The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg......The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg...
Moulder, M. Amanda
This article discusses how archival documents reveal early nineteenth-century Cherokee purposes for English-language literacy. In spite of Euro-American efforts to depoliticize Cherokee women's roles, Cherokee female students adapted the literacy tools of an outsider patriarchal society to retain public, political power. Their writing served…
Sadvokasova, Zakish T.; Orazbayeva, Altynay I.
The purpose of this paper is to review the historical facts related to conversion of indigenous people of the Kazakh steppe from Islam to Christianity and the conversion of the Russian migrants from Orthodoxy to Islam in Kazakhstan in the nineteenth-early twentieth century. The study deals with the laws that were detrimental to Islam and reforms…
This article explores the entangled histories of three imaging techniques in early nineteenth-century British physical science, techniques in which a dynamic event (such as a sound vibration or an electric spark) was made to leave behind a fixed trace on a sensitive surface. Three categories of "sensitive surface" are examined in turn: first, a metal plate covered in fine dust; second, the retina of the human eye; and finally, a surface covered with a light-sensitive chemical emulsion (a photographic plate). For physicists Michael Faraday and Charles Wheatstone, and photographic pioneer William Henry Fox Talbot, transient phenomena could be studied through careful observation and manipulation of the patterns wrought on these different surfaces, and through an understanding of how the imaging process unfolded through time. This exposes the often-ignored materiality and temporality of epistemic practices around nineteenth-century scientific images said to be "drawn by nature."
The widespread influence exerted by the medical theories of Scottish doctor, John Brown, whose eponymously named Brunonianism radically simplified the ideas of his mentor, William Cullen, has not been generally recognised. However, the very simplicity of the Brunonian medical model played a key role in ensuring the dissemination of medical ideas about nervous irritability and the harmful effects of overstimulation in the literary culture of the nineteenth century and shaped early sociological thinking. This chapter suggests the centrality of these medical ideas, as mediated by Brunonianism, to the understanding of Romanticism in the nineteenth century, and argues that Brunonian ideas shaped nineteenth-century thinking about the effects of mass print culture in ways which continue to influence contemporary thinking about the effects of media.
Full Text Available In order to consider the future of Victorian literary studies within the long nineteenth century, we must go back to that earlier “period” of the nineteenth century, and the French Revolution of 1789. Drawing on the aesthetic and political innovations of 1790s women's writings, this essay argues that we need to reconceive of nineteenth-century literary studies beyond the period boundaries of Romantic and Victorian. The sexualization of revolutionary Terror, and particularly of Robespierre, in Romantic-era writings by women like Helen Maria Williams, Mary Robinson and Fanny Burney, offers surprising precedents for the feminization of Terror associated with the retrospectives of Victorian writers like Carlyle and Dickens. In this respect, and given many other aesthetic continuities (for example, the crossgender and cross-period appeal of the “poetess” figure, the “Victorian period” appears increasingly unsatisfactory when compared to the merits of a long nineteenth-century model for literary studies.
In early nineteenth-century Britain the use of pictures in introducing novices to the study of science was contentious, leading to debates over the ways in which words and images constituted knowledge and over the role of pleasure in intellectual pursuits. While recent studies have stressed visual representation as a critical element of science and considered its relation to the written word in conveying information, this essay explores the nineteenth-century preoccupation with the mind and mental faculties in relation to corporeal responses to explain concerns over the role of images and the process of recognition. By considering illustration in this way, it argues that popular botany was defined by many expert naturalists as the means by which private individuals could best be encouraged to extend their aesthetic appreciation and love of plants to an active and participatory pursuit of science.
This essay reexamines the nineteenth-century origins of medical specialization. It suggests that by the 1880s, specialization had become perceived as a necessity of medical science as a result of the realization of two preconditions: First, a new collective desire to expand medical knowledge prompted clinical researchers to specialize; only specialization, it was believed, permitted the rigorous observation of many cases. Second, administrative rationality suggested that one could best manage large populations through proper classification, gathering together individuals belonging to the same class and separating those belonging to different categories. Both of these conditions emerged first and most powerfully in early nineteenth-century Paris. They were, in contrast, uniquely underdeveloped in the fragmented medical community of London during this period.
Full Text Available The climate of the early nineteenth century is likely to have been significantly cooler than that of today, as it was a period of low solar activity (the Dalton minimum and followed a series of large volcanic eruptions. Proxy reconstructions of the temperature of the period do not agree well on the size of the temperature change, so other observational records from the period are particularly valuable. Weather observations have been extracted from the reports of the noted whaling captain William Scoresby Jr., and from the records of a series of Royal Navy expeditions to the Arctic, preserved in the UK National Archives. They demonstrate that marine climate in 1810–1825 was marked by consistently cold summers, with abundant sea-ice. But although the period was significantly colder than the modern average, there was considerable variability: in the Greenland Sea the summers following the Tambora eruption (1816 and 1817 were noticeably warmer, and had less sea-ice coverage, than the years immediately preceding them; and the sea-ice coverage in Lancaster Sound in 1819 and 1820 was low even by modern standards.
Jørgensen, Claus Møller
The aim of this article is to take stock of nineteenth-century transnational urban history. After a short introduction to transnational history, general urban histories are analysed with respect to the ways in which transnational perspectives are incorporated into the narratives. Specific...... contributions to urban history in a transnational perspective are analysed. Approaches to urban planning history that focus on transnational linkages and international organization are discussed. Approaches to urban history within enlarged geographical scales that go beyond the nation-state framework......, with a particular focus on cities as nodes in translocal networks, are analysed. The article concludes with a critical discussion of nineteenth-century transnational urban history....
This paper traces the ancestry of a familiar historiographical narrative, according to which early modern philosophy was marked by the development of empiricism, rationalism, and their synthesis by Immanuel Kant. It is often claimed that this narrative became standard in the nineteenth century, due to the influence of Thomas Reid, Kant and his disciples, or German Hegelians and British Idealists. The paper argues that the narrative became standard only at the turn of the twentieth century. Th...
Full Text Available William Rothstein’s article “National metrical types in music of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries” (2008 proposes a distinction between the metrical habits of 18th and early 19th century German music and those of Italian and French music of that period. Based on theoretical treatises and compositional practice, he outlines these national metrical types and discusses the characteristics of each type. This paper presents the results of a study designed to determine whether, and to what degree, Rothstein’s characterizations of national metrical types are present in 19th century French and German art song. Studying metrical habits in this genre may provide a lens into changing metrical conceptions of 19th century theorists and composers, as well as to the metrical habits and compositional style of individual 19th century French and German art song composers.
Full Text Available The brief account of the lexicographical history of the word ‘sentiment' in the nineteenth century, and the table of definitions which follows it, grew from my increasing sense of the shifting and ambivalent nature of the term in the literature of the period, despite the resonance and the proverbial solidity of phrases such as ‘Victorian sentiment' and ‘Victorian sentimentality'. The table is self explanatory, representing the findings of a search, among a wide range of nineteenth-century dictionaries over the period, for the changing meanings accrued by the word ‘sentiment' over time, its extensions and its modifications. The nineteenth-century lexicographical history of the word ‘sentiment' has its chief roots in the Eighteenth-century enlightenment, with definitions from Samuel Johnson and quotations from John Locke, chiefly based on intellect and reason. The nineteenth century generated a number of derivatives of the word over a period of time to express altered modes of feeling, thought and moral concern. The history of the word ‘sentiment' offers a psychological as well as a linguistic narrative.
Looking at nineteenth-century Germany, this article investigates the origin of the idea that fiction causes disease, among both the bourgeoisie and the working class. I argue that the socially constructed notions of reading addiction, which were consistent with medical concepts at that time, touched the bourgeois virtues of industriousness and health. However, little has been written about the transfer of the bourgeois attitudes towards reading to the German working class. The study of workers' autobiographies shows that social circumstances and the emulation of bourgeois values and attitudes resulted in appropriating the concept of lazy readers in the working class. The paper follows the paths from the early nineteenth century accusation of readers to the working class's perception of novels causing disease around 1900.
Descriptions of the geography education of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Sweden are typically offered to contrast with current ideas in geography education, and the content of geography textbooks is the focus of this comparison. The role of maps and visual pedagogy are ignored, and the educational ideas developed from regional…
This article examines public education and the establishment of the nation-state in the first half of the nineteenth century in Switzerland. Textbooks, governmental decisions, and reports are analyzed in order to better understand how citizenship is depicted in school textbooks and whether (federal) political changes affected the image of the…
This article discusses the effects of imperialism on British (or chiefly English) social life and education in the nineteenth century rather than examining the effects on the colonised as is usually done. It is shown that the nineteenth century was infused with different visual and written images which helped develop attitudes and ideas which…
Nineteenth century Canadian business history reveals intricate connections and barriers among government and business institutions. The nineteenth century spheres of government, politics, and business were not separate; it was natural that businesspersons and politicians should have many connections. (Author/KC)
Full Text Available What shapes does the nineteenth-century paper archive take in the twenty-first century digital cloud? Luisa Calè and Ana Parejo Vadillo situate the crafts, experiments, and visions discussed in this anniversary issue in the wider context of questions raised by the emergence and possibilities of nineteenth-century archives for the digital era. What happens when objects float free of their bibliographic and museum anchorings? What is gained and lost in the digital transformations? What new imaginary spaces open up in the transition from the book to the virtual codex and from the terrestrial library to cloud-sourced collections? What formations does the nineteenth century take in digital discourse networks? How are nineteenth-century objects made digital, and through what crafts, skills, and disciplines? How are they shaped by circulation through digital platforms, social media, and remix on the semantic web? What kinds of authoring, what structures of labour, what kinds of making and knowing shape agency in the nineteenth-century digital archive?
This paper traces the ancestry of a familiar historiographical narrative, according to which early modern philosophy was marked by the development of empiricism, rationalism, and their synthesis by Kant. It is often claimed that this narrative became standard in the nineteenth century because of the influence of Thomas Reid, Kant and his disciples, or German and British idealists. I argue that the narrative became standard at the turn of the twentieth century. Among the factors that allowed it to become standard are its aptness to be adopted by philosophers of the most diverse persuasions, its simplicity and suitability for teaching.
Graziano, Amy B; Johnson, Julene K
This chapter examines connections between research in music, neurology, and psychology during the late-nineteenth century. Researchers in all three disciplines investigated how music is processed by the brain. Psychologists and comparative musicologists, such as Carl Stumpf, thought in terms of multiple levels of sensory processing and mental representation. Early thinking about music processing can be linked to the start of Gestalt psychology. Neurologists such as August Knoblauch also discussed multiple levels of music processing, basing speculation on ideas about language processing. Knoblauch and others attempted to localize music function in the brain. Other neurologists, such as John Hughlings Jackson, discussed a dissociation between music as an emotional system and language as an intellectual system. Richard Wallaschek seems to have been the only one from the late-nineteenth century to synthesize ideas from musicology, psychology, and neurology. He used ideas from psychology to explain music processing and audience reactions and also used case studies from neurology to support arguments about the nature of music. Understanding the history of this research sheds light on the development of all three disciplines-musicology, neurology, and psychology. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Baschin, Marion; Dietrich-Daum, Elisabeth; Ritzmann, Iris
How can these finings be interpreted in conclusion? Analysis has revealed firstly that, depending on the chosen period, the socio-geographical situation and the profile of the individual doctor's practice, the clientele varied widely in terms of gender, age and social rank. The consultation behaviour of men and women changed noticeably. Findings overall suggest that up until t8o the gender distribution varied in the individual practices. There was a trend for women to be overrepresented in urban practices during the earlier period. But in general, from the mid-nineteenth century they predominated - in towns as well as in the country in allopathic as well as homeopathic practices. The absence of children, which was bemoaned by many physicians, did not apply to the practices under investigation. On the contrary: the percentage is consistently high while older patients remained underrepresented right up until the end of the period under investigation, even though their proportion increased in the individual practices during the course of the nineteenth century In each of the nineteenth century practices investigated - and increasingly among the lower and middle classes - the physicians' services were used by several members of the same family. We have found no evidence to support the thesis that up until the nineteenth century academic physicians were mainly consulted by aristocratic or wealthy bourgeois patients. The theory probably applies only to early modern urban doctors. In the practices examined here, from the middle of the eighteenth century, patients from all social strata went to consult physicians. The participation of members of the lower classes or from an artisanal, (proto) industrial or agricultural background clearly increased over time 'despite ubiquitous economic and cultural barriers. That the annual numbers of consultations per physician increased - despite the growing number of physicians available - suggests that for economically disadvantaged
Sharp, Paul Richard
It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country....... The duties on grain in Malta were therefore not protectionist, but rather for revenue purposes, in contrast to the UK Corn Laws. Taxing an inelastic demand for foreign wheat by Maltese, who were unable to grow enough food to support themselves, was certainly an effective way of raising revenue, but probably...
Sharp, Paul Richard
It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country....... The duties on grain in Malta were therefore not protectionist, but rather for revenue purposes, in contrast to the UK Corn Laws. Taxing an inelastic demand for foreign wheat by Maltese, who were unable to grow enough food to support themselves, was certainly an effective way of raising revenue, but probably...
Full Text Available This article explores the construction of a spatial and interspatial subject in the nineteenth-century novel, examining initially the epistemologies of space developed by Kant and Hegel, and concluding with discussion of two further theorists of space, Bachelard and Lefebvre. It deploys this rich array of theorization to illuminate strategies through which the nineteenth-century novelist creates situatedness in language, asking how 'does' the novel represent space, and arguing that if we take away this almost miraculous verbal construction of space there is not much left to the novel.
Johnson, Julene K; Graziano, Amy B
Early models of human cognition can be traced to nineteenth-century investigations of brain and behavior. Influential neurologists such as Wernicke, Kussmaul, and Lichtheim constructed diagrammatic models to illustrate current theories of cognition. Language was the most commonly studied cognitive function during this time; however, investigators also studied other cognitive functions, such as music and visual processing. While a number of nineteenth-century neurologists made observations about music abilities in aphasic patients, August Knoblauch, a German physician and anatomist, was the first to propose a diagrammatic model of music (1888/1890). He described a detailed cognitive model of music processing, hypothesized the existence of nine disorders of music production and perception, and coined the term "amusia." Knoblauch's model is the earliest cognitive model of music and is largely unrecognized as an important part of the history of neurology, neuropsychology, and music cognition. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science (USA)
In the late eighteenth century, Joseph Priestley argued that any complete theory of heat also had to explain electrical phenomena, which manifested many similar effects to heat. For example, sparking or heating a sample of trapped air caused a reduction in the volume of air and made the gas toxic to living organisms. Because of the complexity of electrical and thermal phenomena, Antoine Lavoisier did not address electrical action in his published works. Rather, he focused on those effects produced by heating alone. With the success of Lavoisier's caloric theory of heat, natural philosophers and chemists continued to debate the relationship between heat and electricity. In this presentation, I compare and contrast the fate of caloric in early-nineteenth-century electrical studies via the work of two scientists: Humphry Davy in Britain and Robert Hare in America.
As a professor of chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania, Robert Hare actively shaped early American science. He participated in a large network of scholars, including Joseph Henry, François Arago, and Jacob Berzelius, and experimented with and wrote extensively about electricity and its associated chemical and thermal phenomena. In the early nineteenth century, prominent chemists such as Berzelius and Humphry Davy proclaimed that a revolution had occurred in chemistry through electrical research. Examining Robert Hare's contributions to this discourse, this paper analyzes how Hare's study of electricity and the caloric theory of heat led him to propose a new theory of galvanism. It also examines the reception of Hare's work in America and Great Britain, highlighting the contributions of early American chemists to the development of electrochemistry.
Schaffner, Kenneth F
Nineteenth-Century Aether Theories focuses on aether theories. The selection first offers information on the development of aether theories by taking into consideration the positions of Christiaan Huygens, Thomas Young, and Augustin Fresnel. The text then examines the elastic solid aether. Concerns include Green's aether theory, MacCullagh's aether theory, and Kelvin's aether theory. The text also reviews Lorentz' aether and electron theory. The development of Lorentz' ideas of the stagnant aether and electrons; Lorentz' theorem of corresponding states and its development; and Lorentz' respons
This chapter was an invited contribution to an edited collection, bringing together new and international scholarship in an examination of the relationship between the modern practices of tourism and the built environment. The chapter draws on primary and secondary sources in an analysis of the ways in which Italy was perceived and experienced by British tourists during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Utilising a model for analysing tourist behaviour developed within anthropolog...
This study examines depictions of the relationship between women and melancholia in German psychiatric textbooks published between 1803 and 1913. Focusing in particular on how these texts present the female life cycle, nineteenth-century views about female 'nature' and gender traits, and women's familial and professional roles, it reveals how nineteenth-century psychiatrists were caught between the scientific demand for objective clinical observation and the gender norms of the culture to which they belonged. On the one hand, psychiatrists carefully and sensitively describe female melancholia with evidence obtained through the scientific methods of clinical observation, anatomical investigation and self-questioning. On the other hand, language choice contributes to the naturalization of gender difference by assigning cultural meaning to clinical observations.
Hippocrates, the father of medicine, has been represented in many ways throughout the history of medicine. His influence on later medicine took different forms from one epoch to another. Hippocrates' medical doctrine was quite influential until Renaissance period, and with the arrival of modern medicine, the method or the spirit of Hippocrates had been valued more highly than his medical doctrine. Nineteenth century French medicine shows us how the influence of Hippocrates is still vivid even in the nineteenth century. Hippocrates, as the author of the Air, Water, Places, became the founder of environmental medicine with the flourishing of meteorological medicine. And in the hands of medical ideologies he also became a proclaimer of the ideology that stressed the correspondence between men, society and nature. Laennec represented Hippocrates as the true pioneer in Clinical Medicine to which he himself made a great contribution. These various images of Hippocrates show us the universal nature of his medicine.
MA. Arben Salihu
Full Text Available The developments of the nineteenth century were determining for the history of Balkan region as it shaped the future of many generations to come, resulting in (mainly growing discontents that led to several wars during the last century. It was beginning of the decay of the Ottoman Empire that many longed for, and many nations used every opportunity to take a full advantage of it. The aim of this work is to explore exclusively (only Western sources in an attempt to provide, as much as possible, an objective and neutral picture. Therefore, the idea behind the decision to examine non-Balkan sources is impartiality, in order to bring the reader as close as possible to the reality of the nineteenth century. A number of nineteenth century books, magazines and newspapers of the time, by respective Western authors, are explored and analysed. Reading and examining a large volume of data and information of this period, offers a unique sense of feeling, similar to that of living the nineteenth century world. Albanians, who have historically populated the heart of Balkans, are focal point of this region (in many of the regional and international sources for this particular period, vis-à-vis the Ottoman governance as well as relations with other regional neighbours. Their contribution to the history of nations in the region was unquestionably critical, but their conduct in relations to their own cause has produced an unproductive image, portrayed often with confused and incomprehensible deeds. By using authentic sources of the time, the study intends to develop arguments on many points raised, like population and religion. This work also touches briefly the sensitive issue of education in the region and initial Albanian inputs in the history of Balkan education map. Finally the study concludes that Albanians’ altruism and largely visionless focus, produced a relatively expected detrimental outcome.
Full Text Available This commentary compares observational corpus analysis and hypothesis-driven analytical methods, and discusses the methods used in Cannon's "Sonata Form in the Nineteenth-Century Symphony" article.
The paper explores how chemists tried to deal with one of the first examples of mass-produced industrial chemicals to enter daily life, through investigating the use of coal-tar derived dyes to colour food in the late nineteenth century. From the mid 1850s European chemists manufactured a range of new chemicals included drugs, dyes, scents and flavourings from the derivatives of coal-tar waste. Initially greeted by the nineteenth-century press and public as wonder dyes, the vibrant new colo...
I investigated the changes in stature of Jewish and Non-Jewish conscripts in Amsterdam (northern Holland) and Groningen (Groningen) during the second half of the nineteenth century. In the middle of the nineteenth century the position of the Jewish population was rather weak from an economic
Rinsler, M G
The development of colorimetry and spectroscopy in the nineteenth century is described. An account is given of the application of their techniques to biological chemistry during that period. PMID:7014652
R. Arturo Román Alarcón
The Chinese migration to Mazatlan and Mexico, began in the mid-nineteenth century, via San Francisco. They were the most important foreign colony from the early decades of the twentieth century. On arrival the Chinese population lacked capital as largely devoted to provide their services as domestic workers, especially farmers and craft activities related to repairing and making shoes. With the advent of the twentieth century and the accumulation of some capital, began its foray into the reta...
Full Text Available Cultural histories of nineteenth-century Britain have studied the important physical and psychological transformations caused by the industrialization of light. Gaslight, though discovered prior to the nineteenth century, became aligned with the era’s narratives of national and industrial progress, an arc that, one might argue, culminated in the growing popularity of electric light at the end of the century. Yet, despite these new technologies of ‘artificial light’, ‘natural’ wood and coal fires remained popular in British culture. This issue explores fire as a visual and narrative technology in art, literature, and public displays by examining the ways in which it evoked competing symbolic values, such as primitivism and modernity, vitality and destruction, intimacy and spectacle. The reading order mixes articles and shorter pieces together to demonstrate the continuities of fire across various sites, including: the domestic fireside, the tallow candle, theatrical conflagrations, Turner’s fires, fireworks, funeral pyres, subterranean fire, solar fire, and a coal-ship fire.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate the public and private spheres. The former represents the area in which each of us carries out their daily activities, while the latter is mirrored by the home. Kate Chopin and Charlotte Perkins Gilman are two salient nineteenth-century writers who shape the everyday life of the historical period they lived in, within their literary works that shed light on the areas under discussion.
Hugo de Carvalho Quinta
Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the beginning of criminology in Argentina in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, to understand how it was articulated during the nation-state building process. To achieve this purpose, a state project reflection unfolded in criminological perspective that is based on legal positivism of the period was made. The country was forefront in interest in criminology in that some intellectuals jurists published numerous articles on the crime studies in the first criminology journal of Argentina, Criminalogia Moderna magazine, founded in 1898 and directed by the teacher, lawyer and intellectual Italian, Pietro Gori. The influence of European sociological perspective in Argentina criminology can be seen from a literature review. The examination of some articles published in the journal indicates how criminology introduced in Europe grounds the buenosairean intellectuality. Some authors have linked criminology with social phenomena of a nation increasingly industrialized, proletarianized, politicized and urbanized.
Cherry, D.; Helland, J.
Local/Global: Women Artists in the Nineteenth Century is the first book to investigate women artists working in disparate parts of the world. This major new book offers a dazzling array of compelling essays on art, architecture and design by leading writers: Joan Kerr on art in Australia by
Full Text Available In the nineteenth century, smallpox ravaged through the United States and Canada. At this time, a botanical preparation, derived from the carnivorous plant Sarracenia purpurea, was proclaimed as being a successful therapy for smallpox infections. The work described characterizes the antipoxvirus activity associated with this botanical extract against vaccinia virus, monkeypox virus and variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. Our work demonstrates the in vitro characterization of Sarracenia purpurea as the first effective inhibitor of poxvirus replication at the level of early viral transcription. With the renewed threat of poxvirus-related infections, our results indicate Sarracenia purpurea may act as another defensive measure against Orthopoxvirus infections.
Arndt, William; Mitnik, Chandra; Denzler, Karen L; White, Stacy; Waters, Robert; Jacobs, Bertram L; Rochon, Yvan; Olson, Victoria A; Damon, Inger K; Langland, Jeffrey O
In the nineteenth century, smallpox ravaged through the United States and Canada. At this time, a botanical preparation, derived from the carnivorous plant Sarracenia purpurea, was proclaimed as being a successful therapy for smallpox infections. The work described characterizes the antipoxvirus activity associated with this botanical extract against vaccinia virus, monkeypox virus and variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. Our work demonstrates the in vitro characterization of Sarracenia purpurea as the first effective inhibitor of poxvirus replication at the level of early viral transcription. With the renewed threat of poxvirus-related infections, our results indicate Sarracenia purpurea may act as another defensive measure against Orthopoxvirus infections.
In nineteenth-century comic writing, the umbrella represents a troublesome material world: umbrellas were always threatening to break, flip inside out or to disappear and reappear in the most mysterious fashion. The umbrella was a trope for oddness, resistance and perversity of intent. With the h......In nineteenth-century comic writing, the umbrella represents a troublesome material world: umbrellas were always threatening to break, flip inside out or to disappear and reappear in the most mysterious fashion. The umbrella was a trope for oddness, resistance and perversity of intent....... With the help of Alenka Zupančič’s theory of comedy, this article argues that the umbrella in the cultural imagination marks an unreliable world of signs. Umbrellas, with their troublesome peripatetic nature, become arbiters of human destiny. Comic writers, including Robert Louis Stevenson in ‘The Philosophy...
This article brings together what until now have been separate fields of nineteenth-century history: the development of experimental physiology, the growth of mechanized industry, and the city, where their threads intertwined. The main argument is that the laboratory in the city employed the same technological and organizational approaches to modernize that the city used to industrialize. To bring the adoption of technology into focus, the article discusses laboratory research as it developed after the introduction of small-scale power engines. With its machines, the industrialized city provided not only the key metaphor of the nineteenth-century life sciences but also a key technology that shifted experimental practices in animal research from a kind of preindustrial craft to a more mechanized production of knowledge. With its "factory-laboratories," the late-nineteenth-century city became the birthplace for the first living, data-producing hybird---part animal and part machine.
Full Text Available Volumes of George Cruikshank's 'Scraps and Sketches', a publication of miscellaneous images vaguely intended to be cut and pasted in home-made albums and scrapbooks; a catalogue of the 1857 Manchester Art Treasures Exhibition customised by the doodles and marginalia of its owner and her friends; a job-lot of nineteenth-century illustrated children's publications, in which the magic lantern show is miniaturized into the format of the book – the objects featured in the lead articles of this issue of 19 evoke the contents of a house sale more than a scholarly journal. Akin to the type of material described by Walter Benjamin as ‘booklike creations from fringe areas', they don't add up to any of the cohesive themes featured in previous issues, such as history, literature, or sentimentality. They have been, however, ‘salvaged' by collectors and thus given a chance to ‘renew the old world'. The essays and reviews in this issue have been selected or developed from papers and workshops given at the conference The Verbal and the Visual in Nineteenth-Century Culture (23-24 June 2006 organised by the Birkbeck Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies. Given the wealth of papers on far more canonical literary and visual practices featured at that conference, our selection might seem perverse in its insistence on odds and ends...
The aim of this paper is to show how the Greek men of science negotiated a role for their enterprise within the Greek public sphere, from the institution of the modern Greek state in the early 1830s to the first decades of the twentieth century. By focusing on instances where they appeared in public in their official capacity as scientific experts, I describe the rhetorical schemata and the narrative strategies with which Greek science experts engaged the discourses prevalent in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Greece. In the end, my goal is to show how they were neither zealots of modernization nor neutral actors struggling in isolated wastelands. Rather, they appear as energetic agents who used scientific expertise, national ideals and their privileged cultural positions to construct a rhetoric that would further all three. They engaged eagerly and consistently with emerging political views, scientific subjects and cultural and political events, without presenting themselves, or being seen, as doing anything qualitatively different from their peers abroad. Greek scientists cross-contextualized the scientific enterprise, situating it in the space in which they were active.
The beginning of gas industry in nineteenth and twentieth centuries is related here and opens on the nowadays natural gas industry. Clean, cheap, easy to handle, the only problems seem to be the transport and the storage but technologies work to solve them. The natural gas should take an important place in the next century and seems to be the only substitution energy source for some countries where pollution is a big problem such eastern Europe countries. (N.C.)
Myslivcová, Eva; Zapletal, Miloš
Roč. 53, č. 4 (2016), s. 419-420 ISSN 0018-7003. [Nineteenth-Century Programme Music . Lucca, 25.11.2016-27.11.2016] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Programme Music * Nineteenth-Century Music Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Performing arts studies ( Music ology, Theater science, Dramaturgy)
Miguel Sancho Mir
Full Text Available The strong military character of the Christian foundation of Teruel was materialized in the impregnable aspect of the settlement, located at the top of a plateau and with a complex defensive system. However, the development of the defensive system didn’t take place exclusively during the Middle Ages; rather, it was an ongoing process that even continued until the nineteenth century. This research seeks to recover the fortified urban landscape of this last period. A period that, due to a tumultuous nineteenth century, saw the city transform and adapt for its own defence with a complex system, that hardly survived its own century and of which there are just a few vestiges nowadays. The analysis of these, as well as of several documents, such as some of the first photos of the city, engravings or historical mapping, has made it possible to rebuild a forgotten image.
Waltz, Mitzi; Shattock, Paul
This article examines the existence, description, perception, treatment, and outcome of symptoms consistent with autistic disorder in nineteenth-century London, England, based on case histories from the notes of Dr William Howship Dickinson at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. Three cases meeting the DSM-IV criteria for autistic disorder…
Zervas, Theodore G.
After Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire (1827), a newly formed Greek state looked to retrieve its past through the teaching of a Greek national history. For much of the nineteenth century Greek schools forged common religious, linguistic, and historical ties among the Greek people through the teaching of a Greek historical past (Zervas…
Kjærgaard, Peter C.
In an old boy network of nineteenth-century natural philosophers, all with a background in mathematics from the University of Cambridge, a conspicuous aversion ruled against metaphysics. Within these circles it produced a strong compulsion to define the limits of genuine scientific endeavour...
Full Text Available As part of the growth of interdisciplinary studies, a number of recent writings have focused upon links between music and literature in the long nineteenth century. In addition to the general significance of music in the work of individual authors and poets, scholars have highlighted particular imagery used in the literary representation of music (charting its effect on narrative and characterisation, and explored the literary reception of several composers. Within this growing body of literature, references to nineteenth- and early twentieth-century British music are significant by their absence. This article therefore aims to redress the balance by suggesting that there are connections between British music and literature in this period, and that these connections are significant. A number of approaches are discussed to highlight their potential, including composer-author affinities, collaborations, generic parallels, hidden narratives, and the suggestion that musical settings of texts can represent critical ‘readings' of those texts. A range of examples (with musical illustrations and sound clips suggest how this particular interdisciplinary focus can lead to the reassessment of individual musical and literary works, and help to explore wider cultural connections within the Victorian and Edwardian era.
During the nineteenth century the position of women in music grew throughout Europe, and Ireland was no exception. In Dublin, women went from participating in the city's musical culture as performers to participating as teachers, composers, organisers, performers and writers. In the first half of the century, private music teachers such as Mrs Allen represented women's first steps into promoting Irish music. With the re-organisation of the Royal Irish Academy of Music in 185...
The aim of this article is to examine the scientific and public functions of two- and three-dimensional models in the context of three episodes from nineteenth-century biology. I argue that these models incorporate both data and theory by presenting theoretical assumptions in the light of concrete data or organizing data through theoretical assumptions. Despite their diverse roles in scientific practice, they all can be characterized as mediators between data and theory. Furthermore, I argue that these different mediating functions often reflect their different audiences that included specialized scientists, students, and the general public. In this sense, models in nineteenth-century biology can be understood as mediators between theory, data, and their diverse audiences.
An understanding of regionalism in early 19th century Spanish America is crucial to any understanding of this region's economic development. Regionalism became the barrier to the kind of integrated national economy that some writers claim could have been implemented had it not been for the imposition of dependency by external forces. This…
Dekker, Jeroen J. H.
In the first half of nineteenth-century Europe, the founding fathers of the philanthropic network developed a specific network for the care of children at risk. This network eventually resulted in institutionalized solutions for the care of these children. In this article, three topics are looked
Steinhoff, Anthony J
This article examines a crucial site for modernity’s encounter with religion during the long nineteenth century, albeit one largely ignored both by religious and urban historians: the modern big city. Drawing on evidence from Strasbourg, which joined the ranks of Germany’s big cities soon after the Franco-Prussian War, it points out first, that urbanization had a significant urban dimension. It altered the absolute and relative size of the city’s faith communities, affected the confessional composition of urban neighborhoods, and prompted faith communities to mark additional parts of the urban landscape as sacred. Second, while urban growth—both demographic and physical—frequently challenged traditional understandings of religious community, it also facilitated the construction of new understandings of piety and community, especially via voluntary organizations and the religious media. Thereby, urbanization emerged as a key force behind sacralization in city and countryside as the nineteenth century ended and the twentieth began.
Renata Ferreira Vieira
Full Text Available Censored by parents and conservative critics, stories about prostitutes have always been "forbidden" readings that, in addition to stimulating the book trade over the years, offered readers entertainment through the "euphoria and sensations" caused by the stuffed works with obscene plots and / or sexual insinuations. It is in this perception of reading, in nineteenth-century Brazil, who were the novels about the "women of life" like Lucíola (1862, the Brazilian writer José de Alencar (1829-1877,and Nana (1880, the French writer Émile Zola (1840-1902. Affiliated, respectively, with romantic and naturalistic esthetics, Lucíola and Nana fictionalize the live of two young prostitutes in a nineteenth-century patriarchal society. In order to understand how these novels were appropriated as "entertainment literature" by the reading public of the time, this article will investigate the trajectory of publication, circulation and reception of these works through the theoretical assumptions of the history of books and reading (CHARTIER, 1990 .
The role of music in nineteenth-century female education has been seen primarily in the context of the middle class cult of domesticity, and the relationship of music to medicine in the period has generally been viewed in terms of music therapy. Nevertheless, for much of the century there was serious medical discussion about the dangers of excessive music in girls' education. Many of the leading psychiatrists and gynaecologists of the nineteenth century argued that music could over-stimulate the nervous system, playing havoc with vulnerable female nerves and reproductive organs, and warned of the consequences of music lessons on the developing bodies of teenage girls. Two rival models of music's effects competed and were combined. One suggested that music led to illness by provoking sensuality, imagination and sexuality; the other argued that it was a source of neurasthenic fatigue because of intellectual strain.
Full Text Available This article traces the way in which the language of displacement and silence were used in nineteenth-century discussions of deafness and connects this tendency to the marginalised place deaf experience occupies historically. Throughout the nineteenth century, a period which saw the consolidation of ‘the deaf and dumb’ as a social category, the word ‘forgetting’ crept into numerous discussions of deafness by both deaf and hearing commentators. Some, such as the educationalist Alexander Graeme Bell, were overt in their desire to forget deafness, demanding disability was ‘bred out’ and deaf culture condemned to the forgotten past. Others used the term ambivalently and sometimes metaphorically discussing the deaf as ‘forgotten’ by society, and ‘children of silence’. Some even pleaded that people who were deaf were not forgotten. But, though varied, the use of the imagery of forgetting and silence to evoke deafness is recurrent, and may, therefore, be seen to reveal something about how deaf experience can be approached as a displacement where deafness was spatially and imaginatively marginalised. I argue that one of the consequences of the conceptual framing of deafness through the language of forgetting was actively to silence deafness and to neutralise the idea that disability should be marginal and could be forgotten.
Jackson, Catherine M
The institutional revolution has become a major landmark of late-nineteenth century science, marking the rapid construction of large, institutional laboratories which transformed scientific training and practice. Although it has served historians of physics well, the institutional revolution has proved much more contentious in the case of chemistry. I use published sources, mainly written by chemists and largely focused on laboratories built in German-speaking lands between about 1865 and 1900, to show that chemical laboratory design was inextricably linked to productive practice, large-scale pedagogy and disciplinary management. I argue that effective management of the novel risks inherent in teaching and doing organic synthesis was significant in driving and shaping the construction of late-nineteenth century institutional chemical laboratories, and that these laboratories were essential to the disciplinary development of chemistry. Seen in this way, the laboratory necessarily becomes part of the material culture of late-nineteenth century chemistry, and I show how this view leads not only to a revision of what is usually known as the laboratory revolution in chemistry but also to a new interpretation of the institutional revolution in physics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tavassoli Zea, Zahra
This thesis examines the different ways the cinemas of Éric Rohmer, Jacques Rivette, François Truffaut and Jean-Luc Godard adapted literary and artistic motifs characteristic of the nineteenth-century romantic and realist traditions, from the 1960s to the 1980s. The selection of these four directors is based on their early and formative commitment to the politique des auteurs, a film criticism trend that was significantly indebted to central aesthetic precepts of the realist and naturalist no...
Hickman, Timothy A
Dr Leslie E. Keeley was perhaps the world's most famous addiction cure doctor at the turn of the twentieth century, but mainstream medicine dismissed him as a quack because he dispensed a secret cure. The article aims to describe Keeley's now largely forgotten story and to draw attention to the role of contextual issues in the acceptance or rejection of any theory of addiction, particularly the neuroscientific theories of the early twenty first century. This study is a qualitative assessment and contextualisation of historical documents. Its main sources are archival and are for the most part unknown to historians. The article also offers intellectual and historical context that is drawn from leading historical and sociological analyses. Keeley's addiction cure was dismissed as quackery because it failed to meet the changing standards of late-nineteenth century professional medicine. This begs us to consider contextual issues in any assertion of the viability of addiction therapeutics, in the present as well the past. Keeley's near erasure from the historical record was a consequence of a broader, late-nineteenth century medical power struggle that took precedence over the testimony of tens of thousands of satisfied patients who claimed that Keeley's cure worked. Context matters in the assessment of the viability of theories of addiction from the past but also from the present. Historians and social scientists are well placed to make those assessments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Historical review of the function of social conflict in the nineteenth century women's rights movements. Considers whether suffrage and a move toward equality could have been accomplished without major philosophical differences. Differences between the Stanton and Anthony suffrage group and the Stone and Blackwell suffrage group are discussed.…
Full Text Available Proverbs are concise formulations of folk wisdom and as such, when seen in masses, they may well express the spirit of their time and place. In Hungarian proverbial lore Jews figure prominently in nineteenth-century proverb collections but fade out of such collections as of the mid-twentieth century. In the nineteenth-century proverb collections Jews are invariably portrayed as faithless, dishonest, greedy, physically weak and unattractive. Largely, this portrayal as well as the dynamics of the earlier presence of Jews versus their later disappearance from Hungarian proverb collections match the shared history of Hungarians and Hungarian Jews since the 1867 Emancipation of the country's Jews and possibly even earlier, through their growing integration in significant arenas of their host society, up to their persecution and annihilation in the Holocaust, and later their decade long forced merging into the general Hungarian society under communism. This article traces the occurrence and disappearance of Jews in Hungarian proverb collections throughout the last two centuries and analyzes the language, content and messages of the proverbs about Jews in these collections.
Roč. 53, 2-3 (2016), s. 300-301 ISSN 0018-7003. [19th Biennial International Nineteenth-Century Music Conference. Oxford, 11.07.2016-13.07.2016] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : music ological conference * nineteenth-century music * Antonin Dvorak * opera Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage
grew. This was reflected in the appearance of a large number of books and other publications dealing with speech sound, and also in the application of phonetics to such diverse areas as language teaching, elocution, teaching the deaf, shorthand writing and dialectology. The nineteenth century can...... therefore be said to be the era when the true foundations of the modern disciplines of phonetics and phonology were laid. This collection features works by well-known figures such as Isaac Pitman, Alexander Ellis, Alexander Melville Bell, and Henry Sweet. In addition, contributions of less well...
as a restoration of a Greenlandic culture en route to its own destruction. The colonial authorities claimed that the establishments of new institutions were facilitating a return to the traditional practices of the past. Further the author argues that reforms effectuated in the latter part of the nineteenth...... century reflect a fundamental shift in the rationality behind the colonial project in Greenland. This analytical point is reached through the deployment of the theoretical concept colonial governmentality. Following the work of scholars such as Nicholas Thomas, David Scott and Gyan Prakash, it is argued...
Fernando BRAVO LÓPEZ
Full Text Available In this article we analyse how French Catholic Anti-Semites perceived Islam during the nineteenth century, to which end we examine the works Louis de Bonald, Louis Veuillot, Roger Gougenot des Mousseaux and D. Kimon devoted to Islam. The aim of this exercise is, firstly, to improve our knowledge of the European image of Islam in the nineteenth century, focusing on a ideological trend that has hitherto aroused scant interest among scholars. Secondly, this article will enhance our understanding of anti-Semitism as an ideology and a political movement, showing how Catholic anti-Semites, far from being solely obsessed with the Jewish peril, were also obsessed with other threats, primarily the Islamic menace. Finally, it attempts to demonstrate that, despite the arguments brandished by many scholars in recent years, anti-Islamic or Islamophobic sentiments are not necessarily based in racial prejudices, but can spring exclusively from religious intolerance. This certainly was the case among nineteenth-century French Catholic anti-Semites. However, their hostility was no less virulent because of that, far from it.
Full Text Available In the nineteenth century, landscape painters in California and New Zealand shared a common language of landscape representation, looking at untamed coasts and rugged mountains through a lens shaped by two centuries of European artistic tradition. Explored in this paper is the influence of the picturesque tradition in New Zealand and California art in the nineteenth century. Ideological functions of landscape painting are identified: that is, ways artists in both New Zealand and California appropriated the landscape to support certain cultural, political and social agendas. Their work represents not only the land but the myths inscribed upon it by bourgeois culture.
In this innovative study, Damkjær shows that nineteenth-century texts gave domesticity not just a spatial, but also a temporal dimension. Novels by Dickens and Gaskell, as well as periodicals, cookery books and albums, all showed domesticity as a process. Damkjær argues that texts’ material form...... – serialised, fragmented or reappropriated – had a profound influence on their representation of domestic time....
Full Text Available This paper discusses nineteenth-century metalinguistic discussions of Low German, an authochthonous of Northern Germany, which, having lost its status as a written language suitable for formal discourse during the Early Modern period, has since been reduced to the spoken domain. During the nineteenth century the language was on the verge of enjoying a revival, with original poetry being published and extensive discussions as to whether Low German ought to play a role in formal education. As this article shows, this discussion was intense and controversial. Comparing the views of Klaus Groth, the leading proponent of Low German in the second half of the nineteenth century, with the internal debates amongst school teachers - hitherto never discussed by the scholarly literature – this article demonstrates the intellectual and ideological split felt by these educational practioners in their views of Low German: on the one hand, they recognise the cultural value of Low German as the historical language of the North and the native language of the pupils they teach, on the other hand they agree with each other that the language of education and science, as well as national unity, can only be High German. We hope to show with our discussion not only how very similar modern thinking on the use of Low German is to these historical discussions but also how the status and perception of many regional and minority languages across the world has been subject to the same or very similar thoughts and pressures.
Bertomeu-Sánchez, José Ramón
This paper reviews the cultural meanings, social uses and circulations of arsenic in different legal, medical and popular settings. The focus is on nineteenth-century France. In the first section, I review the advent of the Marsh test for arsenic, which is commonly regarded as a milestone in the history of toxicology. I claim that the high sensitivity of the Marsh test introduced puzzling problems for forensic doctors, the most disturbing one being the so-called 'normal arsenic.' I reconstruct early research on normal arsenic and the ensuing controversies in courts, academies and salons. A report from the French Academy of Science converted normal arsenic from a big discovery to an experimental mistake. In the next section, I study how these disturbing conclusions were perceived by toxicologists all over Europe and how normal arsenic disappeared from view by the middle of the nineteenth century. Finally, I review the return of normal arsenic thanks to Armand Gautier and Gabriel Bertrand, who introduced an innovative research framework and so prompted the displacement of arsenic from criminal toxicology to pharmacology and nutrition science. The last section will also show that the issue of normal arsenic was recaptured in public debates concerning criminal poisoning at the beginning of the twentieth century. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The nineteenth century colonial setting of Aotearoa NZ is the most distant from the cradle of European Enlightenment that sparked new understandings of childhood, learning and education and spearheaded new approaches to the care and education of young children outside of the family home. The broader theme of the Enlightenment was about progress and the possibilities of the ongoing improvement of peoples and institutions. The young child was seen as a potent force in this transformation and a raft of childhood institutions, including the 19th century infant school, kindergarten, and crèche were a consequence. The colonisation and settlement of Aotearoa NZ by European settlers coincided with an era in which the potency of new aspirations for new kinds of institutions for young children seeded. It is useful in the 21st century to reframe the various waves of colonial endeavour and highlight the dynamic interfaces of being colonised for the indigenous populations; being a colonial for the settler populations; and the power and should be purposed of the colonising cultures of Europe. It can be argued that in the context of ECE neither the indigenous nor settler populations of Aotearoa NZ were passive recipients of European ECE ideas but, separately and together, forged new understandings of childhood and its institutions; enriched and shaped by the lessons learned in the colonial setting of Aotearoa NZ.
In the early twentieth century, supervisors began to move toward increasing professionalism in their positions. In the late nineteenth century, supervision was characterized by bureaucratic methods in a centralized school management system. Research reveals that after the turn of the century, there was a concerted effort by supervisors to…
The historicisation of humans was a major endeavour in nineteenth-century Britain, and one that led to wide-ranging debates involving a variety of disciplinary approaches, new and old. Within the context of science and medicine these discussions centred on the issues of human origins and evolution. Did the various races living throughout the world develop from a single location, or were their physical and social differences evidence for their separate genesis? Which disciplinary tradition offered the best method for tracing human development? Was it even possible to trace that development, or had too much time passed since the dawn of humans? Furthermore, who had the authority to speak about these matters? This special issue will examine these core questions and introduce some of the ways that researchers attempted to historicise humans within the context of nineteenth-century British sciences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Santilli, Haydee; Cornejo, Jorge Norberto
In this paper we analyze the influence of positivism in Argentina astronomical culture in the nineteenth century. We did the analysis from two dimensions, scientific knowledge development and science teaching. Because Argentina was a very young country at that time, it was of singular importance, not only the development of scientific knowledge…
This paper presents music teaching in nineteenth-century Greece orphanages and schools of destitute children, which were the main schools for vocational training of the working class in that period. Five representative institutions were selected. Music education for young male workers in nineteenth-century Greece was both in accord with and…
Nineteenth-century Russian music has often been considered something ‘special’. This is a conviction widespread among audiences, musicians, critics and scholars alike; a belief eagerly stimulated and exploited in the marketing of this music outside Russia, and that continues to contribute to its
Donato, Maria Pia
The article treats the Academy of the Linceans in the early nineteenth century, and more particularly during the Napoleonic domination of Rome in 1809-14. For the French regime, the Academy was instrumental to turning intellectuals into notables; pursuing the advancement of knowledge; stimulating industry; fostering secularization and orientating public opinion. But these goals did not always harmonize one with the other. Moreover, the local agenda was subordinated to strategic and ideological considerations pertaining to the organization of the Empire, relations with the Papacy, and internal politics. Hence, support to the Academy was subject to changes and contradictions. Within the Empire, the small local scientific elite found a place within international networks of science. Men of science increased their visibility and social standing, and greater symbolic and material resources were granted to the practice of science. The Academy, however, was left in the unclear status of a semi-public establishment, and it eventually imploded after the Restoration. The article analyses the Academy's scientific activity and its role in public life, focusing on material history as a key element to understand the ambiguous nature of Roman scientific institutions both under the papal government and the French regime.
Meyers, Peter V.
Many researchers believe that professional development derives from power struggles. This case study shows that the professionalization of nineteenth-century secular French primary school teachers was generated by the interplay between teachers and other participants--particularly the Catholic church, families, and the state--in the funding and…
The impetus for the incredible variety found in the modern literary dragon is commonly seen to stem from the creative genius of either E. Nesbit or Kenneth Grahame. However, examination of dragon stories in the late nineteenth century shows that several different authors, on both sides of the Atlantic, were producing similar stories at about the…
Full Text Available Whilst acknowledging the usefulness of the descriptor ‘Victorian' to the work of social historians, this essay argues that a proper account of modernity, and of the Victorians' positioning within it, can only be apprehended by taking a longer view, be it within the framework of a long nineteenth or a long twentieth century. Finally, though, Finn argues that chronology is less important than the disciplinary and geographical boundaries of the field. The question should not be ‘when was the Victorian era?' but also ‘ where was it?' Interdisciplinarity, Britain's place in Europe, and the problems of empire are the three issues that Finn deems should be at the forefront of Victorian Studies in the twenty-first century.
Arndt, William; Mitnik, Chandra; Denzler, Karen L.; White, Stacy; Waters, Robert; Jacobs, Bertram L.; Rochon, Yvan; Olson, Victoria A.; Damon, Inger K.; Langland, Jeffrey O.
In the nineteenth century, smallpox ravaged through the United States and Canada. At this time, a botanical preparation, derived from the carnivorous plant Sarracenia purpurea, was proclaimed as being a successful therapy for smallpox infections. The work described characterizes the antipoxvirus activity associated with this botanical extract against vaccinia virus, monkeypox virus and variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. Our work demonstrates the in vitro characterization of Sarra...
R. Arturo Román Alarcón
Full Text Available The Chinese migration to Mazatlan and Mexico, began in the mid-nineteenth century, via San Francisco. They were the most important foreign colony from the early decades of the twentieth century. On arrival the Chinese population lacked capital as largely devoted to provide their services as domestic workers, especially farmers and craft activities related to repairing and making shoes. With the advent of the twentieth century and the accumulation of some capital, began its foray into the retail trade, which was the domain of national merchants. The commercial importance of the Chinese was one of the causes of the hostility of Mexican traders, which coupled with the counter-arguments raised by the Labor Law, Health Code, the culmination of the Treaty with China and the effects of the 1929 crisis, served as sustenance for their expulsion in 1932.
Willem van der Molen
Full Text Available The sometimes precarious position of the Chinese in Indonesia has a long history. The (most probably nineteenth-century author, Apdul Mutalip, advocated a more balanced view by pointing out some fundamental contributions the Chinese had made to the welfare of the Javanese; he also demonstrates that their presence in Java has a basis in law. Although seems like a poem in Javanese metre, his Sajarah Cina, written in Javanese, is remarkable not only for its subject matter but also for the way the material is presented, in a rhetoric unknown to exist in Javanese literature by most scholars.
Curry Machado, J.M.
Technological innovation was central to nineteenth-century Cuba’s lead in world sugar manufacture. Along with steam-powered machinery came migrant engineers, indispensable aliens who were well rewarded for their efforts. These migrant engineers remained perennial outsiders, symbolic of Cuba's
J. A. Garrido Ardila
Full Text Available This article brings to light a group of Cervantine English literary works hitherto unknown to present-day Cervantes studies: seven theatrical adaptations of Don Quixote (two anonymous ones in addition to those by Charles Dibdin, Joseph Moser, G. A. Macfarren, C. A. Maltby and P. Milton, a comedy with a Quixotic title (by George Dance, and five Quixotic fictions (two anonymous, in addition to those by Lily Spender, Maurice Hewlett and A. T. Quiller-Couch. Three of these plays, had been noted by Leopoldo Rius in 1899 (Moser, Macfarren, Maltby; the other four are presented for the first time here. In order to chart a fuller and more complete history of Don Quixote on the English stage, this article provides relevant information on those seven plays. An examination of these works reinforces the previous theses that underscore the essentially comical nature of Quixotic plays in nineteenth-century England, a fact of relevance in the study of the English reception of Don Quixote in the course of that century.
Gold McBride, Sarah Erina
This dissertation argues that in the United States during the nineteenth century, men and women from different regions, class backgrounds, racial groups, and religious traditions shared an extraordinary faith in the diagnostic and classificatory power of hair. Hair was popularly understood to be capable of quickly and reliably conveying important information about a stranger’s identity or character; it could indicate whether that person was male or female, Christian or heathen, powerful or su...
Thelle, Mikkel; Baics, Gergely
The articles gathered in this special section explore the complex and layered relationship between meat and the nineteenth-century city. For urban historians interested in food provisioning, meat represents a critical juncture because no other food item was so deeply and, in so many ways, tied...... to urban modernity. This introduction outlines five central themes of the urban meat nexus: city and country relations, geography and urban space, technology and infrastructure, government and regulation, and changing nutritional standards. The four articles speak to these larger issues in specific...... and novel ways. They advance the existing scholarship by opening up new questions and approaches, focusing on hitherto understudied locations, while also collectively covering the entire spectrum of meat provisioning from supply hinterlands to urban consumption....
Full Text Available In his manifesto 'Das Kunstwerk der Zukunft' (1850, Richard Wagner characterised the nineteenth century as a time of crisis. Echoing Saint-Simon, he defined this crisis as a discrepancy between the spirit of the age and the actual, historical conditions. Evoking some of the most potent concepts of modern thinking—Zeitgeist, genius, and the Gesamtkunstwerk—Wagner outlined an aesthetic theory by which the artwork (including architecture simultaneously reflects and shapes its context, serving both as a mirror of its age and an agent of change. Wagner’s seemingly paradoxical notion of art provides an apt introduction to historicist thinking. Obsessed with the idea of correspondence (or the lack of it between art and its times, nineteenth-century thinkers such as Heinrich Hübsch, Carl Bötticher and Gottfried Semper all responded to the perceived crisis. While Hübsch and Bötticher sought to alleviate the crisis by redefining this correspondence for a modern world, Semper presented a far more radical alternative. Not only did he see the current crisis as inevitable; he welcomed it as a necessary dissolution of an old order, out of which a new architecture could emerge. He thus anticipated modernists, such as Sigfried Giedion, for whom historicism was a necessary melt-down; an apocalypse, preparing for the advent of modernism. In this essay, I propose that crisis and style are intrinsically linked in modern thinking. To look closely at this coupling may throw new light not only on historicism but also on the noticeable unease with which the notion of style is treated in contemporary architectural history.
The methodological controversy in the humanities and the social sciences between the advocates of an explanatory approach similar to that of the natural sciences (erklären) and the proponents of an interpretative perspective (verstehen) has its roots in a wide-ranging cultural transformation that took place in Europe around 1800. Traditionally, this transformation has been described as the shift from Enlightenment to Romanticism, involving, among other things, the rise of a new, expressivist conception of art and the substitution of a universal notion of rationality by an emphasis on the incommensurability of individual ages and cultures. A different account of the cultural transformation of the early nineteenth century is given by Foucault (1966, 314-354). According to Foucault, a fundamental epistemological rupture took place in the period around 1800, which he describes as the shift from the classical to the modern épistémè. A crucial aspect of the rise of the modern épistémè is the discovery of man as a transcendental subject that can also be the object of empirical knowledge. Furthermore, in contrast with the emphasis on stable taxonomies of the classical age, the modern épistémè perceives the order of things as essentially historical.
Full Text Available The nineteenth century in our country may be considered as being very important from the intellectualperspective and not only. Although, Romanians proved to be less inventively or too moderate on economic issues, inthis century, some personalities, born in Romania and educated in the west part of Europe, tried to emancipate thecountry by spreading industrial and implicitly, economic ideas among Romanians, who did not wish for wealth, didnot start wars to seek for wealth because they were already proud of their riches which have to be defended in theirown country. The opening to Occident was a gradual but painful process, many of the original values disappearedbeing replaced by others more or less good, but bad behaviours and attitudes were naturally kept. We are convincedthat the process through which new ideas are generated and ultimately translated into policies and programs thatshape the flow of history may be too complex to be reduced to a simple and unidirectional schema; thus is why, weare going to present shortly the main ideas that changed the future of Romania in the nineteenth century.
Full Text Available This paper addresses the overlapping ways in which self-inflicted injury was understood in relation to an absence of pain during the long nineteenth century, arguing that a clear distinction between bodily and mental suffering cannot be made in this period. The medical view that self-infliction of injury must necessarily be pathological is shown to have emerged from earlier philosophical approaches to pain. This was cemented by the formation of a somatic model of self-mutilation, based on the concept of cutaneous anaesthesia, particularly in the work of Wilhelm Griesinger in Germany. In contrast, the words of asylum patients provide a much broader spectrum of ways in which injuries might have been understood. Nonetheless, the meanings attributed generally emphasize self-mutilation as a response to physical, rather than emotional, pain, indicating the widespread nature of physical aetiologies of insanity. Such a somatic approach also permeated psychological models of self-inflicted injury in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as shown through examination of Richard von Krafft-Ebing’s concept of ‘sexual anaesthesia’, William James’s association of anaesthesia with the absence of emotion, and self-mutilation and fixed ideas in the work of Pierre Janet. The study of self-mutilation thus provides an interesting angle from which to explore the complexity of notions of body and mind, in relation to concepts of pain.
Prochner, Larry; May, Helen; Kaur, Baljit
In the context of missionary endeavours of the early nineteenth century there were considerable similarities in the religious and education blueprints for providing the "blessings of civilisation" to the young native "heathen" child in various parts of the British Empire. The three case studies presented illustrate a relatively…
Mukharji, Projit Bihari
The "cholera cloud" is one of the most persistent presences in the archives of nineteenth-century cholera in the "British World." Yet it has seldom received anything more than a passing acknowledgment from historians of cholera. Tracing the history of the cholera cloud as an object promises to open up a new dimension of the historically contingent experience of cholera, as well as make a significant contribution to the emergent literature on "thing theory." By conceptualizing the cholera cloud as an object-without-an-essence, this article demonstrates how global cholera pandemics in the nineteenth century produced globalized objects in which a near-universal recognizability and an utterly context-specific set of meanings, visions, and realities could ironically cohabit.
Regiane Corrêa de Oliveira Ramos
This doctoral dissertation focuses on Amitav Ghoshs Sea of Poppies (2008) to investigate, from a postcolonial perspective, the way in which the writer deconstructs gender in the nineteenth-century India. In Chapter I, I analyze men and women within the Indian familial space in the nineteenth century, demonstrating how both are subjected to the disempowering effects of traditional rituals (such as sati), structures of Brahminical morality and patriarchal violence. The main character pair Deet...
Margareth Gomes de Figueiredo
Full Text Available The city of São Luís, capital of Maranhão, located in northeastern Brazil, has an impressive collection of civil architecture, reminiscent of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The architectural heritage was built during the golden period of the economy of Maranhão, during the second half of the eighteenth century and the nineteenth century, with a significant economic growth associated to the export of rice and cotton. This architectural legacy, concentrated in Praia Grande, Desterro, Mercês and Largo do Carmo, the oldest city' neighborhoods, was classified by the federal government, and included in the World Heritage List, in December 1997. According to ICOMOS – International Council on Monuments and Sites – "the historic center of São Luís is an outstanding example of a Portuguese colonial city adapted to the equatorial South-America climate and has kept within the striking proportions and harmoniously integrated into the urban mesh the surrounding environment". With approximately 5,600 buildings, constructed during three centuries, in the historic city center it is possible to find examples of various architectural styles: traditional Portuguese (buildings of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, neoclassical, eclectic, art deco, neoclassical and modern. Much of the architectural heritage is in poor state of conservation, presenting various defects affecting the structural system and architectural elements in the facades. This study aims to analyze the building system and defects of civil buildings constructed in the nineteenth century in São Luís do Maranhão, contributing to future rehabilitation programs.
Carolan, Michael S.
This article develops a broad sociological understanding of why biofuels lost out to leaded gasoline as the fuel par excellence of the twentieth century, while drawing comparisons with biofuels today. It begins by briefly discussing the fuel-scape in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, examining the farm…
The diagnosis and treatment of fractures of the proximal humerus have troubled patients and medical practitioners since antiquity. Preradiographic diagnosis relied on surface anatomy, pain localization, crepitus, and impaired function. During the nineteenth century, a more thorough understanding...
This essay asks how teachers and pedagogues of the blind regarded the relation between blindness and sense substitution in the latter half of the nineteenth century. The essay provides and account of the concept of Sinnesvikariat and compares its inner sensorial implications with the adaptation o...
Lovisek, J.A.; Waisberg, L.G.; Holzkamm, T.E.
The impact of nineteenth century hydroelectric dams on the Ojibwa traditional way of life was discussed. In the past the destruction of resources essential to the traditional Ojibwa economy have been attributed, in part mistakenly, to the fur trade. Based on recent evidence, the destruction of the native economy by floods caused by nineteenth century hydroelectric dams, which appear to have been overlooked by anthropologists, were equally to blame. For example, in Ontario, dams caused substantial damage to the Ojibwa economy, causing shifts in settlement and subsistence. Shoreline adaptations based on the needs of agriculture and wild rice were disrupted, fields were flooded and villages were dispersed inland, while non-Indian businesses and governments reaped the benefits. Although Ojibwa lands were protected both by treaty and by the Indian Act, legal safeguards were consistently ignored. It is claimed that the flooding of native resources and lands continues today in northwestern Ontario. Little or no compensation has ever been made to the Ojibwa. 51 refs., 1 fig.
Cobbold, Carolyn Ann
This article reveals how nineteenth-century chemists and health reformers tried to eradicate the use of yeast in bread, claiming they had devised healthier and more sanitary ways to raise bread. It describes the alternative technological solutions to baking bread, investigating factors that influenced their development and adaptation in the marketplace. A lack of scientific and cultural consensus surrounding yeast, what it was and what it did, fermented during this period. The conflict over yeast helped create a heterogeneous industrialization of the baking industry, changing processes and ingredients and creating new forms of bakery products. By examining the claims of promoters of rival scientific beliefs and technologies, as well as those of users and social commentators, we can see that technology's eventual adaptation and impact on society is not predictable at its outset. Exploring the relationship between differing scientific beliefs, cultural understandings and alternative technologies also shows how science and industry cannot be isolated from their social and cultural context. The examination of the nineteenth-century technological development of commonplace commodities such as bread, baking powder and yeast, also reveals and explores a story that has not been told before in the history of science and technology. Why it has not been told is as enlightening as the story itself, revealing as it does our own privileging of what is important in science and history.
Full Text Available This article examines the introduction of English to the treaty port of Shanghai and the speech communities that developed there as a result. English became a sociocultural phenomenon rather than an academic subject when it entered Shanghai in the 1840s, gradually generating various social activities of local Chinese people who lived in the treaty port. Ordinary people picked up a rudimentary knowledge of English along trading streets and through glossary references, and went to private schools to improve their linguistic skills. They used English to communicate with foreigners and as a means to explore a foreign presence dominated by Western material culture. Although those who learned English gained small-scale social mobility in the late nineteenth century, the images of English-speaking Chinese were repeatedly criticized by the literati and official scholars. This paper explores Westerners’ travel accounts, as well as various sources written by the new elite Chinese, including official records and vernacular poems, to demonstrate how English language acquisition brought changes to local people’s daily lives. I argue that treaty-port English in nineteenth-century Shanghai was not only a linguistic medium but, more importantly, a cultural agent of urban transformation. It gradually molded a new linguistic landscape, which at the same time contributed to the shaping of modern Shanghai culture.
In the nineteenth century, both musical scholars and natural scientists discussed the relevance of acoustical research for the theory and practice of music. Whereas some musical theorists and acousticians plead together for an acoustical foundation of musical theory, other scholars questioned the significance of physical and physiological knowledge for a deeper understanding of music. Based on an analysis of musical journals, popular scientific writings, theoretical treatises and musical dictionaries this article demonstrates how musical scholars and natural scientists argued about the question which discipline should have the final say about musical concepts and terminologies. To merge both heterogeneous spheres--music and acoustics--or to carefully distinguish between them--these two positions shaped the dispute over the relationship between music and natural sciences in the nineteenth century.
Benschop, R; Draaisma, D
A prominent feature of late nineteenth-century psychology was its intense preoccupation with precision. Precision was at once an ideal and an argument: the quest for precision helped psychology to establish its status as a mature science, sharing a characteristic concern with the natural sciences.
Full Text Available The conventional history of Europe, connecting the Enlightenment heritage with our time, makes a huge detour around the violent nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth one. The article explores the European peace utopias of 1815, 1918 and 1951, and their eventual loss of suggestive force, and argues that they link today’s global Europe to the post-Napoleonic world two hundred years ago. This connection, through a series of illusions and disillusions about the nature of politics, represents a different view on the nineteenth and twentieth century than the conventional teleological narrative about fulfilment of the Enlightenment promise of progress. The analysis of the bicentenary chain of shifts between postwar, prewar and war should not be read in terms of a teleology necessitating a new war; the point is, rather to draw attention to the fragility and openness of historical processes. The new narrative outlined here emphasizes that there was no necessity in the development towards today’s Europe; the story is full of alternatives, and highlights the role as well as the responsibility of human agency. No solution appears as a necessary result of impersonal forces, everything has depended, and continues to depend, on human choice.
McCormack, Christopher F.
This paper examines the role of William Graham Brooke as advocate of women's higher education and access to university. His work as advocate is considered against the religious, political, social and economic backdrop of late nineteenth century Ireland. A barrister, as Clerk in the Lord Chancellor's office, he was centrally involved in the…
AbstractLes ombres noires de Saint Domingue: The Impact of Black Women on Gender & Racial Boundaries in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century FrancebyRobin MitchellDoctor of Philosophy in HistoryUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Tyler Stovall, ChairThere were few black women on French soil in the nineteenth century, yet images of and discussions about them are found in political, artistic, scientific, and various social milieus. This paradox is explored for its symbolic and nationali...
Goodheart, Lawrence B
A current situation in Connecticut of whether a violent insane acquittee should be held in a state prison or psychiatric facility raises difficult issues in jurisprudence and medical ethics. Overlooked is that the present case of Francis Anderson reiterates much of the debate over rationalization of policy during the formative nineteenth century. Contrary to theories of social control and state absolutism, governance in Connecticut was largely episodic, indecisive and dilatory over much of the century. The extraordinary urban and industrial transformation at the end of the Gilded Age finally forced a coherent response in keeping with longstanding legal and medical perspectives.
Labaree, David F.
Described is the development of the modern hegemonic curriculum--i.e., one in which knowledge is stratified, academic, and appropriated through individual competition--in a nineteenth century high school. This developmental process hinged on the relationship between the school's curriculum and its middle-class constituency, a relationship…
The article investigates the spread of one of the first pedagogical concepts available worldwide during the first half of the nineteenth century: the monitorial system. Its wide diffusion depended, to a considerable extent, on the work of voluntary organisations. The article investigates the work of the two most important of these, the British and…
Catherine Jeannine Bartlett
Full Text Available The antithetic pair of the Jewish Villain and his daughter the Beautiful Jewess made their entry into literature with Shakespeare’s ‘The Merchant of Venice’ and Marlowe’s ‘The Jew of Malta’. Nineteenth-century non-Jewish novelists re-use them to reflect their ambiguous feelings towards Jews. As an object of conquest and conversion, the character of the Beautiful Jewess is portrayed as belonging to the Bible and the Orient. Due to his resistance to conversion the Jewish villain is confined to the fading ghettos where he withdraws into an inanimate world of his own creation. Although following different paths, their longing to belong to society is denied. At the end of the nineteenth century a passage from religious to racial Anti-Semitism takes place, leading them back to the status of pariah. From now on both of them are accused of coveting the money of a decadent aristocracy, who is struggling to cope with economic change. She is reduced to a prostitute and he to a dangerous cosmopolitan parvenu, exposing the shattered values of nineteenth-century society.
Full Text Available This article examines ideas of morality and health, and connections between moral transgression and disease in both Scottish missionary and Central African thought in the context of the Livingstonia Mission of the Presbyterian Free Church of Scotland in Malawi during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.2 By concentrating on debates, conflicts and co-operation between missionaries and Africans over the key issues of beer drinking and sexual morality, this article explores the emergence of a new ‘moral hygiene’ among African Christian communities in Northern Malawi.
Este artículo analiza las ideas sobre moralidad y salud, así como las relaciones entre transgresión moral y enfermedad, tanto en el pensamiento misionero escocés como en el pensamiento del África central, en el contexto de la Misión de Livingstonia de la Iglesia Libre Presbiteriana de Escocia en Malawi entre finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX. Centrándose en las conversaciones, los conflictos y la colaboración entre los misioneros y los africanos sobre cuestiones clave como el consumo de cerveza y la moralidad sexual, este artículo estudia la aparición de una nueva «higiene moral» entre las comunidades cristianas africanas en Malawi del norte.
This article provides an historical overview of developments in veterinary entomology during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. During that period state employed entomologists and veterinary scientists discovered that ticks were responsible for transmitting a number of livestock diseases in South Africa. Diseases such as heartwater, redwater and gallsickness were endemic to the country. They had a detrimental effect on pastoral output, which was a mainstay of the national economy. Then in 1902 the decimating cattle disease East Coast fever arrived making the search for cures or preventatives all the more urgent. Vaccine technologies against tick-borne diseases remained elusive overall and on the basis of scientific knowledge, the South African state recommended regularly dipping animals in chemical solutions to destroy the ticks. Dipping along with quarantines and culls resulted in the eradication of East Coast fever from South Africa in the early 1950s. However, from the 1930s some ticks evolved a resistance to the chemical dips meaning that diseases like redwater were unlikely to be eliminated by that means. Scientists toiled to improve upon existing dipping technologies and also carried out ecological surveys to enhance their ability to predict outbreaks. Over the longer term dipping was not a panacea and ticks continue to present a major challenge to pastoral farming.
Auer, J.; Ditta, Massimiliano
Although the design and construction of wooden merchant vessels in the nineteenth century is generally considered to be well understood, the excavation and subsequent analysis of the wreck of the wooden Finnish topsail schooner Pettu (1865) revealed a number of unexpected features, which prompted......, considering its loss in 1893, is barely covered by the 100 year rule in Danish heritage legislation, is a good example for the archaeological potential of even relatively ‘modern’ wreck sites, adding to their significance. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.......Although the design and construction of wooden merchant vessels in the nineteenth century is generally considered to be well understood, the excavation and subsequent analysis of the wreck of the wooden Finnish topsail schooner Pettu (1865) revealed a number of unexpected features, which prompted...
Dr Boris Jardine
Full Text Available In their 1992 essay ‘The image of objectivity’, and again in Objectivity (2007, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison describe the development of ‘mechanical objectivity’. Nineteenth-century scientists, they argue, pursued ‘truth-to-nature’ by enlisting ‘self-registering instruments, cameras, wax molds, and a host of other devices […] with the aim of freeing images from human interference’. This emphasis on self-recording devices and the morals of machinery, important as it is, tends to focus our attention away from the often messy and convoluted means of image reproduction – by lithograph, hand-coloured engraving or photomechanical process, and often involving steps that seem sharply at odds with narratives of increasing standardization and scientific restraint. This essay draws on the Science Museum’s pictorial collections in order to look again at the construction of objectivity, this time from the point of view of making and reproducing images. Case studies are presented of the Luke Howard collection of cloud drawings and James Nasmyth’s lunar photographs, suggesting that scientists were more flexible in their approach to depictions of the truth than has previously been supposed, and that ‘manufactured’ may be a better term than ‘mechanical’ when we talk of objectivity in the nineteenth century. But this is also a reflexive story, about the collections of the Science Museum – an institution whose own history is, I argue in conclusion, particularly tied up with issues of accuracy, depiction and genre. These are brought together in the consideration of ‘atmosphere’ – a term as important for the historian of science as for the exhibition curator.
Sirera Miralles, Carles
In order to analyse the cultural values of Spanish liberalism, this paper describes the prohibition of corporal punishment in secondary education. The evolution of education laws and codes during the nineteenth century reveals great hope and confidence in building up an academic authority based exclusively on the power of reason and capable of…
Nineteenth-century American culture was rife with references to classical Greco-Roman antiquity, especially in rhetoric, education, and neoclassical visual culture. But the legacy of the classics also had a racialized strain: in "justifications" of slavery and racism, white elites often figured classical erudition as the antithesis to blackness, suggesting, for example, that African Americans did not have the mental capacity to learn Greek or Latin. But despite limited access to the tools a...
Full Text Available In the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century, Italy held a strong appeal for Russian travelers. Several of these Russian émigrés were women of Jewish lineage, who had come with their families or were sent abroad on their own in order to complete their education at one of the newborn kingdom’s prestigious universities. Elena Raffalovich (Odessa 1842 – Florence 1918 is one of the earliest and most intriguing examples of this phenomenon. While her intellectual trajectory, as a pioneer in children’s education and an advocate of women’s rights, is representative of that of many other Russian Jewish women living in Italy at that time, it also challenges a number of historiographic commonplaces about Jewish women and their emancipation process in nineteenth-century Europe. Moreover, through the archives of different prominent members of the Raffalovich dynasty, it is possible to follow its vicissitudes over at least five generations, completing our knowledge of Elena’s biography and reassessing the importance of her intellectual contribution to Italian culture.
This article explores the efforts of French Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish women to morally, spiritually, and physically protect immigrant and migrant women and girls in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Women of faith worried about the dangers posed by the white slave trade, and they feared the loss of spiritual consciousness among women living far from their families and their places of worship. In response to these concerns, they developed numerous faith-based international organizations aimed at protecting vulnerable working-class immigrants. Upper-class women's work in immigrant aid societies allowed them to take on much greater social and religious leadership roles than they had in the past. Likewise, the intricate, international networks that these women developed contributed to the building of international cooperation throughout Europe.
Angelini, Lauretta; Guidi, Enrica; Contini, Carlo
In this article the authors highlight the behaviour of government authorities in the nineteenth century in Italy and especially in Ferrara to implement those measures deemed necessary to stem the spread of syphilis in epidemic form through the control of prostitution. Albeit discontinuously and until 1865, corrupted and infected women in Ferrara were assisted and treated by charitable institutions (Congregation of Charity, the Congregation of the Ladies of St. Vincent and the Sisters of Charity at the complex St. Mary of Consolation) since the Ferrara public hospital (Arcispedale S. Anna) could not accept or treat infected prostitutes for economic reasons and lack of beds. Subsequently, the hospital only treated prostitutes free of charge if they bore a certificate of poverty. The other infected prostitutes were sent to the sifilicomio in Modena. The authors also study mortality from syphilis in Ferrara from 1813 to 1899 in order to detect any significant differences according to age, sex and professional status and attempt to identify the stage of the disease (primary, secondary and tertiary), according to the terminology used by the doctors of that time.
Lobel, Cindy R
Unheard of in the eighteenth century, restaurants became an integral part of New York City's public culture in the antebellum period. This article examines the emergence and development of New York's restaurant sector in the nineteenth century, focusing on three aspects in particular: the close ties between urbanization and the rise of New York's restaurants, the role restaurants played in enforcing the city's class structure and gender mores, and the role of restaurants in shaping the public culture of the growing metropolis.
The transmission of knowledge and skills within the working-class household greatly troubled social commentators and social policy experts during the first half of the nineteenth century. To prove theories which related criminality to failures in working-class up-bringing, experts and officials embarked upon an ambitious collection of data on…
Le Maléfan, Pascal; Sommer, Andreas
Recent research on the professionalization of psychology at the end of the nineteenth century shows how objects of knowledge which appear illegitimate to us today shaped the institutionalization of disciplines. The veridical or telepathic hallucination was one of these objects, constituting a field both of division and exchange between nascent psychology and disciplines known as 'psychic sciences' in France, and 'psychical research' in the Anglo-American context. In France, Leon Marillier (1862-1901) was the main protagonist in discussions concerning the concept of the veridical hallucination, which gave rise to criticisms by mental specialists and psychopathologists. After all, not only were these hallucinations supposed to occur in healthy subjects, but they also failed to correspond to the Esquirolian definition of hallucinations through being corroborated by their representation of external, objective events. © The Author(s) 2015.
This essay places some therapeutic vaccines, including particularly the diphtheria antitoxin, into their larger historical context of the late nineteenth century. As industrially produced drugs, these vaccines ought to be seen in connection with the structural changes in medicine and pharmacology at the time. Given the spread of industrial culture and technology into the field of medicine and pharmacology, therapeutic vaccines can be understood as boundary objects that required and facilitated communication between industrialists, medical researchers, public health officials, and clinicians. It was in particular in relation to evaluation and testing for efficacy in animal models that these medicines became a model for twentieth-century medicine. In addition, these medicines came into being as a parallel invention in two very distinct local cultures of research: the Institut Pasteur in Paris and the Institut für Infektionskrankheiten in Berlin. While their local cultural origins were plainly visible, the medicines played an important role in the alignment of the methods and objects that took place in bacteriology research in France and Germany in the 1890s. This article assesses the two locally specific regimes for control in France and in Imperial Germany. In France the Institut Pasteur, building on earlier successful vaccines, enjoyed freedom from scrutinizing control. The tight and elaborate system of control that evolved in Imperial Germany is portrayed as being reliant on experiences that were drawn from the dramatic events that surrounded the launching of a first example of so-called "bacteriological medicine," tuberculin, in 1890.
Amburgy, Patricia; Soucy, Donald
Examines the relationship between romantic idealism and vocational goals of art education in nineteenth-century Nova Scotia, Canada. Compares these ideas with those of John Ruskin concerning art and morality. Discusses the views of the Nova Scotian educators relative to issues of contemporary art education. (KO)
This essay contributes to debates about the relationship between science and the military by examining the British Admiralty's participation in meteorological projects in the first half of the nineteenth century. It focuses on attempts to transform Royal Navy log books into standardized meteorological registers that would be of use to both science and the state. The essay begins with a discussion of Admiralty Hydrographer Francis Beaufort, who promoted the use of standardized systems for the observation of the weather at sea. It then examines the application of ships' logs to the science of storms. The essay focuses on the Army engineer William Reid, who studied hurricanes while stationed in Barbados and Bermuda. Reid was instrumental in persuading the Admiralty to implement a naval meteorological policy, something the Admiralty Hydrographer had struggled to achieve. The essay uses the reception and adoption of work on storms at sea to reflect on the means and ends of maritime meteorology in the mid-nineteenth century.
Full Text Available After the Napoleonic invasion to Spain in 1808, the Empire's financialand monetary structure collapsed, and most colonies became independent. Regional rivalry over tax revenues, aggravated by military expenses and treasury deficits, led elites in regions with royal mints to carry out all sorts of menatary experiments in order to obtain revenues. Local interests controlling the mints began to coin their own money, or to falsify colonial coins. Other regions, lacking silver, created unconvertible paper money in order to cover their deficits. The Spanish silver peso's consistent quality thus dissappeared, and with it the pattern that had organized colonial economy ever since the sixteenth century. Such coin diversity within a highly integrated economic space made the so-called Gresham Law hasten after 1810 the conflicts between local and colonial elites. This led, in turn, during the nineteenth century, to the Empire's political fragmentation into a growing number of inancially, monetaryli, and politically sovereign entities.
This article draws on contemporary insights from the fields of psychology, sociology, and social welfare to analyze the potential threats of abuse posed by residential schools for deaf and blind children. It also examines an alleged episode of sexual abuse at the nineteenth century Spanish National School for deaf and blind children; the alleged…
The spectacular growth and equally spectacular decline of the eighteenth-century charity school movement prompts this examination of the contribution made by the movement to nineteenth-century schooling--particularly superior or secondary schooling. Educational historians have argued that the movement was a failure. This paper argues that only in…
Historians once regarded the passage of the Comstock Laws in 1873 as a death knell for the public discourse on gender, sex, and reproduction that thrived in the early nineteenth-century United States, but this view has given way to a more complex appreciation of the strategies available to actors seeking knowledge about the body. I examine some of these strategies in late-century health and hygiene manuals. Although certain discourses about sex became closed off, others persisted and evolved in the interstices of Comstock's regulatory state. Readers' demand for information did not abate in 1873; savvy publishers found different ways to meet it, utilizing suggestion, allusion, and nontextual cues from which active readers could extract useful knowledge. A once-public debate about the morality, effectiveness, and appropriate use of contraception had become coded in the pages of health and hygiene manuals, pointing readers to the burgeoning mass market for contraceptive devices as a locus of reproductive control.
The Muslims of the Russian Empire provide us with some interesting cases of how local Islamic scholars used the language and genres of Islamic law to describe their situation in a "northern" and non-Muslim state. The development of Islamic law in nineteenth-century Russia was influenced by close
Cecilia A. Bautista García
Full Text Available During the second half of the nineteenth century, the papacy designed a specific reform for catholicism in Latin America, consisting in a gradual centralization of pontifical authority in detriment of the power exerted by local hierarchies. This process was known as Romanization and, in the case of Mexico, was translated into a series of actions including the arrival of special delegates from Rome with the purpose of intervening in the ecclesiastical reorganization of local churches and in the reshapement of Church-State relations.
Pope Leo XII marked the 1825 Jubilee by visiting the hospitals of Rome. Italy was recovering from the French invasion that had disrupted social and religious structures. The Visitors investigated conditions, and recommended changes. By 1826, eight large hospitals were ordered to unite, but, three years later, the order was rescinded. Based on the Visit's mostly unexamined records in the Vatican Secret Archives, hospital registers, and minutes of the governing council held in the Archivio di Stato di Roma, this paper reconstructs the network of Rome's hospitals in the early 19 th century. It also compares Roman hospitals to its Parisian counterparts, especially with respect to governance and education. Finally, it examines the merger as an early example of a practice that remains vibrant (if controversial) today.
Full Text Available Among European regional stereotypes few come across as strongly and consistently as ‘Bavaria’. Its strength is derived from the ways in which it appears to be firmly and comprehensively grounded in its land and its people. This article traces the way in which some of the stereotype’s associated forms and images, principally those related to the domestic environment, were first conceived during the nineteenth century. The principal claim is that it was the nineteenth century artists, architects and designers in the Kunststadt Munich, who, helped by the critics, arrived at very specific valorisations of their designs, which could then be applied in an essentialist way to all artefacts of the region, old or new. The article divides the Munich design activities into two phases. During the 1850s designers aimed for a poetic and ‘volkstümlich / popular’ kind of decoration of common objects, including scenes from Bavarian ‘folk’ poetry. In the second phase, during the 1870s and 1880s, interest turned more directly to the domestic environment of Alpine houses, valorising a plain wooden character. Clearly, an absolute belief in in a primeval and unchanging ‘Bavaria’ cannot be entertained any more. But neither should one classify it all as modern kitsch. The latter attitude must be the reason why the subject has hardly been touched on in the copious art histories of Munich so far.
Tomašových, Adam; Kidwell, Susan M
The soft-sediment seafloor of the open continental shelf is among the least-known biomes on Earth, despite its high diversity and importance to fisheries and biogeochemical cycling. Abundant dead shells of epifaunal suspension-feeding terebratulid brachiopods ( Laqueus ) and scallops on the now-muddy mainland continental shelf of southern California reveal the recent, previously unsuspected extirpation of an extensive offshore shell-gravel ecosystem, evidently driven by anthropogenic siltation. Living populations of attached epifauna, which formerly existed in a middle- and outer-shelf mosaic with patches of trophically diverse muds, are restricted today to rocky seafloor along the shelf edge and to the sandier shelves of offshore islands. Geological age-dating of 190 dead brachiopod shells shows that (i) no shells have been produced on the mainland shelf within the last 100 years, (ii) their shell production declined steeply during the nineteenth century, and (iii) they had formerly been present continuously for at least 4 kyr. This loss, sufficiently rapid (less than or equal to 100 years) and thorough to represent an ecosystem collapse, coincides with intensification of alluvial-plain land use in the nineteenth century, particularly livestock grazing. Extirpation was complete by the start of twentieth-century urbanization, warming, bottom fishing and scientific surveys. The loss of this filter-feeding fauna and the new spatial homogeneity and dominance of deposit- and detritus-feeders would have altered ecosystem functioning by reducing habitat heterogeneity and seawater filtering. This discovery, attesting to the power of this geological approach to recent ecological transitions, also strongly increases the spatial scope attributable to the negative effects of siltation, and suggests that it has been under-recognized on continental shelves elsewhere as a legacy of coastal land use. © 2017 The Author(s).
Tsang, Tiffany Lee
Histories of education in America often discuss how concerns over women's health influenced public opinion on women's participation in higher education in the late nineteenth century. However, these histories almost exclusively focus on literature produced by the medical community--literature claiming that rigorous academic study was detrimental…
While health education in late nineteenth-century Britain could be beneficial for every household, it was particularly so where district nurses understood family circumstances and adapted knowledge to individual needs. During this period sick room cookery training and lectures on hygiene and dietetics became standard for nurses--especially following the reforms of Matron Eva Lückes at the London Hospital. Because understanding about health was not widespread in society, due to the living conditions and poverty of so many patients, and because doctors had few opportunities to convey such knowledge, the active support of nurses in the community proved to be essential for translating professional knowledge into words commonly understood. By demonstrating cooking and other health-related skills in the homes of the poor, nurses played an important part in improving the nation's health.
Ravn Sørensen, Anders
How do monetary institutions, such as currencies and central banks, interrelate to the construction of national communities? Using the national conflict between the Danish state and the Duchies of Schleswig-Holstein in the nineteenth century as an exemplary case, this article demonstrates how both...... banks and currencies were mobilized as political symbols to promote an agenda of regional nationalism. In the article I show how the local Schleswig-Holstein currency and the local Schleswig-Holsteinische Landsbank became symbolic antagonists to the Danish central bank and the official state......-sanctioned currency – which by Danish politicians were considers key elements in the attempt to consolidate the Danish nation-state. The article highlights the symbolic qualities of monetary institutions and offers an example of the interrelation between currencies, banks and nations. Through an empirical analysis...
This book considers the development of coal mining in the Dutch province of Limburg during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It is focused on the technical development and its economic background. Within the Dutch borders, as defined at the Congress of Vienna and the Dutch-Prussian negotiations of 1815 and 1816, the mining industry was small. In fact, it only consisted of two mines. (Earlier, more companies of miners had been working in the area since the Middle Ages). The two mines, however, had a certain symbolic importance for contemporaries. Most telling was the stubborn refusal to cede coal-ground to Prussia, ending in a remarkable compromise. The new national frontier was different above and underground. Underground the old borders were maintained. Thus it came about that in matters of mining, the Dutch were locally sovereign under a foreign surface. This fact itself shows that the political divisions of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries were rather artificial constructions. Dutch coal-strata were a continuation of the seams of the Worm-basin or the Aachen coal field. The Dutch collieries were just the most north-western ones of a whole series, the Worm-mines, until new pits were constructed around the turn of the nineteenth and into the twentieth centuries and modem mining in the Dutch-Limburg field took off. This is also the more general perspective taken in this book. Developments on the Dutch side of the border are contrasted with those on the German side. Furthermore, the evolution of the mines between Aachen in Germany and the Dutch town Kerkrade are considered in the light of what happened in the neighbourhood of Liege (Belgium) and the mining districts further south in Belgium, the north of France and both the Ruhr and Saar districts in Germany. In short, the Austrasian field, the concept framed by Wrigley in 1962, is the locus of reference. The symbolic importance of Dutch coal mining stimulated a series of experiments in bringing the
Walsh-Russo, Cecelia Catherine
an international network of abolitionist actors tied to one another through previous fora for discussion and debate. Mutual brokerage is perhaps most clearly seen within the example of female abolitionists during the nineteenth-century abolition campaigns. Women brought to the Anglo-American abolitionism the co...... of the movement were channels through which ideas flowed. Instead of a one-directional flow with brokers as translators bringing new tactics from one locale to another, the channels were characterized by the absence of earlier ‘originators’ and later ‘adopters’ – traditional categories assigned to actors within...
William Keith Brooks was an American zoologist at Johns Hopkins University from 1876 until his death in 1908. Over the course of his career, Brooks staunchly defended Darwinism, arguing for the centrality of natural selection in evolutionary theory at a time when alternative theories, such as neo-Lamarckism, grew prominent in American biology. In his book The Law of Heredity (1883), Brooks addressed problems raised by Darwin's theory of pangenesis. In modifying and developing Darwin's pangenesis, Brooks proposed a new theory of heredity that sought to avoid the pitfalls of Darwin's hypothesis. In so doing he strengthened Darwin's theory of natural selection by undermining arguments for the inheritance of acquired characteristics. In later attacks on neo-Lamarckism, Brooks consistently defended Darwin's theory of natural selection on logical grounds, continued to challenge the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, and argued that natural selection best explained a wide range of adaptations. Finally, he critiqued Galton's statistical view of heredity and argued that Galton had resurrected an outmoded typological concept of species, one which Darwin and other naturalists had shown to be incorrect. Brooks's ideas resemble the "biological species concept" of the twentieth century, as developed by evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr and others. The late-nineteenth century was not a period of total "eclipse" of Darwinism, as biologists and historians have hitherto seen it. Although the "Modern Synthesis" refers to the reconciliation of post-Mendelian genetics with evolution by natural selection, we might adjust our understanding of how the synthesis developed by seeing it as the culmination of a longer discussion that extends back to the late-nineteenth century.
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, American psychologists began addressing problems related to the intellectual capacity of students enrolled in public schools. This paper focuses on the role and influence of psychologists in addressing these problems, specifically the difficulty of classifying students deemed feeble-minded and…
In the second half of the nineteenth century, gas discharge research was transformed from a playful and fragmented field into a new branch of physical science and technology. From the 1850s onwards, several technical innovations-powerful high-voltage supplies, the enhancement of glass-blowing skills, or the introduction of mercury air-pumps- allowed for a major extension of experimental practices and expansion of the phenomenological field. Gas discharge tubes served as containers in which resources from various disciplinary contexts could be brought together; along with the experimental apparatus built around them the tubes developed into increasingly complex interfaces mediating between the human senses and the micro-world. The focus of the following paper will be on the physicist and chemist Johann Wilhelm Hittorf (1824-1914), his educational background and his attempts to understand gaseous conduction as a process of interaction between electrical energy and matter. Hittorf started a long-term project in gas discharge research in the early 1860s. In his research he tried to combine a morphological exploration of gas discharge phenomena-aiming at the experimental production of a coherent phenomenological manifold--with the definition and precise measurements of physical properties.
Leeuwen, Marco H.D.; Maas, Ineke
In this article long-term changes in homogamy during industrialization are studied. According to the `sexual revolution thesis' of Shorter industrialization weakened homogamy mainly by changing the preferences of young people. Others point to the importance of changes in social control by parents and peers and in the opportunities of potential marriage partners to meet. Both ethnographic data on bundling and tables of occupational homogamy in Sweden in the nineteenth century are used to descr...
The governance of the early nineteenth century Dutch empire in Southeast Asia heavily relied on the circulation of coins. However, making circulation work was never an easy endeavour. By zooming in the richly documented activities of J. Goldberg (1763‐1828), C.G.C. Reinwardt (1773‐1854), and W.A.A.
Amada Carolina Pérez Benavides
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the literature and illustrations of manners published in three nineteenth-century Mexican periodicals, in order to reveal the role of these texts and images in the construction of national identity. Following this analytical line, the author explores how the viewpoint of the literature of manners was born and the traits it acquired specifically during the 1850's, when the representation of Mexicans seems to have gone though its most important transition: from local and regional types to national archetypes.
As the sciences advanced rapidly in the modern European world, outstanding achievements have been made in medicine, chemistry, biology, physiology, physics and others, which have been co-influencing each of the scientific disciplines. Accordingly, such medical and scientific phenomena began to be reflected in novels. In particular, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein includes the diverse aspects of the change and development in the medicine and science. Associated with medical and scientific information reflected in Frankenstein and Frankenstein's experiments in the text, accordingly, this research will investigate the aspects of medical and scientific development taking place in the nineteenth century in three ways. First, the medical and scientific development of the nineteenth century has been reviewed by summerizing both the information of alchemy in which Frankenstein shows his interest and the new science in general that M. Waldman introduces in the text. Second, the actual features of medical and scientific development have been examined through some examples of the experimental methods that M. Waldman implicitly uttered to Frankenstein. Third, it has been checked how the medical and scientific development is related to the main issues of mechanism and vitalism which can be explained as principles of life. Even though this research deals with the developmental process of medicine & science and origin & principles of life implied in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, its significance is that it is the interdisciplinary research focussing on how deeply medical and scientific discourse of Mary Shelley's period has been imbedded in the nineteenth century novel.
Shterenshis, Michael; Vaiman, Michael
In this study we consider the development of clinical neurology in the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries focusing on European influence on Russian medicine. Russian physicians readily accepted newly described clinical signs, theories, and classification of nervous diseases designed in Europe. This influence initiated neurology's separation from general medicine and its transformation into a new clinical discipline. In Russia this happened already in the 1860s, decades before the similar trend in Europe. The Russian example is nearly unknown in the general history of neurology. It illustrates the relationships between physiology and practical neurology at the moment of establishment of the new discipline. It also shows that the Russian physicians of the time readily accepted European medical knowledge putting it immediately into medical practice and education.
Rosenholm, Arja; Savkina, Irina
The question of how to write about women in Russian literature of the nineteenth-century can be solved in various ways. We can add women writers into literary history, or we can try to write a separate women’s history with the aim of identifying fields and genres where women’s presence seems to be obvious, as did Barbara Heldt. We can also look for the specificity, originality and independence of women’s creativity and discuss women’s writing within various models, which follow not the paradi...
McLisky, Claire Louise
Taking Norbert Elias’ ideas about emotional change as its foil, this paper explores the changing role and function of emotion on late-nineteenth century Protestant missions in Australia. Like Elias, though for religious rather than historical reasons, missionaries during this period conceived...... of emotional control in terms of social development. Yet missionaries were not the only agents of emotional change, and their emotional agendas were not always realised in the ways that they had anticipated. Rather, this paper proposes that both missionaries and Aboriginal residents were participants...... in systems of emotional circulation and exchange which I conceptualise as ‘emotional economies’....
Full Text Available The complex historical destiny of Ukrainian Danube region in the nineteenth century led to the fact that by the end of this century, in the counties of the region peasant self-government was organized in different ways: in Akkerman - according to the reform in 1868, carried out by the Russian authorities in Bessarabia, and in Ismail - in accordance with the reforms of 1864-1874 years conducted by the Romanian government. The author compares and analyzes the peasant self-government in the counties of the province in the context of its sociocultural development in the unfolding process of modernization of the late XIX - early XX centuries.
Full Text Available Spiritualists in the nineteenth century gave much emphasis to the collection of evidences of scientific meaning. During séances, they used instruments similar to those employed in scientific practice to substantiate their claims. However, these were not the only source of legitimization offered in support of the spiritualist claims. In fact, writers who aimed to provide beliefs in spiritualism with a reliable support relied very often on the testimonies of eyewitness that were reported in a narrative fashion. This article interrogates the role of such anecdotal testimonies in nineteenth-century spiritualism. It argues that they played a twofold role: on one side, they offered a form of evidentiary proof that was complementary to the collection of mechanical-based evidences; on the other side, they circulated in spiritualist publications, creating opportunities to reach a wide public of readers that was made available by the emergence of a mass market for print media. Able to convince, but also to entertain the reader, anecdotal testimonies were perfectly suited for publications in spiritualist books and periodicals. The proliferation of anecdotal testimonies in spiritualist texts, in this regard, hints at the relevance of storytelling in the diffusion of beliefs about religious matters as well as scientific issues within the public sphere. By reporting and disseminating narrative testimonies, print media acted as a channel through which spiritualism’s religious and scientific endeavors entered the field of a burgeoning popular culture.
Disclosures about electronic surveillance by the U.S. National Security Agency have revived interest in issues of communications privacy and Fourth Amendment rights. In the early days of the telegraph, there was no legal protection afforded to the privacy of telegraphic communication, and seizures of telegraphic dispatches figured in major events of the nineteenth century in the United States. Attempts to protect the content of telegrams by defining a customer/operator "privilege" under common law were rejected by the courts, as were attempts to protect the confidentiality of telegraphic communications through an analogy with the postal service. Each attempt by the government and the courts to obtain access to private telegraphic communication revived a debate about the constitutionality of such actions, which ultimately led to a new interpretation of constitutional law, including a legal right to privacy.
Miller, J.M.; Jones, T.R.B.; Kenney, Tina; Rupp, D.W.
The application of fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry to the determination of lead isotope ratios in nineteenth century pottery glazes from the Niagara Peninsula has been investigated with the aim of determining the source of the lead used in the glazes. Methods of sampling have been compared, including direct analysis of glass chips, analysis of powdered glaze scrapings, analysis of acid extracts of the former, and simple acid leaching of the surface of a piece of pottery. The latter method gave the best results. The FAB data, as obtained on an older mass spectrometer, can distinguish lead from igneous vs. sedimentary deposits, but is not adequate to determine specific mining locations. Although newer FAB instrumentation can narrow this range, the overlap of data from the Niagara Peninsula and England precludes a simple answer to the archeological question as to English vs. Canadian origin of the lead used in the Jordan pottery glazes. However, the data do suggest that the potter used a local source for the lead
The beginning of modern Arab education coincided with the Arab Awakening in the nineteenth century. The modern educational system witnessed its most important developments in the Arab world, as shown by the case of Egypt, under the Ottoman Empire. Examining a new model of education as shown in the literary sources of the Arab Awakening, one finds…
Roof, David J.
This paper utilizes Henri Lefebvre's work to examine nineteenth century school architecture, in relation to asylums. The deployment of the asylums occurred in unison with the development of public schools. Based on archival research this paper seeks an examination of this interrelated development. The social/spatial arrangement of asylums and…
Verónica Zárate Toscano
Full Text Available This paper examines the role played by opera during the nineteenth century in Mexico and Brazil, with views to start a joint reflection on these two Latin American countries based on the career of two musicians: the Brazilian Carlos Gomes and the Mexican Melesio Morales. This essay does not aspire to be a paper on comparative history, let alone on musicology. It rather seeks to sketch an anal- ysis in the line of the “connected histories” introduced by Sanjay Subrahmanayam. My starting points are the bonds that tied Mexico, Brazil and Italy during the nineteenth century in the field of opera. The rivalry between these two musicians made us bring together and relate two rarely compared histories, two pasts, and two historiographies.
Full Text Available The Caucasian spa resort is a significant setting in Russian literature of the nineteenth century. This paper will trace the origins and evolution of Russian fictional writing about watering places like Piatigorsk and Kislovodsk from romanticism until the turn of the twentieth century. At the same time it will consider the semiotic theories of Iurii Lotman’s Tartu-Moscow School and the ‘transtextual’ apparatus of the French narratologist Gérard Genette as ‘toolboxes’ for work on place in narrative.
Dení Trejo Barajas
Full Text Available The indigenous population of Baja California was reduced significantly during the missionary period. However, in the early nineteenth century the declining demographic trend that led these peoples to extinction began to revert. The immigration of groups that settled in the former missions, in nearby ranches, along the coasts and in the mining regions in the Southern part of the península gave place to an unstable but important demographic growth in the region. This work reviews this demographic rocess in its different stages, by analyzing the census and regtsters of religious and civil authorities of the Baja California península.
Jahng, Kyung Eun
This article brings to light discourses that constituted the education of Asian-American children in California in the second half of the nineteenth century. Guided by Foucaultian ideas and critical race theory, I analyze California public school laws, speeches of a governor-elect and a superintendent, and a report of the board of supervisors,…
The adjacent gold mining settlements of Ballarat and Sebastopol in the colony of Victoria are universally acknowledged as the major focal point for Welsh immigrants in Australia in the second half of the nineteenth century. Here, the Welsh had congregated in sufficient numbers to establish an identifiable and highly visible ethnolinguistic community. Factors such as the necessity of acquiring the English language, movement out of the mining industry, high rates of exogamy, the failure to unite within one religious denomination and the conscious desire to integrate into mainstream Australian society, all served to undermine the integrity of that community. This paper argues that the more fundamental issue of residential propinquity was of primary importance in this process; that it was the failure of the Welsh immigrant group to establish and maintain long term exclusively Welsh areas of settlement that ensured the eventual dilution and absorption of the Welsh as a distinct community.
Ernst, Frederick J.
This talk is intended for a general audience. A brief history of the two primary physical theories of the twentieth century is presented, and the similarity between the late nineteenth and the early twenty-first centuries is highlighted. In particular, the past and possible future of exact solutions in general relativity are briefly described, and reasons why time is growing short are cited.
Saad, Y.; Vorst, H.A. van der
This paper sketches the main research developments in the area of iterative methods for solving linear systems during the 20th century. Although iterative methods for solving linear systems find their origin in the early nineteenth century (work by Gauss), the field has seen an explosion of
The Astronomical Observatory of Lisbon was founded in 1857 in the sequence of a controversy on stellar parallax measurements involving astronomers from the Observatory of Paris and the Observatory of Pulkovo. The development of this discussion led the contenders to recognize Lisbon as a suitable place to carry out this kind of measurements and to foster the field of stellar astronomy. Some local actors strived to keep up with this wave of international interest and establish a first-rank astronomical institution in the Portuguese capital. In order to fulfil this goal, correspondence was intensively exchanged with leading foreign astronomers and instrument makers. Besides, a Portuguese Navy officer bound to become the first director of the new institution was commissioned to visit several observatories and instrument workshops abroad, and to spend a few years in Pulkovo as a trainee astronomer. Although founded with generous financial support from the Portuguese crown and lavishly equipped and constructed, the Observatory of Lisbon was later affected by limiting budgets and a shortage of qualified personnel. Nevertheless, local efforts to improve instruments as well as observation and calculation techniques enabled its astronomers to yield important contributions to positional astronomy, especially towards the end of the nineteenth century and the beginnings of the twentieth century. The original instruments and spaces of the Observatory of Lisbon, strongly modelled on those of Pulkovo, are very well preserved, constituting an outstanding extant example of a mid-nineteenth century advanced observatory. The history they embody testifies the connectedness of the astronomical heritage worldwide.
Arteaga, Juan Manuel Sanchez; El-Hani, Charbel N.
This paper analyzes the debates on "interracial competition" and "racial extinction" in the biological discourse on human evolution during the second half of the nineteenth century. Our intention is to discuss the ideological function of these biological concepts as tools for the naturalization and scientific legitimation of racial hierarchies…
The paper investigates medical missionaries that exerted a significant role in establishing Western medicine in the late nineteenth century Chosun, in relation to orientalism, an academically popularized concept introduced by Edward Said. Historical analysis is focused on several important medical missionaries such as Horace N. Allen, William B. Scranton, John W. Heron, C. C. Vinton, and Oliver R. Avison to explain how their activism as medical missionary contributed to the formation of medical orientalism in which Western medicine was 'taught, studied, administered, and judged' in that period. In addition, I explore into how medical orientalism was in service of Japanese imperialism by showing that medical missionaries had to be under imperial surveillance by Japanese colonizers. The article explores the medical system of the Koryo Dynasty period and its social characteristics. First, the structure of medical system and roles of medical institutions during the Koryo Dynasty period will be summarized. Then the characteristics of the medical system will be identified through exploring the principles of its formation in a view of social recognition of medical care and a view of social recognition of medical care and a view of public policy.
Goncalves, Valeria Portugal; Ortega, Francisco
At the end of the twentieth century, supernatural phenomena such as so called trances and possession by spirits received a scientific classification, which includes the numerous diagnoses of the dominant psychiatry. At the end of the nineteenth century we can observe a process of scientific categorization of phenomena considered to have originated in superstition or popular imagination. In this work we show how trances and spiritual possession were studied by Franz Anton Mesmer and his followers when developing the concept of magnetism; by James Braid during the creation of his theory of hypnosis; and by Jean Martin Charcot, which marked the entry of hysteria into nosological classification. Despite the differences between these schools, we identify the use of the brain and cerebral metaphors as the foundation of theories of the mind.
Mollan, R Charles
This is a revealing account of the family life and achievements of the Third Earl of Rosse, a hereditary peer and resident landlord at Birr Castle, County Offaly, in nineteenth-century Ireland, before, during and after the devastating famine of the 1840s. He was a remarkable engineer, who built enormous telescopes in the cloudy middle of Ireland. The book gives details, in an attractive non-technical style which requires no previous scientific knowledge, of his engineering initiatives and the astronomical results, but also reveals much more about the man and his contributions - locally in the
Full Text Available In “National Metrical Types in Nineteenth Century Art Song” Leigh Van Handel gives a sympathetic critique of William Rothstein’s claim that in western classical music of the late 18th and 19th centuries there are discernable differences in the phrasing and metrical practice of German versus French and Italian composers. This commentary (a examines just what Rothstein means in terms of his proposed metrical typology, (b questions Van Handel on how she has applied it to a purely melodic framework, (c amplifies Van Handel’s critique of Rothstein, and then (d concludes with a rumination on the reach of quantitative (i.e., statistically-driven versus qualitative claims regarding such things as “national metrical types.”
The essay discusses the role and education of the women of India, with special reference to the women of Bengal during the nineteenth-century and a comparison is made between the education of the Indian woman and the education of the European woman during this era. The education of the Indian woman is also referenced against the backdrop of the…
Kantawala, Ami; Daichendt, G. James
Drawing books can be seen as a vital component to teaching and learning art. They serve as an excellent resource for understanding the historical context of teaching drawing. As the industrial revolution geared forward in the nineteenth century, drawing books became a crucial source for sharing and disseminating educational philosophies for the…
Kelso, C. [Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Johannesburg, Private Bag 524, Auckland Park, 2006 Johannesburg (South Africa); Vogel, C. [School of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, P Bag 3, 2050 (South Africa)
Southern African climatic change research is hampered by a lack of long-term historical data sets. This paper aims to extend the historical climate record for southern Africa to the semi-arid area of Namaqualand in the Northern Cape province of South Africa. This is achieved through extensive archival research, making use of historical documentary sources such as missionary journals and letters, traveller's writings and government reports and letters. References to precipitation and other climatic conditions have been extracted and categorised, providing a proxy precipitation data set for Namaqualand for the nineteenth century. Notwithstanding problems of data accuracy and interpretation the reconstruction enables the detection of severe and extreme periods. Measured meteorological data, available from the late 1870s, was compared to the data set derived from documentary sources in order to ascertain the accuracy of the data set and monthly rainfall data has been used to identify seasonal anomalies. Confidence ratings on derived dry and wet periods, where appropriate, have been assigned to each year. The study extends the geographical area of existing research and extracts the major periods of drought and climatic stress, from the growing body of historical climate research. The most widespread drought periods affecting the southern and eastern Cape, Namaqualand and the Kalahari were 1820-1821; 1825-1827; 1834; 1861-1862; 1874-1875; 1880-1883 and 1894-1896. Finally, a possible correspondence is suggested between some of the widespread droughts and the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
Tobacco smoking became an important marker of Hungarian national identity during the nineteenth century. this national symbol ultimately had an economic origin: Hungarian tobacco producers resisted the tobacco monopoly of the Habsburg central government, and led an ultimately successful consumer boycott of Austrian products. Tobacco nationalism, however, became a common theme in Hungarian popular culture in its own right, as tobacco use came to symbolize community and fraternity. The use of tobacco was also highly gendered; smoking as a metaphor for membership shows that the Hungarian nation was a gender-exclusive "national brotherhood."
Markovich Slobodan G.
Full Text Available The paper analyses the development of national identities among Balkan Orthodox Christians from the 1780s to 1914. It points to pre-modern political subsystems in which many Balkan Orthodox peasants lived in the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The Serbian and Greek uprisings/revolutions are analyzed in the context of the intellectual climate of the Enlightenment. Various modes of penetration of the ideas of the Age of Revolution are analyzed as well as the ways in which new concepts influenced proto-national identities of Serbs and Romans/Greeks. The author accepts Hobsbawm’s concept of proto-national identities and identifies their ethno-religious identity as the main element of Balkan Christian Orthodox proto-nations. The role of the Orthodox Church in the formation of ethno-religious proto-national identity and in its development into national identity during the nineteenth century is analyzed in the cases of Serbs, Romans/ Greeks, Vlachs/Romanians and Bulgarians. Three of the four Balkan national movements fully developed their respective national identities through their own ethnic states, and the fourth (Bulgarian developed partially through its ethnic state. All four analyzed identities reached the stage of mass nationalism by the time of the Balkan Wars. By the beginning of the twentieth century, only Macedonian Slavs kept their proto-national ethno-religious identity to a substantial degree. Various analyzed patterns indicate that nascent national identities coexisted with fluid and shifting protonational identities within the same religious background. Occasional supremacy of social over ethnic identities has also been identified. Ethnification of the Orthodox Church, in the period 1831-1872, is viewed as very important for the development of national movements of Balkan Orthodox Christians. A new three-stage model of national identity development among Balkan Orthodox Christians has been proposed. It is
Tassenaar, V.; Karel, Erwin
Background/Objectives: We test the impact of several demographic, economic and social factors on stature in an early nineteenth century environment. Subjects/Methods: We use a database of conscripts from the period 1818–1860 of a rural province in The Netherlands (Drenthe). This area had a rather
José Ramón BERTOMEU SÁNCHEZ
Full Text Available This paper provides an overview on the history of scientific instrument collections in Spanish secondary schools, focusing especially on the period around their establishment in the mid-nineteenth century. It describes their most important features as well as their promoters and main users. Attention is also paid to the teaching practices which encouraged different uses of scientific instruments in nineteenth-century classrooms and the reasons that lead to the progressive abandonment of nineteenth-century collections along with the advent of new pedagogical ideas. First, we briefly describe the collections created at the end of the 18th century. Then we evaluate the mid nineteenth-century situation, when the Spanish Government supported several projects to provide the new secondary schools with comprehensive physics and chemistry cabinets. Finally, we offer a general overview of the current state of the collections and of several projects and proposals aimed at their use as historical sources, pedagogical tools and objects with great patrimonial and museum value.El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en ofrecer una revisión de la historia de las colecciones de instrumentos científicos en los institutos de enseñanza secundaria en España, la mayor parte creadas a mediados del siglo XIX. Prestaremos especial atención a sus principales promotores y usuarios, así como a los usos para los que fueron inicialmente empleadas y las razones que condujeron a su progresivo abandono con la llegada de nuevos métodos pedagógicos. En primer lugar comentaremos las colecciones creadas a finales del siglo XVIII para conocer la situación existente a mediados del siglo XIX, cuando el Gobierno llevó a cabo iniciativas para dotar mientas didácticas y objetos de valor museístico y patrimonial.
Full Text Available To marry and form a household of one’s own was the expected life course of most people in the nineteenth century, but little is known about whether individuals with disabilities shared the same demographic experience of marriage as non-disabled did. This study examines this issue by analyzing the marital chances of a group of disabled people—i.e. blind, deaf mute, crippled and with mental disabilities—compared with a non-disabled reference group. Our results show that about a quarter of the disabled individuals did marry, even though their marital propensities were significantly lower than those of non-disabled people. These propensities also differed by gender and type of disability. We suggest that the lower marital chances and the variation we found within the group of disabled people indicate the level of social exclusion they faced in society.
Full Text Available This article begins with the contention that 'American art' is a powerful retrospective construction, rooted in the institutional practices of art history and museology. Through a focus on the experiences of expatriate American artists (John Singleton Copley and Benjamin West in London at the start of the nineteenth century, and the genre or landscape painting in transatlantic art (including the work of the British artist Thomas Cole, this essay exposes the complex and dynamic cultural interrelationship that existed between the United States and Europe in the period. It extends Paul Gilroy's and Joseph Roach's recent concept of the 'Black Atlantic', in which they argue that a single cultural zone brought together London and New Orleans, Kingston, Jamaica and the ports of the Ivory coast, to analyse the cultural and performative exchanges that were also taking place between America and Europe (particularly Great Britain, and that have hitherto been neglected in dominant art history narratives.
Melton, Nigel; Montgomery, Janet; Knüsel, Christopher J.
A log-coffin excavated in the early nineteenth century proved to be well enough preserved in the early twenty-first century for the full armoury of modern scientific investigation to give its occupants and contents new identity, new origins and a new date. In many ways the interpretation is much ...
Contents: Barbu ŞTEFĂNESCU: Foreword; Barbu ŞTEFĂNESCU: Confessionalisation and Community Sociability (Transylvania, 18th Century – First Half of the 19th Century); Ion GUMENÂI Religious Minorities in Bessarabia during the -Reaction‖ of Nikolai I (The Case of Jewish Population); Eugen GHIŢĂ: Population, Ethnicity and Confession in the County of Arad in the Eighteenth Century and Early Nineteenth Century; Lavinia BUDA: “Oratory or the Rosary? a Nonexistent Controversy” in the Greek Catholi...
Yolanda de Paz Trueba
Full Text Available Based on the concern that abandoned and vulnerable children represented for governmental and intellectual elites in Argentina in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, this paper analyses the vicissitudes around installation of a Patronato de Menores in the province of Buenos Aires. The article pays special attention to the relationship between budgetary issues and the political dimension, which colored parliamentary debate. I maintain that political centralization and the question of municipal autonomy crossed over into the debate surrounding children.
Nutting, P Bradley
The industrial and transportation revolutions of nineteenth-century America separated work from home (at least for the growing middle class) and intensified the development of masculine and feminine spheres devoted to success and domesticity, respectively. This development tended to reduce the husband's traditional patriarchal roles to that of provider only, while leaving the wife and mother with enhanced authority over household management and child rearing, a development with consequences for feminism. This article examines two extreme cases of separation of work from home: absent husbands, respected professional men, who left their wives alone for months or years and, while they provided financial support, surrendered all household authority to "single" wives.
This study investigates the evolution of the historiography of Greek sport from the foundation of the Greek state (1830) until 1982 and its links with Greek national history, which also took shape primarily during the nineteenth century. The gradual 'nationalisation' of sport as an element of Greek national character since antiquity corresponded to changes in perceptions of the national past reflected in historiography. The ancient Olympic Games, Byzantine contests and exercises, the competitions of the klephts and armatoloi (militia soldiers) during the Ottoman rule and the modern revival of the Olympic Games were all successively integrated in a national history of sport confirming national continuity and unity. However this particular genre of national historiography did not gain academic recognition until recently. The authors of histories of physical exercise and sport were amateurs or physical education instructors and could not ensure to their work the authority of a separate discipline.
Pearson, Quentin Trais
This article focuses on the historical confrontation between Western obstetrical medicine and indigenous midwifery in nineteenth-century Siam (Thailand). Beginning with the campaign of medical missionaries to reform Siamese obstetrical care, it explores the types of arguments that were employed in the contest between these two forms of expert knowledge. Missionary-physicians used their anatomical knowledge to contest both particular indigenous obstetrical practices and more generalized notions concerning its moral and metaphysical foundations. At the same time, by appealing to the health and well-being of the consorts and children of the Siamese elite, they gained access to the intimate spaces of Siamese political life. The article contends that the medical missionary campaign intersected with imperial desires to make the sequestered spaces of Siamese political life more visible and accessible to Western scrutiny. It therefore reveals the imbrication of contests over obstetrical medicine and trade diplomacy in the imperial world.
Full Text Available The article presents tips on raising children published in journals in the nineteenth century. Their role was to educate parents. In many publications it was written literally, that parents, especially mothers, have no grounds for raising children. Therefore, the information contained in the texts related to educational culture, health behavior, moral education, the formation of character and mind. The authors marked that more parents should take care of the health aspects, namely to improve living conditions, hygiene of everyday life, as well as adopt attitudes and behaviors conducive to health. They urged the need of kneading in the children a strong will to prevent them in future from unexpected events and non-permanent fate. They drew attention to the need for mental development. It was believed that it is important notonly what features will develop, but also what your child will learn. Knowledge should be presented as a boon, human dignity, which puts him on a higher level of existence. Particular attention is paid to the social upbringing, noting that the more there will be good people in the world, the more this will override good intentions and noble aspirations. The desire for happiness is the reason for care to be taken of the education of children.
Funke, Jana; Fisher, Kate; Grove, Jen; Langlands, Rebecca
This article reveals previously overlooked connections between eighteenth-century antiquarianism and early twentieth-century sexual science by presenting a comparative reading of two illustrated books: An Account of the Remains of the Worship of Priapus , by British antiquarian scholar Richard Payne Knight (1750-1824), and Die Weltreise eines Sexualforschers (The World Journey of a Sexologist), by German sexual scientist Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935). A close analysis of these publications demonstrates the special status of material artefacts and the strategic engagement with visual evidence in antiquarian and scientific writings about sex. Through its exploration of the similarities between antiquarian and sexual scientific thought, the article demonstrates the centrality of material culture to the production of sexual knowledge in the Western world. It also opens up new perspectives on Western intellectual history and on the intellectual origins of sexual science. While previous scholarship has traced the beginnings of sexual science back to nineteenth-century medical disciplines, this article shows that sexual scientists drew upon different forms of evidence and varied methodologies to produce sexual knowledge and secure scientific authority. As such, sexual science needs to be understood as a field with diverse intellectual roots that can be traced back (at least) to the eighteenth century.
Elias, Scott A
Systematic entomology flourished as a branch of Natural History from the 1750s to the end of the nineteenth century. During this interval, the "era of Heroic Entomology," the majority of workers in the field were dedicated amateurs. This article traces the demographic and occupational shifts in entomology through this 150-year interval and into the early twentieth century. The survey is based on entomologists who studied beetles (Coleoptera), and who named sufficient numbers of species to have their own names abbreviated by subsequent taxonomists. In the eighteenth century, 27 entomologists achieved this level of prominence, of whom 37% were academics, 19% were doctors, 11% had private incomes, 19% were clergymen, and 8% were government officials. Many of those with private incomes were members of the European aristocracy, and all but one were European men. The nineteenth century list included 192 entomologists, of whom 17% were academics, 16% were museum curators, 2% were school teachers, 15% were doctors, 6% were military men, 7% were merchants, 2% were government entomologists, 6% had private incomes, 5% were clergymen, 5% were government officials, and 4% were lawyers. The demographics of entomology shifted dramatically in the nineteenth century. Whereas many of the noteworthy entomologists of the eighteenth century were German, Swedish, or French, in the nineteenth century, many more European countries are represented, and almost one-fifth of the noteworthy entomologists were from the United States. The nineteenth century list, like the eighteenth century list, contains no women. By the twentieth century, 63% of 178 noteworthy systematic entomologists were paid professionals, teaching entomology courses in universities, or studying insect taxonomy in museums and government-sponsored laboratories. Only one person on the twentieth century list had a private income, but women (ten individuals) were included on the list for the first time.
This article addresses the encounter between contending medical ideologies in nineteenth-century Colombia. The first era of medical pluralism, in colonial Latin America, developed from the imposition of Hispanic medicine on existing indigenous medical systems through an imperial structure. This produced a "colonial medical spectrum" incorporating various medical ideologies that came under attack by practitioners of scientific medicine in the 1800s. As scientific physicians gained privileged access to state resources, they undertook partially successful campaigns to deny Hispanic, homeopathic, and other medical systems the right to be practiced. As the state authorized scientific medicine, other practices became "popularized," thereby laying the foundation for the medical pluralism of contemporary Colombia that juxtaposes "academic" and "traditional" medicines.
Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik
In the 1870s, when Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species and Descent of Man were translated into Danish by the botanist-turned-poet J. P. Jacobsen, evolutionary thought played a seminal role in the modern breakthrough advocated by the freethinker and literary critic Georg Brandes. A group...... of students and artists assembled around Brandes in the capital of Copenhagen - the only Danish city hosting a university in the late nineteenth century - and used Darwinism in their cultural struggle against what they regarded as reactionary Christian and conservative values which dominated in the country....... At the same time in the village of Askov in rural Jutland, a liberal fraction of the Evangelical-Lutheran State Church, the Grundtvigians, had a stronghold at their high-profile folk high school. Here materialism and Darwinism associated with the Brandes circle were tabooed and later condemned. However...
During the nineteenth century, many captains' wives from New England took up residence on the ships their husbands commanded. This article focuses on how those women at sea attempted to use material culture to domesticate their voyaging space. While writing in their journals, they referred to not only the small personal things such as books and knitting needles that they brought in their trunks, but also large items, built for and used by women, such as gamming chairs, deckhouses, parlor organs, sewing machines, and gimballed beds. Mary Brewster attempted to retreat from the ship's officers in her small deckhouse, Annie Brassey slept in the gimballed bed, and Lucy Lord Howes disembarked in a gamming chair when captured by Confederates during the Civil War. Evidence of these artifacts found during shipwreck archaeology could be used to further what is known of the culture aboard ships on which women lived. Analysis of the material culture reveals how a captain's wife domesticated space, altered her environment, and made a home on the ship for her family.
Bruno Miranda Braga
Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to discuss and present data showing the everyday practices of a city: Manáos in the second half of the nineteenth century, which had become a place of multiple sociability, where a mix of people from overseas decided it as a place for residence, or income generation. In this perspective, the vision of the "outside" is distant and the local elite, as to the latter, the city boasted the "pride of civilization" and its inhabitants all had left behind the customs and habits of Manáos of old, connected to the delay, the uncivil, the river and the indigenous. We leave especially the iconographic analysis in this souvenir album of the Chicago Exposition of 1883, which Manaus was presented as a place of wealth and civilization and the environment of the province, a place of rurality and extensive nature. Thus, we will highlight the everyday life of this city, this routine marked by different "ways of doing."
In recent decades, historians of English psychiatry have shifted their major concerns away from asylums and psychiatrists in the nineteenth century. This is also seen in the studies of twentieth-century psychiatry where historians have debated the rise of psychology, eugenics and community care. This shift in interest, however, does not indicate that English psychiatrists became passive and unimportant actors in the last century. In fact, they promoted Lunacy Law reform for a less asylum-dependent mode of psychiatry, with a strong emphasis on professional development. This paper illustrates the historical dynamics around the professional development of English psychiatry by employing Andrew Abbott's concept of professional development. Abbott redefines professional development as arising from both abstraction of professional knowledge and competition regarding professional jurisdiction. A profession, he suggests, develops through continuous re-formation of its occupational structure, mode of practice and political language in competing with other professional and non-professional forces. In early twentieth-century England, psychiatrists promoted professional development by framing political discourse, conducting a daily trade and promoting new legislation to defend their professional jurisdiction. This professional development story began with the Lunacy Act of 1890, which caused a professional crisis in psychiatry and led to inter-professional competition with non-psychiatric medical service providers. To this end, psychiatrists devised a new political rhetoric, 'early treatment of mental disorder', in their professional interests and succeeded in enacting the Mental Treatment Act of 1930, which re-instated psychiatrists as masters of English psychiatry.
Bertomeu-Sánchez, José Ramón
This paper analyses the development of three methods for detecting bloodstains during the first half of the nineteenth-century in France. After dealing with the main problems in detecting bloodstains, the paper describes the chemical tests introduced in the mid-1820s. Then the first uses of the microscope in the detection of bloodstains around 1827 are discussed. The most controversial method is then examined, the smell test introduced by Jean-Pierre Barruel in 1829, and the debates which took place in French academies and learned societies during ensuing years are surveyed. Moving to the courtrooms a review is conducted of how the different methods were employed in criminal trials. By reviewing these cases, the main arguments against Barruel's test during the 1830s are explored as well as the changes making possible the return of the microscope to legal medicine around 1840. By reconstructing the history of these three methods, the paper reveals how the senses of smell and vision (colours and microscopic images) were employed in order to produce convincing evidence in both academies and courts. The paper questions two linear master narratives that are organized in terms of progress and decline: the development of forensic science as a result of continued technological progress; and the supposed decline of smell in the history of the senses, particularly in the realm of chemistry and medicine.
Lorente, J. Pedro
Full Text Available Monuments to kings or military heroes have always been positioned in main squares and avenues, whilst those erected to famous cultural figures were a novelty introduced in the Enlightenment and Romanticism, placing busts or sitting monuments to writers or musicians in secluded gardens and in the surroundings of libraries, theatres, etc. During the nineteenth century, monuments to artists became also a common feature in many cities, where a most likely emplacement for them was in front of some art museum. In a way, they were a complement to the ornaments of such building, usually decorated with portraits and inscriptions glorifying great artists; but the monument to Murillo erected in 1863 by public subscription in Seville's Plaza del Museo was also an urban milestone, catching the attention of promenading public passing along a lateral street. Later, the monuments erected in the piazzas around the Prado Museum in Madrid, or in gardens outside the Louvre, became a popular prototype, emulated in many other cities up to the early 20th century. Their role as interfaces between public spaces and museum sites would thereafter be taken over by other kinds of artistic landmarks: not monuments to artists, but monumental artworks, often owned by the museum itself, thus bringing part of its collection outside, as a welcome starter to prospective cultural consumers.
The article discusses attempts to visualise the soul on photographic plates at the end of the nineteenth century, as conducted by the French physician Hippolyte Baraduc in Paris. Although Baraduc refers to earlier experiments on fluidic photography in his book on The Human Soul (1896) and is usually mentioned as a precursor to parapsychological thought photography of the twentieth century, his work is presented as a genuine attempt at photographic soul-catching. Rather than producing mimetic representations of thoughts and imaginations, Baraduc claims to present the vital radiation of the psyche itself and therefore calls the images he produces psychicones. The article first discusses the difference between this method of soul photography and other kinds of occult media technologies of the time, emphasising the significance of its non-mimetic, abstract character: since the soul itself was considered an abstract entity, abstract traces seemed all the more convincing to the contemporary audience. Secondly, the article shows how the technological agency of photography allowed Baraduc's psychicones to be tied into related discourses in medicine and psychology. Insofar as the photographic plates displayed actual visual traces, Baraduc and his followers no longer considered hallucinations illusionary and pathological but emphasised the physical reality and normality of imagination. Yet, the greatest influence of soul photography was not on science but on art. As the third part of the paper argues, the abstract shapes on Baraduc's plates provided inspiration for contemporary avant-garde aesthetics, for example, Kandinsky's abstract paintings and the random streams of consciousness in surrealistic literature.
This multi-authored effort, Mathematics of the nineteenth century (to be fol lowed by Mathematics of the twentieth century), is a sequel to the History of mathematics fram antiquity to the early nineteenth century, published in three 1 volumes from 1970 to 1972. For reasons explained below, our discussion of twentieth-century mathematics ends with the 1930s. Our general objectives are identical with those stated in the preface to the three-volume edition, i. e. , we consider the development of mathematics not simply as the process of perfecting concepts and techniques for studying real-world spatial forms and quantitative relationships but as a social process as weIl. Mathematical structures, once established, are capable of a certain degree of autonomous development. In the final analysis, however, such immanent mathematical evolution is conditioned by practical activity and is either self-directed or, as is most often the case, is determined by the needs of society. Proceeding from this premise, we intend...
Carson, Scott Alan
Little is known about late 19th and early 20th century BMIs on the US Central Plains. Using data from the Nebraska state prison, this study demonstrates that the BMIs of dark complexioned blacks were greater than for fairer complexioned mulattos and whites. Although modern BMIs have increased, late 19th and early 20th century BMIs in Nebraska were in normal ranges; neither underweight nor obese individuals were common. Farmer BMIs were consistently greater than those of non-farmers, and farm labourer BMIs were greater than those of common labourers. The BMIs of individuals born in Plains states were greater than for other nativities, indicating that rural lifestyles were associated with better net current biological living conditions.
Dethier, David P.; Ouimet, William B.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Kotikian, Maneh; Wicherski, Will; Samuels, Rachel M.
Human impacts on earth surface processes and materials are fundamental to understanding the proposed Anthropocene epoch. This study examines the magnitude, distribution, and long-term context of nineteenth- and twentieth-century mining in the Fourmile Creek catchment, Colorado, coupling airborne LiDAR topographic analysis with historical documents and field studies of river banks exposed by 2013 flooding. Mining impacts represent the dominant Anthropocene landscape change for this basin. Mining activity, particularly placer operations, controls floodplain stratigraphy and waste rock piles related to mining cover >5% of hillslopes in the catchment. Total rates of surface disturbance on slopes from mining activities (prospecting, mining, and road building) exceed pre-nineteenth-century rates by at least fifty times. Recent flooding and the overprint of human impacts obscure the record of Holocene floodplain evolution. Stratigraphic relations indicate that the Fourmile valley floor was as much as two meters higher in the past 2,000 years and that placer reworking, lateral erosion, or minor downcutting dominated from the late Holocene to present. Concentrations of As and Au in the fine fraction of hillslope soil, mining-related deposits, and fluvial deposits serve as a geochemical marker of mining activity in the catchment; reducing As and Au values in floodplain sediment will take hundreds of years to millennia. Overall, the Fourmile Creek catchment provides a valuable example of Anthropocene landscape change for mountainous regions of the Western United States, where hillslope and floodplain markers of human activity vary, high rates of geomorphic processes affect mixing and preservation of marker deposits, and long-term impact varies by landscape location.
This thesis studies the process of status attainment during the careers of men and women in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the influence of modernization processes on that process of status attainment. During the decades following World War II, the Western world saw an increasing
V. O. Yashyn
Full Text Available The article considers some aspects of the spread of secular, general and vocational, secondary and higher education among the Jewish population of Kherson and Katerynoslav provinces in the late nineteenth century. The interest get a secular education was determined economically and reflected the effort of middle and upper strata of Jewish entrepreneurs to integrate into the dominant Christian and Russianspeaking community. Getting a secular high school and university education opens the way to free the Jews of individual civil emancipation. The favorable attitude of the central government contributed to spread the secular education among culturally modernized Jewry in the 18601870th. The schools and universities resorted representatives of a small quantity of wealthy Jews because the economic, legal, cultural and historical factors are due. The Jews been cooperated closely with Christians by supporting of organizational and financial side of secular secondary education. From 18701880’s we note that spreading of professional secular education been accelerated among the Jews of the region. The medicine, commercial and juridical education was the most popular. The outflow of Jewish students to the foreign universities began after the introduction of «interest rules». Spreading of secular education was historically significant cultural impact in twentieth century and generally contributed to the transformation of Jews to the modern nation.
The boundaries between medicine, religion, nursing and domestic service were fluid in mid-nineteenth-century England. The traditional religious understanding of illness conflicted with the newer understanding of anatomically based disease, the Anglican sisters were drawing a line between professional nursing and the traditional role of nurses as domestic servants who looked after sick people as one of their many duties, and doctors were looking for more knowledgeable nurses who could carry out their orders competently. This prosopographical study of the over 200 women who served as government nurses during the Crimean War 1854-56 describes the status of nursing and provides a picture of the religious and social structure of Britain in the 1850s. It also illustrates how religious, political and social factors affected the development of the new nursing. The Crimean War nurses can be divided into four major groups: volunteer secular ladies, Roman Catholic nuns, Anglican sisters and working-class hospital nurses. Of these four groups I conclude that it was the experienced working-class nurses who had the greatest influence on the organization of the new nursing.
Hanni Jalil Paier
Full Text Available This article examines how Colombian doctors and public health officials during the lastdecades of the nineteenth century produced a body of knowledge about the health of thenation’s citizens, using the language and authority of science to speak about a society inneed of redemption and medical intervention. In these cases, gender became an essentialcomponent of elite and medical discourses. Medical doctors and hygienists described femaleidentities either as potentially threatening and therefore degenerative to the nation’s moraland economic fabric or as a “civilizing force” through the mobilization of motherhood andthe reification of the Colombian family as a regenerative site. The doctors and governmentofficials here examined expected women to preserve the family as a unit and inculcate thevalues of order, hygiene and efficiency in the private sphere. If elite constructions of “ideal”female identities mobilized women in their primary function as mothers, preoccupations withthe control of “public women” that upset public order or threatened the family unit rhetoricallyemphasized their deviance. In direct contrast to the feminine ideal, the constructionof the feminine other emphasized moral transgression and sexual promiscuity.
ANDRÉA SIRIHAL WERKEMA
Full Text Available This paper discusses the readings of the Brazilian literary history through the eyes of Machado de Assis: although a little too obvious, the hypotheses that arise show that Machado, as a literary critic, was already aware of a continuum in our literary history, as one can read in “Instinto de nacionalidade” (1873 as well as in “A nova geração” (1879. That would have undeniable impact in his fictional work, since he would use his appreciation of his literary surroundings as a way to change and improve his writings. We could attest, therefore, that Machado de Assis is directly responsible for our literary canon in the Nineteenth Century, which he influenced posthumously – through his readers – but also as a willing agent.
The 19th century was a period of momentous scientific discoveries, technological achievements, and societal changes. A beneficiary of these revolutionary upheavals was medical empiricism that supplanted the rationalism of the past giving rise to early modern scientific medicine. Continued reliance on sensory data now magnified by technical advances generated new medical information that could be quantified with increasing precision, verified by repeated experimentation, and validated by statistical analysis. The institutionalization and integration of these methodologies into medical education were a defining step that assured their progress and perpetuation. Major advances were made in the nosography of diseases of the kidney, notably that of the diagnosis of progressive kidney disease from the presence of albuminuria by Richard Bright (1789-1858); and of renal structure and function, notably the demonstration of the continuity of the glomerular capsule with the tubular basement membrane by William Bowman (1816-1892), and the arguments for hemodynamic physical forces mediated glomerular filtration by Carl Ludwig (1816-1895) and for active tubular transport by Rudolf Heidenhain (1834-1897). Improvements in microscopy and tissue processing were instrumental in describing the cellular ultrastructure of the glomerulus and tubular segments, but their integrated function remained to be elucidated. The kidney continued to be considered a tubular secretory organ and its pathology attributed to injury of the interstitium (interstitial nephritis) or tubules (parenchymatous nephritis). © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
During the late nineteenth century, many British physicians rigorously experimented with hypnosis as a therapeutic practice. Despite mounting evidence attesting to its wide-ranging therapeutic uses publicised in the 1880s and 1890s, medical hypnosis remained highly controversial. After a decade and a half of extensive medical discussion and debate surrounding the adoption of hypnosis by mainstream medical professionals – including a thorough inquiry organised by the British Medical Association – it was decisively excluded from serious medical consideration by 1900. This essay examines the complex question of why hypnosis was excluded from professional medical practice by the end of the nineteenth century. Objections to its medical adoption rarely took issue with its supposed effectiveness in producing genuine therapeutic and anaesthetic results. Instead, critics’ objections were centred upon a host of social and moral concerns regarding the patient’s state of suggestibility and weakened ‘will-power’ while under the physician’s hypnotic ‘spell’. The problematic question of precisely how far hypnotic ‘rapport’ and suggestibility might depart from the Victorian liberal ideal of rational individual autonomy lay at the heart of these concerns. As this essay demonstrates, the hypnotism debate was characterised by a tension between physicians’ attempts to balance their commitment to restore patients to health and pervasive middle-class concerns about the rapid and ongoing changes transforming British society at the turn of the century. PMID:23002303
‘Historical narratives and historical desires: re-evaluating American art criticism of the mid-nineteenth century’: Karen Georgi, Critical Shift: Rereading Jarves, Cook, Stillman, and the Narratives of Nineteenth-Century American Art, The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2013
Striving to distinguish their authority as and demonstrate their professionalism, art critics James Jackson Jarves, Clarence Cook, and William James Stillman wrote exhibition reviews, essays, and increasingly self-conscious histories of American art and artists in the mid-nineteenth century. Whereas their writing has often been employed to establish a model of opposed pre- and post-war periodization in American art, Karen Georgi challenges this view, re-evaluating the rhetorical structures t...
Goodheart, Lawrence B
Connecticut was the exception among the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic states in not founding a public institution for the insane until after the Civil War when it opened the Hospital for the Insane at Middletown in 1868, a facility previously neglected by scholars. The state had relied on the expedient of subsidizing the impoverished at the private Hartford Retreat for the Insane that overtaxed that institution and left hundreds untreated. Despite abundant evidence to the contrary, well meaning officials oversold the idea that the Middletown site would promote cures and be cost effective. A number of unanticipated consequences occurred that mirrored fundamental changes in nineteenth-century psychiatry. The new hospital swelled by 1900 to over 2,000 patients, the largest in New England. Custodianship at the monolithic hospital became the norm. The hegemony of monopoly capitalism legitimated the ruling idea that bigger institutions were better and was midwife to the birth of eugenic responses. Class based psychiatry--the few rich at the Retreat and the many poor at Middletown--was standard as it was in other aspects of the Gilded Age. Public policy toward the insane poor in Connecticut represents an outstanding example of the transition from antebellum romanticism to fin de siècle fatalism.
During the late nineteenth century, scientists around the world disagreed as to the types of instruments and methods that should be used for determining the most important constant of celestial mechanics: the solar parallax. Venus's 1874 transit across the sun was seen as the best opportunity for ending decades of debate. However, a mysterious "black drop" that appeared between Venus and the sun and individual differences in observations of the phenomenon brought traditional methods into disrepute. To combat these difficulties, the astronomer Jules Janssen devised a controversial new instrument, the "photographic revolver", that photographed Venus at regular intervals. Another solution came from physicists, who rivaled the astronomers' dominance in precision measurements by deducing the solar parallax from physical measurements of the speed of light. Yet other astronomers relied on drawings and well-trained observers. The new space emerging from this debate was characterized by a decline in faith in (nonstandardized, nonreproducible) photography and in (pure) geometry and by the growing realization of the importance of alternative elements needed for establishing scientific truths: power and authority, skill and discipline, standardization, mechanical reproducibility, and theoreticality. By examining the "cinematographic turn" in science and its alternatives, this essay brings to light unexplored multi-disciplinary connections that contribute to the histories of psychology, philosophy, physics, and film studies.
Jorge Bosch Abarca
Full Text Available The last decade of the 19th century is especially relevant in Germany with relation to the matter of the working-class housing and its influence in the city shape. During previous years, this dwelling was developed inserted into the large and deep urban block with the few exceptions of occasional works of reform character produced by non-profit building societies. In Berlin, the small dwelling becomes, for the first time, in 1891, an object of attention of the professional collective of architects. With Theodor Goecke as one of its main figures, the debate on the urban form and the working-class housing model will lead towards new proposals for a green and extended city, where in addition to the tenement rental building, the single-family house will become increasingly present. The differentiation of traffics, with the consideration of a new type of street for a more domestic living, not foreseen in the significant nineteenth-century designs of the Berliner city, favour this protagonism and establishes a starting point for the new modern approaches that will consolidate in the German urban planning of the first European post-war.
Wellington Barbosa da Silva
Full Text Available In the second half of the nineteenth century, various documents (produced by the administrative bureaucracy and police, but also by ordinary citizens and journalists gave the impression that the Recife lived grappling with a stubborn and growing crime framework. Thefts, robberies and murders would be constant and the police could not control or at least limit the action of facinorosos. The purpose of this article is precisely to discuss this historical context so distant in time, but at the same time so close to us, at present, namely: a ubiquitous crime and the constant request made by various segments of society, of a regular and efficient policing – seen as the right antidote to the deterrence of crimes and the establishment of public security.
This article examines the argument concerning “menstruation” in late nineteenth-century America. With regard to an expansion of women's higher education, Sex in Education (1873) by Dr. Edward Clarke generated a controversy by stating that young women needed rest during menstruation; therefore the rigor of higher education would fail their health. Dr. Mary Putnam Jacobi refuted this argument in The Question of Rest for Women during Menstruation (1877). She attempted to combat the male research...
Martha S. Santos
Full Text Available Abstract Through an examination of slaveholders’ discourses on the need to find ways to replenish the slave labor force after the 1831 legal suppression of the African trade, this article demonstrates the centrality of female slave reproduction to the most significant debates on slavery and emancipation during the nineteenth century. Through tropes and metaphors that appealed to nature, this slaveholding discourse emphasized reproduction and mothering labor as the “natural” function of enslaved women - a function that would also serve to pacify rebellious male slaves. This work also demonstrates that, within a context of intensified symbolic value of enslaved women’s reproduction, slaveholders and jurists emphasized the validity of the legal device partus sequitur ventrem in order to communicate a notion of the legality of slavery, precisely at the time of increasing delegitimation of the institution, both within and outside Brazil.
‘Social Purity’ appears in a part of the French and Anglo-Saxon (Britain and the United States) nineteenth-twentieth century’s feminisms, as a mean for many claims: from the full recognition of sexual difference in Hubertine Auclert’s social and ‘differentialist’ republicanism in France to Josephine Butler’s refusal of any purity imposed from above in England, until the absolute turn of the idea of women’s moral superiority and the equal and opposite force to the final exit from ‘the social’ ...
Gunselman, Cheryl; Blakesley, Elizabeth
Some of the most enduring, and engaging, questions within academic librarianship are those about students and research skills. The vocabulary employed for discussion has evolved, but essential questions--what skills do students need to be taught, who should teach them, and how?--have persisted from the nineteenth century into the twenty-first.…
Roberto Eduardo García Fernández
Full Text Available In the second half of the nineteenth century Buddhism was well known as a religion among academic and literary circles in Europe. However, the variety of doctrinal versions and texts from different Buddhist schools posed a dilemma for the pioneering scholars in the field: which one was the real history and teaching of the Buddha? Although there were numerous studies and biographical versions of the life of Buddha, the one written by German Orientalist Hermann Oldenberg is noted for its historicist reconstruction and its claim to have used the original source. This article discusses how Oldenberg’s work represented an effort to reconstruct a hagiography through the lens of a modern rational society that demanded consistency with respect to religious events, imposing a holistic perspective to a heterogeneous material which in itself is fragmented, and thus contributing to the “construction” of the life of Gautama Buddha as a coherent whole.
"The necessity for better bodies to perpetuate our institutions, insure a higher development of the individual, and advance the conditions of the race." Physical culture and the formation of the self in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century USA.
This article explores the significance of sports and physical exercise in the turn-of-the-century culture and society of the U.S. It depicts how physical fitness became a decisive feature of collective and individual self-perception and was understood as being at the core of a successful shaping of both the self and of the American body politic. I concentrate in particular on paradigms and strategies of human resources management to exemplify the overarching significance of physical fitness as it established itself at the heart of the USA's enterprise culture that began to emerge in the later nineteenth century. American peculiarities will be considered, alongside ties and allusions to European, and particularly British, developments.
Full Text Available In our age of high-speed communication, it is easy to underestimate how vast the distance between Britain and Japan really is. At a time when it took over four months for letters to cross from Japan to Britain and back, the first British diplomats posted there were almost completely isolated by their remoteness. The British Ministers to Japan were thus forced to rely on their own judgement in carrying out their allotted task of nurturing British commerce, with occasionally disastrous consequences. This isolation was ended at a stroke in 1870, when Japan was connected to the globe-spanning telegraph network, and the British could send messages via the wire between London and Tokyo in a matter of hours rather than months. This article explores the degree to which the everyday business of a British envoy in Japan was actually changed by the introduction of the telegraph, and asks whether the availability of a technology is enough, in itself, to change society. To answer this question, I look at the careers of the three most distinguished nineteenth-century British diplomats in Japan: Sir Rutherford Alcock (1859–1864, Sir Harry Parkes (1865– 1883 and Sir Ernest Mason Satow (1895–1900.
This paper analyses how the Colombian medical elites made sense of typhoid fever before and during the inception of bacteriological ideas and practices in the second half of the nineteenth century. Assuming that the identity of typhoid fever has to be understood within the broader concerns of the medical community in question, I show how doctors first identified Bogotá's epidemics as typhoid fever during the 1850s, and how they also attached specificity to the fever amongst other continuous fevers, such as its European and North American counterparts. I also found that, in contrast with the discussions amongst their colleagues from other countries, debates about typhoid fever in 1860-70 among doctors in Colombia were framed within the medico-geographical scheme and strongly shaped by the fear of typhoid fever appearing alongside 'paludic' fevers in the highlands. By arguing in medico-geographical and clinical terms that typhoid fever had specificity in Colombia, and by denying the medico-geographical law of antagonism between typhoid and paludic fevers proposed by the Frenchman Charles Boudin, Colombian doctors managed to question European knowledge and claimed that typhoid fever had distinct features in Colombia. The focus on paludic and typhoid fevers in the highlands might explain why the bacteriological aetiology of typhoid fever was ignored and even contested during the 1880s. Anti-Pasteurian arguments were raised against its germ identity and some physicians even supported the idea of spontaneous origin of the disease. By the 1890s, Pasteurian knowledge had come to shape clinical and hygienic practices.
Balashova, Yuliya B.
This research reconstructs the traditions of scientific enlightenment in Russia. The turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was chosen as the most representative period. The modern age saw the establishment of the optimal model for advancing science in the global context and its crucial segment--Russian science. This period was…
Melton, Nigel; Montgomery, Janet; Knüsel, Christopher J.
A log-coffin excavated in the early nineteenth century proved to be well enough preserved in the early twenty-first century for the full armoury of modern scientific investigation to give its occupants and contents new identity, new origins and a new date. In many ways the interpretation is much ...... the same as before: a local big man buried looking out to sea. Modern analytical techniques can create a person more real, more human and more securely anchored in history. This research team shows how....
Melton, N.; Montgomery, J.; Knusel, C.J.; Batt, C.; Needham, S.; Pearson, M.P.; Sheridan, A.; Heron, C.; Horsley, T.; Schmidt, A.; Evans, A.; Carter, E.; Edwards, H.; Hargreaves, M.; Janaway, R.
A log-coffin excavated in the early nineteenth century proved to be well enough preserved in the early twenty-first century for the full armoury of modern scientific investigation to give its occupants and contents new identity, new origins and a new date. In many ways the interpretation is much the same as before: a local big man buried looking out to sea. Modern analytical techniques can create a person more real, more human and more securely anchored in history. This research team shows how.
Full Text Available The eighteenth-century consolidation of authorial identity – apparent in Salon livrets, art criticism, sales catalogs, inventories, the theoretical development of maniera, signing and hanging practices – was crucial to subsequent, nineteenth-century Romantic notions of what constituted individual authorship and to the kinds of eighteenth-century painting that were eventually written into or out of art history. Situating eighteenth-century paintings and drawings executed by multiple hands in a longue durée between workshop and court artisan practices on one hand and nineteenth-century singularity on the other, this article recovers an alternate thread of authorial identity. Having failed to find a place in art historiography as it developed in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, these examples in fact find sympathetic counterparts in late twentieth-century theories of the author function. Reconsidering both these multi-authored works and writing about them helps to clarify the historical specificity with which we conceive of the relationship between object and maker.
Horrell, Sara; Oxley, Deborah
Gender bias against girls in nineteenth-century England has received much interest but establishing its existence has proved difficult. We utilise data on heights of 16,402 children working in northern textile factories in 1837 to examine whether gender bias was evident. Current interpretations argue against any difference. Here our comparisons with modern height standards reveal greater deprivation for girls than for boys. Discrimination is measured in girls' height-for-age score (HAZ) falling eight standard errors below boys' at ages 11, 11.5 and 12 years of age, capturing the very poor performance of factory girls. But this result cannot be taken at face value. We query whether modern standards require adjustment to account for the later timing of puberty in historical populations and develop an alternative. We also test the validity of the age data, considering whether parents were more prone to lie about the ages of their daughters, and question whether the supply of girls was fundamentally different from that of boys. We conclude that neither proposition is justified. Disadvantage to girls remains, although its absence amongst younger children precludes an indictment of culturally founded gender bias. The height data must remain mute on the source of this discrimination but we utilise additional information to examine some hypotheses: occupational sorting, differential susceptibility to disease, poorer nutrition for girls, disproportionate stunting from the effects of nutritional deprivation, and type and amount of work undertaken. Of these we suggest that girls had to do arduous physical labour in the home alongside their factory work. The only (unsubstantiated) alternative is that girls were more likely than boys to be put into factory work below the legal age limit. Both represent forms of gender bias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available When it came time for the critics and historiographers of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to write the grand narrative of Spanish architecture, the decadence of Habsburg monarchy, economy and society was paralleled to the decline of the noble art itself. The completion of the Escorial in 1584 loomed more like an enormous granite epitaph for Spanish architectural production than the promise of a New Jerusalem. For seventeenth-century architects and theoreticians, like Fray Lorenzo de San Nicolás, and nineteenth-century commentators, such as Agustín Ceán Bermúdez, the intromission of painters, joiners, silversmiths and other guilds into the realm of architectural design was seen as the principal corruptive force which manifested itself in the unpardonable horrors of the Baroque. These negative topoi have, in many cases, found their way into the contemporary historiography of Spanish architecture of the period, typically depicted as all surface and no space, relegating it to a place lesser importance.
A long-standing debate concerns the rationality of slave owners and this paper addresses that debate within the context of manumission. Using a new sample of 19th-century Virginia manumissions, I show that manumission was associated with the productive characteristics of slaves. More productive slaves were manumitted at younger ages than less productive slaves. Although more productive slaves were more valuable to slave owners, which might be expected to delay manumission, more productive sla...
McCormack, S. M.; Schlichting, K. M.; Urbanova, T.; Allen, T. L.; Ruffing, C. M.; Hermans, C. M.
Natural climatological events that occurred throughout the Nineteenth Century, such as floods, droughts and hurricanes had long-lived, far-reaching consequences on the human decision-making processes occurring in the northeast United States. These events impacted the hydrological cycle, both directly -though the building of various structures- and indirectly - through an increased understanding of science; and the changing relationship between humans and their environment. This paper examines these events and associated processes through: 1) identifying specific natural events throughout the time period, occurring globally, with initial conditions conducive to long-lived consequences; 2) examining the relationship between scientific enquiry, natural events and the proliferation of dams in the northeast landscape; and 3) the growth of public health concerns, awareness of bacteriology, and municipal water supply systems. Results of this research indicate that the relationship between knowledge systems, natural events and subsequent engineering or technological fixes is complex and highly dependent on initial conditions. It highlights the time period where humans became increasingly dependent on engineered solutions to environmental problems, many of which still hold fast in our contemporary landscape. It is relevant to natural, social and governance structures in place today. The principles behind the occurrence of the natural phenomena and subsequent research and design have not changed; and understanding key events or stages in the past is tantamount to making predictions for the future.
When it came time for the critics and historiographers of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to write the grand narrative of Spanish architecture, the decadence of Habsburg monarchy, economy and society was paralleled to the decline of the noble art itself. The completion of the Escorial in 1584 loomed more like an enormous granite epitaph for Spanish architectural production than the promise of a New Jerusalem. For seventeenth-century architects and theoreticians, like Fray L...
To help college students understand psychology, the article suggests that instructors develop curriculum based on the relationship between scientific and technological advances and the development of early psychology. Views of many nineteenth century psychologists are summarized, including Johann Friedrich Herbart, Hermann Lotze, and Georg…
European descriptions of the art and architecture of early Accra ca. ... The fifteenth to nineteenth centuries produced some interesting art works in the coastal ... art and craft production, and acquisition of new skills by Ga craftsmen and women. ... The history of the Ga has therefore not only been determined by their natural ...
Langer, W L
The origins of the birth control movement in England in the 19th cen tury are discussed. The impact of Malthus's "Essay on the Principle of Population" and the activities of such thinkers and reformers as Jermy Bentham, James and John Stuart Mill, Francis Plance, Richard Carlile, Robert Dale Owen, and Charles Knowlton are discussed. The social debate that arose during the century is discussed.
Nelson, Adam R.
Historically, the changing roles of academics have often been associated with changing relations between scholarship and the state. What functions did the state expect scholars to fulfill? Using a historical-biographical approach, this essay considers the example of early nineteenth-century astronomer Ferdinand Rudolf Hassler, who immigrated to…
M. A. Ershova
Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of philosophical and theological creativity of Russian theological academies’ teachers of the early 20th century. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of methodological foundations’ changes of philosophical-theological quest on the teachers of Russian theological academies and the educational process itself in theological schools. Methods. The author focuses on the content of training courses delivered in the theological academies in the first two decades of the 20th century; problem statement peculiarities; aspect and priority choice in the fundamental researches conducted by the teachers of these schools. The applied methods include the comparative method, analysis, synthesis, method of abstraction, other philosophical and scientific methods. Results. The author comes to the conclusion that the changes of methodological installations in scientific research representatives of spiritual and academic theism beginning of the 20th century can be compared with similar studies of the nineteenth century. It is mentioned that reorientation of a number of prominent representatives of spiritual and academic theism from scholastic methods, speculative psychology and metaphysics towards Patristics, asceticism and personal experiences allows us to propose this movement as West-European Philosophy searches of the same period. Thus, V. I. Nesmelov sees the basis of any religious teachings in the experience of human cognition. M. M. Tareev draws up his own moral theology reading course based on the personal experience living the Gospel Book. Archimandrite Sergious (Stragorodsky interprets the topic of finding salvation not against the background of the changes in God, but from the standpoint of the changes that occur in humanity. Bishop Theodore (Pozdeevsky, Archbishop Hilarion (Troitsky and Bishop Barnabas (Belyaev make known scholasticism as epistemological malice characterizing the specifics of theological
Full Text Available In Greece, the monophonic chant of the Orthodox church and its neumatic notation have been transmitted as a popular tradition up to the first decades of the 20th century. The transformation of Greek musical tradition to a Western type of urban culture and the introduction of harmony, staff notation and western instruments and performance practices in the country began in the 19th century. Italian musicians played a central role in that process. A large number of them lived and worked on the Ionian Islands. Those Italian musicians have left a considerable number of transcriptions and original compositions. Quite a different cultural background existed in Athens. Education was in most cases connected to the church - the institution that during the four centuries of Turkish occupation kept Greeks united and nationally conscious. The neumatic notation was used for all music sung by the people, music of both western and eastern origin. The assimilation of staff notation and harmony was accelerated in the last quarter of the 19th century. At the beginning of the 20th century in Athens a violent cultural clash was provoked by the reformers of music education all of them belonging to German culture. The clash ended with the displacement of the Italian and Greek musicians from the Ionian Islands working at the time in Athens, and the defamation of their fundamental work in music education.
Maria Cristina Moreira
Full Text Available Cross-referencing qualitative and quantitative statistics from handwritten Portuguese trade sources shows the Spanish in the first half of the 19th century using Portuguese trade to introduce their wool in English and other markets. High quality Spanish merino wool played a key role in Portuguese trade during this period, particularly in the golden years of 1809-1819 and 1825. Its quality intensified both legal trade and smuggling.
Carmen G. Arteaga Mora
Full Text Available Se muestran resultados de una investigación sobre representaciones de la república venezolana en textos escolares de primaria, publicados durante el gobierno de Hugo Chávez. Concretamente, en este artículo se aborda la representación discursiva del sistema político republicano decimonónico, formado luego de la Independencia. Metodológicamente, se suscribe la perspectiva de Estudios Críticos de Discurso (ECD, según la cual el lenguaje es una forma de acción social, y a través de éste es posible establecer patrones ideológicos. Se analizó el contenido escrito de la sección de ciencias sociales de una muestra de libros de texto de quinto y sexto grado de primaria, ya que es en estos grados donde se aborda el tema de la república venezolana en el siglo XIX. Los hallazgos del análisis permiten concluir que el devenir ocurrido en el país luego de obtenida la Independencia y culminada la separación de la Gran Colombia (1830, se “dibuja” discursivamente escindido de los eventos de la Guerra de Emancipación, de forma que la precariedad sufrida por la sociedad no puede atribuirse a la conflagración experimentada en las primeras décadas del siglo. El “caudillismo” se representa como un elemento desventajoso de la cultura política nacional para la consolidación de las instituciones políticas y de la democracia. El relato reproduce la estructura del culto cívico bolivariano. The Daughter of Sin: Post-Independence Nineteenth Century Republic, in Venezuelan Textbooks ABSTRACT This paper presents results of a research on representations of the Venezuelan republic in primary school textbooks, published during the government of Hugo Chavez. Specifically, discusses the discursive representation of nineteenth-century republican political system, established after Independence. Methodologically, the paper subscribes the perspective of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, according to which the language is a form of social action, and
Salomé de Carvalho
Full Text Available The analysis of treatises reveals a crucial effort to deepen the scientific knowledge in conservation and restoration, particularly with regard to knowledge of artistic techniques and specific techniques of "restoration". The book "Restoration of paintings and prints", written by Manuel de Macedo (a museum curator in 1884 and published in 1885 is a very important source of information. Although this book has often been cited in scientific articles and research works, it was never properly dissected in all its parts, by its own merits, and therefore is our intention to share the information it contains, in an effort to promote Portuguese treatises of the nineteenth century. We have structured our analysis into two parts, one devoted to criteria and procedures relating to prints, and a second devoted entirely to oil painting on canvas, wood and copper. In the current paper we analyse the first part.
Abram, Nerilie J; McGregor, Helen V; Tierney, Jessica E; Evans, Michael N; McKay, Nicholas P; Kaufman, Darrell S
The evolution of industrial-era warming across the continents and oceans provides a context for future climate change and is important for determining climate sensitivity and the processes that control regional warming. Here we use post-ad 1500 palaeoclimate records to show that sustained industrial-era warming of the tropical oceans first developed during the mid-nineteenth century and was nearly synchronous with Northern Hemisphere continental warming. The early onset of sustained, significant warming in palaeoclimate records and model simulations suggests that greenhouse forcing of industrial-era warming commenced as early as the mid-nineteenth century and included an enhanced equatorial ocean response mechanism. The development of Southern Hemisphere warming is delayed in reconstructions, but this apparent delay is not reproduced in climate simulations. Our findings imply that instrumental records are too short to comprehensively assess anthropogenic climate change and that, in some regions, about 180 years of industrial-era warming has already caused surface temperatures to emerge above pre-industrial values, even when taking natural variability into account.
Bowen, Claire; Cacqueray, Elizabeth de; Cacqueray, Elizabeth de; Esteves, Olivier; Magot, Céline; Meschia, Karen; Molinari, Véronique; Noakes, Lucy; Pham Dinh, Rose-May; Stirling, Martine; Vervaecke, Philippe
In most societies gender stereotyped roles attribute to men combative functions related to defence and attack, whilst women are engaged in the functions of motherhood and caring for the community. This was nowhere more the case than in the UK, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century: strict division of gender roles, in the middle and upper classes, allotting men to the public domain and women to the home, suited the demands of developing industrial production. However, between 1939...
The Catalogue of Scientific Papers, published by the Royal Society of London beginning in 1867, projected back to the beginning of the nineteenth century a novel vision of the history of science in which knowledge was built up out of discrete papers each connected to an author. Its construction was an act of canon formation that helped naturalize the idea that scientific publishing consisted of special kinds of texts and authors that were set apart from the wider landscape of publishing. By recovering the decisions and struggles through which the Catalogue was assembled, this essay aims to contribute to current efforts to denaturalize the scientific paper as the dominant genre of scientific life. By privileging a specific representation of the course of a scientific life as a list of papers, the Catalogue helped shape underlying assumptions about the most valuable fruits of a scientific career. Its enumerated lists of authors' periodical publications were quickly put to use as a means of measuring scientific productivity and reputation, as well as by writers of biography and history. Although it was first conceived as a search technology, this essay locates the Catalogue's most consequential legacy in its uses as a technology of valuation.
Waters-Rist, Andrea L; Hoogland, Menno L P
An opportunity to explore osteological features of a form of disproportionate dwarfism is presented by a recent archaeological discovery. Excavation of a predominately nineteenth century Dutch cemetery from the rural, agricultural village of Middenbeemster revealed an older adult female with skeletal changes consistent with achondroplasia. The most marked features are a rhizomelic pattern of shortened and thickened upper and lower limbs, frontal bossing and a moderately depressed nasal bridge, small lumbar neural canals with short pedicles, bowing of the femora and tibiae, and short stature (130.0±5cm). However, some common features of achondroplasia like cranial base reduction and shortened fingers and toes are absent. The alternative diagnosis of a more mild form of short-limbed dwarfism, hypochondroplasia, is explored and aided by archival identification of the individual and her offspring. Five offspring, including three perinates, a 10-year-old daughter, and a 21-year-old son, are analysed for evidence of an inherited skeletal dysplasia. The unique addition of family history to the paleopathological diagnostic process supports a differential outcome of hypochondroplasia. This combination of osteological and archival data creates a unique opportunity to track the inheritance and manifestation of a rare disease in a past population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Miranda, Cybelle Salvador; Beltrão, Jane Felipe; Henrique, Márcio Couto; Bessa, Brena Tavares
The article analyzes the relationship between hygienist policies in effect in Belém in the late nineteenth century and the expansion of activities of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará. Considered one of the first hospital institutions in the former Grão-Pará Province, in addition to its own hospital, the Brotherhood administered several other health facilities in the capital, and the study of its physical displacement made it possible to "map" three health centers in Belém: Pioneer, Expansion and the Santa Casa, which reinforce the growth vectors of the city. The expansion of its activities is configured as the expansion of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia to serve the underprivileged and sick, preceding the establishment of a public health system in Pará.
Francisco Javier Martínez
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper explores questions related to yellow fever and the political destiny of Cuba in the late nineteenth century. A forgotten therapeutic device to treat the disease invented in that period, the “polar chamber” (cámara polar, provides a useful standpoint for reconstructing the tradition of Spanish yellow fever research in Cuba, a topic largely neglected by the medical historiography. The failed history of this device can also illuminate the complex struggle for scientific hegemony between Spanish, Cuban, and US institutions and researchers. Finally, we focus on the politics of the polar chamber by analyzing how this invention intended to provide a particular solution for the complex, threefold struggle for Cuba’s political future.
Full Text Available ‘Social Purity’ appears in a part of the French and Anglo-Saxon (Britain and the United States nineteenth-twentieth century’s feminisms, as a mean for many claims: from the full recognition of sexual difference in Hubertine Auclert’s social and ‘differentialist’ republicanism in France to Josephine Butler’s refusal of any purity imposed from above in England, until the absolute turn of the idea of women’s moral superiority and the equal and opposite force to the final exit from ‘the social’ by the American ‘New Womanism’, individualizing and de-feminizing the act of sexual liberation. All this in a continuous play of actions and reactions, sometimes paradoxical, weaving together suffragism and anti-suffragism, contestation of the conjugal complementarity and the never overcome temptations of hetero or self-control.
To date, historians of psychology have largely ignored the role of academic publishing and the editorial policies of the late nineteenth century. This paper analyzes the role played by academic publishing in the history of psychology in the specific case of France, a country that provides a very interesting and unique model. Up until the middle of the 1890s, there was no collection specifically dedicated to psychology. Alfred Binet was the first to found, in 1897, a collection of works specifically dedicated to scientific psychology. He chose to work with Reinwald-Schleicher. However, Binet was soon confronted with (1) competition from other French publishing houses, and (2) Schleicher's management and editorial problems that were to sound the death knell for Binet's emerging editorial ambitions. The intention of this paper is to encourage the efforts of the pioneers of modern psychology to have their work published and disseminated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Meadows, A J
Early Solar Physics reviews developments in solar physics, particularly the advent of solar spectroscopy and the discovery of relationships between the various layers of the solar atmosphere and between the different forms of solar activity. Topics covered include solar observations during 1843; chemical analysis of the solar atmosphere; the spectrum of a solar prominence; and the solar eclipse of December 12, 1871. Spectroscopic observations of the sun are also presented. This book is comprised of 30 chapters and begins with an overview of ideas about the sun in the mid-nineteenth century, fo
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n2p165 This article analyses John Hillcoat’s 2005 film The Proposition in relation to a spate of Australian films about violence and the (postcolonial encounter released in the early twenty-first century. Extending on Felicity Collins and Therese Davis argument that these films can be read in terms of the ways they capture or refract aspects of contemporary race relations in Australia in a post-Mabo, this article analyses how The Proposition reconstructs the trauma of the Australian frontier; how from the perspective of the twenty-first century it worries over the meaning of violence on the Australian frontier. It also explores what has become speakable (and remains unspeakable in the public sphere about the history of the frontier encounter, especially in terms of family and race. The article argues that The Proposition and other early twenty-first century race relations films can be understood as post-reconciliation films, emerging in a period when Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians were rethinking ideas of belonging through a prism of post-enmity and forgiveness. Drawing on the theme of violence and intimate relations in the film, this article argues that the challenges to the everyday formulation of Australian history proffered in The Proposition reveal painful and powerful differences amongst Australian citizens’ understanding of who belongs and how they came to belong to the nation. I suggest that by focusing on violence in terms of intimacy, relationships, family and kin, it is possible to see this film presented an opportunity to begin to refigure ideas of belonging.
Full Text Available This article stems from a key question: was Habsburg Trieste truly a cosmopolitan and tolerant city? Building upon the interpretative category of "port Jews", established by David Sorkin and Lois C. Dubin, this study examines the social, economic and political behaviour of the Triestine Jews in the nineteenth- and early twentieth-centuries, and conducts a comparison with the other religious minorities present in the Adriatic port during this period: Greeks, Protestants, Serbians and Armenians. The picture which emerges allows for the proposition of a new interpretative model, that of the "port-merchant." The second part of the article focuses on the second half of the nineteenth-century, when the model of Trieste as a tolerant city was challenged by the nationalist fights between Italians and Slovenians, and by the political antisemitism. The city lost its capacity to include the 'Other', and was rapidly transformed into a genuine breeding-ground of Italian racism.
Dyson, Jon-Paul Charles
This dissertation seeks to explain the social, cultural, and economic factors that transformed the ways nineteenth-century American children learned about, encountered, and understood the natural world. It highlights the interests, tastes, and fears of the middle-class as key factors in the transformation of children's relationship to nature. Developments such as the quest for gentility and refinement, the evolution of religious practices and beliefs, the print revolution, the popularity of Romanticism, the marginalization of women, the rise of professionalization, the impact of industrialization, and the growth of cities all helped shape nineteenth-century children's relationship to nature. For much of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries adults had taught children to see nature as a world of wonders in which God acted out his Providential design. During the early republic, however, Americans, especially women, increasingly valued more refined and genteel interpretations of nature that invoked discrete segments of nature for their ability to cultivate morals, evidence the existence of God, and mold children's behavior. The print revolution that swept America during this period abetted this process. During the second quarter of the nineteenth century, increasing numbers of adults began to use religious publications, schoolbooks, literature, and domestic amusements to involve children with the natural world in ways that were variously religious or Romantic. As a result nature became an accepted and valued segment of middle-class life. Ironically, however, these efforts also helped separate religious from secular interpretations of nature, and changes in fashions, literary techniques, and parenting techniques allowed children more autonomy to interpret nature as they wished. In the last half of the nineteenth century, adults continued to rely on nature as a means of training up children in the ways they should go. Writers, teachers, and reformers increasingly
German Art History and Scientific Thought - Beyond Formalism discusses the relation between art history and the human and natural sciences in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. All contributions in this volume highlight the way in which this exchange affected art history on a
Galles, Carlos D., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [UNR Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); UTN Universidad Tecnologica Nacional (Argentina)
An overview is given of the principal lines of research into Physics during the end of the nineteenth century. At that time, a long series of successful theories which appeared to be final and conclusive had strengthened a conservative epistemological dogma which held that in the future research would consist merely of ever-more precise measurements, in the absence of any revolutionary innovations. However, it turned out that Nature was to reveal some of her mysterious and unexpected secrets to certain bright minds working in laboratories. (author) [Spanish] Se presentan las principales lineas de investigacion en Fisica en las ultimas decadas del siglo XIX. Una larga serie de exitosas teorias aparentemente finales y conclusivas habian fortalecido por entonces un dogma epistemologico conservador que presagiaba solo se continuaria acumulando mediciones mas y mas precisas sin innovaciones revolucionarias. La naturaleza reservaba sin embargo revelar en los laboratorios, a las mentes agiles, algunos de sus misteriosos e insospechados secretos. (autor)
Bulger, Teresa Dujnic
This dissertation examines how racial ideologies have historically been entangled with discourses on citizenship and gender difference in the United States. In looking at the case study of the 18th- and 19th-century African American community on Nantucket, I ask how these ideologies of difference and inequality were experienced, reinterpreted, and defied by women and men in the past. Whereas New England has maintained a liberal and moralistic regional narrative since the early-19th century, t...
Glover, Susan M
Traditionally, models of resource extraction assume individuals act as if they form strategies based on complete information. In reality, gathering information about environmental parameters may be costly. An efficient information gathering strategy is to observe the foraging behavior of others, termed public information. However, media can exploit this strategy by appearing to supply accurate information while actually shaping information to manipulate people to behave in ways that benefit the media or their clients. Here, I use Central Place Foraging (CPF) models to investigate how newspaper propaganda shaped ore foraging strategies of late nineteenth-century Colorado silver prospectors. Data show that optimistic values of silver ore published in local newspapers led prospectors to place mines at a much greater distance than was profitable. Models assuming perfect information neglect the possibility of misinformation among investors, and may underestimate the extent and degree of human impacts on areas of resource extraction.
The intellectual changes of the 19th century were as dramatic as the economic changes of the Industrial Revolution. U.S. citizens at that time subscribed to the traditional belief that a spiritual self, grafted onto the body, was the source of life and thought. The later belief that human beings possessed complete, experiential knowledge of their…
Benschop, R; Draaisma, D
A prominent feature of late nineteenth-century psychology was its intense preoccupation with precision. Precision was at once an ideal and an argument: the quest for precision helped psychology to establish its status as a mature science, sharing a characteristic concern with the natural sciences. We will analyse how psychologists set out to produce precision in 'mental chronometry', the measurement of the duration of psychological processes. In his Leipzig laboratory, Wundt inaugurated an elaborate research programme on mental chronometry. We will look at the problem of calibration of experimental apparatus and will describe the intricate material, literary, and social technologies involved in the manufacture of precision. First, we shall discuss some of the technical problems involved in the measurement of ever shorter time-spans. Next, the Cattell-Berger experiments will help us to argue against the received view that all the precision went into the hardware, and practically none into the social organization of experimentation. Experimenters made deliberate efforts to bring themselves and their subjects under a regime of control and calibration similar to that which reigned over the experimental machinery. In Leipzig psychology, the particular blend of material and social technology resulted in a specific object of study: the generalized mind. We will then show that the distribution of precision in experimental psychology outside Leipzig demanded a concerted effort of instruments, texts, and people. It will appear that the forceful attempts to produce precision and uniformity had some rather paradoxical consequences.
Peitzman, Steven J
The male founders and early faculty of Philadelphia's Woman's Medical College were mostly abolitionist physicians, zealous moralists for whom medical feminism formed only one of the cherished causes they could "manfully" and righteously defend. Male faculty of the late nineteenth century comprised "self-made" men, mostly new specialists, for whom strict sexism probably seemed inconsistent with progressive medicine. For some of these physicians-obviously a small minority-defending medical women and breaking the barriers of fraternity could be consistent with "manly" responsibility. The outcome of the collaboration of women and the dissident men physicians in nineteenth-century Philadelphia amounted to another seeming paradox: the majority of the male medical profession, both locally and nationally, tyrannically hindered women's entry into the profession, yet medicine opened its doors in advance of law and the clergy; and where this first occurred, such as in the community centered on Woman's Medical College, a novel gender rearrangement arose based on collaboration and friendship.
As they became more widely adopted in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century France, wet-nursing and wet-nurses appeared prominently in the iconography of the time. Such images turned negative as criticism against “mercenary breast-feeding” mounted. Over the nineteenth century in particular, wet-nurses were heavily featured in press caricatures: they were being mocked while described as simple-minded, dumb, greedy creatures, with proclivities ranging from a taste for garish attire, to sexual appetites fuelling trysts in public gardens with soldiers on leave. A representative sample of such images will be selected to highlight the codes and values underpinning this mockery.
Full Text Available Monasteries in nineteenth century Russia had a major influence on the nation. One such example was the Monastery of the Entrance of the Mother of God into the Temple in Kozelsk, which is also known as the Optina Monastery. The pilgrims who travelled to this spiritual centre were not only common people. Russian philosophers and writers were also guests at the monastery on several occasions. The spiritual nourishment which they received from the monks influenced their creativity and life aspirations. The Elders of the Optina Monastery became for them spiritual guides and moral authorities, and even creative inspiration. The creators of Russian culture at that time, who were in contact with the Optina Monastery include, Ivan Kireyevsky, Nikolai Gogol, Fyodor Dostoevsky and Konstantin Leontyev. Personal contact with the Elders of the Optina Monastery contributed to the these philosophers’ deeply spiritual views, which sustained their strength for the moral transformation not only of their own person, but also of the whole of society.
Pérez González, Carmen
The direction of reading has been found to have a significant effect upon aesthetic preference, with left-to-right readers showing a preference for stimuli with a rightward directionality while right-to-left readers prefer stimuli with a leftward directionality. This study looks at a large set of posed, studio photographs to study the cultural interaction between direction of reading and lateral organisation, comparing a corpus of 735 nineteenth-century photographs from Iran (right-to-left reading) with a similar corpus of 898 photographs from Spain (left-to-right readers). Five separate types of composition were studied: linear ordering, usually by height; couples; individuals posing by a chair; individuals posing by a table; and portraits. Lateral preferences were found for all five types of photograph, with the lateral organisation of Iranian photographs being the reverse of that in the Spanish photographs. These data provide support for the influence of direction of reading upon aesthetic organisation in naturalistically produced photographs.
This article stems from a key question: was Habsburg Trieste truly a cosmopolitan and tolerant city? Building upon the interpretative category of "port Jews", established by David Sorkin and Lois C. Dubin, this study examines the social, economic and political behaviour of the Triestine Jews in the nineteenth- and early twentieth-centuries, and conducts a comparison with the other religious minorities present in the Adriatic port during this period: Greeks, Protestants, Serbians and Armenians...
松永, 俊男; Toshio, MATSUNAGA; 桃山学院大学文学部
Scientific geology began in England early in the nineteenth century. Its leader was William Buckland. He imported the historical geology of Continental Europe into England. Historical geology was founded by Werner (a German) and Cuvier (a French), and developed largely by English geologists in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. English geology in the nineteenth century was based on natural theology. This was not the same as biblical geology, which interpreted literally the Mosaic s...
defensive posture which makes the United States’ brand of imperialism so difficult to pin down, and which ties American colonialism to its earliest...America as the underdog nation which could overcome tremendous obstacles with pluck and resilience required some examples of obstacles. The 1807...early brand of proto-feminism of the "Vision of the New Woman" of nineteenth century America, to peace movements and assert that there is a special
Full Text Available En este trabajo presentamos un problema de la arqueología del siglo XIX: la transformación de las ruinas de la antigüedad americana en evidencia científica. Tomando el caso de la exploración arqueológica de Palenque luego de la independencia centroamericana y mexicana, analizaremos los intentos por hacer portátil las ruinas de una ciudad hallada en la selva a fines del siglo XVIII, analizando algunos de los medios creados y utilizados para resolver su transporte.The article addresses an issue in nineteenth-century archeology: the transformation of ancient American ruins into scientific evidence. It focuses specifically on the case of Palenque, a city discovered in the jungle in the late eighteenth century. The archeological exploration of this find, which occurred shortly after Central American and Mexican independence, entailed efforts to make these ruins portable. The article analyzes some of the means devised and used in their transportation.
Full Text Available The development of the archaeology of the ancient Near East as an independent discipline in the nineteenth century, with its focus on uncovering the peoples and places of the past, particularly from the biblical world, contributed to a visual tradition that presented the time and space of an idealized historical past often influenced by religious preconceptions. Using the physical materials from excavated sites, and linking these discoveries with literal and uncritical readings of the Bible, European and American scholars in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries created maps for the public showing peoples, places, routes, and events from the past imposed on the contemporary landscape of the present. In so doing, the archaeology of the ancient Near East helped to define and create visual presentations of a particularized view of the past that continues to hold significance for common understandings of history in the present.
Museums have become a crucible for questions of the role that traditional art and art history should play in contemporary art. Friedrich Nietzsche argued in the nineteenth century that museums can be no more than mausoleums for effete (fine) art. Over the course of the twentieth century, however, curators dispelled such blanket pessimism by…
Full Text Available In this paper, parts of the memoir literary works from the second half of the nineteenth century are presented as important sources for the research of Serbian traditional church chant. The testimonies on church music from diaries, memoirs and autobiographical notes by famous Serbian writers, statesmen and politicians, namely Jovan Subotić, Jakov Ignjatović, Milan Savić, Milica Stojadinović Srpkinja, Todor Stefanović Vilovski, Vladimir Jovanović and Kosta Hristić, were analyzed. Those writings bring to light a time when church chant was appreciated as an important part of the spiritual, folk heritage and had an important role in everyday culture of Serbian people both in the Habsburg Monarchy and in the Principality and Kingdom of Serbia. The authors wrote about musical skills of chanters from clerical, church circles and about the practice of chanting among school teachers. They also described different kinds of musical performances of church chant among laymen and children. These sources testify to writers’ general and musical education and experiences, to their environment and its relation to the aesthetics of spiritual folk tradition. This paper also analyzes sources in the context of the history and theory of literature, having in mind the authors’ commentary techniques and narrative style. Those issues are discussed in relation to the poetics of romanticism, Biedermeier and realism in Serbian literature. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177004: Identiteti srpske muzike od lokalnih do globalnih okvira: tradicije, promene, izazovi
This paper examines the ecology of Slovene in the twentieth century by focusing on two key emergent themes. It focuses firstly on monolingualism as a key goal for Slovene language planners, starting with their efforts to create a standard language with no German influences in the nineteenth century, and continuing in their work to prevent…
Tania Andrade Lima
Full Text Available Escavações arqueológicas empreendidas em lixos domésticos do século XIX, no Rio de Janeiro, vêm recuperando um abundante equipamento destinado à excreção de materiais fecais e catarros. Com base nesse material foram analisadas e interpretadas as atitudes adotadas à época em relação aos humores corporais, como resultado da impregnação das mentalidades dos novos segmentos 'burgueses' - em processo de ascensão e consolidação - pelo humorismo hipocrático. O texto aponta como a implantação de uma ordem corporal foi fundamental para a construção e manutenção da ordem social do século XIX e mostra a ideologia de higienização como uma das mais conseqüentes e eficazes estratégicas para a sustentação do projeto vitorioso de hegemonia da burguesia.Archeological diggings in household garbage deposits from nineteenth-century Rio have uncovered an abundance of equipment used in the elimination of fecal material and phlegm. These findings formed the basis for an analysis and interpretation of the era's attitudes regarding body fluids, as adopted when the mentalities of the new 'bourgeois' segments - then undergoing a process of rise and consolidation - were impregnated by Hippocratic humoralism. The text shows how the introduction of a 'body order' was fundamental in building and keeping the social order in the nineteenth century. It likewise shows how the ideology of hygienization was one of the most important and efficacious strategies for underpinning the bourgeoisie's (victorious project to achieve hegemony.
Worthington, E. B.
This essay attempts to reconstruct the evolution of Ecology as the scientific basis for environmental conservation and human progress, as seen through the eyes of a biologist who has exercised that science during a number of tasks in various parts of the world over most of the twentieth century. From its beginnings in evolutionary thinking during the nineteenth century, ecology emerged from natural history at the beginning of the twentieth. At first the running was made by botanists; but this was soon followed by zoologists, who dealt with more mobile communities. The first quarter-century was mainly exploratory; the second was mainly descriptive (although biological exploration was still dominant in the tropics). The third quarter saw ecology developing into an experimental science, and, as the environmental revolution got into its stride, ecology became organized both nationally and internationally. Although the term is now often misused and sometimes misunderstood by laymen, the last quarter-century is seeing the wide application of ecology in environmental and human affairs, and this gives some assurance that the twenty-first century will not become one of chaos.
Full Text Available The end of the nineteenth century witnessed paradox among the Chinese in colonial Java. On one hand, they were prospering economically, but were nonetheless held in contempt by the Dutch, encountered legal discrimination and faced challenges if they wanted to educate their children in European schools. Their marginal position motivated them do their utmost to become “civilized subjects”, on a par with Europeans, but they were also inspired to reinvent their Chinese identity. This contribution will highlight role played by “enlightened” Chinese, the kaoem moeda bangsa Tjina. Central to this movement were the Chinese girls known to the public as bangsawan prampoewan (the noblewomen, who wrote letters the newspaper and creating a gendered public sphere. They also performed western classical music in public. Considering the inspirational impact of bangsawan prampoewan’s enlightening achievements on non-Chinese women, it is appropriate to include them into the narrative of the history of the nation’s women’s movements.
Vicente LlORENT BEDMAR
Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the initial labour of the Salesian missions, being one of the most significant religious congregations from the nineteenth century to the present, in the history of America and Spain. It is inevitable stand out their pedagogical-religious milestones, that were developed in both territories by chronological order in the different national contexts. For offering an illustration of their educational impact and social work; we must remember that, from the beginning, the Salesian were worried about the training and education of young people wherever they has spread. So we analyzes the evolution since the arrival of the first Salesians for America (1874 and Spain (1880, until the early twentieth century, still being 3526 in 31 countries, more than half of America. We can argue that the diverse historical, economic, political and cultural aspects of Spain and America, the Salesian had peculiar features in each of these territories. However, both have a common core: the application of preventive educational system and the social integration of young people.
The Original Dixieland Jazz Band's visit in 1919–1920 has been well documented as the beginning of jazz in Britain. This article illuminates a more complex evolution of the image and presence of jazz in Britain through consideration of the cultural and musical antecedents of the genre, including minstrel shows and black musical theatre, within the context of musical life in Britain in the late nineteenth to early twentieth centuries. The processes through which this evolution took place are c...
Horgmo, Øystein H
In the mid-nineteenth century, photographers used mirrors to document different views of a patient in the same image. The first clinical photographs were taken by portrait photographers. As conventions for clinical photography were not yet established, early clinical photographs resemble contemporary portraits. The use of mirrors in clinical photography probably originated from the portrait studios, as several renowned photographers employed mirrors in their studio portraits. Clinical photographs taken for the US Army Medical Museum between 1862 and 1882 show different ways of employing this mirror technique.
a secondary role. These perspectives emphasise the central role of non-European agency in shaping global history, and stand in stark contrast to conventional narratives revolving around the ‘Rise of the West’, which tend to be based upon a stylized contrast between a dynamic West and a passive and static East....... Focusing on a crucial period of global history that has been neglected in the field of International Relations, the book reveals profound differences between the early modern era and the more familiar colonial conquests of the second half of the nineteenth century. It will be interest to students...
Cristina Nogueira da Silva
Full Text Available O princípio da igualdade teve, no liberalismo clássico, um significado que podia estar para além da "igualdade perante a lei", contendo também a ideia de uma igualização socioeconómica, educacional e até "civilizacional". Não obstante, o ordenamento jurídico liberal oitocentista, além de ter deixado quase intactas diversas situações de desigualdade herdadas do Antigo Regime (nomeadamente a escravatura, inventou formas novas de exclusão política. Este artigo pretende mostrar como a ideia de progresso, ao permitir antever um sociedade igualitária, ajudou a resolver as tensões geradas pelo binómio igualdade/desigualdade, e analisa a forma como essa promessa de inclusão futura se reflectiu na invenção de categorias jurídicas relacionadas com o estatuto civil e político das pessoas "em transição" para a plena cidadania.In classical liberal thought, equalizing principles meant more than just "equality before the law"; they also included the idea of a socio-economic, educational, and even "civilizational" equalization. Nevertheless, the nineteenth century liberal legal order has not only preserved some of the old legal discriminations of the Ancient Regime societies, namely those related to the institution of slavery; it also invented new forms of political exclusion. The aim of this article is to explain how the idea of progress has been important in solving the tensions generated by the binary couple equality/inequality, by allowing the pre-vision of a more egalitarian society in the future. It is also my intention to explain how that promise gave way to the emergence of legal categories related to political and civil personal status, which conformed to the notion that some persons were in transition to full citizenship.
Full Text Available The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores, etc. and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations. As the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected.
One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East India Company (EEIC, and their archives have been preserved in the British Library. Inspection of those archives revealed 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure, and subjective estimates of wind speed and direction, from voyages across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans between 1789 and 1834. Those records have been extracted and digitised, providing 273 000 new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5 °C. This provides an out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions – supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this – such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.
This contribution focuses on Hermann von Helmholtz's work on Renaissance composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. Helmholtz used his scientific concept of distortion to analyze this music and, reversely, to find corroboration for the concept in his musical analyses. In this, his work interlocked with nineteenth-century aesthetic and scholarly ideals. His eagerness to use the latest products of historical scholarship in early music reveals a specific view of music history. Historical documents of music provide the opportunity for the discovery of new experimental research topics and thereby also reveal insights into hearing under different conditions. The essay argues that this work occupies a peculiar position in the history of musicology; it falls under the header of "systematic musicology," which eventually emerged as a discipline of musicology at the end of the nineteenth century. That this discipline has a history at all is easily overlooked, as many of its contributors were scientists with an interest in music. A history of musicology therefore must consider at least the following two caveats: parts of it take place outside the institutionalized field of musicology, and any history of musicology must, in the last instance, be embedded in a history of music.
Vitor Marcos Gregório
Full Text Available There was a lot of economic and political questions used as arguments during the decision making process which culminated with the emancipation of Amazonas and Paraná provinces in the mid-nineteenth century. Among them, the fiscality has a great importance, having been approached by those who advocated a new territorial organization through the creation of these two new provinces, as well for those who disagreed these proposals. This paper aims to analyse these element as indicators of the importance of the territorial organization questions as a historical object, and as a important instrument for the comprehension of the monarchical Brazilian State making process.
My dissertation investigates the effect of capital requirements on commercial banks and the impact of commercial bank suspensions on the United States economy during the early 20th century. The first chapter examines the effect of capital requirements on bank stability. The early 20th century United States provides an opportunity to determine whether imposing capital requirements on commercial banks promotes banking stability in the long run. The structure of the national banking system fac...
Costea, Claudia Florida; Turliuc, Şerban; Buzdugă, Cătălin; Cucu, Andrei Ionuţ; Dumitrescu, Gabriela Florenţa; Sava, Anca; Turliuc, Mihaela Dana
The optic chiasm is an essential structure located at the skull base that stirred over time the curiosity of anatomists, who became more and more interested in its structure and function. Through centuries, the optic chiasm was viewed as a vessel crossing, a way of transporting tears secreted by the brain to the eye, integrating images, or responsible for coordinated eye movements. The paper aims to overview the history of understanding the optic chiasm from the beginnings of antiquity to the twentieth century. We reviewed the literature and studied all the historical sources on optic chiasm and eyes in the works of ancient, medieval, Renaissance authors, and the seventeenth to nineteenth century works. The optic chiasm is a structure that fascinated ancient anatomists and made them develop various theories on its function. In terms of function, the optic chiasm had a history based more on speculation, the seventeenth century bringing its first understanding and reaching the peak in the nineteenth century with the understanding of the anatomical structure of the chiasm and its role in the visual process. The history of the optic chiasm is a fascinating time travel displaying the conceptual transformations that have been made in anatomy and medicine by our forerunners.
Full Text Available This article sets up the role of historical essay in the constitution of Spanish nationalist discourse in the years of early civil postwar and initial consolidation of Franco’s regime. It explores the transition of studies basically related to imperial Spain to those examining decadence. Moreover, it evaluates the irruption of a new intellectual consideration of Spanish Nineteenth Century. These last elements —the new analysis of modern decadence and the vindication of regeneration criticism—, were congruent with an intellectual and political need of Francoism. This was the urgency of strengthening its singularity and its will of permanence,when the destruction of international fascist experience could be seen as a contingent circumstance opening way for the recovering of the Spanish universal enterprise essence.
Katherinne Giselle Mora Pacheco
Full Text Available Different works of Agrarian History reproduce a similar description of Bogota Plateau (Colombia throughout the nineteenth century: agricultural use since colonial times; vast fields of wheat and barley; abrupt replacement of crops by cattle; agricultural crisis linked to the agro-export booms and the demand for tropical products that could not be obtained above 2000 meters. This paper discusses how this approach has perpetuated descriptions of travelers who visited the region during the nineteenth century and wrote up their notebooks based on their origins, objectives, political and economic interests, or from affirmations of their guides and informants. This article rebuilds a profile of travelers that are most often quoted by historians, their views about the Plateau landscape and its farming and ranching, and their influence on today reconstructions of the agrarian history of Bogota Plateau along nineteenth century. This text invites to contrast the travel accounts among themselves and with another sources, and also to incorporate the results of the research about the Colonial period and the biophysical conditions of the regions under study in the analysis.
Claassen, Cynthia A.; Yip, Paul S.; Corcoran, Paul; Bossarte, Robert M.; Lawrence, Bruce A.; Currier, Glenn W.
Durkheim's nineteenth-century analysis of national suicide rates dismissed prior concerns about mortality data fidelity. Over the intervening century, however, evidence documenting various types of error in suicide data has only mounted, and surprising levels of such error continue to be routinely uncovered. Yet the annual suicide rate remains the…
Friedrich Krauß (1791-1868) is the author of Nothschrei eines Magnetisch-Vergifteten [Cry of Distress by a Victim of Magnetic Poisoning] (1852), which has been considered one of the most comprehensive self-narratives of madness published in the German language. In this 1018-page work Krauß documents his acute fears of 'mesmerist' influence and persecution, his detainment in an Antwerp asylum and his encounter with various illustrious physicians across Europe. Though in many ways comparable to other prominent nineteenth-century first-person accounts (eg. John Thomas Perceval's 1838 Narrative of the Treatment Experienced by a Gentleman or Daniel Paul Schreber's 1903 Memoirs of my Nervous Illness), Krauß's story has received comparatively little scholarly attention. This is especially the case in the English-speaking world. In this article I reconstruct Krauß's biography by emphasising his relationship with physicians and his under-explored stay at the asylum. I then investigate the ways in which Krauß appropriated nascent theories about 'animal magnetism' to cope with his disturbing experiences. Finally, I address Krauß's recently discovered calligraphic oeuvre, which bears traces of his typical fears all the while showcasing his artistic skills. By moving away from the predominantly clinical perspective that has characterised earlier studies, this article reveals how Friedrich Krauß sought to make sense of his experience by selectively appropriating both orthodox and non-orthodox forms of medical knowledge. In so doing, it highlights the mutual interaction of discourses 'from above' and 'from below' as well as the influence of broader cultural forces on conceptions of self and illness during that seminal period.
Diego Restuccia; Guillaume Vandenbroucke
An average person born in the United States in the second half of the nineteenth century completed 7 years of schooling and spent 58 hours a week working in the market. By contrast, an average person born at the end of the twentieth century completed 14 years of schooling and spent 40 hours a week working. In the span of 100 years, completed years of schooling doubled and working hours decreased by 30 percent. What explains these trends? We consider a model of human capital and labor supply t...
Martini, Mariano; Barberis, Ilaria; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Paluan, Filippo
The second half of the nineteenth century saw the development of new medical "specialties", which, like the idea of constitutional disease, had a profound influence on medical practice. Against this lively "backdrop", Edoardo Maragliano played a central role in medicine's "renaissance" in Italy. Having graduated in medicine in 1870 at the University of Naples, he worked as an assistant in the University Medical Clinic. After beginning his academic career as professor of pathology at the Faculty of Medicine in Genoa in 1877, he became full professor of internal medicine in 1881. While he studied all fields of internal medicine, his research focused mainly on tuberculosis.His experiments in the medical clinic enabled Maragliano to announce the possibility of immunization against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although criticized for using an inactivated vaccine, Maragliano continued to advocate vaccination with any type of vaccine.In the Senate of the Kingdom of Italy, Maragliano actively debated social, economic and sanitary questions, without neglecting his duties as a physician and professor. As an officer during the First World War, he organized military health services and taught medicine at the Military University of Padua.In 1924, Maragliano created the first Italian specialty school in the study of tuberculosis, which provided physicians with specific training in the diagnosis, therapy and prevention of the disease. His scientific zeal and his vision of modern medicine prompted the introduction of new specializations, such as radiology and, especially, pneumology, which led to the creation of one of Europe's most renowned medical schools.
Ha, Nathan Q
At the turn of the twentieth century, biologists such as Oscar Riddle, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Frank Lillie, and Richard Goldschmidt all puzzled over the question of sexual difference, the distinction between male and female. They all offered competing explanations for the biological cause of this difference, and engaged in a fierce debate over the primacy of their respective theories. Riddle propounded a metabolic theory of sex dating from the late-nineteenth century suggesting that metabolism lay at the heart of sexual difference. Thomas Hunt Morgan insisted on the priority of chromosomes, Frank Lillie emphasized the importance of hormones, while Richard Goldschmidt supported a mixed model involving both chromosomes and hormones. In this paper, I will illustrate how the older metabolic theory of sex was displaced when those who argued for the relatively newer theories of chromosomes and hormones gradually formed an alliance that accommodated each other and excluded the metabolic theory of sex. By doing so, proponents of chromosomes and hormones established their authority over the question of sexual difference as they laid the foundations for the new disciplines of genetics and endocrinology. Their debate raised urgent questions about what constituted sexual difference, and how scientists envisioned the plasticity and controllability of this difference. These theories also had immediate political and cultural consequences at the turn of the twentieth century, especially for the eugenic and feminist movements, both of which were heavily invested in knowledge of sex and its determination, ascertainment, and command.
In this paper, I describe the strong and reciprocal relations between the emergence of the specialized expert in the natural sciences and the establishment of science education, in early Modern Greece. Accordingly, I show how science and public education interacted within the Greek state from its inception in the early 1830, to the first decade of the twentieth century, when the University of Athens established an autonomous Mathematics and Physics School. Several factors are taken into account, such as the negotiations of Western educational theories and practices within a local context, the discourses of the science savants of the University of Athens, the role of the influential Greek pedagogues of the era, the state as an agent which imposed restrictions or facilitated certain developments and finally the intellectual and cultural aspirations of the nation itself. Science education is shown to be of fundamental importance for Greek scientists. The inclusion of science within the school system preceded and promoted the appearance of a scientific community and the institution of science courses was instrumental for the emergence of the first trained Greek scientists. Thus, the conventional narrative that would have science appearing in the classrooms as an aftermath of the emergence of a scientific community is problematized.
Jan Van Bavel
Full Text Available It has been argued in sociology, economics, and evolutionary anthropology that family size limitation enhances the intergenerational upward mobility chances in modernized societies. If parents have a large flock, family resources get diluted and intergenerational mobility is bound to head downwards. Yet, the empirical record supporting this resource dilution hypothesis is limited. This article investigates the empirical association between family size limitation and intergenerational mobility in an urban, late nineteenth century population in Western Europe. It uses life course data from the Belgian city of Antwerp between 1846 and 1920. Findings are consistent with the resource dilution hypothesis: after controlling for confounding factors, people with many children were more likely to end up in the lower classes. Yet, family size limitation was effective as a defensive rather than an offensive strategy: it prevented the next generation from going down rather than helping them to climb up the social ladder. Also, family size appears to have been particularly relevant for the middle classes. Implications for demographic transition theory are discussed.
Brazelton, William J.; Sullivan, Woodruff T., III
Astrobiology's goal of promoting interdisciplinary research is an attempt to reverse a trend that began two centuries ago with the formation of the first specialized scientific disciplines. We have examined this era of discipline formation in order to make a comparison with the situation today in astrobiology. Will astrobiology remain interdisciplinary or is it becoming yet another specialty? As a case study, we have investigated effects on the scientific literature when a specialized community is formed by analyzing the citations within papers published during 1802-1856 in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (Phil. Trans.), the most important ‘generalist’ journal of its day, and Transactions of the Geological Society of London (Trans. Geol. Soc.), the first important disciplinary journal in the sciences. We find that these two journals rarely cited each other, and papers published in Trans. Geol. Soc. cited fewer interdisciplinary sources than did geology papers in Phil. Trans. After geology had become established as a successful specialized discipline, geologists returned to publishing papers in Phil. Trans., but they wrote in the new, highly specialized style developed in Trans. Geol. Soc. They had succeeded in not only creating a new scientific discipline, but also a new way of doing science with its own modes of research and communication. A similar citation analysis was applied to papers published over the period 2001-2008 in the contemporary journals Astrobiology and the International Journal of Astrobiology to test the hypothesis that astrobiologists are in the early stages of creating their own specialized community. Although still too early to reliably detect any but the largest trends, there is no evidence yet that astrobiologists are drifting into their own isolated discipline. Instead, to date they appear to remain interdisciplinary.
Throughout Europe, before the era of health insurance, access to professional medical help in an emergency was limited, for the vast majority of people, especially for those living outside big cities. This did not improve in the nineteenth century, even though the number of physicians grew rapidly. The industrial revolution added a range of previously unknown threats and, with the dramatic rise in population, many more people could not afford medical help. Therefore, the need for popular, easy-to-understand instructions on first aid became urgent. In Poland, such publications were especially needed because of the country's political situation, which resulted in restricted access to university medical education. During the nineteenth century, approximately 50 works on first aid were published in Polish, with almost 90% addressed to non-physicians. Evaluation of the contents of these books and the instructions which they contained gives a good insight into the evolution that first aid concepts underwent in the nineteenth century. These range from changes in the most urgent threats (from epidemic disorders to industrial accidents and combat injuries) and the accelerating development of medical knowledge (especially the asepsis / antisepsis concept), to the changing spectrum of readers (with growing numbers of those who could read but were otherwise poorly educated).
David B MacDonald
Full Text Available Retrospectives on the twentieth century often portray it as the most atrocious century in human history, in terms of totalising ideologies, moral abandonment, technological horror, and mass death. The nineteenth and earlier centuries, by contrast, emerge as progressive and enlightened eras, characterised by morality, rationalism, and the absence of war. Creating a dramatic contrast between old and new centuries ignores the historical reality of colonialism and violence outside Europe’s borders. This article problematises twentieth century retrospectives and their nostalgia for the past, comparing these with recent histories of colonialism and genocide. Rather than see the twentieth century as a decisive break from the past, there are important elements of continuity and evolution which should not be ignored.
This historical analysis of the term 'health promotion' during the early 20th century in North American journal articles revealed concepts that strongly resonate with those of the 21st century. However, the lineage between these two time periods is not clear, and indeed, this paper supports contentions health promotion has a disrupted history. This paper traces the conceptualizations of health promotion during the 1920s, attempts to operationalize health promotion in the 1930s resulting in a narrowing of the concept to one of health education, and the disappearance of the term from the 1940s. In doing so, it argues a number of factors influenced the changing conceptualization and utilization of health promotion during the first half of the 20th century, many of which continue to present times, including issues around what health promotion is and what it means, ongoing tensions between individual and collective actions, tensions between specific and general causes of health and ill health, and between expert and societal contributions. The paper concludes the lack of clarity around these issues contributed to health promotion disappearing in the mid-20th century and thus resolution of these would be worthwhile for the continuation and development of health promotion as a discipline into the 21st century. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
M. Shahid Alam
Full Text Available This paper reviews the growing body of evidence on the relative economic standing of different regions of the world in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In general, it does not find support for Euro-centric claims regarding Western Europes early economic lead. The Eurocentric claims are based primarily on estimates of per capita income, which are plagued by conceptual problems, make demands on historical data that are generally unavailable, and use questionable assumptions to reconstruct early per capita income. A careful examination of these conjectural estimates of per capita income, however, does not support claims that Western Europe had a substantial lead over the rest of the world at the beginning of the nineteenth century. An examination of several alternative indices of living standards in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth centuriessuch as real wages, labor productivity in agriculture, and urbanizationalso fails to confirm claims of European superiority. In addition, this paper examines the progress of global disparitiesincluding the presence of regional patternsusing estimates of per capita income.
Full Text Available This study considers the life courses of young men and women with and without disabilities in the Sundsvall region of Sweden during the nineteenth century. It aims to ascertain how disability and gender shaped their involvement in work and their experience of family in order to assess the extent of their social inclusion. Through the use of Swedish parish registers digitized by the Demographic Data Base, Umeå University, we examine 8,874 individuals observed from 15 to 33 years of age to investigate whether obtaining a job, getting married and having children were less frequent events for people with disabilities. Our results reveal that this was the case and particularly for those with mental disabilities, even if having an impairment did not wholly prevent people from finding a job. However, their work did not represent the key to family formation and for the women it implied a higher rate of illegitimacy. We argue that the lower level of inclusion in work and family was not solely the outcome of the impairment itself, but differed in relation to the particular attitudes towards men and women with disabilities within the labour market and society more generally in this particular context.
Full Text Available Because of the increasing of urban centres, in the second half of the nineteenth century, new buildings are built in order to accommodate selling activities. They are essentially utilitarian architectures, bare of decorations, which show technical and material aspects. In recent decades, however, since they no longer fulfill the purpose for which they were originally built, these structures have often been the object of interventions that have revived the use through changes not always respectful of the buildings. In the belief that the actions of reuse should instead be a means through which it is pursued the conservation of this "material evidence having civilization value", this report is a contribution to the knowledge of concrete covered market buildings made in the thirties of twentieth century in Italy, as well as in Argentina, critically analyzing reuse interventions recently conducted.
This paper asserts that early teacher identity reflected wider contradictions and tensions within 19th century society, noting that Victorian society in England and Canada struggled to embrace modernity, and while committed to the Enlightenment project of science and progress and the principles of rationality and reason, much traditionalism still…
Full Text Available Historically, little is known about whether and to what extent disabled people found work and formed families. To fill this gap, this study analyses the life course trajectories of both disabled and non-disabled individuals, between the ages of 15 and 33, from the Sundsvall region in Sweden during the nineteenth century. Having access to micro-data that report disabilities in a population of 8,874 individuals from the parish registers digitised by the Demographic Data Base, Umeå University, we employ sequence analysis on a series of events that are expected to occur in life of young adults: getting a job, marrying and becoming a parent, while also taking into account out-migration and death. Through this method we obtain a holistic picture of the life course of disabled people. Main findings show that their trajectories did not include work or family to the same extent as those of non-disabled people. Secondary findings concerning migration and mortality indicate that the disabled rarely out-migrated from the region, and they suffered from premature deaths. To our knowledge this is the first study to employ sequence analysis on a substantially large number of cases to provide demographic evidence of how disability shaped human trajectories in the past during an extended period of life. Accordingly, we detail our motivation for this method, describe our analytical approach, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages associated with sequence analysis for our case study.
Tréboles de cuatro hojas. Escritoras decimonónicas españolas en el canon literario y en el canon escolar (1900-1949 / Four-leaf clovers. Nineteenth-century writers in the literary canon and school canon (1900-1949
Raquel Gutiérrez Sebastián
Full Text Available Resumen El artículo aborda el estudio de la visión y valoración de las escritoras del siglo XIX en las historias literarias a lo largo de las primeras décadas del siglo XX y estudia además cómo se trataron estas escritoras en antologías escolares y libros de texto, analizando su repercusión en la educación literaria de los receptores de esos momentos. Abstract The article discusses the study of vision and evaluation of the writers of the nineteenth century literary along the first decades of the twentieth century stories and also studies how these writers were treated in school anthologies and textbooks, analyzing their impact on literary education of the recipients of those moments.
Kimberly A. Smith
Full Text Available Originally published in Centropa: Journal of Central European Art and Architecture 5, n. 1 (January 2005: 16-25. Kimberly A. Smith discusses the ways in which the understanding of style was articulated by intellectuals working in the late nineteenth century, primarily in Germany and Austria, and the epistemological repercussions of this shift in thinking for both the theory and practice of central European art in the years before World War I. Smith focuses in particular on the writings of Alois Riegl, in which this approach to thinking about style came to its most influential fruition, and proposes that Riegl’s conception of form had implications for artistic practice. Riegl’s methodological understanding of artistic form drew connections between morphological types and perceptions of reality, thereby altering the ways in which artists could conceive of aesthetic authenticity. Style itself could be seen as the harbinger of truth, opening up the possibility that any style might offer a genuine revelation of the real. Yet as Smith shows, the Rieglian theory of meaningful form may have encouraged an artistic pluralism that subverted the very Kunstwollen theory of historically unified style from which it sprung.
This essay examines the way in which disease was framed and narrated as fashionable in the long eighteenth century, and argues that the intensifying focus on women's fashionable disorders in the period grew in tandem with the rise of an unstable capitalism in its manifold forms. Using the satirical articles written by Henry Southern in the London Magazine-"On Fashions" (August 1825), "On Fashions in Physic" (October 1825), and "On Dilettante Physic" (January 1826)-and the literature that led to them, I analyze the role that women were now taking in the newly capitalized world of the early nineteenth century. This world was characterized by a burgeoning medical market, a periodical and print market which could adequately reflect and promote fashionable diseases and the medical market that spawned them, and the nexus of actors in the whole drama of the production, maintenance, and dissolution of fashionable diseases.
Lark, Lisa A.
For many of the students in the author's American history class, early twentieth-century American history seems far removed from their daily lives. Being first and second-generation American citizens, many of the students do not have the luxury of hearing grandparents and great-grandparents telling stories about FDR and Henry Ford. More…
Aspectos mineralógicos das "Viagens Filosóficas" pelo território brasileiro na transição do século XVIII para o século XIX Mineralogical aspects of 'Philosophical Voyages' through the Brazilian territory during the transition from the eighteenth to the nineteenth centuries
Silvia F. de M. Figueirôa
Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é mostrar os aspectos mineralógicos das "Viagens Filosóficas" realizadas no Império português na transição do século XVIII para o XIX, com ênfase no Brasil. Tais expedições científicas e seus resultados inserem Portugal e suas possessões no contexto científico do período. Acreditamos que as "Viagens Filosóficas" estão entre os elementos mais relevantes para entender o processo de institucionalização das ciências naturais no Brasil, particularmente - no caso deste artigo - as ciências mineralógicas.The late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century scientific expeditions undertaken by the Crown earned Portugal and its possessions a place on the period's scientific stage. These Philosophical Voyages provide us with invaluable elements for understanding the process by which the natural sciences were institutionalized in Brazil, especially - in the case of this article - the mineralogical sciences.
Clifford, James L., Ed.
Forty-seven essays from five centuries of writings on biography are contained in this book. Selections are arranged under the following headings: "Before 1700" (9 selections), "The Eighteenth Century" (5), "The Nineteenth Century" (11), "Early Twentieth Century" (14), and "Mid-Twentieth Century" (8). Authors range from Francis Bacon to Leon Edel.…
William Elvis Plata Quezada
Full Text Available Soledad Acosta (1833-1913 is the main Colombian writer of the nineteenth century and the largest in Latin America. She has been mainly studied for his contributions to literature, but their religious aspects usual –Item in his writings have been little addressed. Looking to fill this gap, the present paper attempts to examine religious thought and praxis of Soledad Acosta, testing the following hypothesis: thanks to its special education and status, she is in Colombia, one of the most clear representatives of Catholicism trying to reconcile with fundamental ideas of the modern world that they were not opposed to the Gospel and the Catholic faith. This in a context of political and religious turmoil, marked by intolerance and intransigence. It is intended to draw attention to the need to study systematically and detailed Catholicism of the nineteenth century and its relations with the modern world, to go beyond the thesis unison and view it as monolithic.
Kalmijn, Matthijs; Vanassche, Sofie; Matthijs, Koenraad
In times of low divorce rates (such as the nineteenth century and early twentieth century), the authors expect higher social strata to have the highest divorce chances as they are better equipped to break existing barriers to divorce. In this article, the authors analyze data from marriage certificates to assess whether there was a positive effect of occupational class on divorce in Belgium (Flanders) and the Netherlands. Their results for the Netherlands show a positive association between social class and divorce, particularly among the higher cultural groups. In Flanders, the authors do not find this, but they observe a negative association between illiteracy and divorce, an observation pointing in the same direction.
Prescott, Stephanie; Hehman, Michelle C
The complex early history of infant incubators provides insight into challenges faced by medical professionals as they promoted care for premature infants in the early 20th century. Despite their absence from the narrative to date, nurses played vital roles in the development of neonatal care. Working in many different settings, from incubator-baby shows to the first hospital unit designed specifically for premature infants, nurses administered quality care and promoted advanced treatment for these newborns. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
These activities were engaged in by all social classes of people in open spaces. As the nineteenth century closed, society became more class conscious and the middle classes began agitating for clubs and enclosed spaces. They were successful; thus in 1898 athletic activity was organised within the club movement.
van Gent, R. H.
In a recent paper in this journal, Sule et al. (2011) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an early 17th-century Indian sighting of the supernova of 1604 has to be rejected.
М В Короткова
Full Text Available In the article on the basic of various sources, including the manuscripts and personal origin, attempt of reconstruction of ball culture of the Russian metropolitan nobility of the eighteenth and the first half of nineteenth century. The author made a conclusion of the nobility ball from compulsory state ceremony to secular entertainment determined his long time and popularity in Russia and especially in Moscow. Despite of some liberalization of ball culture in nineteenth century was one of the reasons of appearance new secular etiquette, including gender aspects, which later acquired general estate character. In article retraces the connection between the changes of dances in the balls and the character of public relation.
Nye, Mary Jo
Today's vast multinational scientific monoliths bear little resemblance to the modest laboratories of the early nineteenth century. Yet early in the nineteenth century--when heat and electricity were still counted among the elements--changes were already under way that would revolutionize chemistry and physics into the "big science" of the late twentieth century, expanding tiny, makeshift laboratories into bustling research institutes and replacing the scientific amateurs and generalist savants of the early Victorian era with the professional specialists of contemporary physical science. Mary Jo Nye traces the social and intellectual history of the physical sciences from the early 1800s to the beginning of the Second World War, examining the sweeping transformation of scientific institutions and professions during the period and the groundbreaking experiments that fueled that change, from the earliest investigations of molecular chemistry and field dynamics to the revolutionary breakthroughs of quantum mecha...
Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the discussion of canons has been a dominant theme in the discipline of Western art history. Various concerns have emerged regarding ‘questions of artistic judgment’, ‘the history genesis of masterpieces’, ‘variations in taste’, ‘the social instruments of canonicity’, and ‘how canons disappear’. Western art historians have considered how the canon’s appearance in Western visual art embodies aesthetic, ideological, cultural, social, and symbolic values. In Chinese art history, the idea of a canon including masterpieces, important artists, and forms of art, dates back to the mid ninth century when Zhang Yanyuan wrote his painting history Record of Famous Painters of All the Dynasties. Faced with quite different political, economic, and social conditions amid the instability of the early twentieth century, Chinese scholars attempted to discover new canons for cultural orthodoxy and authority. Modern means for canonization, such as museums and exhibition displays, cultural and academic institutions, and massive art publications with image reproduction in good quality, brought the process up to an unprecedented speed. It is true that most of these means have comparable counterparts in pre-modern times. However, their enormous scope and overwhelming influence are far beyond the reach of their imperial counterparts. Through an inter-textual reading of the publications on Chinese art history in early twentieth-century China, this paper explores the transformation of canons in order to shed light on why and how canonical formation happened during the Republican period of China. Despite the diverse styles and strategies which Chinese writers used in their narratives, Chinese art historical books produced during the Republican period canonized and de-canonized artworks. In this paper, the discussion of these texts, with reference to other art historical works, comprises three parts: 1 canon formation of artistic forms
This paper's main contention is that some basically methodological developments in science which are apparently distant and unrelated can be seen as part of a sequential story. Focusing on general inferential and epistemological matters, the paper links occurrences separated by both in time and space, by formal and representational issues rather than social or disciplinary links. It focuses on a few limited aspects of several cognitive practices in medical and biological contexts separated by geography, disciplines and decades, but connected by long term transdisciplinary representational and inferential structures and constraints. The paper intends to show a given set of knowledge claims based on organizing statistically empirical data can be seen to have been underpinned by a previous, more familiar, and probably more natural, narrative handling of similar evidence. To achieve that this paper moves from medicine in France in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century to the second half of the nineteenth century in England among gentleman naturalists, following its subject: the shift from narrative depiction of hereditary transmission of physical peculiarities to posterior statistical articulations of the same phenomena. Some early defenders of heredity as an important (if not the most important) causal presence in the understanding of life adopted singular narratives, in the form of case stories from medical and natural history traditions, to flesh out a special kind of causality peculiar to heredity. This work tries to reconstruct historically the rationale that drove the use of such narratives. It then shows that when this rationale was methodologically challenged, its basic narrative and probabilistic underpinings were transferred to the statistical quantificational tools that took their place.
Crítica social e idéias médicas nos excessos do desejo: uma análise dos "romances para homens" de finais do século XIX e início do XX Social criticism and medical ideas on desires' excesses: a study of "novels for men" from late nineteenth to early twentieth century
Alessandra El Far
Full Text Available Este artigo procura analisar a produção literária pornográfica desde a segunda metade do século XIX até o início do XX no Brasil. Também conhecidos como "leitura para homens" ou "romances para homens", esses enredos alcançaram uma repercussão singular naquele período. Se, em um primeiro momento, essas narrativas, repletas de fantasias e desejos, tratavam de questões sociais e políticas, com a chegada do novo século, de modo evidente, elas passaram a estabelecer um estreito diálogo com as teorias médicas e científicas da época.This article analyses the pornographic literature from the second half of the nineteenth century until the beginning of the twentieth century in Brazil. Also known as "reading for men" or "novels for men", these plots reached a singular repercussion at the time. If at first these stories, full of fantasies and desires, talked about both social and political issues, with the coming of the new century they clearly started to establish a close dialogue with current medical and scientific theories.
Edgar Mendoza García
Full Text Available This is an analysis of the political and economic factors than allowed the keeping of a herd of goats as communal property from the república de indios of the colonial period until municipal administrations at the beginning of the twentieth century in the region called the Mixteca Alta. The case of Tepelmeme, Oaxaca, is the basis of an account of the economic importance of communal property in the local governments of villages and municipios, as well of the opposition of villages to liberal laws of the nineteenth century. In short, during the colonial period and part of the nineteenth century, communal property was the main economic support of Indian villages. Not only was this property equivalent to communal savings kept for critical moments, but also an economic means that allowed financing public administration and paying for religious services. Moreover, it was a factor that gave cohesion to these villages and inserted them into a regional economy.
Pointing to the widespread neglect afforded to the works of nineteenth century Afro-American women authors, this paper discusses, and presents excerpts from, the works of many of these authors to show the types of concerns they wrote about. Among the works discussed are the following: the slave narratives of Harriet Jacobs and Elizabeth Keckley;…
Vimieiro Gomes, Ana Carolina
This article examines an international controversy over the most visible scientific event of Brazilian physiology in the nineteenth century. In 1881, Brazilian scientist João Baptista Lacerda stated that he had found an efficient antidote to the poison of Brazilian snakes: permanganate of potash (nowadays, potassium permanganate). His findings were given great publicity in Brazil and traveled rapidly around the world. Scientists, especially in France, contradicted Lacerda's claims. They argued that permanganate of potash could not be a genuine antidote to snake bites since it could not neutralize snake venom when diffused in the body. Lacerda turned down such criticism, claiming that clinical observation provided solid evidence for the drug's local action, on the spot surrounding the bite. The controversy over the use of permanganate of potash as an antidote to snake bite illustrates different regimes of proof that could be mobilized in favor of a physiological discovery.
Daniel Santiago Baldellou Monclús
Full Text Available This article analyzes the position of domestic workers between the late seventeenth and early nineteenth centuries in order to determine what their situation facing the dilemma of preserving their honor in an, usually, hostile enviroment and the social imperative of courting and got married placed on them. The Spanish domestic service in the Old Regime Spain, specially the maids, was exposed to plenty of risks. Sexual harassement was by far one of the most common. This happening could appear in several forms, since an originally consented relationship until crimes such as raping. Through this paper, we annalyze the most common servant ´s sexual conducts based on the court documentation for the XVII and XVIII centuries by analyzing the conflicts reflected in these sources. Maids precariousness, their legal resources and the society perspective over their position are the issues adressed in the paper searching for a overview of the servant´s sexual dangers and its consequences as well as the maid's strategies in openly hostile ambient.
Jordi Brasó Rius
Full Text Available Early feminist movements in different fields won’t appear until the end of nineteenth century. One of these fields is sport, which includes chess: the object of study of this article. Using a methodology based on hermeneutic analysis of the principal information sources, it is possible to conclude that the introduction of women in chess associations toke place in the middle of the nineteenth century in England. In Spain, Barcelona led this practice. Spanish chess societies include women at the beginnings of Twentieth century, but it was not until the thirties when significant female movements appear in this sport.
Julia V. Korneeva
Full Text Available The second half of the XIX century in Russian history is a period of modernization of almost all aspects of national life, including industry. By the modernization processes of the second half of the XIX century belong urbanization, industrialization, bureaucratization et al. Samara province during the period belongs to the vast provinces of European Russia and at the end of the XIX century has an economically developed province of the Middle Volga. Agriculture ranks first place in the economic development of the Samara province, therefore industrial production is subject to the processing of agricultural and livestock products. In the second half of the twentieth century on the territory of the Samara province were industrial company, which were at different stages of economic development in the form of property and on the organization of manufacture. By the end of the XIX century, the level of industrial production is much higher than the pre-reform figures, but still inferior to agriculture. During the study period in the Samara province formed the main directions of the region's industry, such as of animal products (skinner, plants furnace animal fat, plant products (churn factory, and conversing minerals (brickyard. The growth and size of cities has determined the pace and scope of development of the industry.
In addition to the superficial visual similarities between the architectural theories of the Silesian-born, seventeenth-century Dutch mathematician Nicolaus Goldmann and the early nineteenth-century French architect Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand, there is a more profound interconnection: their use of
O'Donnell, Margaret G.
Discussed are the work and the teaching methods of Martineau, one of the most widely read economic educators of the nineteenth century. She wrote 25 tales--"Illustrations of Political Economy"--each illustrating a different economic concept. One of these tales, "Demerara," is examined. (Author/RM)
Zack, L.; Grigore, G.; Bițună, G.
This paper compares two 19th century works, Muhammad Qadrī’s Nouveau guide de conversation française et arabe (1868) and Ya‘qūb Nahla’s New Manual of English and Arabic Conversation (1874). These works have some common aspects: both were written by prominent Egyptians, had the dual purpose of
Taubert, Mark; Fielding, Helen; Mathews, Emma; Frazer, Ricky
Palliative care went through a significant evolution in the 20th century, but the 19th century has been seen my some scholars as the real turning point toward the more modern concept of hospices and palliative care. To investigate some examples of earlier uses of the word 'palliative', a literature search was conducted within the earliest available BMJ archive sections, the years 1840 to 1842. This provided a glimpse into how the word was used in the medical literature in Victorian times, mid-nineteenth century. Search results brought up a number of case reports, and the word was employed to describe medicines ('use of palliatives') as well as passive, non-active treatment approaches, probably best described as a watch-and-wait strategy. Of note is that the first recorded use of the word in the archives is by a surgeon. Some doctors associated the word palliative with there not being any prospect for cure and only for the relief of symptoms and greater comfort of the patient. There were, however, early reflections on whether palliative treatments may in some cases increase the length of patients' lives.
Bascuñán Añover, O.; Alía Miranda, Francisco
The chapter analyzes the different ways of peasant resistance and social protest against the system of conscription in rural Spain during the colonial wars, especially when the Cuban and Moroccan wars took place in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century.
Gallagher, Mary Caroline
The first quarter of the nineteenth century was a time of great change and uncertainty in Ireland. The rebellion of 1798 was followed in 1801 by the Act of Union, which brought about legislative and ecclesiastical union from Britain. If the Church of Ireland was ever to make a success of its mission in-Ireland, it was in these early years of the nineteenth century. On the eve of this opportunity Thomas Lewis O’Beime, an Irish convert and former Roman Catholic seminarian, was tr...
Careers in astronomy for women (as in other sciences) were a rarity in Britain and Ireland until well into the twentieth century. The book investigates the place of women in astronomy before that era, recounted in the form of biographies of about 25 women born between 1650 and 1900 who in varying capacities contributed to its progress during the eighteenth, nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. There are some famous names among them whose biographies have been written before now, there are others who have received less than their due recognition while many more occupied inconspicuous and sometimes thankless places as assistants to male family members. All deserve to be remembered as interesting individuals in an earlier opportunity-poor age. Placed in roughly chronological order, their lives constitute a sample thread in the story of female entry into the male world of science. The book is aimed at astronomers, amateur astronomers, historians of science, and promoters of women in science, but being writte...
Brucker, Mary C.
Midwifery is one of the universal professions. At the end of the nineteenth century, midwives in the United States were disenfranchised from the mainstream. A concerted effort was waged by male physicians to characterize midwifery practices as unscientific while simultaneously preventing midwives from obtaining formal education. Although midwifery…
Carson, Scott Alan
This study considers statures of 19th century male Chinese immigrant to the American West and assesses how their personal characteristics were related with stature variation. The subjects were 1423 male Chinese prisoners received between 1850 and 1920 in the Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah and Washington state prisons. The study compares 19th century Chinese inmate statures with other studies and employs stature regression models on time, socio-economic status and residence within the USA to account for biological variation. Between 1830 and 1870, Chinese youth male stature declined by over 2 cm. Between 1820 and 1860, Chinese adult male stature also declined by over 2 cm. Chinese stature did not vary with socio-economic status or residence. Nineteenth century Chinese emigrant statures were influenced more by political and economic events than socio-economic status, and male emigrants' biological conditions may have deteriorated throughout the 19th century.
Barr, Krispin Wagoner
Collegiate secret societies, as distinguished from Greek-letter fraternal organizations, enjoyed prominence within many American campus communities from the early nineteenth century through the mid-twentieth century (Baird, 1879; Hitchcock, 1863; Slosson, 1910; Veysey, 1965). The establishment of these elite groups preceded the maturation of…
Bascuñán Añover, O.; Molina, Fernando
The chapter intends to analyze those ways of mobilization, direct action, resistance and social disorder which were held in Spanish society between late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, particularly, in rural society, where there were hardly any civic and democratic ways to claim
The purpose of this article is to deepen our understanding of twentieth-century masculinity by considering the social function of facial hair. The management of facial hair has always been a medium of gendered body language, and as such has elicited a nearly continuous private and public conversation about manliness. Careful attention to this conversation, and to trends in facial hairstyles, illuminates a distinct and consistent pattern of thought about masculinity in early twentieth-century America. The preeminent form of facial hair - mustaches - was used to distinguish between two elemental masculine types: sociable and autonomous. A man was neither wholly one nor the other, but the presence and size of a mustache - or its absence - served to move a man one way or another along the continuum that stretched from one extreme to the other. According to the twentieth-century gender code, a clean-shaven man's virtue was his commitment to his male peers and to local, national or corporate institutions. The mustached man, by contrast, was much more his own man: a patriarch, authority figure or free agent who was able to play by his own rules. Men and women alike read these signals in their evaluation of men.
Mock, C. J.
Early instrumental records in the United States, defined as those operating before 1892 which is regarded the period prior to the modern climate record, provide a longer perspective of climatic variability at decadal and interannual timescales. Such reconstructions also provide a means of verification for other proxy data. This paper provides a American perspective of historical climatic research, emphasizing the urgent need to properly evaluate data quality and provide necessary corrections to make them compatible with the modern record. Different fixed observation times, different practices of weather instrument exposures, and statistical methods for calibration are the main issues in applying corrections and conducting proper climatic interpretations. I illustrate several examples on methodologies of this historical climatic research, focusing on the following in the Southeastern United States: daily reconstructed temperature time-series centered on Charleston SC and Natchez MS back to the late eighteenth century, and precipitation frequency reconstructions during the antebellum period for the Gulf Coast and coastal Southeast Atlantic states. Results indicate several prominent extremes unprecedented as compared to the modern record, such as the widespread warm winter of 1827-28, and the severe cold winters of 1856 and 1857. The reconstructions also yield important information concerning responses to past ENSO events, the PNA, NAO, and the PDO, particularly when compared with instrumental data from other regions. A high potential also exists for applying the climate reconstructions to assess historical climatic impacts on society in the Southeast, such as to understand climatic linkages to famous case studies of Yellow Fever epidemics and severe drought.
Vasiliy P. Zinovyev
Full Text Available The work considers seasonal variations and differentiation of Siberian miners’ salaries in late XIX – early XX centuries, proves that seasonal variations of salaries depended on the excess demand on labor in summer and the contraction of demand in winter, detects that salary differentiated, depending on workers’ qualification, sex, age, nationality, industry, location of an enterprise. Such differences in Siberian miners’ salaries were typical for early industrial period of the development of the society.
2013 is the tercentenary of the death of Sir Patrick Dun. When Dun died in 1713, he left the proceeds of his estate to enhance medical education in Dublin by funding chairs in medicine. He showed remarkable innovation, but it took 95 years, five Acts of Parliament, two House of Commons enquiries and a House of Lords enquiry before Dun's wishes were brought to fruition and systematic clinical education was available for Dublin medical students. The passage of the final School of Physic Act in 1800 insured that a hospital would open in his name and regular clinical education was provided. The physician, Richard Steevens, who died 3 years earlier in 1710, left the proceeds of his estate to found a hospital, which opened, in his name, in 1733. The contemporary primary sources have been analysed and material from relevant secondary sources has been included where appropriate. Dublin was the beneficiary of these bequests and if circumstances had been more favourable, and the proceeds had been used more efficiently at the start of the eighteenth-century, Dublin could well have rivalled Edinburgh as the seat of medical education in the eighteenth century. In the early nineteenth century, it would fulfil that role and equal Edinburgh as one of the primary centres of medical education in Europe.
Thody, Angela M.
Utilizing primary sources, the article reconstructs the typical day of a 19th-century English headteacher. The headteacher's myriad duties included classroom management, school administration, and building maintenance. Concludes with a comparison between 19th-century education management and current practices. (MJP)
Two generations of a family who lived in mid-nineteenth rural Sweden are described. Domestic violence was a common feature in the first generation family. The salient feature there was undoubtedly the incestuous father-daughter relationships. The way incest appeared in Sweden about 150 years ago, the role of local authorities, and the serious consequences to those victimized is analyzed with reference to both the cultural context of that time and to modern theories of incest. Seemingly puzzling violence committed by a second generation family member is related to the domestic violence in the previous generation. Due to the extraordinary character of the incest cases and the specific church council sessions in which the incest case was treated, aspects of family life normally hidden behind curtains of conventions were made public. Reaction patterns drawn from this case indicate a patriarchal system of oppression and badly-directed considerations.
Duck, Francis A
The historical origins of medical physics are traced from the first use of weighing as a means of monitoring health by Sanctorius in the early seventeenth century to the emergence of radiology, phototherapy and electrotherapy at the end of the nineteenth century. The origins of biomechanics, due to Borelli, and of medical electricity following Musschenbroek's report of the Leyden Jar, are included. Medical physics emerged as a separate academic discipline in France at the time of the Revolution, with Jean Hallé as its first professor. Physiological physics flowered in Germany during the mid-nineteenth century, led by the work of Adolf Fick. The introduction of the term medical physics into English by Neil Arnott failed to accelerate its acceptance in Britain or the USA. Contributions from Newton, Euler, Bernoulli, Nollet, Matteucci, Pelletan, Gavarret, d'Arsonval, Finsen, Röntgen and others are noted. There are many origins of medical physics, stemming from the many intersections between physics and medicine. Overall, the early nineteenth-century definition of medical physics still holds today: 'Physics applied to the knowledge of the human body, to its preservation and to the cure of its illnesses'. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prickett, David James
In early-twentieth-century Berlin, agents of speed and industrialisation, such as the railway, contributed to the seemingly unbridled velocity of urban life. Doctors and cultural critics took an ambivalent stance toward the impact of speed and technology on the human body. Critics argued that these factors, in conjunction with sexual excess and prostitution, accelerated the sexual maturation of young men, thereby endangering ‘healthy’ male sexuality. This comparison of Hans Ostwald's socio-literary study Dunkle Winkel in Berlin (1904) with Georg Buschan's sexual education primer Vom Jüngling zum Mann (1911) queries the extent to which speed shaped the understanding of ‘the masculine’ in pre-World-War-I Germany. The essay thus examines Ostwald's and Buschan's arguments and postulates that speed in the city (Berlin) can be seen as a feminised, sexualised force that determined sex in the city. According to this reading, the homosexual urban dandy resisted the accelerated modernist urban tempo, whereas the heterosexual man and hegemonic, heteronormative masculinity yielded to speed. ‘“Das Verhältnis”’ became a fleeting, momentary alternative to stable marital relationships, which in turn contributed to the general ‘crisis’ of – and in– masculinity in early-twentieth-century Berlin.
Thaut, Michael H
The notion of music as therapy is based on ancient cross-cultural beliefs that music can have a "healing" effect on mind and body. Explanations for the therapeutic mechanisms in music have almost always included cultural and social science-based causalities about the uses and functions of music in society. However, it is also important to note that the view of music as "therapy" was also always strongly influenced by the view and understanding of the concepts and causes of disease. Magical/mystical concepts of illness and "rational" medicine probably lived side by side for thousands of years. Not until the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries were the scientific foundations of medicine established, which allowed the foundations of music in therapy to progress from no science to soft science and most recently to actual brain science. Evidence for "early music therapy" will be discussed in four broad historical-cultural divisions: preliterate cultures; early civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel; Greek Antiquity; Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque. In reviewing "early music therapy" practice, from mostly unknown periods of early history (using preliterate cultures as a window) to increasingly better documented times, including preserved notation samples of actual "healing" music, five theories and applications of early music therapy can be differentiated. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In the early 20th century, some American ministers were eager participants in the Chautauqua and Lyceum lecture circuits that flourished across the Midwest and beyond. Ministers expressed their vocation in the public arena, and the Redpath Chautauqua collection shows how part of this public life was conducted. In their role as lecturers in multiple educational and civic venues, ministers functioned as experts on the Bible, as well as supporting American ideals that were loosely connected to Protestant Christianity. The essay explores how a substantial archival collection reveals a particular public role ministers played in a popular culture venue in early 20th century America.
Edmunds, June; Turner, Bryan S
The concept of generation within sociology has until recently been a marginal area of interest. However, various demographic, cultural and intellectual developments have re-awakened an interest in generations that started with the classic essay by Karl Mannheim. To date, the sociological literature has generally conceptualized generations as nationally bounded entities. In this paper we suggest that the sociology of generations should develop the concept of global generations. This conceptual enhancement is important because the growth of global communications technology has enabled traumatic events, in an unparalleled way, to be experienced globally. The late nineteenth and early twentieth century was the era of international generations, united through print media, and the mid-twentieth century saw the emergence of transnational generations, facilitated by new broadcast communications. However, the latter part of the twentieth century is the period of global generations, defined by electronic communications technology, which is characterized, uniquely, by increasing interactivity. The 1960s generation was the first global generation, the emergence of which had world-wide consequences; today with major developments in new electronic communications, there is even more potential for the emergence of global generations that can communicate across national boundaries and through time. If in the past historical traumas combined with available opportunities to create national generations, now globally experienced traumas, facilitated by new media technologies, have the potential for creating global generational consciousness. The media have become increasingly implicated in the formation of generational movements. Because we are talking about generations in the making rather than an historical generation, this article is necessarily speculative; it aims to provoke discussion and establish a new research agenda for work on generations.
Full Text Available In this work I analyze the theories of Carl Schmitt and Hans Kelsen of democracy in the light of the weberian topic of rationalization. My thesis is that this counterpoint does not escape the contemporary split that characterizes the nineteenth century modernity and continues in the twentieth century. At last, I’ll maintain that the political manifestation of this aporeticalbackground –over which one must understand the challenge of democracy– is what Schmitt calls the total State.
Full Text Available The first 13 years of the twenty-first century have begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2%–6% and 7%–16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This feature article is a travelogue of the twenty-first-century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational space technology, called vegetation health (VH, which has the longest period of observation and provides good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI and thermal conditions. The twenty-first-century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia and Horn of Africa were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food security and led to food riots in some countries. This research also investigates drought dynamics presenting no definite conclusion about drought intensification or/and expansion during the time of the warmest globe.
The role of genealogy and clinical family histories in documenting possible inheritance patterns for diabetes mellitus in the pre-insulin era: part 2. Genealogic evidence for type 2 diabetes mellitus in Josephine Imperato's paternal and maternal lineages.
Imperato, Pascal James; Imperato, Gavin H
Part 2 presents detailed genealogic information on Josephine Imperato's paternal and maternal lineages extending from four to seven generations into the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries. Among these lineages are some where early adult death over successive generations is perhaps indicative of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM). These lineages, all in the town of San Prisco in Italy, include both paternal and maternal ones with the following surnames: Casaccia, Casertano, Cipriano, de Angelis, de Paulis, Peccerillo, Foniciello, di Monaco, Vaccarella, Valenziano, Ventriglia, and Zibella. Genealogic studies of eighteenth and nineteenth century vital records in this area of Italy cannot definitively establish type 2 diabetes mellitus as either an immediate or contributory cause of death. This is because causes of death were not recorded and because disease diagnostic capabilities were largely absent. Genealogic studies of those who lived in Italy in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries can at best provide data on approximate age at time of death. Early adult death in this era was not uncommon. However, its presence over several successive generations in a lineage raises the possibility of inherited diseases prominent among which is type 2 DM.
Gómez Rendón, J.
This is the first and only fully illustrated compilation of articles of the now legendary journal Le Tour du Monde. The book contains all the articles related to Ecuador from 1830 to 1911 and so is a landmark in the nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century travel literature.
Matos, José Manuel
During the second half of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century the discipline of secondary mathematics was gradually built in Portugal and certified teachers, textbooks, programs, special teaching techniques emerge. This consolidation process ends with the emergency of school subjects that develop some kind of autonomy as Chervel…
Full Text Available The article presents tips, recommendations, advice by the Europeans. Their consideration was important for further development of tourism in the Caucasus. Namely, for the development of the organization, established in early 20th century “Caucasus Tourism Promotion Committee" and its relation with the countries with well-developed tourism, such as: Austria, Hungary, Germany, France, Bosnia and Herzegovina and etc. Using archive sources, we can consider the issues, concerning foreign tourism experience, types of advertisement in XX century, means of information, transport, tourist accommodation, tourism infrastructure, etc
This article describes a pharmacy student's notebook in Lille in the 1870s. The Medical Natural History course is taught by Alfred Mathieu Giard. Following a brief biography of the latter, excerpts of the manuscript are presented, they reveal the extent of scientific knowledge of the late nineteenth century, especially in the field of Parasitology.
Full Text Available The article examines a group of medieval wall paintings and how they have been dealt with in the Finnish research history during the period from 1880 to 1940. The paintings have long been referred to ‘primitive paintings’ and thought to have been executed by local men. This interpretation has been in connection to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century history-writing and its attempts to establish and validate a shared national past for Finland. The notion of the ‘primitive paintings’ as something essentially local or ‘native’, was an endeavour of cultural construction that aimed to recreate a continuous, plausible narrative as a part of ‘writing the nation’ in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth-century Finnish historiography.
Jan Józef Janicki
Full Text Available The history of Sunday begins with Christ's resurrection, which gave unique shape and significance to the day. All evangelists agree that Jesus rose from the dead and appeared to his disciples on "the first day of the week", or "the first day after Shabbat". The article discusses the significance and meaning of the Sunday feast in the early centuries of the Church.
Sokal, Michael M
Despite widespread interest in individual life histories, few biographies of scientists make use of insights derived from psychology, another discipline that studies people, their thoughts, and their actions. This essay argues that recent theoretical work in psychology and tools developed for clinical psychological practice can help biographical historians of science create and present fuller portraits of their subjects' characters and temperaments and more nuanced analyses of how these traits helped shape their subjects' scientific work. To illustrate this thesis, the essay examines the early career of James McKeen Cattell--an influential late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century experimental psychologist--through a lens offered by psychology and argues that Cattell's actual laboratory practices derived from an "accommodation" to a long-standing "cognitive deficit." These practices in turn enabled Cattell to achieve more precise experimental results than could any of his contemporaries; and their students readily adopted them, along with their behavioral implications. The essay concludes that, in some ways, American psychology's early twentieth-century move toward a behavioral understanding of psychological phenomena can be traced to Cattell's personal cognitive deficit. It closes by reviewing several "remaining general questions" that this thesis suggests.
Cruz, Manuel I.; Ilgen, Marc R.
In the 21st century, the early missions to Mars will entail unmanned Rover and Sample Return reconnaissance missions to be followed by manned exploration missions. High performance leverage technologies will be required to reach Mars and return to earth. This paper describes the mission concepts currently identified for these early Mars missions. These concepts include requirements and capabilities for Mars and earth aerocapture, Mars surface operations and ascent, and Mars and earth rendezvous. Although the focus is on the unmanned missions, synergism with the manned missions is also discussed.
Full Text Available One of crucial issues which Western travel writers in their journeys to the Orient specifically in the height of colonialism in the nineteenth has addressed is Oriental women. Entrapped and conditioned by their cultural baggage and operating on the basis of Orientalist discourse, they have mostly presented a reductive image of their Oriental female travelees as exotic, seductive, sensual, secluded, and suppressed, in lieu of entering into a cultural dialogue and painting their picture sympathetically and respectfully. To convey their lasciviousness, they have expatiated on Oriental harems and to display their oppression foregrounded their veil and ill-treatment by their allegedly insensitive and callus menfolks. In the same period in the context of the Great Game the politically oriented Western travel writers in particular the British ones set out on a voyage to Central Asia where they encountered ethnic Turkmen. Besides gathering intelligence, the travel writers devoted considerable pages to their Turkmen female travelees as well. But their images in these travel books have not been subject to rigorous scholarly scrutiny. In this regard, the current articles in two sections seeks to redress this neglect by shedding light on how these travel writers portrayed their Turkmen female travelees in seemingly unorientalist fashion in the first part and how explicitly in Orientalist tradition in the second part.
David Sterling Brown
Full Text Available This article examines the pedagogical implications of teaching about the past in a way that establishes continuity in relation to present and future moments. I describe and analyze how my Trinity College students navigated my course, “Crossing the Color-Line,” which aimed to eradicate boundaries and entangle the professional and personal, social and political, past and present, and black and white in an engaged manner. I argue that a radical course such as “Crossing the Color-Line” can showcase, through literature and other media, how fusing difference of all kinds—cultural, religious, literary, historical, gender—promotes rigorous student directed learning experiences that are inclusive. Because Shakespeare was not the sole authorial voice in the room, or the only early modern author in our syllabus, “Crossing the Color-Line” actively resisted the literary, racial, social, and cultural homogeneity that one can often find in an early modern classroom. By not being Shakespeare-centric, the course placed value on the female perspective and refrained from being androcentric in its authorial focus. Moreover, by positioning “the problem of the color-line” as relevant in the early modern period, the combined study of African-American and early modern English texts challenged critical race studies to include pre-nineteenth-century literature.
Full Text Available This article investigates the ongoing interaction between the Jewish sacred past and its modern interpreters. Jewish thinkers from the eighteenth century reclaimed these ideals instead of dismissing them. Sacred traditions and modern secular thought existed in their mutual constitutive interdependence and not in opposition. When the optimism in historical progress and faith in reason unraveled in the fin de siècle, it engendered a new critical response by Jewish historians and philosophers of the twentieth century. These critical voices emerged within the fault lines of nineteenth and early twentieth century Jewish anti-historicist responses. What separated twentieth-century Jewish thinkers such as Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, and Gershom Scholem from their nineteenth-century forerunners was not their embrace of religion but their critical stance toward reason and their crumbling faith in historical progress.
The fact that the surface temperature of the globe has warmed by 0.3--0.6 C since the mid-nineteenth century is an important piece of evidence in the ''global warming'' debate. What is the magnitude of this warming? Where has it been greatest? How unusual is the recent warming in the context of paleoclimatic reconstructions since A.D. 1500? This article seeks to address these issues by briefly reviewing the available literature
María Dolores Ramos
Full Text Available This article examines the discourse and mobilization in favour of peace by republican women during the second half of the nineteenth century. Its protagonists established an associative movement and employed combative tactics rooted in civil society; they rebelled against the drafts, refused to condone the war, and called for disarmament and different means of arbitration, incidentally helping to reformulate the concept of social citizenship within the sphere of left-wing political culture. | En el artículo se abordan los discursos y movilizaciones por la paz de las mujeres republicanas durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. Sus protagonistas construyeron un movimiento asociativo y unas tácticas de lucha enraizadas en la sociedad civil, se rebelaron contra las quintas, negaron autoridad moral a la guerra y reclamaron a los gobiernos el desarme y diferentes prácticas de arbitraje, contribuyendo de paso a reformular el concepto de ciudadanía social en el ámbito de las culturas políticas de izquierdas.
This book presents a collection of authoritative contributions on the concept of time in early twentieth-century philosophy. It is structured in the form of a thematic atlas: each section is accompanied by relevant elementary logic maps that reproduce in a “spatial” form the directionalities (arguments and/or discourses) reported on in the text. The book is divided into three main sections, the first of which covers phenomenology and the perception of time by analyzing the works of Bergson, Husserl, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, Deleuze, Guattari and Derrida. The second section focuses on the language and conceptualization of time, examining the works of Cassirer, Wittgenstein, Heidegger, Lacan, Ricoeur and Foucault, while the last section addresses the science and logic of time as they appear in the works of Guillaume, Einstein, Reichenbach, Prigogine and Barbour. The purpose of the book is threefold: to provide readers with a comprehensive overview of the concept of time in early twentieth-century philosophy; ...
Waterman, John T.
Intended for the student of linguistics or the structural grammarian, who must develop an awareness of their intellectual heritage, the present work surveys the study of language in ancient times, the medieval and early modern periods, the nineteenth century, and the twentieth century to 1950. (This second edition includes additional material on…
This article presents a review of "Making socialists: Mary Bridges Adams and the fight for knowledge and power, 1855-1939," by Jane Martin. Jane Martin has explored the history of late-nineteenth-century and early-twentieth century-British women educational activists in numerous publications over the past two decades. Her first book,…
Johnson, Julene K; Graziano, Amy B
This chapter examines early cases of aphasia that include observations of the capacity to sing. Although the majority of these cases were published in the late nineteenth century, earlier reports exist and provide insights into the early thinking about the capacity to sing in aphasia, a topic that continues to the present day. The observation that some patients with aphasia and limited speech output were able to sing the texts of songs inspired scholars to examine the relationship between music and language. Early ideas about the capacity to sing were provided by well-known neurologists, such as John Hughlings Jackson and Adolf Kussmaul. The work of Herbert Spencer about the origins and function of music heavily influenced Jackson and others in their thinking about aphasia. This work also led to an increased interest in understanding music abilities in persons with aphasia and, later, in the brain mechanisms of music. The chapter provides a background as to why there was an interest in the capacity to sing in persons with aphasia and what influenced early thinking on this topic. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Smith, Ben A.; Vining, James W.
Describes the influences of religion, upbringing, and other scholars on Samuel Griswold Goodrich, an early nineteenth-century U.S. geographer. Discusses Goodrich's contribution to improving early geography textbooks and his pioneering role in book publishing. Notes Goodrich's realism and moral undertones in geography books for children, written…
Clarke, M.; Kroustallis, S.; Townsend, J.H.; Cenalmor Bruquetas, E.; Stijnman, A.; San Andres Moya, M
In the 19th century, English commercial artists’ material suppliers and manufacturers (‘colourmen’) kept excellent manuscript records of their industrial processes, and of their suppliers and customers. These archives contain recipes for manufacture (together with dated day-to-day variations in
‘Historiography and the retracing of Latin American art history’: The Academy of San Carlos and Mexican Art History by Ray Hernández-Durán, Politics, History, and Art in Nineteenth-Century Mexico, London and New York: Routledge, 2017
Claudia Mattos Avolese
Full Text Available The Academy of San Carlos and Mexican Art History presents an account of the cultural and political circumstances that led to the installation of the first gallery of colonial art at the Academy of San Carlos in mid-nineteenth century Mexico City, and to the associated publication of the first art historical account of colonial Mexico. The author proposes that these two endeavors relate closely to the ambitions of the Mexican conservative elite to create a Mexican corporate identity based on the colonial past. Ray Hernández-Durán also argues that the gallery and the associated book can be seen as the starting point for the construction of the field of Latin American art history as we know it today.
Maria Laura Magalhães Gomes
Full Text Available Primary object lessons, by Norman Allison Calkins, ranslated by Rui Barbosa, a book that was widely disseminated in Brazil during the final years of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, presents object teaching as a general method to be used in every subject or primary school. This article analyses Calkins’ book according to its presentation of mathematical content, focusing particularly on geometry lessons. It also iscusses five features of the approach adopted by Calkins: the presentation of plane geometry before geometry in space, the several materials necessary to the teaching of geometry, the drawing lessons associated with the lessons on shape, the sequence of presentation of the contents and the relations between geometry teaching and children’s pleasure and curiosity. Comments about the utilization and circulation of Calkins’ manual in geometry teaching in Brazil are also provided.
Mårald, Erland; Langston, Nancy; Sténs, Anna; Moen, Jon
By combining digital humanities text-mining tools and a qualitative approach, we examine changing concepts in forestry journals in Sweden and the United States (US) in the early twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Our first hypothesis is that foresters at the beginning of the twentieth century were more concerned with production and less concerned with ecology than foresters at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Our second hypothesis is that US foresters in the early twentieth century were less concerned with local site conditions than Swedish foresters. We find that early foresters in both countries had broader-and often ecologically focused-concerns than hypothesized. Ecological concerns in the forestry literature have increased, but in the Nordic countries, production concerns have increased as well. In both regions and both time periods, timber management is closely connected to concerns about governance and state power, but the forms that governance takes have changed.
Full Text Available By examining the analogies of sickness and disease used by severalopponents of philosophical skepticism (Pyrrhonism in the early 18th century, this articlewill shed light on the rhetorical strategies used in attempts to undermine the revival ofthis ancient school of philosophy. It will look at the ways in which anti-skeptics discussedthe repercussions of the spread of Pyrrhonism for society and describe how theyproposed to “cure” this so-called disease. A consideration of the strategies will bothreveal some of the assumptions commonly shared by authors of apologetic literature inthe first half of the 18th century and explain why they saw skepticism as such a dangerousphilosophical position.
Baeza-Bacab, Manuel Antonio
Here, two papers are presented, which constitute the first reports of surgical procedures in Mexican children performed at the 19 th century. The two publications refer to surgical operations for the extraction of bladder stones. At that time, there was no anesthesia, so part of the description alludes to the suffering of the patients and the operative difficulties. The first case, is referred to as a lithotomy in a 17-year-old girl, performed by surgeon José Victoriano Guerrero in Guadalajara in 1822. The publication is not an academic report, but a pamphlet written as a gift to Emperor Augustin I to celebrate his ascension to the throne. The second work, is a lateral lithotomy in a 5-year-old boy, published by Dr. Luis Jecker in the first issue of the Periódico de la Academia de Medicina de Mégico in 1836. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.
Durham University's 'Hearing the Voice' project involves a multi-disciplinary exploration of hallucinatory-type phenomena in an attempt to revaluate and reframe discussions of these experiences. As part of this project, contemporaneous religious experiences (supernatural voices and visions) in the United States from the first half of the nineteenth century have been analysed, shedding light on the value and applicability of contemporary bio-cultural models of religious experience for such historical cases. In particular, this essay outlines four historical cases, seeking to utilise and to refine four theoretical models, including anthropologist Tanya Luhrmann's 'absorption hypothesis', by returning to something like William James' concern with 'discordant personalities'. Ultimately, the paper argues that emphasis on the role of identity dissonance must not be omitted from the analytical tools applied to these nineteenth-century examples, and perhaps should be retained for any study of religious experience generally.
The paper deals especially with monograms on Byzantine lead seals. The early form was the block monogram, a type used already in Classical times, which came into fashion in the Byzantine world in the 6th or already in the 5th century and remained important till the early 7th century. Such monograms hide normally a name, a title or an office, the Greek ones in genitive, the Latin ones in nominative or genitive. Many of them can be read in different ways. For the double using of parts of letter...
van Dam, P.
This article explores three moral conflicts that lie at the heart of the history of the Christian worker movement in the second half of the nineteenth century. First, the tension between an immaterial and a material orientation dominated the question of whether to form only associations directed
Pesavento, Wilma J.
The general purpose of this study was to determine whether the traditional native American ball games continued to be positive culture traits of the American Indian in the early twentieth century. The investigation was centered about (1) determining the current arrow, javelin, and dart games of western native Americans, (2) determining the…
J.H. Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch (Judith); F.W.A. van Poppel (Frans); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractOBJECTIVE: To study the relative importance of various determinants of total and cause-specific infant and early childhood mortality rates and their decline in The Netherlands in the period 1875-1879 to 1895-1899. DATA AND METHODS: Mortality and population
Ingle, Elizabeth K. S.; Gilmartin, Philip M.
Records of double-flowered Silene dioica date from the late sixteenth century and four named varieties are grown today, as previously, for their horticultural interest. Although double-flowered mutants have been characterized in several plants, their study in dioecious species is of particular interest due to influences of the homeotic mutation on the different floral whorl configurations in males and females. We have analysed four double-flowered varieties of Silene dioica: Flore Pleno and Rosea Plena date back to the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, Thelma Kay and Firefly were recognized in the latter part of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. We have analysed the floral structure of the four varieties, which have distinct floral architectures. Based on Y chromosome-specific PCR analysis we show that Firefly is male and that the other three varieties are female: Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses suggested a common origin for the three female varieties. The double-flowered phenotype in all four varieties is caused by mutation of the C-function MADS-box transcription factor gene SDM1. We show that Firefly carries a unique 44bp insertion into SDM1, revealing an independent origin for this variety. Comparative analysis of SDM1 cDNA and genomic sequences in Flore Pleno, Rosea Plena and Thelma Kay shows that all three are caused by the same 7bp insertion within SDM1 and therefore share a common origin. The three alleles also differ by several single nucleotide polymorphisms, which represent somatic mutations accumulated over four centuries of asexual propagation. PMID:25878355
Lucas Bento Pugliesi
Full Text Available This papper will deal with the ambivalence of Mina Loy's thought as presented on her poems and on the Feminist Manifesto, understanding it as a response to European psychology from the turn of the nineteenth century to the twentieth century, especially the conceptions of the feminine by Otto Weininger. In this way, it is intended to understand how a poetic form already carries in itself something of an invective against the masculine way (DERRIDA, 1993 to value the knowledge, which Loy intends to destroy in favor of positive affirmations of a feminine identity.
de Groot, Gertjan, Ed.; Schrover, Marlou, Ed.
Drawing on research from a number of European countries, the contributors to this book present nine detailed studies on women's work spanning 2 centuries and dealing with a variety of work environments. "General Introduction" (Gertjan de Groot, Marlou Schrover) provides an overview of the book's content. "Frames of Reference: Skill,…
Steiner, Linda C.
An analysis of five mid-nineteenth century women's suffrage periodicals ("The Lily,""The Genius of Liberty,""The Una,""The Revolution," and "The Woman's Journal") suggests that the papers succeeded in creating, sustaining, and inspiring the suffrage community as it developed and matured, and in dramatizing and debating alternative versions of a…
María Teresa Fleitas-Monnar
Full Text Available This paper deals with the artist Baldomera Fuentes Segura from Santiago de Cuba, today recognized as the first Cuban painter. Her figure as a creator is addressed in a social, cultural and personal context which makes it an exceptional woman of the nineteenth century in Santiago de Cuba. Her miniatures, making in waterpaintig on ivory and an oil painting on canvas, religious are valued. They are preserved in the Emilio Bacardi Moreau Museum of this city, as part of a moment of aesthetic transition occurred between the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries in Latin America, when the neoclassic was the principal style on the fine arts.
O sistema de saúde do escravo no Brasil do século XIX: doenças, instituições e práticas terapêuticas The healthcare system for slaves in nineteenth-century Brazil: disease, institutions, and treatment practices
Full Text Available O século XIX é marcado por várias tentativas de coibir o tráfico de escravos e, ao mesmo tempo, é o período em que a importação foi a maior da história brasileira. As condições de transporte dos escravos, suas condições de trabalho, moradia e modo de vida são em grande parte responsáveis por suas condições de saúde. No entanto, essa questão só aparece pelas frestas da história e apresenta muitos pontos controversos a serem esclarecidos. O interesse da pesquisa é promover o cruzamento de fontes e temas, que reúnam uma variedade de informações sobre a vida higiênica dos escravos no século XIX. Nosso objetivo é reunir uma massa de dados, a partir da análise de documentos dos arquivos hospitalares, cartoriais e eclesiásticos, das fontes iconográficas e da literatura médica, que nos dêem elementos para compor uma história do sistema de saúde dos escravos.Although the nineteenth century saw numerous attempts to deter the slave trade, it was also the period when Brazil imported the greatest number of slaves in its history. The conditions under which slaves were transported, worked, and lived were largely responsible for their state of health. Yet this topic barely makes an appearance in the field of history, and many disputed points remain to be settled. My research cross-references sources and topics in order to gather data on the hygienic lives of nineteenth-century slaves. By analyzing archival documents from hospitals, notary public offices, and church bodies, iconographic sources, and the medical literature, I have retrieved information that can be used towards writing a history of the healthcare system available to slaves.
Full Text Available The legal reforms of 1864 marked a shift in Russian legal culture from an amorphous, corrupt, pre-modern system of procedure, structure, and customary law to an independent, modern, and westernized system as liberal as that of any nation. These reforms were nearly universally lauded by legal and cultural critics, both at the time they were introduced and in historical accounts. Despite the apparent necessity and success of the new courts, one of the leading figures in nineteenth-century Russian literature (and indeed the history of world literature, Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky, continually criticized the new system in both his fiction and non-fiction.Through the synthesis of historical, legal, and literary analysis, this study will examine why Dostoevsky had an adverse reaction to the reforms, the literary techniques he used, and whether Dostoevsky presented a viable alternative to the reformed courts. In order to fully comprehend Dostoevsky’s reaction to the reforms, this study will contrast the pre and post-reform judicial systems in Imperial Russia. This study will explore the scope and evolution of Dostoevsky’s criticism of the law through analysis of his pre-reform fiction, including ‘House of the Dead’ and ‘Crime and Punishment,’ his post-reform fiction, including ‘The Idiot,’ ‘Demons,’ and ‘Brothers Karamazov,’ and portions of his experimental literary periodical, ‘A Writer’s Diary.’
Although it is generally acknowledged that the building of mass schooling systems must be considered in close relation to the emerging nation-states of the long 19th century, few published studies discuss the interrelation between the actual foundation of the (nation-) states and the introduction of the modern school. This article examines the…
Lorena Borges Silva
Full Text Available This work aims to investigate the different motivations and goals behind the traveler Saint-Hilarie intentions to invest in a project to enter the Cerrado, and from his narratives and perceptions, we intend to understand how the nature of the Cerrado was interpreted during the nineteenth century. We seek to see why so many derogatory assertions were made by observing the natural surroundings of Goiás.
Dahlström, Hanna Sofia Strandmark
Copenhagen’s origin and early development have long been subject to study, and has since the nineteenth century resulted in numerous and sometimes conflicting theories. The dearth of large excavations in the old parts of the city in modern times has resulted in fragmentary archaeological evidence...... and a concomitant lack of synthesis of a more modern nature. In connection with the current, large-scale, excavations connected to the Metro Cityring project (2009–), the Museum of Copenhagen has had the opportunity to conduct major excavations pertinent to the development of the medieval town. The site...... at Rådhuspladsen (the Town Hall Square) lies on the borders of the high and late medieval town, but in an area traditionally seen as located outside the earliest settlement. The preliminary results from this excavation, together with indications from excavations and watching briefs in recent years, enable us...
This essay examines how John Dewey's child-centered educational philosophy was adopted and adapted in the early twentieth century in China to create a Chinese children's literature. Chinese intellectuals applied Dewey's educational philosophy, which values children's interests and needs, to formulate a new concept of modern childhood that…
Full Text Available Eigil Rothe (active 1897-1929 is a central figure in the development of wall paintings conservation and restoration in Denmark, marking a clear departure from the practices of artist-restorers influenced by historicism. His ideas about retouching and impregnation were propelled by his sense of aesthetics, which rejected nineteenth century interpretations, and called for a respect for the passage of time. His experiments with surface treatments demonstrate unprecedented thoughts about the necessity of future treatments. His work was driven by an aspiration for the truth, as seen by his diligent photographs, such as his noteworthy documentation of the stage prior to aesthetic treatment.Eigil Rothe (actif 1897-1929 est une figure centrale dans le développement de la conservation de peintures murales et la restauration au Danemark, marquant clairement le début de pratiques nouvelles pour les restaurateurs-artiste qu’influencent l’historicisme. Ses idées relatives à la retouche et à l'imprégnation ont été soutenues par son sens esthétique, qui rejette les interprétations du dix-neuvième siècle et insiste sur le respect des marques du temps. Ses expériences relatives aux traitements de surface démontrent une conscience originale et sans précédent quant à la nécessité de traitements futurs. Son travail a toujours été motivé par une passion pour la vérité, comme le démontrent ses remarquables photographies et la documentation remarquable de l’état avant traitement.
What determined regional height differences in the 19th century? We compare anthropometric evidence with production estimates of different food products and other economic variables. To this end, we concentrate on 179 rural regions and 29 towns in Bavaria (Southeast Germany). This regionally disaggregated level of analysis enables us to study the influence of the local supply of different food products on the nutritional status of the population, among which milk turned out particularly important. This result is tested and confirmed with regional data from Prussia and France.
The purpose of this study was to examine correspondence schools of music in the early twentieth century. Advertisements in widely circulated household and music periodicals and archival copies of courses from Siegel-Myers Correspondence School of Music, United States School of Music, American College of Music, and others were examined. Research…
D. H. Steenberg
Full Text Available To date literary historians have not reported extensively on the connection between Dutch and early Afrikaans prose texts of the nineteenth century. This paper endeavours to verify definite intertextual links between an Afrikaans prose text, “Die geldduiwel” (1882-1889 by Jan Lion Cachet and two comparable Flemish and Dutch texts, namely De geldduivel (1856 by Hendrik Conscience, and “De familie Kegge” (1839 by Hildebrand. The most important characteristics of nineteenth century Realism serve as basis for comparison. The resemblances extend far beyond the common themes exhibited by these texts and also include the tendency of artistic texts to approximate reality by representing a total and objective view of particular the bourgeois-centered orientation of the prose in general and the representation of a specific society in particular. The paper opens up a perspective on the mode of representation in prose during the period dominated by Realism, and also illustrates and defines the close relationship that existed between nineteenth century Dutch, Flemish and Afrikaans prose art.
Koehler, P J; Bruyn, G W; Moffie, D
The Netherlands Society of Neurology evolved from the Society of Psychiatry founded in 1871. The name was changed into Netherlands Society of Psychiatry and Neurology (NSPN) in 1897. In the same year, the word neurology was also added to the name of the journal. The Society steadily blossomed, but in 1909 the first signs of dissatisfaction occurred: the Amsterdam Neurologists Society was founded. A few split-offs would follow. The number of members of the NSPN increased from 205 in 1920 to 585 in 1960. In the early 1960s, the Society was reorganised and would consist of two sections, one for psychiatry and one for neurology. However, this would not last, as a full separation was established in 1974. For several reasons, the name of the journal was changed four times until it assumed its present name in 1974. The 100th volume of CNN was not published, as expected. in 1996, but in 1998, because of two skipped publication years, one during WWII and another in the 1970s. During the last decades of the nineteenth century, teaching of neurology was mostly given within the frame of psychiatry, following the German tradition of 'brainpsychiatry' (organic or biologic psychiatry). The first official chair of psychiatry was founded at Utrecht, 1893 (Winkler). In Amsterdam, private teachers such as Delprat taught 'electro-therapy and nervous diseases' since the 1880s. The first extraordinary chair of neurology and electrotherapy was founded for his successor, Wertheim Salomonson in 1899. The first university clinic for psychiatry and neurology started at the Amsterdam Municipal University, when Winkler became professor of psychiatry and neurology in Amsterdam in 1896. Around the turn of the century, chairs of psychiatry and neurology were also founded in Groningen and Leiden. Separate chairs for neurology and psychiatry appeared in Amsterdam in 1923 and in Utrecht in 1936. Following an initiative of Brouwer, the first neurological university clinic opened its doors in
Full Text Available Kho Ping Hoo (1926–1994 is the most well-known of all Indonesian writers of popular silat stories, largely set in China, which describe the adventures and romances of legendary heroes famed for their skill in martial arts. It is less well-known that he began his career writing critical stories about socio-economic conditions in the late 50s and early 60s. This paper discusses one of these stories. It places the story in the context of political developments of the time, in particular as they affected the Chinese Indonesian community. The paper argues that this story and one or two others like it come at the end of a tradition of Sino-Indonesian literature which had flourished from the end of the nineteenth century until the mid-1950s. After 1960, Chinese-Indonesian writers cease writing realist fiction of any kind and write either silat stories or romantic stories set in middle class urban environments.
Anthony John S. Reid
Full Text Available By the middle of the 19th century fully independent states in Southeast Asia were few, and all felt threatened by the advance of competitive European imperialisms. By 1900 only Siam (Thailand had retained its full formal independence, though arguably by yielding key levers of control to the British. Siam’s success is often compared with the failure of Burma and Viet Nam, conquered by Britain and France respectively in the late 19th century. Archipelago states have seldom entered this comparison, although Aceh had unique advantages in the ability to play off British and Dutch. The argument here is that the Aceh leadership did have vital agency, and made some crucial choices that could be considered mistakes from a Siam perspective. Dutch and British choices and mistakes have been better studied, but Acehnese ones also deserve to be.
Fergusson, Leopoldo; Vargas, Juan Fernando
This paper studies the effect of strengthening democracy, as captured by an increase in voting rights, on the incidence of violent civil conflict in nineteenth-century Colombia. Empirically studying the relationship between democracy and conflict is challenging, not only because of conceptual problems in defining and measuring democracy, but also because political institutions and violence are jointly determined. We take advantage of an experiment of history to examine the impact of one simpl...
A. I. Nikitenko
On the basis of archival and published narratives (diaries, memoirs, epistolary) the article deals with the strategies of married couples of intellectuals of Dnieper Ukraine who earn money in the second half of the nineteenth century. The areas where the intellectuals express themselves, their incomes, the possibility to satisfy the basic needs for received payments, attempts of holding entrepreneurship, and female labour have been analysed. The sources indicate that the vast majority of ucra...
Full Text Available In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, except during the Second Republic, the rule imposed by the Catholic Church in sexual relations was the prohibition of any «unnatural» method or technique. The use of a masculine preservative or condom was no exception to this rule. The condom fulfilled two functions: control of fertility and prevention of sexually transmitted disease (particularly in treatises on prostitution. We examine here the introduction of both the term and its referent toward the end of the eighteenth century, and look at medical discourse in the nineteenth century, often opposed to the use of a condom as protection against venereal disease. However, advertisements in the press, beginning in the twentieth century, and the existence of specialized companies with their corresponding catalogs, show that preservatives were popular in Spanish sexual practices, both for anti-venereal protection and as a contraceptive device.
Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg
human beings. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the rise of Big Humanities questioned this moral purpose. However, Big Humanities also reemphasized the importance of epistemic virtues for scholarship. The language of epistemic virtues helped scholars create new communities...
Full Text Available The article analyzes the major financial crises in Ukraine at early twentieth century dealing with the crises of 1899–1902 and 1908–1910. The main attention is paid to the large-scale crisis of 1899–1902 at the new industrial region in Eastern Ukraine where numerous steel and mining companies based on massive foreign investment (mainly Belgian and French were created shortly. The general boom of new joint-stock companies and insufficient provision of these companies by state orders were the main reason of the crisis which was the reflection of the international industrial and financial crisis of those years. The author also researches the crisis of 1908–1910 in the Ukrainian sugar industry.
I. I. Begej
Nevertheless, sometimes, frankly erroneous judgment, theoretical and practical heritage activities Ukrainian Galicia from the left end of the XIX i in the first third of the twentieth century church religious sphere remain valid and instructive.
The nineteenth century sees the rise of the bourgeoisie to social and political power. The values of this class increased the attention paid to certain branches of the medical sciences, such as for example hygiene. A set of rules and methods to achieve better health and, at the same time, to come closer to the perfect image of man described by writers of aesthetics, often taking classical Greece as a point of reference, are believed to be found in these branches. In these strategies physical exercise plays a role which is positively valued as much by hygienists as by philosophers, some of whose works are studied in this article.
The world economy and political map changed dramatically between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. Unprecedented trade linked the continents together and set off a European scramble to discover new resources and markets. European ships and merchants reached across the world, and their governments followed after them, inaugurating the…
Harms, J; Rauschmann, M; Rickert, M
Scoliosis can be considered as one of the classical orthopedic diseases of the spine. The history of orthopedics is closely connected to the development of the therapy of scoliosis. In the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries the therapy of scoliosis was mainly a conservative corrective orthopedic treatment with a variety of corset forms and extension bed treatment. In the middle of the nineteenth century physiotherapy (movement therapy) became established as an supplementary active treatment. The first operations for treatment of scoliosis were carried out in 1839. The real success with surgical procedures for improvement in corrective options was connected to the introduction of metal spinal implants in the early 1960s.
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study various entaries belonging to the 19th century and early 20th century in terms of design elements and principles. As result of the studies, it was seen that the X silhouette, the straight line type, vertical line direction, velvet, and silky textures, purple color tones in the base, and golden yellow in the embroidery were mostly used. Symmetric balance and symmetric decoration are observed most and it was determined that there were no principle of motion in entari in general, the point of emphasis was in the embroidery, there was no contrast in line and color elements and all design details were in compliance with each other. This study is deemed significant in terms of attracting attention to and introduction of historical clothing important in protecting cultural heritage, and for exhibiting the refined superior aesthetics of period Ottoman Turks.
Sobe, Noah W.; Boven, David T.
Late-19th century World's Fairs constitute an important chapter in the history of educational accountability. International expositions allowed for educational systems and practices to be "audited" by lay and expert audiences. In this article we examine how World's Fair exhibitors sought to make visible educational practices and…
Loveland, Jeff; Schmitt, Stéphane
This paper analyses the revival of Pliny's Naturalis historia within the scientific culture of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, focusing on a French effort to produce an edition with annotations by scientists and scholars. Between the Renaissance and the early eighteenth century, the Naturalis historia had declined in scientific importance. Increasingly, it was relegated to the humanities, as we demonstrate with a review of editions. For a variety of reasons, however, scientific interest in the Naturalis historia grew in the second half of the eighteenth century. Epitomizing this interest was a plan for a scientifically annotated, Latin-French edition of the Naturalis historia. Initially coordinated by the French governmental minister Malesherbes in the 1750s, the edition was imperfectly realized by Poinsinet a few decades later. It was intended to rival two of the period's other distinguished multi-volume books of knowledge, Diderot and D'Alembert's Encyclopédie and Buffon's Histoire naturelle, to which we compare it. Besides narrating the scientific revival of the Historia naturalis during this period, we examine its causes and the factors contributing to its end in the first half of the nineteenth century.
This article demonstrates the social and cultural significance of eighteenth and nineteenth century Dutch penny prints – one of the first mass media in European history. By using a combination of media and cultural historical approaches (Henry Jenkins, John Fiske) and an anthropological perspective
Dijksterhuis, Fokko J.
In the early seventeenth century, there existed a myriad of theories to account for color phenomena. The status, goal, and content of such accounts differed as well as the range of phenomena they explained. Starting with the journal of Isaac Beeckman (1588–1637), this essay inquires into the
Besnier, N.; Whelehan, P.; Bolin, A.
The relationship between gender and pornography has a long history, beginning with early modern narrative representations of sex written by men but presented from the perspective of female narrators. In the nineteenth century, the representation of sexuality became implicated in the imperial
Kuiper, Yme; Kleistra, Jelle; Kuiper, Yme; Koster, Adrianus; Verrips, Jojada
Laestadianism was a Lutheran revival movement that began in the north of Sweden in the early-nineteenth century. To-day followers of the Lutheran, pietistic church administrator Lars Levi Laestadius (1800-1861) are strongly conservative Christians, who called themselves the Congregation of
Montes Arboleda, A.; Crosato, A.; Middelkoop, H.
Suspended-sediment concentration data are a missing link in reconstructions of the River Waal in the early 1800s. These reconstructions serve as a basis for assessing the long-term effects of major interventions carried out between 1850 AD and the early 20th century. We used a 2D physics-based
Full Text Available As avid collectors of French eighteenth-century art, the Goncourts' contribution to its nineteenth-century history is well-known. This article, however, explores a less welldocumented aspect of their L'Art du dix-huitième siècle (1858-1875: that is, its articulation of an art of latency and decadence prior to the term's fin-de-siècle association with explicitly transgressive cultures of modernity. Indeed, the paper argues that the Goncourts were amongst the first writers of their age to use the art of an age linked with political and cultural decay, to foreground latently decadent tendencies in mid nineteenth-century French art and culture. In so doing, they were to produce a paradigm of "decadence" defining not decline, but a new and highly modern artistry of heightened aesthetic expression. The article will explore these ideas in two principal ways. First, it considers neglected relations between the Goncourts' and Taine's ideas on art, and specifically, the Goncourts' use and exploitation of Tainean indicators of decadence, broached in Taine's study on La Fontaine (1861, for opposing artistically and culturally productive ends. Second it develops these ideas in a discussion of the three artist-studies in L'Art du dixhuitième siècle in which the Goncourts' developing theme of "decadence" is articulated with especial force and prescience: in "Boucher" (1861, "Greuze" (1863 and ‘Fragonard' (1864. These, as the paper argues, suggest particularly defined channels for the Goncourts' engagement with key Tainean ideas of the period, offering related opportunities for their promotion of corruption, vice and decline as aesthetically and culturally compelling. In repositioning Boucher's sensualism as "indécence", Greuze's "innocence" as "perverse" and Fragonard's Italianate expressivity as "impure", the Goncourts not only situate their "histories" in the vanguard of a new, transgressive aesthetic understanding of eighteenth-century art, they re
Jackson, Catherine M
Everybody knows that glass is and always has been an important presence in chemical laboratories. Yet the very self-evidence of this notion tends to obscure a supremely important change in chemical practice during the early decades of the nineteenth century. This essay uses manuals of specifically chemical glassblowing published between about 1825 and 1835 to show that early nineteenth-century chemists began using glass in distinctly new ways and that their appropriation of glassblowing skill had profoundly important effects on the emerging discipline of chemistry. The new practice of chemistry in glass-exemplified in this essay by Justus Liebig's introduction of a new item of chemical glassware for organic analysis, the Kaliapparat--transformed not merely the material culture of chemistry but also its geography, its pedagogy, and, ultimately, its institutions. Moving chemistry into glass--a change so important that it warrants the term "glassware revolution"--had far-reaching consequences.
Calder, J.H. [Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Halifax, NS (Canada)
Since the 1870s, the Joggins coastal section has been recognized as an outstanding section of Carboniferous strata. Accounts about the geology of the Joggins area first appeared in the published literature in 1828. Early history, visits by Sir Charles Lyell and Sir William Logan in 1842 and later, early Geological Survey of Canada field projects, tree trunk fauna, O.C. Marsh's fossil discoveries, Lyell, Dawson and Darwin on evolution, the origin of coal, and discoveries by Sir William Dawson are discussed. The Joggins coastal section has been placed on Canada's Tentative List of future World Heritage Site nominees. 71 refs., 18 figs.
O Jequitinhonha dos viajantes, séculos XIX e XX: olhares diversos sobre as relações sociedade - natureza no nordeste mineiro The voyagers' Jequitinhonha, Nineteenth and Twentieth centuries: different views over the society - nature relations in northeast Minas Gerais
Marcos Lobato Martins
Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa as mudanças ambientais no Médio Jequitinhonha entre o início do século XIX e o início do XX, através da releitura de relatos de viajantes e textos de memorialistas. São indicadas as principais formas de degradação ambiental presentes na região e avaliados os seus impactos sobre as caatingas e as matas virgens. Conclui-se que: a houve aumento expressivo da velocidade de alteração das paisagens regionais na primeira metade do século XX e; b essa alteração fortaleceu a tendência de pecuarização na economia do Médio Jequitinhonha.This paper analyzes the environmental changes in the Middle Jequitinhonha between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries beginnings, through the reading of the memoirialists and voyagers reports. The major environmental degradating actions that take place in the region are indicated and its impacts over the caatingas and forests are evaluated. It concludes: a an expressive increase in the velocity of the regional landscapes change in the first half of twentieth century; b and this change annealed the tendency of cattle's predominance in Middle Jequitinhonha economy.
Vijay, Saurabh; Braun, Matthias
Although a number of studies indicate the regional heterogeneity of the glacier elevation and mass changes in high-mountain Asia in the early 21st century, little is known about these changes with high spatial detail for some of the regions. In this study we present respective glacier elevation a...
Hawkins, Paul Henry
Apprehending that race is social, not biological, this study examines U.S. racial formation in the early twenty-first century. In particular, Hollywood and Supreme Court texts are analyzed as media for gathering, shaping and transmitting racial ideas. Representing Hollywood, the 2004 film "Crash" is analyzed. Representing the Supreme Court, the…
Full Text Available In this chapter I develop the psychological underpinnings of environmental music towards an understanding of how the goals of cognitive and behavioral psycholo-gists contributed to a new kind of listening at the beginning of the twentieth century. I begin with an examination of nineteenth-century concerns about both the physical and psychological effects of music and fraught debate among experi-mental psychologists of the role of musical expertise in the laboratory. These con-cerns were, I argue, rooted in the assumption of a direct, corporeal connection between the generation and reception of music, usually bound within a single, individual body. In the twentieth century, new technology liberated the listener from a temporally- and geographically-bound experience of music. The Tone Tests, Re-Creation Recitals, and Mood Change “parties” of Thomas Edison and the psychologist Walter Bingham show that recording technology allowed for a normalization and standardization of listening not previously possible in the music halls and laboratories of the nineteenth century. Rather paradoxically, since it also made music more accessible to the individual listener, recorded music, mobilized by industrial psychologists and record companies alike, created a new sound experience actively designed for the lowest common denominator of mass listen-ing. It also contributed to the cultivation of a new practice of mass listening. The new mass listening practice presents broader questions about the definition of music and its functional role – If the function of music is to be ignored, is it still music?
Hough, Susan E.; Page, Morgan T.
Recent studies have presented evidence that early to mid‐twentieth‐century earthquakes in Oklahoma and Texas were likely induced by fossil fuel production and/or injection of wastewater (Hough and Page, 2015; Frohlich et al., 2016). Considering seismicity from 1935 onward, Hauksson et al. (2015) concluded that there is no evidence for significant induced activity in the greater Los Angeles region between 1935 and the present. To explore a possible association between earthquakes prior to 1935 and oil and gas production, we first revisit the historical catalog and then review contemporary oil industry activities. Although early industry activities did not induce large numbers of earthquakes, we present evidence for an association between the initial oil boom in the greater Los Angeles area and earthquakes between 1915 and 1932, including the damaging 22 June 1920 Inglewood and 8 July 1929 Whittier earthquakes. We further consider whether the 1933 Mw 6.4 Long Beach earthquake might have been induced, and show some evidence that points to a causative relationship between the earthquake and activities in the Huntington Beach oil field. The hypothesis that the Long Beach earthquake was either induced or triggered by an foreshock cannot be ruled out. Our results suggest that significant earthquakes in southern California during the early twentieth century might have been associated with industry practices that are no longer employed (i.e., production without water reinjection), and do not necessarily imply a high likelihood of induced earthquakes at the present time.
Classical scholarship played a vital role in the intellectual concerns of early nineteenth-century Germany. Situated at the crossroads of religion, history, and explorations of the development of the human mind, Greek mythology in particular was expected to shed light on the origins of civilization.
Bogdan, Robert; And Others
From the early nineteenth century to the present, horror, gangster, and adventure films, television, the comics, and newspapers have shown physical and mental disabilities to connote murder, violence, and danger. Such false portrayals have promoted negative public attitudes toward people with disabilities. (Author/MJL)
Brinkman, Henk-Jan; Drukker, J.W.; Slot, Brigitte
This paper investigates whether a divergence between the biological standard of living (commonly measured by some anthropometric indicator) and GDP per capita during the early phases of industrialization, as observed for many now-developed countries in the nineteenth century, can also be found for
Valparaíso cosmopolita: los efectos de la disposición hacia la técnica como parte de un espíritu progresista del siglo XIX./Valparaiso cosmopolitan: the effects of the provision to the technique as part of a progressive spirit of the nineteenth century.
Zúñiga Lamarque, Isabel M.
Full Text Available La mentalidad porteña del siglo XIX da cuenta de cierta actitud desprejuiciada y, por ello, más liberal y pragmática, que habría incentivado la apertura hacia la modernidad en un área urbana ya cosmopolita, y donde la tradición desempeñó, por tanto, un papel secundario respecto de lo que iba ocurriendo en otras ciudades del medio nacional. /The mentality of the nineteenth century in Valparaíso realizes some unprejudiced attitude and, therefore, more liberal and pragmatic, which would have encouraged the opening to modernity and a cosmopolitan urban area, where tradition and therefore plays a secondary role of what was happening in other cities of the national average.
Nas fímbrias da liberdade: agregados, índios, africanos livres e forros na Província de Minas Gerais (século XIX On the fringes of freedom: aggregates, Indians, free Africans and manumitted slaves in Minas Gerais in the nineteenth century
Andréa Lisly Gonçalves
Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é tratar alguns aspectos do trabalho compulsório, não escravo, nas Minas Gerais oitocentista. Através da abordagem do trabalho de indígenas, de recrutas, de africanos livres e de agregados pretendeu-se evidenciar o tema da vulnerabilidade e da instabilidade a que estavam sujeitos alguns homens livres pobres, em um contexto marcadamente escravista da Província: o Termo de Mariana, Comarca de Ouro Preto.This paper aims at approaching some aspects of compulsory labor, not slave labor, in the nineteenth century Minas Gerais. Through the analysis of the work of indigenous, recruits, free Africans and aggregates it intends to evidence the issue of vulnerability and instability to which some free poor men were submitted in the context of a markedly slavery region: Term of Mariana, County of Ouro Preto.
Vasiliy P. Zinov'ev
Full Text Available The article focuses on the question of the distribution of added value in the mining industry in Siberia in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Relying on the analysis of financial reports from Siberian goldmines and coalmines, the author reveals the correlation between the means spent on workforce and the means spent on income and the companies’ non-production expenses. The calculated norm of added value – the most precise reflection of the measure of wage labour exploitation – turned out to be higher for Siberian mine workers in the late 19th – early 20th centuries than for workers in the European Russia and demonstrated the tendency to further growth. The author believes it to be a consequence of the modernization of production and the exploitation of the richest and most easily accessible Siberian deposits.
Full Text Available Cet article examine le discours élaboré dans les musées d’histoire à Paris au cours du XIXe siècle à travers la présentation d’effets personnels et privés « ayant appartenu à » des personnages historiques célèbres, des artistes ou écrivains. Comment et pourquoi a-t-on choisi de présenter des objets en soi aussi banals et profanes que le mouchoir de Napoléon ou une boucle des cheveux de Marie-Antoinette ? Dans le cadre rationnel du musée public, quel sens peut-on encore donner à ces objets qui ne fournissent pas d’information documentaire et qui n’ont pour ainsi dire pas de valeur esthétique ?De fait, cette tradition muséographique a encore toute sa place dans les musées d’aujourd’hui, surtout dans les musées maisons et les musées biographiques. Nous allons considérer son apparition depuis la Révolution comme la transposition de pratiques commémoratives chrétiennes dans le monde laïc de l’État républicain, mais aussi comme le transfert d’un culte privé dans le domaine public. Cela nous permet d’examiner le caractère affectif des rapports que ces objets établissent avec l’histoire.This article examines the discourse elaborated in Paris’ historical museums during the nineteenth century through the display of personal, private objects “having belonged to” famous historical figures, artistes and writers. How and why do we exhibit objects in and of themselves as banal as the handkerchief of Napoleon or locks of Marie-Antoinette’s hair? In the scheme of the rational public museum, what meaning was and is still given to these objects of little documentary or artistic importance?Indeed this museographical tradition still holds an important place in museums today, especially in biographical or personal museums, its appearance during the Revolution and its subsequent development will be considered as the transposition of a commemorative practice taken from Catholicism and introduced into the
Pavel N. Biriukov
Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of censorship and printing in the Caucasus at the end of XIX – early XX centuries. The special attention is given to censorship during the First Russian revolution (1905-1907 years. Among the materials are the archival documents from the national archives of Georgia, as well as materials of pre-revolutionary periodicals and legislation dedicated to this issue. The scientific publications are important too. The authors come to the conclusion that in the late of XIX – early XX centuries in the Caucasus, as in the whole of the territory of the Russian Empire, there was a sharp rise of printing and publishing periodicals – magazines. With the growth of revolutionary events there was a need in the institute of censorship to control over the printed word. Especially the role of this institution was high during the First Russian revolution. Despite the small number of states and different problems, the censorship has contributed to the stabilization of the political and crime situation in the territory of the Caucasian viceroyalty.
Gorbushina, Anna A; Kort, Renate; Schulte, Anette; Lazarus, David; Schnetger, Bernhard; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Broughton, William J; Favet, Jocelyne
Charles Darwin, like others before him, collected aeolian dust over the Atlantic Ocean and sent it to Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg in Berlin. Ehrenberg's collection is now housed in the Museum of Natural History and contains specimens that were gathered at the onset of the Industrial Revolution. Geochemical analyses of this resource indicated that dust collected over the Atlantic in 1838 originated from the Western Sahara, while molecular-microbiological methods demonstrated the presence of many viable microbes. Older samples sent to Ehrenberg from Barbados almost two centuries ago also contained numbers of cultivable bacteria and fungi. Many diverse ascomycetes, and eubacteria were found. Scanning electron microscopy and cultivation suggested that Bacillus megaterium, a common soil bacterium, was attached to historic sand grains, and it was inoculated onto dry sand along with a non-spore-forming control, the Gram-negative soil bacterium Rhizobium sp. NGR234. On sand B. megaterium quickly developed spores, which survived for extended periods and even though the numbers of NGR234 steadily declined, they were still considerable after months of incubation. Thus, microbes that adhere to Saharan dust can live for centuries and easily survive transport across the Atlantic.
Agnan, Y; Séjalon-Delmas, N; Probst, A
Lichens have long been known to be good indicators of air quality and atmospheric deposition. Xanthoria parietina was selected to investigate past (sourced from a herbarium) and present-day trace metal pollution in four sites from South-West France (close to Albi). Enrichment factors, relationships between elements and hierarchical classification indicated that the atmosphere was mainly impacted by coal combustion (as shown by As, Pb or Cd contamination) during the early twentieth century, whereas more recently, another mixture of pollutants (e.g. Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) from local factories and car traffic has emerged. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and other lithogenic elements indicated a higher dust content in the atmosphere in the early twentieth century and a specific lithological local signature. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, local urban emissions had a strong impact on trace element contamination registered in lichens, particularly for contemporary data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whiteman, Philip M.
Early legislation relating to street lighting, baths and washhouses, burial of the dead, public libraries and public improvements in England and Wales, reflected Parliament's suspicion of local democracy and distrust of local authorities. (9 references) (Author)
Molina Alarcón, Miguel
[EN] Although the relationship between Arts and Mathematics has occurred throughout history reciprocal, however since the nineteenth century and preferably in the period of historical avantgardes of the early twentieth century, was created at the same time, an approach as a rejection between the two disciplines, which would be reflected through different polarities: Art Science, figuration-abstraction, Intuition-determinism, Visible-Invisible, Virtual-Real, Emotion-Reason, etc. All this manif...
Наталья Викторовна Власова
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of the Russian provincial officialdom of the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries. It analyzes the educational level of the officials of noble birth and shows the number of the officials with higher, secondary, elementary and home education. Attention is drawn to the changes in the training of the officials by the early 20th century. The paper is based on the archival materials (service records foundinthe State Archives of the Ryazan region. The analysis of the sources shows that about 15% of the officials studied in the institutions of higher education, 31% got secondary education, 29% - elementary education. About 19% had home education. And only about 21% of the officials had systematic (that is finished higher and secondary education. The author concludes that in comparison with early 19th century the educational level of the officials had an upward tendency but on the whole it continued to be low.
Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius L. is not indigenous to the Canary Islands but based on historical references was introduced at the very beginning of the fifteenth century. The camel thrived in the subtropical dry environment. A long period of isolation from other animals of the same species meant that the animals were virtually disease free. This made the Islands an ideal base for exporting camels to new areas such that camels from the Canaries went to Peru in the sixteenth century, to Brazil in the eighteenth century, Venezuela and Bolivia in the early part of the nineteenth century and Australia in 1840. Camels went to several Caribbean islands in the middle of the nineteenth century. More recently (late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries some animals were exported from the islands to mainland Europe, notably France, Spain and the Netherlands, and to South America. Camels have been used in military operations, as transport and draught animals in support of agriculture and have found a role in the tourist industry. In early 2013 there were some 1,300 camels distributed over four of the larger islands of the archipelago in herds varying in size from a single animal to herds of as many as 150 head: a large group of about 400 heads kept in a Safari Park on the island of Fuerteventura is considered as the national conservation herd. The "Canary" camel has recently been shown to be genetically distinct from most other populations and it has been proposed that it should be designated as a distinct breed.
Full Text Available Cet article s’intéresse à l’« invention » de New York, dans la période antérieure à la Guerre de Sécession, et aux formes ou aux procédés qui suscitèrent l’émergence d’une nouvelle conscience de soi dans la ville. Il évoque d’abord les facteurs contradictoires qui contribuèrent au développement d’une culture littéraire et artistique. Il tente ensuite de montrer comment les new-yorkais traduisirent leur fierté ancestrale et leurs sentiments identitaires sous forme de recherches historiques et généalogiques. Enfin, il montre la manière dont certains ouvrages élaborèrent une nouvelle grammaire, une nouvelle image, afin d’esquisser les contours géographiques et sociologiques de la métropole naissante.This essay explores the « invention » of New York City in the antebellum era, or the parallel forms of cultural processes and elaborations that led to the emergence of a new sense of self-awareness in the city. It first evokes the contradictory ways in which a literary and artistic culture developed. It then attempts to reveal how New Yorkers translated their ancestral pride and identity feelings into historical and genealogical pursuits. It finally explores the way in which some works contributed to the creation of a new grammar, a new image, in order to draw the contours of the geography and sociology of the new metropolis.
This dissertation together with the artworks documented in it is the result of an investigation across multiple media over a seven-year period of the cultural, artistic and spiritual legacy of the late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Lebensreform (Life Reform) movement. In the course of this
Glasser, Theodore L.; Ettema, James S.
Investigative journalists long have had an adversarial relationship with powerful institutions and those in public office, stemming from the "righteously indignant" reporters of the early nineteenth century penny presses who guarded the interests of the public. Currently, investigative journalists are in a difficult position if they have…
Meder, Marylouise D.
This report traces the emerging relationships between the school and library systems during the colonial era until the late nineteenth century. It examines the public library's influence on early educational methodologies, describes the beginnings of the cooperative movement between teachers and librarians, and the new interrelationship which…
In-service professional development in education began informally in the early nineteenth-century as a means of disseminating classroom management techniques, specifically addressing ways in which corporal punishment could be delivered to a child without inflicting serious injury. This initial effort paralleled a concern regarding children's…
Theoretically, I draw on some insights from works of Michel Foucault, especially with regard to eighteenth and early nineteenth century 'representational thought', where 'idea' and 'object' are directly related. Keywords: J.T. van der Kemp, settler farmers, frontier, patriot, rebellion, slavery, baptism, cruelty, Black Circuit Court ...
van de Bilt, E.
Harriet Beecher Stowe’s famous nineteenth-century anti-slavery novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin is not just an early example of modern management theory and public relations strategies and a vivid illustration of changes in America’s protestant tradition, but also the proper guide for understanding 2012
appear- ance in the early nineteenth century, when explorers found it clogged by an immense log jam known as the Great Raft (Freeman [and Custis 1806?] :3...Caddo for food: acorns, nuts of various kinds, persimmons, plums, wild cherries, mulberries, strawberries , blackberries, and wild grapes. Cultivated
Cole, Robert A.
French intellectual thought changed during the Napoleonic Era. The effects of the Enlightenment philosophers, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and Romanticism on the development of Napoleon's philosophical outlook are used to illustrate the changes occurring in France as a whole in the early nineteenth century. (AM)
... dam. f. The cultural and historical significance of the Village of Zoar is well documented. The... community and a significant collection of early nineteenth century German folk architecture. Much of Zoar was documented in 1936 by the Historic American Building Survey (HABS). This study concluded that Zoar...
Summary Eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century ideas about the occurrence and spread of epidemic disease were complex and contested. Although many thought that diseases such as plague, typhus, and cholera were contagious and were communicated from person to person or via the medium of goods, others believed that they were the product of atmospheric change. Moreover, as historians have emphasized, the early nineteenth century saw a move from a multifactoral, climatic etiology toward one that prioritized specific local corruption of the atmosphere caused by putrefying animal and vegetable matter. In this paper, I extend this analysis by linking to recent literature on dirt and disgust and exploring the importance of theologies. I examine the work of two key figures in the history of British epidemiology, Charles Maclean and Thomas Southwood Smith, and demonstrate how the latter's increasing emphasis upon the causal agency of filth was structured by his Unitarian faith and his belief in a universally benevolent God. PMID:18791295
Eighteenth-and early nineteenth-century ideas about the occurrence and spread of epidemic disease were complex and contested. Although many thought that diseases such as plague, typhus, and cholera were contagious and were communicated from person to person or via the medium of goods, others believed that they were the product of atmospheric change. Moreover, as historians have emphasized, the early nineteenth century saw a move from a multifactoral, climatic etiology toward one that prioritized specific local corruption of the atmosphere caused by putrefying animal and vegetable matter. In this paper, I extend this analysis by linking to recent literature on dirt and disgust and exploring the importance of theologies. I examine the work of two key figures in the history of British epidemiology, Charles Maclean and Thomas Southwood Smith, and demonstrate how the latter's increasing emphasis upon the causal agency of filth was structured by his Unitarian faith and his belief in a universally benevolent God.
Wiewel, Adam S.
Clark, traded crucial resources, namely maize, to neighboring Native groups and fur traders during the early to mid-nineteenth century. While traditional colonial narratives describe the period in terms of culture decline and dependency, my study indicates the Mandans and Arikaras acted in their own self-interest and influenced and accommodated colonial fur traders along the Missouri River in the Northern Plains during the nineteenth century.
Maia, Moacir Rodrigo de Castro
This is a reconstruction of the career of the Most Reverend Dom Frei Cipriano de São José and the historical garden he built for his palace in Mariana, Minas Gerais, in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The grounds, which, like most of their counterparts in Minas Gerais, contained an orchard and kitchen garden, underwent a major reform to fit the mold of the classical European garden. Orderly and showing aesthetic concern, they were an admirable space at the end of the colonial period, representing as they did the enlightened metropolitan elite's growing interest in natural history and botany. A variety of documental sources were used to reconstruct the history of the grounds and the career of the person behind their design, the enlightened Dom Frei Cipriano de São José.
Tassenaar, V; Karel, E H
We test the impact of several demographic, economic and social factors on stature in an early nineteenth century environment. We use a database of conscripts from the period 1818-1860 of a rural province in The Netherlands (Drenthe). This area had a rather high biological standard of living. This database of 413 conscripts contains information about family structure, family rank order, height, tax income, occupation and age of death. Conscripts came from two communities: one from a particular village (Oosterhesselen) and the other was Jewish conscripts that came from the countryside of the province. Our statistical analysis shows a positive significant relationship between family size and height, which confirms the resource dilution theory. Remarkably, the sign of the relation between family size and life expectancy is inverse. Other factors such as the potato crisis and income had the expected effect on conscript heights. The community effect was strong. Jewish conscripts were much shorter than their counterparts. Access to nutrition, the specific food laws and other factors can explain this difference. An increasing sibship size had a negative impact on body height but positive effects on life expectancy when adulthood was reached. Specifically for the Jewish community was the positive effect of the death of the father on conscript height. The mechanisms behind this phenomenon are unclear and open for further research.
Carson, Scott A.
Using a new source of 19th century state prison records, this study contrasts the biological living conditions of comparable US African-American and white female statures during economic development. Black and white female statures varied regionally, and white Southeastern and black Southwestern females reached the tallest statures. White females were consistently taller than black females. Black and white female statures also varied over time with emancipation and were similar to black male ...
Agricultural co-operative societies were widely discussed across late nineteenth-century Europe as a potential solution to the problems of agricultural depression, land reform and rural poverty. In Finland, the agronomist Hannes Gebhard drew inspiration from examples across Europe in founding the...... that even before the First World War it was Finland, not Ireland, that had begun to be regarded as ‘a model co-operative country’....... between Irish and Finnish co-operators around the turn of the century, and examines the ways in which the parallels between the two countries were constructed and presented by those involved in these exchanges. I will also consider the reasons for the divergence in the development of cooperation, so...
Franssen, G.; Honings, R.
This book maps the history of literary celebrity from the early nineteenth century to the present, paying special attention to the authors’ crafting of their writerly self as well as the afterlife of their public image. Case studies are John Keats, Edgar Allan Poe, Eliza Cook, Herman Melville, Oscar
Books in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century played an important role in the dissemination of liberal and nationalist ideologies, thus instigating social change in the Arab world. The focus of this study are printed Arabic books where the ideas of modernity in both form and content were
This article is an exploration of the varying applications of comics and cartoon art as primary resources and pedagogical tools within the university setting. Following some background information on cartoon art forms including early American newspaper comics, nineteenth century humor serials, political cartoons and manga, the article explores how…
Forestier, Katherine; Adamson, Bob
Adopting a comparative perspective to address educational issues in different contexts was a hallmark of Jullien's work in the early-nineteenth century. Different emphases and approaches to comparative education methodology have emerged in recent times thanks to major developments in technology, but have these changes rendered Jullien's ideas…
Woltering, Robbert Antonius Fransiscus Leonardus
This thesis researches images of ‘the West’ in contemporary Egyptian non-fiction. These images – or: Occidentalisms - are found to have a history going back to the early nineteenth century, and are clearly related to political and social developments in Egypt and the wider Arab world, in which
Crozier, William; Gaffield, Chad
The Lower Manhattan Project, a computer-assisted undergraduate course in U.S. history, enhances student appreciation of the historical process through research and writing. Focuses on the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries emphasizing massive immigration, rapid industrialization, and the growth of cities. Includes a reading list and…
Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.
The great International Expositions of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries brought together the world's political, intellectual, and industrial leaders for the exchange of information and ideas. They also promoted specific cultural values and belief systems. In this book, Eugene F. Provenzo, Jr. looks specifically at the educational…
Shackleton, J. R.
Presents the lives and careers of Jane Marcet and Harriet Martineau and their contributions to the dissemination and popularization of political economics in early nineteenth-century education. Places their ideas about laissez-faire capitalism in historical context. Stresses the significance of their role as female writers and educators. (CH)
Kavai, Portia; de Villiers, Rian; Fraser, William; Sommerville, Jaqui; Strydom, Nina
In Life Sciences education internationally, including South Africa, the study of animal and organ morphology has traditionally involved dissections since the early nineteenth century. The major purpose of this study was to investigate how the engagement of learners with animal organ dissections may influence the development of problem-solving…
Peter C. Perdue
Full Text Available After the First Opium War (1839–1842, British and American merchants negotiated with Chinese officials in Shanghai to work out the framework of the new treaty port regime. One key player in these negotiations was Wu Jianzhang, a Cantonese merchant who became circuit intendant of the Shanghai region. Wu, however, also had links to Cantonese sailors and anti-Qing secret societies. When the Small Swords Society took Shanghai in 1853, he found himself entangled in conflicting responsibilities and networks. Foreign traders and Chinese officials regarded Wu, like other middlemen on the Chinese coast, with a mixture of respect and distrust. Wu’s situation, however, was not unique to the mid-nineteenth century. This article compares Wu to other intermediaries who played similar roles in the sixteenth and late nineteenth centuries, in order to show the ways in which Wu, his predecessors, and those who followed in his footsteps connected China to the wider world by navigating the treacherous waters of diplomacy, war, and commerce. The work of John K. Fairbank, who in the 1950s pioneered the study of such people as Wu Jianzhang, can find new meaning in the twenty-first century, enabling us to understand the transnational implications of China’s local social history.
Presents an essay dealing with two nineteenth-century incidents of religious intolerance. Recounts the story of Joseph Smith, the founder of the Mormon Church, who was murdered by opponents of the new religion. Explains how the writings of Presbyterian minister and newspaper publisher, Elijah Lovejoy, set off a response that led to his death. (SG)
This document is a compilation of reports presented at the Nineteenth DOE Solar Photochemistry Research Conference. Sessions included photophysical properties of transition metal complexes, cage effects on photochemistry, charge transfer, photo-induced charge separation in biomimetic molecules, photosynthesis, and electron transfer.
Taking a micro-historical approach, this paper explores the business activities of Elizabeth Carter and Elizabeth Hatchett, two married women who operated together as pawnbrokers in London in the early decades of the eighteenth century. Based on a protracted inheritance dispute through which their extensive dealings come to light, the discussion assesses married women's lending and investment strategies in a burgeoning metropolitan economy; the networks through which women lenders operated; and the extent to which wives could sidestep the legal conventions of 'coverture' which restricted their ownership of moveable property. It is argued that the moneylending and asset management activities of women like Carter and Hatchett were an important part of married women's work that did not simply consolidate neighbourhood ties but that placed them at the heart of the early modern economy.
Full Text Available The definition of a policy of national defense and internal security in democracy, created conditions to advance in the process of restructuring of the Argentina Navy, introducing changes in its organization and functions. In this article we will focus this process analyzing, on the one hand, the relationship between the definitions of defense policy and the configuration of naval military instrument between the end of the twentieth century and early twenty-first century; and, on the other hand, understanding their development in the case of two components of the force: the marine corps and the division of maritime patrol.
op de Beeck, Nathalie
This essay explores how nineteenth-century nature study principles inform a twenty-first century New Nature Study movement, and gives examples of a trend toward nature writing in recent picture books. The pedagogical principles of nineteenth-century nature study, ascendant at the turn of the twentieth century and implicit in interwar children's…
Common opinion ascribes to Immanuel Kant the view that psychology cannot become a science properly so called, because it cannot be mathematized. It is equally common to claim that this reflects the state of the art of his times; that the quantification of the mind was not achieved during the eighteenth century, while it was so during the nineteenth century; or that Kant's so-called "impossibility claim" was refuted by nineteenth-century developments, which in turn opened one path for psychology to become properly scientific. These opinions are often connected, but they are misguided nevertheless. In Part I, I show how the issue of a quantification of the mind was discussed before Kant, and I analyze the philosophical considerations both of pessimistic and optimistic authors. This debate reveals a certain progress, although it remains ultimately undecided. In Part II, I present actual examples of measuring the mind in the eighteenth century and analyze their presuppositions. Although these examples are limited in certain ways, the common view that there was no such measurement is wrong. In Part III, I show how Kant's notorious " impossibility claim" has to be viewed against its historical background. He not only accepts actual examples of a quantitative treatment of the mind, but also takes steps toward an explanation of their possibility. Thus, he does not advance the claim that the mind as such cannot be mathematized. His claim is directed against certain philosophical assumptions about the mind, assumptions shared by a then-dominating, strongly introspectionist conception of psychology. This conception did and could not provide an explanation of the possibility of quantifying the mind. In concluding, I reflect on how this case study helps to improve the dispute over when and why psychology became a science. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tulebaev Turganzhan; Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva
The period of the late 20th and the early 21st centuries is characterized for many post-socialist countries by profound social/economic transformations. They are going through a tough transition from the implementation of market reform to the formation of a market economy oriented towards innovation development. The historical past of these countries attests that, in a sense, they have already been going through a similar process – back in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. The history of th...
This paper examines the way in which narratives, including stories and poetry, have been used in school texts relating to moral instruction. The paper will draw on texts used in Queensland classrooms in the early part of the twentieth century to demonstrate the ways in which description of sights and the experiences of the senses, and of…
Robert Henry Thurston is presented in this article. He provides one the most significant examples of professionalizing engineering through innovative education and promoting scientific education practices in the late nineteenth century. The son of a draftsmen and steam engine mechanic, Thurston spent his early years in Providence, Rhode Island.…
Teacher education provided in U.S. colleges and universities has been routinely criticized since its inception in the early nineteenth century. These programs are uneven in quality and can be improved. Advocacy groups and self-proclaimed social entrepreneurs are working aggressively to deregulate the preparation of teachers and to expand…
Romano, Richard M.; Dellow, Donald A.
In early nineteenth-century England, workers now known as Luddites roamed the countryside destroying machinery that they saw as creating unemployment and upsetting their traditional way of life. They believed that the growing mechanization of production, what people would now call technological change, and the expanding volume of trade ushered in…
Franklin, V. P.
Historians need social theories to conduct their research whether they are acknowledged or not. Positivist social theories underpinned the professionalization of the writing of history as well as the establishment of the social sciences as "disciplines," in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. August Comte's "science of society" and…
Mason, Paul H.
Euro-American performance arts are exceptional among the world's cultures in that music and dance are separable and constitute independent disciplines. In the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, a distinct consciousness emerged that demonstrated an awareness of the varying and protean relationships that music and dance can share. While…
Gribnau, Hans; Vording, H.
Adam Smith’s taxation maxims found fertile ground in the Netherlands in the early nineteenth century—a time of national tax reform. But as the century drew to an end, progressive liberal thinking parted from its British inspiration. John Stuart Mill’s ‘equality of sacrifice’ was rejected by Nicolaas
Moehling, Carolyn; Piehl, Anne Morrison
The major government commissions on immigration and crime in the early twentieth century relied on evidence that suffered from aggregation bias and the absence of accurate population data, which led them to present partial and sometimes misleading views of the immigrant-native criminality comparison. With improved data and methods, we find that in 1904, prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19, for which the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native-born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely than natives to be committed to prisons at all ages 20 and older, but this advantage disappears when one looks at commitments for violent offenses. The time series pattern reflects a growing gap between natives and immigrants at older ages, one that was driven by sharp increases in the commitment rates of the native-born, while commitment rates for the foreign-born were remarkably stable.
Rix, Robert William
Augustus Tulk. Subsequent chapters go on to explore Wilkinson’s early role in publishing the poetry of William Blake; his dealings with Thomas Carlyle and Ralph Waldo Emerson; his lifelong friendship with Henry James, Sr; his association with Daniel Dunglas Home, Thomas Lake Harris and Andrew Jackson Davis......; his homoeopathic practice and its influence on James Tyler Kent; and his engagement with such causes as utopian socialism, environmentalism, women’s suffrage, antivivisectionism and the deregulation of medicine. The book concludes with a broader study of Wilkinson’s interest in mythology, psychology......Malcolm Peet’s Medicine, Mysticism and Mythology: Garth Wilkinson, Swedenborg and Nineteenth-Century Esoteric Culture explores the life and cultural milieu of the nineteenth-century Swedenborgian James John Garth Wilkinson (1812-99), whose largely forgotten influence touched a diverse range...
Kander, Astrid; Warde, Paul
This article explores the proposition that a reason for high agricultural productivity in the early nineteenth century was relatively high energy availability from draught animals. The article is based on the collection of extensive new data indicating different trends in draught power availability and the efficiency of its use in different countries of Europe. This article shows that the proposition does not hold, and demonstrates that, although towards the end of the nineteenth century England had relatively high numbers of draught animals per agricultural worker, it also had low number of workers and animals per hectare, indicating the high efficiency of muscle power, rather than an abundance of such power. The higher efficiency was related to a specialization on less labour-intensive farming and a preference for horses over oxen.
Ellebæk, Jens Jakob
philosophers/professors in humanities in creating a new idea about school curriculum and content. An idea based on the Humboldtian movement with the concept "Algemeine bildung" in the center of reforming the educational system, but in contrast to this movement with a focus on "naturvidenskabelig almendannelse......A research into the introduction of the concept "Almendannelse" (Litteracy/Education/Culture) in the Danish discourse about reforming the educational system in the early 19th Century, reveals a time in Danish history where the world famous scientist H.C. Ørsted was working together with central...
Davenport, Lucinda D.
A study was conducted to find out how the topics of the Nineteenth Amendment and women's suffrage were handled at the time by news publications in rural areas. Several components were used to carry out the objective: one was to investigate newspaper coverage of the amendment and in addition broaden that search to include women's suffrage; another…
Baron, J H; Sonnenberg, A
The occurrence of peptic ulcer increased rapidly in all Western countries from the 19th to the 20th century, attributed to a possible epidemic of Helicobacter pylori, a new pathogenic strain, or a change in host susceptibility. The early trends in hospital admissions for peptic ulcer and dyspepsia in London and New York during the 19th century are reviewed to test these hypotheses. PMID:11889081
Full Text Available This article aims to address aspects of the history of the divulgation of sciences in Brazil in the nineteenth century, through the analysis of the circulation of some translations into Portuguese of the works of French popularizer of science, Louis Figuier. His works, which were translated to different languages, received editions in Brazil and Portugal since late 1860. During this period, a model of popularization of science for non-specialists - working class, women and youth - with emphasis on applied science was gaining terrain. However, this model was also marked by limitations and discontinuities that reflect social issues in the passage to the twentieth century. This paper attempts to highlight the role of translators and editors, understood as mediators of science, whose projects of social reform was primarily focused in popular instruction.
Full Text Available This article is based on what has been outlined in ‘Part I’ and on additional references to other new German work, as well as to articles by two of the protagonists of the 1870s and 1880s, Anton Springer and Moritz Thausing. The central issue is the nineteenth century’s desire for a Verwissenschaftlichung of the subject, to render the subject ‘purely scientific’. Principally this concerns the way in which older kinds of connoisseurship were juxtaposed to the new claims of a strictly ‘historical’ approach. Much shorter sections touch on aspects of style, iconography and form, as well as on the history of the provision of illustrations.
Halling, T; Umehara, H; Moll, F
This paper analyzes the importance of the German language and German culture and institutional development of urology in Japan in the early 20th century, starting from the development of the medical school for Japanese in Germany and their function in the process of modernization of the Meiji period (1868-1912). Examples of bi-directional German-Japanese relations in medicine, which also included an integrated knowledge transfer, are shown. The study is based mainly on Japanese and German sources about Japanese physicians in Germany as well as contemporary publications in German and international medical journals. Methodologically, the article combines quantitative analysis with individual biographical aspects.
Brinkhuijsen, M.; Jong, de H.; Jonge, C.S.J.
In the early nineteenth century, many people worked themselves to death, eighteen hours a day, six days a week, with no days off. Leisure time was scarce. Only few people had the time and means to repose, divert and travel. Leisure and tourism were the privilege of a small elite. But times have
Morice, Linda C.
This article examines the life of education reformer Flora White, who both represented and deviated from the stereotypical new woman portrayed in popular literature of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. White's decision to reject marriage and children in favor of a career resulted in greater financial insecurity and an unmet desire…
George Sabo; Jami Joe Lockhart; Jerry E. Hilliard
Study of past human land use in the Lee Creek Unit of the Ozark National Forest challenges the existence of "pristine" forests predating the arrival of historic Americans. The distribution of early nineteenth century American settlements corresponds closely to the distribution of late prehistoric Native American archeological sites. One explanation for this...
This paper is in the form of research notes. It reviews certain aspects of a contemporary ethnographic study of early nineteenth-century Ijebu society. The original publication of the study was in French but subsequently translated into English with annotations. The objective here is to shed light on issues of anthropological ...
Not long after Ebenezer Howard’s Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform, the English ‘garden city’ became an aspirational urban model for places in colonial Malaya like Kuala Lumpur, Kuching and Singapore. What originally responded to nineteenth century industrial expansion was in this context a reaction to early twentieth century laissez-faire urbanism, aiming to beautify cities, improve health, and boost commerce. From the 1950s, private developers announced their ‘garden cities’, which c...
This paper explores the role of untrained nursing staff within the nursing services of the Rockhampton region, Queensland, Australia, throughout the early 20th century. It details who these nurses were, where they worked and how their work was affected by factors such as legislation and social changes. Despite the increasing prevalence of trained nurses from the late 19th century, nurses who had never undergone any formal training continued to gain work in hospitals, institutions and their local communities. This paper is an historical analysis of a wide range of primary source material relating to untrained nursing staff. The primary source material used related specifically to a limited geographical region in Australia. Untrained nursing staff primarily worked as private duty nurses at the beginning of the 20th century. However, as the century progressed, their opportunities to work as untrained nursing staff tended towards institutions dealing with the chronically ill and the aged. As a result of this transition, their profile altered from that of a married/widowed woman living at home with dependents to one who could live on-site at the institution with no dependents. Furthermore, the level of autonomy of the untrained nurse decreased dramatically throughout this period from being relatively independent to being under the control of a trained nurse within the institution. Consideration of the historical evolution of untrained nursing staff challenges some of the assumptions made about this category of nurse, assumptions that can affect current relationships between professional nurses and others who undertake nursing work.
This book presents a perspective on the history of theoretical physics over the past two hundreds years. It comprises essays on the history of pre-Maxwellian electrodynamics, of Maxwell's and Hertz's field theories, and of the present century's relativity and quantum physics. A common thread across the essays is the search for and the exploration of themes that influenced significant con ceptual changes in the great movement of ideas and experiments which heralded the emergence of theoretical physics (hereafter: TP). The fun. damental change involved the recognition of the scien tific validity of theoretical physics. In the second half of the nine teenth century, it was not easy for many physicists to understand the nature and scope of theoretical physics and of its adept, the theoreti cal physicist. A physicist like Ludwig Boltzmann, one of the eminent contributors to the new discipline, confessed in 1895 that, "even the formulation of this concept [of a theoretical physicist] is not entirely without...
Beatriz Santamarina Campos
Full Text Available The heritage phenomenon has undergone spectacular growth in recent decades in a boom that can be interpreted as an aspect of the third spirit of capitalism. The arrival of the economy of intangibles with its emphasis on this new production of value has changed the rules of the game for the global economy. In this article, we argue that a crucial transformation has taken place within the activation of heritage assets: we have moved from the political nationalism which triggered collective heritage in the nineteenth century, to a nationalism of consumption during the twentyfirst century. In this context, we focus on the different impact of heritage processes depending on where a location is positioned within global markets. This position will then condition the bid to become a smart city or charming village. We contend that both are two sides of the same coin.
Aimillia Mohd Ramli
Full Text Available This study traces the various historical contexts under which representations of North African Muslims were created from the sixteenth century until the nineteenth century in Britain. It shows that the image of Muslims that is being propagated in the media today as sexually licentious, oppressive towards women and barbaric were created from the earliest encounters between Westerners and Muslims from North Africa in the sixteenth century and became gradually consolidated in both fictional and factual writings throughout a few centuries up until the nineteenth century. While historical contexts experienced change as a result of the advent and decline of the Ottoman Empire as well as the emergence of Western Imperialism in the nineteenth century, images of Muslims remained largely the same.
Estela Socías Muñoz
Full Text Available (ES El artículo nos describe la evolución de la enseñanza parvularia en Chile. Podemos ver cómo ya en el periodo precolombino existía una atención en los primeros años del niño. A mediados del XIX existían los llamados “grupos de juego” y también algunos kindergarten. La influencia fröebeliana se hace cada vez más patente. A principios del siglo XX la necesidad de trabajar de las madres chilenas hace surgir la idea de una educación preescolar mantenida por el estado. Se forma la Asociación de Maestras de Kindergarten. A mediados de este siglo se funda la Escuela de Educadoras de Párvulos. Desde aquella década la educación de párvulo fue desarrollándose de manera más profesional y con una serie de cambios que fueron generando mejores condiciones para su implementación permanente. (EN The article describes the development of preschool education in Chile. We can see how as fas as in the pre-Columbian period there was a focus on the early years of the child. At the middle of the nineteenth century, we found what were called "play groups" and some kindergarten. The fröebeliana influence is increasingly apparent. In the early twentieth century, the need for work of Chilean mothers raises the idea of a preschool education maintained by the state. The Kindergarten Teachers Association is formed. At the middle of the twentieth century, a School for Infant Teachers is founded. From that decade, infant education was developed more professionally and with a number of changes that generated better conditions for a permanent deployment.
The "Floodgate Street area" was a notorious slum district in the city of Birmingham in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This article presents a case study, drawing on the rich archival sources available for this area, to examine the language that local authority and voluntary workers used to describe the local area, and…
For example, the discovery of non-Euclidean geometries in the early nineteenth century made us question ... Following his interest in the questions raised by J Krishnamurti on life and education, he .... We are now ready to see what all this formal stuff looks like' when we consider the three problems of antiquity. Doubling the ...
Philosophers of different geographical regions have made attempts, during the past two and a half millenia, to unravel the mystery of what constitutes matter. It was John Dalton who, during the early years of modern science at the beginning of the nineteenth century, gave a reasonably good picture of the atom as the tiniest ...
Buchbinder, Orly; Chazan, Daniel; Fleming, Elizabeth
In this article, we explore how the solving of linear equations is represented in English-language algebra text books from the early nineteenth century when schooling was becoming institutionalized, and then survey contemporary teachers. In the text books, we identify the increasing presence of a prescribed order of steps (a canonical method) for…
CORBETT, EDWARD P.J.
THIS BRIEF HISTORICAL SURVEY OF THE RHETORICAL TRADITION FROM ARISTOTLE TO KENNETH BURKE EMPHASIZES THE CHANGES IN THE DEFINITION OF RHETORIC AND IN THE SCOPE OF THE DISCIPLINE. TO REVEAL WHAT HAS HAPPENED TO RHETORICAL TRAINING IN THE NINETEENTH AND EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURIES, THE FIRST HUNDRED YEARS OF THE BOYLSTON PROFESSORSHIP OF RHETORIC AT…