abstract traces seemed all the more convincing to the contemporary audience. Secondly, the article shows how the technological agency of photography allowed Baraduc's psychicones to be tied into related discourses in medicine and psychology. Insofar as the photographic plates displayed actual visual traces, Baraduc and his followers no longer considered hallucinations illusionary and pathological but emphasised the physical reality and normality of imagination. Yet, the greatest influence of soul photography was not on science but on art. As the third part of the paper argues, the abstract shapes on Baraduc's plates provided inspiration for contemporary avant-garde aesthetics, for example, Kandinsky's abstract paintings and the random streams of consciousness in surrealistic literature.

  7. 论19世纪末20世纪初英国的通俗史学与科学史学之争--以麦考莱为中心的讨论%On the Debate Between Popular History and Scientific History in England During the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Focus on Macaulay’s History of England

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志来

    2016-01-01

    During the late nineteenth and early twentieth century,the supporter of the scientific history and popular history deba-ted upon the historical writing of the popular historian Macaulay. The scientific historian stressed the scientificity of history. They thought that the history book should be written for experts and peers,and offer historical knowledge and lessons to the public. The popular historian pursued artistry of history. In their options,the history book should be written for general readers,and it should furnish the social enlightenment and also the entertainment. Macaulay’s success told us that the historian should on one hand establish his study on the scientific basis,and pay attention to the historical narrative and literal express to enlarge the so-cial compact of Academic research on the other hand.%19世纪末20世纪初,围绕英国著名史家麦考莱的历史写作,科学史学与通俗史学的支持者进行了多方面的争论。科学史家强调历史学的科学性,认为历史著作是为同行专家所写,应该为公众提供历史知识和经验教训。通俗史家则追求历史学的艺术性,认为历史著作应为读者而作,史学应兼有教益与娱乐的功能。麦考莱的成功经验表明,在保证历史科学性的基础上应该注重历史叙述和文字表达,让学术成果具有更广泛的社会影响。

  8. Log Books and the Law of Storms: Maritime Meteorology and the British Admiralty in the Nineteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Simon

    2015-12-01

    This essay contributes to debates about the relationship between science and the military by examining the British Admiralty's participation in meteorological projects in the first half of the nineteenth century. It focuses on attempts to transform Royal Navy log books into standardized meteorological registers that would be of use to both science and the state. The essay begins with a discussion of Admiralty Hydrographer Francis Beaufort, who promoted the use of standardized systems for the observation of the weather at sea. It then examines the application of ships' logs to the science of storms. The essay focuses on the Army engineer William Reid, who studied hurricanes while stationed in Barbados and Bermuda. Reid was instrumental in persuading the Admiralty to implement a naval meteorological policy, something the Admiralty Hydrographer had struggled to achieve. The essay uses the reception and adoption of work on storms at sea to reflect on the means and ends of maritime meteorology in the mid-nineteenth century.

  9. The Journal of James Wilson: An Insight into Life in North East Scotland Toward the End of the Nineteenth Century .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the nineteenth century many farmers kept a diary of the farming year to record such features as the weather, crop yields, animal husbandry, and prices. Research into church and people in the parishes of Fordyce and Portsoy in North East Scotland led to the discovery of a four-volume journal kept by James Wilson, a farmer in the Banffshire Parish of Deskford between 1879 and 1892. This journal provides a detailed picture of many aspects of rural life including farming, family, neighbors, religion, friends, and entertainment. Moreover, Wilson wrote poetry and kept a record of his lectures given to the local Mutual Improvement Associations. Taken together, the journal, poems, and lectures provide a significant body of literature giving insights into rural society. The journal also covers an important period in farming at the nexus between a time of "high farming" and the agricultural depression of the late nineteenth century.

  10. The "cholera cloud" in the nineteenth-century "British World": history of an object-without-an-essence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukharji, Projit Bihari

    2012-01-01

    The "cholera cloud" is one of the most persistent presences in the archives of nineteenth-century cholera in the "British World." Yet it has seldom received anything more than a passing acknowledgment from historians of cholera. Tracing the history of the cholera cloud as an object promises to open up a new dimension of the historically contingent experience of cholera, as well as make a significant contribution to the emergent literature on "thing theory." By conceptualizing the cholera cloud as an object-without-an-essence, this article demonstrates how global cholera pandemics in the nineteenth century produced globalized objects in which a near-universal recognizability and an utterly context-specific set of meanings, visions, and realities could ironically cohabit.

  11. The novel «La Emancipada»: women’s elementary education in nineteenth-century Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie TERÁN NAJAS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the impact of elementary education in the individual and public experience of women in nineteenth-century Ecuador, during the transition between the period of the Gran Colombia and the first half of the republican period. The first part examines the girls’ schooling process in the context of the establishment of the republican school system, as well as the decline experienced by the utopia of enlightened education in the mid-nineteenth century, when its egalitarian and inclusive mission failed. In contrast with this schooling dimension, the second part reveals an unknown dimension of the Lancasterian project that allowed women to acquire literacy levels adequate to undertake a self-taught way which, at the same time, the society did not stop censoring. The use of unconventional sources such as the novel La Emancipada (The Emancipated opens new perspectives for research in History of Education with a gender perspective.

  12. Contested Waterlines: The Wave-Line Theory and Shipbuilding in the Nineteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Larrie D; Pollara, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Ship hydrodynamics in the nineteenth century was dominated by John Scott Russell's wave-line theory. Russell, a prominent British shipbuilder and scientist, argued that wavemaking was the primary source of resistance for ships, and that by designing ships according to trigonometric curves and proportions (the wave line) this resistance could effectively be eliminated. From the 1840s to the 1880s, shipbuilders such as John Willis Griffiths, Donald McKay and George Steers designed their clipper ships (like Sea Witch and Flying Cloud) and yachts (America) with wave-line hulls, while authors like Jules Verne referenced Russell's theory. The wave line slowly faded after William Froude developed his laws of ship resistance. The article examines how Russell's theory became accepted by technical experts and the wider public to become the most widely known ship hydrodynamic theory of the 1800s-a reminder of how a persuasive idea can take hold of an entire profession, and even the public, for a long time.

  13. Shifting boundaries: religion, medicine, nursing and domestic service in mid-nineteenth-century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstadter, Carol

    2009-06-01

    The boundaries between medicine, religion, nursing and domestic service were fluid in mid-nineteenth-century England. The traditional religious understanding of illness conflicted with the newer understanding of anatomically based disease, the Anglican sisters were drawing a line between professional nursing and the traditional role of nurses as domestic servants who looked after sick people as one of their many duties, and doctors were looking for more knowledgeable nurses who could carry out their orders competently. This prosopographical study of the over 200 women who served as government nurses during the Crimean War 1854-56 describes the status of nursing and provides a picture of the religious and social structure of Britain in the 1850s. It also illustrates how religious, political and social factors affected the development of the new nursing. The Crimean War nurses can be divided into four major groups: volunteer secular ladies, Roman Catholic nuns, Anglican sisters and working-class hospital nurses. Of these four groups I conclude that it was the experienced working-class nurses who had the greatest influence on the organization of the new nursing.

  14. From cure to custodianship of the insane poor in nineteenth-century Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodheart, Lawrence B

    2010-01-01

    Connecticut was the exception among the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic states in not founding a public institution for the insane until after the Civil War when it opened the Hospital for the Insane at Middletown in 1868, a facility previously neglected by scholars. The state had relied on the expedient of subsidizing the impoverished at the private Hartford Retreat for the Insane that overtaxed that institution and left hundreds untreated. Despite abundant evidence to the contrary, well meaning officials oversold the idea that the Middletown site would promote cures and be cost effective. A number of unanticipated consequences occurred that mirrored fundamental changes in nineteenth-century psychiatry. The new hospital swelled by 1900 to over 2,000 patients, the largest in New England. Custodianship at the monolithic hospital became the norm. The hegemony of monopoly capitalism legitimated the ruling idea that bigger institutions were better and was midwife to the birth of eugenic responses. Class based psychiatry--the few rich at the Retreat and the many poor at Middletown--was standard as it was in other aspects of the Gilded Age. Public policy toward the insane poor in Connecticut represents an outstanding example of the transition from antebellum romanticism to fin de siècle fatalism.

  15. Gender as Pathology: Disease, Degeneration, and Medical Discourse in Late Nineteenth-century Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanni Jalil Paier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how Colombian doctors and public health officials during the lastdecades of the nineteenth century produced a body of knowledge about the health of thenation’s citizens, using the language and authority of science to speak about a society inneed of redemption and medical intervention. In these cases, gender became an essentialcomponent of elite and medical discourses. Medical doctors and hygienists described femaleidentities either as potentially threatening and therefore degenerative to the nation’s moraland economic fabric or as a “civilizing force” through the mobilization of motherhood andthe reification of the Colombian family as a regenerative site. The doctors and governmentofficials here examined expected women to preserve the family as a unit and inculcate thevalues of order, hygiene and efficiency in the private sphere. If elite constructions of “ideal”female identities mobilized women in their primary function as mothers, preoccupations withthe control of “public women” that upset public order or threatened the family unit rhetoricallyemphasized their deviance. In direct contrast to the feminine ideal, the constructionof the feminine other emphasized moral transgression and sexual promiscuity.

  16. Reproduction of Cultural and Social Capital in Nineteenth Century Spanish Regimental Bands of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwin Q. Tan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Band tradition in the Philippines traces its origins to the regimental bands of the Spanish colonial period. As a representation of social power, the regimental band was a symbol of Spain’s hierarchical relation with the colony. The elevation of a Filipino musician to the rank of the bands’ highest position, the bandmaster, enabled the accumulation of cultural capital, providing him a highly influential position in his local community that is almost equivalent to his Spanish counterpart. This paper examines how music was used as cultural capital by some Filipinos, framed in the band tradition of the Spanish military regiments of the late nineteenth century Philippines. Using Bourdieu’s theory of cultural and social capital and his concept of habitus, this paper aims to trace the development of a new social class and the reproduction of its accumulated cultural capital. The eventual attainment of prestige as a result of occupying the highest position in the Spanish regimental bands afforded the bandmasters significant influence in their communities that transmuted cultural capital into social, symbolic, even economic capital.

  17. Was the nineteenth century giant eruption of Eta Carinae a merger event in a triple system?

    CERN Document Server

    Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the events that led to the giant eruption of Eta Carinae, and find that the mid-nineteenth century (in 1838-1843) giant mass-loss outburst has the characteristics of being produced by the merger event of a massive close binary, triggered by the gravitational interaction with a massive third companion star, which is the current binary companion in the Eta Carinae system. We come to this conclusion by a combination of theoretical arguments supported by computer simulations using the Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment. According to this model the $\\sim 90$\\,\\MSun\\, present primary star of the highly eccentric Eta Carinae binary system is the product of this merger, and its $\\sim 30$\\,\\MSun\\, companion originally was the third star in the system. In our model the Homunculus nebula was produced by an extremely enhanced stellar wind, energized by tidal energy dissipation prior to the merger, which enormously boosted the radiation-driven wind mass-loss. The current orbital plane is then align...

  18. Suitable and remunerative employment: the feminization of hospital dispensing in late nineteenth-century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Ellen

    2002-12-01

    This article looks at the contingent developments that led to the feminization of hospital dispensing at the end of the nineteenth century in England. In the 1870s, as a result of the campaign of the Women's Movement to open medicine to women, the Society for Promoting the Employment of Women found it possible to place some of its protégées in the dispensaries of hospitals founded by members of the Movement. Coincidentally, a radical member of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society smoothed the way for them to take the Society's examinations, thus setting up an expectation that these women should be qualified. By the 1880s, the practice of employing female dispensers had spread to Birmingham, and the women here adopted a less difficult and expensive qualification, the Apothcaries' Assistant's Certificate, as the qualification of choice. The 1890s also saw increasing pressure on mainstream hospital dispensaries to replace the untrained assistants in their dispensaries, customarily employed on the Babbage Principle to save money, with qualified ones. In consequence, hospital managements sought a new means of containing costs and, turning to the kind of women already shown to be competent in Women's Movement hospitals, found the solution in a vertical gender-segregation, where the lesser qualification of women dispensers made them 'unpromotable' to head dispenser, thus preserving the career ladder for more highly-qualified male dispensers.

  19. Writers and chanters in the nineteenth century as keepers of the tradition of Serbian church music

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    Marjanović Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, parts of the memoir literary works from the second half of the nineteenth century are presented as important sources for the research of Serbian traditional church chant. The testimonies on church music from diaries, memoirs and autobiographical notes by famous Serbian writers, statesmen and politicians, namely Jovan Subotić, Jakov Ignjatović, Milan Savić, Milica Stojadinović Srpkinja, Todor Stefanović Vilovski, Vladimir Jovanović and Kosta Hristić, were analyzed. Those writings bring to light a time when church chant was appreciated as an important part of the spiritual, folk heritage and had an important role in everyday culture of Serbian people both in the Habsburg Monarchy and in the Principality and Kingdom of Serbia. The authors wrote about musical skills of chanters from clerical, church circles and about the practice of chanting among school teachers. They also described different kinds of musical performances of church chant among laymen and children. These sources testify to writers’ general and musical education and experiences, to their environment and its relation to the aesthetics of spiritual folk tradition. This paper also analyzes sources in the context of the history and theory of literature, having in mind the authors’ commentary techniques and narrative style. Those issues are discussed in relation to the poetics of romanticism, Biedermeier and realism in Serbian literature. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177004: Identiteti srpske muzike od lokalnih do globalnih okvira: tradicije, promene, izazovi

  20. Crises and Merchant Networks in the nineteenth century: The Case of German Networks in Lombardy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Poettinger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the nineteenth century in Continental Europe, merchant networks founded enterprises wherever comparative or absolute advantages related to naturalresources or workers’ capabilities, but also changing economic policies, made it profitable. Incessantly comparing the cost-effectiveness of investments, merchant networks enhanced the efficiency of the entire economic system, but also favoured innovation, introducing technological advancements when feasible and potentially remunerative. At the same time, though, economic crises, more and more dependent on manufacturing and less on agricultural cycles, became manifest and an object of theoretical debate. The paper analyzes how merchant networks envisioned economic crises, if at all, and how the economic decision processes of such organizational structures responded to them. It will be ascertained that, more than sectorial imbalances and insufficient demand, the crisis that merchants really feared was the end of credibility and thus of access to credit. Personal failure could dramatically reduce the level of trust, depriving the merchant system of its functioning principle. The chosen framework of analysis describes the actual economic decision process, on which the distribution of production depended, and itsrelation to economic cycles.

  1. The City and its representations: Manaus in the Nineteenth Century (1850- 1883

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Miranda Braga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to discuss and present data showing the everyday practices of a city: Manáos in the second half of the nineteenth century, which had become a place of multiple sociability, where a mix of people from overseas decided it as a place for residence, or income generation. In this perspective, the vision of the "outside" is distant and the local elite, as to the latter, the city boasted the "pride of civilization" and its inhabitants all had left behind the customs and habits of Manáos of old, connected to the delay, the uncivil, the river and the indigenous. We leave especially the iconographic analysis in this souvenir album of the Chicago Exposition of 1883, which Manaus was presented as a place of wealth and civilization and the environment of the province, a place of rurality and extensive nature. Thus, we will highlight the everyday life of this city, this routine marked by different "ways of doing".

  2. Building Networks for Science: Conflict and Cooperation in Nineteenth-Century Global Marine Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achbari, Azadeh

    2015-06-01

    In the nineteenth-century globalizing world of colonial expansion and maritime trade, systematic study of ocean currents and winds became of increased concern in various seafaring nations. Both naval officers and university professors engaged in maritime meteorological and hydrographic research. In order to attract the attention of the state and obtain support for establishment of national scientific institutes, university professors teamed up with naval officers in building networks for maritime data collection, thus connecting practical utility to academic credentials. This paper looks into the combined efforts of the U.S. Navy lieutenant M. F. Maury and the Dutch naval officer M. H. Jansen in organizing the 1853 International Maritime Conference in Brussels, which aimed to develop a worldwide system of uniform atmospheric and marine observations. Such efforts, however, amounted to walking a tightrope between mutual interests and personal rivalries. The alliance between elite scientists and naval officers proved to be only temporary. Once the meteorological institutes were established, academically trained meteorologists gradually marginalized the role of naval officers in scientific research at the institutes, thereby establishing and securing their authority in maritime science.

  3. Psychicones: Visual Traces of the Soul in Late Nineteenth-Century Fluidic Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethes, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses attempts to visualise the soul on photographic plates at the end of the nineteenth century, as conducted by the French physician Hippolyte Baraduc in Paris. Although Baraduc refers to earlier experiments on fluidic photography in his book on The Human Soul (1896) and is usually mentioned as a precursor to parapsychological thought photography of the twentieth century, his work is presented as a genuine attempt at photographic soul-catching. Rather than producing mimetic representations of thoughts and imaginations, Baraduc claims to present the vital radiation of the psyche itself and therefore calls the images he produces psychicones. The article first discusses the difference between this method of soul photography and other kinds of occult media technologies of the time, emphasising the significance of its non-mimetic, abstract character: since the soul itself was considered an abstract entity, abstract traces seemed all the more convincing to the contemporary audience. Secondly, the article shows how the technological agency of photography allowed Baraduc’s psychicones to be tied into related discourses in medicine and psychology. Insofar as the photographic plates displayed actual visual traces, Baraduc and his followers no longer considered hallucinations illusionary and pathological but emphasised the physical reality and normality of imagination. Yet, the greatest influence of soul photography was not on science but on art. As the third part of the paper argues, the abstract shapes on Baraduc’s plates provided inspiration for contemporary avant-garde aesthetics, for example, Kandinsky’s abstract paintings and the random streams of consciousness in surrealistic literature. PMID:27292323

  4. Aphasia secondary to tuberculosis: a review of a nineteenth-century case report by Booth and Curtis (1893).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Noel

    2015-01-01

    The topic of aphasia secondary to tuberculosis deserves attention for two reasons: first, for better understanding rare etiologies of aphasia in medical history; and secondly, for initiating a multidisciplinary discussion relevant to aphasiologists, neurologists, pathologists, and clinicians generally. This article will focus on clinical observations of tuberculosis-related aphasia in the nineteenth century, highlighting a noteworthy case report presented by Booth and Curtis (1893).

  5. The paradox of nineteenth-century population growth in Southeast Asia: evidence from Java and the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, N G

    1987-03-01

    The author examines the reasons for the rapid population growth that occurred in nineteenth-century Southeastern Asia, using available data for Java, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The evidence for either an increase in fertility or a fall in mortality is considered. Other factors considered include developments in medicine and sanitation, colonial peacekeeping, changes in standards of living, changes in patterns of residence and production, and indigenous perceptions of changing circumstances of life.

  6. Hermann Oldenberg and the Historical Imperative: Writing a Biography of Gautama Buddha from Nineteenth-Century Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Eduardo García Fernández

    2013-01-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century Buddhism was well known as a religion among academic and literary circles in Europe. However, the variety of doctrinal versions and texts from different Buddhist schools posed a dilemma for the pioneering scholars in the field: which one was the real history and teaching of the Buddha? Although there were numerous studies and biographical versions of the life of Buddha, the one written by German Orientalist Hermann Oldenberg is noted for its histor...

  7. [A study of development of medicine and science in the nineteenth century science fiction: biomedical experiments in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jae-Uk

    2014-12-01

    As the sciences advanced rapidly in the modern European world, outstanding achievements have been made in medicine, chemistry, biology, physiology, physics and others, which have been co-influencing each of the scientific disciplines. Accordingly, such medical and scientific phenomena began to be reflected in novels. In particular, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein includes the diverse aspects of the change and development in the medicine and science. Associated with medical and scientific information reflected in Frankenstein and Frankenstein's experiments in the text, accordingly, this research will investigate the aspects of medical and scientific development taking place in the nineteenth century in three ways. First, the medical and scientific development of the nineteenth century has been reviewed by summerizing both the information of alchemy in which Frankenstein shows his interest and the new science in general that M. Waldman introduces in the text. Second, the actual features of medical and scientific development have been examined through some examples of the experimental methods that M. Waldman implicitly uttered to Frankenstein. Third, it has been checked how the medical and scientific development is related to the main issues of mechanism and vitalism which can be explained as principles of life. Even though this research deals with the developmental process of medicine & science and origin & principles of life implied in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, its significance is that it is the interdisciplinary research focussing on how deeply medical and scientific discourse of Mary Shelley's period has been imbedded in the nineteenth century novel.

  8. Topographic Transmissions and How To Talk About Them: The Case of the Southern Spa in Nineteenth-Century Russian Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Morgan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Caucasian spa resort is a significant setting in Russian literature of the nineteenth century. This paper will trace the origins and evolution of Russian fictional writing about watering places like Piatigorsk and Kislovodsk from romanticism until the turn of the twentieth century. At the same time it will consider the semiotic theories of Iurii Lotman’s Tartu-Moscow School and the ‘transtextual’ apparatus of the French narratologist Gérard Genette as ‘toolboxes’ for work on place in narrative.

  9. Typhoid Fever in nineteenth-century Colombia: between medical geography and bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses how the Colombian medical elites made sense of typhoid fever before and during the inception of bacteriological ideas and practices in the second half of the nineteenth century. Assuming that the identity of typhoid fever has to be understood within the broader concerns of the medical community in question, I show how doctors first identified Bogotá's epidemics as typhoid fever during the 1850s, and how they also attached specificity to the fever amongst other continuous fevers, such as its European and North American counterparts. I also found that, in contrast with the discussions amongst their colleagues from other countries, debates about typhoid fever in 1860-70 among doctors in Colombia were framed within the medico-geographical scheme and strongly shaped by the fear of typhoid fever appearing alongside 'paludic' fevers in the highlands. By arguing in medico-geographical and clinical terms that typhoid fever had specificity in Colombia, and by denying the medico-geographical law of antagonism between typhoid and paludic fevers proposed by the Frenchman Charles Boudin, Colombian doctors managed to question European knowledge and claimed that typhoid fever had distinct features in Colombia. The focus on paludic and typhoid fevers in the highlands might explain why the bacteriological aetiology of typhoid fever was ignored and even contested during the 1880s. Anti-Pasteurian arguments were raised against its germ identity and some physicians even supported the idea of spontaneous origin of the disease. By the 1890s, Pasteurian knowledge had come to shape clinical and hygienic practices.

  10. Legal Regulation Of The Public Financial Control In Russian Empire Of The Nineteenth Century

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    Makka I. Dolakova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the system of state financial control in the Russian Empire creation and development process is researched. Drawbacks in its organization effecting implementation of the financial control activities are shown. In the article it is emphasized that financial control is an important part of the state financial-economic policy. The overall goal for all branches of the state financial control is to ensure that the financial activities of the state, that are activities of formation, distribution and use of centralized and decentralized public funds of monetary resources. At the root of the financial control in the Russian Empire creation was Mikhail Speransky. During rule of the Emperor Nicholas I, activities on the State control (audit were more solid and detailed in the regulatory framework: rules on the account keeping have been established accounts and reports of ministries were established, senatorial audits were held regularly. Large-scale reforms in the mid nineteenth century, including changes in the financial sector, put the question of the state financial control modernization on the agenda. As a result of the state control (audit reform, it turned into the united audit body, with the power of documentary audit in all state institutions in the center and in regions. Specificity of the financial control was in the fact that some departments and agencies have been exempted from the control. These included the Ministry of the yard, spiritual authority, charities. Author concluded that the genuine financial control, which is the control of the representatives of population over the country's budget use in the Russian Empire was not created. It greatly affected the entire financial policy that reduced its effectiveness.

  11. Gender bias in nineteenth-century England: Evidence from factory children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrell, Sara; Oxley, Deborah

    2016-09-01

    Gender bias against girls in nineteenth-century England has received much interest but establishing its existence has proved difficult. We utilise data on heights of 16,402 children working in northern textile factories in 1837 to examine whether gender bias was evident. Current interpretations argue against any difference. Here our comparisons with modern height standards reveal greater deprivation for girls than for boys. Discrimination is measured in girls' height-for-age score (HAZ) falling eight standard errors below boys' at ages 11, 11.5 and 12 years of age, capturing the very poor performance of factory girls. But this result cannot be taken at face value. We query whether modern standards require adjustment to account for the later timing of puberty in historical populations and develop an alternative. We also test the validity of the age data, considering whether parents were more prone to lie about the ages of their daughters, and question whether the supply of girls was fundamentally different from that of boys. We conclude that neither proposition is justified. Disadvantage to girls remains, although its absence amongst younger children precludes an indictment of culturally founded gender bias. The height data must remain mute on the source of this discrimination but we utilise additional information to examine some hypotheses: occupational sorting, differential susceptibility to disease, poorer nutrition for girls, disproportionate stunting from the effects of nutritional deprivation, and type and amount of work undertaken. Of these we suggest that girls had to do arduous physical labour in the home alongside their factory work. The only (unsubstantiated) alternative is that girls were more likely than boys to be put into factory work below the legal age limit. Both represent forms of gender bias.

  12. ARAB SCHOLARS IN RUSSIAN UNIVERSITIES (the Nineteenth - Early Twentieth Century

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    Svetlana Kirillina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dalam artikel ini, penulis mendiskusikan perkembangan studi tentang dunia Arab secara khusus dan studi ketimuran secara umum di kalangan intelektual Rusia hingga awal abad ke-20. Lebih jauh, dibahas juga peran akademik orang-orang Arab-Rusia yang telah membuat dunia Timur semakin dikenal di kalangan orang-orang Rusia. Salah satu tokoh utama yang ikut merintis hubungan bagi universitas-universitas di Rusia dengan dunia Arab adalah Shaykh Muhammad Ayya>d al-T|ant\\awy, seorang ulama al-Azhar yang kemudian pindah dan menetap di Rusia pada tahun 1840. Karir T|ant\\awy sebagai profesor studi ketimuran dan kehidupan serta peranannya dalam memperkenalkan Arab-Islam kepada kalangan Rusia lewat berbagai kerja dan tulisannya banyak dibahas dalam artikel ini. Selain T|ant\\awy, tokoh yang tak kalah pentingnya adalah Georgi Murkos, seorang Arab-Kristen dari Damaskus, yang melanjutkan pendidikannya di Universitas Petersburg, kemudian menjadi professor di universitas yang sama dan menjadi salah satu tokoh Arab-Kristen Ortodoks di Rusia.

  13. A New Teacher for a New Nation? Teacher Education, "English", and Schooling in Early Twentieth-Century Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Bill; Reid, Jo-Anne

    2012-01-01

    The late nineteenth-century expansion of public schooling in Australia from an initial focus on the elementary phase to post-primary provision, and then to a more systematic secondary education over the early to mid-twentieth century, went hand in hand with the emergence of new populations of children and young people--a new constituency. In turn,…

  14. A Sociological Look at Biofuels: Ethanol in the Early Decades of the Twentieth Century and Lessons for Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a broad sociological understanding of why biofuels lost out to leaded gasoline as the fuel par excellence of the twentieth century, while drawing comparisons with biofuels today. It begins by briefly discussing the fuel-scape in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, examining the farm…

  15. A Sociological Look at Biofuels: Ethanol in the Early Decades of the Twentieth Century and Lessons for Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a broad sociological understanding of why biofuels lost out to leaded gasoline as the fuel par excellence of the twentieth century, while drawing comparisons with biofuels today. It begins by briefly discussing the fuel-scape in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, examining the farm…

  16. Painting of History in Brazil of the Nineteenth Century: Introductory panorama

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    de Castro Vieira Christo, Maraliz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A rapid overview of Brazilian painting accompanied the political chronology of Brazil in the nineteenth century when the country passed from colony and United Kingdom to Empire to Republic. Not only did artists’ relationships with power explain this kind of painting but also their desire to impose their own visions of the past in this incipient intellectual milieu. This became part of a process of constructing memory and forgetfulness peculiar to historical paintings. Fears concerning fragmentation occurring in Latin America with the collapse of Spanish control led Brazil to produce an iconography that emphasized the continuity between past and present as well as its own unity in defense of an external enemy; silence regarding slavery and internal revolts which would not be represented until the Republic and then in the context of local iconographies in keeping with the federative spirit.Acompanhando a cronologia política do Brasil no século XIX, quando passa de Colônia e Reino Unido, a Império e República, construiu-se um rápido panorama da pintura de história brasileira. Não apenas destacou-se a relação estabelecida com o poder, que pertence à gênese desse gênero de pintura, mas, principalmente, apontou-se a atuação de artistas que muitas vezes impuseram visões próprias do passado, ante um meio intelectual ainda incipiente. Buscou-se verificar o processo de construção da memória e do esquecimento, peculiar à pintura de história. O medo à fragmentação, ocorrido na América Latina, com o esfacelamento do domínio espanhol, levou o Brasil a produzir uma iconografia que salientasse a continuidade entre passado e presente, como também a unidade, construída na defesa de seu território face ao inimigo externo; silenciando-se sobre a escravidão e as revoltas internas, que somente serão representadas na República, quando da construção de iconografias locais, necessárias ao espírito federativo.

  17. Religious congregations, education and school in Italy in the nineteenth century

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    Roberto Sani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the origins and development of about 140 new religious male and female congregations, established in Italy during the Nineteenth century. Starting from the Restoration period, the article frames the actions and choices of the new religious congregations with reference to the new scenarios produced by the revolutionary experience and by the changes introduced in ecclesiastical legislation and in the relations between State and Church during the Napoleonic era. At the same time, it deals with the unusual challenges the Church had to face due to both the secularization of mentality and customs and the increased educational needs and welfare of the post-revolutionary period. The author analyses some characteristics of these new religious institutions, most of which chose as privileged —and sometimes exclusive— activity of their apostolate the assistance (of poor and sick people, and of abandoned children and youth, the catechesis and animation of religious life in the parishes and, above all, the education of youth of both sexes and of different social classes. Firstly, the author describes the aspect related to the general adoption of the structure of religious congregations, which provides unequivocal evidence of the prevalence, also on the female side, of the traditional monastic model, of a vocation to religious life understood essentially as an active life devoted to charity, a synthesis between action and prayer, a commitment in the world through the assistance of others. The author’s reconstruction also shows how the idea of charity promoted by the new religious congregations was understood not simply as a commitment to provide assistance, but also, and above all, as an educational responsibility. Indeed, the new religious congregations considered education, school and parish catechesis as the most effective tools for Christians’ education. At the same time, school and education were also seen as the most direct

  18. Conceitos oitocentistas de cidadania: liberalismo e igualdade Nineteenth century concepts of citizenship: liberalism and equality

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    Cristina Nogueira da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O princípio da igualdade teve, no liberalismo clássico, um significado que podia estar para além da "igualdade perante a lei", contendo também a ideia de uma igualização socioeconómica, educacional e até "civilizacional". Não obstante, o ordenamento jurídico liberal oitocentista, além de ter deixado quase intactas diversas situações de desigualdade herdadas do Antigo Regime (nomeadamente a escravatura, inventou formas novas de exclusão política. Este artigo pretende mostrar como a ideia de progresso, ao permitir antever um sociedade igualitária, ajudou a resolver as tensões geradas pelo binómio igualdade/desigualdade, e analisa a forma como essa promessa de inclusão futura se reflectiu na invenção de categorias jurídicas relacionadas com o estatuto civil e político das pessoas "em transição" para a plena cidadania.In classical liberal thought, equalizing principles meant more than just "equality before the law"; they also included the idea of a socio-economic, educational, and even "civilizational" equalization. Nevertheless, the nineteenth century liberal legal order has not only preserved some of the old legal discriminations of the Ancient Regime societies, namely those related to the institution of slavery; it also invented new forms of political exclusion. The aim of this article is to explain how the idea of progress has been important in solving the tensions generated by the binary couple equality/inequality, by allowing the pre-vision of a more egalitarian society in the future. It is also my intention to explain how that promise gave way to the emergence of legal categories related to political and civil personal status, which conformed to the notion that some persons were in transition to full citizenship.

  19. The Material Culture of Nineteenth-Century Astrometry, its Circulation and Heritage at the Astronomical Observatory of Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Pedro

    The Astronomical Observatory of Lisbon was founded in 1857 in the sequence of a controversy on stellar parallax measurements involving astronomers from the Observatory of Paris and the Observatory of Pulkovo. The development of this discussion led the contenders to recognize Lisbon as a suitable place to carry out this kind of measurements and to foster the field of stellar astronomy. Some local actors strived to keep up with this wave of international interest and establish a first-rank astronomical institution in the Portuguese capital. In order to fulfil this goal, correspondence was intensively exchanged with leading foreign astronomers and instrument makers. Besides, a Portuguese Navy officer bound to become the first director of the new institution was commissioned to visit several observatories and instrument workshops abroad, and to spend a few years in Pulkovo as a trainee astronomer. Although founded with generous financial support from the Portuguese crown and lavishly equipped and constructed, the Observatory of Lisbon was later affected by limiting budgets and a shortage of qualified personnel. Nevertheless, local efforts to improve instruments as well as observation and calculation techniques enabled its astronomers to yield important contributions to positional astronomy, especially towards the end of the nineteenth century and the beginnings of the twentieth century. The original instruments and spaces of the Observatory of Lisbon, strongly modelled on those of Pulkovo, are very well preserved, constituting an outstanding extant example of a mid-nineteenth century advanced observatory. The history they embody testifies the connectedness of the astronomical heritage worldwide.

  20. 'Projecting the future in German art historiography of the nineteenth century: Franz Kugler, Karl Schnaase, and Gottfried Semper'

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    Henrik Karge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the mid-nineteenth century Franz Kugler and Karl Schnaase decisively shaped the conception of art history as a discipline. Both explored connections between art of former epochs and that of the present. They understood the art of their day to be the result of a tradition of modernity based on the Renaissance and pointing into the future. Schnaase took an evolutionistic view similar to that of the architect Gottfried Semper: both advised against planning a programmatic new style. For Semper, the potential of new developments lay in the continuation of design patterns inherited from the earliest humans.

  1. Ethics and experimentation on human subjects in mid-nineteenth-century France: the story of the 1859 syphilis experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracobly, Alex

    2003-01-01

    This article examines a series of experiments involving the deliberate infection of human subjects with syphilis that were performed in Paris in 1859 by Dr. Camille Gibert and Dr. Joseph Alexandre Auzias-Turenne. Using the scientific literature on syphilis, the contemporary reaction in the French medical press to Gibert's and Auzias-Turenne's experiments, and the private papers of Auzias-Turenne, this paper places these experiments within a context of scientific and professional rivalry, and seeks to show how both moral and scientific concerns shaped and limited experimental practices in mid-nineteenth-century France.

  2. The Wreck of the Pettu as an Example for Nineteenth Century Rural Shipbuilding in South-Western Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auer, J.; Ditta, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Although the design and construction of wooden merchant vessels in the nineteenth century is generally considered to be well understood, the excavation and subsequent analysis of the wreck of the wooden Finnish topsail schooner Pettu (1865) revealed a number of unexpected features, which prompted...... the authors to take a closer look at the ship. In the following study, it will be attempted to gain an insight into the society that produced and used the merchant vessel through a detailed analysis of its construction and an investigation into the concept behind its design. The wreck of the Pettu, which...

  3. The effects of social interactions on fertility decline in nineteenth-century France: an agent-based simulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Bailón, Sandra; Murphy, Tommy E

    2013-07-01

    We built an agent-based simulation, incorporating geographic and demographic data from nineteenth-century France, to study the role of social interactions in fertility decisions. The simulation made experimentation possible in a context where other empirical strategies were precluded by a lack of data. We evaluated how different decision rules, with and without interdependent decision-making, caused variations in population growth and fertility levels. The analyses show that incorporating social influence into the model allows empirically observed behaviour to be mimicked, especially at a national level. These findings shed light on individual-level mechanisms through which the French demographic transition may have developed.

  4. "Such a smoking nation as this I never saw...": smoking, nationalism, and manliness in nineteenth-century Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco smoking became an important marker of Hungarian national identity during the nineteenth century. this national symbol ultimately had an economic origin: Hungarian tobacco producers resisted the tobacco monopoly of the Habsburg central government, and led an ultimately successful consumer boycott of Austrian products. Tobacco nationalism, however, became a common theme in Hungarian popular culture in its own right, as tobacco use came to symbolize community and fraternity. The use of tobacco was also highly gendered; smoking as a metaphor for membership shows that the Hungarian nation was a gender-exclusive "national brotherhood."

  5. Proposals for Mental Health in Italy at the End of the Nineteenth Century: between Utopia and Anticipating the "Basaglia Law".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The present work refers to the debate which took place in Italy in the final years of the nineteenth century in relation to mental health and lunatic asylums, from which emerged various innovative proposals for avoiding compulsory confinement in numerous cases. Some of them became part of new legislative regulations regarding asylums, but most were excluded. Today, a new historical interpretation allows us to grasp a connection between Law 180, dated 1978 and known as the "Basaglia Law" from the name of its promoter, and alternative proposals to asylum custody omitted from the 1904 law.

  6. "Straw Bonnets" to Superior Schooling: The "Failure" of the Charity School Movement in the Context of Nineteenth-Century Ireland--A Reappraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The spectacular growth and equally spectacular decline of the eighteenth-century charity school movement prompts this examination of the contribution made by the movement to nineteenth-century schooling--particularly superior or secondary schooling. Educational historians have argued that the movement was a failure. This paper argues that only in…

  7. Crítica social e idéias médicas nos excessos do desejo: uma análise dos "romances para homens" de finais do século XIX e início do XX Social criticism and medical ideas on desires' excesses: a study of "novels for men" from late nineteenth to early twentieth century

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    Alessandra El Far

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura analisar a produção literária pornográfica desde a segunda metade do século XIX até o início do XX no Brasil. Também conhecidos como "leitura para homens" ou "romances para homens", esses enredos alcançaram uma repercussão singular naquele período. Se, em um primeiro momento, essas narrativas, repletas de fantasias e desejos, tratavam de questões sociais e políticas, com a chegada do novo século, de modo evidente, elas passaram a estabelecer um estreito diálogo com as teorias médicas e científicas da época.This article analyses the pornographic literature from the second half of the nineteenth century until the beginning of the twentieth century in Brazil. Also known as "reading for men" or "novels for men", these plots reached a singular repercussion at the time. If at first these stories, full of fantasies and desires, talked about both social and political issues, with the coming of the new century they clearly started to establish a close dialogue with current medical and scientific theories.

  8. Features Of Legal Regulation Of Financial Relations And Financial Policies Of The Russian Empire In The Second Half Of The Nineteenth Century

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    Elena L. Alehina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the nature and direction of the financial relations of legal regulation in the Russian Empire are described. Program notes of the finance ministers of the second half of the nineteenth century are analyzed, and on this basis the main areas of financial policy of the government is identified. It is emphasized that in the period of reforms in the Russian Empire a radical reform of the entire system of financial management was initiated. The Russian financial and economic policy in the second half of the nineteenth century was aimed at finding new and effective ways to overcome chronic financial crisis and budget deficits. As a principal mean of this policy still stood modernization of existing taxation system. Its reform in their base areas was based on the concepts and views that were expressed and formulated by the next minister of finance. As a result to achieve a certain stabilization of the financial system of the country became possible only in the early twentieth century after the conducted monetary reform by the Count Sergei Yulyevich Witte, the main principle of which was gold monometallism. But this reform did not also completely solve all financial problems of the Russian Empire. Nevertheless, it became possible to achieve some financial stabilization, the result of which was the accelerated development of industry, commerce and agriculture. On the basis of the economic recovery in the Russian Empire a new system of social relations was formed, prerequisites for the development of civil society arose. But the revolutionary events of the year 1917 interrupted this economic take-off and put Russian empire to the brink of disaster, which occurred soon. This experience should be studied further.

  9. The Proposition: Imagining Race, Family and Violence on the Nineteenth-Century Australian Frontier

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    Catriona Elder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n2p165 This article analyses John Hillcoat’s 2005 film The Proposition in relation to a spate of Australian films about violence and the (postcolonial encounter released in the early twenty-first century. Extending on  Felicity Collins and Therese Davis argument that these films can be read in terms of the ways they capture or refract aspects of contemporary race relations in Australia in a post-Mabo, this article analyses how The Proposition reconstructs the trauma of the Australian frontier; how from the perspective of the twenty-first century it worries over the meaning of violence on the Australian frontier. It also explores what has become speakable (and remains unspeakable in the public sphere about the history of the frontier encounter, especially in terms of family and race.  The article argues that The Proposition and other early twenty-first century race relations films can be understood as post-reconciliation films, emerging in a period when Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians were rethinking ideas of belonging through a prism of post-enmity and forgiveness. Drawing on the theme of violence and intimate relations in the film, this article argues that the challenges to the everyday formulation of Australian history proffered in The Proposition reveal painful and powerful differences amongst Australian citizens’ understanding of who belongs and how they came to belong to the nation. I suggest that by focusing on violence in terms of intimacy, relationships, family and kin, it is possible to see this film presented an opportunity to begin to refigure ideas of belonging.

  10. Statistical versus Musical Significance: Commentary on Leigh VanHandel's 'National Metrical Types in Nineteenth Century Art Song'

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    Justin London

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In “National Metrical Types in Nineteenth Century Art Song” Leigh Van Handel gives a sympathetic critique of William Rothstein’s claim that in western classical music of the late 18th and 19th centuries there are discernable differences in the phrasing and metrical practice of German versus French and Italian composers. This commentary (a examines just what Rothstein means in terms of his proposed metrical typology, (b questions Van Handel on how she has applied it to a purely melodic framework, (c amplifies Van Handel’s critique of Rothstein, and then (d concludes with a rumination on the reach of quantitative (i.e., statistically-driven versus qualitative claims regarding such things as “national metrical types.”

  11. [Physical restraint of patients: historical notes relating to the nineteenth and twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariña-López, Emilio; Estévez-Guerra, Gabriel J

    2011-03-01

    Physical restraint has been historically considered a necessary procedure to control the behaviour of the mentally ill. In the late eighteenth century moral treatment would pave the way for new initiatives against restraint, such as those instituted by British psychiatrists. They stressed the importance of training and supervision, as well as a minimum staff ratio, as being determining factors in reducing the use of restraint. This philosophy of treatment, despite its benefits, was introduced later and to a lesser extent in the rest of Europe, although, in other countries care was also made more humane through new therapeutic procedures. By contrast, in the United States most psychiatrists disagreed with those who advocated non-restraint, and continued using controversial methods to control the behaviour of patients. In Spain many difficulties hindered the improvement of conditions in institutions, many of which were in a sorry state. The initiatives of a few professionals and some cautious legal advances tried to alleviate the harshness of the treatment methods used. In the early twentieth century professional manuals were already available, which included the care to be given during the application of physical restraints. However it was not until the 1950, when the emergence of new psychotropic drugs and the distribution of important guidelines on the protection of the rights of patients that the widespread use of this procedure would be successfully reduced.

  12. Caspar Luyken’s illustrated bible among the Serbs and Bulgarians in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries

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    Stošić Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The engraving of the Finding of Moses from Caspar Luyken’s Amsterdam (1694 and Nuremberg (1708 bibles served as a model for Teodor Kračun’s painting for the small iconostasis of the Orthodox cathedral in Sremski Karlovci (1780, for the Viennese printer J. G. Mansfeld’s frontispiece of Dositej Obradović’s Poem of the Deliverance of Serbia (1789 and for Dimitar Zograf ’s fresco in the vault of the exonarthex of the Rila Monastery (1843. Three different versions of the original copper engraving reveal how Luyken’s Bible was used in support of the cause of religious revival and national liberation of the Serbs and Bulgarians in the Habsburg and Ottoman empires respectively in the late eighteen century and the first half of the nineteenth.

  13. The Organisation and the Recontextualization of Rika (School Science) Education in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isozaki, Tetsuo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the author considers the organisation and the recontextualization of Rika (School Science) in the second half of the nineteenth century in Japan. In considering developments, the author set up analyses points based on curriculum politics and concluded that the organisation and the recontextualization of Rika occurred between the 1870s and 1880s during the Meiji era. Consequently, Rika was socially constructed, being the product of a compromise made by particular groups and persons, under the Ministry of Education. The objective of Rika in elementary schools has been characterised as being in the affective domain `a love of nature' which is based on the Japanese view of nature which has differed from the West since the establishment of Rika.

  14. Between the national and the universal: natural history networks in Latin America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Regina Horta

    2013-12-01

    This essay examines contemporary Latin American historical writing about natural history from the nineteenth through the twentieth centuries. Natural history is a "network science," woven out of connections and communications between diverse people and centers of scholarship, all against a backdrop of complex political and economic changes. Latin American naturalists navigated a tension between promoting national science and participating in "universal" science. These tensions between the national and the universal have also been reflected in historical writing on Latin America. Since the 1980s, narratives that recognize Latin Americans' active role have become more notable within the renewal of the history of Latin American science. However, the nationalist slant of these approaches has kept Latin American historiography on the margins. The networked nature of natural history and Latin America's active role in it afford an opportunity to end the historiographic isolation of Latin America and situate it within world history.

  15. "We live under the assassin's dagger empire ...": crime and police in Recife of the Nineteenth century (1860-1889

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    Wellington Barbosa da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the nineteenth century, various documents (produced by the administrative bureaucracy and police, but also by ordinary citizens and journalists gave the impression that the Recife lived grappling with a stubborn and growing crime framework. Thefts, robberies and murders would be constant and the police could not control or at least limit the action of facinorosos. The purpose of this article is precisely to discuss this historical context so distant in time, but at the same time so close to us, at present, namely: a ubiquitous crime and the constant request made by various segments of society, of a regular and efficient policing – seen as the right antidote to the deterrence of crimes and the establishment of public security.

  16. PSYCHOLOGY IN FRENCH ACADEMIC PUBLISHING IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY: ALFRED BINET, EDITORIAL DIRECTOR AT THE SCHLEICHER PUBLISHING HOUSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Serge

    2015-01-01

    To date, historians of psychology have largely ignored the role of academic publishing and the editorial policies of the late nineteenth century. This paper analyzes the role played by academic publishing in the history of psychology in the specific case of France, a country that provides a very interesting and unique model. Up until the middle of the 1890s, there was no collection specifically dedicated to psychology. Alfred Binet was the first to found, in 1897, a collection of works specifically dedicated to scientific psychology. He chose to work with Reinwald-Schleicher. However, Binet was soon confronted with (1) competition from other French publishing houses, and (2) Schleicher's management and editorial problems that were to sound the death knell for Binet's emerging editorial ambitions. The intention of this paper is to encourage the efforts of the pioneers of modern psychology to have their work published and disseminated.

  17. Science, suffrage, and experimentation: Mary Putnam Jacobi and the controversy over vivisection in late nineteenth-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittel, Carla Jean

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the medical activism of the New York physician Mary Putnam Jacobi (1842-1906), to illustrate the problems of gender and science at the center of the vivisection debate in late nineteenth-century America. In the post-Civil War era, individuals both inside and outside the medical community considered vivisection to be a controversial practice. Physicians divided over the value of live animal experimentation, while reformers and activists campaigned against it. Jacobi stepped into the center of the controversy and tried to use her public defense of experimentation to the advantage of women in the medical profession. Her advocacy of vivisection was part of her broader effort to reform medical education, especially at women's institutions. It was also a political strategy aimed at associating women with scientific practices to advance a women's rights agenda. Her work demonstrates how debates over women in medicine and science in medicine, suffrage, and experimentation overlapped at a critical moment of historical transition.

  18. “Primitive art” in Henry Van de Velde’s art theory at the end of the nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen De Muer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The designer and architect Henry Van de Velde (1863-1957 is by far best known for his Gesamtkunstwerke as well as his linear motifs. Less noted and less researched are his theoretical studies on art and society. The present article argues that those studies comprise a full-fledged part of a conceptual oeuvre in which linearity served the most articulate expression of Van de Velde’s core values in life: ‘vitality’ and ‘regeneration’. In the formation process of these values, Van de Velde was influenced by the late nineteenth-century European debate on ‘primitive art’, which was considered to be the artistic expression of that part of the human mind that mirrors the origin of humanity.

  19. Hermann Oldenberg and the Historical Imperative: Writing a Biography of Gautama Buddha from Nineteenth-Century Germany

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    Roberto Eduardo García Fernández

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the nineteenth century Buddhism was well known as a religion among academic and literary circles in Europe. However, the variety of doctrinal versions and texts from different Buddhist schools posed a dilemma for the pioneering scholars in the field: which one was the real history and teaching of the Buddha? Although there were numerous studies and biographical versions of the life of Buddha, the one written by German Orientalist Hermann Oldenberg is noted for its historicist reconstruction and its claim to have used the original source. This article discusses how Oldenberg’s work represented an effort to reconstruct a hagiography through the lens of a modern rational society that demanded consistency with respect to religious events, imposing a holistic perspective to a heterogeneous material which in itself is fragmented, and thus contributing to the “construction” of the life of Gautama Buddha as a coherent whole.

  20. PAUL GOTTEREAU - A FRENCH CULTURAL MODEL TO THE ROMANIAN ARCHITECTURE IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina MATACHE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available By the second half of the nineteenth century, Romania`s cultural and architectural background was facing one of the most significant transformations in its history until today, being clearly influenced by the French model. Perhaps the best known French architect who worked in Romania at the time was Paul Gottereau, his work still being representative today when referring to some of the most characteristic Modern Era architecture in our country. He created a vast public and residential architecture, responding to both the private needs of the aristocracy, as to the ones of the Royal Crown in the new Kingdom of Romania. This paper tries to portrait the lost image of the architect t hrough some of his most important works, at the same time as presenting several unknown aspects concerning his biography.

  1. The Wreck of the Pettu as an Example for Nineteenth Century Rural Shipbuilding in South-Western Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Jens; Ditta, Massimiliano

    2016-08-01

    Although the design and construction of wooden merchant vessels in the nineteenth century is generally considered to be well understood, the excavation and subsequent analysis of the wreck of the wooden Finnish topsail schooner Pettu (1865) revealed a number of unexpected features, which prompted the authors to take a closer look at the ship. In the following study, it will be attempted to gain an insight into the society that produced and used the merchant vessel through a detailed analysis of its construction and an investigation into the concept behind its design. The wreck of the Pettu, which, considering its loss in 1893, is barely covered by the 100 year rule in Danish heritage legislation, is a good example for the archaeological potential of even relatively `modern' wreck sites, adding to their significance.

  2. The Politics of Religion in an Age of Revival: Studies in Nineteenth-Century Europe and Latin America

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    Heraclio Bonilla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Austen Ivereigh (ed., The Politics of Religion in an Age  of Revival: Studies in Nineteenth-Century Europe and Latin America (London: Institute of Latin American Studies, 2000. El libro editado por Austen Ivereigh, antiguo profesor de la Universidad de Leeds y ahora docente en la Universidad de Ayacucho (Perú, reúne ocho trabajos escritos por distinguidos especialistas de la historia del siglo XIX en América Latina y en Europa, precedidos de una sugerente introducción por parte del editor. Los trabajos y la introducción están orientados a una revisión radical sobre los estereotipos sobre el papel de la Iglesia, particularmente aquél que enfatizaba su papel fundamentalmente conservador y de respaldo a los intereses de la clase propietaria.

  3. The preface as stage: the theatrical trope and the performance of authorial identities in the nineteenth century

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    Geraldo Magela Cáffaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2017v70n1p265 This essay explores references to the theatre in prefaces by Charles Dickens, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Henry James. Particular emphasis is given to the way these authors employ figures such as stage manager and dramatist to reach their audiences and project authorial images. The figures in question are historicized and discussed in light of the concepts identified by the terms performative and theatre of images and the argument proposed is that references to the theatre reveal tensions between self-display and self-concealment, as well as between the assertion of authority and its subversion and fragmentation in nineteenth-century prefatory writing.

  4. The Strange Birth of Liberal Denmark: Danish trade protection and the growth of the dairy industry since the mid-nineteenth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard; Henriksen, Ingrid; Lampe, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The usual story of the ‘first era of globalization’ at the end of the nineteenth century sees Denmark as something of an outlier: a country which, like the UK, resisted the globalization backlash in the wake of the inflow of cheap grain from the New World, but where agriculture, rather than going...

  5. Othering Processes and STS Curricula: From Nineteenth Century Scientific Discourse on Interracial Competition and Racial Extinction to Othering in Biomedical Technosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Juan Manuel Sanchez; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the debates on "interracial competition" and "racial extinction" in the biological discourse on human evolution during the second half of the nineteenth century. Our intention is to discuss the ideological function of these biological concepts as tools for the naturalization and scientific legitimation of racial hierarchies…

  6. Family on the beach : Representations of romantic and bourgeois family values by realistic genre painting of nineteenth-century Scheveningen beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, JJH

    2003-01-01

    Around 1800, the desire to go to the beach developed in Europe, and Scheveningen became one of the first beach places. In the same time, poets and painters romanticized the Scheveningen fishing culture and the fishers' moral behavior A group of nineteenth-century painters rediscovered Scheveningen-a

  7. Cultivating Our "Musical Bumps" while Fighting the "Progress of Popery": The Rise of Art and Music Education in the Mid-Nineteenth Century United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Margaret A.

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to understand the social and cultural factors that led to the introduction of music and art education in public schools, a process that began in the middle decades of the nineteenth century. Based on archival material, including institutional catalogues, school board reports, magazine articles, and tracts, I demonstrate that…

  8. From Youth to 'Greatest Pedagogue': William Cawthorne and the Construction of a Teaching Profession in Mid-Nineteenth Century South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kay

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on the diary and teaching career of William Cawthorne in an effort to explore the concepts of masculinity and professional identity present in South Australia during the mid-nineteenth century. Discusses the process of converting teaching into a profession that aimed for the middle-class and the presence of female teachers. (CMK)

  9. The "Education" of the Indian Woman against the Backdrop of the Education of the European Woman in the Nineteenth-Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Sunita

    2009-01-01

    The essay discusses the role and education of the women of India, with special reference to the women of Bengal during the nineteenth-century and a comparison is made between the education of the Indian woman and the education of the European woman during this era. The education of the Indian woman is also referenced against the backdrop of the…

  10. Othering Processes and STS Curricula: From Nineteenth Century Scientific Discourse on Interracial Competition and Racial Extinction to Othering in Biomedical Technosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Juan Manuel Sanchez; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the debates on "interracial competition" and "racial extinction" in the biological discourse on human evolution during the second half of the nineteenth century. Our intention is to discuss the ideological function of these biological concepts as tools for the naturalization and scientific legitimation of racial hierarchies…

  11. George Wallis (1811-1891) and Ernest Beinfeld Havell (1861-1934): Juxtaposing Historical Perspectives on Nineteenth-Century Drawing Books in England and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantawala, Ami; Daichendt, G. James

    2017-01-01

    Drawing books can be seen as a vital component to teaching and learning art. They serve as an excellent resource for understanding the historical context of teaching drawing. As the industrial revolution geared forward in the nineteenth century, drawing books became a crucial source for sharing and disseminating educational philosophies for the…

  12. [The remarkable debate during the beginning of the nineteenth century concerning the aetiology of scabies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyresson, N

    1994-01-01

    The scabies mite (acarus or sarcoptes scabiei) was known already to Aristoteles, to the Arabic medicine during the early and to European physicians as well as laymen during the later Middle Ages, depicted in 1687 by Bonomo in Italy and by Schwiebe in Germany during the beginning of the eighteenth century. Later in the middle of the century three pupils to Linnaeus in their doctor's theses stated that the scabies mite (Acarus humanus subcutaneus) was the cause of scabies. The best pictures of the scabies-mite as well as of the flour- and cheese-mite was given by the Swedish entomologist Charles de Geer in 1778. In spite of all these facts the real aetiology of scabies seemed to be unknown in France and in most parts of Europe. This was probably due to the fact that no one had learned the rather simple method to extract the mite from the skin with a needle and thereby verify its existence. In the beginning of the twentieth century scabies was a real problem for the health authorities. In Paris l'Académie de Médecine even offered a reward to the person who could solve the enigma of the itch. Jean Chrysanthe Galés was the pharmacist at l'Hôpital St. Louis, the famous skin hospital in Paris, where at this time about 65 percent of the beds were occupied by patients suffering from scabies. Galés also studied medicine and wanted to write a doctor's thesis. As the theme of a dissertation he was given the cause of the itch. In 1812 he published his thesis ("Essai sur la Gale") including a plate with sketches of mites that he claimed to have extracted from vesicules on the skin of his scabies patients. His findings could not be verified by other investigators. Galés however refused to take part in any control experiments and left the hospital. The debate concerning the supposed cause of the itch continued for two decades both inside and outside the hospital. F.C. Raspail, a famous natural scientist, was interested. After having studied the literature and especially the

  13. Monuments devoted to artists in public spaces around museums: A nineteenth-century strategy to enhance the urban space of art districts

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    Lorente, J. Pedro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Monuments to kings or military heroes have always been positioned in main squares and avenues, whilst those erected to famous cultural figures were a novelty introduced in the Enlightenment and Romanticism, placing busts or sitting monuments to writers or musicians in secluded gardens and in the surroundings of libraries, theatres, etc. During the nineteenth century, monuments to artists became also a common feature in many cities, where a most likely emplacement for them was in front of some art museum. In a way, they were a complement to the ornaments of such building, usually decorated with portraits and inscriptions glorifying great artists; but the monument to Murillo erected in 1863 by public subscription in Seville's Plaza del Museo was also an urban milestone, catching the attention of promenading public passing along a lateral street. Later, the monuments erected in the piazzas around the Prado Museum in Madrid, or in gardens outside the Louvre, became a popular prototype, emulated in many other cities up to the early 20th century. Their role as interfaces between public spaces and museum sites would thereafter be taken over by other kinds of artistic landmarks: not monuments to artists, but monumental artworks, often owned by the museum itself, thus bringing part of its collection outside, as a welcome starter to prospective cultural consumers.

  14. Nineteenth century Parisian smoke variations inferred from Eiffel Tower atmospheric electrical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R. G.; Aplin, K. L.

    Atmospheric electrical measurements provide proxy data from which historic smoke pollution levels can be determined. This approach is applied to infer autumnal Parisian smoke levels in the 1890s, based on atmospheric electric potential measurements made at the surface and the summit of the Eiffel Tower (48.7°N, 2.4°E). A theoretical model of the development of the autumn convective boundary layer is used to determine when local pollution effects dominated the Eiffel Tower potential measurements. The diurnal variation of the Eiffel Tower potential showed a single oscillation, but it differs from the standard oceanic air potential gradient (PG) variations during the period 09-17 UT, when the model indicates that the Eiffel Tower summit should be within the boundary layer. Outside these hours, the potential changes closely follow the clean air PG variation: this finding is used to calibrate the Eiffel Tower measurements. The surface smoke pollution concentration found during the morning maximum was 60±30 μg m -3, substantially lower than the values previously inferred for Kew in 1863. A vertical smoke profile was also derived using a combination of the atmospheric electrical data and boundary layer meteorology theory. Midday smoke concentration decreased with height from 60 μg m -3 at the surface to 15 μg m -3 at the top of the Eiffel Tower. The 19th century PG measurements in both polluted and clean Parisian air present a unique resource for European air pollution and atmospheric composition studies, and early evidence of the global atmospheric electrical circuit.

  15. NINETEENTH-CENTURY MANUSCRIPTS OF THE CASTRO-PR: THE CASE OF RAISING

    OpenAIRE

    Dayme Rosane BENÇAL; Altino,Fabiane Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the alternations of mid vowels /e/ and /o/ in the pretonic context, respectively, present in the XIX century manuscripts belonging to Castro - Paraná. As this kind of oscillation, called raising, is not a recent process in the Portuguese language, we seek for evidences of Labov uniformitarianism when describing the cases found in XIX century formal documents in comparison to the data of orality, made available by Bisol (1981) Viegas (1987, 2001) Bortoni et. al (199...

  16. Radical Designs: The Emergence of the Progressive Editorial in the Nineteenth-Century Press

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    David Dowling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the transformation of the newspaper editorial in the nineteenth century from a partisan platform narrowly focused on contemporary politics into a broader more inclusive genre engaging progressive cultural reform with a literary bent. After 1814, the newspaper editorial spread its wings and soared with lofty poetic rhetoric and increasingly metaphorical language. Editors frequently broke into verse in their columns, inspired by the powerful presence of poetry and oratory in antebellum culture. A key figure at the heart of that oratorical and poetic culture was Ralph Waldo Emerson, who held a prominent position in print culture through books and newspaper reports of his speaking engagements. Horace Greeley, Karl Marx, Fanny Fern, Margaret Fuller, and Harriet Martineau form the subjects of this study because they reflect Emerson’s radical liberal influence on the emergence of the progressive editorial, particularly through literary stylistics blending poetic and philosophical rhetoric. These figures represent a diverse transatlantic mix of revolutionary and feminist columnists from the weekly and daily press who extended Emerson’s purview, especially his critiques of capitalism and institutional corruption. This approach diversifies previous understandings of the evolution of the editorial reflected in Allen Nevins’ American Press Opinion (1928, which exclusively focuses on American political editorials written by men. The more recent 1997 anthology of historical editorials by Sloan, Wray, and Sloan also excludes women and transnational journalism. The commercial press liberated the news industry from the partisan press, providing new opportunities for Emerson protégés such as Fuller to capitalize on her literary prowess, transcendentalist sensibility, and female perspective to offer some of the most politically powerful and socially efficacious writing published in the New-York Tribune. These editorialists reached

  17. 'They accused me of strangling her:' epilepsy and violence debate in Croatia at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, Martin; Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella

    2017-07-01

    Nineteenth-century psychiatry shifted its focus to the brain as the seat of mental disorders. With a new understanding of mental disorders arose the need to consult forensic psychiatrists in cases of criminal acts committed by persons with mental illness. This article focuses on three murders committed by 'epileptics' at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries in Croatia. An analysis of these cases will help to situate forensic psychiatry at the turn of the century within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and reveal the authority that forensic experts wielded in the courts. We will argue that Cesare Lombroso's biological theory of crime, as well as the influence of eugenicists and pharmaceutical companies, shaped the long-standing relationship between epilepsy and violent behaviour.

  18. Convict bastards, common-law unions, and shotgun weddings: premarital conceptions and ex-nuptial births in nineteenth-century Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippen, Rebecca; Gunn, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    This article uses reconstituted family data from birth, death, and marriage registers to measure ex-nuptial fertility and premarital pregnancies in nineteenth-century Tasmania. It also examines the extent to which convict origins of European society on the island caused a departure from English norms of family formation behavior, during a period when men greatly outnumbered women. Illegitimacy was high during the convict period. From the mid-1850s, after the convict system collapsed, levels of ex-nupital births were relatively constant until the end of the century, as indicated both by the illegitimacy rate and by the proportion of marriages associated with prenuptial births. By the end of the nineteenth-century, rates of illegitimacy and prenuptial conceptions in Tasmania were well within the range of those of contemporary English-speaking populations.

  19. Aspects of the civil architecture of the nineteenth century in São Luís do Maranhão, Brazil

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    Margareth Gomes de Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The city of São Luís, capital of Maranhão, located in northeastern Brazil, has an impressive collection of civil architecture, reminiscent of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The architectural heritage was built during the golden period of the economy of Maranhão, during the second half of the eighteenth century and the nineteenth century, with a significant economic growth associated to the export of rice and cotton. This architectural legacy, concentrated in Praia Grande, Desterro, Mercês and Largo do Carmo, the oldest city' neighborhoods, was classified by the federal government, and included in the World Heritage List, in December 1997. According to ICOMOS – International Council on Monuments and Sites – "the historic center of São Luís is an outstanding example of a Portuguese colonial city adapted to the equatorial South-America climate and has kept within the striking proportions and harmoniously integrated into the urban mesh the surrounding environment". With approximately 5,600 buildings, constructed during three centuries, in the historic city center it is possible to find examples of various architectural styles: traditional Portuguese (buildings of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, neoclassical, eclectic, art deco, neoclassical and modern. Much of the architectural heritage is in poor state of conservation, presenting various defects affecting the structural system and architectural elements in the facades. This study aims to analyze the building system and defects of civil buildings constructed in the nineteenth century in São Luís do Maranhão, contributing to future rehabilitation programs.

  20. Fairy Grandmothers: Images of Storytelling Events in Nineteenth-Century Germany

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    Willem de Blécourt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Typical nineteenth‐century German images of elderly female storytellers capture them in the act of relating Märchen to young children. When these images reached a mass public, they reinforced the idea of a timeless female oral tradition. As researchers of oral tales hardly ever recorded any actual female storytellers, the images belonged for the most part to a romantic myth of Germanyʹs past. Towards the end of the century, artists started to produce more realistic paintings of female storytellers. This coincided with the growing popularity of fairy‐tale books which were indeed mostly read to children by women.

  1. [On human morphological studies in New Spain and in Mexico of nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Izaguirre-Avila, Raúl

    2007-01-01

    The renewed anatomical studies reached a culmination in the XVI century allowing the discovery of the pulmonary blood circulation and later of the systemic blood circulation. The XVII century saw the coming of microscopic anatomy and the XVIII witness the systematization of pathological anatomy. These studies will be impelled during following century toward the clinical-anatomical comparison. Regarding to America, the anatomical studies began in New Spain, when the first textbooks of anatomy, surgery and physiology were published. The first anatomy chair was established in 1621 at the Royal and Papal University of Mexico. The teaching of anatomy was modernized, making that more practical, at the Royal School of Surgery, which began to function in 1770. In the Establishment of Medical Sciences, founded in 1833, surgery was incorporated to internal medicine. This fact permitted to unify the anatomical teaching. If on examines the lists of textbooks utilized in the different periods, it comes out that these books belonged with the contemporaneous advances of science. This consideration concerns also the receptional thesis presented to Faculty of Medicine during the XIX century.

  2. The Secularization of American Legal Education in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Harold J.

    1976-01-01

    Traces the secularlization of legal education, since the mid-19th century, contending that the results are a loss of scholarship in the neglect of the sources of the law and a deleterious effect on the attitudes of law students and teachers concerning their role in society and the nature of their profession. (JT)

  3. Getting Technical: The Vicissitudes of Academic Industrial Chemistry in Nineteenth-Century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the history of chemistry instruction in English higher education, particularly the development of technical, or industrial, chemistry. Describes attempts to develop independent courses and departments of technical chemistry in the second half of the 19th century and the difficulties experienced. Extends the discussion to applied science…

  4. Nineteenth-Century World's Fairs as Accountability Systems: Scopic Systems, Audit Practices and Educational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobe, Noah W.; Boven, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Late-19th century World's Fairs constitute an important chapter in the history of educational accountability. International expositions allowed for educational systems and practices to be "audited" by lay and expert audiences. In this article we examine how World's Fair exhibitors sought to make visible educational practices and…

  5. Nineteenth-Century Cairo Arabic as Described by Qadrī and Nahla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zack, L.; Grigore, G.; Bițună, G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares two 19th century works, Muhammad Qadrī’s Nouveau guide de conversation française et arabe (1868) and Ya‘qūb Nahla’s New Manual of English and Arabic Conversation (1874). These works have some common aspects: both were written by prominent Egyptians, had the dual purpose of teachi

  6. “The rupture generation” : nineteenth-century Nahua intellectuals in Mexico City, 1774-1882

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segovia-Liga, A.

    2017-01-01

    This current dissertation explores several ideas about the construction of the Nahua intellectual tradition in 19th century-Mexico. Initially, the argument of this dissertation focuses on examining the intellectual tradition among Indigenous Peoples in Mesoamerica after the European invasion of the

  7. William Pepper Jr, MD (1843-1898): portrait of a nineteenth-century medical educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Re, Vincent; Bellini, Lisa M

    2006-08-01

    Dr William Pepper Jr was a prominent Philadelphia physician whose contributions to medicine in the late 19th century are not widely known. As a young physician he rose in stature rapidly due to his abilities as a diagnostician, teacher, writer and researcher. His primary interest, however, was to improve the education of physicians. He orchestrated the creation of America's first university-controlled teaching hospital, the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, enabling substantial improvements in clinical training. Pepper later became Provost of the University of Pennsylvania and ambitiously transformed the curriculum of the medical school, providing greater basic science and clinical training. He also worked to establish several institutes and museums in Philadelphia in order to promote academic pursuits, particularly in medicine. William Pepper Jr was one of the 19th century's foremost medical educators and his accomplishments helped reshape the way medicine was taught throughout the United States.

  8. Measurement of the biaxial properties of nineteenth century canves primings using electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christina

    1999-07-01

    This paper reports on the use of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) for the measurement of the biaxial tensile properties of English 19th century canvas primings and their constituent materials. Typically, such primings are comprised of a complex structure of layers, each with different mechanical properties. ESPI has been shown to be an effective technique for investigating complex composite structures and it is especially useful for understanding the behaviour of heterogeneous materials in which non-uniform strains can occur. The flexibility of canvas primings presents a more difficult application for both biaxial tensile testing and ESPI strain measurements. A series of experiments have been carried out to measure the Poisson's ratio of the three main constituents of a 19th Century priming as composites and of an original 19th century primed canvas. The samples have been uniaxially tensioned on a biaxial tensile tester designed specifically to investigate the mechanical properties of paintings on canvas. Measurements of deformation have made using a two-dimensional in-plane ESPI configuration. The results have shown that Poisson's ratio decreases as the constituents of a painting are built up. Preliminary tests on thermally aged and original primings suggest that for a painting without cracks it is the embrittled paint which determines the mechanical response of the painting at an relative humidity of 35-40%.

  9. The Hungarian Peculiarities of National Remembrance: Historical Figures with Symbolic Importance in Nineteenth-century Hungarian History Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Tóth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to place nineteenth-century Hungarian art into international context, this article calls for the theoretical discourse of cultural memory, when a suppressed community turns to their past and insists on their antecedents’ traditions for the survival of their culture. When, in the 1850s and 1860s, the leaders of the Habsburg Austrian Empire retaliated against Hungary for its 1848-49 “Fight for Freedom”, Hungarian visual art of the era rediscovered long-honoured figures of the historical past as the essential components of Hungarian national identity. This article argues that the successful visualization and memorialization of outstanding historical characters with symbolic values for the Hungarian nation was due to history painting itself as medium. The Hungarian painters’ choice of characters vigorously reacted to the changing political relationship between the Austrians and the Hungarians from the failure of the 1849 Hungarian Fight for Freedom until the 1850s and the 1870s involving the 1867 Austro-Hungarian Compromise. Keeping it in mind, the display and the reception of four great paintings, Bertalan Székely’s The Discovery of the Body of King Louis II (1860, Viktor Madarász’s Péter Zrínyi and Ferenc Frangepán in Prison at Wiener-Neustadt (1864, Székely’s The Women of Eger (1867 and Gyula Benczúr’s The Baptism of Vajk (1875 are analysed.

  10. 'No "Sane" Person Would Have Any Idea': Patients' Involvement in Late Nineteenth-century British Asylum Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In his 1895 textbook, Mental Physiology, Bethlem Royal Hospital physician Theo Hyslop acknowledged the assistance of three fellow hospital residents. One was a junior colleague. The other two were both patients: Walter Abraham Haigh and Henry Francis Harding. Haigh was also thanked in former superintendent George Savage's book Insanity and Allied Neuroses (1884). In neither instance were the patients identified as such. This begs the question: what role did Haigh and Harding play in asylum theory and practice? And how did these two men interpret their experiences, both within and outside the asylum? By focusing on Haigh and Harding's unusual status, this paper argues that the notion of nineteenth-century 'asylum patient' needs to be investigated by paying close attention to specific national and institutional circumstances. Exploring Haigh and Harding's active engagement with their physicians provides insight into this lesser-known aspect of psychiatry's history. Their experience suggests that, in some instances, representations of madness at that period were the product of a two-way process of negotiation between alienist and patient. Patients, in other words, were not always mere victims of 'psychiatric power'; they participated in the construction and circulation of medical notions by serving as active intermediaries between medical and lay perceptions of madness.

  11. Sequence Analysis of How Disability Influenced Life Trajectories in a Past Population from the Nineteenth-Century Sundsvall Region, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Vikström

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Historically, little is known about whether and to what extent disabled people found work and formed families. To fill this gap, this study analyses the life course trajectories of both disabled and non-disabled individuals, between the ages of 15 and 33, from the Sundsvall region in Sweden during the nineteenth century. Having access to micro-data that report disabilities in a population of 8,874 individuals from the parish registers digitised by the Demographic Data Base, Umeå University, we employ sequence analysis on a series of events that are expected to occur in life of young adults: getting a job, marrying and becoming a parent, while also taking into account out-migration and death. Through this method we obtain a holistic picture of the life course of disabled people. Main findings show that their trajectories did not include work or family to the same extent as those of non-disabled people. Secondary findings concerning migration and mortality indicate that the disabled rarely out-migrated from the region, and they suffered from premature deaths. To our knowledge this is the first study to employ sequence analysis on a substantially large number of cases to provide demographic evidence of how disability shaped human trajectories in the past during an extended period of life. Accordingly, we detail our motivation for this method, describe our analytical approach, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages associated with sequence analysis for our case study.

  12. Constructing new expertise: private and public initiatives for safe food (Brussels in the first half of the nineteenth century).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholliers, Peter

    2014-10-01

    In 1856, the mayor of Brussels proposed the establishment of a municipal laboratory with a chemist to analyse food and beverages to restrain fraud. His proposal was accepted and a laboratory - possibly one of the first municipal laboratories in Europe - was set up. The laboratory still exists today. This paper aims at tracing the conditions in which it emerged, situating it within the laissez-faire context of the time. It was brought into existence by a liberal administration, in a period of little interventionism replete with unencumbered private interests (those of bakers, butchers, grocers, millers, pharmacists, doctors and so on). What will be considered here is the general mood with regard to food fraud, fair trade, correct price, and the quality of food in the first half of the nineteenth century. On a broader level, this contribution addresses the frictions between private and public initiative, while focusing on the process of construction of expertise. The paper makes use of contemporary documents such as reviews, newspapers, association reports and city council chronicles.

  13. Tea, Coffee, Curare, and Tropical Climate in the Experiments of the Brazilian Experimental Physiology in late Nineteenth-Century

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    Ana Carolina Vimieiro Gomes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this work deals with the development of the Brazilian experimental physiology in late nineteenth-century. Content: it analyzes some experiments on toxic plants, the nutritional effects of coffee, herb mate, dried meat and the food consumption in hot and cold environments, held at the Laboratory of Experimental Physiology in the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro, created in 1880. This laboratory was financed by the Imperial Government, Ministry of Agriculture, and personally supported by the emperor Pedro II. It was created and headed by the Brazilian Physician João Baptista Lacerda and the French physiologist Louis Couty. Conclusions: While its organization was based on the European physiology, its researches privileged national themes. The physiologists were interested not only on the classical issues of physiology, but on the plants and natural products that played a role on the Brazilian economy. They even created their own experimental apparatuses, such as a cold chamber for climatic studies. In order to legitimate the Brazilian physiology, in Brazil and abroad, the researchers associated scientific and practical in­terests in their studies. The chance of social-economical use of their studies could explain the interests of the Brazilian elite and the support of the Ministry of Agriculture.

  14. The N II Lines in Eta Carinae: A Further Evidence for Mass Transfer During the Nineteenth Century Great Eruption

    CERN Document Server

    Kashi, Amit

    2011-01-01

    We argue that the emission and the absorption components of he N II lines recently observed in Eta Carinae can originate in the secondary's wind acceleration zone. We base this claim in part on the presence of these lines in hot nitrogen rich stars, such as WN 8 stars, and on the expected clumpy nature of such winds. The envelope of the secondary star in Eta Carinae is expected to be nitrogen rich due to accretion of few solar masses of the primary luminous blue variable's nitrogen rich material during the nineteenth century Great Eruption. Another argument in support of N II lines origin in the acceleration zone of the secondary wind is the behavior of the emission components. The emission components of the lines show the same Doppler shift variation as that of the absorption components. The secondary's-wind origin of the N II lines is compatible with the binary orientation in which the secondary is closer to us near periastron passage.

  15. Constructing New Expertise: Private and Public Initiatives for Safe Food (Brussels in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholliers, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In 1856, the mayor of Brussels proposed the establishment of a municipal laboratory with a chemist to analyse food and beverages to restrain fraud. His proposal was accepted and a laboratory – possibly one of the first municipal laboratories in Europe – was set up. The laboratory still exists today. This paper aims at tracing the conditions in which it emerged, situating it within the laissez-faire context of the time. It was brought into existence by a liberal administration, in a period of little interventionism replete with unencumbered private interests (those of bakers, butchers, grocers, millers, pharmacists, doctors and so on). What will be considered here is the general mood with regard to food fraud, fair trade, correct price, and the quality of food in the first half of the nineteenth century. On a broader level, this contribution addresses the frictions between private and public initiative, while focusing on the process of construction of expertise. The paper makes use of contemporary documents such as reviews, newspapers, association reports and city council chronicles. PMID:25284894

  16. Attitudes to St Cuthbert’s Body during the Nineteenth Century

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Conor

    2016-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently embargoed pending publication by Maney. St Cuthbert?s tomb in Durham Cathedral was opened in 1827, occasioning the start of a cycle of polemic and counter-polemic between Protestant and Roman Catholic writers throughout the rest of the century. The excavation of 1827 aimed to disprove the medieval legends about the incorruption of Cuthbert?s body but it (and the many texts which debated its findings throughout the course of the ninete...

  17. Five eighteenth and nineteenth century books significant in vision science selected from the collection of the Lilly Library at Indiana University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, David A

    2007-07-01

    This paper discusses five eighteenth and nineteenth century books selected from the collection of the Lilly Library at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana. The five were selected because they all contained at least some material of significance in clinical vision science (some contained a broad range of scientific topics) and they were all important publications in their time. The authors of the books, in alphabetical order, were Frans Cornelis Donders, Joseph Priestley, William Charles Wells, Charles Wheatstone, and Thomas Young.

  18. Cousin marriage in south-western England in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Cathy; Smith, Malcolm

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge of inbreeding levels in historical times is necessary to estimate the health consequences of past inbreeding, and to contextualize the current public debate about cousin marriage in Britain. This research aims to calculate the level of cousin marriage using the intensive technique of multi-source parish reconstitution and to determine whether village organization, religion and occupational class influenced the level of consanguineous marriage. A wide variety of documentary sources were used to create extensive pedigrees of spouses in over 800 marriages in the 19th century in the rural villages of Stourton and Kilmington. The closed village of Stourton had higher levels of inbreeding than the open village of Kilmington. Catholics had lower rates of 1st cousin marriage but higher rates of 2nd cousin marriage than Protestants. Farmers had higher levels of 1st cousin marriage than labourers. The levels of consanguinity in south-western Wiltshire in the 19th century were related to the economic structure of the villages and the religion and social class of the spouses.

  19. NINETEENTH-CENTURY MANUSCRIPTS OF THE CASTRO-PR: THE CASE OF RAISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayme Rosane BENÇAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the alternations of mid vowels /e/ and /o/ in the pretonic context, respectively, present in the XIX century manuscripts belonging to Castro - Paraná. As this kind of oscillation, called raising, is not a recent process in the Portuguese language, we seek for evidences of Labov uniformitarianism when describing the cases found in XIX century formal documents in comparison to the data of orality, made available by Bisol (1981 Viegas (1987, 2001 Bortoni et. al (1992, Kailer (2008. For this, we use the precepts of Historical Linguistics, joined to the Varionist theory, since we associate the qualitative approach to quantitative one, based on the structural perspective to the historical-social. The results indicated the vowel harmonization process as the main context for the application of the rule, followed by initial nasal context according to the data of orality. The precedent labiodental consonant and the next bilabial following the pretonic were more productive for /e/ and the precedent alveolar for /o/. Not all words fit into the structural rules, then, the individual investigation directed us to the realization that both neogrammarian position as the diffusionist one have importance in the investigation of variation and language change.

  20. A history of the ideas of theoretical physics essays on the nineteenth and twentieth century physics

    CERN Document Server

    D’Agostino, Salvo

    2000-01-01

    This book presents a perspective on the history of theoretical physics over the past two hundreds years. It comprises essays on the history of pre-Maxwellian electrodynamics, of Maxwell's and Hertz's field theories, and of the present century's relativity and quantum physics. A common thread across the essays is the search for and the exploration of themes that influenced significant con­ ceptual changes in the great movement of ideas and experiments which heralded the emergence of theoretical physics (hereafter: TP). The fun. damental change involved the recognition of the scien­ tific validity of theoretical physics. In the second half of the nine­ teenth century, it was not easy for many physicists to understand the nature and scope of theoretical physics and of its adept, the theoreti­ cal physicist. A physicist like Ludwig Boltzmann, one of the eminent contributors to the new discipline, confessed in 1895 that, "even the formulation of this concept [of a theoretical physicist] is not entirely without...

  1. [Treatment and remedies against smallpox outbreaks in Ferrara in the late nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, Chiara Beatrice; Manfredini, Stefano; Altieri, Lorenzo; Lupi, Silvia; Guidi, Enrica; Contini, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    Health interventions against smallpox during the two epidemics in the second half of the 19th century are outlined. The 1871 hospital health report and the medical report on smallpox patients treated at the hospital and poorhouse of Ferrara between January 1891 and January 1892, drawn up by Alessandro Bennati, provide both interesting data and insights into the treatments and remedies of the time. The treatment of this illness was - and indeed could be - nothing other than symptomatic, there being no real means to halt the spread of the disease. Rather, other remedies were found by alleviating pain and regaining energy during the various stages of the disease. A close relationship between vaccination and the incidence and gravity of the illness is underlined. When the practice of vaccination started to be widely employed at the end of the century, there were almost no cases of death due to smallpox. The pharmacopoeias of the time, Antonio Campana's Farmacopea ferrarese in particular, proved an essential guide in the analysis of each document.

  2. Nineteenth century Mexican statures in the United States and their relationship with insolation and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2010-01-01

    The use of height data to measure living standards is now a well-established method in economics. However, there are still some populations, places and times for which the comparison across groups remains unclear. One example is 19th century Mexicans in the US. This study demonstrates that after comparing the statures of Mexicans born in Mexico and the US the primary source of the stature difference between the two groups was birth year, and the stature gap increased as the US economy developed while the Mexican economy stagnated. Moreover, the stature growth of Mexicans born in the US was related to vitamin D, and the Mexican relationship between stature and insolation was more like that of Europeans than Africans.

  3. An Evaluation on the ethnic Structure of Aleppo Vilayet in The nineteenth Century

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    Hakan AKKÖZ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aleppo was conqured by Ottoman Empire in the era of The Sultan Yavuz Selim in 1516. Aleppo has different ethnics throughout the history because There has been many different civizilation in Aleppo. There were no change of Aleppo’s ethnics except the Circassians till the second half of Eighteenth century after Ottoman had begun to govern Aleppo. Aleppo has been an important central for Western Countries . Especially, As it has been on the way of hijaz and Halep’s harbour trade had been very active. We understand these from English Consulate of Aleppo’s records. English Consulate had been reported about Turcomans, Kurdish, Armenian,Circassians and Arabics.

  4. Border and territorial integration in writing history "teaching" of Nineteenth century

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    Luís César Castrillon Mendes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the Regency period, in 1838, come into operation two institutions that aimed to create and legitimize historical writings to forge a nation to the newly emancipated Brazilian state: the Brazilian Historical and Geographical Institute (IHGB and the first college in that history make school discipline. To achieve the objectives of nation building, territorial integration and delimitation of its frontiers became fundamental. The objective is, in this text, analyze the IHGB and the College Pedro II, while entities linked to the imperial state, organizers of a national construction project in which the ratification of its borders was necessary, seeking discursive legitimation, based on holdings of territory in prior centuries, in which the design of the territory, historical result of the Portuguese expansionist policy, was in something of a tradition.

  5. Scientific Instruments for Education in Early Twentieth-Century Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Castell, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    1898 marked a crucial point in the end of the nineteenth-century Spanish crisis. The military defeat ending the Spanish-American War was seen as proof that the country was in terminal decline. With the ideals of regeneration spreading throughout Spanish society, the State became more interested in supporting and sponsoring science and technology,…

  6. The Long-term Pattern of Maritime Trade in Java from the Late Eighteenth Century to the Mid-Nineteenth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Ryuto Shimada

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the trade pattern of Java from the late eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century from a long-term perspective. There is no comprehensive data on Javanese trade during the period in question, with information on local and regional trade being particularly scarce. To fill in the missing pieces and identify a broad trend, this paper attempts to examine data on both the late eighteenth century and the second quarter of the nineteenth century and put them together...

  7. Imagint Excusations: Missionary English in the Nineteenth Century Cape Colony, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesthrie, Rajend

    1996-01-01

    Presents a case study of the English of early missionaries operating in South Africa. The study characterizes the interlanguages of some German and Dutch missionaries, points out the disparity between the usage patterns found in missionary letters and modern linguists' characterizations of their abilities, and suggests missionary English as an…

  8. IN NINETEENTH CENTURY, THE DEMOGRAPHIC STRUCTURE OF FAMILIES IN DIYARBAKIR: MARRIAGES AND DIVORCES

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    Gürkan CEVGER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The family is the cornerstone of the smallest structures of society. This is the formation of a sacred institution, it is important to structure the distribution and demographic studies to determine the history of time. The formation of the Imperial family, knowledge of events occurring during the formation of both examined, and is of great importance for the investigated time frame. In this study, in terms of family formation and distribution of the Ottoman Muslims and non-Muslims were treated separately. At this stage, how to install it and what now scattered documents from the archives of the family in the process, such as the disbanding of the family are subject to review within Diyarbakir. It has also examined the demographic structure of the family in the 18th century in Diyarbakir in this study. The average number of children of Muslim or Muslim families living in the city, these children are detected and gender distribution as a result of screening of Diyarbakir probate registry, the data obtained is supplemented by tables and graphs. We are also very important for the family in Diyarbakir subject of polygamy has also been investigated in the archive documents axis.

  9. Skulls, brains, and memorial culture: on cerebral biographies of scientists in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner, Michael

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, I will argue that the scientific investigation of skulls and brains of geniuses went hand in hand with hagiographical celebrations of scientists. My analysis starts with late-eighteenth century anatomists and anthropologists who highlighted quantitative parameters such as the size and weight of the brain in order to explain intellectual differences between women and men and Europeans and non-Europeans, geniuses and ordinary persons. After 1800 these parameters were modified by phrenological inspections of the skull and brain. As the phrenological examination of the skulls of Immanuel Kant, Wilhelm Heinse, Arthur Schopenhauer and others shows, the anthropometrical data was interpreted in light of biographical circumstances. The same pattern of interpretation can be found in non-phrenological contexts: Reports about extraordinary brains were part of biographical sketches, mainly delivered in celebratory obituaries. It was only in this context that moral reservations about dissecting the brains of geniuses could be overcome, which led to a more systematic investigation of brains of geniuses after 1860.

  10. Eclipses, transits, and comets of the nineteenth century how America's perception of the skies changed

    CERN Document Server

    Cottam, Stella

    2015-01-01

    Grabbing the attention of poets, politicians and the general public alike, a series of spectacular astronomical events in the late 1800s galvanized Americans to take a greater interest in astronomy than ever before. At a time when the sciences were not yet as well established in the United States as they were in Europe, this public interest and support provided the growing scientific community in the United States with the platform they needed to advance the field of astronomy in the United States.   Earlier in the 19th century comets, meteors and the discovery of the planet Neptune were all sources of inspiration to the general public. The specific events to be considered here are the total solar eclipses of 1868, 1869 and 1878 and the transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882. The available media responded to public interest as well as generating more interest. These events laid the groundwork that led to today's thriving network of American amateur astronomers, and provide a fascinating look at earlier conc...

  11. Real World Globalization and Inequality Yesterday and Today a review of Globalization and History: The Evolution of a Nineteenth Century Atlantic Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Gunder Frank

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This book shows that the current “globalization” buzzword refers to a process that in fact already characterized the nineteenth century until the beginning of the First World War. From then and until the end of the Second World War, the process of globalization was severely reversed—in exempli?cation of one of the authors’ sub-theses that this process can and does have its own ups and downs and is not a one way ever-onward and— upward road, as latter day parlance would have it. During the half century past, the globalization process was reinitiated laboriously but haltingly until the last two and especially the last decade of the twentieth century, when globalism more than globalization recovered the reach it had already nearly a century earlier. Although this book focuses on the nineteenth century period, the authors nonetheless express important concerns for present and future praxis and policy.

  12. Animal Magnetism, Psychiatry and Subjective Experience in Nineteenth-Century Germany: Friedrich Krauß and his Nothschrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    Friedrich Krauß (1791-1868) is the author of Nothschrei eines Magnetisch-Vergifteten [Cry of Distress by a Victim of Magnetic Poisoning] (1852), which has been considered one of the most comprehensive self-narratives of madness published in the German language. In this 1018-page work Krauß documents his acute fears of 'mesmerist' influence and persecution, his detainment in an Antwerp asylum and his encounter with various illustrious physicians across Europe. Though in many ways comparable to other prominent nineteenth-century first-person accounts (eg. John Thomas Perceval's 1838 Narrative of the Treatment Experienced by a Gentleman or Daniel Paul Schreber's 1903 Memoirs of my Nervous Illness), Krauß's story has received comparatively little scholarly attention. This is especially the case in the English-speaking world. In this article I reconstruct Krauß's biography by emphasising his relationship with physicians and his under-explored stay at the asylum. I then investigate the ways in which Krauß appropriated nascent theories about 'animal magnetism' to cope with his disturbing experiences. Finally, I address Krauß's recently discovered calligraphic oeuvre, which bears traces of his typical fears all the while showcasing his artistic skills. By moving away from the predominantly clinical perspective that has characterised earlier studies, this article reveals how Friedrich Krauß sought to make sense of his experience by selectively appropriating both orthodox and non-orthodox forms of medical knowledge. In so doing, it highlights the mutual interaction of discourses 'from above' and 'from below' as well as the influence of broader cultural forces on conceptions of self and illness during that seminal period.

  13. Emaciated, Exhausted and Excited: The Bodies and Minds of the Irish in Nineteenth-Century Lancashire Asylums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Catherine; Marland, Hilary; York, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on asylum reception orders, casebooks and annual reports, as well as County Council notebooks recording the settlement of Irish patients, this article examines a deeply traumatic and enduring aspect of the Irish migration experience, the confinement of large numbers of Irish migrants in the Lancashire asylum system between the 1850s and the 1880s. This period saw a massive influx of impoverished Irish into the county, particularly in the post-Famine years. Asylum superintendents commented on the impact of Irish patients in terms of resulting management problems in what became, soon after their establishment, overcrowded and overstretched asylums. The article examines descriptions of Irish patients, many of whom were admitted in a poor state of health. They were also depicted as violent and difficult to manage, though reporting of this may have been swayed by anti-Irish sentiment. The article suggests that a hardening of attitudes took place in the 1870s and 1880s, when theories of degeneration took hold and the Irish in Ireland exhibited exceptionally high rates of institutionalization. It points to continuities across this period: the ongoing association between mental illness and migration long after the massive Famine influx had abated, and claims that the Irish, at one and the same time referred to as volatile and vulnerable, were particularly susceptible to the challenges of urban life, marked by their intemperance, liability to general paralysis, turbulence and immorality. Asylum superintendents also noted the relative isolation of the Irish, which led to their long-term incarceration. The article suggests that commentary about Irish asylum patients provides traction in considering broader perceptions of the Irish body, mobility and Irishness in nineteenth-century England, and a deeper understanding of institutionalization.

  14. Animal Magnetism, Psychiatry and Subjective Experience in Nineteenth-Century Germany: Friedrich Krauß and his Nothschrei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    Friedrich Krauß (1791–1868) is the author of Nothschrei eines Magnetisch-Vergifteten [Cry of Distress by a Victim of Magnetic Poisoning] (1852), which has been considered one of the most comprehensive self-narratives of madness published in the German language. In this 1018-page work Krauß documents his acute fears of ‘mesmerist’ influence and persecution, his detainment in an Antwerp asylum and his encounter with various illustrious physicians across Europe. Though in many ways comparable to other prominent nineteenth-century first-person accounts (eg. John Thomas Perceval’s 1838 Narrative of the Treatment Experienced by a Gentleman or Daniel Paul Schreber’s 1903 Memoirs of my Nervous Illness), Krauß’s story has received comparatively little scholarly attention. This is especially the case in the English-speaking world. In this article I reconstruct Krauß’s biography by emphasising his relationship with physicians and his under-explored stay at the asylum. I then investigate the ways in which Krauß appropriated nascent theories about ‘animal magnetism’ to cope with his disturbing experiences. Finally, I address Krauß’s recently discovered calligraphic oeuvre, which bears traces of his typical fears all the while showcasing his artistic skills. By moving away from the predominantly clinical perspective that has characterised earlier studies, this article reveals how Friedrich Krauß sought to make sense of his experience by selectively appropriating both orthodox and non-orthodox forms of medical knowledge. In so doing, it highlights the mutual interaction of discourses ‘from above’ and ‘from below’ as well as the influence of broader cultural forces on conceptions of self and illness during that seminal period. PMID:26651186

  15. Rediscovery of Early Twentieth-Century Ecotheology

    OpenAIRE

    Pihkala Panu

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I examine the early history of Christian environmentalism (“ecotheology”) in the twentieth century. I delineate four strands of early ecotheology: agrarian ecotheology; social Christianity; British contributions; and “post-liberal” foundations for later ecotheological movements. I show that ecotheology was a slowly-rising movement, which had notable proponents. I argue that these early ecotheologians are significant for several reasons. First, these writings support the view ...

  16. [Milk of paradise? Opium and opiates in nineteenth and twentieth century literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, D

    2007-08-01

    One cannot have an idea of this multifaceted theme without its medical and cultural-historical background. After a history of several thousand years as a remedy and consumer good, around 1800 this poppy drug was in the focus of public attention due to Brownianism, at first as an often self-prescribed unspecific remedy against physical and mental pain. Many representatives of the early Romanticism knew it from personal experience. However, it was the publication of Thomas de Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1821/1822) which made it a subject of international debate in accordance with the programmatic statements of writers of that epoque and corresponding to the antibourgeois attitude of these men. It became a motif of a counter-world experience and a subject and cause of lyric-subjective reflection as well as a possible premise of poetic creativity.

  17. A culture of technical knowledge: Professionalizing science and engineering education in late-nineteenth century America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienkamp, Paul

    This manuscript examines the intellectual, cultural, and practical approaches to science and engineering education as a part of the land-grant college movement in the Midwest between the 1850s and early 1900s. These land-grant institutions began and grew within unique frontier societies that both cherished self-reliance and diligently worked to make themselves part of the larger national experience. College administrators and professors encountered rapidly changing public expectations, regional needs, and employment requirements. They recognized a dire need for technically skilled men and women who could quickly adapt to changes in equipment and processes, and implement advances in scientific knowledge in American homes, fields, and factories. Charged with educating the "industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life," land-grant college supporters and professors sought out the most modern and innovative instructional methods. Combining the humanities, sciences, and practical skills that they believed uniquely suited student needs, these pioneering educators formulated new curricula and training programs that advanced both the knowledge and the social standing of America's agricultural and mechanical working classes.

  18. Peasant Self-Government in the Ukrainian Danube Region (End of XIX - Early XX Century.: Social and Cultural Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Verkhovtseva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The complex historical destiny of Ukrainian Danube region in the nineteenth century led to the fact that by the end of this century, in the counties of the region peasant self-government was organized in different ways: in Akkerman - according to the reform in 1868, carried out by the Russian authorities in Bessarabia, and in Ismail - in accordance with the reforms of 1864-1874 years conducted by the Romanian government. The author compares and analyzes the peasant self-government in the counties of the province in the context of its sociocultural development in the unfolding process of modernization of the late XIX - early XX centuries.

  19. La Isla sobre el papel The Island on Paper: two monumental maps of Cuba in the nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Venegas Fornias

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Las empresas cartográficas son productos de grandes y extensos esfuerzos humanos movilizados por iniciativas de hombres e instituciones que suelen pasar al olvido. Propongo redactar un ensayo sobre la realización de dos mapas de Cuba: el mapa de 1831 o de Vives y el de 1875 del agrimensor Esteban Pichardo. En ambos casos los mapas se editan en condiciones sociales significativas de dependencia colonial y representan hitos para el conocimiento y la identidad del país; el tema del ensayo sería el análisis de las motivaciones que encierran estas representaciones en diferentes niveles y del contexto cultural que las hizo posible. Se trata también de recuperar la memoria de estos mapas como hechos históricos, la organización de las tareas, la preparación profesional de los autores, la utilización de las fuentes,  y otras. Los dos mapas se consideran los mejores de Cuba durante el siglo XIX y se acompañaron de planos de ciudades como era habitual.Cartographic work represents the product of large and ample human effort triggered by initiatives of men and institutions which most often become forgotten. In this paper I propose to develop an essay on the elaboration of two maps of Cuba: the 1831 or Vives map, and the 1875 map by the surveyor Esteban Pichardo. Both maps are edited under significant social conditions of colonial dependence, and represent keystones for the country’s knowledge and identity. The essay focuses on the analysis of the motivations involved in these representations at different levels, as well as of the cultural framework that made them possible. It also attempts to bring back to memory these maps as historical facts, representing the organization of tasks, the authors’ professional preparation, the use of sources, and others. The two maps are regarded as the best ones of Cuba during the nineteenth century, and included city maps, as was usual at that time.

  20. Making money circulate: Chemistry and ‘governance’ in the career of coins in the early 19h-century Dutch empire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The governance of the early nineteenth century Dutch empire in Southeast Asia heavily relied on the circulation of coins. However, making circulation work was never an easy endeavour. By zooming in the richly documented activities of J. Goldberg (1763‐1828), C.G.C. Reinwardt (1773‐1854), and W.A.A.

  1. Making money circulate: Chemistry and ‘governance’ in the career of coins in the early 19h-century Dutch empire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The governance of the early nineteenth century Dutch empire in Southeast Asia heavily relied on the circulation of coins. However, making circulation work was never an easy endeavour. By zooming in the richly documented activities of J. Goldberg (1763‐1828), C.G.C. Reinwardt (1773‐1854), and W.A.A.

  2. The treatment of madness in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: discourses about curability in Spanish mental health care, 1890-1917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José Javier Plumed; Moreno, Luis Miguel Rojo

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the discourses about curability constructed by Spanish mental health practitioners in the transition from the nineteenth to the twentieth century. While in the 1870s and 1880s the predominant discourse promoted by doctors attached to private institutions was extremely optimistic, it subsequently changed and became more pessimistic regarding treatment outcomes. However, given phrenopathists' professional needs, they continued to profess more or less unshakeable confidence in the therapeutic abilities of psychiatry. The reception of new nosologies, such as Kraepelin's, depended in part on contemporary mental health practitioners' stance on curability and was accompanied by ambivalence.

  3. Studying of mariupol greek community (last quarter of the eighteenth – the end of the nineteenth century) by the modern Ukrainian historical science

    OpenAIRE

    M. K. Podgayko

    2014-01-01

    In the present article the author examines the scientific research on the topic of Greek self-administration of Mariupol Greek community which belonged to the Russian Empire in the last quarter of the eighteenth - the end of the nineteenth century. Greeks of the Northern part of Azov by their ethnic and social characteristics differed from the other Greek communities of Ukraine. The formation process of the Greek community in the Northern part of the Sea of Azov was specific. It arose as a...

  4. Resolving the Halperín Paradox: The Terms of Trade and Argentina’s Expansion in the Long Nineteenth Century

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of Tulio Halperín Donghi, historians have tried to explain why Argentina experienced a dramatic pastoral expansion in the first half of the nineteenth century even though there were no price incentives for increasing output. Here this ‘Halperín paradox’ is resolved by correcting the methodological error that underlies it. Halperín Donghi made the mistake of looking at the nominal prices of Argentina’s exports in Britain, whereas he should have looked at their prices ...

  5. The Construction of the ‘Self’ in Mark Twain's The Innocents Abroad: 'The Positional Superiority' of the American Identity in the Nineteenth-century Travel Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatin AbuHilal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Mark Twain's The Innocents Abroad with its emphasis on cultural representations in the American culture, touches very significantly upon the question of the rising of the American identity and its connection with the American Travel Narrative in the nineteenth century. While it is believed that the novel produces "pure" "true knowledge”, or "a neutral exercise" of basic facts and realties, we argue that Twain’s narrative entails a genre of political knowledge that is premised on the basic requirement of self/other constructions. The ideological apparatus of Americanized emerging identity, nationalism, power and authority are fundamental issues in the Twains narrative. Furthermore, it is not only the personal motif that is the basis of Twain's The Innocents Abroad, as he claims in his preface, nor is it a "Great Pleasure Excursion," as he pretends.  The novel structures relations according to the rising American norms and values in the nineteenth century clearly acquired and absorbed by the American travelers in The Innocents Abroad. It also subscribes to the complication of the American character in order to develop, process and reconstruct cultural relations in the narrative. In this sense, we argue that Twain's narrative raises discursive ideological questions about the rising of the American national identity and its connection with other cultural components, the Oriental, in particular.

  6. Characterization of the glaze and in-glaze pigments of the nineteenth-century relief tiles from the Pena National Palace, Sintra, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, M. L.; Veiga, J. P.; Alves, L. C.; Mirão, J.; Dias, L.; Lima, A. M.; Muralha, V. S.; Macedo, M. F.

    2016-07-01

    The glaze and in-glaze pigments of the historical nineteenth-century glazed tiles from the Pena National Palace (Sintra, Portugal) were characterized using a multi-analytical approach. Chemical composition and microstructural characterization were ascertained by µ-PIXE, µ-Raman, optical microscopy and VP-SEM-EDS. The manufacturing technique and colour palette in these tiles were found to be close to the ceramic pigments used in traditional majolica. The blue and purple colours derive from cobalt oxide and manganese oxide, respectively. A mixture of Pb-Sn-Sb yellow with cobalt oxide and iron oxide was used for green and dark yellow, respectively, while grey tonalities consist of a complex mixture of cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and Pb-Sn-Sb yellow in different proportions. Results obtained allowed the determination of the oxides and elements used in pigments as well as production techniques, resorting to traditional majolica manufacture, although the tiles were produced by the end of the nineteenth century.

  7. Furniture, Funds and Fquipment of the Schools in the Nineteenth Century Mobiliario, dotación y equipamiento escolar en el siglo XIX

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    Antón COSTA RICO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article there is an attempt to reconstruct the typology of the primary school scene in Europe as regards furniture, funds and equipment of the schools in the first two thirds of the ninteenth century, as a background of the Spanish scene. After writing a synthetic exposition of the recommendations made on the matter by the Spanish writers, the author reviews the normative dictates of the nineteenth century and contrasts theory, law and the school practice, this one traditionally away from the theoretical and normative prescriptions. There is an intention to contribute to a better knowledge of the Spanish school practice, particularly, in the first half of the nineteenth century, period on which there is still a relative semidarkness in the educational historiographyEn el presente artículo se hace un intento de reconstrucción tipológica del escenario escolar primario europeo en cuanto a mobiliario, dotación y equipamiento escolar, durante los dos primeros tercios del siglo XIX, como telón de fondo del panorama español. Luego de realizar una exposición sintética de las recomendaciones elaboradas por los tratadistas españoles, se pasa revista a los dictados normativos decimonónicos y se hacen diversas calas de contraste entre teoría, legislación y práctica escolar. Se pretende contribuir a un mejor conocimiento de la práctica escolar hispana, en particular durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX, momento sobre el que se mantiene aún una relativa penumbra en la historiografía educativa.

  8. [Santa Casa de Misericórdia and hygienist policies in Belém do Pará in the late nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Cybelle Salvador; Beltrão, Jane Felipe; Henrique, Márcio Couto; Bessa, Brena Tavares

    2015-03-20

    The article analyzes the relationship between hygienist policies in effect in Belém in the late nineteenth century and the expansion of activities of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará. Considered one of the first hospital institutions in the former Grão-Pará Province, in addition to its own hospital, the Brotherhood administered several other health facilities in the capital, and the study of its physical displacement made it possible to "map" three health centers in Belém: Pioneer, Expansion and the Santa Casa, which reinforce the growth vectors of the city. The expansion of its activities is configured as the expansion of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia to serve the underprivileged and sick, preceding the establishment of a public health system in Pará.

  9. Propaganda, Public Information, and Prospecting: Explaining the Irrational Exuberance of Central Place Foragers During a Late Nineteenth Century Colorado Silver Rush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Susan M

    2009-10-01

    Traditionally, models of resource extraction assume individuals act as if they form strategies based on complete information. In reality, gathering information about environmental parameters may be costly. An efficient information gathering strategy is to observe the foraging behavior of others, termed public information. However, media can exploit this strategy by appearing to supply accurate information while actually shaping information to manipulate people to behave in ways that benefit the media or their clients. Here, I use Central Place Foraging (CPF) models to investigate how newspaper propaganda shaped ore foraging strategies of late nineteenth-century Colorado silver prospectors. Data show that optimistic values of silver ore published in local newspapers led prospectors to place mines at a much greater distance than was profitable. Models assuming perfect information neglect the possibility of misinformation among investors, and may underestimate the extent and degree of human impacts on areas of resource extraction.

  10. [Santa Casa de Misericórdia and hygienist policies in Belém do Pará in the late nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Cybelle Salvador; Beltrão, Jane Felipe; Henrique, Márcio Couto; Bessa, Brena Tavares

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the relationship between hygienist policies in effect in Belém in the late nineteenth century and the expansion of activities of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará. Considered one of the first hospital institutions in the former Grão-Pará Province, in addition to its own hospital, the Brotherhood administered several other health facilities in the capital, and the study of its physical displacement made it possible to "map" three health centers in Belém: Pioneer, Expansion and the Santa Casa, which reinforce the growth vectors of the city. The expansion of its activities is configured as the expansion of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia to serve the underprivileged and sick, preceding the establishment of a public health system in Pará.

  11. Rural School Consolidation in Early Twentieth Century Iowa: Lessons for the Early Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, David R.

    Rural school consolidation in Iowa in the early 20th century was not simply an attempt at educational reform, but was also an attempt to transform the rural social geography of the region. Since consolidation of corporate power had resulted in economic progress in the cities, it was thought that re-centering rural life around country towns could…

  12. Solar Photography in the Nineteenth Century: the Case of the Infante D. Luiz Observatory in Lisbon (1871-1880)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Vitor; Malaquias, Isabel; Fernandes, João

    2007-07-01

    The Infante D. Luiz Observatory, located in Lisbon, was one of the leading Portuguese meteorologic and magnetic research institutions in the second half of the 19th century. Following the distribution of the equipment bought by the Portuguese government for the total solar eclipse expedition of 1870 December 22, the D. Luiz Observatory acquired an equatorial telescope. João Carlos de Brito Capello, one of the two Infante D. Luiz chief observers, seized this opportunity and decided, in early 1871, to embark in a programme of daily solar photography to study the relationship between the solar activity, in particular the sunspots, and the terrestrial magnetic field. The programme was active between 1871 and 1880, albeit intermittently, having been well received by the international community and led to a couple of publications. For a time the Infante D. Luiz Observatory solar photographs not only kept a record of the sunspot activity complementing similar work done elsewhere but were amongst the best available everywhere. This article proposes to give an account of its implementation and development in the context of the solar photography of the period.

  13. Mechanism, vitalism and organicism in late nineteenth and twentieth-century biology: the importance of historical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Garland E

    2005-06-01

    The term 'mechanism' has been used in two quite different ways in the history of biology. Operative, or explanatory mechanism refers to the step-by-step description or explanation of how components in a system interact to yield a particular outcome (as in the 'mechanism of enzyme action' or the 'mechanism of synaptic transmission'). Philosophical Mechanism, on the other hand, refers to a broad view of organisms as material entities, functioning in ways similar to machines--that is, carrying out a variety of activities based on known chemical and physical processes. In the early twentieth century philosophical Mechanism became the foundation of a 'new biology' that sought to establish the life sciences on the same solid and rigorous foundation as the physical sciences, including a strong emphasis on experimentation. In the context of the times this campaign was particularly aimed at combating the reintroduction of more holistic, non-mechanical approaches into the life sciences (organicism, vitalism). In so doing, Mechanists failed to see some of the strong points of non-vitalistic holistic thinking. The two approaches are illustrated in the work of Jacques Loeb and Hans Spemann.

  14. Measuring the Heavens to Rule the Territory: Filipe Folque and the Teaching of Astronomy at the Lisbon Polytechnic School and the Modernization of the State Apparatus in Nineteenth Century Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolino, Luis Miguel

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the astronomy teaching at the Lisbon Polytechnic School and its role in building a modern technoscientific state in Portugal during the nineteenth century. It examines particularly the case of Filipe Folque, who taught astronomy and geodesy at the Lisbon Polytechnic from 1837 to 1856, and played a pivotal role in the geodetic…

  15. Measuring the Heavens to Rule the Territory: Filipe Folque and the Teaching of Astronomy at the Lisbon Polytechnic School and the Modernization of the State Apparatus in Nineteenth Century Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolino, Luis Miguel

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the astronomy teaching at the Lisbon Polytechnic School and its role in building a modern technoscientific state in Portugal during the nineteenth century. It examines particularly the case of Filipe Folque, who taught astronomy and geodesy at the Lisbon Polytechnic from 1837 to 1856, and played a pivotal role in the geodetic…

  16. Surviving the Lunacy Act of 1890: English Psychiatrists and Professional Development during the Early Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Akinobu

    2017-04-01

    In recent decades, historians of English psychiatry have shifted their major concerns away from asylums and psychiatrists in the nineteenth century. This is also seen in the studies of twentieth-century psychiatry where historians have debated the rise of psychology, eugenics and community care. This shift in interest, however, does not indicate that English psychiatrists became passive and unimportant actors in the last century. In fact, they promoted Lunacy Law reform for a less asylum-dependent mode of psychiatry, with a strong emphasis on professional development. This paper illustrates the historical dynamics around the professional development of English psychiatry by employing Andrew Abbott's concept of professional development. Abbott redefines professional development as arising from both abstraction of professional knowledge and competition regarding professional jurisdiction. A profession, he suggests, develops through continuous re-formation of its occupational structure, mode of practice and political language in competing with other professional and non-professional forces. In early twentieth-century England, psychiatrists promoted professional development by framing political discourse, conducting a daily trade and promoting new legislation to defend their professional jurisdiction. This professional development story began with the Lunacy Act of 1890, which caused a professional crisis in psychiatry and led to inter-professional competition with non-psychiatric medical service providers. To this end, psychiatrists devised a new political rhetoric, 'early treatment of mental disorder', in their professional interests and succeeded in enacting the Mental Treatment Act of 1930, which re-instated psychiatrists as masters of English psychiatry.

  17. Natural history museum collections provide information on phenological change in British butterflies since the late-nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Stephen J; Self, Angela; Toloni, Flavia; Sparks, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Museum collections have the potential to provide valuable information on the phenological response of organisms to climate change. This is particularly useful for those species for which few data otherwise exist, but also to extend time series to the period before other observational data are available. To test this potential, we analysed data from 2,630 specimens of four species of British butterflies (Anthocharis cardamines, Hamearis lucina, Polyommatus bellargus and Pyrgus malvae), collected from 1876 to 1999 and stored in the Natural History Museum, London, UK (NHM). In A. cardamines, first-generation P. bellargus and P. malvae, we found that there was a strong significant negative relationship between spring temperature and 10th percentile collection dates, which approximates mean first appearance date, and median collection date, which approximates mean flight date. In all four species, there was a significant negative relationship between the 10th percentile collection date and the length of the collection period, which approximates flight period. In second-generation P. bellargus, these phenological measurements were correlated with summer temperature. We found that the rates of phenological response to temperature, based on NHM data, were similar to, or somewhat greater than, those reported for other organisms based on observational data covering the last 40 years. The lower rate of phenological response, and the significant influence of February rather than March or April temperatures, in recent decades compared with data from earlier in the twentieth century may indicate that early emerging British butterfly species are currently approaching the limits of phenological advancement in response to recent climate warming.

  18. The role of morbidity in the mortality decline of the nineteenth century: evidence from the military population at Gibraltar 1818-1899.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padiak, Janet

    2005-01-01

    The causes of the nineteenth-century decline of mortality, characterized by lower mortality rates and increased longevity, have been the subject of debate among researchers for the past half-century. Because of a paucity of reliable data, little is understood about the role of morbidity, or illness episodes, in the mortality decline. This article introduces the results of a study that looks at the relationship of morbidity in the mortality decline during this portion of the epidemiological transition. The data are comprised of hospital admissions and deaths collected by the British army on the soldiers of the Gibraltar garrison from 1819 to 1899. Morbidity dropped during this period, but at a slower rate than mortality, and all categories of disease did not fall in concert; in some categories, morbidity rose as mortality dropped. Statistical modeling is used to analyze the categories of diseases that were most influential in the decline of mortality in this group. This research shows that there are discernible relationships between morbidity and mortality and that the two parameters are responding to different driving forces. Because changes within the military medical system may have had an effect on the relationship of the morbidity and mortality rates of the soldiers, surviving medical reports are used to reconstruct the medical care of the troops during the study period.

  19. THE CRIMEAN PENINSULA IN THE FIRST QUARTER OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE HISTORY OF THE RUSSIAN STATE

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    Yusup M. HUSEYNOV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the history of the Crimean Peninsula in the first quarter of the nineteenth century. This period characterized as the time of the tsarist policy of the Crimea. This policy resulted in the aggravation of contradictions between the Crimean Tatar people with the settlers. Trying to resolve this negative circumstance, the tsarist administration has undertaken a series of reforms, which has somewhat mitigated this problem. This article also explains the rise in the economic development of the Peninsula in the first quarter of the XIX century, which was inextricably linked with the influence of Russian capital in the Crimea. Not neglected by the author remains the policy of Russia towards improving the infrastructure of the region. In 1826 was built the road from Simferopol to Alushta, in 1837, continued to Yalta, and in 1848 – to Sevastopol. In 1848, on the border of the southern coast of the Crimea and the Northern slope of the mountains built Baidar gate. 

  20. 十九世纪英国吸血鬼文学主题分析%Theme Analysis of the Nineteenth Century British Vampire Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓丽

    2015-01-01

    吸血鬼这一形象在西方国家有着极其悠久的历史,据传吸血鬼的始祖是亚当和夏娃之子该隐。大多数人们描述的吸血鬼的特征则来源于现实中一种名字叫卟啉病的疾病,得了此病的患者对光敏感,需要以输血延续生命,这就是吸血鬼的原始特征。吸血鬼文学创作最为昌盛的时期是十九世纪,主要是受当时的社会背景所影响,最经典的四大吸血鬼文学分别是约翰·波里杜利的《吸血鬼》、布蓝·史铎克的《德古拉》、雪利丹·李·费奴的《卡蜜拉》以及雷蒙的《吸血鬼瓦涅爵士》。本文通过对19世纪吸血鬼的文学作品的搜集整理以及对当时社会环境的对比分析,分别从吸血鬼的发展历程、吸血鬼的妖魔化、中产阶级的自我营销手段等三方面对十九世纪英国吸血鬼文学进行了主题分析。%The Vampire image has a very long history in Western countries. The vampire ancestor is said to be Cain, the son of Adam and Eve, but the characteristics of the vampire most people describe derive from a disease named porphyria in reality. Patients with the disease are sensitive to light and need blood transfusions to continue their life. Such is the original features of the vampire. The vampire literature developed most prosperously in the nineteenth century, mainly due to the impact of the social background at that time. The four classics of vampire literature are John Poriduli’ s Vampire, Bryan Stock’ s Dracula, Dan Sherry Lee Finnur’ s Camila and J. M. Rymer’ s Varney the vampire. Based on the nineteenth century vampire literature collection and the comparative analysis of the social environment, this paper thematically analyses British vampire literature of the nineteenth century from the three aspects such as the vampire ’ s developing, demonizing, and the middle-class self marketing.

  1. The power of the Kashrut: older but shorter : The impact of religious nutritional and hygienic rules on stature and life expectancy of Jewish conscripts in the early 19th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassenaar, V.; Karel, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: We test the impact of several demographic, economic and social factors on stature in an early nineteenth century environment. Subjects/Methods: We use a database of conscripts from the period 1818–1860 of a rural province in The Netherlands (Drenthe). This area had a rather

  2. In a Class of Their Own? Swedish Women School Teachers and the Fertility Transition in the Late Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Alison

    2003-01-01

    When Egil Johansson began his work in the parishes of northern Sweden, women's history, in common with the history of literacy, was in its infancy. Demographers did not ask questions of their sources specifically about gender relations. In the succeeding quarter century women's historians have begun to ask key questions about processes such as…

  3. Languages, Script and National Identity: Struggles over Linguistic Heterogeneity in Switzerland in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Lukas; Brühwiler, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    For centuries, Switzerland has been a multilingual country (which currently has no less than four official languages.) Furthermore, one of those languages, German, is characterised by bigraphism (i.e. the coexistence of two different type styles). This article discusses the role played by language and writing systems in the great educational…

  4. Ecology and power in the periphery of Maasina : the case of the Hayre in the nineteenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de M.E.; Dijk, van J.W.M.

    2001-01-01

    This article explores political tensions between successive 19th-century rulers of the inland delta of the Niger in central Mali - the Fulbe Diina (1818-1864) and the Futanke (1864-1893) - and the pastoral interests of the Fulbe chiefdoms on the eastern periphery of the area, a region known as the H

  5. Scientific instrument collections in nineteenth-century Spanish secondary schools Las colecciones de instrumentos científicos de los institutos de enseñanza secundaria del siglo XIX en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón BERTOMEU SÁNCHEZ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview on the history of scientific instrument collections in Spanish secondary schools, focusing especially on the period around their establishment in the mid-nineteenth century. It describes their most important features as well as their promoters and main users. Attention is also paid to the teaching practices which encouraged different uses of scientific instruments in nineteenth-century classrooms and the reasons that lead to the progressive abandonment of nineteenth-century collections along with the advent of new pedagogical ideas. First, we briefly describe the collections created at the end of the 18th century. Then we evaluate the mid nineteenth-century situation, when the Spanish Government supported several projects to provide the new secondary schools with comprehensive physics and chemistry cabinets. Finally, we offer a general overview of the current state of the collections and of several projects and proposals aimed at their use as historical sources, pedagogical tools and objects with great patrimonial and museum value.El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en ofrecer una revisión de la historia de las colecciones de instrumentos científicos en los institutos de enseñanza secundaria en España, la mayor parte creadas a mediados del siglo XIX. Prestaremos especial atención a sus principales promotores y usuarios, así como a los usos para los que fueron inicialmente empleadas y las razones que condujeron a su progresivo abandono con la llegada de nuevos métodos pedagógicos. En primer lugar comentaremos las colecciones creadas a finales del siglo XVIII para conocer la situación existente a mediados del siglo XIX, cuando el Gobierno llevó a cabo iniciativas para dotar mientas didácticas y objetos de valor museístico y patrimonial.

  6. A short history of two nineteenth century German instruments at the Bologna Observatory: The 16-cm Steinheil refractor and the Ertel & Sohn meridian circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppi, Francesco; Bònoli, Fabrizio; Gualandi, Andrea

    2008-07-01

    Recent work to restore and set up the materials exhibited at the Museo della Specola of the University of Bologna provided an opportunity to review the history of two important German instruments from the mid-nineteenth century, an Ertel & Sohn meridian circle and a Steinheil refractor. Purchased by the directors of the Bologna Observatory to revitalise local astronomical research, which had gradually declined over the years, both instruments have intriguing histories because, despite the fact that they were essentially underused, they also contributed to two important research projects. Lorenzo Respighi used one of them - the Ertel & Sohn meridian circle - for an experiment in physical optics related to the debate on whether light was undulatory or corpuscular, and it was essentially a forerunner of ‘water-filled telescopes’. The other, a Steinheil refractor to which a Tauber spectroscope was attached, was the largest and most important instrument used by the Italian expedition to India, organised by Pietro Tacchini to observe the transit of Venus across the Sun in 1874.

  7. Othering Processes and STS Curricula: From Nineteenth Century Scientific Discourse on Interracial Competition and Racial Extinction to Othering in Biomedical Technosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Juan Manuel Sánchez; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2012-05-01

    This paper analyzes the debates on "interracial competition" and "racial extinction" in the biological discourse on human evolution during the second half of the nineteenth century. Our intention is to discuss the ideological function of these biological concepts as tools for the naturalization and scientific legitimation of racial hierarchies during that period. We argue that the examination of these scientific discussions about race from a historical perspective can play the role of a critical platform for students and teachers to think about the role of science in current othering processes, such as those related to biomedical technosciences. If they learn how biological ideas played an ideological function concerning interracial relationships in the past, they can be compelled to ask which ideological functions the biological knowledge they are teaching and learning might play now. If this is properly balanced, they can eventually both value scientific knowledge for its contributions and have a critical appraisal of some of its implications. We propose, here, a number of initial design principles for the construction of teaching sequences about scientific racism and science-technology-society relationships, yet to be empirically tested by iterative cycles of implementation in basic education and teacher education classrooms.

  8. Dostoevsky v. The Judicial Reforms of 1864: How and Why One of Nineteenth-Century Russia’s Greatest Writers Criticized the Nation’s Most Successful Reform

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    Brian Conlon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal reforms of 1864 marked a shift in Russian legal culture from an amorphous, corrupt, pre-modern system of procedure, structure, and customary law to an independent, modern, and westernized system as liberal as that of any nation. These reforms were nearly universally lauded by legal and cultural critics, both at the time they were introduced and in historical accounts. Despite the apparent necessity and success of the new courts, one of the leading figures in nineteenth-century Russian literature (and indeed the history of world literature, Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky, continually criticized the new system in both his fiction and non-fiction.Through the synthesis of historical, legal, and literary analysis, this study will examine why Dostoevsky had an adverse reaction to the reforms, the literary techniques he used, and whether Dostoevsky presented a viable alternative to the reformed courts. In order to fully comprehend Dostoevsky’s reaction to the reforms, this study will contrast the pre and post-reform judicial systems in Imperial Russia. This study will explore the scope and evolution of Dostoevsky’s criticism of the law through analysis of his pre-reform fiction, including ‘House of the Dead’ and ‘Crime and Punishment,’ his post-reform fiction, including ‘The Idiot,’ ‘Demons,’ and ‘Brothers Karamazov,’ and portions of his experimental literary periodical, ‘A Writer’s Diary.’

  9. Dutch institutional reading culture in the early nineteenth century: an exploration and a comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honings, R.; Lubbers, A.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades there has been an increase of literary-historical research into Dutch (institutional) reading culture. In this article the focus lies on institutional reading culture in the Netherlands during the years 1815-30. Although a great deal of research has been conducted into regional Dut

  10. Early Nineteenth-Century New Yorkers and the Invention of New York City

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    François WEIL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’intéresse à l’« invention » de New York, dans la période antérieure à la Guerre de Sécession, et aux formes ou aux procédés qui suscitèrent l’émergence d’une nouvelle conscience de soi dans la ville. Il évoque d’abord les facteurs contradictoires qui contribuèrent au développement d’une culture littéraire et artistique. Il tente ensuite de montrer comment les new-yorkais traduisirent leur fierté ancestrale et leurs sentiments identitaires sous forme de recherches historiques et généalogiques. Enfin, il montre la manière dont certains ouvrages élaborèrent une nouvelle grammaire, une nouvelle image, afin d’esquisser les contours géographiques et sociologiques de la métropole naissante.This essay explores the « invention » of New York City in the antebellum era, or the parallel forms of cultural processes and elaborations that led to the emergence of a new sense of self-awareness in the city. It first evokes the contradictory ways in which a literary and artistic culture developed. It then attempts to reveal how New Yorkers translated their ancestral pride and identity feelings into historical and genealogical pursuits. It finally explores the way in which some works contributed to the creation of a new grammar, a new image, in order to draw the contours of the geography and sociology of the new metropolis.

  11. Electronegativity from Avogadro to Pauling: II. Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, William B.

    2003-01-01

    Traces electronegativity in four fundamental areas of chemistry during the period 1870-1910: (1) the relationship between electronegativity and classical valence; (2) the relationship between electronegativity and periodic law; (3) the relationship between electronegativity thermochemistry; and (4) the relationship between electronegativity and…

  12. Urban Development in European and American Discourse in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    Reviews literature of controversies surrounding the rise of big cities in Western Europe and the United States. Comments that popular concepts of unspoiled nature and biblical tradition influenced antiurbanism. Notes fears of disease, breakdown of families, and rising crime rate were major concerns. Defenders countered cities would become centers…

  13. The engagements in the Sephardic Thessaloniki from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries

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    Elena Romero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In this article I deal with a topic that, up to the date, has received little attention: the courtships in the Ottoman Sephardic world, and how they affected to the family network. Ten texts –eight in prose, and two in verse–, written by men and published between 1889 and 1908 in the Thessaloniki newspaper La Época, are handled. In them, the opposed points of view of parents and marriageable youngsters are shown. These texts will transmit us closely, what happened in those disappeared communities in relation with that topic.

  14. Before words: reading western astronomical texts in early nineteenth-century Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumer, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    In 1803, the most prominent Japanese astronomer of his time, Takahashi Yoshitoki, received a newly imported Dutch translation of J. J. Lalande's 'Astronomie'. He could not read Dutch, yet he dedicated almost a year to a close examination of this massive work, taking notes and contemplating his own astronomical practices. How did he read a book he could not read? Following the clues Yoshitoki left in his notes, we discover that he found meanings not only in words, but also in what are often taken for granted or considered to be auxiliary tools for data manipulation, such as symbols, units, tables, and diagrams. His rendering of these non-verbal textual elements into a familiar format was crucial for Yoshitoki's reading, and constituted the initial step in the process of integrating Lalande's astronomy into Japanese astronomical practices, and the subsequent translation of the text into Japanese.

  15. The American in Europe as Portrayed in American Literature of Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-22

    extensively through Europe. I had so idealized the act of traveling to Europe, that it had become almost like a rite of passage for me. Somehow I thought...Jordan in For Whom The Bell Tolls war is similar to what the safari was for Macomber. To him war had become like a rite of passage . At one time, when

  16. The environmental origins of shifting cultivation: climate, soils, and disease in the nineteenth-century US South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, John; Tchakerian, Viken

    2007-01-01

    Farmers and planters in the antebellum South held large tracts of unimproved land because they practiced shifting cultivation. Southern cultivators burned tracts of forest growth to quickly release nutrients into the soil. After five or six years, when the soil had been depleted, the old field was abandoned for as long as twenty years. Environmental factors such as poor soils, rugged topography, and livestock diseases accounted for the persistence of this practice, more so than slavery or the availability of western lands. Shifting cultivation slowly declined in the postbellum era, but southern farmers continued to improve a far smaller percentage of their land well into the twentieth century.

  17. Historical Stage of German Industrial Revolution in The Nineteenth Century%论十九世纪德国工业革命进程中的历史阶段

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁超

    2012-01-01

    德国的工业革命发端于十九世纪三十年代,经历了早期工业化阶段、"起飞"阶段和成熟阶段等三个阶段之后,德国的工业化基本完成。土地改革和商业改革促进了工业革命前进的步伐,铁路和重工业的发展更使德国工业革命如火如荼。但是经济发展到一定程度之后,城市化问题也逐渐凸显出来。%Thirties in the nineteenth century,German Industrial Revolution just started,After experienced the stage of early Industrialization,the stage of take off,the stage of mature,German Industrial Revolution basically completed.Land reform and commerce reform promote the development of the Industrial Revolution.The development of railways and heavy industry also makes the Industrial Revolution in full swing.But after the economic developent,some urbanization issues had been prominent

  18. The Relationship Between the Origins of Life on Earth and the Possibility of Life on Other Planets: A Nineteenth-Century Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirard, Stéphane

    In this chapter we examine how, during the second part of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century, assumptions about the origins of life were specifically linked to the development of theories of evolution and how these conceptions influenced assumptions about the possibility of life on other planets. First we present the theories of the origins of life of Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) and underline how they were linked to the knowledge of physical and chemical conditions of environments. These two examples lead us to think about the relationship between the origin of life, evolutionary biology, and geology, particularly the uniformitarian principle. An important point is the extension of the comprehension of terrestrial conditions of emergence and evolution of life to other planets. We claim that there was a sort of extended uniformitarian principle, based not only on time, but also on space. Second, after a brief look at panspermia theory, we compare two examples of assumptions about life on other planets. The French astronomer Camille Flammarion (1842-1925) and the French biologist Edmond Perrier (1844-1921) presented views that consisted in complex analogies between life on Earth and life on other planets. We analyze how they used neo-Lamarckian biological concepts to imagine living beings in other worlds. Each planet is characterized by a particular stage of biological evolution that they deduce from the state of living beings on Earth. The two scientists explained these different states with neo-Lamarckian principles, which were based on environmental constraints on organisms. Therefore these descriptions presented a sort of history of life, including the past and the future. We claim that their assumptions could be some intellectual exercises testing neo-Lamarckian theories. Moreover the description of human beings on other planets, and particularly the Martian epianthropus presented by Perrier, were

  19. Lessons from Four "Bronze Muses" or How the Rhetoric of Nineteenth Century African-American Women Can Inform Writing Instruction in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Shirley W.

    Considering the rhetorical strategies four 19th-century black women employed to address various audiences can be helpful in the continuing struggle to find effective means of teaching writing to college students. These four women used a variety of strategies to reach audiences which were, to one degree or another, hostile to them because of their…

  20. Continuum mechanics through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries historical perspectives from John Bernoulli (1727) to Ernst Hellinger (1914)

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gérard A

    2014-01-01

    Conceived as a series of more or less autonomous essays, the present book critically exposes the initial developments of continuum thermo-mechanics in a post Newtonian period extending from the creative works of the Bernoullis to the First World war, i.e., roughly during first the “Age of reason” and next the “Birth of the modern world”. The emphasis is rightly placed on the original contributions from the “Continental” scientists (the Bernoulli family, Euler, d’Alembert, Lagrange, Cauchy, Piola, Duhamel, Neumann, Clebsch, Kirchhoff, Helmholtz, Saint-Venant, Boussinesq, the Cosserat brothers, Caratheodory) in competition with their British peers (Green, Kelvin, Stokes, Maxwell, Rayleigh, Love,..). It underlines the main breakthroughs as well as the secondary ones. It highlights the role of scientists who left essential prints in this history of scientific ideas. The book shows how the formidable developments that blossomed in the twentieth century (and perused in a previous book of the author in...

  1. Portuguese knights-errant in nineteenth-century Paris and Rio: translation as response to exile in global cities

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    Rita Bueno Maia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to uncover the role played by a series of picaresque novels translated into Portuguese and published in midnineteenth-century Paris in helping the Portuguese diaspora cope with the challenges of being a migrant in a global city. Through a contextual analysis, it will be argued that these novels were part of vaster cultural projects aimed at establishing solidarity networks among Portuguese exiles in Paris and, at the same time, at preserving multilingualism. By means of a textual analysis of Dom Severino Magriço ou o Dom Quichote portuguez (Paris, Pillet Fils Aîné, 1851, it will be suggested that this particular target text is committed to helping Portuguese migrants in Paris and in Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, this novel illustrates ways of engaging with multiple Others, mainly through the reading and comparing of national literary canons.

  2. The Role of History in Teaching Science--A Case Study: The Popularization of Science in Nineteenth-Century France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    Examines one of the key methods used to stimulate bourgeois interest in science in France during the Second Empire and early Third Republic; the campaign to create a popularized science. Concentrates on the "science writings" of Jules Michelet and Jules Verne, both of whom were immensely successful in creating a favorable climate of…

  3. From Science to Industry: The Sites of Aluminium in France from the Nineteenth to the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Muriel

    2015-05-01

    This paper explores the history of the isolation and industrial production of aluminium in France, from the work of Henri Sainte-Claire Deville in the 1850s to the latter part of the twentieth century, focusing on the relationships between academic research and industrial exploitation. In particular, it identifies a culture and organisation of research and development, "learning-by-doing," that emerged in the French aluminium industry following the establishment of the first electrolytic production facilities in the late 1880s by Paul Héroult, who, along with the American Charles Hall, patented the electrolytic method of producing the metal. This French method of R&D was a product both of a scientific culture that saw a continuity between scientific research and industrial application, and of a state policy that, unlike in Germany or the United States, was late to recognise the importance of fostering, on a large scale, the relations between academic chemistry and industry. It was only after World War II that the French state came fully to recognise the importance of underpinning industry with scientific research. And it was only from the 1960s, in the face of intensifying global competition, the risks of pollution, and the cost of energy, that the major aluminium firm Pechiney et Cie was able to replace a culture of "learning-by-doing" by one that integrated fundamental science with the production process.

  4. The status and powers of township officials on the Right Bank (the second half of the nineteenth century

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    A. I. Kassian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Great Reform of 1861 radically changed the administrative divisions of the traditional Ukrainian village. True, it had to influence on the regional peculiarities of the latter which formed historically. One of the innovations was the introduction of peasant (local self-government, which spread at the village and volost level. As this problem was already highlighted in historical scholarship, the author focused on the anthropological aspect. Because there were considerable differences between the juridically determined norms of volost government and the real state of things. As a rule, Ukrainian, Belorussian and Russian historians did not pay attention to them, in particular because the theoretical basis from which they took guidance in the second half of the 19th and in the 20th centuries did not anticipate being deep in the problems of commonness. The author tried to remedy this deficit. He focused his research on the political and legal status and powers of the volost officials in «Polish» Right bank Ukraine in the post-reform period paying attention to their real introduction.  That is the statements of the Great Reform of 1861 were the background, starting lit from which the author showed the real situation in the sphere of state government on the local level. He demonstrated that it was characteristic to preserve and even strengthen the clan system, which in turn significantly modified local traditions and minimized the effectiveness of self-government as such.  To prove the difference between the juridical statements and the real situation, the author used the methodological principles of the Ukrainian researchers Yu. Prysiazhniuk, О. Mykhailiuk, А. Zaiarniuk and others. This gave the opportunity to use in scientific research the main characteristics of the traditional peasant way of life, the patriarch agrarian society proper. So, the rule of customary law was reflected in the character of introduction of new laws. It was proven

  5. Religiöse Zeugnisse von Frauen des 16. bis 19. Jahrhunderts Religious Testimonials from Women of the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth Centuries

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    Angela Berlis

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Der Sammelband ist als Beitrag zur „(inter-konfessionellen Frauengeschichtsschreibung“ konzipiert und enthält Texte von 18 christlichen Frauen aus dem 16. bis 19. Jahrhundert, die sich zu religiösen, und damit auch zu gesellschaftlichen Fragen ihrer Zeit geäußert und – wie der Titel sagt – so dem Schweigegebot des Apostels Paulus (1 Kor 14,34 entronnen sind. Es ist das Anliegen der Herausgeberin, das Denken dieser bekannten und unbekannten Schriftstellerinnen und Dichterinnen, Frauenrechtlerinnen, Diakonissen, Ordensfrauen, einer Heilsarmeepredigerin und anderer religiöser Frauen einer breiteren Öffentlichkeit zugänglich zu machen und dabei die Eigenständigkeit und Originalität ihrer Schriften hervorzuheben. Alle hier vorgestellten Frauen haben eine Beziehung zur Schweiz. Das Buch ist für die private Lektüre, aber auch für die Arbeit mit Gruppen geeignet.The collected volume is conceived as a contribution to “(inter-confessional women’s history.” It contains texts by eighteen Christian women from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century who responded to religious questions, and therefore also social questions, of their time. By doing so, they undermine Apostle Paul’s command that women remain silent (1 Cor. 12.34. The editor’s intention is to make these women’s thoughts accessible to the general public. The women were well-known and unknown authors and poets, women’s rights advocates, deaconesses, women of religious orders, a female Salvation Army preacher, and other religious women. Additionally, the editor wishes to bring the autonomy and the originality of their texts to the foreground. Each of the women presented here have a connection to Switzerland. The book is appropriate for personal enjoyment but also for group work.

  6. Determination of the pigments present in a wallpaper of the middle nineteenth century: the combination of mid-diffuse reflectance and far infrared spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizabalaga, Iker; Gómez-Laserna, Olivia; Aramendia, Julene; Arana, Gorka; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2014-04-24

    In this work the determination of the pigments present in a decorative wallpaper of the middle nineteenth century from the Santa Isabel factory (Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country, Spain) has been performed by a combination of mid-Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFT) and Far Infrared Spectroscopy (FIR) in transmission mode. The DRIFT is a powerful infrared technique that is not widely used in the analyses of artworks in spite of being especially adequate for powdered samples. In this mode, sample pretreatment is not required and the obtained spectra are easier to solve than those obtained in transmittance mode. Those pigments which are not active in the mid-infrared region may be determined easily by FIR. In the last decade, in the field of painted materials very few studies performed by far infrared spectroscopy and mid infrared spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode can be found. In most of them the researchers have used one of these techniques, but in no case the combination of both. As we demonstrate in this work, combining these two techniques a complete characterization of the wallpaper can be carried out. Small samples were collected from the wallpaper for the analysis of the rose, brown, yellow and blue colours. In this way, minium (Pb3O4), calcite (CaCO3), barium sulphate (BaSO4), prussian blue (Fe7C18N18), iron oxide yellow (α-FeOOH), vermillion (HgS) and carbon black pigment from organic origen were detected. Finally, the validation was carried out by XRF and Raman spectroscopy getting the same results as with the combination of diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy and far infrared spectroscopy.

  7. The dynamics of relationships in northern Mozambique at the end of the nineteenth century and at the early twentieth century

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    Regiane Augusto de Mattos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem por objetivo apresentar os principais fatores desencadeadores e as formas de mobilização dos agentes envolvidos na “coligação de resistência” organizada, no final do século XIX, por chefes de Angoche, Sangage, Sancul, Quitangonha e dos grupos macua-imbamela e namarrais, às interferências da política colonialista portuguesa no norte de Moçambique, dando destaque para as dimensões das relações entre os diversos agentes históricos na região.

  8. The Great Escape: Technological Lock-in vs Appropriate Technology in Early Twentieth Century British Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltjer, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    America’s lead over Europe in manufacturing productivity from the late nineteenth century onwards has often been contributed to differences in initial conditions, trapping Europe in a relatively declining, labor-intensive and low-productive technological path. In this paper, I reassess the

  9. ‘Why, would you have me live upon a gridiron?’: Pain, Identity, and Emotional Communities in Nineteenth-Century English Convent Culture

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    Carmen M. Mangion

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of pain, approached through phenomenology and the various rhetorics of pain can bring into sharp relief how pain is culturally derived and embedded in a society’s values and norms. This essay explores nineteenth-century Catholic interpretations of pain, utilizing biography to examine how and why corporeal pain functioned as a means of both reinforcing Catholic beliefs in the utility of pain and of coping with pain. It examines unwanted pain in a defined space, the convent, and through a particular source, the biography of Margaret Hallahan (1803–1868, founder of the Dominican Sisters of St Catherine of Siena, written by the future prioress, convert Augusta Theodosia Drane (1823–1894 in 1869. Pain contributed to Hallahan’s identity: her corporeal suffering and its meanings, which were religious, cultural, and political, were embedded in her life story. Pain, as an ‘unpleasant sensory and emotional experience’, is treated in this essay as a subjective event given its meanings by both Hallahan and her biographer. If we look at the performance of pain through this lens of subjectivity, examining the tenor of the emotional experiences derived from Hallahan’s bodily pain, relationships, especially those with her religious sisters, spectators of her pain-full illness, come into high relief pointing to the relevance of community and the place of the convent. This approach lays out Hallahan’s life, as interpreted by Drane but refracted within the life of the religious community, to develop the interplay between these three actors: Hallahan, Drane, and the Dominican sisters. The rhetorics of pain in Hallahan’s life story will unfold through three themes:the hiddenness of pain, the relevance of 'imitatio Christi,' and the issue of consolation. Hallahan’s painful illness was used to affirm her sanctity but also to remind Catholics of the responsibilities and utility of bodily pain. Pain, though represented as private and

  10. A return to the ‘pretty house’. An interpretative bricolage of documentary sources on menarche rituals among the native peoples of the Argentine Patagonia (nineteenth and twentieth centuries

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    Graciela Hernández

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work is to put into consideration a new analysis of the text by the British author George Musters, of his description of a menarche ceremony (which he called “the pretty house” that was observed among the Tehuelches from the Patagonia in 1869, in order to contextualize it from the historic point of view and from a gender perspective.From qualitative methodology we have made a bricolage which expresses an itinerary articulated by a genealogy of documentary sources from the nineteenth century, by testimonies produced in anthropological and linguistic works in the second half of the twentieth century, and by ethnographic records of our works in oral history which focus on rituals to foster the yarns.The comparison of sources of the selected documents leads us to think about the hypothesis that in the ceremonies of the first menstruation, from the nineteenth century on, it was fostered the attachment to yarns and fabric, in societies which also ritualized the field of textile work.

  11. Reproducing an Early-20th-Century Wave Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Physics students often have problems understanding waves. Over the years numerous mechanical devices have been devised to show the propagation of both transverse and longitudinal waves (Ref. 1). In this article an updated version of an early-20th-century transverse wave machine is discussed. The original, Fig. 1, is at Creighton University in…

  12. Fisher's "Scale-Book": An Early Attempt at Educational Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenhead, Kenneth; Robinson, Richard

    1987-01-01

    The authors report on the discovery of a nineteenth century document that illustrates an early example of educational measurement, namely the "Scale-Book" developed by George Fisher (1862). The text of Fisher's document is appended. (TJH)

  13. Theater and the Discourse on Power: Jose Rizal’s Participation in Philippine Theater in the Last Decades of the Nineteenth Century

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    Apolonio B. Chua

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on Jose Rizal’s participation in Philippine Theater during the last decades of the nineteenth century. It starts with a careful inventory of attitudes towards existing theater forms and a description of the culture of theater as conceived and imagined in Rizal’s Noli Me Tangere (1887 and El Filibusterismo (1891. In Chapter 20: “The Town Council’s Meeting” in Noli Me Tangere, the study zooms in on the debate on what would be the best and most appropriate theatre piece for the town fiesta. Here, Rizal delineates theater enmeshed in issues of power and Spanish colonialism. He notes as significant the ilustrados’ claim to theatre space and ideology, thereby interrogating Spanish hegemony. The debate becomes the central imagery and situation for Rizal’s analysis and construction of the history of Philippine theater in the novel. Conservative and radical elements duel. The conflict becomes sharper as Rizal continues his critique by putting into his fictional world the very historical actors known at that time; namely, Nemesio Ratia, Jose Carvajal and Praxedes Julia Fernandez (also known as “Yeyeng”. They were part of the comedia troupe hired by the town for the fiesta. In Rizal’s second novel, El Filibusterismo, we encounter the events surrounding the presentation by a French opera troupe in Teatro de Variedades, which Rizal considers as the Manila theater model. The features of this model include a particular ticket system, various kinds of audiences, imported dramatic texts which were largely incomprehensible, actors behaving as actors both on-stage and off-stage, and the Teatro de Variedades space as stage for seizure or possession of power. When the students in the audience stage a walk-out in the theatre of the city and when in provincial San Diego, a stampede cuts short a comedia performance, the interrelationships between society and a discourse of power are revealed.Rizal’s annotations of Philippine

  14. Early 20th century conceptualization of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Wendy

    2016-05-06

    This historical analysis of the term 'health promotion' during the early 20th century in North American journal articles revealed concepts that strongly resonate with those of the 21st century. However, the lineage between these two time periods is not clear, and indeed, this paper supports contentions health promotion has a disrupted history. This paper traces the conceptualizations of health promotion during the 1920s, attempts to operationalize health promotion in the 1930s resulting in a narrowing of the concept to one of health education, and the disappearance of the term from the 1940s. In doing so, it argues a number of factors influenced the changing conceptualization and utilization of health promotion during the first half of the 20th century, many of which continue to present times, including issues around what health promotion is and what it means, ongoing tensions between individual and collective actions, tensions between specific and general causes of health and ill health, and between expert and societal contributions. The paper concludes the lack of clarity around these issues contributed to health promotion disappearing in the mid-20th century and thus resolution of these would be worthwhile for the continuation and development of health promotion as a discipline into the 21st century.

  15. Neonatal mortality and stillbirths in early twentieth century Derbyshire, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, A

    2001-11-01

    Neonatal mortality and stillbirths are recognised to be subject to similar influences, but survival after a successful live birth is usually considered in isolation of foetal wastage. Moreover, individual-level data on age-specific influences and causes of death in a historical context are rare. This paper uses an unusual data set to compare the influences on neonatal mortality and stillbirths in early twentieth century Derbyshire, England. Multivariate hazard and logistic analyses are performed to examine the relative roles of various social, environmental, and demographic factors. The influences on and causal structures of neonatal mortality and stillbirths emerge as broadly similar, with previous reproductive history linked to a considerable amount of variation. The clustering of endogenous deaths was much greater than the clustering of exogenous and post-neonatal deaths, probably reflecting the cause-of-death structure and the relatively healthy social and environmental position of early twentieth century Derbyshire.

  16. ‘Historical narratives and historical desires: re-evaluating American art criticism of the mid-nineteenth century’: Karen Georgi, Critical Shift: Rereading Jarves, Cook, Stillman, and the Narratives of Nineteenth-Century American Art, The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Gephart

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Striving to distinguish their authority as and demonstrate their professionalism, art critics James Jackson Jarves, Clarence Cook, and William James Stillman wrote exhibition reviews, essays, and increasingly self-conscious histories of American art and artists in the mid-nineteenth century. Whereas their writing has often been employed to establish a model of opposed pre- and post-war periodization in American art, Karen Georgi challenges this view, re-evaluating the rhetorical structures through which they set forth their opinions. Despite apparent differences and transformations in their categorical classifications, she finds commonalities in their definitions of art, as well as deeper commitments to the enduring belief in art’s truthfulness, and its moral and didactic purpose.

  17. La “Hija Del Pecado”. La República Post Independentista del Siglo XIX en Textos Escolares Venezolanos / The Daughter of Sin: Post-Independence Nineteenth Century Republic, in Venezuelan Textbooks

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    Carmen G. Arteaga Mora

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Se muestran resultados de una investigación sobre representaciones de la república venezolana en textos escolares de primaria, publicados durante el gobierno de Hugo Chávez. Concretamente, en este artículo se aborda la representación discursiva del sistema político republicano decimonónico, formado luego de la Independencia. Metodológicamente, se suscribe la perspectiva de Estudios Críticos de Discurso (ECD, según la cual el lenguaje es una forma de acción social, y a través de éste es posible establecer patrones ideológicos. Se analizó el contenido escrito de la sección de ciencias sociales de una muestra de libros de texto de quinto y sexto grado de primaria, ya que es en estos grados donde se aborda el tema de la república venezolana en el siglo XIX. Los hallazgos del análisis permiten concluir que el devenir ocurrido en el país luego de obtenida la Independencia y culminada la separación de la Gran Colombia (1830, se “dibuja” discursivamente escindido de los eventos de la Guerra de Emancipación, de forma que la precariedad sufrida por la sociedad no puede atribuirse a la conflagración experimentada en las primeras décadas del siglo. El “caudillismo” se representa como un elemento desventajoso de la cultura política nacional para la consolidación de las instituciones políticas y de la democracia. El relato reproduce la estructura del culto cívico bolivariano. The Daughter of Sin: Post-Independence Nineteenth Century Republic, in Venezuelan Textbooks ABSTRACT This paper presents results of a research on representations of the Venezuelan republic in primary school textbooks, published during the government of Hugo Chavez. Specifically, discusses the discursive representation of nineteenth-century republican political system, established after Independence. Methodologically, the paper subscribes the perspective of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, according to which the language is a form of social action, and

  18. The construction of nineteenth century frontier in the Río de la Plata historiography La construcción de la frontera decimonónica en la historiografía rioplatense

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    Roberto Schmit

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses the process of tranference and articulation of frontier concepts in America and Rioplatense historiography during nineteenth century. This articule analyzes the evolution of frontier works and their hypotheses dealing with the factors that could have influence in the Rio de la Plata history process.Este estudio está centrado en la evolución y la articulación de los conceptos de frontera en la historiografía americana y rioplatense durante el siglo XIX. En el mismo se analiza la trayectoria de los estudios de frontera y sus abordajes sobre los diversos factores que incidieron en los procesos históricos decimonónicos del Río de la Plata.

  19. "Too good to be true": the controversy over the use of permanganate of potash as an antidote to snake poison and the circulation of Brazilian physiology in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimieiro Gomes, Ana Carolina

    2012-01-01

    This article examines an international controversy over the most visible scientific event of Brazilian physiology in the nineteenth century. In 1881, Brazilian scientist João Baptista Lacerda stated that he had found an efficient antidote to the poison of Brazilian snakes: permanganate of potash (nowadays, potassium permanganate). His findings were given great publicity in Brazil and traveled rapidly around the world. Scientists, especially in France, contradicted Lacerda's claims. They argued that permanganate of potash could not be a genuine antidote to snake bites since it could not neutralize snake venom when diffused in the body. Lacerda turned down such criticism, claiming that clinical observation provided solid evidence for the drug's local action, on the spot surrounding the bite. The controversy over the use of permanganate of potash as an antidote to snake bite illustrates different regimes of proof that could be mobilized in favor of a physiological discovery.

  20. Humores e odores: ordem corporal e ordem social no Rio de Janeiro, século XIX Humors and odors: body order and social order in nineteenth-century Rio de Janeiro

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    Tania Andrade Lima

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Escavações arqueológicas empreendidas em lixos domésticos do século XIX, no Rio de Janeiro, vêm recuperando um abundante equipamento destinado à excreção de materiais fecais e catarros. Com base nesse material foram analisadas e interpretadas as atitudes adotadas à época em relação aos humores corporais, como resultado da impregnação das mentalidades dos novos segmentos 'burgueses' - em processo de ascensão e consolidação - pelo humorismo hipocrático. O texto aponta como a implantação de uma ordem corporal foi fundamental para a construção e manutenção da ordem social do século XIX e mostra a ideologia de higienização como uma das mais conseqüentes e eficazes estratégicas para a sustentação do projeto vitorioso de hegemonia da burguesia.Archeological diggings in household garbage deposits from nineteenth-century Rio have uncovered an abundance of equipment used in the elimination of fecal material and phlegm. These findings formed the basis for an analysis and interpretation of the era's attitudes regarding body fluids, as adopted when the mentalities of the new 'bourgeois' segments - then undergoing a process of rise and consolidation - were impregnated by Hippocratic humoralism. The text shows how the introduction of a 'body order' was fundamental in building and keeping the social order in the nineteenth century. It likewise shows how the ideology of hygienization was one of the most important and efficacious strategies for underpinning the bourgeoisie's (victorious project to achieve hegemony.

  1. Spanish, Portuguese, and Neo-Latin Poetry Written and/or Published by Seventeenth-, Eighteenth-, and Nineteenth-Century Sephardim from Hamburg and Frankfurt (2

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    Brown, Kenneth

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is the second in a three-part series (the first appearing in Sefarad 59 [1999] pp. 3-42; the third being in press on the phenomenon of Neo- Latin and Romance-Language —Spanish and Portuguese— poetry of the Sephardim in Hamburg and Frankfurt am Main from the early seventeenth to the midnineteenth centuries. Our collection expands the original poetic corpus from twenty-eight to forty-five works. In an historical and critical Introduction to the poems, the authors distinguish the creative genius of a new type of literary discourse, one which meshes neo-classical strophic forms with inspiration from Sephardic orthodox Judaism as it was practiced in the Dutch Netherlands, biblical events and Jewish philosophical constructs. In addition to the evaluation and edition of the poems and, in the cases of Neo-Latin works, their translation to English, the Introduction includes an argument for substantiating book printing of Sephardic-authored books in Frankfurt am Main during the period 1614-1634 as well as sporadically throughout the remainder of the seventeenth century.

    Nuestro estudio representa la segunda parte (la primera apareció en Sefarad 59 [1999] págs. 3-42; la tercera está en prensa de un trabajo sobre la poesía en latín y lenguas romances —español y portugués— de los sefardíes de Hamburgo y de Frankfurt am Main desde principios del siglo XVII hasta mediados del XVIII. Aquí el corpus poetarum se amplía de veintiocho a cuarenta y cinco obras; estas nuevas poesías evidencian un espíritu neoclasicista mezclado ingeniosamente con un discurso apegado a un judaísmo ortodoxo-sefardí tal como entonces se practicaba en los países protestantes del norte de Europa. En el apartado introductorio, que es tanto descriptivo como evaluativo de la obra poética, se defiende la tesis de que la ciudad protestante de Frankfurt am Main con su feria del libro anual servía como lugar de impresi

  2. Cancer Screening and Early Detection in the 21(st) Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loud, Jennifer T; Murphy, Jeanne

    2017-05-01

    To review the trends in and principles of cancer screening and early detection. Journal articles, United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) publications, professional organization position statements, and evidence-based summaries. Cancer screening has contributed to decreasing the morbidity and mortality of cancer. Efforts to improve the selection of candidates for cancer screening, to understand the biological basis of carcinogenesis, and the development of new technologies for cancer screening will allow for improvements in cancer screening over time. Nurses are well-positioned to lead the implementation of cancer screening recommendations in the 21(st) century through their practice, research, educational efforts, and advocacy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. ‘Towards an “exakte Kunstwissenschaft”(?. Part II: The new German art history in the nineteenth century: a summary of some problems'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Muthesius

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on what has been outlined in ‘Part I’ and on additional references to other new German work, as well as to articles by two of the protagonists of the 1870s and 1880s, Anton Springer and Moritz Thausing. The central issue is the nineteenth century’s desire for a Verwissenschaftlichung of the subject, to render the subject ‘purely scientific’. Principally this concerns the way in which older kinds of connoisseurship were juxtaposed to the new claims of a strictly ‘historical’ approach. Much shorter sections touch on aspects of style, iconography and form, as well as on the history of the provision of illustrations.

  4. The Scientific Enlightenment System in Russia in the Early Twentieth Century as a Model for Popularizing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashova, Yuliya B.

    2016-01-01

    This research reconstructs the traditions of scientific enlightenment in Russia. The turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was chosen as the most representative period. The modern age saw the establishment of the optimal model for advancing science in the global context and its crucial segment--Russian science. This period was…

  5. Renewing the American Commitment to the Common School Philosophy: School Choice in the Early Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, Brian L.

    2016-01-01

    The common school philosophy of the nineteenth century in the United States is revisited from a contemporary perspective. Is the basic ethos of the philosophy of Horace Mann and others still relevant today? This question is examined and applied to the conservative advocacy of free markets, individual freedom, and school choice in order to assess…

  6. Early twenty-first-century droughts during the warmest climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first 13 years of the twenty-first century have begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2%–6% and 7%–16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This feature article is a travelogue of the twenty-first-century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational space technology, called vegetation health (VH, which has the longest period of observation and provides good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI and thermal conditions. The twenty-first-century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia and Horn of Africa were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food security and led to food riots in some countries. This research also investigates drought dynamics presenting no definite conclusion about drought intensification or/and expansion during the time of the warmest globe.

  7. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L

    2003-06-01

    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  8. Mustaches and masculine codes in early twentieth-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldstone-Moore, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to deepen our understanding of twentieth-century masculinity by considering the social function of facial hair. The management of facial hair has always been a medium of gendered body language, and as such has elicited a nearly continuous private and public conversation about manliness. Careful attention to this conversation, and to trends in facial hairstyles, illuminates a distinct and consistent pattern of thought about masculinity in early twentieth-century America. The preeminent form of facial hair - mustaches - was used to distinguish between two elemental masculine types: sociable and autonomous. A man was neither wholly one nor the other, but the presence and size of a mustache - or its absence - served to move a man one way or another along the continuum that stretched from one extreme to the other. According to the twentieth-century gender code, a clean-shaven man's virtue was his commitment to his male peers and to local, national or corporate institutions. The mustached man, by contrast, was much more his own man: a patriarch, authority figure or free agent who was able to play by his own rules. Men and women alike read these signals in their evaluation of men.

  9. Iterative solution of linear systems in the 20­th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saad, Y.; Vorst, H.A. van der

    2001-01-01

    This paper sketches the main research developments in the area of iterative methods for solving linear systems during the 20th century. Although iterative methods for solving linear systems find their origin in the early nineteenth century (work by Gauss), the field has seen an explosion of activi

  10. Antigüedades portátiles: transportes, ruinas y comunicaciones en la arqueología del siglo XIX Portable antiquities: transportation, ruins, and communications in nineteenth-century archeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Podgorny

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presentamos un problema de la arqueología del siglo XIX: la transformación de las ruinas de la antigüedad americana en evidencia científica. Tomando el caso de la exploración arqueológica de Palenque luego de la independencia centroamericana y mexicana, analizaremos los intentos por hacer portátil las ruinas de una ciudad hallada en la selva a fines del siglo XVIII, analizando algunos de los medios creados y utilizados para resolver su transporte.The article addresses an issue in nineteenth-century archeology: the transformation of ancient American ruins into scientific evidence. It focuses specifically on the case of Palenque, a city discovered in the jungle in the late eighteenth century. The archeological exploration of this find, which occurred shortly after Central American and Mexican independence, entailed efforts to make these ruins portable. The article analyzes some of the means devised and used in their transportation.

  11. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS OF RUSSIAN SPIRITUAL ACADEMIES’ TEACHERS OF THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ershova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of philosophical and theological creativity of Russian theological academies’ teachers of the early 20th century. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of methodological foundations’ changes of philosophical-theological quest on the teachers of Russian theological academies and the educational process itself in theological schools. Methods. The author focuses on the content of training courses delivered in the theological academies in the first two decades of the 20th century; problem statement peculiarities; aspect and priority choice in the fundamental researches conducted by the teachers of these schools. The applied methods include the comparative method, analysis, synthesis, method of abstraction, other philosophical and scientific methods. Results. The author comes to the conclusion that the changes of methodological installations in scientific research representatives of spiritual and academic theism beginning of the 20th century can be compared with similar studies of the nineteenth century. It is mentioned that reorientation of a number of prominent representatives of spiritual and academic theism from scholastic methods, speculative psychology and metaphysics towards Patristics, asceticism and personal experiences allows us to propose this movement as West-European Philosophy searches of the same period. Thus, V. I. Nesmelov sees the basis of any religious teachings in the experience of human cognition. M. M. Tareev draws up his own moral theology reading course based on the personal experience living the Gospel Book. Archimandrite Sergious (Stragorodsky interprets the topic of finding salvation not against the background of the changes in God, but from the standpoint of the changes that occur in humanity. Bishop Theodore (Pozdeevsky, Archbishop Hilarion (Troitsky and Bishop Barnabas (Belyaev make known scholasticism as epistemological malice characterizing the specifics of theological

  12. Early 20th century acoustics apparatus in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Roger J.

    2004-05-01

    In the first half of the 20th century G. W. Stewart was a physics faculty member at the University of Iowa (UI) with a distinguished record of research and teaching, especially in acoustics. Much of his research focused on the design and use of several types of acoustical filters. Some apparatus which he developed or utilized are still housed in the Department of Physics and Astronomy or are available in detailed diagrams. Demonstration apparatus (apparently homemade) from his era are still available for use. Carl E. Seashore, a renowned psychologist also at UI in the early 20th century, had interdisciplinary interests linking psychology, speech and hearing, music, and acoustics. He was responsible for obtaining an Henrici harmonic analyzer, a mechanical Fourier analyzer manufactured in Switzerland, a special grant from the state legislature during Depression conditions provided the funding. It resides in the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology at UI. The Grinnell College Physics Historical Museum houses a set of 18 Helmholtz resonators and a Savart bell and resonator. Apparatus at Iowa State University, the University of Northern Iowa, and other Iowa institutions will also be described. Pictures and diagrams as well as some actual apparatus will be exhibited.

  13. Early 20th century acoustics apparatus in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Roger J.

    2001-05-01

    In the first half of the 20th century G. W. Stewart was a physics faculty member at the University of Iowa (UI) with a distinguished record of research and teaching, especially in acoustics. Much of his research focused on the design and use of several types of acoustical filters. Some apparatus which he developed or utilized are still housed in the Department of Physics and Astronomy or are available in detailed diagrams. Demonstration apparatus (apparently homemade) from his era are still available for use. Carl E. Seashore, a renowned psychologist also at UI in the early 20th century, had interdisciplinary interests linking psychology, speech and hearing, music, and acoustics. He was responsible for obtaining an Henrici harmonic analyzer, a mechanical Fourier analyzer manufactured in Switzerland, a special grant from the state legislature during Depression conditions provided the funding. It resides in the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology at UI. The Grinnell College Physics Historical Museum houses a set of 18 Helmholtz resonators and a Savart bell and resonator. Apparatus at Iowa State University, the University of Northern Iowa, and other Iowa institutions will also be described. Pictures and diagrams as well as some actual apparatus will be exhibited.

  14. Tropospheric circulation during the early twentieth century Arctic warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Martin; Brönnimann, Stefan; Compo, Gilbert P.

    2016-06-01

    The early twentieth century Arctic warming (ETCAW) between 1920 and 1940 is an exceptional feature of climate variability in the last century. Its warming rate was only recently matched by recent warming in the region. Unlike recent warming largely attributable to anthropogenic radiative forcing, atmospheric warming during the ETCAW was strongest in the mid-troposphere and is believed to be triggered by an exceptional case of natural climate variability. Nevertheless, ultimate mechanisms and causes for the ETCAW are still under discussion. Here we use state of the art multi-member global circulation models, reanalysis and reconstruction datasets to investigate the internal atmospheric dynamics of the ETCAW. We investigate the role of boreal winter mid-tropospheric heat transport and circulation in providing the energy for the large scale warming. Analyzing sensible heat flux components and regional differences, climate models are not able to reproduce the heat flux evolution found in reanalysis and reconstruction datasets. These datasets show an increase of stationary eddy heat flux and a decrease of transient eddy heat flux during the ETCAW. Moreover, tropospheric circulation analysis reveals the important role of both the Atlantic and the Pacific sectors in the convergence of southerly air masses into the Arctic during the warming event. Subsequently, it is suggested that the internal dynamics of the atmosphere played a major role in the formation in the ETCAW.

  15. Financial crises of the early twentieth century in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Moshenskyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the major financial crises in Ukraine at early twentieth century dealing with the crises of 1899–1902 and 1908–1910. The main attention is paid to the large-scale crisis of 1899–1902 at the new industrial region in Eastern Ukraine where numerous steel and mining companies based on massive foreign investment (mainly Belgian and French were created shortly. The general boom of new joint-stock companies and insufficient provision of these companies by state orders were the main reason of the crisis which was the reflection of the international industrial and financial crisis of those years. The author also researches the crisis of 1908–1910 in the Ukrainian sugar industry.

  16. Mad scenes in early 19th-century opera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfurth, A; Hoff, P

    2000-10-01

    It is our objective to examine the phenomenon of mad scenes in bel canto opera from a modern perspective. The development of psychiatry and music at the beginning of the 19th century is described. Common elements of romantic music and mental disorders are discussed. It is shown how bel canto composers represent psychiatric illness by musical means. The psychopathology depicted in a prototypical mad scene is evaluated. Early romantic music is characterized by imagination, illusion and loss of structure; characteristics which can be well expressed in mad scenes. While madness (withdrawal into a utopian world) gained a certain attraction in society, clinical psychiatry increasingly focused on emotional causes of illness and on drug-induction of mental disorders. Mad scenes in bel canto opera can be understood as expression of an increasing interest in emotional aspects in music and society as well as in clinical psychiatry.

  17. Remembering and forgetting Freud in early twentieth-century dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, John

    2006-03-01

    The paper explores the use of Freud's methods of dream interpretation by four English writers of the early twentieth century: T. H. Pear, W. H. R. Rivers, Ernest Jones, and Alix Strachey. Each employed their own dreams in rather different ways: as part of an assessment of Freud's work as a psychological theory, as illustrative of the cogency of Freud's method and theories as part of the psychoanalytic process. Each adopted different approaches to the question of privacy and decorum. The paper argues that assessment of the impact of Freud's work must take account of the application of the method to the researcher's own dreams and the personal impact this process of analysis had upon them, and must also gauge how the dreamers' deployment of Freud's methods influenced their explicit relationship to him and his theories.

  18. Immigration, crime, and incarceration in early twentieth-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehling, Carolyn; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2009-11-01

    The major government commissions on immigration and crime in the early twentieth century relied on evidence that suffered from aggregation bias and the absence of accurate population data, which led them to present partial and sometimes misleading views of the immigrant-native criminality comparison. With improved data and methods, we find that in 1904, prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19, for which the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native-born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely than natives to be committed to prisons at all ages 20 and older, but this advantage disappears when one looks at commitments for violent offenses. The time series pattern reflects a growing gap between natives and immigrants at older ages, one that was driven by sharp increases in the commitment rates of the native-born, while commitment rates for the foreign-born were remarkably stable.

  19. Modernization Theory Revisited: Latin America, Europe, and the U.S. in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando López-Alves

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Theories of modernization, globalization, and dependency have assigned a clear role to Latin America: the region has been seen as dependent, exploited, and institutionally weak. In these theories, modernization and globalization are seen as forces generated elsewhere; the region, in these views, has merely tried to “adjust” and “respond” to these external influences. At best, it has imitated some of the political institutions of the core countries and, most of the times, unsuccessfully. While there is very good empirical evidence that supports these views, the essay argues that these theories need some correction. Latin America has been an innovator and a modernizer in its own right, especially in its cutting-edge design of the nation-state and in its modern conceptualization of the national community. Thus, the essay suggests that the region has not merely “adjusted” to modernization and globalization. Rather, the paper makes a case for a reinterpretation of the region’s role as a modernizer and an important contributor to the consolidation of the modern West.

  20. Mrs Birkbeck's Album: The Hand-written and the Printed in Early Nineteenth-Century Feminine Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Di Bello

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Mrs Birkbeck's Album, collected between 1825 and 1847 by the wife of the founder of the College, contains poems, songs and other texts, as well as drawings and watercolours by famous women and men of her time. Like the collections that aristocratic women were able to spread over galleries and libraries, the album formed and displayed her taste, showcasing her husband's reputation and the cultural and political circles in which the couple moved. Several contributors to her album also worked for annuals, fashionable publications associated with a debased, commercialised feminine culture. Unlike these mechanically produced pages, Mrs Birkbeck's album, marked by individual hands rather than by printing presses, is the result of gift exchanges, removed from the world of commodified culture, even as it partakes of its glamour. Recent publications have explored the emergence of women's magazines, but little consideration has been given to album making. In this paper I explore the social meanings of Mrs Birkbeck's interest in albums. To facilitate a close reading of its individual pages, I am working towards digitising the album, in collaboration with Birkbeck Library and the Vasari Lab in the School of History of Art, Film and Visual Media.

  1. American Overseas Colonial Expansion in Nineteenth Century and Sino-US Trade Relations%19世纪美国海外殖民扩张与中美贸易关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓冬

    2016-01-01

    From eighteen to nineteenth Century, the United States was committed to business with Asian countries. The Sino-US trade provided the original capital accumulation of the U.S. industrial economy. In the late nineteenth Century, the America's economic expansion shifted from home to overseas. Asia and Pacific region was the target of the United States to expand. The ideas of democracy, freedom, and isolationism provided a theoretical basis for its expansion. The pursuit of commercial interests was the motive of the United States for expansion. The occupation of the Japan, the Philippine and the Hawaii showed the concern to the Asia-Pacific region, especially China. The American overseas expansion strategy had a direct and indirect relationship with the Sino-US trade, which provides a new perspective for the study of Sino US-trade relations.%18至19世纪,美国致力于与亚洲国家的商业往来,中美贸易为美国工业经济提供了原始资本积累。19世纪中后期,美国的经济扩张从国内转自海外,亚洲与太平洋地区是美国扩张的目标。美国的民主、自由、孤立主义思想为其扩张提供了理论基础。追求商业利益是美国扩张的动机,美国对日本、菲律宾、夏威夷的占领无不显示出对亚太地区,特别是对中国的关注。美国海外扩张战略与中美贸易有着直接与间接的关系,这为研究中美贸易关系提供了新的视角。

  2. The novel «La Emancipada»: women’s elementary education in nineteenth-century Ecuador «La emancipada»: las primeras letras y las mujeres en el ecuador decimonónico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie TERÁN NAJAS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the impact of elementary education in the individual and public experience of women in nineteenth-century Ecuador, during the transition between the period of the Gran Colombia and the first half of the republican period. The first part examines the girls’ schooling process in the context of the establishment of the republican school system, as well as the decline experienced by the utopia of enlightened education in the mid-nineteenth century, when its egalitarian and inclusive mission failed. In contrast with this schooling dimension, the second part reveals an unknown dimension of the Lancasterian project that allowed women to acquire literacy levels adequate to undertake a self-taught way which, at the same time, the society did not stop censoring. The use of unconventional sources such as the novel La Emancipada (The Emancipated opens new perspectives for research in History of Education with a gender perspective.El artículo analiza la trascendencia que tuvo la educación elemental en la experiencia individual y pública de las mujeres ecuatorianas del siglo XIX, tomando como marco temporal la transición entre la época grancolombiana y la primera mitad del período republicano. En la primera parte se examina el fenómeno de escolarización de las niñas en el contexto del establecimiento del sistema escolar republicano, y se constata el declive que experimenta la utopía educativa ilustrada a mediados del siglo XIX, al fracasar su misión igualitarista e integradora. En contraste con esta dimensión escolarizada, en la segunda parte se devela una dimensión extraescolar desconocida del proyecto lancasteriano, que permitió a las mujeres niveles de alfabetización suficientes como para emprender un camino autodidacta que la sociedad de la época no dejó de censurar. El uso de fuentes no convencionales como la novela La Emancipada abre nuevas perspectivas para la investigación en historia de la educación con

  3. Studies of Local Lore as a Form of Ethnic Consciousness: The Karelians of Olonets Province in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr M. Pashkov

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Author deals with 19th century intellectuals of Olonets Karelian origin who started to be interested in local language, culture and ways of life. They started to compile and publish corresponding texts and it meant the beginning of ethnic mobilization of Karelians. Author starts with a brief overview of local historical background and continues with activities of three intellectuals of Karelian origin (I. V. Kondratyev, M. N. Smirnov, N. F. Leskov.

  4. Bone transplantation and tissue engineering. Part II: bone graft and osteogenesis in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Duhamel, Haller, Ollier and MacEwen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In the 18th century, the fate of allografts and their role in bone formation became of interest to many orthopaedic surgeons. A controversy over the science of osteogenesis, the formation of bone, had emerged following the opposing views of Duhamel and von Haller. Duhamel noted that the periosteum had a deep osteogenic layer, which he termed the "cambium layer". However, von Haller claimed the opposite: the periosteum was not osteogenic. In the 19th century, Ollier performed comprehensive studies on the periosteum. Ollier's experiments were published in two volumes entitled "Traite Experimental et clinique de la regeneration des os" in 1867. His conclusion was that transplanted periosteum and bone survived and could become osteogenic under proper conditions. The controversy was furthered by MacEwen who believed, contrary to Duhamel and Ollier, that the periosteum had no osteogenetic power and was purely a limiting membrane giving direction to bone growth but taking no active part in it. This manuscript describes this period of controversies about the osteogenesis of the transplanted bone, marrow and periosteum that would eventually die or not and be replaced by surrounding tissue or be active for osteogenesis. Whether bone grafts are a form of passive scaffolding or active in osteogenesis was the main question about auto and allografts in the 18th and 19th centuries. In response to this challenge, many papers were written to defend each side of the argument.

  5. Aerological observations in the tropics in the early twentieth century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broennimann, Stefan; Stickler, Alexander [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research and Inst. of Geography

    2013-10-15

    In the first decades of the 20{sup th} century, aerological observations were for the first time performed in tropical regions. One of the most prominent endeavours in this respect was Arthur Berson's aerological expedition to East Africa. Although the main target was the East African monsoon circulation, the expedition provided also other insights that profoundly changed meteorology and climatology. Berson observed that the tropical tropopause was much higher and colder than that over midlatitudes. Moreover, westerly winds were observed in the lower stratosphere, apparently contradicting the high-altitude equatorial easterly winds that were known since the Krakatoa eruption ('Krakatoa easterlies'). The puzzle was only resolved five decades later with the discovery of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO). In this paper we briefly summarize the expedition of Berson and review the results in a historical context and in the light of the current research. In the second part of the paper we re-visit Berson's early aerological observations, which we have digitized. We compare the observed wind profiles with corresponding profiles extracted from the 'Twentieth Century Reanalysis', which provides global three-dimensional weather information back to 1871 based on an assimilation of sea-level and surface pressure data. The comparison shows a good agreement at the coast but less good agreement further inland, at the shore of Lake Victoria, where the circulation is more complex. These results demonstrate that Berson's observations are still valuable today as input to current reanalysis systems or for their validation. (orig.)

  6. Aerological observations in the Tropics in the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Brönnimann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the first decades of the 20th century, aerological observations were for the first time performed in tropical regions. One of the most prominent endeavours in this respect was Arthur Berson's aerological expedition to East Africa. Although the main target was the East African monsoon circulation, the expedition provided also other insights that profoundly changed meteorology and climatology. Berson observed that the tropical tropopause was much higher and colder than that over midlatitudes. Moreover, westerly winds were observed in the lower stratosphere, apparently contradicting the high-altitude equatorial easterly winds that were known since the Krakatoa eruption (“Krakatoa easterlies(”. The puzzle was only resolved five decades later with the discovery of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO. In this paper we briefly summarize the expedition of Berson and review the results in a historical context and in the light of the current research. In the second part of the paper we re-visit Berson's early aerological observations, which we have digitized. We compare the observed wind profiles with corresponding profiles extracted from the (“Twentieth Century Reanalysis(”, which provides global three-dimensional weather information back to 1871 based on an assimilation of sea-level and surface pressure data. The comparison shows a good agreement at the coast but less good agreement further inland, at the shore of Lake Victoria, where the circulation is more complex. These results demonstrate that Berson's observations are still valuable today as input to current reanalysis systems or for their validation.

  7. Female peacemakers in republican cultures during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries | Republicanas en pie de paz: la sustitución de las armas por la justicia, el arbitraje y el derecho (1868-1899

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Ramos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the discourse and mobilization in favour of peace by republican women during the second half of the nineteenth century. Its protagonists established an associative movement and employed combative tactics rooted in civil society; they rebelled against the drafts, refused to condone the war, and called for disarmament and different means of arbitration, incidentally helping to reformulate the concept of social citizenship within the sphere of left-wing political culture. | En el artículo se abordan los discursos y movilizaciones por la paz de las mujeres republicanas durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. Sus protagonistas construyeron un movimiento asociativo y unas tácticas de lucha enraizadas en la sociedad civil, se rebelaron contra las quintas, negaron autoridad moral a la guerra y reclamaron a los gobiernos el desarme y diferentes prácticas de arbitraje, contribuyendo de paso a reformular el concepto de ciudadanía social en el ámbito de las culturas políticas de izquierdas.

  8. Studying of mariupol greek community (last quarter of the eighteenth – the end of the nineteenth century by the modern Ukrainian historical science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Podgayko

    2014-11-01

    The modern Ukrainian history began actively studying the topic in the 90s of the XX century and scientific studies are continued to the present. All historiographical contribution on this subject can be divided into two groups: the first one includes the general research works in which the Greeks of Ukraine were involved and Mariupol Greek court is only briefly mentioned. The second group consists of the works focused directly on the analysis of this body of the government, its functions, records, legal system, legal jurisdiction and its place in the system of Russian legislation.

  9. Natural cement in the nineteenth century city of Madrid. Identification of their application, conservation status and their compatibility with moderns cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrochano, Cristina Mayo; Lasheras Merino, Felix; Sanz-Arauz, David

    2016-04-01

    Roman cement was patented in 1796 and it arrived to Spain in 1835. Although the natural cement used in Madrid came mainly from Guipúzcoa's factories, there were a few small factories producing natural cement in the area. In the south east of Madrid, in "Morata de Tajuña", are the marl quarries of the Madrid Community. Natural cement was extensively used to decorate buildings in Madrid during the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. It was highly demanded in various sectors of civil engineering: sewerage, water supply, canals, ports and tunnels. In the building sector, at first the use of cements was limited to building foundations and masonry mortars, but never as render mortar because it was considered an unsightly and vulgar material. For renders still traditional lime mortar was used. And is not till the end of the 19th century when it was used in facade decorations for the first time. We have analysed 25 buildings in Madrid built in that period of time. It was used microscopy techniques for the identification of these cements, checking how many of them used natural cement, how they used it, what is its conservation status and their compatibility with modern cements.

  10. Cholera in the Portuguese Region of Alto Minho in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century: Epidemic Outbreaks, Treatment and Behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Esteves

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work is to analyse the impact of cholera outbreaks that took place in Alto Minho, a region in the North of Portugal, in a century in which, due to several developments, distances became shorter and people from different parts of the globe became closer, and thus explaining the spreading of a disease that manifests itself quickly and evolves rapidly. We also intend to evaluate the effect of the measures undertaken by administrative and sanitary authorities and to verify the alterations in the daily life of the affected communities as far as economic activities, organization, cleanness and hygiene in the public venue are concerned, emphasizing on the temporary suspension of the relations with the neighbouring region of Galiza equally affected by numerous cholera outbreaks.

  11. TRENDS IN THE FUNCTIONING OF THE BORDER BRIDGES OF THE KINGDOM OF POLISH FROM RUSSIAN EMPIRE IN THE NINETEENTH FIRST HALF CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek RUTKOWSKI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the issues of borde bridges connecting till the mid of 19th century Kingdom of Poland and tzarist Russian Empire in three main points: Aleksota, Terespol and Źółtki towns. The different aspects of functioning of these bridges were analyzed, including a chronological view of the phenomenon; as well one drew attention to visible and clear tendency in their management. A repeated idea tended to occcur as - especially since the period of “Spring of Nations” - one could observe among Russian authorities kind of steady desire to take full controll over Polish- Russian border bridges from Polish hands and make them subject to the imperial rule of military or civilian origin only.

  12. Gristhorpe Man: an Early Bronze Age log-coffin burial scientifically defined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melton, Nigel; Montgomery, Janet; Knüsel, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    A log-coffin excavated in the early nineteenth century proved to be well enough preserved in the early twenty-first century for the full armoury of modern scientific investigation to give its occupants and contents new identity, new origins and a new date. In many ways the interpretation is much...

  13. Language Learning versus Vocational Training: French, Arab and British Voices Speak about Indigenous Girls' Education in Nineteenth-Century Colonial Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Rebecca Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the first school for indigenous girls in Algeria that opened in Algiers in 1845. The founder, Eugenie Luce, taught girls the rudiments--French language and grammar, reading, arithmetic, and Arabic, while the afternoon hours were devoted to sewing. This early focus on teaching French in order to achieve the "fusion of…

  14. Language Learning versus Vocational Training: French, Arab and British Voices Speak about Indigenous Girls' Education in Nineteenth-Century Colonial Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Rebecca Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the first school for indigenous girls in Algeria that opened in Algiers in 1845. The founder, Eugenie Luce, taught girls the rudiments--French language and grammar, reading, arithmetic, and Arabic, while the afternoon hours were devoted to sewing. This early focus on teaching French in order to achieve the "fusion of…

  15. Rice production in China in the early 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Rice is the staple food crop in China. In the second half of the 20th century, rice has played an important role in feeding a large number of people. In the 21st century, rice will still be a main food crop in China and make great contribution to Chinese people's life.

  16. THE NINETEENTH CENTURY WESTERN TRAVELLERS’ CONCEPTION OF THE ARĪM: RESTORING THE CULTURAL COMPLEXITY OF THE IJĀB IN ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faredah Mohsen al-Murahhem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines 19th   century Western travellers’ understanding of the ḥarīm. Focusing in  particular on visual  depictions,  it  investigates  the  misconception  and  misrepresentation  of  the  ḥarīm  in  Orientalists’ paintings and Western culture, using thework of the artist John Frederick Lewis as a main case study. Arguing that such representations oversimplify and fantasise sacred Islamic cultural experience,  this  paper,  as a counterpoint, restores a detailed understanding of the ḥarīm and defines its wider Islamic implication within Arabic culture. Applying etymology and Islamic scripture to the study of architectural design,  this study explores the centrality of the concept of ḥijāb (veil to the organisation of physical space for women in the Islamic home. Written from the perspective of an Arabic Muslim  woman, this study seeks to explore the concept of the ḥarīm from the “Others” perspective. Keyword: Western travellers, Orientalists, Muslim women, ḥarīm, Arabic culture

  17. Progress in rheumatology in the early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nasonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, juvenile arthritis, spondyloarthritis, including psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and other systemic connective tissue diseases, are the most severe chronic immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases (IIRDs that affect as high as 10% of the population. Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of IIRDs in the 21st century. The current Treat to Target (T2T strategy for RA is to achieve remission as soon as possible. The main treatment goal is to improve quality of life, by controlling the symptoms of the disease, by preventing joint destruction and dysfunction, and by maintaining social possibilities. The most important way to achieve this goal is to inhibit inflammation and to evaluate the efficiency of treatment, by using the standardized activity indices and by choosing the appropriate treatment option. The widespread use of biological agents in combination with standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs could substantially enhance therapeutic effectiveness. A new class of medicaments (chemically synthesized small molecular weight agents to treat RA has appeared. The point of their application is tyrosine kinases, primarily Janus kinase (JAK. The new era in the treatment of SLE and other IIRDs is associated with the design of the new class of drugs Р BLyS inhibitors. In the coming years, the main lines of researches by Russian rheumatologists will be to elaborate a strategy to prevent IIRDs; to introduce innovative methods for their early diagnosis and treatment (biological agents, JAK inhibitors, and other cell signaling molecules and for the prediction of the outcomes of the most severe forms of IIRD; to realize the concept of personified medicine (to investigate the prognostic biomarkers of the efficiency and safety of targeted therapy, to reduce the risk of infectious complications, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporotic fractures, and other comorbidities.

  18. Aspects of negative numbers in the early 17th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaidis, Yannis

    1993-03-01

    This paper argues that the questions, posed by researchers in the field of didactics of mathematics, require new historical research which mainly concerns the problems related to the emergence and evolution of concepts. Motivated by recent historico-didactical studies on negative numbers, the author explores two different types of problems through which these numbers started being used systematically in mathematics. The first problem deals with the correspondence between the terms of an arithmetical and a geometrical progression, which constitutes the theoretical basis of logarithms; the second deals with the application of algebraic syntactical ruies in the theory of equations. In the specific context of these problems, concepts, such as ‘negative logarithm’ or ‘negative root’, were established in the early 17th century, long before the appearance of a general concept of ‘negative quantity’ in mathematical textbooks. The analysis of these problems reveals the conventional character of negative numbers and poses certain questions about the meaning of the various concrete models, traditionally employed in their teaching (via temperature, debits and credits, etc.). Recent, large-scale empirical research has shown a major percentage of failure in understanding negative numbers and their operations; this fact is related to the meanings attributed to negative numbers during their introduction at school. The matter of revising traditional teaching models is considered in connection with a constructive learning hypothesis; there is a need for new problem-situations, which entirely justify the meaning of the concept that must be used and constructed by the pupil and allow a fruitful interaction with it. The case of negative numbers provides an illuminating example of the role historical problems can play in the creation of situations like these.

  19. The Strange Birth of Liberal Denmark: Danish trade protection and the growth of the dairy industry since the mid-nineteenth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard; Henriksen, Ingrid; Lampe, Markus

    2012-01-01

    production. Moreover, this favouritism continued even after a more general movement to free trade in the 1860s. Using micro-level data from individual dairies, we quantify the implied subsidy to dairy production from the tariffs, and demonstrate that in many cases this ensured the profitability of individual...... into decline, in fact flourished. Key to the success of Danish agriculture was an early diversification towards dairy production. This article challenges this simple story which sees Denmark as something of a liberal paragon. Denmark's success owed much to a prudent use of trade policy which favoured dairy...

  20. Writing for Money: The Muse and the Market in the English Newspaper Novel from the Nineteenth to Twenty-First Centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Asch, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The descriptor “hack,” as in hack writer, was slang for a prostitute before becoming common shorthand for a journalist in the early years of commercial printing in England. In linking these two types of dubious work-for-hire, the implication is that writing, the ultimate act of human thought and expression, is, like the physical act of love, too important to be sullied by professionalism. For the entire history of the print media, the dichotomy between muse and market—between soul and bod...

  1. Escravos no purgatório: o leprosário do Tucunduba (Pará, século XIX Slaves in purgatory: the Tucunduba Leprosarium (Pará, nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Couto Henrique

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisa a experiência dos escravos recolhidos ao leprosário do Tucunduba, em Belém, no Pará, ao longo do século XIX. Libertos depois de exibir no corpo as marcas da lepra, esperava-se deles submissão à política de segregação que pretendia afastá-los do contato com o restante da população. A documentação produzida pela Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará e autoridades políticas da província revela as estratégias desenvolvidas pelos escravos no enfrentamento dessa política, utilizando-se da predominância numérica no leprosário para criar uma rede de solidariedade que lhes permitisse recriar a vida e se contrapor ao tipo de nação sonhada pelas teorias higienistas da época.The article analyzes the experience of the slaves interned at the Tucunduba Leprosarium in Belém, state of Pará during the nineteenth century. The slaves were freed once they showed the marks of their leprosy, and expectations were that they would submit to the segregation policy meant to keep them from contact with the rest of the population. The documentation produced by Santa Casa de Misericórdia hospital in Pará and by the province's political authorities reveals the strategies the slaves devised in response to this policy; they used their numerical predominance at the leprosarium to create a network of solidarity that allowed them to recreate their lives and stand in opposition to the type of nation that the era's hygienist theories envisioned.

  2. The riddle of sex: biological theories of sexual difference in the early twentieth-century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nathan Q

    2011-01-01

    At the turn of the twentieth century, biologists such as Oscar Riddle, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Frank Lillie, and Richard Goldschmidt all puzzled over the question of sexual difference, the distinction between male and female. They all offered competing explanations for the biological cause of this difference, and engaged in a fierce debate over the primacy of their respective theories. Riddle propounded a metabolic theory of sex dating from the late-nineteenth century suggesting that metabolism lay at the heart of sexual difference. Thomas Hunt Morgan insisted on the priority of chromosomes, Frank Lillie emphasized the importance of hormones, while Richard Goldschmidt supported a mixed model involving both chromosomes and hormones. In this paper, I will illustrate how the older metabolic theory of sex was displaced when those who argued for the relatively newer theories of chromosomes and hormones gradually formed an alliance that accommodated each other and excluded the metabolic theory of sex. By doing so, proponents of chromosomes and hormones established their authority over the question of sexual difference as they laid the foundations for the new disciplines of genetics and endocrinology. Their debate raised urgent questions about what constituted sexual difference, and how scientists envisioned the plasticity and controllability of this difference. These theories also had immediate political and cultural consequences at the turn of the twentieth century, especially for the eugenic and feminist movements, both of which were heavily invested in knowledge of sex and its determination, ascertainment, and command.

  3. The impact of western science and technology on 'ukiyo-e' prints and book illustrations in late eighteenth and nineteenth century Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Morris

    2011-01-01

    In the Edo period (c. 1600-1868), exposure to Western art, science and technology encouraged Japanese 'ukiyo-e' (pictures of the floating world) artists to experiment with Western perspective in woodblock prints and book illustrations. We can see its early influence in the work of Utagawa Hiroshige (1787-1858), as well as Utagawa Kuniyoshi (1797-1861). Unlike Hiroshige, Kuniyoshi lived to see the opening of the port of Yokohama to trade with the West in 1859. A whole genre of Yokohama prints emerged and one of the key artists was Utagawa Sadahide (1807-1873). In his illustrated books entitled 'Yokohama kaikō kenbunshi' (A Record of Things Seen and Heard in the Open Port of Yokohama) (1862), Sadahide plays with perspective in an effort to represent the dynamic changes that Japan was undergoing in its encounter with the West at the time. In the work of later artists such as Hiroshige III (1843-1894), Kobayashi Kiyochika (1847-1915) and Inoue Yasuji (1864-1889), we can see growing efforts to depict light, shadow and depth, and a continuing fascination with the steam locomotive and the changes occurring in the Tokyo-Yokohama region as Japan entered the Meiji period (1868-1912).

  4. The Work Place of the Early Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Major issues affecting the workplace of the twenty-first century include productivity growth, globalization, resistance to change, worker alienation, and telecommunications. Opposing views of technology are that (1) it will improve the economy and create jobs or (2) the majority of new jobs will not require high skills. (SK)

  5. The Work Place of the Early Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Major issues affecting the workplace of the twenty-first century include productivity growth, globalization, resistance to change, worker alienation, and telecommunications. Opposing views of technology are that (1) it will improve the economy and create jobs or (2) the majority of new jobs will not require high skills. (SK)

  6. Nineteenth-century transnational urban history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Møller

    2016-01-01

    contributions to urban history in a transnational perspective are analysed. Approaches to urban planning history that focus on transnational linkages and international organization are discussed. Approaches to urban history within enlarged geographical scales that go beyond the nation-state framework...

  7. Gadda and the Nineteenth-Century Novel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godioli, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on Gadda’s crucial (if largely unexplored) dialogue with the tradition of European realism, especially in the period spanning from Racconto italiano to La cognizione del dolore. Building on a series of previously undetected intertextual echoes from Dickens, Balzac, Stendhal,

  8. Symptom removal: the nineteenth century experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzenhoffer, Andre

    2002-10-01

    It has been said that traditional clinical hypnotists, essentially those practicing before 1900, made excessive use of symptom removal to the detriment of their patients. However, statements of this kind have never been documented. This article is based on a search of the relevant literature that examines the hypnotic methods and results of that era. One finding is that available clinical data support the claim that clinical hypnotists practicing before 1900 made considerable use of symptom removal. The data also indicate that they achieved substantial success without any detrimental effects. This information is considered relevant for the scientifically based practice of hypnosis.

  9. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    2009-01-01

    . The duties on grain in Malta were therefore not protectionist, but rather for revenue purposes, in contrast to the UK Corn Laws. Taxing an inelastic demand for foreign wheat by Maltese, who were unable to grow enough food to support themselves, was certainly an effective way of raising revenue, but probably...... not the fairest one, as contemporaries were well aware....

  10. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    . The duties on grain in Malta were therefore not protectionist, but rather for revenue purposes, in contrast to the UK Corn Laws. Taxing an inelastic demand for foreign wheat by Maltese, who were unable to grow enough food to support themselves, was certainly an effective way of raising revenue, but probably...... not the fairest one, as contemporaries were well aware....

  11. [Nineteenth century physicians against drum perforation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierzek, A

    1995-01-01

    The trials of "organic" closure of drum perforation are described. The achievements of Adam Politzer, Hermann Schwartze, Joseph Gruber are presented. The first who used term "myringoplasty" was Emil Berthold. The "epochal" method of Wasilij Okuniew and achievements of Beniamin Gomperz are also depicted. The scientific activities of Polish otologists: Ludwik Guranowski and Rafai Spira were presented.

  12. Experimenting with wires, batteries, bulbs and the induction coil: Narratives of teaching and learning physics in the electrical investigations of Laura, David, Jamie, myself and the nineteenth century experimenters. Our developments and instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth Mary

    Physics is conventionally taught as a fixed curriculum which students must master. This thesis changes that: curriculum emerges from what learners try and question in experiments they invent. The thesis narrates: three adult students exploring wires, batteries and bulbs with me as teacher; nineteenth century investigations of electromagnetism; my laboratory work replicating historic instruments. In each case, learning arose through activity with materials. Evidences of this are analyzed within narratives and reflections. I used teaching-research, a method developed by Duckworth from Piaget's clinical interviewing, to research and simultaneously extend students' evolving understandings. What I learned through questioning students informed my next interactions; what they learned extended their experimenting. Similarly, I researched historical accounts interactively: improvising experiments to develop my understandings. Studying my own learning deepened my interpretations of students' learning. My students Laura, David and Jamie experimented by: soldering bulbs to wires, making series and parallel circuits, inserting resistive wire that dimmed bulbs, conducting electricity through salt water They noticed bulb brightness and battery heat, compared electricity's paths, questioned how voltage and current relate. They inferred electricity's effects manifest magnitudes of material properties. They found their experiences while learning were inseparable from what they learned. I researched investigations connected with Cavendish's leather fish, Galvani's frogs, Schweigger's wire spiraled around a compass needle, Henry's electromagnets, Faraday's induction ring, induction devices of Page, Callan, Hearder. Experimentally, I made galvanometers, electromagnets, induction rings, induction coil. I observed effects of electromagnetism, internal resistance, induced sparking. Across these investigations, learning developed with instrumental innovations; confusions were productive

  13. Careers of men and women in the 19th and 20th centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, W.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies the process of status attainment during the careers of men and women in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the influence of modernization processes on that process of status attainment. During the decades following World War II, the Western world saw an increasing c

  14. Coal industry of Russia in early 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, Y.N.; Trubetskoy, K.N. [Russian Union of Coal Producers, Moscow (Russia)

    2001-06-01

    The Russian coal industry enters 21st century as a completely revived and re-engineered profitable sector of the national economy, which is able to meet the national demand for coal and also to gradually expand the Russian annual exports of high quality coals to 40 MT. For the immediate future the improvement of coal sector efficiency on the basis of radical restructuring, introducing of the latest advanced technologies and product quality upgrading as well as the quantitative expansion of coal production, can be considered as the key direction for development. 4 refs., 4 annexs.

  15. ‘Towards an “exakte Kunstwissenschaft”(?, A report on some recent German books on the progress of mid-19th century art history. Part I: Work by German art historians on nineteenth Century art-historiography since 2000’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Muthesius

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Part I. Some younger German art historians have lately spent much effort on exploring the history of their discipline, especially that of the period c. 1820 to 1880. This article concentrates on three works, by Locher, Prange and Rößler, but takes note of books and articles by a number of other recent authors as well. Of particular interest has been the nineteenth century conundrum, summarised as: empirical ‘scientificness’ and, or versus, the metaphysics of ‘art’. It can be found in the writings of two to three generations of German art historians, from Rumohr to Kugler, to Schnaase and to Burckhardt, Springer and Justi. In order to reach an understanding of how the old authors arrived at their analyses, as regards their theories as well as in their dealings with individual works of art, the new investigations use a range of approaches: A broadly contextualised cultural history, a history of ideas approach which concentrates on major philosophical tenets and an approach which explores the textual-organisational structures of the old writings in a more literary sense. In due recognition of both the perspicacity and the thoroughness of the new books this article aims to provide a comprehensive report rather than an overtly critical review. Summarising considerations as well as further problematisations of some of the major issues can be found in ‘Part II’.

  16. Globalization and Chinese Education in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    With China's growing significance in the global economy ever more evident, studies in recent years have highlighted multiple aspects of China's "Globalization" (or global connections) that predate the contemporary period. This article focuses on educational reform in the late Qing and early Republic as a way of illuminating a significant…

  17. Globalization and Chinese Education in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    With China's growing significance in the global economy ever more evident, studies in recent years have highlighted multiple aspects of China's "Globalization" (or global connections) that predate the contemporary period. This article focuses on educational reform in the late Qing and early Republic as a way of illuminating a significant…

  18. 全球视野下的十九世纪中期东南海盗问题述论——基于近代报刊的考察%The Mid-Nineteenth Century Piracy in Southeastern China From a Global Perspective -An Observation based on Modern Newspapers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃寿伟

    2011-01-01

    十九世纪中期中国东南海盗再度盛行,引起了中西各方的关注与干涉。传教士在通商口岸所办的《遐迩贯珍》等报刊对此也进行了详实的登载,从这些报刊的舆论反映出中外各利益方对于海盗活动的态度与反应.也折射了中西关于海洋观念的差异及十九世纪中期东南海疆社会的时代特点。%The reviving prevalence of piracy in southeastern China during the mid-nineteenth century caught the attention and in- tervention of Chinese and western parties. The missionary-founded newspaper "Chinese Serial" and other newspapers carried out detailed coverage of the event. These reports reflect not only the different attitudes and responses of the Chinese and foreign parties towards piracy, but also the different marine concept of Chinese and westerners, and the characteristics of the coastal area in South- eastern China during the mid-nineteenth century.

  19. Tréboles de cuatro hojas. Escritoras decimonónicas españolas en el canon literario y en el canon escolar (1900-1949 / Four-leaf clovers. Nineteenth-century writers in the literary canon and school canon (1900-1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Gutiérrez Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El artículo aborda el estudio de la visión y valoración de las escritoras del siglo XIX en las historias literarias a lo largo de las primeras décadas del siglo XX y estudia además cómo se trataron estas escritoras en antologías escolares y libros de texto, analizando su repercusión en la educación literaria de los receptores de esos momentos. Abstract The article discusses the study of vision and evaluation of the writers of the nineteenth century literary along the first decades of the twentieth century stories and also studies how these writers were treated in school anthologies and textbooks, analyzing their impact on literary education of the recipients of those moments.

  20. No evidence for an early seventeenth-century Indian sighting of Keplers supernova (SN1604)

    CERN Document Server

    van Gent, Robert H

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper Sule et al. (Astronomical Notes, vol. 332 (2011), 655) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an early 17th-century Indian sighting of the supernova of 1604 has to be rejected.

  1. Industrial Characteristics and Employment of Older Manufacturing Workers in the Early-Twentieth-Century United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chulhee

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how industry-specific technological, organizational, and managerial features affected the employment of old male manufacturing workers in the early twentieth-century United States. Industrial characteristics favorably related to the employment of old industrial workers include high labor productivity, less capital- and material-intensive production, short workdays, low intensity of work, high job flexibility, and formalized employment relationship. Results show that aged industrial workers were heavily concentrated in “unfavorable” industries, suggesting that the contemporary argument of “industrial scrap heap” was applicable for most of the manufacturing workers in the early twentieth century United States. PMID:26989273

  2. No evidence for an early seventeenth-century Indian sighting of Kepler's supernova (SN1604)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, R. H.

    2013-03-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Sule et al. (2011) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an early 17th-century Indian sighting of the supernova of 1604 has to be rejected.

  3. Real Style: Riegl and Early 20th Century Central European Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Smith

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Originally published in Centropa: Journal of Central European Art and Architecture 5, n. 1 (January 2005: 16-25. Kimberly A. Smith discusses the ways in which the understanding of style was articulated by intellectuals working in the late nineteenth century, primarily in Germany and Austria, and the epistemological repercussions of this shift in thinking for both the theory and practice of central European art in the years before World War I. Smith focuses in particular on the writings of Alois Riegl, in which this approach to thinking about style came to its most influential fruition, and proposes that Riegl’s conception of form had implications for artistic practice. Riegl’s methodological understanding of artistic form drew connections between morphological types and perceptions of reality, thereby altering the ways in which artists could conceive of aesthetic authenticity. Style itself could be seen as the harbinger of truth, opening up the possibility that any style might offer a genuine revelation of the real. Yet as Smith shows, the Rieglian theory of meaningful form may have encouraged an artistic pluralism that subverted the very Kunstwollen theory of historically unified style from which it sprung.

  4. An Arctic Republic of Letters in Early Twentieth-Century Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sawchuck

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The writing of historical polar exploration in the English-speaking academy has undergone a substantial shift in the past twenty years, to the point where it may be safe to declare that the once-dominant triumphal and hagiographical style, inherited from the nineteenth century, has breathed its last. The explorer as depicted in this tradition has become a figure of fun in current discourse, easily recognizable in the contours of caricature. Sherrill Grace, for example, presents for our inspection "courageous men battling a dangerous, hostile, female terra incognita to prove their masculinity and the superior force of their technology" whose fate is to "die nobly in struggle, or to map, claim, name, and control unstructured space, even if only on paper." It is all too simple to dismiss these aims in an era with less palpable sympathy for them. Instead, many current writers have chosen the more difficult approach of grounding these explorers in appropriate political, social, and cultural contexts, and subsequently uncovering the rationale behind their beliefs and practices.

  5. No Evidence for an Early Seventeenth-Century Indian Sighting of Kepler's Supernova (SN1604)

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    van Gent, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Sule et al. (2011) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification

  6. Five Osmans: The Ottoman crisis of 1622 in early seventeenth-century literature

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    Ajdinović, I.

    2014-01-01

    In my dissertation I have explored the early seventeenth-century literary representations of the 1622 janissary uprising against Sultan Osman II (1618-1622). The young Ottoman sultan lost his life during this rebellion. The news of Osman’s death caused a sensation both in the Ottoman Empire and in t

  7. Understandings of Colors: Varieties of Theories in the Color Worlds of the Early Seventeenth Century

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    Dijksterhuis, Fokko J.

    2015-01-01

    In the early seventeenth century, there existed a myriad of theories to account for color phenomena. The status, goal, and content of such accounts differed as well as the range of phenomena they explained. Starting with the journal of Isaac Beeckman (1588–1637), this essay inquires into the

  8. Benjamin Moore, Science, and Medical Planning in Early Twentieth-Century Britain

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    Lawson, Gordon S.

    2008-01-01

    Benjamin Moore (1867-1922), physiologist and biochemist, was an eminent member of the British scientific and medical community in the early twentieth century. As a founder and president of the State Medical Services Association (SMSA) from its establishment in 1912 until his untimely death in 1922, Moore was a prominent medical services activist…

  9. Translation, Hybridization, and Modernization: John Dewey and Children's Literature in Early Twentieth Century China

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    Xu, Xu

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines how John Dewey's child-centered educational philosophy was adopted and adapted in the early twentieth century in China to create a Chinese children's literature. Chinese intellectuals applied Dewey's educational philosophy, which values children's interests and needs, to formulate a new concept of modern childhood that…

  10. Hillmen of the Black Sea Province (Early XIX Century: Geography, Demography, Antropology

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    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article, using the materials by the travellers, considers geographical and demographical aspects of the lives of hillmen of the Black Sea Region in early XIX century. The notion hillmen includes the tribes of the Ubykhi, Shapsugi, Natukhaevtsy, Abazin, Dzhigets, Medoveevtsy and Sadzy. Special attention is attached to the antropologic image of a hillman of the Black Sea Region.

  11. Science, occultism, and the art of the avant-garde in the early twentieth century

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    Bauduin, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the early twentieth century, scientific discoveries such as n-dimensionality, x-rays, and electromagnetism made their way into the discourse of Occultism, where they were subsequently reframed as the occult fourth dimension, clairvoyant x-ray vision, and thought vibration. As this article will sh

  12. "Are You Only an Applauder?" American Music Correspondence Schools in the Early Twentieth Century

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    Vogel, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correspondence schools of music in the early twentieth century. Advertisements in widely circulated household and music periodicals and archival copies of courses from Siegel-Myers Correspondence School of Music, United States School of Music, American College of Music, and others were examined. Research…

  13. "Are You Only an Applauder?" American Music Correspondence Schools in the Early Twentieth Century

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    Vogel, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correspondence schools of music in the early twentieth century. Advertisements in widely circulated household and music periodicals and archival copies of courses from Siegel-Myers Correspondence School of Music, United States School of Music, American College of Music, and others were examined. Research…

  14. O trato da gymnastica nas revistas médicas do Rio de Janeiro da primeira metade do século 19 - Thoughts on gymnastics in Rio de Janeiro medical journals in the first half of the nineteenth century

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    Victor Andrade Melo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available No decorrer do século19 aginástica foi discutida, reconhecida como importante tema e difundida por instituições que se atribuíam o domínio do saber médico. Interessa-nos abordar sobre essas articulações entre os conhecimentos e práticas médicas e a ginástica, buscando compreender como esse olhar específico adquiriu legitimidade, constituindo um entendimento que se manifestou na introdução da prática nas escolas brasileiras. Tendo em vista esse intuito, discute-se os posicionamentos sobre a ginástica publicados em três periódicos médicos editados na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, na primeira metade do século 19: Semanário de Saúde Pública, Revista Médica Fluminense e Revista Médica Brasileira.Palavras-chave: ginástica, educação física, medicina.THOUGHTS ON GYMNASTICS IN RIO DE JANEIRO MEDICAL JOURNALS IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY AbstractDuring the 19th century, gymnastics was discussed, recognized as an important issue and disseminated by institutions that attributed itself the domain of medical knowledge. We are interested in think about these linkages between medical knowledge and practice and gymnastics, trying to understand how this particular look has acquired legitimacy, providing a comprehension which was manifested in the introduction of the practice in Brazilian schools. In this sense, this study aims to discuss the thoughts on gymnastics published in three medical journals edited in the city of Rio de Janeiro in the first half of the 19th century: Semanário de Saúde Pública, Revista Médica Fluminense and Revista Médica Brasileira.Key-words: gymnastics, physical education, medicine.MIRADAS SOBRE LA GIMNASIA EN LAS REVISTAS MÉDICAS DEL RIO DE JANEIRO DE LA PRIMERA MITAD DEL SIGLO 19 ResumenDurante el siglo 19, la gimnasia ha sido discutida, reconocida como un tema importante y difundida por instituciones que se atribuyan el dominio de los saberes médicos. Estamos interesados en el

  15. Future dryness in the southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R; Das, Tapash; Pierce, David W; Barnett, Tim P; Tyree, Mary; Gershunov, Alexander

    2010-12-14

    Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st century the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st century simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed early 21st century drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st century. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge.

  16. Future dryness in the Southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, D.R.; Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Barnett, T.P.; Tyree, Mary; Gershunova, A.

    2010-01-01

    Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st century the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st century simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed early 21st century drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st century. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge.

  17. The Science of Symbiosis and Linguistic Democracy in Early Twentieth-century Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Konishi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the early twentieth-century Japanese Esperantist and popular celebrity writer Miyazawa Kenji as an embodiment of a larger intellectual phenomenon of early twentieth century Japan, the essay delineates the scientific world view behind the Esperanto movement and corresponding internal logic that developed in the language movement's foundational years. It argues that Esperantism in Japan in its early years was not an isolated linguistic movement among a small number of leftist intellectuals, but part of a much larger intellectual, cultural, and social movement that reflected the particular scientific worldview of what I call 'anarchist science'. This worldview defied the conceptual bifurcations of 'modern vs. tradition' and 'nature vs. culture' in modern history. A history of its vision offers a fresh perspective on modern history, future visions of the past, and the historical meanings of Esperantism.

  18. Diagnosis and authority in the early-twentieth-century medical practice of Richard C. Cabot.

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    Crenner, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines diagnostic practices using the early twentieth-century medical literature and the patient correspondence and records from the clinic of Richard Cabot. What shaped medicine's rapidly growing persuasive authority in the twentieth century? Diagnostic expertise demonstrated the doctor's control over disease but offered a service of ambiguous value to patients. Cabot and his peers offered differing views on how new diagnostic techniques would influence their relationships to their patients. In his busy private clinic Cabot put into effect an exacting diagnostic process, modeled on his innovative Clinicopathological Conferences. The people who came to the clinic often sought his technical expertise but accepted his diagnostic practices and opinions sometimes only provisionally.

  19. The Social and Political Construction of Early Childhood Education

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    Vandenbroeck, Michel; Coussee, Filip; Bradt, Lieve

    2010-01-01

    We analyse two foundational social problems regarding early childhood education. The first, in the late nineteenth century, is infant mortality, a social problem that constituted the historical legitimation for the first creches. The second, the prevention of school failure, is very topical today. By analysing these examples in their historicity,…

  20. Eigil Rothe, an early twentieth century wall paintings conservator in Denmark

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    Isabelle Brajer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Eigil Rothe (active 1897-1929 is a central figure in the development of wall paintings conservation and restoration in Denmark, marking a clear departure from the practices of artist-restorers influenced by historicism. His ideas about retouching and impregnation were propelled by his sense of aesthetics, which rejected nineteenth century interpretations, and called for a respect for the passage of time. His experiments with surface treatments demonstrate unprecedented thoughts about the necessity of future treatments. His work was driven by an aspiration for the truth, as seen by his diligent photographs, such as his noteworthy documentation of the stage prior to aesthetic treatment.Eigil Rothe (actif 1897-1929 est une figure centrale dans le développement de la conservation de peintures murales et la restauration au Danemark, marquant clairement le début de pratiques nouvelles pour les restaurateurs-artiste qu’influencent l’historicisme. Ses idées relatives à la retouche et à l'imprégnation ont été soutenues par son sens esthétique, qui rejette les interprétations du dix-neuvième siècle et insiste sur le respect des marques du temps. Ses expériences relatives aux traitements de surface démontrent une conscience originale et sans précédent quant à la nécessité de traitements futurs. Son travail a toujours été motivé par une passion pour la vérité, comme le démontrent ses remarquables photographies et la documentation remarquable de l’état avant traitement.