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Sample records for early modern europe

  1. Trading Zones in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Pamela O

    2015-12-01

    This essay adopts the concept of trading zones first developed for the history of science by Peter Galison and redefines it for the early modern period. The term "trading zones" is used to mean arenas in which substantive and reciprocal communication occurred between individuals who were artisanally trained and learned (university-trained) individuals. Such trading zones proliferated in the sixteenth century. They tended to arise in certain kinds of places and not in others, but their existence must be determined empirically. The author's work on trading zones differs from the ideas of Edgar Zilsel, who emphasized the influence of artisans on the scientific revolution. In contrast, in this essay, the mutual influence of artisans and the learned on each other is stressed, and translation is used as a modality that was important to communication within trading zones.

  2. Worlds and Systems in Early Modern Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Ayala, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The structure, formation and evolution of the Universe were some of the main topics in the scientific debates during the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe. They involved novel ideas on the cosmos, which concerned aspects that were not considered before so emphatically, and which were fundamental for the future development of astronomy. This paper presents a brief account of several milestones within the gradual definition of pre-galactic systems: the historical role of the tradition of the plurality of worlds, the significance of Descartes, and the introduction of the Milky Way and nebulae in the discourses around the cosmic structure.

  3. Memory before Modernity : Practices of Memory in Early Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, H.M.E.P.; Pollmann, J.S.; Müller, J.M.; Steen, van der J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Many students of memory assume that the practice of memory changed dramatically around 1800; this volume shows that there was much continuity as well as change. Premodern ways of negotiating memories of pain and loss, for instance, were indeed quite different to those in the modern West. Yet by exam

  4. Frontier and Border Regions in Early Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, R.M.; Ellis, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    That regional identities are constructed is now something of a truism in academic research. More recently regions have been conceptualized in the framework of Frontier and Border Studies, thus emphasizing their relationship to their neighbours in another state across a boundary line. In early modern

  5. Frontier and Border Regions in Early Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, R.M.; Ellis, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    That regional identities are constructed is now something of a truism in academic research. More recently regions have been conceptualized in the framework of Frontier and Border Studies, thus emphasizing their relationship to their neighbours in another state across a boundary line. In early modern

  6. Mapping Knowledge Exchange in Early Modern Europe : Intellectual and Technological Geographies and Network Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, C.M.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of digital intellectual and technological geographies showing spatial distributions of information and proposes to combine these with network representations of actors and documents relevant for the history knowledge exchange in Early Modern Europe. The amount of

  7. Early Upper Paleolithic in Eastern Europe and implications for the dispersal of modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikovich, M V; Sinitsyn, A A; Hoffecker, John F; Holliday, Vance T; Popov, V V; Lisitsyn, S N; Forman, Steven L; Levkovskaya, G M; Pospelova, G A; Kuz'mina, I E; Burova, N D; Goldberg, Paul; Macphail, Richard I; Giaccio, Biagio; Praslov, N D

    2007-01-12

    Radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating and magnetic stratigraphy indicate Upper Paleolithic occupation-probably representing modern humans-at archaeological sites on the Don River in Russia 45,000 to 42,000 years ago. The oldest levels at Kostenki underlie a volcanic ash horizon identified as the Campanian Ignimbrite Y5 tephra that is dated elsewhere to about 40,000 years ago. The occupation layers contain bone and ivory artifacts, including possible figurative art, and fossil shells imported more than 500 kilometers. Thus, modern humans appeared on the central plain of Eastern Europe as early as anywhere else in northern Eurasia.

  8. Approaches to the History of Patients: From the Ancient World to Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks from an early modernist's perspective at some of the major questions and methodological issues that writing the history of patients in the ancient world shares with similar work on Patientengeschichte in medieval and early modern Europe. It addresses, in particular, the problem of finding adequate sources that give access to the patients' experience of illness and medicine and highlights the potential as well as the limitations of using physicians' case histories for that purpose. It discusses the doctor-patient relationship as it emerges from these sources, and the impact of the patient's point of view on learned medical theory and practice. In conclusion, it pleads for a cautious and nuanced approach to the controversial issue of retrospective diagnosis, recommending that historians consistently ask in which contexts and in what way the application of modern diagnostic labels to pre-modern accounts of illness can truly contribute to a better historical understanding rather than distort it.

  9. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Didier

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts.

  10. Nero and the last stalk of Silphion: collecting extinct nature in early modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Many studies of early modern natural history focus upon observational, empirical techniques. Early moderns also contended with entities which could no longer be observed because they no longer existed. Although it is often assumed that extinction only emerged as a concept in the eighteenth century, the concept of natural loss appeared, often unproblematically, in areas outside natural philosophy. A survey of discussions of the extinct plant silphion across Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries shows that the possibility of natural loss was well aired. Paper technologies for collecting extinct nature ran parallel to investigations of newly found nature, and thus can place the latter in a new light. Although ideas of natural mutability often drew on ideas of historical or political change rather than philosophical concepts of natural constancy, techniques developed for extinct nature, such as the list of lost things, remained influential for the research agendas of naturalists.

  11. John Considine. Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe: Lexicography and the Making of Heritage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loránd-Levente Pálfi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dictionary history or history of lexicography does not belong to one of the most studied metalexicographic disciplines, although the International Society for Historical Lexicography and Lexicology regularly convenes conferences and publishes proceedings, and much literature (mainly in the Western world and mainly dealing with Western lexicography has been published during the last five decades. Furthermore most of the work done deals with the subject quite specifically. General or versatile monographs are rather rare. Because of this, John Considine's Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe is a long-awaited and long-overdue work.

  12. Early dispersal of modern humans in Europe and implications for Neanderthal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Stefano; Douka, Katerina; Fornai, Cinzia; Bauer, Catherine C; Kullmer, Ottmar; Svoboda, Jiří; Pap, Ildikó; Mallegni, Francesco; Bayle, Priscilla; Coquerelle, Michael; Condemi, Silvana; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Harvati, Katerina; Weber, Gerhard W

    2011-11-02

    The appearance of anatomically modern humans in Europe and the nature of the transition from the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic are matters of intense debate. Most researchers accept that before the arrival of anatomically modern humans, Neanderthals had adopted several 'transitional' technocomplexes. Two of these, the Uluzzian of southern Europe and the Châtelperronian of western Europe, are key to current interpretations regarding the timing of arrival of anatomically modern humans in the region and their potential interaction with Neanderthal populations. They are also central to current debates regarding the cognitive abilities of Neanderthals and the reasons behind their extinction. However, the actual fossil evidence associated with these assemblages is scant and fragmentary, and recent work has questioned the attribution of the Châtelperronian to Neanderthals on the basis of taphonomic mixing and lithic analysis. Here we reanalyse the deciduous molars from the Grotta del Cavallo (southern Italy), associated with the Uluzzian and originally classified as Neanderthal. Using two independent morphometric methods based on microtomographic data, we show that the Cavallo specimens can be attributed to anatomically modern humans. The secure context of the teeth provides crucial evidence that the makers of the Uluzzian technocomplex were therefore not Neanderthals. In addition, new chronometric data for the Uluzzian layers of Grotta del Cavallo obtained from associated shell beads and included within a Bayesian age model show that the teeth must date to ~45,000-43,000 calendar years before present. The Cavallo human remains are therefore the oldest known European anatomically modern humans, confirming a rapid dispersal of modern humans across the continent before the Aurignacian and the disappearance of Neanderthals.

  13. Zilsel's Thesis, Maritime Culture, and Iberian Science in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Henrique; Sánchez, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Zilsel's thesis on the artisanal origins of modern science remains one of the most original proposals about the emergence of scientific modernity. We propose to inspect the scientific developments in Iberia in the early modern period using Zilsel's ideas as a guideline. Our purpose is to show that his ideas illuminate the situation in Iberia but also that the Iberian case is a remarkable illustration of Zilsel's thesis. Furthermore, we argue that Zilsel's thesis is essentially a sociological explanation that cannot be applied to isolated cases; its use implies global events that involve extended societies over large periods of time.

  14. Merchants and marvels commerce, science, and art in early modern Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The beginning of global commerce in the early modern period had an enormous impact on European culture, changing the very way people perceived the world around them. Merchants and Marvels assembles essays by leading scholars of cultural history, art history, and the history of science and technology to show how ideas about the representation of nature, in both art and science, underwent a profound transformation between the age of the Renaissance and the early 1700s.

  15. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part I--Preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Didier

    2010-11-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts.

  16. Storage and starvation: public granaries as agents of "food security" in early modern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Collet, Dominik

    2010-01-01

    "The development of the 'food security' concept in the 1990s marked a significant change away from state-centered strategies that focused on food availability, towards policies aimed at food access and strengthening individual 'entitlements' (A. Sen) to food. This essay applies the food security approach to early modern food regimes, drawing on the example of the state-granary system in 18th century Prussia to investigate their agents, zones of conflict, and limits. The evident failure of tec...

  17. Music and the emergence of experimental science in early modern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Gouk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The seventeenth century witnessed major advances in physics and experimental science. This paper argues that while the role of new visual technologies (e.g. the microscope has been well studied, less attention has been paid to acoustic technologies in early modern natural philosophy. In particular, I attend to the relationship between making music, a specific form of organised sound mediated through instruments, and the production of new scientific knowledge. On the one hand, this relationship developed in the context of acoustics, a new discipline first mapped out by Francis Bacon. On the other hand, music’s relationship to natural philosophy was also more fundamental, since harmony was understood as an organising principle of the universe, the laws of musical strings providing a model for other forms of vibrative motion. I also show the importance of musical training for Galileo’s experiments and the significance of harmony for Isaac Newton and Robert Hooke.

  18. Thinking with the saint: the miracle of Saint Januarius of Naples and science in early modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ceglia, Francesco Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the way in which early modem science questioned and indirectly influenced (while being in its turn influenced by) the conceptualization of the liquefaction of the blood of Saint Januarius, a phenomenon that has been taking place at regular intervals in Naples since the late Middle Ages. In the seventeenth century, a debate arose that divided Europe between supporters of a theory of divine intervention and believers in the occult properties of the blood. These two theoretical options reflected two different perspectives on the relationship between the natural and the supernatural. While in the seventeenth century, the emphasis was placed on the predictable periodicity of the miraculous event of liquefaction as a manifestation of God in his role as a divine regulator, in the eighteenth century the event came to be described as capricious and unpredictable, in an attempt to differentiate miracles from the workings of nature, which were deemed to be normative. The miracle of the blood of Saint Januarius thus provides a window through which we can catch a glimpse of how the natural order was perceived in early modern Europe at a time when the Continent was culturally fragmented into north and south, Protestantism and Catholicism, learned and ignorant.

  19. Early Upper Paleolithic in Eastern Europe and Implications for the Dispersal of Modern Humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. V. Anikovich; A. A. Sinitsyn; John F. Hoffecker; Vance T. Holliday; V. V. Popov; S. N. Lisitsyn; Steven L. Forman; G. M. Levkovskaya; G. A. Pospelova; I. E. Kuz'mina; N. D. Burova; Paul Goldberg; Richard I. Macphail; Biagio Giaccio; N. D. Praslov

    2007-01-01

    Radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating and magnetic stratigraphy indicate Upper Paleolithic occupation--probably representing modern humans--at archaeological sites on the Don River...

  20. Euripides in Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Boer, P.

    2010-01-01

    Euripides is considered the most human, modern and existentialist of the famous Greek tragedians. Extremely popular after his death, he continued to be staged, read and much recited in Hellenistic and Roman times. As the Greek-speaking elite of the Roman Empire disappeared, the popularity of the Eur

  1. Konrad Ottenheym and Krista De Jonge (eds., The Low Countries at the Crossroads. Netherlandish Architecture as an Export Product in Early Modern Europe (1480-1680

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Book review of: Konrad Ottenheym & Krista De Jonge (eds., The Low Countries at the Crossroads. Netherlandish Architecture as an Export Product in Early Modern Europe (1480-1680, (Architectura Moderna, vol. VIII. Turnhout, Brepols, 2013. 514 pp. ISBN 978-2-503-54333-8. € 130,00.

  2. What was the Best for an Infant from the Middle Ages to Early Modern Times in Europe? The Discussion Concerning Wet Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prühlen, Sünje

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The question who has been appropriate to nurse a child has been very important. Especially in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Times parents found themselves in the conflict between theological and medical views on the one side and their own opinion on the other. In the German speaking part of Europe authors like Bartholmäus Metlinger may influence the parents because he published in their language his treatises. Different other authors told the parents not to select a wet nurse because of the bad influence on the child. But have they been successful? Do we know anything about the parents, the children and the wet nurses? The article focuses a special part of Europe, which has been influenced by antique convictions as well as other European regions.

  3. The construction of the idea of the city in Early Modern Europe: Pérez de Herrera and Nicolas Delamare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    With the economic and social changes in Europe at the end of the sixteenth century and the formation and consolidation of an urban network throughout the continent, questions such as poverty, sanitation, and hygiene began to pose acute problems in the cities of the age. A new school of thought, known in Spain as Ciencia de Policía and in the Mediterranean area as Policy Science, proposed solutions for these problems and tested them through practical interventions inside the urban setting. In this article the author compares the work of two thinkers: Cristóbal Pérez de Herrera, a Spaniard, and Nicolas Delamare, a Frenchman. Writing in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, Pérez de Herrera examined the organization of Madrid, the newly founded (though still not firmly established) capital of Spain. Delamare based his study on the Paris of the early eighteenth century. The author stresses the coincidences in some of the ideas of both thinkers and shows how their writings begin to embody a new idea of the city, many aspects of which have survived until the present day.

  4. The Oldest Anatomically Modern Humans from Far Southeast Europe : Direct Dating, Culture and Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prat, Sandrine; Pean, Stephane C.; Crepin, Laurent; Drucker, Dorothee G.; Puaud, Simon J.; Valladas, Helene; Laznickova-Galetova, Martina; van der Plicht, Johannes; Yanevich, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Background: Anatomically Modern Humans (AMHs) are known to have spread across Europe during the period coinciding with the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Whereas their dispersal into Western Europe is relatively well established, evidence of an early settlement of Eastern Europe by modern

  5. The Oldest Anatomically Modern Humans from Far Southeast Europe : Direct Dating, Culture and Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prat, Sandrine; Pean, Stephane C.; Crepin, Laurent; Drucker, Dorothee G.; Puaud, Simon J.; Valladas, Helene; Laznickova-Galetova, Martina; van der Plicht, Johannes; Yanevich, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Background: Anatomically Modern Humans (AMHs) are known to have spread across Europe during the period coinciding with the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Whereas their dispersal into Western Europe is relatively well established, evidence of an early settlement of Eastern Europe by modern h

  6. Modernization Theory Revisited: Latin America, Europe, and the U.S. in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando López-Alves

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Theories of modernization, globalization, and dependency have assigned a clear role to Latin America: the region has been seen as dependent, exploited, and institutionally weak. In these theories, modernization and globalization are seen as forces generated elsewhere; the region, in these views, has merely tried to “adjust” and “respond” to these external influences. At best, it has imitated some of the political institutions of the core countries and, most of the times, unsuccessfully. While there is very good empirical evidence that supports these views, the essay argues that these theories need some correction. Latin America has been an innovator and a modernizer in its own right, especially in its cutting-edge design of the nation-state and in its modern conceptualization of the national community. Thus, the essay suggests that the region has not merely “adjusted” to modernization and globalization. Rather, the paper makes a case for a reinterpretation of the region’s role as a modernizer and an important contributor to the consolidation of the modern West.

  7. Being States and Making Diplomacy in Early Modern Europe: The Danish Kingdom and the Dutch Republic c. 1568-1632

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, G

    2006-01-01

    According to modern concepts the earth is divided into sovereign states. The sovereign states form a state system. They communicate by diplomacy and express their mutual recognition by establishing diplomatic relations. In practice, by mutually accrediting a permanent representative at the seat...

  8. Early modern sport

    OpenAIRE

    Huggins, Mike

    2017-01-01

    The "early modern" has always suffered problems of periodization. Its beginnings overlap with the Late Middle Ages when sport and athletic exercise were moving away from military training. It encompasses the Renaissance, Reformation, and Counter-Reformation and the scientific shifts of the Age of Enlightenment, movements that were diverse chronologically, geographically, culturally and intellectually. Some historians link its beginnings to block-printing, the beginning of the Tudor period, or...

  9. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in northwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Tom; Compton, Tim; Stringer, Chris; Jacobi, Roger; Shapiro, Beth; Trinkaus, Erik; Chandler, Barry; Gröning, Flora; Collins, Chris; Hillson, Simon; O'Higgins, Paul; FitzGerald, Charles; Fagan, Michael

    2011-11-02

    The earliest anatomically modern humans in Europe are thought to have appeared around 43,000-42,000 calendar years before present (43-42 kyr cal BP), by association with Aurignacian sites and lithic assemblages assumed to have been made by modern humans rather than by Neanderthals. However, the actual physical evidence for modern humans is extremely rare, and direct dates reach no farther back than about 41-39 kyr cal BP, leaving a gap. Here we show, using stratigraphic, chronological and archaeological data, that a fragment of human maxilla from the Kent's Cavern site, UK, dates to the earlier period. The maxilla (KC4), which was excavated in 1927, was initially diagnosed as Upper Palaeolithic modern human. In 1989, it was directly radiocarbon dated by accelerator mass spectrometry to 36.4-34.7 kyr cal BP. Using a Bayesian analysis of new ultrafiltered bone collagen dates in an ordered stratigraphic sequence at the site, we show that this date is a considerable underestimate. Instead, KC4 dates to 44.2-41.5 kyr cal BP. This makes it older than any other equivalently dated modern human specimen and directly contemporary with the latest European Neanderthals, thus making its taxonomic attribution crucial. We also show that in 13 dental traits KC4 possesses modern human rather than Neanderthal characteristics; three other traits show Neanderthal affinities and a further seven are ambiguous. KC4 therefore represents the oldest known anatomically modern human fossil in northwestern Europe, fills a key gap between the earliest dated Aurignacian remains and the earliest human skeletal remains, and demonstrates the wide and rapid dispersal of early modern humans across Europe more than 40 kyr ago. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  10. Early Modern English:Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    By the end of the Middle English period there is already considerable loss of inflectional morphology, and in Early Modern English we see the last reflexes of a shift from synthetic Old English to analytic Modern English (Lass 1999: 139). In fact, the inflectional system of Early Modern English is not very different from what we have today (Go¨rlach 1991: 79). The changes in inflection which do take place between 1500 and 1700 show marked sociolinguistic differentiation and are the subject of...

  11. Giovanni Paolo Marana’s Turkish Spy and the Police of Louis XIV: the Fear of Being Secretly Observed by Trained Agents in Early Modern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Porada

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Paolo Marana’s epistolary novel, entitled l’Espion du Grand-Seigneur and published for the first time in the 1680s, was a pioneering work of a genre that was to flourish much later, namely spy story. The story features an Arab who comes to Paris in 1637 and spends the next 45 years collecting information about French government’s activity without being ever identified by French counter-intelligence. The main character was an undercover agent of a Muslim empire, who watched Christians with contempt - and yet the book that pretended to be just a bunch of his letters, accidentally found and translated from Arabic by Marana, was a bestseller in late seventeenth- and then eighteenth-century Western Europe. The paper presents the fates of the work and discusses the reasons of its huge success. Apart from the fact that the novel was written in a brilliant style, and published at the time when the ongoing Habsburg-Turkish war had triggered intensive interest in the Muslim East, one of these reasons was the fact that it was published in the time when in France a modern police force was created. Its tasks included collecting information about political opinions, religious practices and intimate lives of the Sun King’s subjects. The new feeling of being observed by the government’s men and informers certainly prepared the ground for the success of the first spy story of the West.

  12. Crop Management as an Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in Early Modern Era: A Comparative Study of Eastern and Western Europe

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    Qing Pei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective adaptation determines agricultural vulnerability to climate change, especially in the pre-industrial era. Crop management as an agricultural adaptation to climate change in recent human history, however, has rarely been systematically evaluated. Using Europe as our study area, we statistically compared yield ratio of wheat, rye, barley, and oats (an important performance indicator of an agrarian economy between Eastern and Western Europe in AD 1500–1800. In particular, a statistical comparison was made of crop yield ratio in the two regions during the warm agricultural recovery period AD 1700–1800. The general trend of crop yield in Eastern and Western Europe basically followed the alternation of climatic epochs, in which the extreme cooling period in AD 1560–1660 drastically reduced the crop yield ratio. The yield ratio of rye in Eastern and Western Europe was very similar throughout the entire study period. However, the yield ratio of wheat, barley, and oats showed different patterns in the two regions and increased drastically in Western Europe in the warm agricultural recovery period, which might have contributed to rapid socio-economic development in Western Europe and eventually the East–West Divide in Europe in the following centuries.

  13. The hidden truths of the belly: the uncertainties of pregnancy in early modern Europe. (Society for the Social History of Medicine Student Prize Essay 1999, runner-up.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClive, Cathy

    2002-08-01

    For early modern men and women and their medical practitioners, the experience and understanding of pregnancy was primarily uncertain. This uncertainty extended to the whole process of pregnancy--from the moment of conception to delivery, the detection and bearing of a 'true fruit' was doubtful. This 'uncertainty' was heightened by the fact that both body and language could conceal the truth. The woman herself was frequently uncertain and could be mistaken in her interpretation of the condition of her belly. This ambiguity is expressed in the vague and faltering language used to describe such experiences. Women's bodies were believed to conceal the truth more readily than their male counterparts. Equally a woman's physical narrative was more likely to be distrusted. Tensions surrounding the appropriate nature of women's 'knowledge' of such hidden 'secrets' also affected the ways in which women and their practitioners described the 'truths' of the belly. This article traces the ambiguities faced by women and their midwives/accoucheurs through three areas of pregnancy: quickening, false conceptions, and the threat of miscarriage. The much-neglected source of medical texts and observations is drawn upon, alongside letters and diaries and judicial material.

  14. Early Pliocene vegetation distribution in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, S.; Warny, S.; Suc, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Early Pliocene corresponds to a global warm climate documented by marine & terrestrial records. Reconstruction of climatic parameters, based on terrestrial proxies, indicate at European mid-latitudes a MAT higher of about 1-5°C than today and MAP higher of about 400-1000 mm. This global warm situation was interrupted between 4.7 - 4.5 Ma by a cooling event related to small fluctuations of the Antarctic ice-sheet that modify the floristic assemblages. according to pollen recors, the Northern Mediterranean area is characterized by dominance of arboreal pollen, suggesting a dense forest cover, on contrary to the Southern Mediterranean where herbs were prevalent, signifying a widespread development of open vegetation during the early Pliocene. Such a contrast in landscape between the North and the South of the Mediterranean is to be related to the latitudinal gradient in humidity. In the North Mediterranean area, the vegetation organization was also closely linked to the relief. Coastal plains were inhabited by Taxodiaceae swamps replaced in some places by marshes. With respect to the geographic position, several plant ecosystems can distinguished: (1) salt marshes, along the Atlantic coastline (zone A); (2) marshes mostly made of Cyperaceae evidenced on the Mediterranean coastline. Such juxtaposed assemblages resemble the modern vegetation of the Mississippi Delta and Florida. Peculiar vegetation assemblages characterize the Mediterranean coastal plains. In the southeastern Mediterranean region (Zone B), the open vegetation was composed by herbs including subdesertic elements. Mediterranean xerophytes are only numerically represented in the area of Tarragona and Sicily, their assemblage resemble the modern thermo-mediterranean formation. Close to the mountains (Zone C) vegetation is organized according to an altitudinal gradient. The low altitude vegetation was composed by Taxodiaceae (Sequoia) while Cathaya and Cedrus dominated the mid-altitude belt. Abies and

  15. Modern Europe: An Instructional Guide, Grades 10-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA. Div. of Instructional Planning and Services.

    Emphasizing Europe's role in the growth of Western institutions and ideals, this guide stresses the development of skills necessary for active participation in democratic processes. An introductory unit on the Renaissance and the Reformation is followed by units on (1) the political events fostering the growth of the modern national state and the…

  16. The oldest anatomically modern humans from far southeast Europe: direct dating, culture and behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Prat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anatomically Modern Humans (AMHs are known to have spread across Europe during the period coinciding with the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Whereas their dispersal into Western Europe is relatively well established, evidence of an early settlement of Eastern Europe by modern humans are comparatively scarce. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Based on a multidisciplinary approach for the study of human and faunal remains, we describe here the oldest AMH remains from the extreme southeast Europe, in conjunction with their associated cultural and paleoecological background. We applied taxonomy, paleoecology, and taphonomy combined with geomorphology, stratigraphy, archeology and radiocarbon dating. More than 160 human bone remains have been discovered. They originate from a well documented Upper Paleolithic archeological layer (Gravettian cultural tradition from the site of Buran-Kaya III located in Crimea (Ukraine. The combination of non-metric dental traits and the morphology of the occipital bones allow us to attribute the human remains to Anatomically Modern Humans. A set of human and faunal remains from this layer has been radiocarbon dated by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. The direct-dating results of human bone establish a secure presence of AMHs at 31,900+240/-220 BP in this region. They are the oldest direct evidence of the presence of AMHs in a well documented archeological context. Based on taphonomical observations (cut marks and distribution of skeletal elements, they represent the oldest Upper Paleolithic modern humans from Eastern Europe, showing post-mortem treatment of the dead as well. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings are essential for the debate on the spread of modern humans in Europe during the Upper Paleolithic, as well as their cultural behaviors.

  17. The oldest anatomically modern humans from far southeast Europe: direct dating, culture and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Sandrine; Péan, Stéphane C; Crépin, Laurent; Drucker, Dorothée G; Puaud, Simon J; Valladas, Hélène; Lázničková-Galetová, Martina; van der Plicht, Johannes; Yanevich, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Anatomically Modern Humans (AMHs) are known to have spread across Europe during the period coinciding with the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Whereas their dispersal into Western Europe is relatively well established, evidence of an early settlement of Eastern Europe by modern humans are comparatively scarce. Based on a multidisciplinary approach for the study of human and faunal remains, we describe here the oldest AMH remains from the extreme southeast Europe, in conjunction with their associated cultural and paleoecological background. We applied taxonomy, paleoecology, and taphonomy combined with geomorphology, stratigraphy, archeology and radiocarbon dating. More than 160 human bone remains have been discovered. They originate from a well documented Upper Paleolithic archeological layer (Gravettian cultural tradition) from the site of Buran-Kaya III located in Crimea (Ukraine). The combination of non-metric dental traits and the morphology of the occipital bones allow us to attribute the human remains to Anatomically Modern Humans. A set of human and faunal remains from this layer has been radiocarbon dated by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. The direct-dating results of human bone establish a secure presence of AMHs at 31,900+240/-220 BP in this region. They are the oldest direct evidence of the presence of AMHs in a well documented archeological context. Based on taphonomical observations (cut marks and distribution of skeletal elements), they represent the oldest Upper Paleolithic modern humans from Eastern Europe, showing post-mortem treatment of the dead as well. These findings are essential for the debate on the spread of modern humans in Europe during the Upper Paleolithic, as well as their cultural behaviors.

  18. Casebooks in Early Modern England:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  19. International Orders in the Early Modern World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book challenges the Eurocentric foundations of modern International Relations scholarship. Its primary empirical focus is the early modern era, when European primacy had yet to develop in many parts of the globe. It presents a series of regional case studies from experts on East Asia, the Mi...... and scholars of international relations, international relations theory, international history, early modern history and sociology.......This book challenges the Eurocentric foundations of modern International Relations scholarship. Its primary empirical focus is the early modern era, when European primacy had yet to develop in many parts of the globe. It presents a series of regional case studies from experts on East Asia....... Focusing on a crucial period of global history that has been neglected in the field of International Relations, the book reveals profound differences between the early modern era and the more familiar colonial conquests of the second half of the nineteenth century. It will be interest to students...

  20. Numeracy and literacy in Early Modern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo; Van Lottum, Jelle

    This paper reconstructs comparative levels of numeracy and literacy for seamen of different ranks from 14 countries in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries using age heaping and signature methods. Results show how skill was rewarded in the maritime labour market, where captains and fishing...

  1. Archives and the Boundaries of Early Modern Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    This contribution argues that the study of early modern archives suggests a new agenda for historians of early modern science. While in recent years historians of science have begun to direct increased attention toward the collections amassed by figures and institutions traditionally portrayed as proto-scientific, archives proliferated across early modern Europe, emerging as powerful tools for creating knowledge in politics, history, and law as well as natural philosophy, botany, and more. The essay investigates the methods of production, collection, organization, and manipulation used by English statesmen and Crown officers such as Keeper of the State Papers Thomas Wilson and Secretary of State Joseph Williamson to govern their disorderly collections. Their methods, it is shown, were shared with contemporaries seeking to generate and manage other troves of evidence and in fact reflect a complex ecosystem of imitation and exchange across fields of inquiry. These commonalities suggest that historians of science should look beyond the ancestors of modern scientific disciplines to examine how practices of producing knowledge emerged and migrated throughout cultures of learning in Europe and beyond. Creating such a map of knowledge production and exchange, the essay concludes, would provide a renewed and expansive ambition for the field.

  2. Change and continuity in early modern cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Bonner, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Seen as a flash point of the Scientific Revolution, early modern astronomy witnessed an explosion of views about the function and structure of the world. This study explores these theories in a wide variety of settings, and challenges our view of modern science as the straightforward successor of Aristotelian natural philosophy.

  3. Modern humans did not admix with Neanderthals during their range expansion into Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Currat

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The process by which the Neanderthals were replaced by modern humans between 42,000 and 30,000 before present is still intriguing. Although no Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA lineage is found to date among several thousands of Europeans and in seven early modern Europeans, interbreeding rates as high as 25% could not be excluded between the two subspecies. In this study, we introduce a realistic model of the range expansion of early modern humans into Europe, and of their competition and potential admixture with local Neanderthals. Under this scenario, which explicitly models the dynamics of Neanderthals' replacement, we estimate that maximum interbreeding rates between the two populations should have been smaller than 0.1%. We indeed show that the absence of Neanderthal mtDNA sequences in Europe is compatible with at most 120 admixture events between the two populations despite a likely cohabitation time of more than 12,000 y. This extremely low number strongly suggests an almost complete sterility between Neanderthal females and modern human males, implying that the two populations were probably distinct biological species.

  4. Bolatu's pharmacy theriac in early modern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Carla

    2009-01-01

    In early modem China, natural history and medicine were shifting along with the boundaries of the empire. Naturalists struggled to cope with a pharmacy's worth of new and unfamiliar substances, texts, and terms, as plants, animals, and the drugs made from them travelled into China across land and sea. One crucial aspect of this phenomenon was the early modern exchange between Islamic and Chinese medicine. The history of theriac illustrates the importance of the recipe for the naturalization of foreign objects in early modem Chinese medicine. Theriac was a widely sought-after and hotly debated product in early modern European pharmacology and arrived into the Chinese medical canon via Arabic and Persian texts. The dialogue between language and material objects was critical to the Silk Road drug trade, and transliteration was ultimately a crucial technology used to translate drugs and texts about them in the early modern world.

  5. Early Modern Orphanages between Civic Pride and Social Discipline: Francke’s Use of Dutch Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The Orphanage of Halle was an institution that had no match in early modern Europe. It was by no means an ordinary orphanage, but rather a powerhouse of the pietist movement. Missions both on the Continent and abroad were supported by the resources generated by the very modern mass-propaganda Franck

  6. New chronology for Ksâr ‘Akil (Lebanon) supports Levantine route of modern human dispersal into Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Marjolein D.; Mannino, Marcello A.; Prendergast, Amy L.; O’Connell, Tamsin C.; Demarchi, Beatrice; Taylor, Sheila M.; Niven, Laura; van der Plicht, Johannes; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Modern human dispersal into Europe is thought to have occurred with the start of the Upper Paleolithic around 50,000–40,000 y ago. The Levantine corridor hypothesis suggests that modern humans from Africa spread into Europe via the Levant. Ksâr ‘Akil (Lebanon), with its deeply stratified Initial (IUP) and Early (EUP) Upper Paleolithic sequence containing modern human remains, has played an important part in the debate. The latest chronology for the site, based on AMS radiocarbon dates of shell ornaments, suggests that the appearance of the Levantine IUP is later than the start of the first Upper Paleolithic in Europe, thus questioning the Levantine corridor hypothesis. Here we report a series of AMS radiocarbon dates on the marine gastropod Phorcus turbinatus associated with modern human remains and IUP and EUP stone tools from Ksâr ‘Akil. Our results, supported by an evaluation of individual sample integrity, place the EUP layer containing the skeleton known as “Egbert” between 43,200 and 42,900 cal B.P. and the IUP-associated modern human maxilla known as “Ethelruda” before ∼45,900 cal B.P. This chronology is in line with those of other Levantine IUP and EUP sites and demonstrates that the presence of modern humans associated with Upper Paleolithic toolkits in the Levant predates all modern human fossils from Europe. The age of the IUP-associated Ethelruda fossil is significant for the spread of modern humans carrying the IUP into Europe and suggests a rapid initial colonization of Europe by our species. PMID:26034284

  7. New chronology for Ksâr 'Akil (Lebanon) supports Levantine route of modern human dispersal into Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Marjolein D; Mannino, Marcello A; Prendergast, Amy L; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Demarchi, Beatrice; Taylor, Sheila M; Niven, Laura; van der Plicht, Johannes; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2015-06-23

    Modern human dispersal into Europe is thought to have occurred with the start of the Upper Paleolithic around 50,000-40,000 y ago. The Levantine corridor hypothesis suggests that modern humans from Africa spread into Europe via the Levant. Ksâr 'Akil (Lebanon), with its deeply stratified Initial (IUP) and Early (EUP) Upper Paleolithic sequence containing modern human remains, has played an important part in the debate. The latest chronology for the site, based on AMS radiocarbon dates of shell ornaments, suggests that the appearance of the Levantine IUP is later than the start of the first Upper Paleolithic in Europe, thus questioning the Levantine corridor hypothesis. Here we report a series of AMS radiocarbon dates on the marine gastropod Phorcus turbinatus associated with modern human remains and IUP and EUP stone tools from Ksâr 'Akil. Our results, supported by an evaluation of individual sample integrity, place the EUP layer containing the skeleton known as "Egbert" between 43,200 and 42,900 cal B.P. and the IUP-associated modern human maxilla known as "Ethelruda" before ∼ 45,900 cal B.P. This chronology is in line with those of other Levantine IUP and EUP sites and demonstrates that the presence of modern humans associated with Upper Paleolithic toolkits in the Levant predates all modern human fossils from Europe. The age of the IUP-associated Ethelruda fossil is significant for the spread of modern humans carrying the IUP into Europe and suggests a rapid initial colonization of Europe by our species.

  8. Schooling in modern Europe exploring major issues and their ramifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husén, Torsten

    1993-11-01

    Basing its arguments on a major study conducted on behalf of the Academia Europaea by a study group coordinated by the author, this paper sets out a number of important findings concerning problems besetting schooling in modern Europe. The paper begins by stressing the importance of studying the state of European education at a particularly significant time when major political changes are taking place, trade and labour markets are in a process of rapid integration, schools as institutions are becoming increasingly complex and there is a need to establish a new European identity and consciousness. The main questions examined, against the current background of industrialization, urbanization, changing demography and growing European integration, are those relating particularly to educational response to growing international competition and the consequences of changing family structure. Among problems considered are those arising from the changing capacity of schools to provide a substitute for the family and other influences in modern society at a time when, for various reasons, these are declining and schooling is generally being prolonged. Priority areas proposed for school education in the new circumstances include the promotion of European citizenship, the teaching of foreign languages to all, a preparation for working life geared to its rapidly changing structure and the expansion of appropriate scientific and technological education. The need to find solutions to the problems of educating immigrant groups and to develop evaluation systems in order to monitor quality maintenance are particularly highlighted.

  9. Wallerstein, World Systems Analysis, and Early Modern European History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPlessis, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    Surveys evaluations of Immanuel Wallerstein's "The Modern World-System" by specialists in early modern history and examines Wallerstein's influence on early modern historiography. Concludes by considering some attempts to synthesize world-systems analysis with other approaches. (LS)

  10. Wallerstein, World Systems Analysis, and Early Modern European History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPlessis, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    Surveys evaluations of Immanuel Wallerstein's "The Modern World-System" by specialists in early modern history and examines Wallerstein's influence on early modern historiography. Concludes by considering some attempts to synthesize world-systems analysis with other approaches. (LS)

  11. Preterit Loss in Early Modern Nuremberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, Angela Catania

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates "Prateritumschwund," one of the most salient developments in the Upper German dialect area during the Early Modern period. Drawing on a wide range of text types originating in Nuremberg and its surrounding areas from the 13th to the 17th centuries, this study tests various hypotheses put forward as alleged causes…

  12. Early modern experimentation on live animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoloni Meli, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the works by Aselli (De lactibus sive lacteis venis, 1627) on the milky veins and Harvey (1628, translated in 1993) on the motion of the heart and the circulation of the blood, the practice of vivisection witnessed a resurgence in the early modern period. I discuss some of the most notable cases in the century spanning from Aselli's work to the investigations of fluid pressure in plants and animals by Stephen Hales (Vegetable Staticks, 1727). Key figures in my study include Johannes Walaeus, Jean Pecquet, Marcello Malpighi, Reinier de Graaf, Richard Lower, Anton Nuck, and Anton de Heide. Although vivisection dates from antiquity, early modern experimenters expanded the range of practices and epistemic motivations associated with it, displaying considerable technical skills and methodological awareness about the problems associated with the animals being alive and the issue of generalizing results to humans. Many practitioners expressed great discomfort at the suffering of the animals; however, many remained convinced that their investigations were not only indispensable from an epistemic standpoint but also had potential medical applications. Early modern vivisection experiments were both extensive and sophisticated and cannot be ignored in the literature of early modern experimentation or of experimentation on living organisms across time.

  13. New chronology for Ksâr 'Akil (Lebanon) supports Levantine route of modern human dispersal into Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Marjolein D.; Mannino, Marcello A.; Prendergast, Amy L.; O’Connell, Tamsin C.; Demarchi, Beatrice; Taylor, Sheila M.; Niven, Laura; van der Plicht, Johannes; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian modeling of AMS radiocarbon dates on the marine mollusk Phorcus turbinatus from Ksâr ‘Akil (Lebanon) indicates that the earliest presence of Upper Paleolithic (UP) modern humans in the Levant predates 45,900 cal B.P. Similarities in early UP lithic technology and material culture suggest population dispersals between the Levant and Europe around 50,000–40,000 cal B.P. Our data confirm the presence of modern humans carrying a UP toolkit in the Levant prior to any known European modern...

  14. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the...... police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682-83 the Danish king a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population...... of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced...

  15. Contextualizing Female Infanticide: Ming China in Early Modern European Travelogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Sachdev

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential components of the early modern European response to China was an emphasis on the fabulous wealth and social organization of Chinese society. Despite their knowledge of the wide-scale abandonment and killing of newborns within the society, and despite the categorization of infanticide as a great moral sin by the early Christian church, the European travelers to China commented on infanticide dispassionately, without any moral revulsion, and continued to project an image of China as a virtual utopia for its residents. One reason for the detached descriptions of abandonment of children and infanticide in China might be the fact that conditions with regard to children in Europe were no superior to those in China and were probably far worse; the vast numbers of abandoned and dead children in Europe blunted the edge of criticism with regard to Chinese customs. Another might be that infanticide was practiced within Europe contemporaneously, even though the killing of newborn children there was practiced much more surreptitiously, and public opinion had firmed up connections among single women, illegitimacy, concealment, and murder. However, the dire social circumstances within their own countries had not prevented the Europeans from soundly criticizing and morally reproving cannibalism or infanticide in other cultures. In order to understand their acceptance of this “sinful” practice in China, we must look elsewhere.

  16. Early modern "citation index"? Medical authorities in academic treatises on plague (1480-1725).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerný, K

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of early modern scientific citations. It attempts to establish a measure of scientific popularity in a specific area of the academic medicine in a way which resembles a modern evaluation of scientific activity (citation index). For this purpose an analysis of a series of plague treatises written between 1480 and 1725 in Europe was conducted. Citations for various historical medical authorities (Hippocrates, Galen, etc.) are given in Tables which reflect a long time development of popularity. The authorities from various groups (Ancient, Medieval, Arabic, Early Modern) are linked together, and "generic authorities" are explained and discussed.

  17. Editorial: Modern Challenges for International Business in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek KLICH

    2013-01-01

    Globalisation,  integration,  regionalisation  or  integration  processes  are  indeed  very crucial for local businesses, which more and more often think globally and act locally (Kefalas, 1998), especially in Europe, thus globalisation and Europeanisation processes are currently key contemporary challenges for international businesses in Europe.

  18. Food Policing in Early Modern Danish Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Mührmann-Lund

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682–83 the Danish king established a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced as a means to avoid food riots at the end the 18th century. In a major provincial market town like Aalborg, the food trade was policed in a similar manner by the town council and the police, but especially the intermediate trade proved difficult to stop. In a tiny, agrarian market town like Sæby, food policing was more a question of feeding the poor with the town’s own products.

  19. Assembling the dodo in early modern natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Natalie

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the assimilation of the flightless dodo into early modern natural history. The dodo was first described by Dutch sailors landing on Mauritius in 1598, and became extinct in the 1680s or 1690s. Despite this brief period of encounter, the bird was a popular subject in natural-history works and a range of other genres. The dodo will be used here as a counterexample to the historical narratives of taxonomic crisis and abrupt shifts in natural history caused by exotic creatures coming to Europe. Though this bird had a bizarre form, early modern naturalists integrated the dodo and other flightless birds through several levels of conceptual categorization, including the geographical, morphological and symbolic. Naturalists such as Charles L'Ecluse produced a set of typical descriptive tropes that helped make up the European dodo. These long-lived images were used for a variety of symbolic purposes, demonstrated by the depiction of the Dutch East India enterprise in Willem Piso's 1658 publication. The case of the dodo shows that, far from there being a dramatic shift away from emblematics in the seventeenth century, the implicit symbolic roles attributed to exotic beasts by naturalists constructing them from scant information and specimens remained integral to natural history.

  20. Why was there no capitalism in early modern China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIAGO NASSER APPEL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this paper, we ask the following question: why couldn’t Early Modern China make the leap to capitalism, as we have come to know it in the West? We suggest that, even if China compared well with the West in key economic features - commercialization and commodification of goods, land, labor - up to the 18th century, it did not traverse the path to Capitalism because of the “fact of empire”. Lacking the scale of fiscal difficulties encountered in Early Modern Europe, Late Imperial China did not have to heavily tax merchants and notables; therefore, it did not have to negotiate rights and duties with the mercantile class. More innovatively, we also propose that the relative lack of fiscal difficulties meant that China failed to develop a “virtuous symbiosis” between taxing, monetization of the economy and public debt. This is because, essentially, it was the mobilization of society’s resources - primarily by way of public debt or taxes - towards the support of a military force that created the first real opportunities for merchants and bankers to amass immense and unprecedented wealth.

  1. Joint Environmental Policymaking in Europe: Between Deregulation and Political Modernization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The 1990s witnessed a debate on public-private partnerships and more consensual environmental policymaking to repair the "state failure" in conventional environmental regulation. One of the consequences in Europe has been new environmental policy arrangements that stand out by being both jointly for

  2. Fleck, anatomical drawings and early modern history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowy, Ilana

    2008-01-01

    In 2003, the historian of medicine Michael Stolberg, contested the argument--developed by Thomas Laqueur and Londa Schiebinger--that in the XVIII century, anatomists shifted from a one-sex to a two-sexes model. Laqueur and Schiebinger linked the new focus on anatomical differences between the sexes to the rise of egalitarian aspirations during the Enlightenment, and a consecutive need to ground male domination in invariable "laws of nature". Stolberg claimed that the shift to the two sexes model occurred in the early modern period, and was mainly motivated by developments within medicine. This article examines the 2003 debate on the origin of "two sexes" model in the light of a 1939 controversy that opposed the historian of medicine Tadeusz Bilikiewicz, who advocated a focus on a "spirit" of an earlier epoch, and the pioneer of sociology of science Ludwik Fleck, who promoted the study of the "thought styles" of specific scientific communities.

  3. Genealogical relationships between early medieval and modern inhabitants of Piedmont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vai, Stefania; Ghirotto, Silvia; Pilli, Elena; Tassi, Francesca; Lari, Martina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Ramirez, Oscar; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Torroni, Antonio; Lancioni, Hovirag; Giostra, Caterina; Bedini, Elena; Pejrani Baricco, Luisella; Matullo, Giuseppe; Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Piazza, Alberto; Veeramah, Krishna; Geary, Patrick; Caramelli, David; Barbujani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    In the period between 400 to 800 AD, also known as the period of the Barbarian invasions, intense migration is documented in the historical record of Europe. However, little is known about the demographic impact of these historical movements, potentially ranging from negligible to substantial. As a pilot study in a broader project on Medieval Europe, we sampled 102 specimens from 5 burial sites in Northwestern Italy, archaeologically classified as belonging to Lombards or Longobards, a Germanic people ruling over a vast section of the Italian peninsula from 568 to 774. We successfully amplified and typed the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVR-I) of 28 individuals. Comparisons of genetic diversity with other ancient populations and haplotype networks did not suggest that these samples are heterogeneous, and hence allowed us to jointly compare them with three isolated contemporary populations, and with a modern sample of a large city, representing a control for the effects of recent immigration. We then generated by serial coalescent simulations 16 millions of genealogies, contrasting a model of genealogical continuity with one in which the contemporary samples are genealogically independent from the medieval sample. Analyses by Approximate Bayesian Computation showed that the latter model fits the data in most cases, with one exception, Trino Vercellese, in which the evidence was compatible with persistence up to the present time of genetic features observed among this early medieval population. We conclude that it is possible, in general, to detect evidence of genealogical ties between medieval and specific modern populations. However, only seldom did mitochondrial DNA data allow us to reject with confidence either model tested, which indicates that broader analyses, based on larger assemblages of samples and genetic markers, are needed to understand in detail the effects of medieval migration.

  4. Genealogical relationships between early medieval and modern inhabitants of Piedmont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Vai

    Full Text Available In the period between 400 to 800 AD, also known as the period of the Barbarian invasions, intense migration is documented in the historical record of Europe. However, little is known about the demographic impact of these historical movements, potentially ranging from negligible to substantial. As a pilot study in a broader project on Medieval Europe, we sampled 102 specimens from 5 burial sites in Northwestern Italy, archaeologically classified as belonging to Lombards or Longobards, a Germanic people ruling over a vast section of the Italian peninsula from 568 to 774. We successfully amplified and typed the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVR-I of 28 individuals. Comparisons of genetic diversity with other ancient populations and haplotype networks did not suggest that these samples are heterogeneous, and hence allowed us to jointly compare them with three isolated contemporary populations, and with a modern sample of a large city, representing a control for the effects of recent immigration. We then generated by serial coalescent simulations 16 millions of genealogies, contrasting a model of genealogical continuity with one in which the contemporary samples are genealogically independent from the medieval sample. Analyses by Approximate Bayesian Computation showed that the latter model fits the data in most cases, with one exception, Trino Vercellese, in which the evidence was compatible with persistence up to the present time of genetic features observed among this early medieval population. We conclude that it is possible, in general, to detect evidence of genealogical ties between medieval and specific modern populations. However, only seldom did mitochondrial DNA data allow us to reject with confidence either model tested, which indicates that broader analyses, based on larger assemblages of samples and genetic markers, are needed to understand in detail the effects of medieval migration.

  5. Genealogical Relationships between Early Medieval and Modern Inhabitants of Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vai, Stefania; Ghirotto, Silvia; Pilli, Elena; Tassi, Francesca; Lari, Martina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Ramirez, Oscar; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Torroni, Antonio; Lancioni, Hovirag; Giostra, Caterina; Bedini, Elena; Baricco, Luisella Pejrani; Matullo, Giuseppe; Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Piazza, Alberto; Veeramah, Krishna; Geary, Patrick; Caramelli, David; Barbujani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    In the period between 400 to 800 AD, also known as the period of the Barbarian invasions, intense migration is documented in the historical record of Europe. However, little is known about the demographic impact of these historical movements, potentially ranging from negligible to substantial. As a pilot study in a broader project on Medieval Europe, we sampled 102 specimens from 5 burial sites in Northwestern Italy, archaeologically classified as belonging to Lombards or Longobards, a Germanic people ruling over a vast section of the Italian peninsula from 568 to 774. We successfully amplified and typed the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVR-I) of 28 individuals. Comparisons of genetic diversity with other ancient populations and haplotype networks did not suggest that these samples are heterogeneous, and hence allowed us to jointly compare them with three isolated contemporary populations, and with a modern sample of a large city, representing a control for the effects of recent immigration. We then generated by serial coalescent simulations 16 millions of genealogies, contrasting a model of genealogical continuity with one in which the contemporary samples are genealogically independent from the medieval sample. Analyses by Approximate Bayesian Computation showed that the latter model fits the data in most cases, with one exception, Trino Vercellese, in which the evidence was compatible with persistence up to the present time of genetic features observed among this early medieval population. We conclude that it is possible, in general, to detect evidence of genealogical ties between medieval and specific modern populations. However, only seldom did mitochondrial DNA data allow us to reject with confidence either model tested, which indicates that broader analyses, based on larger assemblages of samples and genetic markers, are needed to understand in detail the effects of medieval migration. PMID:25635682

  6. Russian impressions of the modernity: Dostoyevsky traveling through Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mendonça

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, I analyze the non-fictional text written by Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-1881 during his travels through Europe in 1862, Winter notes on summer impressions (1863 – work apparently unpretentious and that does not obey the formal rigor of any specific literary genre. At first and briefly, it matters to me highlight the origin of the word “modernity” in light of the etymological research of this term undertaken by the German theorist Hans Robert Jauss (1921-1997 and the conception elaborated by the French poet and critic Charles Baudelaire, especially in his poem À une passante. Subsequently, some of the main excerpts from Winter notes... regarding the physical descriptions of the cities will be commented to emphasize, mainly, the critical look with which Dostoyevsky viewed the transformations that were undergoing in Europe (notably the capitals Paris and London during the second half of the nineteenth century.

  7. Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John; Barton, Nick; Blockley, Simon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Cullen, Victoria L; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Grant, Katharine; Hardiman, Mark; Housley, Rupert; Lane, Christine S; Lee, Sharen; Lewis, Mark; MacLeod, Alison; Menzies, Martin; Müller, Wolfgang; Pollard, Mark; Price, Catherine; Roberts, Andrew P; Rohling, Eelco J; Satow, Chris; Smith, Victoria C; Stringer, Chris B; Tomlinson, Emma L; White, Dustin; Albert, Paul; Arienzo, Ilenia; Barker, Graeme; Boric, Dusan; Carandente, Antonio; Civetta, Lucia; Ferrier, Catherine; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Koumouzelis, Margarita; Müller, Ulrich C; Orsi, Giovanni; Pross, Jörg; Rosi, Mauro; Shalamanov-Korobar, Ljiljiana; Sirakov, Nikolay; Tzedakis, Polychronis C

    2012-08-21

    Marked changes in human dispersal and development during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition have been attributed to massive volcanic eruption and/or severe climatic deterioration. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. 40,000 y ago (40 ka B.P.). The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits (volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye) in archaeological cave sequences. They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically modern human populations in Europe. Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or early modern humans in Europe. We infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters.

  8. Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John; Barton, Nick; Blockley, Simon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Cullen, Victoria L.; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Grant, Katharine; Hardiman, Mark; Housley, Rupert; Lane, Christine S.; Lee, Sharen; Lewis, Mark; MacLeod, Alison; Menzies, Martin; Müller, Wolfgang; Pollard, Mark; Price, Catherine; Roberts, Andrew P.; Rohling, Eelco J.; Satow, Chris; Smith, Victoria C.; Stringer, Chris B.; Tomlinson, Emma L.; White, Dustin; Albert, Paul; Arienzo, Ilenia; Barker, Graeme; Borić, Dušan; Carandente, Antonio; Civetta, Lucia; Ferrier, Catherine; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Koumouzelis, Margarita; Müller, Ulrich C.; Orsi, Giovanni; Pross, Jörg; Rosi, Mauro; Shalamanov-Korobar, Ljiljiana; Sirakov, Nikolay; Tzedakis, Polychronis C.

    2012-01-01

    Marked changes in human dispersal and development during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition have been attributed to massive volcanic eruption and/or severe climatic deterioration. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. 40,000 y ago (40 ka B.P.). The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits (volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye) in archaeological cave sequences. They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically modern human populations in Europe. Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or early modern humans in Europe. We infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters. PMID:22826222

  9. New chronology for Ksâr 'Akil (Lebanon) supports Levantine route of modern human dispersal into Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Marjolein D.; Mannino, Marcello A.; Prendergast, Amy L.; O'Connell, Tamsin C.; Demarchi, Beatrice; Taylor, Sheila M.; Niven, Laura; Van Der Plicht, Johannes; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Modern human dispersal into Europe is thought to have occurred with the start of the Upper Paleolithic around 50,000-40,000 y ago. The Levantine corridor hypothesis suggests that modern humans from Africa spread into Europe via the Levant. Ksâr 'Akil (Lebanon), with its deeply stratified Initial

  10. New chronology for Ksâr 'Akil (Lebanon) supports Levantine route of modern human dispersal into Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Marjolein D.; Mannino, Marcello A.; Prendergast, Amy L.; O'Connell, Tamsin C.; Demarchi, Beatrice; Taylor, Sheila M.; Niven, Laura; Van Der Plicht, Johannes; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Modern human dispersal into Europe is thought to have occurred with the start of the Upper Paleolithic around 50,000-40,000 y ago. The Levantine corridor hypothesis suggests that modern humans from Africa spread into Europe via the Levant. Ksâr 'Akil (Lebanon), with its deeply stratified Initial (IU

  11. Archaeology and the population-dispersal hypothesis of modern human origins in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellars, P A

    1992-08-29

    The transition from anatomically 'archaic' to 'modern' populations would seem to have occurred in most regions of Europe broadly between ca. 40 and 30 ka ago: much later than in most other areas of the world. The archaeological evidence supports the view that this transition was associated with the dispersal of new human populations into Europe, equipped with a new technology ('Aurignacian') and a range of radical behavioural and cultural innovations which collectively define the 'Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition'. In several regions of Europe there is archaeological evidence for a chronological overlap between these populations and the final Neanderthal populations and, apparently, for various forms of contact, interaction and, apparently, 'acculturation' between these two populations. The fundamental behavioural adaptations implicit in the 'Upper Palaeolithic Revolution' (possibly including language) are thought to have been responsible for this rapid dispersal of human populations over the ecologically demanding environments of last-glacial Europe.

  12. Microstructures of Early Jurassic (Toarcian) shales of Northern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M.E.; Barnhoorn, A.; Wasch, L.; Trabucho-Alexandre, João; Peach, C.J.; Drury, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    The Toarcian (Early Jurassic) Posidonia Shale Formation is a possible unconventional gas source in Northern Europe and occurs within the Cleveland Basin (United Kingdom), the Anglo-Paris Basin (France), the Lower Saxony Basin and the Southwest Germany Basin (Germany), and the Roer Valley Graben, the

  13. The Resources of the Past in Early Medieval Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gantner, C.; McKitterick, R.M.; Meeder, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This volume analyses the importance of history, the textual resources of the past and the integration of Christian and imperial Rome into the cultural memory of early medieval Europe within the wider question of identity formation. The case studies in this book shed new light on the process of codif

  14. Gardens, knowledge and the sciences in the early modern period

    CERN Document Server

    Remmert, Volker; Wolschke-Bulmahn, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    This volume focuses on the outstanding contributions made by botany and the mathematical sciences to the genesis and development of early modern garden art and garden culture. The many facets of the mathematical sciences and botany point to the increasingly “scientific” approach that was being adopted in and applied to garden art and garden culture in the early modern period. This development was deeply embedded in the philosophical, religious, political, cultural and social contexts, running parallel to the beginning of processes of scientization so characteristic for modern European history. This volume strikingly shows how these various developments are intertwined in gardens for various purposes.

  15. EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING IN RURAL AREAS OF EUROPE AND SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogeli Santamaría Luna

    2015-12-01

    In this short article will present data and sources, but above all be evident that the low presence of rural factor in education and that the rural / urban divide still exists. Referencians Europe cited Spain and the start of the indicators of quality of life and early school leaving is estimated in Spain, rural or not, 2020 in relation to the proposed European Territorial Agenda 2020 target of 15%. Besides conclusions and proposals to be referred.

  16. Cabala Chymica or Chemia Cabalistica - Early Modern Alchemists and Cabala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forshaw, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This essay investigates the relationships between early modern alchemy and the Jewish mystical tradition of Kabbalah, following its introduction to the Christian West by Giovanni Pico della Mirandola at the end of the fifteenth century, and its promulgation by Johannes Reuchlin in the early sixteent

  17. Cabala Chymica or Chemia Cabalistica - Early Modern Alchemists and Cabala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Forshaw

    2013-01-01

    This essay investigates the relationships between early modern alchemy and the Jewish mystical tradition of Kabbalah, following its introduction to the Christian West by Giovanni Pico della Mirandola at the end of the fifteenth century, and its promulgation by Johannes Reuchlin in the early sixteent

  18. Europe in world regional perspective: formations of modernity and major historical transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanty, Gerard

    2015-09-01

    The paper seeks to present a world regional approach to the analysis of modernity and in doing so it also aims to make a contribution to comparative sociology and social theory. It is argued that world regions are the most suitable entry-point for comparing different socio-political constellations of our time, preferable to continents, civilizations and nation-states. However, a world regional foundation on its own is insufficient, due to the internal plurality and historically changing forms of world regions, and therefore needs to be accompanied by a concept that provides some degree of coherence within world regions and a tool for comparison with other world regions. The notion of modernity offers this level of generality while at the same time allowing for variety in its historical forms. Six main formations of modernity are identified, of which the European model was the first one and often a cultural reference for many other parts of the world. The thesis is that in the present day the most important developments are in the Asian and Latin American varieties, which unlike Europe are witnessing major historical transformation. Decisive in all of this is the question of democratization in the shaping of social imaginaries. Beginning with the problem of how to define the specificity of Europe, the paper provides an exploratory analysis of some of the salient considerations around a number of world regions, their formations of modernity, and the extent of major historical transformations in their present constitution. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  19. Politics, Society and Communication in the Constitution of Modern Society: Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devrim ÖZKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inception of Modern England comprises a hundred and fifty years between sixteenth and mid eighteenth centuries. The structural qualities of modern societies of this day occur in this era. The political and economic changes and transformations that England experienced in this period of time are in enormous scale. In this period all social structure and institutions experienced structural change in terms of cultural, economic and political processes. In addition to this in this period the framework of the international system regarding economy and politics is established too. Important qualities of current modern societies are the speed of communication and interaction between its elements, its transformational capacity and the extent of its scope. In this, it is possible to apprehend the basic cornerstones of today’s information and communication age by analyzing the early modern period of England

  20. Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlwilm, Martin; Gronau, Ilan; Hubisz, Melissa J; de Filippo, Cesare; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Kircher, Martin; Fu, Qiaomei; Burbano, Hernán A; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; de la Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio; Rudan, Pavao; Brajkovic, Dejana; Kucan, Željko; Gušic, Ivan; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Andrés, Aida M; Viola, Bence; Pääbo, Svante; Meyer, Matthias; Siepel, Adam; Castellano, Sergi

    2016-02-25

    It has been shown that Neanderthals contributed genetically to modern humans outside Africa 47,000-65,000 years ago. Here we analyse the genomes of a Neanderthal and a Denisovan from the Altai Mountains in Siberia together with the sequences of chromosome 21 of two Neanderthals from Spain and Croatia. We find that a population that diverged early from other modern humans in Africa contributed genetically to the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains roughly 100,000 years ago. By contrast, we do not detect such a genetic contribution in the Denisovan or the two European Neanderthals. We conclude that in addition to later interbreeding events, the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains and early modern humans met and interbred, possibly in the Near East, many thousands of years earlier than previously thought.

  1. (Early Modern Literature: Crossing the Color-Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sterling Brown

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the pedagogical implications of teaching about the past in a way that establishes continuity in relation to present and future moments. I describe and analyze how my Trinity College students navigated my course, “Crossing the Color-Line,” which aimed to eradicate boundaries and entangle the professional and personal, social and political, past and present, and black and white in an engaged manner. I argue that a radical course such as “Crossing the Color-Line” can showcase, through literature and other media, how fusing difference of all kinds—cultural, religious, literary, historical, gender—promotes rigorous student directed learning experiences that are inclusive. Because Shakespeare was not the sole authorial voice in the room, or the only early modern author in our syllabus, “Crossing the Color-Line” actively resisted the literary, racial, social, and cultural homogeneity that one can often find in an early modern classroom. By not being Shakespeare-centric, the course placed value on the female perspective and refrained from being androcentric in its authorial focus. Moreover, by positioning “the problem of the color-line” as relevant in the early modern period, the combined study of African-American and early modern English texts challenged critical race studies to include pre-nineteenth-century literature.

  2. 'ah famous citie' : women, writing, and early modern London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilcox, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This article explores aspects of the textual relationship between women and early modern London by examining three verbal 'snapshots' of the city in works either written by women or focusing on women in their urban environment. The first text, Isabella Whitney's 'Wyll and Testament' (1573), addresse

  3. 'ah famous citie' : women, writing, and early modern London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilcox - Boulton, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This article explores aspects of the textual relationship between women and early modern London by examining three verbal 'snapshots' of the city in works either written by women or focusing on women in their urban environment. The first text, Isabella Whitney's 'Wyll and Testament' (1573), addresse

  4. Maps of Woe Narratives of Rape in Early Modern England

    OpenAIRE

    Donatella Pallotti

    2013-01-01

    By considering a selection of texts, both fictional and non-fictional, this study ad- dresses different representations of rape in early modern English culture. Its aim is to highlight the interconnections between aspects of culture and the creative exchange, the confrontation and mutual assimilation between ‘high’ and ‘low’ cultural forms.

  5. "Old Poems Have Heart": Teenage Students Reading Early Modern Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The proposals for the revised National Curriculum in English suggest limiting the pre-twentieth century poetry that GCSE pupils read to "representative Romantic poetry" (Department for Education [DFE], 2013, p. 4). This paper argues that poetry of the early modern period is challenging and enriching study for adolescent pupils and that…

  6. Towards a Social History of Early Modern Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burke, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In Towards a Social History of Early Modern Dutch benadert Peter Burke de geschiedenis van de Nederlandse taal tussen 1500 en 1800 vanuit een sociaal-cultureel historisch perspectief. Burke onderzoekt de veranderde relatie tussen de streektaal en het Latijn; de inlijving (of invasie) van nieuwe woor

  7. Maps of Woe Narratives of Rape in Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Pallotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available By considering a selection of texts, both fictional and non-fictional, this study ad- dresses different representations of rape in early modern English culture. Its aim is to highlight the interconnections between aspects of culture and the creative exchange, the confrontation and mutual assimilation between ‘high’ and ‘low’ cultural forms.

  8. The modern enterprise – successor of business organization forms in ancient Rome and medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Pacala

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in the role and influence of the forms of business organization on the economy and society. Interpretations of the role of companies in the modern period, ranging from enthusiastic support (as the most important invention of capitalism, an explanation of the Western civilization’s expansion to moderate and often critical positions, where the company is seen as a solution, not necessarily optimal, to market imperfections. On the other hand, we often ponder upon the explanation of political, administrative and infrastructural success of ancient Rome: the state or the enterprise (the private initiative? Closer to our time, we rediscover with amazement that the "dark" Middle Ages are not at all dark and lacking in progress, at least in terms of capitalist organization and logic. The development of trade in the two poles of medieval Europe (the Mediterranean and the BaltoScandinavian area, of industry and trade in the North-Western quadrant (Flanders and neighbouring regions, was concurrent with the improvement of organizational forms of business, with the diversity and flexibility of entrepreneurial or even corporate frameworks. Of course, the study of historical sources (ancient or medieval cannot provide direct answers or solutions to the questions of modern society, because the challenges of today are rather different to those of the past. On the other hand, understanding history can help companies to build a more complete and a wiser enterprise functionality and role in the modern society, to reformulate the questions and to find new solutions. Our paper, with a clear juridical perspective on economic history, focuses on the organization of firms in ancient Rome and medieval Europe, tries to provide examples, useful interpretations and diverse solutions to the problems of contemporary society and economy.

  9. Emotion al Economies in Early Modern Europe---Prodigality, avarice and anger -passions and emotions at the heart of the encounter between aristocratic economy and market economy%近代欧洲的情感经济--处于贵族经济与市场经济交锋中心的情感:慷慨、贪婪和愤怒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳伦斯·方丹[法; 张作成(译)

    2015-01-01

    In a status society such as Europe was in the 16th-18th centuries, the development of the economic market was a threat to traditional social hierarchies.In that context, the stigmatization of certain passions was a weapon in the hands of those promo-ting aristocratic views which advocated the gift economy against those who advocated a market economy based on evaluation of prices . The economic behavior resulting from each of these views produced extremes of behavior , prodigality in the case of the aristocratic and avarice in the mercantile.When their values were contradicted and criticized, there was an emotional response on both sides, espe-cially one of anger, but the manifestations of these emotions were unequally tolerated by society.The manifestation of antagonism be-tween political economies is the struggle waged by the Church in the Middle Ages against avarice, usury and greed.Some theater plays from the 16 th and 17 th centuries which reflect contemporary debates on the subject to show that the economic behaviors of avarice and prodigality represented on the stage match those that can be found in judicial archives of the period.The staging of these passions, as well as the letters of remission written to ask mercy from the king , also reveal the unequal tolerance of the law towards differing sec-tions of society on the basis of social status and gender.It shows that the more status you had, the more rights to anger you had in early modern Europe .%在一个身份社会中,例如,16-18世纪的欧洲,市场经济的发展是对传统社会等级制度的一个威胁。在那种背景下,某些情感的污名化是掌握在那些支持贵族立场的人手中的一种武器。这种贵族立场支持馈赠经济,反对基于价格估价之上的市场经济。源于两种观点的经济行为形成了行为上的极端化,贵族的慷慨和商人的贪婪。当他们的价值相矛盾并遭到批判时,双方都有一种情感反应,尤其

  10. THE PHYSICS OF MELTING IN EARLY MODERN LOVE POETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brady

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Melting is a familiar trope in early modern erotic poetry, where it can signify the desire to transform the beloved from icy chastity through the warmth of the lover’s passion. However, this Petrarchan convention can be defamiliarised by thinking about the experiences of freezing and melting in this period. Examining melting in the discourses of early modern meteorology, medicine, proverb, scientific experiments, and preservative technologies, as well as weather of the Little Ice Age and the exploration of frozen hinterlands, this essay shows that our understanding of seeming constants – whether they be the physical properties of water or the passions of love – can be modulated through attention to the specific histories of cognition and of embodiment.

  11. Early Modern Consumption History: Current Challenges and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Ryckbosch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Stimulated by wide-ranging theories on its cultural and economic significance, the history of early modern consumption in the Low Countries has received a remarkable amount of attention in historiography during the last three decades. During this period the growing body of empirical evidence, as well as shifting theoretical frameworks, have gradually altered our understanding of early modern patterns of consumption, their causes and consequences. The current article presents a review of the main tendencies in the field of early modern consumption history, and the challenges to this historiographical field these have presented. Based on these challenges, the article suggests new avenues for future research. Vroegmoderne consumptiegeschiedenis. Hedendaagse uitdagingen entoekomstperspectievenGestimuleerd door verstrekkende nieuwe theorieën over haar cultureleen economische betekenis, heeft de historiografie met betrekking totvroegmoderne consumptie in de Nederlanden op opmerkelijk veel aandacht mogen rekenen tijdens de voorbije drie decennia. Daarbij hebben zowel een groeiende beschikbaarheid van empirisch bronnenmateriaal, als verschuivende theoretische perspectieven,  geleidelijk aan ons begrip van vroegmoderne consumptiepatronen, en hun oorzaken en gevolgen grondig veranderd. Het huidige artikel biedt een overzicht van de belangrijkste tendensen in het domein van de vroegmoderne consumptiegeschiedenis, gevolgd door nieuwe uitdagingen en toekomstperspectieven.

  12. Historical population movements in Europe influence genetic relationships in modern samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, R R; Oden, N L; Walker, J; Di Giovanni, D; Thomson, B A

    1996-12-01

    We have newly constructed an ethnohistorical database consisting of 3460 records of ethnic locations and movements in Europe since 2200 B.C. Using this database, we computed vectors of proportions that peoples speaking various language families contributed to the gene pools of 2216 1 degree x 1 degree land-based quadrats of Europe. From these vectors we computed ethnohistorical distances as arc distances between all pairs of quadrats. We used these distances as predictors of genetic distances, which we calculated independently from 26 genetic systems. We find significant partial correlations between ethnohistorical and genetic distances when geographic distance, a common causative factor, is held constant. Ethnohistorical distances explain a significant amount of the genetic variation observed in modern populations. These results are highly robust to simulated errors in and omissions from the ethnohistorical database. Randomization tests show that the historical sequence of the movements does not affect estimates of the ethnohistory-genetics correlation, but the geographic locations of movements do. We track the development of the ethnohistory-genetics correlation through time and show it to be gradual and cumulative over the past 4200 years.

  13. Ancient DNA from South-East Europe Reveals Different Events during Early and Middle Neolithic Influencing the European Genetic Heritage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Hervella

    Full Text Available The importance of the process of Neolithization for the genetic make-up of European populations has been hotly debated, with shifting hypotheses from a demic diffusion (DD to a cultural diffusion (CD model. In this regard, ancient DNA data from the Balkan Peninsula, which is an important source of information to assess the process of Neolithization in Europe, is however missing. In the present study we show genetic information on ancient populations of the South-East of Europe. We assessed mtDNA from ten sites from the current territory of Romania, spanning a time-period from the Early Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. mtDNA data from Early Neolithic farmers of the Starčevo Criş culture in Romania (Cârcea, Gura Baciului and Negrileşti sites, confirm their genetic relationship with those of the LBK culture (Linienbandkeramik Kultur in Central Europe, and they show little genetic continuity with modern European populations. On the other hand, populations of the Middle-Late Neolithic (Boian, Zau and Gumelniţa cultures, supposedly a second wave of Neolithic migration from Anatolia, had a much stronger effect on the genetic heritage of the European populations. In contrast, we find a smaller contribution of Late Bronze Age migrations to the genetic composition of Europeans. Based on these findings, we propose that permeation of mtDNA lineages from a second wave of Middle-Late Neolithic migration from North-West Anatolia into the Balkan Peninsula and Central Europe represent an important contribution to the genetic shift between Early and Late Neolithic populations in Europe, and consequently to the genetic make-up of modern European populations.

  14. Early modern human dispersal from Africa: genomic evidence for multiple waves of migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, Francesca; Ghirotto, Silvia; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Vilaça, Sibelle Torres; De Santi, Lisa; Barbujani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Anthropological and genetic data agree in indicating the African continent as the main place of origin for anatomically modern humans. However, it is unclear whether early modern humans left Africa through a single, major process, dispersing simultaneously over Asia and Europe, or in two main waves, first through the Arab Peninsula into southern Asia and Oceania, and later through a northern route crossing the Levant. Here, we show that accurate genomic estimates of the divergence times between European and African populations are more recent than those between Australo-Melanesia and Africa and incompatible with the effects of a single dispersal. This difference cannot possibly be accounted for by the effects of either hybridization with archaic human forms in Australo-Melanesia or back migration from Europe into Africa. Furthermore, in several populations of Asia we found evidence for relatively recent genetic admixture events, which could have obscured the signatures of the earliest processes. We conclude that the hypothesis of a single major human dispersal from Africa appears hardly compatible with the observed historical and geographical patterns of genome diversity and that Australo-Melanesian populations seem still to retain a genomic signature of a more ancient divergence from Africa.

  15. ASEM--The Modern Silk Road: Travelling Ideas for Education Reforms and Partnerships between Asia and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Que Anh

    2013-01-01

    Today the modern Silk Road between Asia and Europe is increasingly well-travelled in both directions by students, academics and policy makers. Over the last decade the European Union (EU) and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) have been making more attempts to shape this route by creating an educational partnership through an…

  16. Malocclusion in early anatomically modern human: a reflection on the etiology of modern dental misalignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarig, Rachel; Slon, Viviane; Abbas, Janan; May, Hila; Shpack, Nir; Vardimon, Alexander Dan; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Malocclusions are common in modern populations. Yet, as the study of occlusion requires an almost intact dentition in both the maxilla and mandible, searching for the ultimate cause of malocclusion is a challenge: relatively little ancient material is available for research on occlusal states. The Qafzeh 9 skull is unique, as its preserved dentition allowed us to investigate the presence and manifestations of malocclusion. The aim of this study was thus to examine the occlusal condition in the Qafzeh 9 specimen in light of modern knowledge regarding the etiology of malocclusion. We revealed a pathologic occlusion in the Qafzeh 9 skull that probably originated in the early developmental stage of the dentition, and was aggravated by forces applied by mastication. When arch continuity is interrupted due to misalignment of teeth as in this case, force transmission is not equal on both sides, causing intra-arch outcomes such as mesialization of the teeth, midline deviation, rotations and the aggravation of crowding. All are evident in the Qafzeh 9 skull: the midline deviates to the left; the incisors rotate mesio-buccally; the left segment is constricted; the left first molar is buccally positioned and the left premolars palatally tilted. The inter-arch evaluation revealed anterior cross bite with functional shift that might affect force transmission and bite force. In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggest that malocclusion of developmental origin was already present in early anatomically modern humans (AMH) (the present case being the oldest known case, dated to ca. 100,000 years); that there is no basis to the notion that early AMH had a better adjustment between teeth and jaw size; and that jaw-teeth size discrepancy could be found in prehistoric populations and is not a recent phenomenon.

  17. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, Enikő Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-07-01

    To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen

  18. Early modern green sickness and pre-Freudian hysteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleiner, Winfried

    2009-01-01

    In early modern medicine, both green sickness (or chlorosis) and hysteria were understood to be gendered diseases, diseases of women. Green sickness, a disease of young women, was considered so serious that John Graunt, the father of English statistics, thought that in his time dozens of women died of it in London every year. One of the symptoms of hysteria was that women fell unconscious. The force of etymology and medical tradition was so strong that in one instance the gender of the patient seems to have been changed by the recorder to make the case fit medical theory.

  19. Honour and Fighting Social Advancement in the Early Modern Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gassmann Jürg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the importance of military service in social advancement, here understood as filling the role of “prince” in feudal law and thus participating in the government of an estate, in the transition from the Late Middle Ages to the Renaissance or Early Modern Age. In the context of a city burgher or a petty noble or knight advancing into a government role, did honour require that the individual have experience in fighting – in war, military organisation and leadership? How did mercenaries figure? What role, if any, did Fechtmeister, Fechtbücher, Fechtschulen or Kriegsbücher play?

  20. Rules of use language and instruction in early modern England

    CERN Document Server

    Lamb, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We take it for granted that we can use words properly ? appropriately, meaningfully, even decorously. And yet it is very difficult to justify or explain what makes a particular use ""proper."" Given that properness is determined by the unpredictable vagaries of unrepeatable contexts, it is impossible to formulate an absolute rule which tells what is proper in every situation. In its four case studies of texts by Ascham, Puttenham, Mulcaster, and the first English dictionary writers, Rules of Use shows the way in which early modern pedagogues attempted to articulate such a rule whilst being min

  1. 'Herbals she peruseth': reading medicine in early modern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Elaine

    2014-09-01

    In 1631, Richard Brathwaite penned a conduct manual for 'English Gentlewomen'. In Brathwaite's mind, the ideal English gentlewoman was not only chaste, modest and honourable but also an avid reader. In fact, Brathwaite specifically recommends English gentlewomen to first peruse herbals and then to deepen their medical knowledge via conference. Centred on the manuscript notebooks of two late seventeenth-century women, Margaret Boscawen (d. 1688) and Elizabeth Freke (1642-1714), this article explores women and 'medical reading' in early modern England. It first demonstrates that whilst both women consulted herbals by contemporary authors such as John Gerard and Nicholas Culpeper, their modes of reading could not be more different. Where Freke ruminated, digested and abstracted from Gerard's large tome, Boscawen made practical lists from Culpeper's The English Physitian. Secondly, the article shows that both supplemented their herbal reading with a range of other vernacular medical texts including printed medical recipe books, contemporary pharmacopoeia and surgical handbooks. Early modern English women's medical reading, I argue, was nuanced, sophisticated and diverse. Furthermore, I contend that well-informed readers like Boscawen and Freke made smart medical consumers and formidable negotiators in their medical encounters.

  2. Plant foods and the dietary ecology of Neanderthals and early modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Amanda G; Brooks, Alison S; Piperno, Dolores R

    2014-04-01

    One of the most important challenges in anthropology is understanding the disappearance of Neanderthals. Previous research suggests that Neanderthals had a narrower diet than early modern humans, in part because they lacked various social and technological advances that lead to greater dietary variety, such as a sexual division of labor and the use of complex projectile weapons. The wider diet of early modern humans would have provided more calories and nutrients, increasing fertility, decreasing mortality and supporting large population sizes, allowing them to out-compete Neanderthals. However, this model for Neanderthal dietary behavior is based on analysis of animal remains, stable isotopes, and other methods that provide evidence only of animal food in the diet. This model does not take into account the potential role of plant food. Here we present results from the first broad comparison of plant foods in the diets of Neanderthals and early modern humans from several populations in Europe, the Near East, and Africa. Our data comes from the analysis of plant microremains (starch grains and phytoliths) in dental calculus and on stone tools. Our results suggest that both species consumed a similarly wide array of plant foods, including foods that are often considered low-ranked, like underground storage organs and grass seeds. Plants were consumed across the entire range of individuals and sites we examined, and none of the expected predictors of variation (species, geographic region, or associated stone tool technology) had a strong influence on the number of plant species consumed. Our data suggest that Neanderthal dietary ecology was more complex than previously thought. This implies that the relationship between Neanderthal technology, social behavior, and food acquisition strategies must be better explored.

  3. How to write a history of Europe: Europe, Europes, Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Peter

    2006-05-01

    This article looks at the history of European culture from three angles, those of European uniqueness, European variety and European consciousness. The first section discusses the question of whether the fundamental unit of study, for cultural as well as economic historians, is not Eurasia. The second section is concerned with cultural divisions within Europe, with Europes in the plural. It asks whether it is more illuminating to distinguish two Europes (like Leopold von Ranke), or three (like Jeno Szucs), or even five (like Hugo Hassinger), and examine both centripetal and centrifugal forces in early modern history. The final section deals with the history of the idea of Europe, or more exactly with the rise of consciousness of being European, as it is revealed in early modern histories, geographies, journals and newspapers.

  4. The fourfold Democritus on the stage of early modern science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthy, C

    2000-09-01

    The renewed success of ancient atomism in the seventeenth century has baffled historians not only because of the lack of empirical evidence in its favor but also because of the exotic heterogeneity of the models that were proposed under its name. This essay argues that one of the more intriguing reasons for the motley appearance of early modern atomism is that Democritus, with whose name this doctrine was most commonly associated, was a figure of similar incoherence. There existed in fact no fewer than four quite different Democriti of Abdera and as many literary traditions: the atomist, the "laughing philosopher," the moralizing anatomist, and the alchemist. Around the year 1600 the doctrines of these literary figures, three of whom had no tangible connection with atomism, began to merge into further hybrid personae, some of whom possessed notable scientific potential. This essay offers the story of how these Democriti contributed to the rise of incompatible "atomisms."

  5. Addressing the Addressee: Shakespeare and Early Modern Epistolary Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Gilbert-Cooke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the emergence of epistolary theory in mid-sixteenth-century England, its value and function, the article attempts to show how these theories helped to construct, in contemporary correspondence, the addressee’s identity. One of the most important precepts was, as Angel Day states in his manual The English Secretorie, that, when composing a letter, writers tailored their text to the addressee. Even invented letters in Shakespeare’s plays reveal that, while correctly addressing the addressee does not necessarily guarantee success, address was considered the most important tool at the writer’s disposal when attempting to secure the addressee’s good will. Importantly, the observance of this precept even in drama indicates that epistolary theory had a more pervasive influence in early modern England than previously thought.

  6. Vision of Modernity in the Early Turkish Republic: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesim Seker

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los principales debates y líneas de investigación existentes sobre la fundación de la actual Turquía y cuáles han sido los factores de su proceso de modernización, examinando el significado y los principios del movimiento político kemalista y su influencia en la conformación del estado turco contemporáneo. Se pasa revista a elementos tales como el islamismo político, el nacionalismo kurdo y los proyectos de integración con Europa. Como resultado de la combinación de estos factores, la historia política turca ha vivido en un estado de permanente tensión entre los sectores laicistas/seculares/renovadores y los religiosos/islamistas/conservadores. Para resolver tal dilema, la presencia de los militares y su intervención a través de diversos golpes de estado ha sido constante.____________________ABSTRACT:This article presents the main debates and existing lines of investigation about the foundation of the actual Turkey and which have been the factors of its process of modernization, examining the meaning and the principles of the kemalist political movement and its influence in the conformation of the contemporary Turkish State. Elements such as the political Islamism, the Kurd nationalism and the projects of integration with Europe are analyzed. As result of the combination of these factors, Turkish political history has lived in a state on permanent tension between the secular sectors and the religious/ Islamic /conservative one. In order to solve such dilemma, the presence of soldiers and their intervention to solve many coup d'etats have been constant.

  7. Travels to terra incognita : the Scottish Highlands and Hebrides in early modern travellers’ accounts c. 1600 to 1800

    OpenAIRE

    Rackwitz, Martin

    2004-01-01

    In the early modern period, Scotland and particularly the Highlands were among the least-known regions of Europe. Their image was overshadowed by myths and stereotypes that often dated back to the late Middle Ages. Chroniclers such as Hector Boece provided Scotland with a history that dated back to the times of ancient Egypt and Greece and created an image of it as a country where miracles actually took place. This thesis examines the stereotyping of Scotland and the Scots and its reflection ...

  8. Freedmen in Cádiz at Early Modern Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo MORGADO GARCÍA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Stvdia histórica: Historia Moderna, 2007, vol. 29, pp.279-305 José Ignacio RUIZ-RODRÍGUEZ confesionalización; historiografía; edad moderna=Confessionalization; Historiography; Modern Age 14.00 Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The incidence of slavery in Cádiz at Early Modern Times had as consequence the existente of too many freedmen, subsaharians principally, but turks and nortafricans too. This article pretend a cuantification of this phenomen, so a study of the integration of these freedmen in the cotidian life of the city.

  9. Casebooks in early modern England: medicine, astrology, and written records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves.

  10. Early modern Goa: Indian trade, transcultural medicine, and the Inquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Malieckal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Portugal’s introduction of the Inquisition to India in 1560 placed the lives of Jews, New Christians, and selected others labelled ‘heretics’, in peril. Two such victims were Garcia da Orta, a Portuguese New Christian with a thriving medical practice in Goa, and Gabriel Dellon, a French merchant and physician. In scholarship, Garcia da Orta and Gabriel Dellon’s texts are often examined separately within the contexts of Portuguese and French literature respectively and in terms of medicine and religion in the early modern period. Despite the similarities of their training and experiences, da Orta and Dellon have not previously been studied jointly, as is attempted in this article, which expands upon da Orta and Dellon’s roles in Portuguese India’s international commerce, especially the trade in spices, and the collaborations between Indian and European physicians. Thus, the connection between religion and food is not limited to food’s religious and religio-cultural roles. Food in terms of spices has been at the foundations of power for ethno-religious groups in India, and when agents became detached from the spice trade, their downfalls were imminent, as seen in the histories of Garcia da Orta and Gabriel Dellon.

  11. Language at preschool in Europe: Early years professionals in the spotlight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M.C.; Kuiken, F.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades early years education throughout Europe has experienced many changes due to higher numbers of children attending centres for early childhood education and care (ECEC), a growing linguistic and cultural diversity in society and a shift from care to education with the focus o

  12. Language at preschool in Europe: Early years professionals in the spotlight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M.C.; Kuiken, F.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades early years education throughout Europe has experienced many changes due to higher numbers of children attending centres for early childhood education and care (ECEC), a growing linguistic and cultural diversity in society and a shift from care to education with the focus o

  13. Customs Administration Reform and Modernization in anglophone Africa; Early 1990's to Mid-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Justin O Zake

    2011-01-01

    Anglophone African countries have been implementing reform and modernization initiatives in their Customs administrations. This paper outlines the progression of key reform and modernization initiatives in these countries since the early 1990s, and assesses the gap between these reforms and those of more modern Customs agencies. The review suggests that Customs administration reform and modernization initiatives in Anglophone African countries generally lag behind international good practice ...

  14. Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsen, Silver

    2009-01-01

    My dissertation, "Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy" demonstrates how increased crown authority, and an expanded market combine with the mixed agency of the romantic comedy daughter to further encourage early modern economic growth. The triumph of rebelling daughter over blocking father has…

  15. Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsen, Silver

    2009-01-01

    My dissertation, "Erotic Love and the Development of Proto-Capitalist Ideology in Early Modern Comedy" demonstrates how increased crown authority, and an expanded market combine with the mixed agency of the romantic comedy daughter to further encourage early modern economic growth. The triumph of rebelling daughter over blocking father has…

  16. Wild justice: The dynamics of gender and revenge in early modern English drama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergh, K.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation examines the role of the stage in cultural debate about revenge in early modern England. The theme of retribution was hugely popular in early modern drama, at a time when the emerging nation state sought to strengthen its sovereignty by monopolizing the right to punish. The stage's

  17. The Ecology of Early Settlement in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The first volume presents new archaeological and ecological data and analyses on the relation between human subsistence and survival, and the natural history of North-Western Europe throughout the period 10000 – 6000 BC. The volume contains contributions from ecological oriented archaeologists...... and from the natural sciences, throwing new light on the physical and biotic/ecological conditions of relevance to the earliest settlement. Main themes are human subsistence, subsistence technology, ecology and food availability pertaining to the first humans, and demographic patterns among humans linked...

  18. Moral transgression and illness in the early modern north

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilola, Jari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to understand how people in the early modern age interpreted the nature of illness and the role that morality played in these interpretations. From this point of view illnesses were not only psycho-physical states or subjects for medical diagnosis but they were also subjects for narratives or stories through which people tried to understand what had caused their illness, and why it was happening to them. Illnesses were understood as strictly connected with the patient's character and were regarded as possible consequences of his personality. On the other hand, the interpretations also emphasised the ambivalence of a healer. Personal experiences and an understanding of one’s life situation intertwined in these stories.

    Este artículo tiene por objetivo comprender la manera como las personas, en la temprana edad moderna, interpretaban la naturaleza de las enfermedades y qué papel desempeñaba la moralidad en estas interpretaciones. Desde este punto de vista, las enfermedades no eran solo estados psicofísicos u objeto de diagnósticos médicos sino que también eran objeto de relatos e historias a través de los cuales las personas intentaban comprender cuál era la causa de su enfermedad y por qué les pasaba a ellos. Se creía que las enfermedades estaban estrictamente relacionadas con el carácter de los pacientes y se consideraban como posibles consecuencias de su personalidad. Por otra parte, las interpretaciones también hacían hincapié en la ambivalencia de los curanderos. En estas historias se entrelazaban las experiencias personales y las circunstancias particulares de la vida de cada uno.

  19. Service and Servants in Early Modern English Culture to 1660

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rivlin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review essay surveys the last ten years of literary scholarship on service and servants in early modern England, with a particular focus on Shakespeare, to offer an overview of approaches and a sense of new directions in the field. The essay examines how studies have often pivoted between considering the act (‘service’ and the person (‘servant’ who performs it. Definitional ambiguities seem permanently to hover around these key terms. But rather than portending incoherence, the continuing presence of multiple definitions signals that scholarship about service and servants has reached a certain maturity. In the period under review, the field has matured to the point that critics no longer need to prove that service deserves consideration as an object of study, with the result that they can pursue vigorously the ways in which service and servants are imbricated with larger ontological and phenomenological questions. Investigating recent criticism on service takes this essay into critical territory that encompasses not only social class, economics, occupational identity, and subjectivity, but also aesthetics, ethics, affect, gender and sexuality, politics, race and colonialism. One important conclusion is that a growing body of work, some of it tracing the development of inter-Atlantic slavery from paradigms of service, offers a material, historical perspective on the ways in which servants enable freedom for others without being enabled to experience it for themselves. Looking to the future, the author encourages Anglo-American critics to think more expansively and comparatively about service, so that new connections might be drawn between the supposedly vanished world of servants and service and the global service economy in which we all participate today.

  20. Glocalization and the Marketing of Christianity in Early Modern Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Watson Andaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of European commercial interests into Southeast Asia during the early modern period was commonly justified by the biblical injunction to spread Christian teachings, and by the “civilizing” influences it was said to foster. In focusing on areas where Christianity gained a foothold or, in the Philippines and Timor Leste, became the dominant faith, this article invokes the marketing concept of “glocalization”, frequently applied to the sociology of religion. It argues that the historical beginnings of the processes associated with the global/local interface of Christianity are situated in the sixteenth century, when Europe, Asia and the Americas were finally linked through maritime connections. Christian missionizing was undertaken with the assumption that the European-based “brand” of beliefs and practices could be successfully transported to a very different environment. However, the application of these ideas was complicated by the goal of imposing European economic control, by the local resistance thus generated, and by competition with other religions and among Christians themselves. In this often antagonistic environment, the degree to which a global product could be “repackaged” and “glocalized” so that it was appealing to consumers in different cultural environments was always constrained, even among the most sympathetic purveyors. As a result, the glocalization of Christianity set up “power-laden tensions” which both global institutions and dispersed consumers continue to negotiate.

  1. Development as modernity, modernity as development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lushaba, L.S.

    2006-01-01

    Albeit the divergences on the debate about development in Africa, it is indubitable that the continent remains underdeveloped after five decades of development efforts. To understand this impasse, it is necessary to trace Africa's encounter with Europe to the period of early modernity. This paper

  2. Early modern human diversity suggests subdivided population structure and a complex out-of-Africa scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunz, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Stadlmayr, Andrea; Seidler, Horst; Weber, Gerhard W

    2009-04-14

    The interpretation of genetic evidence regarding modern human origins depends, among other things, on assessments of the structure and the variation of ancient populations. Because we lack genetic data from the time when the first anatomically modern humans appeared, between 200,000 and 60,000 years ago, instead we exploit the phenotype of neurocranial geometry to compare the variation in early modern human fossils with that in other groups of fossil Homo and recent modern humans. Variation is assessed as the mean-squared Procrustes distance from the group average shape in a representation based on several hundred neurocranial landmarks and semilandmarks. We find that the early modern group has more shape variation than any other group in our sample, which covers 1.8 million years, and that they are morphologically similar to recent modern humans of diverse geographically dispersed populations but not to archaic groups. Of the currently competing models of modern human origins, some are inconsistent with these findings. Rather than a single out-of-Africa dispersal scenario, we suggest that early modern humans were already divided into different populations in Pleistocene Africa, after which there followed a complex migration pattern. Our conclusions bear implications for the inference of ancient human demography from genetic models and emphasize the importance of focusing research on those early modern humans, in particular, in Africa.

  3. "With much nausea, loathing, and foetor": William Harvey, dissection, and dispassion in early modern medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Lynda

    2002-12-01

    In early modern England accumulating knowledge of normal and morbid anatomy through dissecting the human body not only led to a better understanding of nature, but also defined the identity of the people who engaged in this activity. This essay analyses the relationship between systemically dismembering the dead and how this pursuit shaped the attitudes and emotions of early modern medical men toward the living. I focus on the most famous anatomist in early modern Britain - the discoverer of the circulation of the blood, William Harvey (1578-1657).

  4. Use of early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomone, E.; Beranova, S.; Bonnet-Brilhault, F.; Lauritsen, M.; Budisteanu, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Canal-Bedia, R.; Felhosi, G.; Fletcher-Watson, S.; Freitag, C.; Fuentes, J.; Gallagher, L.; Primo, P. Garcia; Gliga, F.; Gomot, M.; Green, J.; Heimann, M.; Jonsdottir, S.L.; Kaale, A.; Kawa, R.; Kylliainen, A.; Lemcke, S.; Markovska-Simoska, S.; Marschik, P.B.; McConachie, H.; Moilanen, I.; Muratori, F.; Narzisi, A.; Noterdaeme, M.; Oliveira, G.; Oosterling, I.; Pijl, M.; Pop-Jordanova, N.; Poustka, L.; Roeyers, H.; Roge, B.; Sinzig, J.; Vicente, A.; Warreyn, P.; Charman, T.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about use of early interventions for autism spectrum disorder in Europe. Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder aged 7 years or younger (N = 1680) were recruited through parent organisations in 18 European countries and completed an online survey about the interventions th

  5. Use of Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Erica; Beranová, Štepánka; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Briciet Lauritsen, Marlene; Budisteanu, Magdalena; Buitelaar, Jan; Canal-Bedia, Ricardo; Felhosi, Gabriella; Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Freitag, Christine; Fuentes, Joaquin; Gallagher, Louise; Garcia Primo, Patricia; Gliga, Fotinica; Gomot, Marie; Green, Jonathan; Heimann, Mikael; Jónsdóttir, Sigridur Loa; Kaale, Anett; Kawa, Rafal; Kylliainen, Anneli; Lemcke, Sanne; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Marschik, Peter B; McConachie, Helen; Moilanen, Irma; Muratori, Filippo; Narzisi, Antonio; Noterdaeme, Michele; Oliveira, Guiomar; Oosterling, Iris; Pijl, Mirjam; Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Poustka, Luise; Roeyers, Herbert; Rogé, Bernadette; Sinzig, Judith; Vicente, Astrid; Warreyn, Petra; Charman, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about use of early interventions for autism spectrum disorder in Europe. Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder aged 7?years or younger (N?=?1680) were recruited through parent organisations in 18 European countries and completed an online survey about the interventions their child received. There was considerable…

  6. A Special Challenge for Europe: The Inclusion of Roma Children in Early Years Education and Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Sarah; Marsh, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Provision of early childhood education and care (ECEC) for Roma children serves as a litmus test for the broader social inclusion agenda in Europe. The majority of Roma children and families live in substandard, often insecure and isolated housing and have limited access to quality health, social care and education services. There is a growing…

  7. A Special Challenge for Europe: The Inclusion of Roma Children in Early Years Education and Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Sarah; Marsh, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Provision of early childhood education and care (ECEC) for Roma children serves as a litmus test for the broader social inclusion agenda in Europe. The majority of Roma children and families live in substandard, often insecure and isolated housing and have limited access to quality health, social care and education services. There is a growing…

  8. Ecological Modernization and the Environmental Transition of Europe : Between National Variations and Common Denominators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental policies and politics in the countries of the European Union (EU) have transformed dramatically over the past two decades. Ecological modernization theory has tried to understand and capture the nature of the transformations from the mid-1980s onwards, having a limited number of North-

  9. An early modern human from the Peştera cu Oase, Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trinkaus, Erik; Moldovan, Oana; Milota, Ştefan; Bîlgǎr, Adrian; Sarcina, Laurenţiu; Athreya, Sheela; Bailey, Shara E.; Rodrigo, Ricardo; Mircea, Gherase; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Van der Plicht, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 discovery of a robust modern human mandible in the Peştera cu Oase, southwestern Romania, provides evidence of early modern humans in the lower Danubian Corridor. Directly accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (14C)-dated to 34,00036,000 14C years B.P., the Oase 1 mandible is the oldest

  10. An early modern human from the Peştera cu Oase, Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trinkaus, Erik; Moldovan, Oana; Milota, Ştefan; Bîlgǎr, Adrian; Sarcina, Laurenţiu; Athreya, Sheela; Bailey, Shara E.; Rodrigo, Ricardo; Mircea, Gherase; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Van der Plicht, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 discovery of a robust modern human mandible in the Peştera cu Oase, southwestern Romania, provides evidence of early modern humans in the lower Danubian Corridor. Directly accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (14C)-dated to 34,00036,000 14C years B.P., the Oase 1 mandible is the oldest

  11. Benjamin Schmidt, Inventing Exoticism: Geography, Globalism, and Europe’s Early Modern World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Ryckbosch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin Schmidt, Inventing Exoticism: Geography, Globalism, and Europe’s Early Modern World (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015, 448 pp., isbn 978 0 8122 4646 9.

  12. Features of modern educational programs for intellectually gifted high school students in Europe and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermakov S.S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the main trends in the creation of educational programs for gifted students in schools in Europe, USA and Canada. It is focused on general principles in developing the content of curricula for gifted students, such as taking into account individual features of the development of talent, high-level cognitive motivation and specific educational interests. It also describes the strategies of accelerating, expanding and enriching school material and features of their use in various models of educational programs for gifted students.

  13. The SAFER-Project and Seismic Early Warning in Europe (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschau, J.; Gasparini, P.

    2009-12-01

    SAFER (Seismic EArly Warning For EuRope) is the first large scale scientific project in Europe on earthquake early warning. It is funded by the European Commission in the context of Framework Program 6 under the theme Sustainable Development, Global Change and Ecosystems. Its general objective is to develop knowledge and tools for increasing the capability of effective earthquake early warning in Europe and to implement and test these tools in selected European cities. The SAFER project was carried out between 2006 and 2009 by a consortium formed by 20 institutes from 11 European and Mediterranean countries (Germany, Italy, Greece, Romania, Switzerland, Norway, France, the Netherlands, Iceland, Turkey and Egypt) and one each from Japan, Taiwan and USA. Five major earthquake prone cities were chosen as test areas: Athens, Bucharest, Cairo, Istanbul and Naples. The combined population of these cities is about 40 million inhabitants and all have experienced severe earthquakes in recent years. SAFER is strongly multi-disciplinary, calling upon expertise in seismology, structural and geotechnical engineering, informatics and statistics. Some of the specific problems addressed are related to - the rapid determination of earthquake size, complex earthquake features, and damage potential; - the implementation of a fully probabilistic framework for applications of earthquake early warning based on cost-benefit analysis; - the development of a new generation of early warning systems being decentralised and people-centred, and - the implementation of the real-time “shake map”-technology in large European cities. The presentation will review the major scientific findings, comment on the improvements of the earthquake early warning capabilities achieved by SAFER in the five test cities, and present some ideas for the future development of earthquake early warning in Europe.

  14. L’esclavage des femmes en Europe à l’époque moderne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomé Bennassar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this short essay I am trying to present two different aspects of the women’s slavery in Europe during the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Firstly in the case of Andalucia and south of Portugal, especially thanks to the recent thesis of Aurelia Martin Casares and Julio Izquierdo Labrado, and also thanks to the work of Vicenta Cortes Alonso and the excellent work, unfortunately not published, of Albert N’Damba, an catholic priest of Congo. The main outcome of this works is the obvious preference of the owners of slaves for the women and the prices of women are higher than the prices of the men. The motive is the productive ability of women. Secondly, I improve my investigations in the record offices of the Inquisitions of Malta and Sicily to point out the part of the corsairs in the trade of the human, especially the women proceeding from Russia, Greece, Central Europe.Keywords: esclavage, femmes, Andalousie, Mediterranée, exploitation sexuelle; slavery, women, Andalucia, Mediterranean, sexual working out. 

  15. L’esclavage des femmes en Europe à l’époque moderne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomé Bennassar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    In this short essay I am trying to present two different aspects of the women’s slavery in Europe during the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Firstly in the case of Andalucia and south of Portugal, especially thanks to the recent thesis of Aurelia Martin Casares and Julio Izquierdo Labrado, and also thanks to the work of Vicenta Cortes Alonso and the excellent work, unfortunately not published, of Albert N’Damba, an catholic priest of Congo. The main outcome of this works is the obvious preference of the owners of slaves for the women and the prices of women are higher than the prices of the men. The motive is the productive ability of women. Secondly, I improve my investigations in the record offices of the Inquisitions of Malta and Sicily to point out the part of the corsairs in the trade of the human, especially the women proceeding from Russia, Greece, Central Europe.

    Keywords: esclavage, femmes, Andalousie, Mediterranée, exploitation sexuelle; slavery, women, Andalucia, Mediterranean, sexual working out.

     

  16. Space, Geometry and the Imagination from Antiquity to the Early Modern Age

    CERN Document Server

    Mathematizing Space : The Objects of Geometry from Antiquity to the Early Modern Age

    2015-01-01

    This book brings together papers of the conference on 'Space, Geometry and the Imagination from Antiquity to the Modern Age' held in Berlin, Germany, 27-29 August 2012. Focusing on the interconnections between the history of geometry and the philosophy of space in the pre-Modern and Early Modern Age, the essays in this volume are particularly directed toward elucidating the complex epistemological revolution that transformed the classical geometry of figures into the modern geometry of space. Contributors: Graciela De Pierris Franco Farinelli Michael Friedman Daniel Garber Jeremy Gray Gary Hatfield Andrew Janiak Douglas Jesseph Alexander Jones Henry Mendell David Rabouin

  17. No evidence of Neandertal mtDNA contribution to early modern humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Serre

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences from four Neandertal fossils from Germany, Russia, and Croatia has demonstrated that these individuals carried closely related mtDNAs that are not found among current humans. However, these results do not definitively resolve the question of a possible Neandertal contribution to the gene pool of modern humans since such a contribution might have been erased by genetic drift or by the continuous influx of modern human DNA into the Neandertal gene pool. A further concern is that if some Neandertals carried mtDNA sequences similar to contemporaneous humans, such sequences may be erroneously regarded as modern contaminations when retrieved from fossils. Here we address these issues by the analysis of 24 Neandertal and 40 early modern human remains. The biomolecular preservation of four Neandertals and of five early modern humans was good enough to suggest the preservation of DNA. All four Neandertals yielded mtDNA sequences similar to those previously determined from Neandertal individuals, whereas none of the five early modern humans contained such mtDNA sequences. In combination with current mtDNA data, this excludes any large genetic contribution by Neandertals to early modern humans, but does not rule out the possibility of a smaller contribution.

  18. Galileo in early modern Denmark, 1600-1650

    CERN Document Server

    Kragh, Helge

    2014-01-01

    The scientific revolution in the first half of the seventeenth century, pioneered by figures such as Harvey, Galileo, Gassendi, Kepler and Descartes, was disseminated to the northernmost countries in Europe with considerable delay. In this essay I examine how and when Galileo's new ideas in physics and astronomy became known in Denmark, and I compare the reception with the one in Sweden. It turns out that Galileo was almost exclusively known for his sensational use of the telescope to unravel the secrets of the heavens, meaning that he was predominantly seen as an astronomical innovator and advocate of the Copernican world system. Danish astronomy at the time was however based on Tycho Brahe's view of the universe and therefore hostile to Copernican and, by implication, Galilean cosmology. Although Galileo's telescope attracted much attention, it took about thirty years until a Danish astronomer actually used the instrument for observations. By the 1640s Galileo was generally admired for his astronomical disc...

  19. Visible Women: Female Sodomy in the Late Medieval and Early Modern Southern Netherlands (1400-1550

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Roelens

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the number of prosecutions for male sodomy, few cases of same-sex acts between women are known in early modern Europe. In the Southern Netherlands however, no less than 25 women were charged with this crime between c. 1400 and 1550, which means that nearly one out of ten accused sodomites in the region was a woman. Moreover, female sodomites were punished in the same way as their male counterparts. This article argues that the exceptional repression of female same-sex acts was the result of the relatively high level of liberty and visibility women enjoyed in the Southern Netherlands, compared to other regions. The more visible women were in society, the more women attracted to people of their own sex were at risk of being discovered and penalised. Zichtbare vrouwen. Vrouwelijke sodomie in de laatmiddeleeuwse en vroegmoderne Zuidelijke Nederlanden (1400-1550In vergelijking met het aantal mannelijke sodomieprocessen dat in vroegmodern Europa gevoerd werd, zijn er amper zaken bekend waarin vrouwen betrokken waren. In de Zuidelijke Nederlanden daarentegen werden niet minder dan 25 vrouwelijke sodomieten vervolgd tussen ca. 1400 en 1550. Dit betekent dat bijna één op de tien beschuldigde sodomieten in de Zuidelijke Nederlanden vrouwen waren. Bovendienwerden vrouwelijke sodomieten op dezelfde manier bestraft als hun mannelijke tegenhangers. Dit artikel stelt dat de grote mate van vrijheid en zichtbaarheid die vrouwen in de Zuidelijke Nederlanden genoten de oorzaak is van de uitzonderlijk hoge vervolgingsgraad van vrouwelijke sodomie in de regio. Hoe zichtbaarder vrouwen waren in de maatschappij, hoe groter het risico voor vrouwen die zich aangetrokken voelden tot andere vrouwen om ontdekt en bestraft te worden.

  20. Visible Women: Female Sodomy in the Late Medieval and Early Modern Southern Netherlands (1400-1550

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Roelens

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the number of prosecutions for male sodomy, few cases of same-sex acts between women are known in early modern Europe. In the Southern Netherlands however, no less than 25 women were charged with this crime between c. 1400 and 1550, which means that nearly one out of ten accused sodomites in the region was a woman. Moreover, female sodomites were punished in the same way as their male counterparts. This article argues that the exceptional repression of female same-sex acts was the result of the relatively high level of liberty and visibility women enjoyed in the Southern Netherlands, compared to other regions. The more visible women were in society, the more women attracted to people of their own sex were at risk of being discovered and penalised. Zichtbare vrouwen. Vrouwelijke sodomie in de laatmiddeleeuwse en vroegmoderne Zuidelijke Nederlanden (1400-1550In vergelijking met het aantal mannelijke sodomieprocessen dat in vroegmodern Europa gevoerd werd, zijn er amper zaken bekend waarin vrouwen betrokken waren. In de Zuidelijke Nederlanden daarentegen werden niet minder dan 25 vrouwelijke sodomieten vervolgd tussen ca. 1400 en 1550. Dit betekent dat bijna één op de tien beschuldigde sodomieten in de Zuidelijke Nederlanden vrouwen waren. Bovendienwerden vrouwelijke sodomieten op dezelfde manier bestraft als hun mannelijke tegenhangers. Dit artikel stelt dat de grote mate van vrijheid en zichtbaarheid die vrouwen in de Zuidelijke Nederlanden genoten de oorzaak is van de uitzonderlijk hoge vervolgingsgraad van vrouwelijke sodomie in de regio. Hoe zichtbaarder vrouwen waren in de maatschappij, hoe groter het risico voor vrouwen die zich aangetrokken voelden tot andere vrouwen om ontdekt en bestraft te worden.

  1. Early Buddhist Ethics and Modern Science : Methodology of Two Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Shoyo Masako

    1999-01-01

    A conventional notion regarding ethics and natural scrence is that they are fundamentally different intellectual disciplines, in which ethics is the study of values dealing with the concepts of ought or should (rooted in the dichotomous of good/evil or right/wrong) while natural science is value-free research which attempts to deal with is, facts, or phenomena. This article argues that the above view is one-sided if examined from an Early Buddhist perspective. The Early Buddhist canonical te...

  2. Of early animals, anaerobic mitochondria, and a modern sponge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentel, Marek; Röttger, Mayo; Leys, Sally; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Martin, William F

    2014-01-01

    The origin and early evolution of animals marks an important event in life's history. This event is historically associated with an important variable in Earth history - oxygen. One view has it that an increase in oceanic oxygen levels at the end of the Neoproterozoic Era (roughly 600 million years

  3. Of early animals, anaerobic mitochondria, and a modern sponge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentel, Marek; Röttger, Mayo; Leys, Sally; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Martin, William F

    2014-01-01

    The origin and early evolution of animals marks an important event in life's history. This event is historically associated with an important variable in Earth history - oxygen. One view has it that an increase in oceanic oxygen levels at the end of the Neoproterozoic Era (roughly 600 million years

  4. Street mirrors, surveillance, and urban communities in early modern Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ylimaunu, T.; Symonds, J.; Mullins, P.R.; Salmi, A.-K.; Nurmi, R.; Kallio-Seppä, T.; Kuokkanen, T.; Tranberg, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses street mirrors or ‘gossip mirrors’, in terms of urban social relations and surveillance. Street mirrors were introduced to coastal towns in Sweden and Finland in the 18th and early 19th centuries and may still be found in well-preserved towns with historic wooden centres. The

  5. Archaeology of Architecture and Archaeology of houses in Early Medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirós Castillo, Juan Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the «Archaeology of Architecture and Household Archaeology in Early Medieval Europe» dossier, the object of which is to explore the different approaches, methodologies and themes analysed in the study of early medieval architecture in western Europe. More specifically, in what follows, analysis is undertaken of the contexts which explain the recent development of studies on this topic, as well as the main contributions of the seven papers which form this dossier. In addition, the main historical and archaeological problems raised by the analysis of this material record are also discussed.En este trabajo se presenta el dossier «Archaeology of Architecture and Household Archaeology in Early Medieval Europe», que pretende explorar los distintos enfoques, metodologías y temáticas analizadas en el estudio de las arquitecturas altomedievales en el marco de Europa occidental. Más concretamente se analizan los contextos que explican el desarrollo reciente de los estudios sobre esta materia, las principales aportaciones de los siete trabajos que conforman este dossier y se discuten los principales problemas históricos y arqueológicos que plantea el análisis de este registro material.

  6. Medical Connections and Exchanges in the Early Modern World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Naylor Pearson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For most of human history there have been extensive exchanges of medical information all over Eurasia. Some diseases were considered to be geographically determined, and hence had to be cured using local knowledge. Other ailments were found in many places, but cures could differ according to location. Most healers, whether book based or experiential, took a non-judgemental approach to different healing methods, as seen especially in India in the early colonial period.

  7. Circles of Confidence in Correspondence: Modeling Confidentiality and Secrecy in Knowledge Exchange Networks of Letters and Drawings in the Early Modern Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Charles; Weingart, Scott B; Spelt, Nils; Nellen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Science in the early modern world depended on openness in scholarly communication. On the other hand, a web of commercial, political, and religious conflicts required broad measures of secrecy and confidentiality; similar measures were integral to scholarly rivalries and plagiarism. This paper analyzes confidentiality and secrecy in intellectual and technological knowledge exchange via letters and drawings. We argue that existing approaches to understanding knowledge exchange in early modern Europe--which focus on the Republic of Letters as a unified entity of corresponding scholars--can be improved upon by analyzing multilayered networks of communication. We describe a data model to analyze circles of confidence and cultures of secrecy in intellectual and technological knowledge exchanges. Finally, we discuss the outcomes of a first experiment focusing on the question of how personal and professional/official relationships interact with confidentiality and secrecy, based on a case study of the correspondence of Hugo Grotius.

  8. Early modern humans and morphological variation in Southeast Asia: fossil evidence from Tam Pa Ling, Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Demeter

    Full Text Available Little is known about the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in Eastern Eurasia. However a rapid migration out of Africa into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka is supported by archaeological, paleogenetic and paleoanthropological data. Recent discoveries in Laos, a modern human cranium (TPL1 from Tam Pa Ling's cave, provided the first evidence for the presence of early modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia by 63-46 ka. In the current study, a complete human mandible representing a second individual, TPL 2, is described using discrete traits and geometric morphometrics with an emphasis on determining its population affinity. The TPL2 mandible has a chin and other discrete traits consistent with early modern humans, but it retains a robust lateral corpus and internal corporal morphology typical of archaic humans across the Old World. The mosaic morphology of TPL2 and the fully modern human morphology of TPL1 suggest that a large range of morphological variation was present in early modern human populations residing in the eastern Eurasia by MIS 3.

  9. From discrete to continuous the broadening of number concepts in early modern England

    CERN Document Server

    Neal, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    In the early modern period, a crucial transformation occurred in the classical conception of number and magnitude. Traditionally, numbers were merely collections of discrete units that measured some multiple. Magnitude, on the other hand, was usually described as being continuous, or being divisible into parts that are infinitely divisible. This traditional idea of discrete number versus continuous magnitude was challenged in the early modern period in several ways. This detailed study explores how the development of algebraic symbolism, logarithms, and the growing practical demands for an expanded number concept all contributed to a broadening of the number concept in early modern England. An interest in solving practical problems was not, in itself, enough to cause a generalisation of the number concept. It was the combined impact of novel practical applications together with the concomitant development of such mathematical advances as algebraic notation and logarithms that produced a broadened number conce...

  10. Early psychosocial interventions after disasters, terrorism and other shocking events: is there a gap between norms and practice in Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, H. te; Dückers, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Internationally, several initiatives exist to describe standards for post-disaster psychosocial care. Objective: This study explored the level of consensus of experts within Europe on a set of recommendations on early psychosocial intervention after shocking events (Dutch guidelines),

  11. Handling the Theme of Hands in Early Modern Cross-over Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refskou, Anne Sophie Haahr; Thomasen, Laura Søvsø

    2014-01-01

    The human hand is a complex phenomenon within the contexts of early modern visual and textual culture. Its frequent presence in early modern texts and illustrations - as well as the many different types of described and depicted hands - raises a number of questions as to its functions...... of cross-over examples from both medicine, manuals and drama – primarily John Bulwer’s Chirologia and Chironomia, William Harvey’s de Motu Cordis and extracts from Shakespeare’s plays – we explore the questions implied by hands and their contributions to the knowledge probed and proposed by these texts...

  12. Early Pleistocene human occupation at the edge of the boreal zone in northwest Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, Simon A; Ashton, Nick M; Lewis, Simon G; Abel, Richard L; Coope, G Russell; Field, Mike H; Gale, Rowena; Hoare, Peter G; Larkin, Nigel R; Lewis, Mark D; Karloukovski, Vassil; Maher, Barbara A; Peglar, Sylvia M; Preece, Richard C; Whittaker, John E; Stringer, Chris B

    2010-07-08

    The dispersal of early humans from Africa by 1.75 Myr ago led to a marked expansion of their range, from the island of Flores in the east to the Iberian peninsula in the west. This range encompassed tropical forest, savannah and Mediterranean habitats, but has hitherto not been demonstrated beyond 45 degrees N. Until recently, early colonization in Europe was thought to be confined to the area south of the Pyrenees and Alps. However, evidence from Pakefield (Suffolk, UK) at approximately 0.7 Myr indicated that humans occupied northern European latitudes when a Mediterranean-type climate prevailed. This provided the basis for an 'ebb and flow' model, where human populations were thought to survive in southern refugia during cold stages, only expanding northwards during fully temperate climates. Here we present new evidence from Happisburgh (Norfolk, UK) demonstrating that Early Pleistocene hominins were present in northern Europe >0.78 Myr ago when they were able to survive at the southern edge of the boreal zone. This has significant implications for our understanding of early human behaviour, adaptation and survival, as well as the tempo and mode of colonization after their first dispersal out of Africa.

  13. Session 6: Infant nutrition: future research developments in Europe EARNEST, the early nutrition programming project: EARly Nutrition programming - long-term Efficacy and Safety Trials and integrated epidemiological, genetic, animal, consumer and economic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewtrell, M S

    2007-08-01

    Increasing evidence from lifetime experimental studies in animals and observational and experimental studies in human subjects suggests that pre- and postnatal nutrition programme long-term health. However, key unanswered questions remain on the extent of early-life programming in contemporary European populations, relevant nutritional exposures, critical time periods, mechanisms and the effectiveness of interventions to prevent or reverse programming effects. The EARly Nutrition programming - long-term Efficacy and Safety Trials and integrated epidemiological, genetic, animal, consumer and economic research (EARNEST) consortium brings together a multi-disciplinary team of scientists from European research institutions in an integrated programme of work that includes experimental studies in human subjects, modern prospective observational studies and mechanistic animal work including physiological studies, cell-culture models and molecular techniques. Theme 1 tests early nutritional programming of disease in human subjects, measuring disease markers in childhood and early adulthood in nineteen randomised controlled trials of nutritional interventions in pregnancy and infancy. Theme 2 examines associations between early nutrition and later outcomes in large modern European population-based prospective studies, with detailed measures of diet in pregnancy and early life. Theme 3 uses animal, cellular and molecular techniques to study lifetime effects of early nutrition. Biomedical studies are complemented by studies of the social and economic importance of programming (themes 4 and 5), and themes encouraging integration, communication, training and wealth creation. The project aims to: help formulate policies on the composition and testing of infant foods; improve the nutritional value of infant formulas; identify interventions to prevent and reverse adverse early nutritional programming. In addition, it has the potential to develop new products through industrial

  14. Earliest known coelacanth skull extends the range of anatomically modern coelacanths to the Early Devonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Yu, Xiaobo; Lu, Jing; Qiao, Tuo; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liantao

    2012-04-10

    Coelacanths are known for their evolutionary conservatism, and the body plan seen in Latimeria can be traced to late Middle Devonian Diplocercides, Holopterygius and presumably Euporosteus. However, the group's early history is unclear because of an incomplete fossil record. Until now, the only Early Devonian coelacanth is an isolated dentary (Eoactinistia) from Australia, whose position within the coelacanths is unknown. Here we report the earliest known coelacanth skull (Euporosteus yunnanensis sp. nov.) from the Early Devonian (late Pragian) of Yunnan, China. Resolved by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses as crownward of Diplocercides or as its sister taxon, the new form extends the chronological range of anatomically modern coelacanths by about 17 Myr. The finding lends support to the possibility that Eoactinistia is also an anatomically modern coelacanth, and provides a more refined reference point for studying the rapid early diversification and subsequent evolutionary conservatism of the coelacanths.

  15. Evidence for a (15)N positive excursion in terrestrial foodwebs at the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in south-western France: Implications for early modern human palaeodiet and palaeoenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocherens, Hervé; Drucker, Dorothée G; Madelaine, Stéphane

    2014-04-01

    The Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition around 35,000 years ago coincides with the replacement of Neanderthals by anatomically modern humans in Europe. Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain this replacement, one of them being the ability of anatomically modern humans to broaden their dietary spectrum beyond the large ungulate prey that Neanderthals consumed exclusively. This scenario is notably based on higher nitrogen-15 amounts in early Upper Palaeolithic anatomically modern human bone collagen compared with late Neanderthals. In this paper, we document a clear increase of nitrogen-15 in bone collagen of terrestrial herbivores during the early Aurignacian associated with anatomically modern humans compared with the stratigraphically older Châtelperronian and late Mousterian fauna associated with Neanderthals. Carnivores such as wolves also exhibit a significant increase in nitrogen-15, which is similar to that documented for early anatomically modern humans compared with Neanderthals in Europe. A shift in nitrogen-15 at the base of the terrestrial foodweb is responsible for such a pattern, with a preserved foodweb structure before and after the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in south-western France. Such an isotopic shift in the terrestrial ecosystem may be due to an increase in aridity during the time of deposition of the early Aurignacian layers. If it occurred across Europe, such a shift in nitrogen-15 in terrestrial foodwebs would be enough to explain the observed isotopic trend between late Neanderthals and early anatomically modern humans, without any significant change in the diet composition at the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition.

  16. School Jailhouse: Discipline, Space and the Materiality of School Morale in Early-Modern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlin, Björn

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses a specific phenomenon of early-modern education in Sweden, the school jail, as a point of departure for a broader analysis of educational policy in the areas of discipline and moral instruction. The paper demonstrates how the jail evolved as a part of a wider network of objects, pedagogical technologies and social routines in this…

  17. Sex differences of dental pathology in early modern samurai and commoners at Kokura in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyamada, Joichi; Kitagawa, Yoshikazu; Hara, Masahito; Sakamoto, Junya; Matsushita, Takayuki; Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki; Manabe, Yoshitaka

    2016-11-16

    So-called "Ohaguro", teeth blackening, in the married females was a general custom regardless of class in the early modern period. As a result, Ohaguro was thought to have enhanced the acid resistance of tooth substance and tightened gingiva and prevented tooth morbidity due to periodontal disease. For investigation into the influence of Ohaguro, the skeletal remains of early modern samurai and commoners at Kokura were examined for differences in the dental pathology based on sex. Though females from archeological sites have significantly more carious teeth and antemortem tooth loss (AMTL) than males in the previous studies, the prevalence of caries and AMTL in males was higher than in females among the early modern samurai and commoners in Kokura. The efficacies of Ohaguro may influence the good dental health of females. On the other hand, as females were considered inferior to males under the feudal system in Japan, males, including children, might tend to consume more nutritious foods compared to females. However, those foods are certainly not better with regard to dental health, since those foods are more highly cariogenic. These factors may have caused higher caries and AMTL prevalence among males compared to females in early modern Kokura.

  18. A Fruitful Exchange/Conflict: Engineers and Mathematicians in Early Modern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffioli, Cesare S.

    2013-01-01

    Exchanges of learning and controversies between engineers and mathematicians were important factors in the development of early modern science. This theme is discussed by focusing, first, on architectural and mathematical dynamism in mid 16th-century Milan. While some engineers-architects referred to Euclid and Vitruvius for improving their…

  19. [Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis] / Ulrike Plath

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plath, Ulrike, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis. Hrsg. von Enn Küng, Mati Laur, Kersti Lust. Ajalooline Ajakiri. The Estonian Historical Journal 2009. Nr. 3/4 (129/130). (Tartu 2010)

  20. Translation, Hybridization, and Modernization: John Dewey and Children's Literature in Early Twentieth Century China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines how John Dewey's child-centered educational philosophy was adopted and adapted in the early twentieth century in China to create a Chinese children's literature. Chinese intellectuals applied Dewey's educational philosophy, which values children's interests and needs, to formulate a new concept of modern childhood that…

  1. Botanical Knowledge in Early Modern Malabar and the Netherlands : A Review of Van Reede's Hortus Malabaricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    This essay is a case study about information gathering and knowledge production in early modern Malabar and the Netherlands with the aim to review the historiography about the making of the Hortus Malabaricus. It focuses on the making of the twelve volumes of the Hortus Malabaricus and analyses the

  2. The Critique of Scholastic Language in Renaissance Humanism and Early Modern Philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Lodewijk; Muratori, Cecilia; Paganini, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    This article studies some key moments in the long tradition of the critique of scholastic language, voiced by humanists and early-modern philosophers alike. It aims at showing how the humanist idiom of “linguistic usage,” “convention,” “custom,” “common” and “natural” language, and “everyday speech”

  3. A Fruitful Exchange/Conflict: Engineers and Mathematicians in Early Modern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffioli, Cesare S.

    2013-01-01

    Exchanges of learning and controversies between engineers and mathematicians were important factors in the development of early modern science. This theme is discussed by focusing, first, on architectural and mathematical dynamism in mid 16th-century Milan. While some engineers-architects referred to Euclid and Vitruvius for improving their…

  4. The Vernacular Revolution: Reclaiming Early Modern Grammatical Traditions in the Ottoman Empire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leezenberg, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the remarkable shift toward new literate uses of vernacular languages in the early modern Ottoman empire. It argues that this vernacularization occurred independently of Western European (and, more specifically, German romantic) influences. It explores, first, how vernacular la

  5. [Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis] / Ulrike Plath

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plath, Ulrike, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis. Hrsg. von Enn Küng, Mati Laur, Kersti Lust. Ajalooline Ajakiri. The Estonian Historical Journal 2009. Nr. 3/4 (129/130). (Tartu 2010)

  6. Teaching Petrarchan and Anti-Petrarchan Discourses in Early Modern English Lyrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribes, Purificación

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to help students realize that Petrarchism has been an influential source of inspiration for Early Modern English lyrics. Its topics and conventions have lent themselves to a wide variety of appropriations which the present selection of texts for analysis tries to illustrate. A few telling examples from Spenser,…

  7. Trading secrets: Jews and the early modern quest for clandestine knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jütte, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    This essay explores the significance and function of secrecy and secret sciences in Jewish-Christian relations and in Jewish culture in the early modern period. It shows how the trade in clandestine knowledge and the practice of secret sciences became a complex, sometimes hazardous space for contact between Jews and Christians. By examining this trade, the essay clarifies the role of secrecy in the early modern marketplace of knowledge. The attribution of secretiveness to Jews was a widespread topos in early modern European thought. However, relatively little is known about the implications of such beliefs in science or in daily life. The essay pays special attention to the fact that trade in secret knowledge frequently offered Jews a path to the center of power, especially at court. Furthermore, it becomes clear that the practice of secret sciences, the trade in clandestine knowledge, and a mercantile agenda were often inextricably interwoven. Special attention is paid to the Italian-Jewish alchemist, engineer, and entrepreneur Abramo Colorni (ca. 1544-1599), whose career illustrates the opportunities provided by the marketplace of secrets at that time. Much scholarly (and less scholarly) attention has been devoted to whether and what Jews "contributed" to what is commonly called the "Scientific Revolution." This essay argues that the question is misdirected and that, instead, we should pay more attention to the distinctive opportunities offered by the early modern economy of secrecy.

  8. 'Abhorreas pinguedinem': Fat and obesity in early modern medicine (c. 1500-1750).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Contrary to a widely held belief, the medicalization of obesity is not a recent development. Obesity was extensively discussed in leading early modern medical textbooks, as well as in dozens of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century dissertations. Drawing upon ancient and medieval writings, these works discussed the negative impact of obesity upon health and linked it with premature death. Obesity was particularly associated with apoplexy, paralysis, asthma and putrid fevers, and a range of therapeutic options was proposed. This paper offers a first survey of the medical understanding of the causes, effects and treatment of obesity in the early modern period. It examines the driving forces behind the physicians' interest and traces the apparently rather limited response to their claims among the general public. Comparing early modern accounts of obesity with the views and stereotypes prevailing today, it notes the impact of changing medical, moral and aesthetic considerations and identifies, among other things, a shift in the early modern period from concepts of pathological compression to images of the obese body as lax and boundless. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Divine Oeconomy : The role of providence in early-modern economic thought before Adam Smith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Hengstmengel (Joost)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The rise of early-modern economics is commonly linked to a secularization of economic thought. Mercantilism, the first of its currents, largely developed outside the sphere of influence of Church and theology and unlike scholastic economics analyzed economic problems from

  10. The Republic of the Refugees : Early Modern Migrations and the Dutch Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.H.

    2017-01-01

    This essay surveys the wave of new literature on early modern migration and assesses its impact on the Dutch golden age. From the late sixteenth century, the Netherlands developed into an international hub of religious refugees, displaced minorities, and labour migrants. While migration to the Dutch

  11. Early development of modern vertical and horizontal axis wind turbines: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikha; Bhatti, T.S.; Kothari, D.P.

    2005-05-15

    This paper reviews the initial development of the design and operation of modern vertical and horizontal axis wind turbines, with the aim of comparing the development of the two types. Application in developing countries concentrates on the Savonius rotor. The review aims to record important early developments, including the years following the first oil crisis of 1973. (Author)

  12. Bayesian Thought in Early Modern Detective Stories: Monsieur Lecoq, C. Auguste Dupin and Sherlock Holmes

    CERN Document Server

    Kadane, Joseph B

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the maxims used by three early modern fictional detectives: Monsieur Lecoq, C. Auguste Dupin and Sherlock Holmes. It find similarities between these maxims and Bayesian thought. Poe's Dupin uses ideas very similar to Bayesian game theory. Sherlock Holmes' statements also show thought patterns justifiable in Bayesian terms.

  13. An early modern human from Romania with a recent Neanderthal ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiaomei; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Constantin, Silviu; Mallick, Swapan; Skoglund, Pontus; Patterson, Nick; Rohland, Nadin; Lazaridis, Iosif; Nickel, Birgit; Viola, Bence; Prüfer, Kay; Meyer, Matthias; Kelso, Janet; Reich, David; Pääbo, Svante

    2015-08-13

    Neanderthals are thought to have disappeared in Europe approximately 39,000-41,000 years ago but they have contributed 1-3% of the DNA of present-day people in Eurasia. Here we analyse DNA from a 37,000-42,000-year-old modern human from Peştera cu Oase, Romania. Although the specimen contains small amounts of human DNA, we use an enrichment strategy to isolate sites that are informative about its relationship to Neanderthals and present-day humans. We find that on the order of 6-9% of the genome of the Oase individual is derived from Neanderthals, more than any other modern human sequenced to date. Three chromosomal segments of Neanderthal ancestry are over 50 centimorgans in size, indicating that this individual had a Neanderthal ancestor as recently as four to six generations back. However, the Oase individual does not share more alleles with later Europeans than with East Asians, suggesting that the Oase population did not contribute substantially to later humans in Europe.

  14. European bison as a refugee species? Evidence from isotopic data on Early Holocene bison and other large herbivores in northern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Bocherens

    Full Text Available According to the refugee species concept, increasing replacement of open steppe by forest cover after the last glacial period and human pressure had together forced European bison (Bison bonasus--the largest extant terrestrial mammal of Europe--into forests as a refuge habitat. The consequent decreased fitness and population density led to the gradual extinction of the species. Understanding the pre-refugee ecology of the species may help its conservation management and ensure its long time survival. In view of this, we investigated the abundance of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N in radiocarbon dated skeletal remains of European bison and other large herbivores--aurochs (Bos primigenius, moose (Alces alces, and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus--from the Early Holocene of northern Europe to reconstruct their dietary habits and pattern of habitat use in conditions of low human influence. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions in collagen of the ungulate species in northern central Europe during the Early Holocene showed significant differences in the habitat use and the diet of these herbivores. The values of the δ13C and δ15N isotopes reflected the use of open habitats by bison, with their diet intermediate between that of aurochs (grazer and of moose (browser. Our results show that, despite the partial overlap in carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of some species, Early Holocene large ungulates avoided competition by selection of different habitats or different food sources within similar environments. Although Early Holocene bison and Late Pleistocene steppe bison utilized open habitats, their diets were significantly different, as reflected by their δ15N values. Additional isotopic analyses show that modern populations of European bison utilize much more forested habitats than Early Holocene bison, which supports the refugee status of the species.

  15. Female and Male Perspectives on the Neolithic Transition in Europe: Clues from Ancient and Modern Genetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasteiro, Rita; Chikhi, Lounès

    2013-01-01

    The arrival of agriculture into Europe during the Neolithic transition brought a significant shift in human lifestyle and subsistence. However, the conditions under which the spread of the new culture and technologies occurred are still debated. Similarly, the roles played by women and men during the Neolithic transition are not well understood, probably due to the fact that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y chromosome (NRY) data are usually studied independently rather than within the same statistical framework. Here, we applied an integrative approach, using different model-based inferential techniques, to analyse published datasets from contemporary and ancient European populations. By integrating mtDNA and NRY data into the same admixture approach, we show that both males and females underwent the same admixture history and both support the demic diffusion model of Ammerman and Cavalli-Sforza. Similarly, the patterns of genetic diversity found in extant and ancient populations demonstrate that both modern and ancient mtDNA support the demic diffusion model. They also show that population structure and differential growth between farmers and hunter-gatherers are necessary to explain both types of data. However, we also found some differences between male and female markers, suggesting that the female effective population size was larger than that of the males, probably due to different demographic histories. We argue that these differences are most probably related to the various shifts in cultural practices and lifestyles that followed the Neolithic Transition, such as sedentism, the shift from polygyny to monogamy or the increase of patrilocality. PMID:23613761

  16. Literatura analysis of design approach in extensions on Early Modern building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzović Duško

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extension on objects built in the spirit of early modern in western Serbia began in 1953. As a basis, architects have had an object whose architectural language was familiar. Architect formed superstructure in the spirit of modern architecture and by using well known language elements. However, despite the identical language of the old and new building part there showed certain misunderstanding with basic shaping principles and goals applied by previous architect. Such misunderstandings rarely came across during extensions performed during 19th century. This paper analyzes several examples built and upgraded during the first half of the 20th century in Uzice.

  17. In-Vision Continuity Announcers: Performing an Identity for Early Television in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja de Leeuw

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In-vision continuity announcers have played central – yet understudied – roles in early television history. Through their performances on and off the screen, they mediated the identity of the televisual medium in the 1950s and 1960s, popularizing it as a medium of sound and vision, a domestic and gendered medium as well as a national and transnational institution.Focusing primarily on Dutch and Romanian female in-vision continuity announcers in the 1950s and 60s and making extensive comparisons with other countries in Europe, this article illustrates how these early professionals of television performed as part of a European-wide phenomenon of defining the identity of the new televisual medium.

  18. Prototype Early Warning Systems for Vector-Borne Diseases in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C. Semenza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and environmental change, social and demographic determinants and health system capacity are significant drivers of infectious diseases which can also act as epidemic precursors. Thus, monitoring changes in these drivers can help anticipate, or even forecast, an upsurge of infectious diseases. The European Environment and Epidemiology (E3 Network has been built for this purpose and applied to three early warning case studies: (1 The environmental suitability of malaria transmission in Greece was mapped in order to target epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control activities. Malaria transmission in these areas was interrupted in 2013 through such integrated preparedness and response activities. (2 Since 2010, recurrent West Nile fever outbreaks have ensued in South/eastern Europe. Temperature deviations from a thirty year average proved to be associated with the 2010 outbreak. Drivers of subsequent outbreaks were computed through multivariate logistic regression models and included monthly temperature anomalies for July and a normalized water index. (3 Dengue is a tropical disease but sustained transmission has recently emerged in Madeira. Autochthonous transmission has also occurred repeatedly in France and in Croatia mainly due to travel importation. The risk of dengue importation into Europe in 2010 was computed with the volume of international travelers from dengue affected areas worldwide.These prototype early warning systems indicate that monitoring drivers of infectious diseases can help predict vector-borne disease threats.

  19. Floods of the Maros river in the early modern and modern period (16th-20th centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In the poster presentation a series of historical and recent floods of the Maros river, with special emphasis on the flood events occurred on the lower sections, are presented. Similar to the Hungarian flood databases of the Middle-Danube and Lower-Tisza, the main sources of investigations are the institutional (legal-administrative) documentary evidence (e.g. Szeged and Makó town council protocols and related administrative documentation, Csanád County meeting protocols) mainly from the late 17th-early 18th century onwards. However, in case of the Maros river there is an increased importance of narrative sources, with special emphasis on the early modern period (16th-17th century): in this case the (mainly Transylvanian) narratives (chronicles, diaries, memoires etc.) written by aristocrats, other noblemen and town citizens have particular importance. In the presentation the frequency of detected flood events, from the mid-16th century onwards (with an outlook on sporadic medieval evidence), is provided; moreover, a 3-scaled magnitude classification and a seasonality analysis are also presented. Floods of the Maros river, especially those of the lower river sections, often cannot be understood and discussed without the floods of the (Lower-)Tisza; thus, a comparison of the two flood series are also a subject of discussion. Unlike the Lower-Tisza, the Maros is prone to winter and early spring ice jam floods: since the floods that belonged to this type (similar to those of the Middle-Danube at Budapest) were the most destructive among the flood events of the river, this flood type, and the greatest flood events (e.g. 1751-1752, 1784) are also presented in more detail.

  20. Age estimation in fossil hominins: comparing dental development in early Homo with modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, M Christopher; Liversidge, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have used molar tooth eruption as a comparative marker of maturation in early fossil hominins. However, tooth eruption and tooth formation are independent maturational processes. To determine whether estimates of age for entering a stage of dental development in three early hominin fossils fell within the distribution of a modern human sample. This study used a comparative model of dental development to identify the stages of dental development most likely to provide information about length of the growth period in early fossil hominins. Age estimates for stages of dental development in fossils were superimposed onto a normal distribution of the same radiographically defined stages derived from a sample of 6540 children of diverse geographical origin. Both within the dentition of S7-37, from Sangiran, Java, but also for stages of two other specimens (KNM-WT 15000 from Kenya and StW 151 from South Africa), all age estimates for later stages of tooth formation fell within the modern sample range. A pattern appears to exist in early Homo where, both within and between developing dentitions, age estimates for stages of P4, M2 and M3 tooth formation fell consistently among the more advanced individuals of the modern human sample.

  1. A Study on History of Early Modern City Planning of Qingdao (1891-1949)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Once a traditional fishing village, Qingdao was developed into a city by the Qing Government to serve the need for coastal defense. The process was later accelerated due to the introduction of city planning by German colonizers. The city’s planning and urban construction was changed many times in early modern times, dominated by different administrative bodies and proceeding independently from other cities. After 58 years of planning and construction from 1891 to 1949, Qingdao has developed into a large city with integral style and seaport features. Based on an abundance of historical materials, this paper discusses the three major historical stages and seven development phases of Qingdao’s urban planning in the early modern times, as well as the planning content and characteristics of each stage.

  2. To Converse with the Devil? Speech, Sexuality, and Witchcraft in Early Modern Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra Rose Dye

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In early modern Scotland, thousands of people were accused and tried for the crime of witchcraft, many of whom were women. This paper examines the particular qualities associated with witches in Scottish belief – specifically speech and sexuality – in order to better understand how and why the witch hunts occurred. This research suggests that the growing emphasis on the words of witches during this period was a reflection of a mounting concern over the power and control of speech in early modern society. In looking at witchcraft as a speech crime, it is possible to explain not only why accused witches were more frequently women, but also how the persecution of individuals – both male and female – functioned to ensure that local and state authorities maintained a monopoly on powerful speech.

  3. Population genomic analysis of ancient and modern genomes yields new insights into the genetic ancestry of the Tyrolean Iceman and the genetic structure of Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sikora

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Genome sequencing of the 5,300-year-old mummy of the Tyrolean Iceman, found in 1991 on a glacier near the border of Italy and Austria, has yielded new insights into his origin and relationship to modern European populations. A key finding of that study was an apparent recent common ancestry with individuals from Sardinia, based largely on the Y chromosome haplogroup and common autosomal SNP variation. Here, we compiled and analyzed genomic datasets from both modern and ancient Europeans, including genome sequence data from over 400 Sardinians and two ancient Thracians from Bulgaria, to investigate this result in greater detail and determine its implications for the genetic structure of Neolithic Europe. Using whole-genome sequencing data, we confirm that the Iceman is, indeed, most closely related to Sardinians. Furthermore, we show that this relationship extends to other individuals from cultural contexts associated with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic transition, in contrast to individuals from a hunter-gatherer context. We hypothesize that this genetic affinity of ancient samples from different parts of Europe with Sardinians represents a common genetic component that was geographically widespread across Europe during the Neolithic, likely related to migrations and population expansions associated with the spread of agriculture.

  4. In Search of the English Sabbat: Popular Conceptions of Witches’ Meetings in Early Modern England

    OpenAIRE

    James Sharpe

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the evidence for belief in the witches’ sabbat in early modern England. England is generally thought of as a country where the concept of the sabbat did not exist, and it was certainly largely absent from elite thinking on witchcraft, as displayed in the witchcraft statutes of 1563 and 1604 and Elizabethan and Jacobean demonological writings. But evidence entering the historical record mainly via deposi- tions taken by justices of the peace suggests that there was a wide...

  5. The Role of Foreign Influences in Early Terrorism: Examples and Implications for Understanding Modern Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Lutz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has been linked with outbreaks of political violence and terrorism in the modern world. An analysis of Judean revolts against Rome and the Seleucid Greeks, individual suicide attacks in South and Southeast Asia in the 17th century to the early 20th century, and the Boxer Rebellion in China suggest that the intrusion of foreign influences had similar effects in the past.

  6. Francis Bacon's natural history and the Senecan natural histories of early modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalobeanu, Dana

    2012-01-01

    At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new.

  7. Charles V and the Habsburgs' Inventories. Changing Patrimony as Dynastic Cult in Early Modern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González García, Juan Luis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Apart from a deep respect for the achievements of the Habsburgs, Emperor Maximilian I transmitted to his heirs a practical attitude towards their art collections. Pearls and precious stones were extracted from set pieces to produce new ones; old-fashioned jewellery or silver objects were melted down; and tapestries, paintings and sculptures were publicly sold to pay off debts. By studying how some of these goods were reused, recycled, and recirculated among the Habsburg family members, I will explain how crown patrimony changed owners and kingdoms, and how the cult of their dynasty, actively promoted by Charles V, heightened the notion of a collective consciousness which served as a topos for aristocratic collecting in the Renaissance.

  8. The Global Trade of Textiles and Clothing in the Early Modern Period: Exchange, Meaning and Materialities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Hutkova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The two-day workshop at the University of Warwick brought together early career researchers studying various aspects of textile history – production, consumption, trade, fashion, and design – with the aim of drawing broader conclusions about the role of textiles and clothing in the development of societies, cultures and economies. The methodological and geographical breadth of the presented research holds a promise that in the near future we will be presented with a much more global picture of textile production, consumption and trade in the early modern period.

  9. Collecting Knowledge for the Family: Recipes, Gender and Practical Knowledge in the Early Modern English Household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Elaine

    2013-05-01

    When Mary Cholmeley married Henry Fairfax in 1627, she carried to her new home in Yorkshire a leather-bound notebook filled with medical recipes. Over the next few decades, Mary and Henry, their children and various members of the Fairfax and Cholmeley families continually entered new medical and culinary information into this 'treasury for health.' Consequently, as it stands now, the manuscript can be read both as a repository of household medical knowledge and as a family archive. Focusing on two Fairfax 'family books,' this essay traces on the process through which early modern recipe books were created. In particular, it explores the role of the family collective in compiling books of knowledge. In contrast to past studies where household recipe books have largely been described as the products of exclusively female endeavors, I argue that the majority of early modern recipe collections were created by family collectives and that the members of these collectives worked in collaboration across spatial, geographical and temporal boundaries. This new reading of recipe books as testaments of the interests and needs of particular families encourages renewed examination of the role played by gender in the transmission and production of knowledge in early modern households.

  10. RELIGION AND LAW IN THE WESTERN SEPHARDI COMMUNITY: SOME REMARKS FROM THE CASE OF LIVORNO DURING THE EARLY MODERN PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Dimant

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines documents of the Sephardic Community of Livorno during the 17th century, with special attention to the escamot that refer to legal aspects of Jewish life in this port-city, in order to contribute to the study of the religious community experiences during political changes in Europe in the Early Modern Period. This enables analysis of how, and to what extent, the mechanisms of communal socialization and social control in the public and private spheres were related to the process in which the territorial authority and the political control of its borders were reinforced in Tuscany. It argues that Sephardic community legal decisions reinforced political processes in Livorno (and Tuscany, rather than merely been unconnected to them. This argument implies reconsidering not only the role of Diasporic religious communities in local political context, but also the role of local context in the tension between religion and law. From this perspective, it is possible to deepen our understanding of the experience of religious communities regarding the conception on Justice.

  11. ["Lingue di seripi", "serpents' tongues" and "glossopetrae". Highlights from the history of popular "cult" medicine in early modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freller, T

    1997-01-01

    In the 16th, 17th and 18th century "Glossopetrae", popularly known as "Lingue di Serpi", found on the Mediterranean island of Malta, were extensively used for medical purposes as antidotes. These fossil teeth, including specimens of the "Carcharodon Megalodon" (an extinct variant of the great white shark), were ground to powder or used as amulet pendants and "credence" and exported to pharmacies and shops in various cities of Europe. In antiquity, authors like Plinius or Solinus, excluding any religious connotations, had regarded "Glossopetrae" as objects "fallen from heaven on dark moonless nights". However, from the beginning of the 16th century the miraculous antidotic power of the specimens found at Malta was very strongly connected with the Pauline cult there. This cult owed ist origin to the excerpt of the shipwreck of the Apostle of the Gentiles on this island, as recorded in the New Testament. As in so many cases found in medieval and early modern medicine and pharmacy, the renown, collection, distribution and use of the antidote "Glossopetrae" or "Lingue di Serpi" was never limited to its real chemical and pharmaceutical properties. In the period of enlightenment and secular thinking mythic medicine as "Glossopetrae" had lost ist "magical" power. Consequently, with beginning of the late 18th century also the Maltese "Glossopetrae" featured in literature merely as exotic objects of curiosity or symbols of an age bound to medical superstition.

  12. Challenges for relative effectiveness assessment and early access of cancer immunotherapies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Pavlovic

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical endpoints relevant for relative effectiveness assessment (REA reflect how patients feel, function, or survive. Outcome data requested by Health Technology Assessment (HTA bodies in Europe to support reimbursement of an anticancer drug are based on final endpoints coming from completed comparative phase 3 trials; overall survival improvement is the preferred criterion for the demonstration of the patient benefit in this field.Recent arrival of new treatments that target identified functional genetic mutations (targeted therapies or PD-1/PD-L1,2 axis (immunotherapies and their combinations have profoundly changed treatment strategies in cancers as they considerably improve patient survival, but also raise new challenges in REA and decision making process in Europe as compared to the REA of classical chemotherapies. In addition, recent regulatory initiatives to support accelerated clinical development and approval of innovative cancer immunotherapies based on non-final endpoints, such as Priority Medicines (PRIME through the European Medicines Agency (EMA, represent an additional challenge for HTA bodies and decision makers.In order to support adequate data generation for REA of anticancer drugs and especially for drugs candidates for accelerated assessment and early access to market, a close and open dialogue of all stakeholders involved in development of such drugs is crucial

  13. Challenges for Relative Effectiveness Assessment and Early Access of Cancer Immunotherapies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Clinical endpoints relevant for relative effectiveness assessment (REA) reflect how patients feel, function, or survive. Outcome data requested by health technology assessment (HTA) bodies in Europe to support reimbursement of an anticancer drug are based on final endpoints coming from completed comparative phase 3 trials; overall survival improvement is the preferred criterion for the demonstration of the patient benefit in this field. Recent arrival of new treatments that target identified functional genetic mutations ("targeted therapies") or PD-1/PD-L1,2 axis ("immunotherapies") and their combinations have profoundly changed treatment strategies in cancers as they considerably improve patient survival, but also raise new challenges in REA and decision-making process in Europe as compared to the REA of "classical" chemotherapies. In addition, recent regulatory initiatives to support accelerated clinical development and approval of innovative cancer immunotherapies based on non-final endpoints, such as priority medicines through the European Medicines Agency, represent an additional challenge for HTA bodies and decision makers. In order to support adequate data generation for REA of anticancer drugs and especially for drugs candidates for accelerated assessment and early access to market, a close and open dialog of all stakeholders involved in development of such drugs is crucial.

  14. Early Sociology of the Business Enterprise: Max Weber's Theory of the Modern Business Enterprise in Economy and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    be explained as the unfolding of a sociological theory of the modern business enterprise. Some of the most important features of Weber’s theory of the modern business enterprise are presented. Weber points to the multidimensional institutional embeddedness of the modern business enterprise and to the crucial...... importance of ongoing tensions between formal and substantive rationality. Weber’s theory of the modern business enterprise in chapter 2 of Economy and Society may then be seen as an important but still unexplored early contribution to a sociological theory of the modern business enterprise....

  15. Climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion. Early effects on our health in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovats, S.; Menne, B.; McMichael, A.; Bertollini, R.; Soskolne, C. (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    People are concerned about the impact on their health of the climate warming and stratosperic ozone depletion that Europe has been experiencing for the last century. This publication attempts to clarify what early effects these environmental changes are having on our health, and what further effects they may have in the future. What is certain is that more frequent thermal stress, associated or not with air pollution, causes illness and death, especially among the elderly; extreme weather events such as floods cause death, illness and material damage; some water- and foodborne diseases increase during extreme weather conditions, such as heavy rainfall and heatwaves; malaria could increase with climate warming; and ozone depletion increases skin cancer and weakens the immune system. While much is still uncertain about the precise relationship between changes in the climate and changes in disease patterns, the need for action is clear; action either to reduce the climate change itself, or to reduce its harmful effects. (au)

  16. Soil erosion studies in western Europe from the early 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, John; Favis-Mortlock, David

    2013-04-01

    Before the early 1980s, scientific interest in soil erosion in western Europe was minimal. On British soils, for example, high rates of erosion were considered unlikely: "[Soil erosion in Britain] cannot in any way be regarded as a national menace, as can erosion in some other countries" (Jacks, 1954). There was some truth in this perception. By comparison with (for example) the USA, European rainfall was seen as relatively modest in terms of amount and intensity; and European land usage was still generally based on traditional practices which rather rarely left land vulnerable to erosion. However, studies from the late 1970s and early 1980s revealed a growing erosion problem. The earliest UK studies were opportunistic descriptions of large and unusual erosion events which lacked statistical rigour. They led, however, to a growing scientific appreciation of the potential for soil erosion even in those areas which were not previously thought to be erosion-prone e.g. Evans and Northcliff (1978), Boardman (1983). These studies were followed by more ambitious attempts to assess erosion over larger spatial and longer temporal scales: Evans, 1982-86 in England and Wales; Boardman , 1982-91 on the South Downs. Along with this move from considering only single events was a growing appreciation that the most damaging impact of European erosion, in contrast with erosion in the US mid-west and in the tropics, was not on-site but off-site. During these more ambitious monitoring exercises data was also collected on off-site damage by muddy runoff. This led to the realisation that such off-site impacts could be the product of frequent, low magnitude events. This insight has led directly to current concerns regarding agricultural impacts on freshwater systems as exemplified in the Water Framework Directive. These changes in emphasis necessitated a change in experimental and observational approach from small plot to the field scale. The early 1980s also saw the development of

  17. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Milner, George R; Weise, Svenja

    2015-02-10

    To date, no estimates of the long-term effect of cranial vault fractures on the risk of dying have been generated from historical or prehistoric skeletons. Excess mortality provides a perspective on the efficacy of modern treatment, as well as the human cost of cranial injuries largely related to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than it was for their uninjured counterparts, estimated through a simulation study based on skeletal observations. That is about twice the increased risk of dying experienced by modern people with traumatic brain injuries. The mortality data indicate the initial trauma was probably often accompanied by brain injury. Although the latter cannot be directly observed in skeletal remains, it can be inferred through the relative risks of dying. The ability to identify the effects of selective mortality in this skeletal sample indicates it must be taken into account in paleopathological research. The problem is analogous to extrapolating from death register data to modern communities, so epidemiological studies based on mortality data have the same inherent possibility of biases as analyses of ancient skeletons.

  18. Procedures and Frequencies of Embalming and Heart Extractions in Modern Period in Brittany. Contribution to the Evolution of Ritual Funerary in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedouit, Fabrice; Duchesne, Sylvie; Mokrane, Fatima-Zohra; Gendrot, Véronique; Gérard, Patrice; Dabernat, Henri; Crubézy, Éric; Telmon, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of funeral practices from the Middle Ages through the Modern era in Europe is generally seen as a process of secularization. The study, through imaging and autopsy, of two mummies, five lead urns containing hearts, and more than six hundred skeletons of nobles and clergymen from a Renaissance convent in Brittany has led us to reject this view. In addition to exceptional embalming, we observed instances in which hearts alone had been extracted, a phenomenon that had never before been described, and brains alone as well, and instances in which each spouse's heart had been placed on the other's coffin. In some identified cases we were able to establish links between the religious attitudes of given individuals and either ancient Medieval practices or more modern ones generated by the Council of Trent. All of these practices, which were a function of social status, were rooted in religion. They offer no evidence of secularization whatsoever. PMID:28030554

  19. Review: Klaus Grütjen, Lokale Selbstverwaltung im Spannungsfeld von afrikanischer Tradition und europäischer Moderne: Dezentralisierung und Dekonzentration in den frankophonen Staaten Westafrikas am Beispiel Burkina Fasos (2011 Buchbesprechung: Klaus Grütjen, Lokale Selbstverwaltung im Spannungsfeld von afrikanischer Tradition und europäischer Moderne: Dezentralisierung und Dekonzentration in den frankophonen Staaten Westafrikas am Beispiel Burkina Fasos (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Werthmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Klaus Grütjen, Lokale Selbstverwaltung im Spannungsfeld von afrikanischer Tradition und europäischer Moderne: Dezentralisierung und Dekonzentration in den frankophonen Staaten Westafrikas am Beispiel Burkina Fasos, Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag (Recht in Afrika, 3, 2011, ISBN 978-3-89645-623-6 (hardcover, XXXVIII + 822 pp.Besprechung der Monographie:Klaus Grütjen, Lokale Selbstverwaltung im Spannungsfeld von afrikanischer Tradition und europäischer Moderne: Dezentralisierung und Dekonzentration in den frankophonen Staaten Westafrikas am Beispiel Burkina Fasos, Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag (Recht in Afrika, 3, 2011, ISBN 978-3-89645-623-6 (hardcover, XXXVIII + 822 Seiten

  20. Early Functional Treatment and Modern Cast Making for Indications in Hand Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bohr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cast treatment can serve both as a nonsurgical treatment option and as a means for providing postoperative protection. However, with the duration of immobilization intervals, the benefits of cast treatment, especially in hand surgery, are at risk of being outweighed by undesired drawbacks such as joint stiffening and contracture formation. In order to minimize potential complications commonly associated with cast treatment, efforts to further improve cast making must attempt to reconcile two conflicting objectives: (1 to achieve stability and rigidity at the site of injury (e.g., fracture retention and (2 to allow free range of joint movement as early as possible. In addition, in order to assure patient compliance, modern cast treatments should aim to improve wearing-comfort of the cast. This paper describes modern cast designs for four common types hand injuries, with sample cases highlighting the clinical outcome of each treatment.

  1. Renaissance plays as a useful source for the comparison between English and Croatian early modern medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalic, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the differences between English and Croatian views of early modern medicine through the respective Renaissance plays. As Renaissance made no particular distinction between arts and sciences, plays of that time provide a very common source of medical narrative. During Renaissance both languages produced high literary achievements, which makes them exemplars among their Germanic and Slavic counterparts, and justifies this comparison, regardless of their significant differences. One should bear in mind that while England was a unified kingdom, with London as the major cultural centre, Croatia's division among the neighbouring powers produced several prominent cultural centres such as Zadar, Šibenik, Split, Hvar, Korčula, and the most important one, Dubrovnik. One should also bear in mind that the golden age of Croatian Renaissance plays had finished as early as 1567 with the death of Marin DrŽić, before it even started in England with the foundation of the first permanent theatrical companies in 1576. Along these lines, this paper compares their early modern attitudes toward medicine in general and men and women practitioners in particular. In this respect, it evaluates the influences of the origin, patronage, and religion of their authors. Special attention is given to William Shakespeare (1564-1616) and Marin DrŽić (1508-1567) as the exemplars of English and Croatian Renaissance literature.

  2. The Prince and the Hobby-Horse: Shakespeare and the Ambivalence of Early Modern Popular Culture

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    Natália Pikli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Shakespearean hobby-horse, mentioned emphatically in Hamlet, brings into focus a number of problems related to early modern popular culture. In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries the word was characterised by semantic ambivalence, with simultaneously valid meanings of a breed of horse, a morris character, a foolish person, and a wanton woman. The overlapping of these meanings in different cultural discourses of the age (playtexts, emblem books, popular verse, pictures exemplifies the interaction of different productions of early modern popular culture, from social humiliating practices to festivals and public playhouses. This attests to a complex circulation of cultural memory regarding symbols of popular culture, paradoxically both ‘forgotten’ and ‘remembered’ as a basically oral-ritual culture was transformed into written forms. In this context, the Hamletian passage gains new overtones, while the different versions of the playtext (Q1 & 2: 1603, 1604, F: 1623 also offer insights into the changing attitudes regarding popular culture, as it became gradually commercialised and politicised in the following decades. Finally, Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale and Jonson’s Bartholomew Fair solidify a critical and sceptical attitude, which seems to have signalled the end of ‘Merry Old England’ on-stage and off-stage as well.

  3. Land Snails as a Diet Diversification Proxy during the Early Upper Palaeolithic in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López de Pablo, Javier; Badal, Ernestina; Ferrer García, Carlos; Martínez-Ortí, Alberto; Sanchis Serra, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of terrestrial gastropods in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene archaeological record, it is still unknown when and how this type of invertebrate resource was incorporated into human diets. In this paper, we report the oldest evidence of land snail exploitation as a food resource in Europe dated to 31.3-26.9 ka yr cal BP from the recently discovered site of Cova de la Barriada (eastern Iberian Peninsula). Mono-specific accumulations of large Iberus alonensis land snails (Ferussac 1821) were found in three different archaeological levels in association with combustion structures, along with lithic and faunal assemblages. Using a new analytical protocol based on taphonomic, microX-Ray Diffractometer (DXR) and biometric analyses, we investigated the patterns of selection, consumption and accumulation of land snails at the site. The results display a strong mono-specific gathering of adult individuals, most of them older than 55 weeks, which were roasted in ambers of pine and juniper under 375°C. This case study uncovers new patterns of invertebrate exploitation during the Gravettian in southwestern Europe without known precedents in the Middle Palaeolithic nor the Aurignacian. In the Mediterranean context, such an early occurrence contrasts with the neighbouring areas of Morocco, France, Italy and the Balkans, where the systematic nutritional use of land snails appears approximately 10,000 years later during the Iberomaurisian and the Late Epigravettian. The appearance of this new subsistence activity in the eastern and southern regions of Spain was coeval to other demographically driven transformations in the archaeological record, suggesting different chronological patterns of resource intensification and diet broadening along the Upper Palaeolithic in the Mediterranean basin. PMID:25141047

  4. Lake Prespa palaeoenvironment since the MIS 5: a continuous record from a mid-altitude site on modern human's way to Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulos, K.; Aufgebauer, A.; Schäbitz, F.; Wagner, B.

    2012-04-01

    Lake Prespa is situated in the Balkans (40°57'50'' N, 20°58'41'' E) along the eastern trajectory of modern human dispersal. A long (c. 18m) composite sediment core was investigated using geophysical, geochemical and pollen analyses. This study aims to reconstruct the palaeoenvironment and palaeoclimate from a mid-altitude (849m asl) site and evaluate their implications in the migration of our ancestors from Africa to Europe. The age-depth model, based on radiocarbon dating and tephrochronology, indicates continuous sedimentation reaching back to MIS 5. According to the pollen record, the wider Lake Prespa catchment sustained refugial temperate tree populations throughout this period. Following the decline of woodlands at the end of MIS 5, pollen concentration and TOC percentages retain relatively low values until the onset of the Holocene when closed forest formations dominated the landscape signaling the establishment of a warmer and moister climate. Distinct fluctuations of arboreal relative percentages coupled with the occurrence of TIC and Mn peaks can be tentatively correlated to Heinrich events. Climatic oscillations are sensitively recorded in the Lake Prespa sediments at a sub-millennial scale permitting a detailed reconstruction of the regional palaeoenvironment, as well as correlations with other regional and global climate archives. This project is part of the Collaborative Research Center 806: "Our Way To Europe; Culture-Environment Interaction and Human Mobility in the Late Quaternary" (www.sfb806.de). Keywords: Lake Prespa, Balkans, eastern Mediterranean, pollen analysis, palaeolimnology, modern human dispersal

  5. Iacopo Sannazaro anche the Creation of a Poetic Canon in Early Modern England

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    Alessandra Petrina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the circulation and fame of Sannazaro’s Arcadia in early modern England, focusing first on Philip Sidney’s reception of the poem as part of an ongoing pastoral tradition. Sannazaro’s work thus contributed to create a new poetic context and decisively influenced Sidney’s own Arcadia. Significantly enough, after Sidney’s death the name of Sannazaro seems to suffer a deliberate act of ostracism (he does not appear in the works of Sidneian followers and commentators as if Sidney’s scribal community preferred to exalt the name of their friend and patron by marginalizing one of Sidney’s sources.

  6. Maps and the writing of space in early modern England and Ireland

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Bernhard, Dr

    2001-01-01

    Maps make the world visible, but they also obscure, distort, idealize. This wide-ranging study traces the impact of cartography on the changing cultural meanings of space, offering a fresh analysis of the mental and material mapping of early modern England and Ireland. Combining cartographic history with critical cultural studies and literary analysis, it examines the construction of social and political space in maps, in cosmography and geography, in historical and political writing, and in the literary works of Marlowe, Shakespeare, Spenser and Drayton.

  7. Philosophy of experiment in early modern England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment. It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history. The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of early modern experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J.E. Tiles and Peter Dear.

  8. A review of Early Weichselian climate (MIS 5d-a) in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfarth, Barbara [Dept. of Geological Sciences, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    This report addresses the transition from the last interglacial into the last glacial period in Europe, which corresponds to the time interval between approximately 122,000 and 70,000 years before present. Based on state-of-the-art paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental information from selected terrestrial, marine and ice core records, questions regarding the magnitude, duration, and cyclicity of early glacial stadial and interstadials are discussed. One of the most important aspects in this respect is the timing of climatic/environmental changes seen in terrestrial, marine, ice core and speleothem records, and most importantly, how and on which basis and by which proxy these climatic shifts are defined. Since correlations between archives are made to understand the sequence of events and the response of different systems to a change in climate, timescales are of uttermost importance. Independent chronologies however only exist for a few archives (Greenland ice cores, U/Th dated speleothems, Lago Grande di Monticchio varve record), while the timescales for other records and archives have been obtained through tuning to an independent chronology or to the astronomical time scale. Ice core and speleothem isotopic records basically monitor atmospheric changes, but also contain an important local component. Marine records provide information on sea surface and deep-sea temperature and salinity changes, which vary with location; and terrestrial records (primarily pollen stratigraphies) allow reconstructing changing vegetation patterns. Each of these archives thus has its own multitude of proxies, which respond in different ways to an externally triggered shift in climate, such as changes in incoming solar radiation. Disentangling the response of these proxies in terms of climate is one challenge; another challenge is to obtain a detailed enough correlation between the archives in order to understand what is the trigger, what is the response, and which part adds

  9. Making expert knowledge through the image: connections between antiquarian and early modern scientific illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    This essay examines drawings of antiquities in the context of the history of early modern scientific illustration. The role of illustrations in the establishment of archaeology as a discipline is assessed, and the emergence of a graphic style for representing artifacts is shown to be closely connected to the development of scientific illustration in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The essay argues that the production of conventionalized drawings of antiquities during this period represents a fundamental shift in the approach to ancient material culture, signifying the recognition of objects as evidence. As has been demonstrated in other scientific fields, the creation of a visual system for recording objects was central to the acceptance of artifacts as "data" that could be organized into groups, classified as types, and analyzed to gain knowledge of the past.

  10. Desert speleothems reveal climatic window for African exodus of early modern humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaks, Anton; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Ayalon, Avner; Matthews, Alan; Halicz, Ludwik; Frumkin, Amos

    2007-09-01

    One of the first movements of early modern humans out of Africa occurred 130-100 thousand years ago (ka), when they migrated northward to the Levant region. The climatic conditions that accompanied this migration are still under debate. Using high-precision multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) U-Th methods, we dated carbonate cave deposits (speleothems) from the central and southern Negev Desert of Israel, located at the northeastern margin of the Saharan-Arabian Desert. Speleothems grow only when rainwater enters the unsaturated zone, and this study reveals that a major cluster of wet episodes (the last recorded in the area) occurred between 140 and 110 ka. This episodic wet period coincided with increased monsoonal precipitation in the southern parts of the Saharan-Arabian Desert. The disappearance at this time of the desert barrier between central Africa and the Levant, and particularly in the Sinai-Negev land bridge between Africa and Asia, would have created a climatic “window” for early modern human dispersion to the Levant.

  11. Household Scribes and the Production of Literary Manuscripts in Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy L. North

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In early modern English households, literate servants such as tutors, chaplains, stewards, secretaries, and ladies in waiting were well positioned to assist their employers in the assembly and copying of verse miscellanies, anthologies, and other literary manuscripts. Looking at several literary manuscripts, some with known servant contributions and others that suggest the participation of household retainers, the essay explores the likelihood that literate servants often performed scribal tasks above and beyond their formal job descriptions, even serving as scribe for their employers’ hobbies and leisure activities. Although copying was an arduous task, servants appear to have viewed these duties not simply as part of their job but also as gift exchanges, as appeals for promotion or patronage, and as a means by which they might gain access to manuscript literature and literary circles. Studies of early modern letter writing have called attention to many of the copy tasks of literate household servants, but the integral role of literate servants in the collection, copying, and preservation of literary manuscripts deserves much more attention.

  12. “De interpretatione recta...”: Early Modern Theories of Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharia Oana-Alis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Translation has been essential to the development of languages and cultures throughout the centuries, particularly in the early modern period when it became a cornerstone of the process of transition from Latin to vernacular productions, in such countries as France, Italy, England and Spain. This process was accompanied by a growing interest in defining the rules and features of the practice of translation. The present article aims to examine the principles that underlay the highly intertextual early modern translation theory by considering its classical sources and development. It focuses on subjects that were constantly reiterated in any discussion about translation: the debate concerning the best methods of translation, the sense-for-sense/ word-for-word dichotomy - a topos that can be traced to the discourse on translation initiated by Cicero and Horace and was further developed by the Church fathers, notably St. Jerome, and eventually inherited by both medieval and Renaissance translators. Furthermore, it looks at the differences and continuities that characterise the medieval and Renaissance discourses on translation with a focus on the transition from the medieval, free manner of translation to the humanist, philological one.

  13. Unexpected Early Triassic marine ecosystem and the rise of the Modern evolutionary fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayard, Arnaud; Krumenacker, L J; Botting, Joseph P; Jenks, James F; Bylund, Kevin G; Fara, Emmanuel; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Olivier, Nicolas; Goudemand, Nicolas; Saucède, Thomas; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Romano, Carlo; Doguzhaeva, Larisa; Thuy, Ben; Hautmann, Michael; Stephen, Daniel A; Thomazo, Christophe; Escarguel, Gilles

    2017-02-01

    In the wake of the end-Permian mass extinction, the Early Triassic (~251.9 to 247 million years ago) is portrayed as an environmentally unstable interval characterized by several biotic crises and heavily depauperate marine benthic ecosystems. We describe a new fossil assemblage-the Paris Biota-from the earliest Spathian (middle Olenekian, ~250.6 million years ago) of the Bear Lake area, southeastern Idaho, USA. This highly diversified assemblage documents a remarkably complex marine ecosystem including at least seven phyla and 20 distinct metazoan orders, along with algae. Most unexpectedly, it combines early Paleozoic and middle Mesozoic taxa previously unknown from the Triassic strata, among which are primitive Cambrian-Ordovician leptomitid sponges (a 200-million year Lazarus taxon) and gladius-bearing coleoid cephalopods, a poorly documented group before the Jurassic (~50 million years after the Early Triassic). Additionally, the crinoid and ophiuroid specimens show derived anatomical characters that were thought to have evolved much later. Unlike previous works that suggested a sluggish postcrisis recovery and a low diversity for the Early Triassic benthic organisms, the unexpected composition of this exceptional assemblage points toward an early and rapid post-Permian diversification for these clades. Overall, it illustrates a phylogenetically diverse, functionally complex, and trophically multileveled marine ecosystem, from primary producers up to top predators and potential scavengers. Hence, the Paris Biota highlights the key evolutionary position of Early Triassic fossil ecosystems in the transition from the Paleozoic to the Modern marine evolutionary fauna at the dawn of the Mesozoic era.

  14. Unexpected Early Triassic marine ecosystem and the rise of the Modern evolutionary fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayard, Arnaud; Krumenacker, L. J.; Botting, Joseph P.; Jenks, James F.; Bylund, Kevin G.; Fara, Emmanuel; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Olivier, Nicolas; Goudemand, Nicolas; Saucède, Thomas; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Romano, Carlo; Doguzhaeva, Larisa; Thuy, Ben; Hautmann, Michael; Stephen, Daniel A.; Thomazo, Christophe; Escarguel, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    In the wake of the end-Permian mass extinction, the Early Triassic (~251.9 to 247 million years ago) is portrayed as an environmentally unstable interval characterized by several biotic crises and heavily depauperate marine benthic ecosystems. We describe a new fossil assemblage—the Paris Biota—from the earliest Spathian (middle Olenekian, ~250.6 million years ago) of the Bear Lake area, southeastern Idaho, USA. This highly diversified assemblage documents a remarkably complex marine ecosystem including at least seven phyla and 20 distinct metazoan orders, along with algae. Most unexpectedly, it combines early Paleozoic and middle Mesozoic taxa previously unknown from the Triassic strata, among which are primitive Cambrian-Ordovician leptomitid sponges (a 200–million year Lazarus taxon) and gladius-bearing coleoid cephalopods, a poorly documented group before the Jurassic (~50 million years after the Early Triassic). Additionally, the crinoid and ophiuroid specimens show derived anatomical characters that were thought to have evolved much later. Unlike previous works that suggested a sluggish postcrisis recovery and a low diversity for the Early Triassic benthic organisms, the unexpected composition of this exceptional assemblage points toward an early and rapid post-Permian diversification for these clades. Overall, it illustrates a phylogenetically diverse, functionally complex, and trophically multileveled marine ecosystem, from primary producers up to top predators and potential scavengers. Hence, the Paris Biota highlights the key evolutionary position of Early Triassic fossil ecosystems in the transition from the Paleozoic to the Modern marine evolutionary fauna at the dawn of the Mesozoic era. PMID:28246643

  15. The American in Europe as Portrayed in American Literature of Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-22

    extensively through Europe. I had so idealized the act of traveling to Europe, that it had become almost like a rite of passage for me. Somehow I thought...Jordan in For Whom The Bell Tolls war is similar to what the safari was for Macomber. To him war had become like a rite of passage . At one time, when

  16. Modern and ancient red fox (Vulpes vulpes in Europe show an unusual lack of geographical and temporal structuring, and differing responses within the carnivores to historical climatic change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jessica A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite phylogeographical patterns being well characterised in a large number of species, and generalised patterns emerging, the carnivores do not all appear to show consistent trends. While some species tend to fit with standard theoretical phylogeographic expectations (e.g. bears, others show little obvious modern phylogeographic structure (e.g. wolves. In this study we briefly review these studies, and present a new phylogeographical study of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes throughout Europe, using a combination of ancient DNA sequences obtained from museum specimens, and modern sequences collated from GenBank. We used cytochrome b (250 bp and the mitochondrial control region (268 bp to elucidate both current and historical phylogeographical patterning. Results We found evidence for slight isolation by distance in modern populations, as well as differentiation associated with time, both of which can likely be attributed to random genetic drift. Despite high sequence diversity (11.2% cytochrome b, 16.4% control region, no evidence for spatial structure (from Bayesian trees is found either in modern samples or ancient samples for either gene, and Bayesian skyline plots suggested little change in the effective population size over the past 40,000 years. Conclusions It is probable that the high dispersal ability and adaptability of the red fox has contributed to the lack of observable differentiation, which appears to have remained consistent over tens of thousands of years. Generalised patterns of how animals are thought to have responded to historical climatic change are not necessarily valid for all species, and so understanding the differences between species will be critical for predicting how species will be affected by future climatic change.

  17. Antikitenin Öğrettikleri: Yeni Çağ Avrupa Düşüncesinde Yeni Stoacılık (Lessons From Antiquity: Neo-Stoicism In The Early Modern European Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burak Özdemir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Early Modern Europe witnessed the emergence of more centralised states as a consequence of socio-political, economic and religious turmoil. Since Renaissance and Reformation, it has been commonly held that Stoic philosophy has offered much more solid solutions to the problems of the crises in Western societies rather than the other philosophical schools of the Antiquity. This paper argues that the discourses shaped by references to the thinkers identified with Neo-Stoicism steered the course of intellectual discussions as well as political and intellectual programmes in this period. Besides, the place and influence of Neo-Stoicism, as an ancient philosophical school, in the formation of early modern central states should be emphasized.

  18. Modernization of the french early warning network in IRSN, experience feedback and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debayle, C.; Bardet, A.; Beguin-Leprieur, M.; Chevreuil, M.; Malfait, V.; Mechenet, V. [PRP-ENV/SESURE/LS2A (France)

    2014-07-01

    Developed few years after the Chernobyl accident in 1991, the French early warning network, Teleray, composed by 160 ambient dose equivalent rate probes, had operated for 15 years. It was decided in 2007 to modernize this facility in order to keep the infrastructure up-to-date. The sensors, the data transmission network and the supervising system were considered separately, but each development took care about the modularity of the final IT system. After a benchmarking period and technical choices, a five years project started with the aim to increase the number of probes to 420, especially around the French nuclear facilities, to change the technology and the IT system including a new data transmission network. The project kick-off was planned in june 2011, but due to the Fukushima accident, the French government asked IRSN to implement a probe on the roof of the French embassy in Tokyo on March 18, 2011. Results and feedback will be discussed, focusing on new approach about data analysis purpose. In 2014, the modernization of this network will be finished one year before it was expected and with significant cost savings. All the relevant phase of the project will be described, including time schedule and economical aspects, with the aim to describe how it is now considered fundamental to have complementary mobile systems in case of nuclear crisis. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  19. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-10-01

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene.

  20. Early Pliocene onset of modern Nordic Seas circulation related to ocean gateway changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schepper, Stijn; Schreck, Michael; Beck, Kristina Marie; Matthiessen, Jens; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangerud, Gunn

    2015-10-28

    The globally warm climate of the early Pliocene gradually cooled from 4 million years ago, synchronous with decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In contrast, palaeoceanographic records indicate that the Nordic Seas cooled during the earliest Pliocene, before global cooling. However, a lack of knowledge regarding the precise timing of Nordic Seas cooling has limited our understanding of the governing mechanisms. Here, using marine palynology, we show that cooling in the Nordic Seas was coincident with the first trans-Arctic migration of cool-water Pacific mollusks around 4.5 million years ago, and followed by the development of a modern-like Nordic Seas surface circulation. Nordic Seas cooling precedes global cooling by 500,000 years; as such, we propose that reconfiguration of the Bering Strait and Central American Seaway triggered the development of a modern circulation in the Nordic Seas, which is essential for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and a precursor for more widespread Greenland glaciation in the late Pliocene.

  1. Fertility, parental investment, and the early adoption of modern contraception in rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvergne, Alexandra; Lawson, David W; Clarke, Parry M R; Gurmu, Eshetu; Mace, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    What triggers initial shifts to fertility limitation as populations undergo socioeconomic development remains poorly understood. Alternative models emphasize the social contagion of low fertility ideals, or the individual perception of economic and/or fitness benefits to fertility limitation. Few micro-level studies in communities experiencing the earliest stages of the demographic transition are available. In a previous study, we found little support for the role of social transmission through friendships and spatial networks in explaining contraceptive uptake in rural Ethiopia, where contraceptive prevalence is low (800 women which recorded fertility, birth spacing and offspring survivorship. We first investigated whether ever-users and non-users differ in their reproductive behavior and success prior to contraception use. We then conducted a within-women analysis to investigate the impact of contraceptive uptake on reproduction and child survivorship. Women who have experienced higher fertility and higher child survival adopt modern contraception sooner rather than later, and contraceptive use among early adopters is predictive of greater birth spacing. However, contraceptive uptake does not have an impact on offspring survivorship. Our data provide support for the idea that preferences for low fertility emerge in response to increasing competition between offspring. The study has implications for our understanding of the emergence of local fertility norms and the spread of modern birth control. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A review of Early Weichselian climate (MIS 5d-a) in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfarth, Barbara [Dept. of Geological Sciences, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    This report addresses the transition from the last interglacial into the last glacial period in Europe, which corresponds to the time interval between approximately 122,000 and 70,000 years before present. Based on state-of-the-art paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental information from selected terrestrial, marine and ice core records, questions regarding the magnitude, duration, and cyclicity of early glacial stadial and interstadials are discussed. One of the most important aspects in this respect is the timing of climatic/environmental changes seen in terrestrial, marine, ice core and speleothem records, and most importantly, how and on which basis and by which proxy these climatic shifts are defined. Since correlations between archives are made to understand the sequence of events and the response of different systems to a change in climate, timescales are of uttermost importance. Independent chronologies however only exist for a few archives (Greenland ice cores, U/Th dated speleothems, Lago Grande di Monticchio varve record), while the timescales for other records and archives have been obtained through tuning to an independent chronology or to the astronomical time scale. Ice core and speleothem isotopic records basically monitor atmospheric changes, but also contain an important local component. Marine records provide information on sea surface and deep-sea temperature and salinity changes, which vary with location; and terrestrial records (primarily pollen stratigraphies) allow reconstructing changing vegetation patterns. Each of these archives thus has its own multitude of proxies, which respond in different ways to an externally triggered shift in climate, such as changes in incoming solar radiation. Disentangling the response of these proxies in terms of climate is one challenge; another challenge is to obtain a detailed enough correlation between the archives in order to understand what is the trigger, what is the response, and which part adds

  3. A Devonian predatory fish provides insights into the early evolution of modern sarcopterygians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Zhu, Min; Ahlberg, Per Erik; Qiao, Tuo; Zhu, You’an; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liantao

    2016-01-01

    Crown or modern sarcopterygians (coelacanths, lungfishes, and tetrapods) differ substantially from stem sarcopterygians, such as Guiyu and Psarolepis, and a lack of transitional fossil taxa limits our understanding of the origin of the crown group. The Onychodontiformes, an enigmatic Devonian predatory fish group, seems to have characteristics of both stem and crown sarcopterygians but is difficult to place because of insufficient anatomical information. We describe the new skull material of Qingmenodus, a Pragian (~409-million-year-old) onychodont from China, using high-resolution computed tomography to image internal structures of the braincase. In addition to its remarkable similarities with stem sarcopterygians in the ethmosphenoid portion, Qingmenodus exhibits coelacanth-like neurocranial features in the otic region. A phylogenetic analysis based on a revised data set unambiguously assigns onychodonts to crown sarcopterygians as stem coelacanths. Qingmenodus thus bridges the morphological gap between stem sarcopterygians and coelacanths and helps to illuminate the early evolution and diversification of crown sarcopterygians. PMID:27386576

  4. Demons, nature, or God? Witchcraft accusations and the French disease in early modern Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Laura J

    2006-01-01

    In early modern Venice, establishing the cause of a disease was critical to determining the appropriate cure: natural remedies for natural illnesses, spiritual solutions for supernatural or demonic ones. One common ailment was the French disease (syphilis), widely distributed throughout Venice's neighborhoods and social hierarchy, and evenly distributed between men and women. The disease was widely regarded as curable by the mid-sixteenth century, and cases that did not respond to natural remedies presented problems of interpretation to physicians and laypeople. Witchcraft was one possible explanation; using expert testimony from physicians, however, the Holy Office ruled out witchcraft as a cause of incurable cases and reinforced perceptions that the disease was of natural origin. Incurable cases were explained as the result of immoral behavior, thereby reinforcing the associated stigma. This article uses archival material from Venice's Inquisition records from 1580 to 1650, as well as mortality data.

  5. "Secrets of the female sex": Jane Sharp, the reproductive female body, and early modern midwifery manuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobby, E

    2001-01-01

    Early modern midwifery manuals in Britain were usually the work of men. These books were a significant source of information about the body to the wider reading public: many sold well, and their prefatory materials include injunctions to readers not to make improper use of them. What is particularly interesting about Jane Sharp's Midwives Book (1671) is that it both provides a compendium of current beliefs concerning reproduction, and indicates the author's ironic perception of the misogyny that underpinned accepted ideas about the female reproductive body. This article gives key examples of Sharp's interventions, and also refers to Thomas Bartholin, Bartholinus Anatomy (1688); Richard Bunworth, The Doctresse (1656); Hugh Chamberlen, The Accomplisht Midwife (1673); The Compleat Midwifes Practice (1656); Helkiah Crooke, Microcosmographia (1615); Nicholas Culpeper, A Directory for Midwives (1651); Jacques Guillemeau, Childbirth (1612); Jean Riolan, A Sure Guide (1657); Daniel Sennert, Practical Physick (1664); William Sermon, The Ladies Companion (1671); and Percival Willughby, Observations in Midwifery (c. 1675).

  6. Training the intelligent eye: understanding illustrations in early modern astronomy texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Kathleen M; Barker, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Throughout the early modern period, the most widely read astronomical textbooks were Johannes de Sacrobosco's De sphaera and the Theorica planetarum, ultimately in the new form introduced by Georg Peurbach. This essay argues that the images in these texts were intended to develop an "intelligent eye." Students were trained to transform representations of specific heavenly phenomena into moving mental images of the structure of the cosmos. Only by learning the techniques of mental visualization and manipulation could the student "see" in the mind's eye the structure and motions of the cosmos. While anyone could look up at the heavens, only those who had acquired the intelligent eye could comprehend the divinely created order of the universe. Further, the essay demonstrates that the visual program of the Sphaera and Theorica texts played a significant and hitherto unrecognized role in later scientific work. Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler all utilized the same types of images in their own texts to explicate their ideas about the cosmos.

  7. The Poor and the Patient : Protestant Geneva in the Early Modern Period

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    Rieder, Philip

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the medical marketplace in early modern Geneva reveals an active town with a high density of both regular and irregular healers. The aim of this article is to assess just how ordinary and poor people used these services and to what extent medical commodities were available to the destitute. Using both court records, private and public sources, this article explores traces of practices highlighting the flexibility with which practitioners were admitted, the high tolerance to irregular practices and the continuity of the recourse to supernatural and catholic healing traditions by Protestants living within the city walls. Data on self-help and medical support offered by family, friends and neighbours is discussed, suggesting the importance of informal medical services in everyday life. Examples demonstrate that to some extent the poor managed to elect strategies and to control therapies, whereas expensive treatment was regularly offered by charities interested in getting the ill back to work.

  8. Expanding Women's Rural Medical Work in Early Modern Brittany: The Daughters of the Holy Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Tim

    2012-01-01

    During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout the eighteenth century. These nuns provided comprehensive care for the sick poor on their patrons' estates, acting not only as nurses, but also in lieu of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries. This article argues that the medical knowledge and expertise of these sisters from the nursing orders were highly valued by the elites of early modern Brittany. PMID:21724643

  9. Book review: Mapping gendered routes and spaces in the early modern world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2016-01-01

    This book encapsulates and extends many seminal ideas presented at the eighth “Attending to Early Modern Women” conference held at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee in June 2012. Merry Wiesner-Hanks has done a masterful job editing these papers within a central theme of the interaction of spatial domains with gender-based phenomena. The fifteen chapters of this book are organized into four sections: “Framework,” discussing theoretical concepts; “Embodied Environments,” focusing on physicality; “Communities and Networks” of social patterns; and “Exchanges” across geographic space. Together, a global society shaped by gender and sexuality and intersected by race and class emerges.

  10. Expanding women's rural medical work in early modern Brittany: the Daughters of the Holy Spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Tim

    2012-07-01

    During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout the eighteenth century. These nuns provided comprehensive care for the sick poor on their patrons' estates, acting not only as nurses, but also in lieu of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries. This article argues that the medical knowledge and expertise of these sisters from the nursing orders were highly valued by the elites of early modern Brittany.

  11. On the Representation of an Early Modern Dutch Storm in Two Poems

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    Katrin Pfeifer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On 19th December 1660, a severe storm raged over the Dutch isle of Texel, causing severe damage. It proceeded to destroy parts of the city of Amsterdam. Both the sailor and merchant Gerrit Jansz Kooch and the priest Joannes Vollenhove wrote a poem about this natural disaster, presumably independently of each other. The poets perceived the storm differently: Kooch, an eyewitness of the storm, matter-of-factly portrays the calamity and details a feud between his son-in-law and a colleague to commemorate the day of the disaster. In contrast, Vollenhove personifies the winter storm and struggles to understand it. Their poems are valuable sources for a cultural historical analysis. After a brief review of historical severe storm research, I will analyse these poems from a cultural historical point of view. I will shed light on how this severe storm was represented poetically in the Early Modern Period.

  12. Alchemy as studies of life and matter: reconsidering the place of vitalism in early modern chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ku-ming

    2011-06-01

    Early modern alchemy studied both matter and life, much like today's life sciences. What material life is and how it comes about intrigued alchemists. Many found the answer by assuming a vital principle that served as the source and cause of life. Recent literature has presented important cases in which vitalist formulations incorporated corpuscular or mechanical elements that were characteristic of the New Science and other cases in which vitalist thinking influenced important figures of the Scientific Revolution. Not merely speculative, vitalist ideas also motivated chymical practice. The unity of life science and material science that is found in many formulations of Renaissance alchemy disintegrated in Georg Ernst Stahl's version of post-Cartesian vitalism.

  13. Metrology for Radiological Early Warning Networks in Europe ("METROERM")-A Joint European Metrology Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumaier, Stefan; Dombrowski, Harald; Kessler, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, all European countries have installed automatic dosimetry network stations as well as air sampling systems for the monitoring of airborne radioactivity. In Europe, at present, almost 5,000 stations measure dose rate values in nearly real time. In addition, a few hundred air samplers are operated. Most of them need extended accumulation times with no real-time capability. National dose rate data are provided to the European Commission (EC) via the EUropean Radiological Data Exchange Platform (EURDEP). In case of a nuclear emergency with transboundary implications, the EC may issue momentous recommendations to EU member states based on the radiological data collected by EURDEP. These recommendations may affect millions of people and could have severe economic and sociological consequences. Therefore, the reliability of the EURDEP data is of key importance. Unfortunately, the dose rate and activity concentration data are not harmonized between the different networks. Therefore, within the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), 16 European institutions formed the consortium MetroERM with the aim to improve the metrological foundation of measurements and to introduce a pan-European harmonization for the collation and evaluation of radiological data in early warning network systems. In addition, a new generation of detector systems based on spectrometers capable of providing both reliable dose rate values as well as nuclide specific information in real time are in development. The MetroERM project and its first results will be presented and discussed in this article.

  14. Infection, contagion, and public health in late medieval and early modern German imperial towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzelbach, Annemarie

    2006-07-01

    From today's point of view, the concepts of "miasma" and "contagion" appear to be two mutually exclusive perceptions of the spread of epidemic diseases, and quite a number of historians have tried to discuss the history of public health and epidemic diseases in terms of a progression from the miasmic to the contagionist concept. More detailed local studies, however, indicate how extremely misleading it may be to separate such medical concepts and ideas from their actual historical context. The article presented here, based on local studies in late medieval and early modern imperial towns in southern Germany, demonstrates to what extent the inhabitants of these towns had notions of both "miasma" and "contagion." Furthermore, a contextual analysis of language shows that they did not see a necessity to strictly distinguish between these different concepts relating to the spread of diseases. Tracing the meaning of "infection" and "contagion," we find that these terms were used in connection with various diseases, and that a change in the use of the expressions does not necessarily imply a change of the corresponding notion. Moreover, a coexistence of differing perceptions cannot--as some historians have suggested--be attributed to a divergence between the academic medicine and the popular ideas of that period. A survey of measures and actions in the public health sector indicates that a coexistence of--from our point of view--inconsistent concepts helped the authorities as well as the individuals to find means of defense and consolation during all those crises caused by epidemic diseases--crises that occurred very frequently in these towns during the late medieval and early modern periods. As the article demonstrates, the interaction during such crises reveals the continuity of ancient rituals and concepts as well as the adoption of new insights resulting from changes in the economical, political, scientific, religious, and social structures.

  15. “A most detestable crime”. Representations of Rape in the Popular Press of Early Modern England

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    Donatella Pallotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In early modern England the legal definition of rape underwent an important revision and gradually, from crime against property, rape became a crime against the person. While reflecting the classical, medieval and biblical assumptions, the period brought about new concerns. The purpose of this article is to explore representations of rape in a variety of popular texts of the English early modern period, by focussing attention on broadside ballads, cheap pamphlets as well as accounts of trials that took place at the Old Bailey. These texts constitute valuable sources of information about people’s attitudes and beliefs and help us construct the views of rape circulating in early modern English culture.

  16. [The nature of hospitals and hospital review in the late Middle Ages and in early modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, W U

    1994-04-01

    The paper is to point out some characteristic facts on the medieval christian and early modern hospital, its hygienic situation, and its critique. Light will be thrown on the unhealthy effects of keeping cattle in the medieval town, on its problems with water supply and the removal of feces, on the challenges of pestilence and leprosy, and finally on the hygienic state of the early modern European hospital. The source for that will be the didactic picaresque novel "Landstörtzer: Gusman von Alfarche oder Picaro genannt" (1615) by the Jesuit pupil Aegidius Albertinus (1560-1620). Albertinus' novel shows that the early modern hospital sometimes was far from being a clean place, and that someone could catch something like a gastrointestinal disease or even the worse more easily in a hospital than elsewhere.

  17. "The Root is Hidden and the Material Uncertain": the challenges of prosecuting witchcraft in early modern Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The rich archival records of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Venice have yielded much information about early modern society and culture. The transcripts of witchcraft trials held before the Inquisition reveal the complexities of early modern conceptions of natural and supernatural. The tribunal found itself entirely unable to convict individuals charged with performing harmful magic, or maleficio, as different worldviews clashed in the courtroom. Physicians, exorcists, and inquisitors all had different approaches to distinguishing natural phenomena from supernatural, and without a consensus guilty verdicts could not be obtained.

  18. Dental enamel defects in German medieval and early-modern-age populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J; Birkenbeil, S; Bock, S; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K

    2016-11-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) in a medieval and an early-modern-age population from Thuringia, Germany. Sixty-six skeletons subdivided into 31 single burials (12(th)/13(th) c.) and 35 individuals buried in groups (15(th)/16(th) c.) were examined. DDE were classified on 1,246 teeth according to the DDE index. Molar-incisor-hypomineralisation (MIH), a special type of DDE, was recorded according to the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) criteria. DDE was found in 89.4% of the individuals (single burials 90.3% and group burials 88.6%). Hypoplastic pits were the most frequent defect in primary teeth and linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) in permanent teeth. 13 individuals (24.1%) showed at least one hypomineralised permanent tooth, 12.2% had MIH on at least one first permanent molar and 10.0% in permanent incisors. Second primary molars were affected in 8.0% of the children and juveniles. No individual suffered from affected molars and incisors in combination. Endogenous factors like nutritional deficiencies and health problems in early childhood could have been aetiological reasons of DDE and MIH. The frequency of DDE and MIH might have been masked by extended carious lesions, dental wear and ante-mortem tooth loss.

  19. Digit ratios predict polygyny in early apes, Ardipithecus, Neanderthals and early modern humans but not in Australopithecus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Emma; Rolian, Campbell; Cashmore, Lisa; Shultz, Susanne

    2011-05-22

    Social behaviour of fossil hominoid species is notoriously difficult to predict owing to difficulties in estimating body size dimorphism from fragmentary remains and, in hominins, low canine size dimorphism. Recent studies have shown that the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D), a putative biomarker for prenatal androgen effects (PAEs), covaries with intra-sexual competition and social systems across haplorrhines; non-pair-bonded polygynous taxa have significantly lower 2D : 4D ratios (high PAE) than pair-bonded monogamous species. Here, we use proximal phalanx ratios of extant and fossil specimens to reconstruct the social systems of extinct hominoids. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, Hispanopithecus laietanus and Ardipithecus ramidus have ratios consistent with polygynous extant species, whereas the ratio of Australopithecus afarensis is consistent with monogamous extant species. The early anatomically modern human Qafzeh 9 and Neanderthals have lower digit ratios than most contemporary human populations, indicating increased androgenization and possibly higher incidence of polygyny. Although speculative owing to small sample sizes, these results suggest that digit ratios represent a supplementary approach for elucidating the social systems of fossil hominins.

  20. Greek-Romanian Symbiotic Patterns in the Early Modern Period: History,Mentalities, Institutions - I

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    Nikos Panou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The patriarchal decree validating the establishment of the Wallachian archdiocese in 1359; a series of documents pertaining to the early history of the Koutloumousiou monastery on Mount Athos; the surviving redactions of Patriarch Niphon II's lost vita; the proceedings of the interrogation of a Greek priest arrested by the Polish authorities on charges of conspiracy and espionage; and an emphatically digressive section in Matthew of Myra's verse chronicle known as History of Wallachia. This article, of which the first part is presently published, offers a discussion of these textual materials - which span four crucial centuries of Balkan history and represent an intriguing variety of discursive practices and traditions. It aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of the intricate mechanisms that generated a climate of toleration, mobility and inter-ethnic contact in the Ottoman Balkans, enabling a symbiotic relationship between Greeks and Romanians, which found its vital space in the semi-autonomous and strategically located Danubian principalities, and endured throughout the early modern period despite having been severely undermined by opposing tendencies and conflicting interests. The two sections at hand focus on the Bishop of Myra's pivotal text, as well as on written records related to the early, and yet formative, contacts between the nascent Romanian states and the late Byzantine Empire; in the two remaining sections, which will appear in the next volume of The Historical Review, this endeavour will be brought to a conclusion by means of a (necessarily selective presentation of evidence dating from the period after the fall of Constantinople and up to the beginning of the seventeenth century.

  1. Greek-Romanian Symbiotic Patterns in the Early Modern Period: History,Mentalities, Institutions - I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Panou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The patriarchal decree validating the establishment of the Wallachian archdiocese in 1359; a series of documents pertaining to the early history of the Koutloumousiou monastery on Mount Athos; the surviving redactions of Patriarch Niphon II's lost vita; the proceedings of the interrogation of a Greek priest arrested by the Polish authorities on charges of conspiracy and espionage; and an emphatically digressive section in Matthew of Myra's verse chronicle known as History of Wallachia. This article, of which the first part is presently published, offers a discussion of these textual materials - which span four crucial centuries of Balkan history and represent an intriguing variety of discursive practices and traditions. It aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of the intricate mechanisms that generated a climate of toleration, mobility and inter-ethnic contact in the Ottoman Balkans, enabling a symbiotic relationship between Greeks and Romanians, which found its vital space in the semi-autonomous and strategically located Danubian principalities, and endured throughout the early modern period despite having been severely undermined by opposing tendencies and conflicting interests. The two sections at hand focus on the Bishop of Myra's pivotal text, as well as on written records related to the early, and yet formative, contacts between the nascent Romanian states and the late Byzantine Empire; in the two remaining sections, which will appear in the next volume of The Historical Review, this endeavour will be brought to a conclusion by means of a (necessarily selective presentation of evidence dating from the period after the fall of Constantinople and up to the beginning of the seventeenth century.

  2. Contextualization of early modernism in Serbian music: Case studies of two works from 1912

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    Milanović Biljana

    2006-01-01

    content. These were among the most important indications of the author's unrealistic estimation of potential public reception of his music. Modern works of large-scale genre had no prospects of continual survival on the concert repertoire in the period between the two World Wars, either. This testifies to long-standing problems of national musical tradition, especially in consequence of its discontinued and uneven development. This study of early modernism shows the value of researching Serbian music through different cultural models existing in the system of national art of this time. The network of political, economical and cultural institutions was imbued with modern bourgeois culture, but the struggle for its wider acceptance in the domains of everyday life, self-consciousness, and the mentality and taste of different social groups and individuals, was slow and long. Such attempts have not always and fully realized the particular burden of inheritance, reflected in recent times.

  3. Labour, land, and capital markets in early modern Southeast Asia from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomgaard, P.

    2009-01-01

    Factor markets of sorts did exist in the more highly developed areas of early modern Southeast Asia, and they became more efficient in the course of time (although not in a linear process). However, in other more remote areas land was hardly ever sold, labour could not be hired and money was rare. N

  4. Chemical–physical characterisation of Early Iron Age glass beads from Central Europe

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    Fernando Agua

    2017-05-01

    Additionally, results showed microstructural and microcrystalline differences between some glass beads studied here and other glass beads from Mediterranean areas, dated in the same chronological period. This fact pointed out the valuable role given to these beads by Iron Age communities from Central Europe.

  5. The City, the Ghetto and Two Books. Venice and Jewish Early Modernity

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    Cristiana Facchini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1638 two books written by two Venitian rabbis were published in Venice. They were both destined successfully to reach wide circulation over the following decades. This article aims at exploring the intimate connection between Venice, a city which deeply influenced the imagination of European culture during the early modern period, and its Jewish ghetto, the first of its kind to be founded within Catholic lands.The author suggests that it was here in Venice, within the liminal space of the ghetto, that the theory of Jews as merchants, marked by undertones of utilitarianism was finally drafted. It also suggests that, in conjunction with this well-known theory, other theories based on religious tolerance were elaborated.The paper also invites the reader to view the ghetto as a space capable of enacting special religious encounters, mainly driven by an interest in religion and rituals. Therefore, the very specific local and tangible conditions of the urban environment – the city and the ghetto – performed a very important undertaking, for example, debates over the place and role of Jews in Christian society.

  6. In Search of the English Sabbat: Popular Conceptions of Witches’ Meetings in Early Modern England

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    James Sharpe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the evidence for belief in the witches’ sabbat in early modern England. England is generally thought of as a country where the concept of the sabbat did not exist, and it was certainly largely absent from elite thinking on witchcraft, as displayed in the witchcraft statutes of 1563 and 1604 and Elizabethan and Jacobean demonological writings. But evidence entering the historical record mainly via deposi- tions taken by justices of the peace suggests that there was a widespread popular belief in the sabbat or in parallel forms of witches’ meetings, evidence that the concept of the sabbat existed in popular culture. In this, the English evidence seems to support Carlo Ginzburg’s model of the sabbat being essentially a popular construction in its origins. The article also examines a play based on one of the historical incidents analysed, Richard Brome and Thomas Heywood’s The Late Lancashire Witches (1634, and uses it as a starting point for a brief discussion of witchcraft motifs in contemporary drama, notably Shakespeare’s Macbeth.

  7. Thinking in early modernity and the separation process between philosophy and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2015-03-01

    One of the big questions in psychology is when and how psychology disentangled from philosophy. Usually it is referred to the laboratory Wundt established in Leipzig in 1879 as the birth for psychology as an independent science. However this separation process can also be traced in other ways, like by focusing on how the two sciences approach and understand thinking. Although thinking and language were not included in the research in this laboratory, Wundt (1897) regarded thinking as the core of psychology. As a commentary to Papanicolaou (Integr Psychol Behav Sci doi:10.1007/s12124-014-9273-3, 2014), this paper investigates the differences in how psychology and philosophy conceptualized thinking in early Western modernity. Thus one of the findings is that the separation process between the two was more or less initiated by Immanuel Kant. By defining thinking in terms of the pure reason he excluded the psychological understanding of thinking because psychology basically defined thinking in terms of ideas derived from qualia and sensation. Another finding is that psychology itself has not completely realized the differences between the philosophical and the psychological understanding of thinking by having been influenced by Kant's ideal of the pure reason. This may also explain some of the crises psychology went through during the twentieth century.

  8. Two medieval plague treatises and their afterlife in early modern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, George R

    2003-07-01

    This study of an adaptation of the popular John of Burgundy plague treatise by Thomas Moulton, a Dominican friar, ca. 1475, and a translation of the so-called Canutus plague treatise by Thomas Paynell, printed 1534, shows how the medieval traditions they represent were carried forward, well into the sixteenth century, and also subjected to change in light of religious, moral, and medical concerns of early modern England. The former had a long life in print, ca. 1530-1580, whereas Paynell's translation exists in one printed version. Moulton's adaptation differs from its original and from the Canutus treatise in putting great emphasis on the idea that onsets of plague were acts of divine retribution for human sinfulness. In this respect, Moulton reshaped the tradition of the medieval plague treatise and anticipated the religious and social construction of plague that would take shape in the first half of the sixteenth century. Its long history in print indicates that Moulton's treatise expressed the spirit of that construction and probably influenced the construction as well. The contrasting histories of the two treatises attest not only to the dramatic change brought about by religious and social forces in the sixteenth century, but to a growing recognition of the value of the printing press for disseminating medical information-in forms that served social and ideological ends.

  9. The early modern kidney--nephrology in and about the nineteenth century. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2013-01-01

    The 19th century was a period of momentous scientific discoveries, technological achievements, and societal changes. A beneficiary of these revolutionary upheavals was medical empiricism that supplanted the rationalism of the past giving rise to early modern scientific medicine. Continued reliance on sensory data now magnified by technical advances generated new medical information that could be quantified with increasing precision, verified by repeated experimentation, and validated by statistical analysis. The institutionalization and integration of these methodologies into medical education were a defining step that assured their progress and perpetuation. Major advances were made in the nosography of diseases of the kidney, notably that of the diagnosis of progressive kidney disease from the presence of albuminuria by Richard Bright (1789-1858); and of renal structure and function, notably the demonstration of the continuity of the glomerular capsule with the tubular basement membrane by William Bowman (1816-1892), and the arguments for hemodynamic physical forces mediated glomerular filtration by Carl Ludwig (1816-1895) and for active tubular transport by Rudolf Heidenhain (1834-1897). Improvements in microscopy and tissue processing were instrumental in describing the cellular ultrastructure of the glomerulus and tubular segments, but their integrated function remained to be elucidated. The kidney continued to be considered a tubular secretory organ and its pathology attributed to injury of the interstitium (interstitial nephritis) or tubules (parenchymatous nephritis). © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Stylistic Devices in The Schoole of Vertue, an Early Modern Manual of Good Conduct for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowska Hanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a case study examining the choice and interaction of stylistic devices employed in The Schoole of Vertue, Francis Segar and Robert Crowley’s manual of good manners for children issued between 1582 and 1687. It was designed to convince its readers that particular patterns of behaviour were socially beneficial and worth following. In order to enhance the attractiveness, persuasiveness, and mnemonic qualities of the text, several stylistic devices are employed in the manual, including, for example, rhymes, acronyms, as well as binomials. It is generally agreed that repetitive patterns (especially binomials are typical of formal registers, and particularly plentiful in legal and literary texts in Early Modern English, but the present study shows that similar rhetorical devices were also readily employed in the less formal and elevated style of manuals of good behaviour. Another rhetorical device frequently used in the manual under consideration consists in addressing the reader directly with the second person singular pronoun, especially in imperative constructions, thus creating an ambiance of emotional closeness, characterising the relationship between the master and the pupil.

  11. Rituals of commensality and the politics of state formation in the "princely" societies of early Iron Age Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Dietler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction My task in this essay is to address the question «what can an examination of rituals of commensality add to our understanding of political structure and process in the so-called "princely" societies of Early Iron Age Europe ? ». The short answer is, I believe, a great deal. This is both because rituals are potentially recoverable as distinct events in the archaeological record and because, as will be shown, they are a fundamental instrument and theater of political relations. The...

  12. Western Palaearctic palaeoenvironmental conditions during the Early and early Middle Pleistocene inferred from large mammal communities, and implications for hominin dispersal in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich; García, Nuria; Kostopoulos, Dimitris S.; Lacombat, Frédéric; Lister, Adrian M.; Mazza, Paul P. A.; Spassov, Nikolai; Titov, Vadim V.

    2011-06-01

    Large-scale fluctuations in global climate and resulting changes in ecology had a profound effect on human evolution and dispersal. Though hominin remains are scarce, studies focussing on the more abundant records of fossil land mammal communities can contribute greatly to our knowledge of the palaeoenvironmental circumstances that influenced and directed the global spread of hominins. To produce a comprehensive and accurate account of the evolution of western Palaearctic habitat diversity between 2.6 and 0.4 Ma BP, information generated from large mammal communities from 221 key sites has been included in this study. The palaeoecological conditions of the western Palaearctic during the Early and early Middle Pleistocene were principally controlled by the following key factors: (1) a widespread trend of temperature decrease, (2) the periodicity of the global temperature record, (3) the intensity of single climatic stages, (4) the temporal pattern of climatic variation, (5) geographical position, and (6) the distribution of continental water resources. A general picture of the evolution of western Palaearctic habitat diversity saw the replacement of extensive forested terrain by an alternating sequence of varied savannah-like and forested habitats during the 2.6-1.8 Ma span, as well as an alternation between different types of predominantly open habitats between 1.8 and 1.2 Ma. Both of these processes were governed by 41 ka temperature periodicity. During the 1.2-0.9 Ma time span, irregular climatic fluctuations were more common and habitat variability increased. The subsequent 0.9-0.4 Ma interval, a period controlled by 100 ka periodicity, was by comparison more stable, with longer climatic cycles alternating between open and forested landscapes. During the entire Early and early Middle Pleistocene, assemblages of large mammal communities reveal a distinct trend of decreasing continentality between Eastern and South-Eastern Europe on the one hand, and South

  13. "A jazzed and patchwork modern": "future" girls and modern masculinities in the early popular romances of Berta Ruck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerick, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    As a best-selling writer of popular romances during the first half of the twentieth century, Berta Ruck (1878-1978) has been characterised as a producer of 'omelettes of frivolity and sweetness' whose appeal was confined to adolescent girls and the servant classes. Closer attention to some of the early novels and to her own evaluation of her work, however, reveals her attempts to confront and articulate the impact of societal change upon a generation whose world was being irrevocably altered by the Great War and its aftermath. Her almost forensic attention to local detail and her treatment of contemporary questions of gender identity make her a compelling chronicler of the period and lend credibility to her claims of a broader readership than that generally associated with the genre.

  14. THE DEMAND FOR A NEW CONCEPT OF ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE EARLY MODERN AGE: THE DOCTRINE OF HUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Malivskyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the investigation is to outline the main points of Hume’s interpretation of the basic anthropological project of the era based on radical cultural transformations of the early modern age; to represent a modern vision of Hume's anthropology as a response to the demand of the era and necessity to complete its basic project. Methodology. The research was based on phenomenological and hermeneutic approaches. Originality. Contemporary understanding of the position of anthropological project in Hume's philosophy is regarded as unsatisfactory by the author. Development of the basic project as anthropological is rooted in scientific revolution and needs to be continued and completed. Contemporary prevalence of deanthropogical versions of Hume's philosophy is the result of underestimated significance of the concept of nature in the broad sense. According to the philosopher's texts, heuristic potential of Hume's position is emphasized by the author. The modern version of the basic project in the early modern age is criticized and demands significant changes to become anthropological. Findings. Modern perception of Hume’s philosophy as an anthropological project is unsatisfactory in terms of historical and philosophical science and needs detailed analysis. In order to understand the conditions of anthropological project significance, it is advisable to focus on: a scientific revolution and the necessity to complete it; b determine the role of the concept of nature in its broad sense. Nowadays the way of Hume's rethinking of the basic project of modern philosophy as insufficiently anthropological is quite heuristic. Empiricism, dogmatism, superstition and skepticism are the manifestations of the latter. For Hume, the era was as an incomplete anthropological project and its legacy as the most complete form of explication. Today the interest in the phenomenon of a human provides a reasonable basis to define that modern period is

  15. Clumped isotope thermometry of modern and early Cretaceous molluscan carbonate from high-latitude seas (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkes, G. A.; Price, G. D.; Ambrose, W. G.; Carroll, M. L.; Passey, B. H.

    2010-12-01

    The carbonate clumped isotope thermometer is based on the temperature sensitivity of the relative abundance of carbonate ion groups containing 13C-18O bonds. One application of clumped isotope thermometry is to determine the temperature of ancient seawater from the skeletal material of calcium carbonate-secreting marine organisms. The relationship between Δ47, a parameter describing isotopic clumping, and the temperature of carbonate biomineralization has been well-defined for fish otoliths, corals, foraminifera, and coccolithophore tests, but few data have been published for brachiopods and bivalve mollusks. A comprehensive evaluation of the Δ47-temperature relationship for mollusks is required for paleotemperature interpretations from the marine fossil record. Here we present a more comprehensive calibration for modern mollusks, including bivalves, cephalopods, and gastropods. Further, we focus on a subset of cold water, high-latitude species collected in the northern Barents Sea. The observed Δ47-temperature relationship is similar to the theoretical relationship presented by Guo et al. (2009) but deviates at low temperatures from the original Ghosh et al. (2007) calibration curve. This divergence could be related to methodological differences or unaccounted differences in the biomineralization of mollusks versus that of other carbonate-secreting organisms at low temperature. One advantage of clumped isotope thermometry over traditional oxygen isotope thermometry is that it does not require assumptions about the isotopic composition of the water in which the carbonate formed. This may be particularly useful in Mesozoic paleoceanography where the oxygen isotope value of seawater is uncertain. Using clumped isotope thermometry applied to early Cretaceous (Valangian) belemnite carbonate from the Yatria River, sub-polar Urals, Siberia, we find shell growth temperatures of 20-26°C at a paleolatitude of ~60-65°N. Our data imply average seawater δ18O values of 0

  16. MODERN APPROACHES TO CLINICAL AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS EARLY ONSET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Rekalov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA leads not only to a rapid development of disability, but can influence the life of these patients. One-third of patients with rheumatoid arthritis may have signs of disability during the first 3 years of the onset of the disease, while mortality in patients with RA almost two times higher in comparison with the general population. Analysis of recent prospective studies on the progression of the pathological process and predicting of the long-term outcomes in RA clearly indicate the need for clinical evaluation and a comprehensive laboratory and instrumental diagnosis of the disease in the initial manifestations of the most followed by early adequate pathogenetic therapy. The purpose of this survey was to determine modern clinical aspects of diagnosis, the possibility of standard and specialized instrumental examinations in patients with eRA, followed by predicting long-term results. We studied 52 specialized publications on clinical classification and a modern laboratory and diagnostic tests for eRA. This review presents the data of the importance of differentiation of several stages of RA in relation to the time factor. The data on the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic classification and clinical criteria of eRA and an algorithm for the identification of the disease were presented. It was shown prognostic value of the main serological markers of RA, and the predictive value for early detection of antibodies to the circulating peptide as a marker of the severity of bone-destructive changes in patients with certain clinical manifestations. Antibodies to the circulating peptide (ACPA can be detected many years before the onset of RA. Study of anti-citrulline mutated vimentin (anti-MCV in patients with eRA can be applied as a marker of activity of the process and the subsequent possibility of use for predicting long-term results. This review presents the major diagnostic errors using standard instrumental

  17. Challenges for relative effectiveness assessment and early access of cancer immunotherapies in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Mira Pavlovic

    2016-01-01

    Clinical endpoints relevant for relative effectiveness assessment (REA) reflect how patients feel, function, or survive. Outcome data requested by Health Technology Assessment (HTA) bodies in Europe to support reimbursement of an anticancer drug are based on final endpoints coming from completed comparative phase 3 trials; overall survival improvement is the preferred criterion for the demonstration of the patient benefit in this field.Recent arrival of new treatments that target identified f...

  18. Challenges for Relative Effectiveness Assessment and Early Access of Cancer Immunotherapies in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovic, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Clinical endpoints relevant for relative effectiveness assessment (REA) reflect how patients feel, function, or survive. Outcome data requested by health technology assessment (HTA) bodies in Europe to support reimbursement of an anticancer drug are based on final endpoints coming from completed comparative phase 3 trials; overall survival improvement is the preferred criterion for the demonstration of the patient benefit in this field. Recent arrival of new treatments that target identified ...

  19. Early human occupation of Western Europe: Paleomagnetic dates for two paleolithic sites in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oms, O.; Parés, J. M.; Martínez-Navarro, B.; Agustí, J.; Toro, I.; Martínez-Fernández, G.; Turq, A.

    2000-01-01

    The lacustrine deposits infilling the intramontane Guadix-Baza Basin, in the Betic Range of Southern Spain, have yielded abundant well-preserved lithic artifacts. In addition, the lake beds contain a wide range of micromammals including Mimomys savini and Allophaiomys burgondiae and large mammals such as Mammuthus and Hippopotamus together with the African saber-toothed felid Megantereon. The association of the lithic artifacts along with the fossil assemblages, themselves of prime significance in the Eurasian mammal biochronology, is providing new insight into the controversy of the human settlement in Southern Europe. Despite the importance of the artifacts and fossil assemblage, estimates of the geological age of the site are still in conflict. Some attempts at dating the sediments have included biochronology, uranium series, amino acid racemization, and stratigraphic correlation with other well-dated sections in the basin, but so far have failed to yield unambiguous ages. Here we present paleomagnetic age dating at the relevant localities and thus provide useful age constraints for this critical paleoanthropological and mammal site. Our data provide firm evidence for human occupation in Southern Europe in the Lower Pleistocene, around 1 mega-annum ago. The current view of when and how hominids first dispersed into Europe needs to be reevaluated. PMID:10973485

  20. Invading Europe: did climate or geography trigger early Eocene primate dispersals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligo, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    The Palaeocene-Eocene transition is characterized by a significant turnover of mammalian taxa in the fossil record of the northern continents, and primates are among the groups that make their first appearance at this time. One of the many questions that remain to be answered with regard to the earliest evolution of primates is the reason for their sudden and virtually simultaneous appearance in the fossil records of Asia, Europe and North America. The most obvious environmental correlate of the Palaeocene-Eocene transition is a sharp but relatively short-lived warming event leading up to the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and evidenced in the stratigraphic record by a negative delta(13)C excursion. It remains unclear, however, whether or how this warming event may have influenced Palaeocene-Eocene faunal turnovers. This paper explores the hypothesis that environmental changes associated with the PETM facilitated an invasion of Western Europe by primates by comparing the ecological structure of local mammalian fauna immediately before and following the Palaeocene-Eocene transition. The results suggest that changes to the ecological profile of local mammalian fauna were relatively small and did not favour an invasion by primates, although a major uncertainty remains with respect to the availability of arboreal niches. At present it seems more likely that the invasion of western Europe by primates was due to the breakdown of one or more dispersal barriers close to the end of the Palaeocene.

  1. Early psychosocial interventions after disasters, terrorism and other shocking events: is there a gap between norms and practice in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Brake, Hans; Dückers, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, several initiatives exist to describe standards for post-disaster psychosocial care. This study explored the level of consensus of experts within Europe on a set of recommendations on early psychosocial intervention after shocking events (Dutch guidelines), and to what degree these standards are implemented into mental health care practice. Two hundred and six (mental) health care professionals filled out a questionnaire to assess the extent to which they consider the guidelines' scope and recommendations relevant and part of the regular practice in their own country. Forty-five European experts from 24 EU countries discussed the guidelines at an international seminar. The data suggest overall agreement on the standards although many of the recommendations appear not (yet) to be embedded in everyday practice. Although large consensus exists on standards for early psychosocial care, a chasm between norms and practice appears to exist throughout the EU, stressing the general need for investments in guideline development and implementation.

  2. Modernity and Empire: A Modest Analysis of Early Colonial Writing Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaraj, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    During colonial times, various British Indian educational institutions and practices, including writing pedagogies at these institutions, introduced modernity to British India. This essay explains the manner in which some students internalized modernity and in their writings used modernist beliefs and premises to critique some precolonial Indian…

  3. Age and Date for Early Arrival of the Acheulian in Europe (Barranc de la Boella, la Canonja, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallverdú, Josep; Saladié, Palmira; Rosas, Antonio; Huguet, Rosa; Cáceres, Isabel; Mosquera, Marina; Garcia-Tabernero, Antonio; Estalrrich, Almudena; Lozano-Fernández, Iván; Pineda-Alcalá, Antonio; Carrancho, Ángel; Villalaín, Juan José; Bourlès, Didier; Braucher, Régis; Lebatard, Anne; Vilalta, Jaume; Esteban-Nadal, Montserrat; Bennàsar, Maria Lluc; Bastir, Marcus; López-Polín, Lucía; Ollé, Andreu; Vergés, Josep Maria; Ros-Montoya, Sergio; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; García, Ana; Martinell, Jordi; Expósito, Isabel; Burjachs, Francesc; Agustí, Jordi; Carbonell, Eudald

    2014-01-01

    The first arrivals of hominin populations into Eurasia during the Early Pleistocene are currently considered to have occurred as short and poorly dated biological dispersions. Questions as to the tempo and mode of these early prehistoric settlements have given rise to debates concerning the taxonomic significance of the lithic assemblages, as trace fossils, and the geographical distribution of the technological traditions found in the Lower Palaeolithic record. Here, we report on the Barranc de la Boella site which has yielded a lithic assemblage dating to ∼1 million years ago that includes large cutting tools (LCT). We argue that distinct technological traditions coexisted in the Iberian archaeological repertoires of the late Early Pleistocene age in a similar way to the earliest sub-Saharan African artefact assemblages. These differences between stone tool assemblages may be attributed to the different chronologies of hominin dispersal events. The archaeological record of Barranc de la Boella completes the geographical distribution of LCT assemblages across southern Eurasia during the EMPT (Early-Middle Pleistocene Transition, circa 942 to 641 kyr). Up to now, chronology of the earliest European LCT assemblages is based on the abundant Palaeolithic record found in terrace river sequences which have been dated to the end of the EMPT and later. However, the findings at Barranc de la Boella suggest that early LCT lithic assemblages appeared in the SW of Europe during earlier hominin dispersal episodes before the definitive colonization of temperate Eurasia took place. PMID:25076416

  4. Age and date for early arrival of the Acheulian in Europe (Barranc de la Boella, la Canonja, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallverdú, Josep; Saladié, Palmira; Rosas, Antonio; Huguet, Rosa; Cáceres, Isabel; Mosquera, Marina; Garcia-Tabernero, Antonio; Estalrrich, Almudena; Lozano-Fernández, Iván; Pineda-Alcalá, Antonio; Carrancho, Ángel; Villalaín, Juan José; Bourlès, Didier; Braucher, Régis; Lebatard, Anne; Vilalta, Jaume; Esteban-Nadal, Montserrat; Bennàsar, Maria Lluc; Bastir, Marcus; López-Polín, Lucía; Ollé, Andreu; Vergés, Josep Maria; Ros-Montoya, Sergio; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; García, Ana; Martinell, Jordi; Expósito, Isabel; Burjachs, Francesc; Agustí, Jordi; Carbonell, Eudald

    2014-01-01

    The first arrivals of hominin populations into Eurasia during the Early Pleistocene are currently considered to have occurred as short and poorly dated biological dispersions. Questions as to the tempo and mode of these early prehistoric settlements have given rise to debates concerning the taxonomic significance of the lithic assemblages, as trace fossils, and the geographical distribution of the technological traditions found in the Lower Palaeolithic record. Here, we report on the Barranc de la Boella site which has yielded a lithic assemblage dating to ∼1 million years ago that includes large cutting tools (LCT). We argue that distinct technological traditions coexisted in the Iberian archaeological repertoires of the late Early Pleistocene age in a similar way to the earliest sub-Saharan African artefact assemblages. These differences between stone tool assemblages may be attributed to the different chronologies of hominin dispersal events. The archaeological record of Barranc de la Boella completes the geographical distribution of LCT assemblages across southern Eurasia during the EMPT (Early-Middle Pleistocene Transition, circa 942 to 641 kyr). Up to now, chronology of the earliest European LCT assemblages is based on the abundant Palaeolithic record found in terrace river sequences which have been dated to the end of the EMPT and later. However, the findings at Barranc de la Boella suggest that early LCT lithic assemblages appeared in the SW of Europe during earlier hominin dispersal episodes before the definitive colonization of temperate Eurasia took place.

  5. A new brittle star from the early Carboniferous of Poland and its implications on Paleozoic modern-type ophiuroid systematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Thuy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The fossil record of Paleozoic ophiuroids includes a number of forms which share striking similarities with modern relatives in terms of skeletal morphology. These so called modern-type Paleozoic ophiuroids yield an enormous potential for a better understanding of ophiuroid evolution, yet the scarcity of accurate and sufficiently detailed morphological descriptions available to date precludes any further-reaching assessments. Here, we describe an articulated ophiuroid specimen from the Late Tournaisian (early Carboniferous of Czatkowice quarry, southern Poland, as a new species Aganaster jagiellonicus sp. nov. The good preservation of the specimen allowed for a morphological analysis at a level comparable to recent ophiuroid descriptions. It shows remarkable morphological similarities with extant former ophiolepidids Ophiomusium and Ophiosphalma. The new find thus contributes to a solid basis for future investigations on the position of the modern-type Paleozoic ophiuroid in the phylogeny of the class.

  6. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Operator Performance Metrics for Control Room Modernization: A Practical Guide for Early Design Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Thomas Ulrich; Jeffrey Joe

    2014-03-01

    As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate the operator performance using these systems as part of a verification and validation process. There are no standard, predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages of a new system. This report identifies the process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The report includes background information on design and evaluation, a thorough discussion of human performance measures, and a practical example of how the process and metrics have been used as part of a turbine control system upgrade during the formative stages of design. The process and metrics are geared toward generalizability to other applications and serve as a template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.

  7. [Development of modern medical doctors in Japan from late Edo to early Meiji].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, OckJoo; Takuya, Miyagawa

    2011-12-31

    Western medicine began to be introduced to Japan since late 16th century. Japanese encounter with Western medicine centered on Dejima in Nagasaki in the seventeenth and eighteenth century and the initial process of introduction was gradual and slow. In the mid-nineteenth century, facing threats from Western countries, Tokugawa bakufu asked Dutch naval surgeon, J. L. C. Pompe van Meerdervoort to teach western medicine at the Kaigun Denshujo naval academy in Nagasaki. The government also supported the western medical school in Edo. This paper deals with how modern western medical doctors were developed in Japan from late Edo to early Meiji. The publication of the New Text on Anatomy in 1774 translated by Sugita Genpaku and his colleagues stimulated Japanese doctors and scholars to study western medicine, called Rangaku. During the Edo period, western medicine spread into major cities and countryside in Japan through Rangaku doctors. In 1838, for example, Dr. Ogata Koan established the Rangaku school named Tekijuku and educated many people with western medicine. When smallpox vaccination was introduced in Japan in 1849, Rangaku doctors played an important role in practiving the vaccination in cities and in countryside. After the Edo bakufu and the feudal lords of han(han) actively pursued to introduce western medicine to their hans by sending their Samurai to Edo or Nagasaki or abroad and by establishing medical schools and hospitals until their abolition in 1871. In late Edo and early Meiii military doctors were the main focus of training to meet the urgent need of military doctors in the battle fields of civil wars. The new Meiji government initiated a series of top-down reformations concerning army recruitment, national school system, public health and medical system. In 1874, the government introduced a law on medicine to adopt western medicine only and to launch a national licence system for medical doctors. Issuing supplementary regulations in the following

  8. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Petr, Martin; Mallick, Swapan; Fernandes, Daniel; Furtwängler, Anja; Haak, Wolfgang; Meyer, Matthias; Mittnik, Alissa; Nickel, Birgit; Peltzer, Alexander; Rohland, Nadin; Slon, Viviane; Talamo, Sahra; Lazaridis, Iosif; Lipson, Mark; Mathieson, Iain; Schiffels, Stephan; Skoglund, Pontus; Derevianko, Anatoly P.; Drozdov, Nikolai; Slavinsky, Vyacheslav; Tsybankov, Alexander; Cremonesi, Renata Grifoni; Mallegni, Francesco; Gély, Bernard; Vacca, Eligio; González Morales, Manuel R.; Straus, Lawrence G.; Neugebauer-Maresch, Christine; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Constantin, Silviu; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Coppola, Donato; Lari, Martina; Ricci, Stefano; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigorescu, Dan; Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Flas, Damien; Semal, Patrick; Mannino, Marcello A.; Cupillard, Christophe; Bocherens, Hervé; Conard, Nicholas J.; Harvati, Katerina; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Svoboda, Jiří; Richards, Michael P.; Caramelli, David; Pinhasi, Ron; Kelso, Janet; Patterson, Nick; Krause, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante; Reich, David

    2016-01-01

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. We analyze genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3–6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas the earliest modern humans in Europe did not contribute substantially to present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. A ~35,000 year old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe during the Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a new genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners appears in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European pre-history. PMID:27135931

  9. Contribution of the Neo-Confucianism to the Modern International Law:for its Conception in Europe and for its Acceptance in Japan—Speech before graduate students of Wuhan University,23 October 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toyoda Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    <正>L.Introduction The topic of my speech today is"Contribution of the Neo-Confucianism to the Modern International Law:for its conception in Europe and for its acceptance in Japan."This is quite a challenging topic,since it is generally believed that the modern international law is exclusively a product of the European civilization based on the European philosophy;and that non-European nations including China and Japan accepted it as a wholly foreign legal system.

  10. Children's Physic: Medical Perceptions and Treatment of Sick Children in Early Modern England, c. 1580-1720.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Hannah

    2010-12-01

    Historians of medicine, childhood and paediatrics have often assumed that early modern doctors neither treated children, nor adapted their medicines to suit the peculiar temperaments of the young. Through an examination of medical textbooks and doctors' casebooks, this article refutes these assumptions. It argues that medical authors and practising doctors regularly treated children, and were careful to tailor their remedies to complement the distinctive constitutions of children. Thus, this article proposes that a concept of 'children's physic' existed in early modern England. This term refers to the notion that children were physiologically distinct, requiring special medical care. Children's physic was rooted in the ancient traditions of Hippocratic and Galenic medicine: it was the child's humoral make-up that underpinned all medical ideas about children's bodies, minds, diseases and treatments. Children abounded in the humour blood, which made them humid and weak, and in need of medicines of a particularly gentle nature.

  11. New archeointensity data from French Early Medieval pottery production (6th-10th century AD). Tracing 1500 years of geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genevey, Agnès; Gallet, Yves; Jesset, Sébastien; Thébault, Erwan; Bouillon, Jérôme; Lefèvre, Annie; Le Goff, Maxime

    2016-08-01

    Nineteen new archeointensity results were obtained from the analysis of groups of French pottery fragments dated to the Early Middle Ages (6th to 10th centuries AD). They are from several medieval ceramic production sites, excavated mainly in Saran (Central France), and their precise dating was established based on typo-chronological characteristics. Intensity measurements were performed using the Triaxe protocol, which takes into account the effects on the intensity determinations of both thermoremanent magnetization anisotropy and cooling rate. Intensity analyses were also carried out on modern pottery produced at Saran during an experimental firing. The results show very good agreement with the geomagnetic field intensity directly measured inside and around the kiln, thus reasserting the reliability of the Triaxe protocol and the relevance of the quality criteria used. They further demonstrate the potential of the Saran pottery production for archeomagnetism. The new archeointensity results allow a precise and coherent description of the geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Europe during the Early Medieval period, which was until now poorly documented. They show a significant increase in intensity during the 6th century AD, high intensity values from the 7th to the 9th century, with a minimum of small amplitude at the transition between the 7th and the 8th centuries and finally an important decrease until the beginning of the 11th century. Together with published intensity results available within a radius of 700 km around Paris, the new data were used to compute a master curve of the Western European geomagnetic intensity variations over the past 1500 years. This curve clearly exhibits five intensity maxima: at the transition between the 6th and 7th century AD, at the middle of the 9th century, during the 12th century, in the second part of the 14th century and at the very beginning of the 17th century AD. Some of these peaks are smoothed, or

  12. Boza Consumption in Early-Modern Istanbul As an Energy Drink and a Mood-Altering Substance

    OpenAIRE

    Selçuk, İklil

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of substances such as coffee is known to have gained popularity in the early-modern period along with increased urbanization and the proliferation of public places such as coffeehouses, and bathhouses in towns. Marshall Hodgson refers to the use of such substances in the Venture of Islam, underlining their increase in popularity in the Islamic world, particularly following the Mongol era.[1] Boza is a sweet and fermented drink made from millet, chickpeas or barley, which is kn...

  13. Plio-Pleistocene vegetation response on orbitally forced climatic cycles in Southern Europe - implications for early human environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Angela; Bertini, Adele

    2013-04-01

    The pace and causes of the early human colonization, in one or several migratory waves from Africa in new environments of the Eurasian continent during the Early Pleistocene, are still a matter of debate. However, climate change is considered a major driving factor of hominin evolution and dispersal patterns. In fact directly or indirectly by its severe influence on vegetation, physiography of landscape, and animal distribution, climate modulates the availability of resources. Plant fossils usually are rare or even absent at hominin sites. Thus, direct evidence on local vegetation and environment is generally missing. Independent from such localities, pollen profiles from the Mediterranean realm show the response of regional vegetation on global climate changes and cyclicity, with distinct spatial and temporal differences. Furthermore, plant fossils provide proxies for climate quantification that can be compared to the global signal, and add data to understanding the regional differentiation of Mediterranean environments. In this presentation we will discuss various palaeobotanical data from Southern Europe to assess Early Pleistocene climate and vegetation in time and space as part of the environment during the first expansions of early humans out of Africa.

  14. Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallourd, Pierre, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This contribution from France is based on recently-published documents and in particular on the "Report on the Public Infancy Service for Early Childhood," published in February 2007 by a department of the Prime Minister's Office, the Centre of Strategic Analysis, Social Affairs Section and "Early Childhood Education and Care, a…

  15. Ageing and unused capacity in Europe : is there an early retirement trap?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelini, Viola; Brugiavini, Agar; Weber, Guglielmo

    2009-01-01

    We address the issue of how early retirement may interact with limited use of financial markets in producing financial hardship later in life, when some risks (such as long-term care) are not insured. We argue that the presence of financially attractive early retirement schemes in a world of imperfe

  16. Ego-documents or ‘Plural Compositions’? Reflections on Women’s Obedient Scriptures in the Early Modern Catholic World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelisa Malena

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a common textual genre in early modern Catholic Europe conceived and produced in the context of a close spiritual director/penitent relationship, variously defined as ‘autobiografía por mandato’, ‘obedient writing’, or ‘autobiographical report’, and so on. Starting out from the large number of studies of this text type, a number of considerations are made on two themes: 1 their specificity and the social practices underpinning them 2 the modalities and ways of partial or integral publication in print of some of them. An attempt will be made to highlight to what extent and how the intricate question of authorship(s can be addressed. Special attention will be devoted to the somewhat widespread category (in comparison with ‘autobiography’ of the ‘ego-document’, meaning, by this term, any type of text in which an author or authoress, deliberately or unintentionally writes about his/her acts, thoughts and feelings.

  17. [Academy idea and Curiositas as leitmotif of the early modern Leopoldina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Laetitia

    2008-01-01

    , it deals with aspects of privilege law, regarding the development of new kinds of higher learning institutions and university politics in the imperial city in the confessional era ("Semi-Universities"/"Academies" Strassburg, Nuremberg-Altdorf). This is followed by a thematic balancing.--Chapter III. Curiositas as an Early Modern Leitmotif of Natural Science Academies refers first to the multivalent popular usage of the fashionable and borrowed German word "Kuriosität" [curiosity] during the Enlightenment, then inquires about the word's original definitions in ancient and medieval scholarly traditions. In the age of humanist source study and expeditions into "new worlds", the concept of curiositas as an (ethically ambivalent) "desire for knowledge" was revitalized; this is exemplified by two types of sources: the report of the Orient and Brazil explorer André Thevet and the literarily virulent figure (around 1600) of knowledge-thirsty Faust. A reexamination of the academy's foundational documents, in conjunction with the peregrinatio academica of Schweinfurt doctors to Italy, confirms the old question, now newly posed, about the methodological and programmatic signal of the curiositas device. The self-reflection of the naturae-curiosi and their focus on observational development and natural-historical classifications in the area of "materia medica" show--besides other advances in scholarship in the early 17th century--clear correlation with the "phenomenology of modern thought" that is so often discussed today. However, there must be an evolutionary and innovative differentiation from what would later be called "natural science" disciplines (like biology, zoology, mineralogy, chemistry), as opposed to an all-inclusively defined "scientific revolution", which pertains to astronomical and mathematical ways of thinking, as well as new insights in the physical-instrumental field.--Chapter IV. The Urban Medical Profession Between Scholarly Medicine and Practice applies

  18. East meets West: Mounted Encounters in Early and High Mediaeval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gassmann Jürg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available By the Late Middle Ages, mounted troops - cavalry in the form of knights - are established as the dominant battlefield arm in North-Western Europe. This paper considers the development of cavalry after the Germanic Barbarian Successor Kingdoms such as the Visigoths in Spain or the Carolingian Franks emerged from Roman Late Antiquity and their encounters with Islam, as with the Moors in Iberia or the Saracens (Arabs and Turks during the Crusades, since an important part of literature ascribes advances in European horse breeding and horsemanship to Arab influence. Special attention is paid to information about horse types or breeds, conformation, tactics - fighting with lance and bow - and training. Genetic studies and the archaeological record are incorporated to test the literary tradition.

  19. The Early Modern Land Reclamation, Protomodern Migration and Economic Development of the Feudal Estate of Vrana

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    Dubravka Mlinarić

    2017-01-01

    geostrategic relevance of this particular feudal estate's borderland position on the edges of various states, economic systems and cultures was of the utmost importance. On the other hand, its liminal position as the Venetian overseas territory minimized the central state support and care in various kinds of perils. Hence, colonized immigration did not have ecological character although new settlers changed the landscape of Kotari. New and intensive agricultural (farmer exploitation failed to upgrade economy since the prevailing sheep-breeding in highly fertile land represented the economic irrational land use. Demographic and economic development reflected the devastating results of anti-Ottoman early modern wars, followed by the environmental requirements and pressure of the Venetians. Getting in between the environmental interventions aiming to reach higher economic standards, the feudal estate happened to be radically changed by the reclamation. It was, for the first time since the Roman era, an extraordinary intervention into natural balance of the lowland ecosystem. The results of these early modern collisions of economic and environmental interests in Vrana in the short period significantly differed in quality and direction of its development in comparison to the long-term perspective. On the one hand, especially in the middle and long-term perspective, it showed elements of economic and demographic success, with a reasonable potential to fully reshape the demographic potential of the area. Quite contrary, the short time scale was, if not a complete failure, then at least an uncertain and adventurous experiment. In spite of that qualification, Francesco Borelli’s reclamation of marshlands was a hydro-technical step forward, totally in accordance to similar European intellectual (physiocratic movements and projects, reflecting the spread of comparable ideas to the eastern corners of eastern Adriatic territories under European rulers. However, the Borelli family also

  20. Continuity versus discontinuity of the human settlement of Europe between the late Early Pleistocene and the early Middle Pleistocene. The mandibular evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martinón-Torres, María; Rosell, Jordi; Blasco, Ruth; Arsuaga, Juan Luís; Carbonell, Eudald

    2016-12-01

    One of the most interesting aspects of the settlement of Europe is the possible continuity or discontinuity of the populations living in this continent during the Early and Middle Pleistocene. In this paper we present an analysis of the mandibular fossil record from four important Pleistocene European sites, Gran Dolina-TD6-2 (Sierra de Atapuerca), Mauer, Arago, and Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos. We focus this study in the recognition of key derived mandibular features that may be useful to assess the relationship among the populations represented at these sites. In order to make an approach to the ecological scenario, we also present a short review and discussion of the archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidences at that time. Our results suggest that probably there was a demographic discontinuity between the late Early Pleistocene populations (MIS 21-MIS 19), and those dated to the MIS 15. Hybridization between residents and new settlers cannot be discarded. However, some features of the Gran Dolina-TD6 hominins point to some relationship between the population represented in this site (probably dated to the MIS 21) and the European Middle Pleistocene and early Late Pleistocene populations. A hypothetical scenario is presented in order to understand this apparent contradiction with the model of discontinuity.

  1. Chemical–physical characterisation of Early Iron Age glass beads from Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agua, F.; Conde, J.F.; Kobylińska, U.; Kobyliński, Z.; García-Heras, M.; Villegas, M.A.

    2017-07-01

    Archaeological excavation of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology (Polish Academy of Sciences, PAN) at several Iron Age sites located in West Poland and South Germany has allowed the recovery of an important set of coloured glass beads mostly decorated (6th–4th centuries BC). The present paper summarises the results obtained through the chemical and microstructural characterisation of such beads. The research was carried out by binocular microscope observations, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and visible spectrophotometry. The main objective was to attain information on the production technology and conservation state of these beads. The results indicated that all them were produced with soda lime silicate glass, even though two groups can be separated: (i) beads containing high MgO percentages made from plant ashes as an alkaline source, and (ii) beads containing low MgO percentages made from natron as an alkaline source. As regards decorations, opaque white was obtained from tin oxide, turquoise blue from Cu2+-ions, and opaque yellow from lead antimonate. Additionally, results showed microstructural and microcrystalline differences between some glass beads studied here and other glass beads from Mediterranean areas, dated in the same chronological period. This fact pointed out the valuable role given to these beads by Iron Age communities from Central Europe. (Author)

  2. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Milner, George R; Weise, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    To date, no estimates of the long-term effect of cranial vault fractures on the risk of dying have been generated from historical or prehistoric skeletons. Excess mortality provides a perspective on the efficacy of modern treatment, as well as the human cost of cranial injuries largely related...

  3. Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibokiene, Grazina

    2008-01-01

    In Lithuania early childhood education and care embraces children of the age from one to seven and is an integrated part of the education system. According to Lithuanian education classification, it belongs to the zero level of education. Though defined as pre-school education yet this stage is composed of two parts--pre-school education of…

  4. The gains from early intervention in Europe: Fiscal surveillance and fiscal planning using cash data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hughes Hallett

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of real-time cash data allows us to make accurate intra-annual forecasts of an economy’s fiscal position, and to issue early warning signals for the need to correct fiscal imbalances. This paper shows how those signals can be used to design the necessary fiscal corrections, and discusses the gains that can be achieved from such interventions. Examples from Germany and Italy show that large corrections are often necessary early on to make adjustments later on acceptable and to keep debt ratios from escalating. There is a credibility issue here; we find the difference between front-loaded and back-loaded adjustment schemes is likely to be vital for the time consistency of fiscal policymaking. We also show that, without early interventions, the later deficit reductions typically double in size – meaning governments become subject to the excessive deficit procedure and significant improve-ment tests more often. Thus the budget savings from early intervention and the use of cash data are significant; in our examples they are similar in size to the operating budget of the department of housing and urban development in Germany. Similar results apply in other Eurozone countries.

  5. Vegetation and climate in the Early- and Pleni-Weichselian in northern Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Gerfried; Freund, Holger

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of numerous pollen diagrams from north and central Germany and from the adjacent lowlands of The Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Belarus have facilitated a regional comparison of the vegetation and climatic evolution from the beginning of the Early Weichselian glaciation to the Weichselian pleniglacial. Data from geological studies and analysis of fossil beetles and plant macroremains have been used to supplement the palaeoclimatic reconstruction.Up to the end of the Oerel Interstadial the palaeoclimate was characterised by increasing continentality. The winter temperatures in particular tended to fall continuously during the stadials and the interstadials of the Early Weichselian and early Pleniglacial. In the Brörup and Odderade Interstadials summer temperatures where sufficiently high to enable boreal forests to grow, whereas in the Oerel Interstadial summer temperatures were such that tree growth was inhibited. It is probable that falling sea-level and the consequent extension northwards of the North Sea coast were the main causes of increasing continentality.In the latter part of the Pleniglacial, peat accumulation frequently took place and humic silts were deposited under lacustrine conditions. Correlation between various sites is extraordinarily difficult. Pollen diagrams from the so-called interstadials of the Glinde, Moershoofd Complex, Hengelo and Denekamp are similar to those of the known Early Weichselian stadials. It is proposed therefore that these interstadials should be called intervals, and that the term interstadial be reserved for climatic variations that result in distinctive pollen assemblages and which, in turn, reflect distinctive vegetation dynamics. Interstadials should be capable of being characterised on a biostratigraphical basis and it should be possible to establish correlations over considerable distances. According to this definition, the first three warm oscillations of the Weichselian glaciation in the central European

  6. Paleoclimate in continental northwestern Europe during the Eemian and early Weichselian (125-97 ka): insights from a Belgian speleothem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenberge, Stef; Verheyden, Sophie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Keppens, Eddy; Claeys, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The last interglacial serves as an excellent time interval for studying climate dynamics during past warm periods. Speleothems have been successfully used for reconstructing the paleoclimate of last interglacial continental Europe. However, all previously investigated speleothems are restricted to southern Europe or the Alps, leaving large parts of northwestern Europe undocumented. To better understand regional climate changes over the past, a larger spatial coverage of European last interglacial continental records is essential, and speleothems, because of their ability to obtain excellent chronologies, can provide a major contribution. Here, we present new, high-resolution data from a stalagmite (Han-9) obtained from the Han-sur-Lesse Cave in Belgium. Han-9 formed between 125.3 and ˜ 97 ka, with interruptions of growth occurring at 117.3-112.9 and 106.6-103.6 ka. The speleothem was investigated for its growth, morphology and stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) composition. The speleothem started growing relatively late within the last interglacial, at 125.3 ka, as other European continental archives suggest that Eemian optimum conditions were already present during that time. It appears that the initiation of Han-9 growth is caused by an increase in moisture availability, linked to wetter conditions around 125.3 ka. The δ13C and δ18O proxies indicate a period of relatively stable conditions after 125.3 ka; however, at 120 ka the speleothem δ18O registered the first signs of regionally changing climate conditions, being a modification of ocean source δ18O linked to an increase in ice volume towards the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e-5d transition. At 117.5 ka, drastic vegetation changes are recorded by Han-9 δ13C immediately followed by a cessation of speleothem growth at 117.3 ka, suggesting a transition to significantly dryer conditions. The Han-9 record covering the early Weichselian displays larger amplitudes in both isotope proxies and changes in stalagmite

  7. Os fundamentos da identidade européia na antiguidade, na idade média e nos tempos modernos = The bases of European identity in antiquity, middle ages and in modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johann Mainka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Depois do fim da Segunda Guerra Mundial iniciou-se o processo da unificação européia, compreendendo todas as áreas do Estado e da sociedade (legislação, jurisdição, política, economia, instituições, etc. dos 27 Estados, tão diferentes quanto às tradições e à sua história, que compõem, no momento, a União Européia. Porém, quais são os fundamentos intelectuais e os valores culturais, quais são as idéias e memórias, que dão à Europa uma identidade coerente e compartilhada, em princípio, por toda a população européia de atualmente, quase 500 milhões de pessoas? Esses alicerces intelectuais da Europa remontam à Antiguidade, à Idade Média e aos Tempos Modernos. Este trabalho pretende apresentar alguns desses fundamentos comuns da Europa, postos na Idade Média e nos Tempos Modernos (por exemplo o Cristianismo, o Humanismo e o Iluminismo, e discutir a sua importância para a identidade européia.The process of European unification started immediately after the II World War. It comprised all the areas of State and society (legislation, jurisdiction, politics, economy, institutions and others in the twenty-seven countries, highly different in their traditions and history and which now make up the European Community. Which are the intellectual bases and the cultural values, which are the ideas and memories that give Europe a coherent identity shared, at least theoretically, by the European population of approximately 500 million people? Europe's intellectual bases go back to Antiquide, to the Middle Ages and to Modernity. Current essay will provide some of Europe's common principles posited in the Middle Ages and in Modernity (for instance, Christianity, Humanism and Illuminism and will discuss their importance within Euopean identity.

  8. Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Li, Cai; Li, Bo

    2014-01-01

    To better determine the history of modern birds, we performed a genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves using phylogenomic methods created to handle genome-scale data. We recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister or ...... levels of incomplete lineage sorting that occurred during a rapid radiation after the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event about 66 million years ago....

  9. Virtual assessment of the endocranial morphology of the early modern European fossil calvaria from cioclovina, romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranioti, Elena F; Holloway, Ralph; Senck, Sascha; Ciprut, Tudor; Grigorescu, Dan; Harvati, Katerina

    2011-07-01

    Endocasts provide evidence on size and shape characteristics, blood supply trajectories, and neurological features of the brain, allowing comparative analyses of fossil hominins crucial to our understanding of human brain evolution. Here, we assess the morphological features of the virtual endocast of the Cioclovina Upper Paleolithic calvarium, one of the earliest reliably dated European modern human fossils. Our study was conducted on a computed tomography (CT) scan of the original specimen. The endocranial profile was approximated via a semiautomatic segmentation of the CT data. Virtual reconstructions of the endocast were used for assessing the morphological features of the endocranium and for the estimation of the endocranial volume. Cioclovina exhibits a clockwise torque with a small anterior extension of the left frontal lobe over the right one and a protrusion of the right occipital lobe over the left, most likely due to the superior sagittal sinus coursing over the occipital pole. There is an obvious right predominance of the posterior drainage system. Interestingly, the area of the frontal sinus is occupied by dense bony tissue with small air cells corresponding probably to a natural bony loss in the diploë and to vascular spaces. An estimated endocranial volume of 1498.53 cc was calculated. The convolutional details of the third inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's caps) are indistinguishable from those found in modern Homo sapiens, and the left occipital lobe appears wider than the right, a possible correlate of right-handedness. Our metric analysis of endocranial measurements also aligns Cioclovina with modern humans.

  10. Early evidence of Acheulean settlement in northwestern Europe--la Noira site, a 700,000 year-old occupation in the center of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncel, Marie-Hélène; Despriée, Jackie; Voinchet, Pierre; Tissoux, Hélène; Moreno, Davinia; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Courcimault, Gilles; Falguères, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The human settlement of Europe during Pleistocene times was sporadic and several stages have been recognized, both from paleaoanthropological and archaeological records. If the first phase of hominin occupation (as early as 1.4 Ma) seems mainly restricted to the southern part of the continent, the second phase, characterized by specific lithic tools (handaxes), is linked to Acheulean settlements and to the emergence of Homo heidelbergensis, the ancestor of Neanderthals. This phase reached northwestern Europe and is documented in numerous sites in Germany, Great Britain and northern France, generally after 600 ka. At la Noira (Brinay, Central France), the Middle Pleistocene alluvial formation of the Cher River covers an archaeological level associated with a slope deposit (diamicton). The lithic assemblage from this level includes Large Cutting Tools (LCTs), flakes and cores, associated with numerous millstone slabs. The lithic series is classified as Acheulean on the basis of both technological and typological analyses. Cryoturbation features indicate that the slope deposits and associated archaeological level were strongly frozen and disturbed after hominin occupation and before fluvial deposition. Eight sediment samples were dated by the electron spin resonance (ESR) method and the weighted average age obtained for the fluvial sands overlying the slope deposits is 665±55 ka. This age is older than previous chronological data placing the first European Acheulean assemblages north of 45(th) parallel north at around 500 ka and modifies our current vision of the initial peopling of northern Europe. Acheulean settlements are older than previously assumed and the oldest evidences are not only located in southern Europe. La Noira is the oldest evidence of Acheulean presence in north-western Europe and attests to the possibility of pioneering phases of Acheulean settlement which would have taken place on a Mode 1-type substratum as early as 700 ka. The lithic assemblage

  11. Overview Chapter 3: Birth regulation in Europe: Completing the contraceptive revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Frejka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Early in the 21st century modern contraception -- primarily hormonal methods, advanced IUDs, sterilization and condoms -- has become the main instrument of birth regulation in Northern and Western Europe and gaining ground in Southern Europe and the formerly state socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Legal induced abortion use, which was highly prevalent in Central and Eastern Europe, has been declining since the demise of authoritarian regimes around 1990. Nonetheless, abortions are still used in countries of the former Soviet Union and the Balkans, where the "abortion culture" had been deeply ingrained. Liberal abortion legislation, modern induced abortion technology, and modern contraceptives, have enhanced women's health, been instrumental in childbearing postponement, have been a factor in changing partnership relations, and in the evolution of values regarding sexuality, reproduction, and childbearing, but they have not been a principal cause of contemporary low fertility. Assisted reproductive technology (ART is emerging and having a slight positive impact on fertility in some countries.

  12. Why change habits? Early modern medical innovation between medicalisation and medical culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetz, Francisca

    2010-01-01

    Based on a discussion of the concept of medicalisation and medical culture in Anglo-American, French-, and German-speaking historiography the paper argues that medical innovation in Europe from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century should be approached in a different way. Instead of asking from the perspective of a too narrow concept of medicalisation why medical innovations were rejected by the population, (medical) historians should analyse medical culture and ask why people should have changed their health and illness behaviour. This conceptual argument is deduced from four empirical examples: the introduction of smallpox vaccination, "medical police," the problem of medical professionalization, and the questions arising around the relations between the healthy/sick and their practitioners.

  13. An early modern human presence in Sumatra 73,000-63,000 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, K. E.; Louys, J.; Awe, R. Due; Morwood, M. J.; Price, G. J.; Zhao, J.-X.; Aubert, M.; Joannes-Boyau, R.; Smith, T. M.; Skinner, M. M.; Compton, T.; Bailey, R. M.; van den Bergh, G. D.; de Vos, J.; Pike, A. W. G.; Stringer, C.; Saptomo, E. W.; Rizal, Y.; Zaim, J.; Santoso, W. D.; Trihascaryo, A.; Kinsley, L.; Sulistyanto, B.

    2017-08-01

    Genetic evidence for anatomically modern humans (AMH) out of Africa before 75 thousand years ago (ka) and in island southeast Asia (ISEA) before 60 ka (93-61 ka) predates accepted archaeological records of occupation in the region. Claims that AMH arrived in ISEA before 60 ka (ref. 4) have been supported only by equivocal or non-skeletal evidence. AMH evidence from this period is rare and lacks robust chronologies owing to a lack of direct dating applications, poor preservation and/or excavation strategies and questionable taxonomic identifications. Lida Ajer is a Sumatran Pleistocene cave with a rich rainforest fauna associated with fossil human teeth. The importance of the site is unclear owing to unsupported taxonomic identification of these fossils and uncertainties regarding the age of the deposit, therefore it is rarely considered in models of human dispersal. Here we reinvestigate Lida Ajer to identify the teeth confidently and establish a robust chronology using an integrated dating approach. Using enamel-dentine junction morphology, enamel thickness and comparative morphology, we show that the teeth are unequivocally AMH. Luminescence and uranium-series techniques applied to bone-bearing sediments and speleothems, and coupled uranium-series and electron spin resonance dating of mammalian teeth, place modern humans in Sumatra between 73 and 63 ka. This age is consistent with biostratigraphic estimations, palaeoclimate and sea-level reconstructions, and genetic evidence for a pre-60 ka arrival of AMH into ISEA. Lida Ajer represents, to our knowledge, the earliest evidence of rainforest occupation by AMH, and underscores the importance of reassessing the timing and environmental context of the dispersal of modern humans out of Africa.

  14. Historical DNA reveals the demographic history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in medieval and early modern Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsdóttir, Guðbjörg Ásta; Westfall, Kristen M; Edvardsson, Ragnar; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2014-02-22

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) vertebrae from archaeological sites were used to study the history of the Icelandic Atlantic cod population in the time period of 1500-1990. Specifically, we used coalescence modelling to estimate population size and fluctuations from the sequence diversity at the cytochrome b (cytb) and Pantophysin I (PanI) loci. The models are consistent with an expanding population during the warm medieval period, large historical effective population size (NE), a marked bottleneck event at 1400-1500 and a decrease in NE in early modern times. The model results are corroborated by the reduction of haplotype and nucleotide variation over time and pairwise population distance as a significant portion of nucleotide variation partitioned across the 1550 time mark. The mean age of the historical fished stock is high in medieval times with a truncation in age in early modern times. The population size crash coincides with a period of known cooling in the North Atlantic, and we conclude that the collapse may be related to climate or climate-induced ecosystem change.

  15. Shakespeare and the Words of Early Modern Physic: Between Academic and Popular Medicine. A Lexicographical Approach to the Plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Mullini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at showing how Shakespeare relied on the medical vocabulary shared by his coeval society, which had, for centuries, been witnessing the continuous process of vernacularization of ancient and medieval scientific texts. After outlining the state of early modern medicine, the author presents and discusses the results of her search for relevant medical terms in nine plays by Shakespeare. In order to do this, a wide range of medical treatises has been analysed (either directly or through specific corpora such as Medieval English Medical Texts, MEMT 2005, and Early Modern English Medical Texts, EMEMT 2010, so as to verify the ancestry or the novelty of Shakespearean medical words. In addition to this, the author has also built a corpus of word types derived from seventeenth-century quack doctors’ handbills, with the purpose of creating a word list of medical terms connected to popular rather than university medicine, comparable with the list drawn out of the Shakespearean plays. The results most stressed in the article concern Shakespeare’s use of medical terminology already well known to his contemporary society (thus confuting the Oxfordian thesis about the impossibility for William Shakespeare the actor to master so many medical words and the playwright’s skill in transforming – rather than inventing – old popular terms. The article is accompanied by five tables that collect the results of the various lexicographical searches.

  16. Dimitri Mitropoulos: Lonesome passage to modern music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belonis Yanis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not widely known that Dimitri Mitropoulos first public appearances in Greece were as a composer. His early works (ca. 1912-1924, distinguished by the blend of elements of the late-romantic style with intensely impressionistic references, reflect the search for a personal, 'advanced' harmonic musical language. In his works written after 1924, Mitropoulos abandons tonality and adopts more modern idioms of composition (atonality and 12-tone method. He is the first Greek composer to follow the modern musical tendencies of Europe, when music by Manolis Kalomiris and the other composers of the Greek National School was dominant in Greece.

  17. The Polish Cyborg. A Reflection on the Relationship between Man and Machine in Early Polish Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Ranocchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Far from being enthusiastic “modernolatry” of Italian futurism, Polish futurism demonstrates an attitude of ambivalence toward modernity. This is particularly evident in the Polish approach to that very synecdoche of modernity which is the machine. In his essay of 1923, the leader of the group, Bruno Jasieński, compares the fetishistic cult of the machine, which characterizes the Italian approach, with the utilitarian one of the Russians, exemplified by a quote from Majakovskij. To these two propositions, as a sort of Hegelian synthesis, he adds a Polish one consisting in the conception of the machine as a prosthesis, a continuation of the human body. Thereby he introduces an idea later known as “cyborg”. The category of cyborg is also useful to understand the work of another today almost forgotten Polish writer of the Twenties, Jerzy Sosnkowski. He was the author of a short novel, A Car, You and Me (Love of Machines, in which a whole chapter concerns the chief character’s dystopian nightmare wherein machines take control over the world. The third section of the essay deals with the idea of man a machine – an old, 18th century conception, which became actual anew in the 20th century and whose traces we can find among others in a well-known poem by Tytus Czyżewski. Thirty years before N. Wiener, Polish modernists seem to have sensed the social, political and anthropological implications of the mechanization of work.

  18. Anthropology and Multiple Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    , as the concept was pluralized into a variety of forms: multiple modernities, parallel modernities, manifold modernities, alternative modernities, competing modernities, reflexive modernities, early modernities, other modernities – the list still unfolding. By reviewing various attempts to conceptualise...... configurations. However, if the current pluralizing of modernity ultimately serves to describe the variety of cultural forms that co-exist in the World today, the analytical value of the concept risks being watered down, and little is gained in perspective. Arguably, other concepts would have served the purpose...

  19. Título da página electrónica: Long Term Research Project (SFB) “Modernity: Vienna and Central Europe around 1900”

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    António Sousa Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Trata‑se da versão inglesa (menos actualizada do que a versão alemã, disponível em http://www-gewi.kfunigraz.ac.at/moderne/dok.htm) da página do projecto “Moderne. Wien und Zentraleuropa um 1900...

  20. Southern North Sea Basin in Europe: Biodiversity of the Marine Fürstenau Formation Including Early White and Megatooth Sharks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Diedrich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fürstenau Formation (Lutetian, Paleogene, Eocene is based on type sections near Fürstenau in Germany (central Europe and is built of 22 meter thick marine glauconitic and strongly bioturbated sands, clays, and a vertebrate-rich conglomerate bed. The conglomerate layer from the Early Lutetian transgression reworked Lower Cretaceous, and Paleogene marine sediments. It is dominated by pebbles from the locally mountains which must have been transported by an ancient river in a delta fan. Marine reworked Lower Cretaceous and Paleogen pebbles/fossils, were derived from the underlying deposits of northern Germany (= southern pre North Sea basin. The benthic macrofauna is cold upwelling water influenced and non-tropical, and medium divers. The vertebrate fish fauna is extremely rich in shark teeth, with about 5,000 teeth per cubic meter of gravel. The most dominant forms are teeth from sand shark ancestors Striatolamia macrota, followed by white shark ancestors Carcharodon auriculatus. Even teeth from the magatooth shark ancestor Carcharocles sokolovi are present in a moderately diverse and condensed Paleogene fish fauna that also includes rays, chimaeras, and more then 80 different bony fish. Fragmentary turtle remains are present, and few terrestrial vertebrates and even marine mammals with phocids, sirenians and possibly whales.

  1. Views of Europe among Serbian political and cultural elite in late 20th and early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of his own previous research the author examines views of Europe held by the Serbian political and cultural elite in the late 20th and early 21st century. Unable to meet the challenges of the historical moment, this elite has brought Serbia into open conflict with its closest neighbors and exposed its citizens to international sanctions. War-mongering propaganda of the major state-controlled media was developing feelings of xenophobia and frustration among citizens. The collusion between authoritarian government and war profiteers was systematically destroying the lives of Serbian citizens, bringing them to the brink of material impoverishment and spiritual misery. The process of dissolution of the common Yugoslav state is coming to its end in the first decade of this century. Just as it lacked wisdom political will or strength to prevent armed conflicts and crimes, the Serbian elite today is unable to condemn war crimes, to face disastrous consequences of its own policies, and to help Serbian citizens find their way to prosperity.

  2. Ancient DNA analysis of 8000 B.C. near eastern farmers supports an early neolithic pioneer maritime colonization of Mainland Europe through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Fernández

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The genetic impact associated to the Neolithic spread in Europe has been widely debated over the last 20 years. Within this context, ancient DNA studies have provided a more reliable picture by directly analyzing the protagonist populations at different regions in Europe. However, the lack of available data from the original Near Eastern farmers has limited the achieved conclusions, preventing the formulation of continental models of Neolithic expansion. Here we address this issue by presenting mitochondrial DNA data of the original Near-Eastern Neolithic communities with the aim of providing the adequate background for the interpretation of Neolithic genetic data from European samples. Sixty-three skeletons from the Pre Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB sites of Tell Halula, Tell Ramad and Dja'de El Mughara dating between 8,700-6,600 cal. B.C. were analyzed, and 15 validated mitochondrial DNA profiles were recovered. In order to estimate the demographic contribution of the first farmers to both Central European and Western Mediterranean Neolithic cultures, haplotype and haplogroup diversities in the PPNB sample were compared using phylogeographic and population genetic analyses to available ancient DNA data from human remains belonging to the Linearbandkeramik-Alföldi Vonaldiszes Kerámia and Cardial/Epicardial cultures. We also searched for possible signatures of the original Neolithic expansion over the modern Near Eastern and South European genetic pools, and tried to infer possible routes of expansion by comparing the obtained results to a database of 60 modern populations from both regions. Comparisons performed among the 3 ancient datasets allowed us to identify K and N-derived mitochondrial DNA haplogroups as potential markers of the Neolithic expansion, whose genetic signature would have reached both the Iberian coasts and the Central European plain. Moreover, the observed genetic affinities between the PPNB samples and the modern populations

  3. Ancient DNA Analysis of 8000 B.C. Near Eastern Farmers Supports an Early Neolithic Pioneer Maritime Colonization of Mainland Europe through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Eva; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro; Gamba, Cristina; Prats, Eva; Cuesta, Pedro; Anfruns, Josep; Molist, Miquel; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Turbón, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The genetic impact associated to the Neolithic spread in Europe has been widely debated over the last 20 years. Within this context, ancient DNA studies have provided a more reliable picture by directly analyzing the protagonist populations at different regions in Europe. However, the lack of available data from the original Near Eastern farmers has limited the achieved conclusions, preventing the formulation of continental models of Neolithic expansion. Here we address this issue by presenting mitochondrial DNA data of the original Near-Eastern Neolithic communities with the aim of providing the adequate background for the interpretation of Neolithic genetic data from European samples. Sixty-three skeletons from the Pre Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) sites of Tell Halula, Tell Ramad and Dja'de El Mughara dating between 8,700–6,600 cal. B.C. were analyzed, and 15 validated mitochondrial DNA profiles were recovered. In order to estimate the demographic contribution of the first farmers to both Central European and Western Mediterranean Neolithic cultures, haplotype and haplogroup diversities in the PPNB sample were compared using phylogeographic and population genetic analyses to available ancient DNA data from human remains belonging to the Linearbandkeramik-Alföldi Vonaldiszes Kerámia and Cardial/Epicardial cultures. We also searched for possible signatures of the original Neolithic expansion over the modern Near Eastern and South European genetic pools, and tried to infer possible routes of expansion by comparing the obtained results to a database of 60 modern populations from both regions. Comparisons performed among the 3 ancient datasets allowed us to identify K and N-derived mitochondrial DNA haplogroups as potential markers of the Neolithic expansion, whose genetic signature would have reached both the Iberian coasts and the Central European plain. Moreover, the observed genetic affinities between the PPNB samples and the modern populations of Cyprus and

  4. How the early voltage clamp studies of José del Castillo inform "modern" neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zottoli, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    The description of ionic currents that flow across the membrane of the squid giant axon during an action potential sparked an interest in determining whether there were similar currents in vertebrates. The preparation of choice was the node of Ranvier in single myelinated fibers in frog. José del Castillo spent 3 years on the United States mainland from 1956 to 1959. During that time, he collaborated with Jerome Y. Lettvin and John W. Moore. I discuss how these individuals met one another and some of their scientific discoveries using the voltage clamp to study squid giant axons and frog nodes. Much of this work was conducted at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA, and I attempt to convey a sense of the unique scientific "melting pot" that existed at the Marine Biological Laboratory and the broader effect that del Castillo had on "modern" neuroscience.

  5. The southern route "out of Africa": evidence for an early expansion of modern humans into Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Simon J; Jasim, Sabah A; Marks, Anthony E; Parker, Adrian G; Usik, Vitaly I; Uerpmann, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-28

    The timing of the dispersal of anatomically modern humans (AMH) out of Africa is a fundamental question in human evolutionary studies. Existing data suggest a rapid coastal exodus via the Indian Ocean rim around 60,000 years ago. We present evidence from Jebel Faya, United Arab Emirates, demonstrating human presence in eastern Arabia during the last interglacial. The tool kit found at Jebel Faya has affinities to the late Middle Stone Age in northeast Africa, indicating that technological innovation was not necessary to facilitate migration into Arabia. Instead, we propose that low eustatic sea level and increased rainfall during the transition between marine isotope stages 6 and 5 allowed humans to populate Arabia. This evidence implies that AMH may have been present in South Asia before the Toba eruption.

  6. Materials and building techniques in Mugello from the Late Middle Ages to the Early Modern Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Arrighetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mugello is a medium-high seismic risk area situated on the Italian Apennine mountain range, between Tuscany and Emilia Romagna. The territory is characterized by a large presence of long duration settlements characterized by well-preserved historic buildings, most of which are religious’ architectonical complexes. An area of Mugello, between 2010 and 2014, was characterized by the project “Archaeology of Buildings and seismic risk in Mugello”, a research focused on testing the potential information of the process of archaeological analysis of buildings as a form of knowledge, prevention and protection of medieval seismic risk settlements. Among the results that have emerged from the archaeoseismological investigation have played a central role the considerations pertaining to the supplying and use of building materials for the construction and modification of architectural structures, in a period between the late Middle Ages and the Modern Age.

  7. The premaxilla in Neandertal and early modern children: ontogeny and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maureille, B; Bar, D

    1999-08-01

    This comparative study of maxillae in Neandertals, Qafzeh, and extant children examines two specific traits: the premaxillary suture (sutura incisiva) and the interincisive sinuses, proposing a new hypothesis about some features of the Neandertal mid-face. Morphologic study of the premaxillary suture at its different borders (i.e. the nasal aspect of the frontal process, nasal and palatal aspects of the palatal process of the maxilla) indicates a persistence of the suture among very young Neandertal children in comparison to the condition in extant ones. This suggests a longer independence of some parts of the premaxilla in Neandertals. To further examine this possibility, CT scans of two Neandertal children were analyzed: Roc de Marsal, estimated to be about 3 years, and Engis 2, estimated to be about 5-6 years. The results are quite different between the fossils. In the older, the premaxillary suture is represented only by a deep groove. In the younger it extends deep to the surface of the nasal process reaching the Parinaud's canal. Synostosis of the premaxillary suture was found to occur later in Neandertal children than in modern ones. Moreover, we observed the existence of two interincisive sinuses in the fossil children, whereas this is rare in modern children (present on only 2% of our sample of 0-6 year-old infants, n = 247). Persistence of an open premaxillary suture represents the potential for an extended period of growth of the Neandertal mid-face. Although no trace of the premaxillary suture remains in adult Neandertals, Neandertals present many features classically considered as consequences of this persistence. The two interincisive sinuses could be a consequence of the labio-lingual diameter of the incisors. The results presented here can be further investigated by additional studies on the cranial sutural system and by precise morphologic observations and CT scans of the mid-face of a larger sample of fossil children.

  8. Early members of 'living fossil' lineage imply later origin of modern ray-finned fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Sam; Xu, Guang-Hui; Near, Thomas J; Friedman, Matt

    2017-08-30

    Modern ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) comprise half of extant vertebrate species and are widely thought to have originated before or near the end of the Middle Devonian epoch (around 385 million years ago). Polypterids (bichirs and ropefish) represent the earliest-diverging lineage of living actinopterygians, with almost all Palaeozoic taxa interpreted as more closely related to other extant actinopterygians than to polypterids. By contrast, the earliest material assigned to the polypterid lineage is mid-Cretaceous in age (around 100 million years old), implying a quarter-of-a-billion-year palaeontological gap. Here we show that scanilepiforms, a widely distributed radiation from the Triassic period (around 252-201 million years ago), are stem polypterids. Importantly, these fossils break the long polypterid branch and expose many supposedly primitive features of extant polypterids as reversals. This shifts numerous Palaeozoic ray-fins to the actinopterygian stem, reducing the minimum age for the crown lineage by roughly 45 million years. Recalibration of molecular clocks to exclude phylogenetically reassigned Palaeozoic taxa results in estimates that the actinopterygian crown lineage is about 20-40 million years younger than was indicated by previous molecular analyses. These new dates are broadly consistent with our revised palaeontological timescale and coincident with an interval of conspicuous morphological and taxonomic diversification among ray-fins centred on the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary. A shifting timescale, combined with ambiguity in the relationships of late Palaeozoic actinopterygians, highlights this part of the fossil record as a major frontier in understanding the evolutionary assembly of modern vertebrate diversity.

  9. Il Doge and Easter Processions at San Marco in Early Modern Venice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2010-01-01

    –1800. Traditional representational features – from the early Middle Ages – e.g. of the women at Christ’s grave had been incorporated into these ducal processions during the sixteenth century with special roles for the doge. The complex of solemn processions from the ducal palace around the San Marco piazza...

  10. Modern indoor climate research in Denmark from 1962 to the early 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I; Gyntelberg, F

    2011-01-01

    International Indoor Air Symposium in Copenhagen 1978--this research spread to many countries and today it is carried out globally by probably 2000 scientists. This paper recounts the history of Danish indoor climate research, focusing on the three decades from the early 1960s to the founding of the Indoor Air...

  11. Early atmospheric metal pollution provides evidence for Chalcolithic/Bronze Age mining and metallurgy in Southwestern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.martinez.cortizas@usc.es [Departamento de Edafoloxía e Química Agrícola, Facultade de Bioloxía, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); López-Merino, Lourdes, E-mail: lourdes.lopez-merino@brunel.ac.uk [Institute of Environment, Health and Societies, Brunel University London, UB8 3PH Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Bindler, Richard, E-mail: richard.bindler@umu.se [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Mighall, Tim, E-mail: t.mighall@abdn.ac.uk [Department of Geography & Environment, School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Elphinstone Road, Aberdeen AB24 3UF (United Kingdom); Kylander, Malin E., E-mail: malin.kylander@geo.su.se [Department of Geological Sciences and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-03-01

    Although archaeological research suggests that mining/metallurgy already started in the Chalcolithic (3rd millennium BC), the earliest atmospheric metal pollution in SW Europe has thus far been dated to ~ 3500–3200 cal. yr. BP in paleo-environmental archives. A low intensity, non-extensive mining/metallurgy and the lack of appropriately located archives may be responsible for this mismatch. We have analysed the older section (> 2100 cal. yr. BP) of a peat record from La Molina (Asturias, Spain), a mire located in the proximity (35–100 km) of mines which were exploited in the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age, with the aim of assessing evidence of this early mining/metallurgy. Analyses included the determination of C as a proxy for organic matter content, lithogenic elements (Si, Al, Ti) as markers of mineral matter, and trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb) and stable Pb isotopes as tracers of atmospheric metal pollution. From ~ 8000 to ~ 4980 cal. yr. BP the Pb composition is similar to that of the underlying sediments (Pb 15 ± 4 μg g{sup −1}; {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb 1.204 ± 0.002). A sustained period of low {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios occurred from ~ 4980 to ~ 2470 cal. yr. BP, which can be divided into four phases: Chalcolithic (~ 4980–3700 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios decline to 1.175 and Pb/Al ratios increase; Early Bronze Age (~ 3700–3500 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb increase to 1.192 and metal/Al ratios remain stable; Late Bronze Age (~ 3500–2800 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb decline to their lowest values (1.167) while Pb/Al and Zn/Al increase; and Early Iron Age (~ 2800–2470 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb increase to 1.186, most metal/Al ratios decrease but Zn/Al shows a peak. At the beginning of the Late Iron Age, {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios and metal enrichments show a rapid return to pre-anthropogenic values. These results provide evidence of regional/local atmospheric metal pollution triggered by the

  12. Early atmospheric metal pollution provides evidence for Chalcolithic/Bronze Age mining and metallurgy in Southwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; López-Merino, Lourdes; Bindler, Richard; Mighall, Tim; Kylander, Malin E

    2016-03-01

    Although archaeological research suggests that mining/metallurgy already started in the Chalcolithic (3rd millennium BC), the earliest atmospheric metal pollution in SW Europe has thus far been dated to ~3500-3200 cal.yr. BP in paleo-environmental archives. A low intensity, non-extensive mining/metallurgy and the lack of appropriately located archives may be responsible for this mismatch. We have analysed the older section (>2100 cal.yr. BP) of a peat record from La Molina (Asturias, Spain), a mire located in the proximity (35-100 km) of mines which were exploited in the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age, with the aim of assessing evidence of this early mining/metallurgy. Analyses included the determination of C as a proxy for organic matter content, lithogenic elements (Si, Al, Ti) as markers of mineral matter, and trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb) and stable Pb isotopes as tracers of atmospheric metal pollution. From ~8000 to ~4980 cal.yr. BP the Pb composition is similar to that of the underlying sediments (Pb 15 ± 4 μg g(-1); (206)Pb/(207)Pb 1.204 ± 0.002). A sustained period of low (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios occurred from ~4980 to ~2470 cal.yr. BP, which can be divided into four phases: Chalcolithic (~4980-3700 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios decline to 1.175 and Pb/Al ratios increase; Early Bronze Age (~3700-3500 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb increase to 1.192 and metal/Al ratios remain stable; Late Bronze Age (~3500-2800 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb decline to their lowest values (1.167) while Pb/Al and Zn/Al increase; and Early Iron Age (~2800-2470 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb increase to 1.186, most metal/Al ratios decrease but Zn/Al shows a peak. At the beginning of the Late Iron Age, (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios and metal enrichments show a rapid return to pre-anthropogenic values. These results provide evidence of regional/local atmospheric metal pollution triggered by the earliest phases of mining/metallurgy in the area, and reconcile paleo-environmental and

  13. Mechanism of disease in early osteoarthritis: application of modern MR imaging techniques -- a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobke, Bjoern; Bolbos, Radu; Saadat, Ehsan; Cheng, Jonathan; Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    The application of biomolecular magnetic resonance imaging becomes increasingly important in the context of early cartilage changes in degenerative and inflammatory joint disease before gross morphological changes become apparent. In this limited technical report, we investigate the correlation of MRI T1, T2 and T1ρ relaxation times with quantitative biochemical measurements of proteoglycan and collagen contents of cartilage in close synopsis with histologic morphology. A recently developed MRI sequence, T1ρ, was able to detect early intracartilaginous degeneration quantitatively and also qualitatively by color mapping demonstrating a higher sensitivity than standard T2-weighted sequences. The results correlated highly with reduced proteoglycan content and disrupted collagen architecture as measured by biochemistry and histology. The findings lend support to a clinical implementation that allows rapid visual capturing of pathology on a local, millimeter level. Further information about articular cartilage quality otherwise not detectable in vivo, via normal inspection, is needed for orthopedic treatment decisions in the present and future.

  14. MODERN PHYSICAL THERAPY IN THE EARLY POSTOPERATIVE REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS WITH CHOLELITHIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Poddubnaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early postoperative rehabilitation of patients with cholelithiasis is aimed at improving the function of bile secretion, adaptability and normalization of psycho-vegetative state body, which in the aggregate prevents progression of the disease and reduces the risk of postcholecystectomy violations. Use in rehabilitation activities fresh mineral water, magnetic-laser and EHF-therapy allows to receive significant improvement of the studied parameters in a significant improvement and normalization of clinical and laboratory indicators, increase adaptive capacity and normalization of psychoemotional and vegetative status of the organism. It is provides immediate high efficiency of the activities (94.7% of early postoperative rehabilitation of patients with cholelithiasis, which reduces the risk of the development of postcholecystectomy violations and prevents progression of the disease.

  15. Commercial Society:Britain’s New Idea in Early Modern Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任明倩

    2013-01-01

    The idea of commercial society in Britain was derived from the swift development of the commercial trade home and abroad. In the early times, economic thinkers shared the same idea about the importance of commercial profit, market, status and effects of businessmen, and the interests between commerce and nation. Afterwards, idea of commercial society was fully ex-pounded in the times of classical economics, whose discussion is still of vital importance in the process of globalization.

  16. East African megadroughts between 135 and 75 thousand years ago and bearing on early-modern human origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Christopher A; Johnson, Thomas C; Cohen, Andrew S; King, John W; Peck, John A; Overpeck, Jonathan T; Talbot, Michael R; Brown, Erik T; Kalindekafe, Leonard; Amoako, Philip Y O; Lyons, Robert P; Shanahan, Timothy M; Castañeda, Isla S; Heil, Clifford W; Forman, Steven L; McHargue, Lanny R; Beuning, Kristina R; Gomez, Jeanette; Pierson, James

    2007-10-16

    The environmental backdrop to the evolution and spread of early Homo sapiens in East Africa is known mainly from isolated outcrops and distant marine sediment cores. Here we present results from new scientific drill cores from Lake Malawi, the first long and continuous, high-fidelity records of tropical climate change from the continent itself. Our record shows periods of severe aridity between 135 and 75 thousand years (kyr) ago, when the lake's water volume was reduced by at least 95%. Surprisingly, these intervals of pronounced tropical African aridity in the early late-Pleistocene were much more severe than the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the period previously recognized as one of the most arid of the Quaternary. From these cores and from records from Lakes Tanganyika (East Africa) and Bosumtwi (West Africa), we document a major rise in water levels and a shift to more humid conditions over much of tropical Africa after approximately 70 kyr ago. This transition to wetter, more stable conditions coincides with diminished orbital eccentricity, and a reduction in precession-dominated climatic extremes. The observed climate mode switch to decreased environmental variability is consistent with terrestrial and marine records from in and around tropical Africa, but our records provide evidence for dramatically wetter conditions after 70 kyr ago. Such climate change may have stimulated the expansion and migrations of early modern human populations.

  17. Size counts: evolutionary perspectives on physical activity and body size from early hominids to modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William R

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines the evolutionary origins of human dietary and activity patterns, and their implications for understanding modern health problems. Humans have evolved distinctive nutritional characteristics associated the high metabolic costs of our large brains. The evolution of larger hominid brain size necessitated the adoption of foraging strategies that both provided high quality foods, and required larger ranges and activity budgets. Over time, human subsistence strategies have become ever more efficient in obtaining energy with minimal time and effort. Today, populations of the industrialized world live in environments characterized by low levels of energy expenditure and abundant food supplies contributing to growing rates of obesity. Analyses of trends in dietary intake and body weight in the US over the last 50 years indicate that the dramatic rise in obesity cannot be explained solely by increased energy consumption. Rather, declines in activity are also important. Further, we find that recent recommendations on physical activity have the potential to bring daily energy expenditure levels of industrialized societies surprisingly close to those observed among subsistence-level populations. These findings highlight the importance of physical activity in promoting nutritional health and show the utility of evolutionary approaches for developing public health recommendations.

  18. Concatenated analysis sheds light on early metazoan evolution and fuels a modern "urmetazoon" hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Schierwater

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than a century, the origin of metazoan animals has been debated. One aspect of this debate has been centered on what the hypothetical "urmetazoon" bauplan might have been. The morphologically most simply organized metazoan animal, the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens, resembles an intriguing model for one of several "urmetazoon" hypotheses: the placula hypothesis. Clear support for a basal position of Placozoa would aid in resolving several key issues of metazoan-specific inventions (including, for example, head-foot axis, symmetry, and coelom and would determine a root for unraveling their evolution. Unfortunately, the phylogenetic relationships at the base of Metazoa have been controversial because of conflicting phylogenetic scenarios generated while addressing the question. Here, we analyze the sum of morphological evidence, the secondary structure of mitochondrial ribosomal genes, and molecular sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear genes that amass over 9,400 phylogenetically informative characters from 24 to 73 taxa. Together with mitochondrial DNA genome structure and sequence analyses and Hox-like gene expression patterns, these data (1 provide evidence that Placozoa are basal relative to all other diploblast phyla and (2 spark a modernized "urmetazoon" hypothesis.

  19. Western esotericism and the history of European science and medicine in the early modern period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jole Shackelford

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of science and the history of medicine were, from their beginnings as subjects in the Enlightenment and post-Enlightenment periods, hostile to esoteric ideas and practices and generally excluded them from the scope of academic study. Esoteric belief systems by definition prioritize inner knowledge, knowledge that is not attainable or transferable by the standard practices of public pedagogy, but rather is acquired by direct apprehension or by internal illumination. I call these ‘belief systems’, because people who defend esoteric knowledge do so within a worldview, a physics and metaphysics that explains and makes sense of their hopes and experiences. Such belief systems can therefore be compared with other worldviews—cosmologies in the most general sense of the term—and points of tangency, or even zones of interpenetration, can be examined. It is just such points of confrontation and zones of commonality between the occult and manifest sciences which are of particular interest to historians of science, because it is here that the disciplinary boundaries of modern science are being negotiated.

  20. NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA): Early Results and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Siegfried

    2008-01-01

    This talk will review the status and progress of the NASA/Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) atmospheric global reanalysis project called the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). An overview of NASA's emerging capabilities for assimilating a variety of other Earth Science observations of the land, ocean, and atmospheric constituents will also be presented. MERRA supports NASA Earth science by synthesizing the current suite of research satellite observations in a climate data context (covering the period 1979-present), and by providing the science and applications communities with of a broad range of weather and climate data with an emphasis on improved estimates of the hydrological cycle. MERRA is based on a major new version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-5), that includes the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)-based GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model and the new NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) unified grid-point statistical interpolation (GST) analysis scheme developed as a collaborative effort between NCEP and the GMAO. In addition to MERRA, the GMAO is developing new capabilities in aerosol and constituent assimilation, ocean, ocean biology, and land surface assimilation. This includes the development of an assimilation capability for tropospheric air quality monitoring and prediction, the development of a carbon-cycle modeling and assimilation system, and an ocean data assimilation system for use in coupled short-term climate forecasting.

  1. Visions of the Empire: religion, ontology and the 'international' in early modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas G. Freire

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relation between basic religious motifs of theoretical thought, general ontology and their specific use in 'international' political theory at the onset on the Modern Era. The analysis is based on Herman Dooyeweerd's reformational philosophy in identifying the basic assumptions on the origin of life, coherence and diversity of reality in several trends of thought. The Greek and Roman classical legacy, in combination with ancient Christian concepts, is emphasized, namely in terms of motifs such as Nature and Grace, guidelines of scholastic worldview, thus influencing its perspective of Christianity, of the Holy Roman Empire and of the Papacy. Reformed Protestantism adopted a more radically Biblical set of assumptions which culminated in a ontologically plural perspective of social authority and political community, as well as of the empire. Christian humanism, and some Protestant thinkers, was also heavily influenced by the motifs of Nature and Grace, but now with a strict separation between both 'logics'. The theorization of an 'internal logic' for each of these spheres gave origin to a reinterpretation of Nature in classical Humanism, according to a 'mechanistic' perspective of reality with its ideal of control. Another religious motif of this secularized form of humanism was the concept of Liberty and of personality. This geometrical theoretical mode influenced ideas on the social contract and its international analogy, leading theoricians to fiery debates on the classification of the Empire.

  2. Population Genomic Analysis of Ancient and Modern Genomes Yields New Insights into the Genetic Ancestry of the Tyrolean Iceman and the Genetic Structure of Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Sikora; Carpenter, Meredith L.; Andres Moreno-Estrada; Henn, Brenna M.; Underhill, Peter A.; Federico Sánchez-Quinto; Ilenia Zara; Maristella Pitzalis; Carlo Sidore; Fabio Busonero; Andrea Maschio; Andrea Angius; Chris Jones; Javier Mendoza-Revilla; Georgi Nekhrizov

    2014-01-01

    Genome sequencing of the 5,300-year-old mummy of the Tyrolean Iceman, found in 1991 on a glacier near the border of Italy and Austria, has yielded new insights into his origin and relationship to modern European populations. A key finding of that study was an apparent recent common ancestry with individuals from Sardinia, based largely on the Y chromosome haplogroup and common autosomal SNP variation. Here, we compiled and analyzed genomic datasets from both modern and ancient Europeans, incl...

  3. A Swiss Village in the Dutch Tropics: The Limitations of Empire-Centred Approaches to the Early Modern Atlantic World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karwan Fatah-Black

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers what the migration circuits to and from Suriname can tell us about Dutch early modern colonisation in the Atlantic world. Did the Dutch have an Atlantic empire that can be studied by treating it as an integrated space, as suggested by New Imperial Historians, or did colonisation rely on circuits outside Dutch control, stretching beyond its imperial space? An empire-centred approach has dominated the study of Suriname’s history and has largely glossed over the routes taken by European migrants to and from the colony. When the empirecentred perspective is transcended it becomes possible to see that colonists arrived in Suriname from a range of different places around the Atlantic and the European hinterland. The article takes an Atlantic or global perspective to demonstrate the choices available to colonists and the networks through which they moved.

  4. Frauen in Literatur und Kunst der Frühen Neuzeit Women in Early Modern Literature and Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Volmer

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Die Alternation von kunsthistorischen und literaturwissenschaftlichen Beiträgen, die in diesem Band als Dokumentation einer Tagung aus dem Jahr 2000 publiziert werden, bildet die einzig erkennbare Struktur des Sammelbandes. Hinter dem unspektakulären Titel verbirgt sich kein überzeugendes Konzept. Obwohl jeder Beitrag für sich genommen überaus interessant ist, fehlen dem Band verbindende Kategorien, die über „Frau“ und „Frühe Neuzeit“ hinausgehen.The contributions’ thematic alternation between art history and literary scholarship forms the only obvious structure of this anthology, which is a publication of the results of a conference from the year 2000. Behind the unspectacular title there is no persuasive concept. Although each contribution is very interesting when taken alone, the volume is lacking unifying categories that go beyond “woman” and the “early modern.”

  5. A Swiss Village in the Dutch Tropics: The Limitations of Empire-Centred Approaches to the Early Modern Atlantic World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karwan Fatah-Black

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers what the migration circuits to and from Suriname can tell us about Dutch early modern colonisation in the Atlantic world. Did the Dutch have an Atlantic empire that can be studied by treating it as an integrated space, as suggested by New Imperial Historians, or did colonisation rely on circuits outside Dutch control, stretching beyond its imperial space? An empire-centred approach has dominated the study of Suriname’s history and has largely glossed over the routes taken by European migrants to and from the colony. When the empirecentred perspective is transcended it becomes possible to see that colonists arrived in Suriname from a range of different places around the Atlantic and the European hinterland. The article takes an Atlantic or global perspective to demonstrate the choices available to colonists and the networks through which they moved.

  6. Between Early Literary Modernism and Contemporary Post-Postmodernism--Jan Kj(ae)rstad Rewrites Knut Hamsun's Novel Hunger 100 Years Later

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Knut Brynhildsvoll

    2005-01-01

    The article is a comparative study in Knut Hamsun's novel Hunger (1890) and Jan Kj(a)rstad's novel The Brink (1990), focusing on similar motives, topics and references from the point of view of early modernism and post-post-modernism. It sheds light on aesthetic problems concerning how to deal literary with existential and metaphysical questions viewed against the background of changing historical and philosophical experiences and new ways of poetic expression. The article points out the resemblances and differences between the novels and shows how two of the front figures of modern Scandinavian literature meet the challenges of renewing the traditional forms of writing.

  7. Conquests of Memory: Franciscan Chronicles of the East Asian Church in the Early Modern Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Brockey, Liam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the ways in which Franciscan authors recounted the history of their missions in East Asia from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. Key differences between Franciscan authors and those of other orders are highlighted, with special emphasis placed on disputes over precedence in the Asian mission field, over privileges accorded by the papacy for missionary activity, and over the prestige secured by acts of pious heroism and appointments to high ecclesiastical offices. Chronicles served as important adjuncts to the face-toface rivalries of Catholic religious orders, with the Franciscans dueling their peers for pride of place in historical memory. The publication of Franciscan histories in Europe ensured that the conflicts between orders extended around the globe, while their original intention was to consolidate the memories of distant efforts to plant and grow the church.Este artículo examina el modo en el que los franciscanos narraron la historia de sus misiones en Asia oriental durante los siglos XVI a XVIII. Se pone de relieve algunas diferencias esenciales entre los autores franciscanos y los de otras órdenes, dando particular atención a los debates sobre precedencia en el campo misionero asiático, sobre los privilegios concedidos por el papa para la actividad misionera y sobre el prestigio que conllevaban los actos de heroísmo devoto y el nombramiento para desempeñar altas funciones eclesiásticas. Las crónicas sirvieron como importante complemento en las disputas entre las varias órdenes religiosas, donde los franciscanos se confrontaron con sus pares para ocupar un lugar de honra en la memoria histórica. La publicación de las historia franciscana en Europa permitió que los conflictos entre órdenes se extendiesen a todo el globo, aunque su intención original era la de preservar la memoria de los esfuerzos realizados para implantar y hacer crecer la Iglesia en espacios distantes.

  8. On the Genesis of Intellectual Crossroads: Early Fragmentation in the Formation of Modern Indonesian Intelligentsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Latif

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is an inter-textual analysis of the early colonial and capitalist driven implantation of a western education system and its subsequent influence on the way of thought of the East Indies new elite. Such a feature will be juxtaposed with the impacts of the deepening penetration of colonialism and capitalism on the continuity and discontinuity of historical Islam.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v11i1.653

  9. Revisiting Tagore’s Visit to China: Nation, Tradition, and Modernity in China and India in the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Ren

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the historical background of Rabindranath Tagore’s visit to China in 1924, which proved to be a failure because of harsh criticism from the Chinese side. The paper explores both the Chinese and the Indian sides of the story, examining key intellectual and cultural movements in the two countries in their early encounters with the West. The paper further argues that the difference in attitudes toward tradition demonstrated by the two countries during this period was an important difference worthy of further attention in our reflection upon the historical writing of the non-western world in general. This deep-rooted difference about tradition was a key reason of Tagore’s failed trip in China. What is being “modern” and what is modern about “modern China”? These are important questions in the study of Chinese history. In the popular understanding of Chinese history, it is widely acknowledged that the “modernity” of “modern China” comes from a rejection of tradition. This dichotomy of “tradition vs. modernity” was also deeply inscribed in the study of Chinese history in the West by pioneers such as John King Fairbank. Despite much criticism, this conceptual framework still dominates much of our understanding of Chinese history, both academic and popular. Students of Chinese history rarely look beyond the Himalayas at its crowded neighbor. In this essay, I would like to draw our attention to such a comparative project between Chinese and Indian history. The value of this comparison lies in the historical difference in the attitude and treatment of “tradition” in these two countries. India provides us with a path of history that is beyond our conceptual framework of modernity as rejection of tradition and therefore merits our own reflection. This crucial difference was demonstrated most dramatically when India meets China, specifically in the case when the Nobel Prize laureate Rabindranath Tagore

  10. High star formation rates as the origin of turbulence in early and modern disk galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andrew W; Glazebrook, Karl; McGregor, Peter J; Abraham, Roberto G; Poole, Gregory B; Damjanov, Ivana; McCarthy, Patrick J; Colless, Matthew; Sharp, Robert G

    2010-10-07

    Observations of star formation and kinematics in early galaxies at high spatial and spectral resolution have shown that two-thirds are massive rotating disk galaxies, with the remainder being less massive non-rotating objects. The line-of-sight-averaged velocity dispersions are typically five times higher than in today's disk galaxies. This suggests that gravitationally unstable, gas-rich disks in the early Universe are fuelled by cold, dense accreting gas flowing along cosmic filaments and penetrating hot galactic gas halos. These accreting flows, however, have not been observed, and cosmic accretion cannot power the observed level of turbulence. Here we report observations of a sample of rare, high-velocity-dispersion disk galaxies in the nearby Universe where cold accretion is unlikely to drive their high star formation rates. We find that their velocity dispersions are correlated with their star formation rates, but not their masses or gas fractions, which suggests that star formation is the energetic driver of galaxy disk turbulence at all cosmic epochs.

  11. Medieval and early modern approaches to fractures of the proximal humerus: an historical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, S.

    2010-01-01

    and De Articulationes. The Hippocratic account of the normal anatomy of the shoulder reveals some biomechanical insights. However, knowledge of bone and joint anatomy of the shoulder useful for surgical purposes is not found in medieval sources. Even in fourteenth century illustrations based on human......The diagnosis and management of complex fractures of the proximal humerus have challenged surgical practitioners and medical writers since the earliest recorded surgical texts. Current knowledge of fractures of the proximal humerus has been obtained through pathoanatomical and biomechanical studies......, and Vesalius (1514-1564) gives a systematic account for the osteology and myology of the shoulder. In early eighteenth century, the Hippocratic approach is challenged and more gentle modes of reduction and bandaging are proposed. Desault (1744-1795) gives an account of the muscle traction responsible...

  12. "Soft-shelled" monothalamid foraminifers as a modern analogue of early life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazato, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Nina; Gooday, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    According to the fossil record, the earliest undoubted foraminifers are found in the Early Cambrian, where they are represented by tubular agglutinated forms, thought to be the most primitive foraminiferal morphotypes. The numerous foraminifers with single-chambered, organic-walled tests (i.e. 'soft-shelled' monothalamids) exist in the deep sea and are difficult to preserve as fossils. Molecular phylogenetic data tell us that these 'primitive' taxa include the deepest foraminiferal clades, originating around 600 - 900 Ma. We found many soft-shelled monothalamids in sediment samples from deep trenches, including the Challenger Deep (Marianas Trench) and the Horizon Deep (Tonga Trench). Both deeps exceed 10,000 m water depth, well below the carbonate compensation depth, which represents an environmental barrier for calcareous foraminifera. The foraminifera at these extreme hadal sites include tubular and globular forms with organic walls, among which species of the genera Nodellum and Resigella are particularly abundant. Some forms selectively agglutinate minute flakes of clay minerals on the surface of the organic test. Many soft-shelled monothalamids, including most of those in deep tranches, contain stercomata, the function of which is currently unknown. Gromiids (a rhizarian group related to foraminifera) also accumulate stercomata in their sack-shaped tests. This suggests the possibility that the function of these waste particles is to add bulk, like the filling of soft bags or pillows. We suggest that the monothalamid foraminifera that dominate small-sized eukaryotes in extreme hadal settings may provide clues to understanding the biology and ecology of early life in Neoproterozoic sedimented habitats.

  13. Modern optics in exceptionally preserved eyes of Early Cambrian arthropods from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael S. Y.; Jago, James B.; García-Bellido, Diego C.; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Gehling, James G.; Paterson, John R.

    2011-06-01

    Despite the status of the eye as an ``organ of extreme perfection'', theory suggests that complex eyes can evolve very rapidly. The fossil record has, until now, been inadequate in providing insight into the early evolution of eyes during the initial radiation of many animal groups known as the Cambrian explosion. This is surprising because Cambrian Burgess-Shale-type deposits are replete with exquisitely preserved animals, especially arthropods, that possess eyes. However, with the exception of biomineralized trilobite eyes, virtually nothing is known about the details of their optical design. Here we report exceptionally preserved fossil eyes from the Early Cambrian (~515 million years ago) Emu Bay Shale of South Australia, revealing that some of the earliest arthropods possessed highly advanced compound eyes, each with over 3,000 large ommatidial lenses and a specialized `bright zone'. These are the oldest non-biomineralized eyes known in such detail, with preservation quality exceeding that found in the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang deposits. Non-biomineralized eyes of similar complexity are otherwise unknown until about 85 million years later. The arrangement and size of the lenses indicate that these eyes belonged to an active predator that was capable of seeing in low light. The eyes are more complex than those known from contemporaneous trilobites and are as advanced as those of many living forms. They provide further evidence that the Cambrian explosion involved rapid innovation in fine-scale anatomy as well as gross morphology, and are consistent with the concept that the development of advanced vision helped to drive this great evolutionary event.

  14. Great Danube flood peak of the late medieval - early modern transition: the 1470s-1520s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    As a consequence of very detailed contemporary documentation, namely legal-administrative documentation (charters) and the annual (or daily) information available in the Bratislava accounts (mainly bridgemasters' accounts), a relatively detailed picture of a massive flood peak can be detected in the Carpathian Basin documentation concerning the decades of the late 15th and early 16th centuries. These decades are one of the most important period in the millennial flood history of the Danube in this area: both concerning the number of individual flood events and regarding the information on multiannual problems. Moreover, archaeological evidence, for example the flood sediment layers in Visegrád and also the damages, structural and elevation changes of renovated buildings in Buda or along the Upper-Danube, provide similar examples of multiannual flood-related problems. Moreover, clear flood peaks can be also detected at this time on the Austrian sections of the Danube, but especially on its Eastern Alpine tributaries, centred around the 1480s and the greatest flood events of 1501, and also partly of 1503 and 1508 (best documented for the Traun at Wels: see Rohr 2007, 2013). In the poster presentation on the one hand a general overview of the documented flood events and multiannual flood-related information - based on documentary and archaeological evidence -, occurred in the Carpathian Basin are presented regarding frequency, magnitude (3-scaled classification) and seasonality information (when available). On the other hand, differences in flood frequencies, flood types and seasonality is also separately discussed on an annual and decadal scale: while, for example, in the drought-affected 1470s were characterised by ice jam floods, the great flood peak of the 1480s were both rich in ice jams and summer-flood events (with a peak in 1485 with 4 great floods). The decade of the 1500s was mainly influenced by the 1501 "deluge" and further two great flood events (and

  15. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison A Macintosh

    Full Text Available Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD. Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the

  16. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Alison A; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T

    2016-01-01

    Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD). Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the social status afforded

  17. Astronomy in the ancient world early and modern views on celestial events

    CERN Document Server

    McLeod, Alexus

    2016-01-01

    Alexus McLeod explores every aspect of the lesser-known history of astronomy in the Americas (Mesoamerica and North America), China and India, each through the frame of a particular astronomical phenomena. Part One considers the development of astronomy in the Americas as a response, in part, to the Supernova of 1054, which may have led to a cultural renaissance in astronomy. He then goes on to explore the contemporary understanding of supernovae, contrasting it with that of the ancient Americas.  Part Two is framed through the appearances of great comets, which had major divinatory significance in early China. The author discusses the advancement of observational astronomy in China, its influence on politics and its role in the survival or failure of empires.  Furthermore, the contemporary understanding of comets is also discussed for comparison.  Part Three, on India, considers the magnificent observatories of the Rajput king Jai Singh II, and the question of their purpose. The origins of Indian ast...

  18. Provisions for the elderly in northwestern Europe: an international comparison of almshouses, sixteenth–twentieth centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van M.H.D.; Nederveen Meerkerk, van E.J.V.; Heerma van Voss, L.

    2014-01-01

    In Early Modern north-western Europe a unique form of charitable foundation developed – almshouses. These were inhabited by elderly men and women, who had led honourable middle-class lives, but had become unable to support themselves. In towns that were rapidly growing through immigration, many elde

  19. Provisions for the elderly in northwestern Europe: an international comparison of almshouses, sixteenth–twentieth centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van M.H.D.; Nederveen Meerkerk, van E.J.V.; Heerma van Voss, L.

    2014-01-01

    In Early Modern north-western Europe a unique form of charitable foundation developed – almshouses. These were inhabited by elderly men and women, who had led honourable middle-class lives, but had become unable to support themselves. In towns that were rapidly growing through immigration, many

  20. Translating Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chevrel

    2007-07-01

    Europe thinks in many languages and Europe is a land of translation. Translation is a means of transmitting culture, a means of making it available to others and an invitation to share. It is a cement which binds Europe together.

  1. The Sacromonte and the Geography of the Sacred in Early Modern Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris, A. Katie

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades of the sixteenth century, a series of forged documents and supposed saints' relics were discovered in the Spanish city of Granada. This article examines how the Sacromonte, the site of the most prominent of the finds, became the symbolic landscape of Granadino spiritual identity. The relics and the miraculous events associated with them reconfigured the city's sacred geography, transforming a morisco holy site into a center of Christian holiness and a principal symbol of the religious aspects of early modem Granadino civic identity. This article also considers how this new sacred landscape found graphic expression in contemporary cartographic representations of Granada.

    En las últimas décadas del siglo XVI, se hallaron en la ciudad de Granada una serie de documentos falsificados y unas supuestas reliquias. Este artículo examina cómo el Sacromonte, el sitio de los hallazgos más destacados, fue convertido en el paisaje simbólico de la identidad espiritual granadina. Las reliquias y las circunstancias milagrosas con las cuales estaban relacionadas efectuaron una reconfiguración de la geografía sagrada de la ciudad, transformando un sitio sagrado de los moriscos en un centro de la santidad cristiana y un símbolo principal de los aspectos religiosos de la identidad cívica de la Granada moderna. Este artículo también considera cómo este paisaje sagrado fue expresado gráficamente por medio de representaciones cartográficas de Granada.

  2. Who says this is a modern disorder? The early history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Badía, Jose; Martinez-Raga, Jose

    2015-12-22

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex, heterogeneous and multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Although the first clinical description of a constellation of symptoms highly resembling to what currently could be diagnosed as ADHD is generally attributed to George F Still in 1902, there are scattered but significant published historical medical, scientific and non-scientific reports, much prior to Still's lectures, of what is currently conceptualized as ADHD. The present report aimed at exploring the early history of ADHD, prior to the 20(th) century in the medical literature and in other historical sources, to provide clinicians, researchers and other professionals with a better understanding of the roots and current conceptualization of this disorder. It is possible to find clues and highly suggestive descriptions of individuals presenting symptoms resembling what is currently defined as ADHD in the literature, in paintings or in the Bible. However, the earliest medical reports of individuals with abnormal degrees of inattention, distractibility and overactivity date from the last quarter of the 18(th) century, included in two of the first textbooks specifically on the subject of mental diseases, published by the German Melchior Adam Weikard and the Scottish Sir Alexander Crichton. During the 19(th) century some eminent physicians from Germany, France or Great Britain, such as Charles West, Thomas C Albutt, Thomas S Clouston, William W, Ireland, John Haslam, Heinrich Neumann, or Désiré-Magloire Bourneville, among others provided clinical depictions of patients that most likely presently would be diagnosed as having ADHD. Whilst some of the children described by Still and his predecessors may have suffered from a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, many of these patients showed clear symptoms of ADHD and may present with comorbid disorders

  3. New Insights into Amino Acid Preservation in the Early Oceans using Modern Analytical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. T.; Brinton, K. L.; Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bada, J.

    2015-12-01

    Protein- and non-protein-amino acids likely occupied the oceans at the time of the origin and evolution of life. Primordial soup-, hydrothermal vent-, and meteoritic-processes likely contributed to this early chemical inventory. Prebiotic synthesis and carbonaceous meteorite studies suggest that non-protein amino acids were likely more abundant than their protein-counterparts. Amino acid preservation before abiotic and biotic destruction is key to biomarker availability in paleoenvironments and remains an important uncertainty. To constrain primitive amino acid lifetimes, a 1992 archived seawater/beach sand mixture was spiked with D,L-alanine, D,L-valine (Val), α-aminoisobutyric acid (α-AIB), D,L-isovaline (Iva), and glycine (Gly). Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) showed that only D-Val and non-protein amino acids were abundant after 2250 days. The mixture was re-analyzed in 2012 using HPLC-FD and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS). The analytical results 20 years after the inception of the experiment were strikingly similar to those after 2250 days. To confirm that viable microorganisms were still present, the mixture was re-spiked with Gly in 2012. Aliquots were collected immediately after spiking, and at 5- and 9-month intervals thereafter. Final HPLC-FD/QqQ-MS analyses were performed in 2014. The 2014 analyses revealed that only α-AIB, D,L-Iva, and D-Val remained abundant. The disappearance of Gly indicated that microorganisms still lived in the mixture and were capable of consuming protein amino acids. These findings demonstrate that non-protein amino acids are minimally impacted by biological degradation and thus have very long lifetimes under these conditions. Primitive non-protein amino acids from terrestrial synthesis, or meteorite in-fall, likely experienced greater preservation than protein amino acids in paleo-oceanic environments. Such robust molecules may have reached a steady

  4. New Insights into Amino Acid Preservation in the Early Oceans Using Modern Analytical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eric T.; Brinton, Karen L.; Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Protein- and non-protein-amino acids likely occupied the oceans at the time of the origin and evolution of life. Primordial soup-, hydrothermal vent-, and meteoritic-processes likely contributed to this early chemical inventory. Prebiotic synthesis and carbonaceous meteorite studies suggest that non-protein amino acids were likely more abundant than their protein-counterparts. Amino acid preservation before abiotic and biotic destruction is key to biomarker availability in paleoenvironments and remains an important uncertainty. To constrain primitive amino acid lifetimes, a 1992 archived seawater/beach sand mixture was spiked with D,L-alanine, D,L-valine (Val), alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), D,L-isovaline (Iva), and glycine (Gly). Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) showed that only D-Val and non-protein amino acids were abundant after 2250 days. The mixture was re-analyzed in 2012 using HPLC-FD and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS). The analytical results 20 years after the inception of the experiment were strikingly similar to those after 2250 days. To confirm that viable microorganisms were still present, the mixture was re-spiked with Gly in 2012. Aliquots were collected immediately after spiking, and at 5- and 9-month intervals thereafter. Final HPLC-FD/QqQ-MS analyses were performed in 2014. The 2014 analyses revealed that only alpha-AIB, D,L-Iva, and D-Val remained abundant. The disappearance of Gly indicated that microorganisms still lived in the mixture and were capable of consuming protein amino acids. These findings demonstrate that non-protein amino acids are minimally impacted by biological degradation and thus have very long lifetimes under these conditions. Primitive non-protein amino acids from terrestrial synthesis, or meteorite in-fall, likely experienced great-er preservation than protein amino acids in paleo-oceanic environments. Such robust molecules may have reached a

  5. The Religion of the Muslims of Medieval and Early Modern Castile : Interdisciplinary Research and Recent Studies on Mudejar Islam (2000-2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colominas Aparicio, M.; Wiegers, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    The present article examines recent contributions to the study of Islam and Muslim communities in Medieval and Early Modern Castile (2000-2014). Our aim is to identify the main areas of focus, the topics and the key issues addressed by scholars in the field; and to consider the significance of the n

  6. Henry S. Turner, The English Renaissance Stage. Geometry, Poetics, and the Practical Spatial Arts 1580-1630 - Tim Fitzpatrick, Playwright, Space and Place in Early Modern Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Giuliani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Review of Henry S. Turner, The English Renaissance Stage. Geometry, Poetics, and the Practical Spatial Arts 1580-1630, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006, reimpr. 2010, 326 pp. ISBN: 978-0-19-959545-7 y Tim Fitzpatrick, Playwright, Space and Place in Early Modern Performance, Ashgate, Franham, 2011, 314 pp. ISBN: 978-1-4094-2827-5.

  7. The Religion of the Muslims of Medieval and Early Modern Castile: Interdisciplinary Research and Recent Studies on Mudejar Islam (2000-2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colominas Aparicio, M.; Wiegers, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    The present article examines recent contributions to the study of Islam and Muslim communities in Medieval and Early Modern Castile (2000-2014). Our aim is to identify the main areas of focus, the topics and the key issues addressed by scholars in the field; and to consider the significance of the n

  8. The Religion of the Muslims of Medieval and Early Modern Castile : Interdisciplinary Research and Recent Studies on Mudejar Islam (2000-2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colominas Aparicio, M.; Wiegers, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    The present article examines recent contributions to the study of Islam and Muslim communities in Medieval and Early Modern Castile (2000-2014). Our aim is to identify the main areas of focus, the topics and the key issues addressed by scholars in the field; and to consider the significance of the n

  9. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-04

    are the times of Voltaire, Goethe , Tolstoy, when Europe lived and died according to literature; the graying, modern classicists changed under the...represented, in the area where we still fully understand Faust as well as Raskolnikov—in fact, these figures and their stories stride through us from one end

  10. Grammar School of Early Modern England%近代早期英国的文法学校

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福花

    2012-01-01

    英国文法学校是近代早期中等教育史上持续时间最长、影响最大的教育组织。近代早期,英国文法学校在教会改革和意大利文艺复兴的影响下,其发展变得更加成熟和繁荣。它保留了中世纪文法学校的许多特征,但也突显了其不同之处,其中宗教性与教学管理反映了真实的教育体系。这就使得它在教育史上的地位与中世纪以及当下相比更加重要,当然也不免会有弊端暴露,其内容的死板为英国教育的保守性埋下了隐患。但这些又恰恰是我国及世界其它国家借鉴与学习的地方。%Grammar school of England, the education organization which exerts extensive influence on early modem England, lasted for a long time. In the early modern times, under the influence of church reformation and Italian Renaissance, the grammar school of England developed more and more mature and prosperous. It retained many features of the medieval grammar school, also highlighted the differ- ences, including the religious and teaching management which reflected real education system. All these gave it a much more important position in history, compared with medieval or nowadays. Of course the drawback like rigid British education root in it is inevitable, but these, exactly the things our country and other countries around the world should take for reference.

  11. Languages of Difference in the Early Modern Portuguese Empire. The Spread of “Caste” in the Indian World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Barreto Xavier

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the circulation of the language of caste in the Indian world in the context of the Portuguese empire. Caste is an inevitable word in the moment of considering the Indian social system, as well as to compare it with European/Western societies. Since it was a word initially brought by the Portuguese to the Indian world, it is relevant to ask whether the Portuguese played an important role in its transformation into such a relevant social category. Six of the most important sixteenth-century narratives about the Portuguese presence in India, as well as treatises, letters, legal documents, vocabularies and dictionaries of the early-modern period will be under scrutiny in order to identify the variations of the word “casta”, its circulation in Estado da Índia, and beyond it. The analysis of these sources will also permit to understand how Portuguese colonial experience shaped the future meanings of “casta”, and therefore, the ways “casta” shaped Indian society (and not only.

  12. Most modern automation technology protects Europe's natural gas supply via Greifswald; Modernste Automatisierungstechnik sichert Europas Erdgasversorgung ueber Greifswald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Ralf [Gascade Gastransport GmbH, Kassel (Germany); Schneider, Thomas [Siemens Oil and Gas, Bremen (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    At the Baltic Sea seaside Lubmin (Federal Republic of Germany), the automated technical core of the greatest European investment in the energy infrastructure in the last years is beating. At this place, the North-Stream pipeline reaches Germany and supplies 6.6 million m{sup 3} of Russian natural gas to the landing station Greifswald in Lubmin. In Greifswald, the natural gas is conditioned and measured before it is transmitted through the pipelines 'OPAL' (Baltic Sea - pipeline - landing station) to the south direction till to the Czech Republic as well as through the pipeline 'NEL' (North European natural gas pipeline) to the west direction till to the storage facility Rheden. For this, the largest natural gas measuring station in Europe is constructed. Nearly 750 sensors, more than 2,400 valves and 360 electric drives were installed. The newest generation of the automation technology was used.

  13. O continente cético: a Europa e os valores da modernidade The sceptical continent: Europe and the values of modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Therborn

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available As grandes mudanças na Europa contemporânea exigem para a sua compreensão um exame das trajetórias históricas dos seus fundamentos valorativos e do modo como eles se manifestam nas condições atuais. O autor examina, de uma perspectiva "iluminista", os sinais de erosão de certas crenças e de emergência de novas orientações valorativas.The great changes in contemporary Europe must be understood taking into acount the historical paths of its basic values and the way they manifest themselves in the present conditions. The author examines, from an "enlightened" point of view, the signs of erosion of some beliefs as well as of the emergence of new value orientations.

  14. Confluences of America and Europe in the modern hybrid genre: H. C. Buchs Rede des toten Kolumbus am Tag des jüngsten Gerichts (1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmei Francisco Fleck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article seeks to analyze the influence that contemporary methods of literary writing and modes of thought used on the American continent have had on other literary niches, having as a specific example, Germany. For that, the focus will fall on the German historical novel Rede des toten Kolumbus am Tag des jüngsten Gerichts (1992, from the author Hans Christoph Buch. In the novel, it is observed how the rhetorical and aesthetical processes of narrative come close to what was considered as "new metafictional historical novel", according to studies by Aínsa (1988-1991, Menton (1993 and Fleck (2007. This model of artistic production is a result of the literary boom suffered in Latin America, amidst the 20th century, thus showing how, after a long time, the Americas start to influence the writings of other continents and, specially, Europe. Studies by Lukács, regarding historical novels, and Uslar Pietri (1990, regarding "Magic Realism", also make themselves useful, once that the delimitations of the literary genre, as well as its main characteristics, are possible of being observed in Buch's novel.

  15. Provisions for the Elderly in North-Western Europe: Almshouses around the North Sea, Sixteenth-Twentieth Centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    In Early Modern north-western Europe a unique form of charitable foundation developed – almshouses. These were inhabited by elderly men and women, who had led honourable middle-class lives, but had become unable to support themselves. In towns that were rapidly growing through immigration, many elde

  16. Provisions for the Elderly in North-Western Europe: Almshouses around the North Sea, Sixteenth-Twentieth Centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    In Early Modern north-western Europe a unique form of charitable foundation developed – almshouses. These were inhabited by elderly men and women, who had led honourable middle-class lives, but had become unable to support themselves. In towns that were rapidly growing through immigration, many

  17. The earliest unequivocally modern humans in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu; Martinón-Torres, María; Cai, Yan-jun; Xing, Song; Tong, Hao-wen; Pei, Shu-wen; Sier, Mark Jan; Wu, Xiao-hong; Edwards, R Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Li, Yi-yuan; Yang, Xiong-xin; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Wu, Xiu-jie

    2015-10-29

    The hominin record from southern Asia for the early Late Pleistocene epoch is scarce. Well-dated and well-preserved fossils older than ∼45,000 years that can be unequivocally attributed to Homo sapiens are lacking. Here we present evidence from the newly excavated Fuyan Cave in Daoxian (southern China). This site has provided 47 human teeth dated to more than 80,000 years old, and with an inferred maximum age of 120,000 years. The morphological and metric assessment of this sample supports its unequivocal assignment to H. sapiens. The Daoxian sample is more derived than any other anatomically modern humans, resembling middle-to-late Late Pleistocene specimens and even contemporary humans. Our study shows that fully modern morphologies were present in southern China 30,000-70,000 years earlier than in the Levant and Europe. Our data fill a chronological and geographical gap that is relevant for understanding when H. sapiens first appeared in southern Asia. The Daoxian teeth also support the hypothesis that during the same period, southern China was inhabited by more derived populations than central and northern China. This evidence is important for the study of dispersal routes of modern humans. Finally, our results are relevant to exploring the reasons for the relatively late entry of H. sapiens into Europe. Some studies have investigated how the competition with H. sapiens may have caused Neanderthals' extinction (see ref. 8 and references therein). Notably, although fully modern humans were already present in southern China at least as early as ∼80,000 years ago, there is no evidence that they entered Europe before ∼45,000 years ago. This could indicate that H. neanderthalensis was indeed an additional ecological barrier for modern humans, who could only enter Europe when the demise of Neanderthals had already started.

  18. Influence of mobile air-conditioning on vehicle emissions and fuel consumption: a model approach for modern gasoline cars used in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilenmann, Martin F; Vasic, Ana-Marija; Stettler, Peter; Novak, Philippe

    2005-12-15

    The influence of air-conditioning activity on the emissions and fuel consumption of passenger cars is an important issue, since fleet penetration and use of these systems have reached a high level. Apart from the MOBILE6 study in the United States, little data is available on the impact of air-conditioning devices (A/Cs). Since weather conditions and A/C technologies both differ from those in the U. S., a test series was designed for the European setting. A fleet of six modern gasoline passenger cars was tested in different weather conditions. Separate test series were carried out for the initial cooldown and for the stationary situation of keeping the interior of the vehicle cool. As assumed, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption rise with the thermal load. This also causes a notable rise in CO and hydrocarbons (HCs). Moreover, A/Cs do not stop automatically at low ambient temperatures; if necessary, they produce dry air to demist the windscreen. A model is proposed that shows a constant load for lower temperatures and a linear trend for higher temperatures. The initial cooldown tests highlight significant differences among cars but show that A/C operation for the initial cooling of an overheated passenger compartment does not result in any extra emissions for the fleet as a whole.

  19. Roman and early-medieval routes in north-western Europe: modelling national and international frequent-travel zones in the Netherlands using a multi-proxy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lanen, Rowin J.; Jansma, Esther

    2016-04-01

    The end of the Roman period in many parts of north-western Europe coincided with severe population decline and collapsing trade routes. To what extent the long-distance transport routes changed from Roman to early-medieval periods and what their exact nature was, is generally unknown. Only few historical sources are available for this period, and archaeological records complex. Traditionally, research on the long-distance exchange of goods therefore generally has focussed on the spatial analyses of archaeologically recognizable goods (e.g. jewellery, religious artefacts). Although these endeavours greatly increase our understanding of long-distance trade networks, they probably in itself do not represent the full spectrum of common exchange networks and transport routes. By using a dendroarchaeological approach we were able to analyse long-distance transport routes of imported timber in the Roman and early-medieval Netherlands. By combining the provenance of exogenous timbers with data on modelled Roman and early-medieval route networks, we were able to reconstruct: (a) Roman and early-medieval trade networks in structural timbers, (b) changing transport routes in structural timbers and (c) model spatially shifting frequent-travel zones in the research area.

  20. Europeanization of the World or Globalization of Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Bentley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Building on his long career as a distinguished historian of early modern Europe, John Miles Headley has recently turned his gaze to the influence of Europe in the larger world. In The Europeanization of the World, Headley makes an insistent case for the uniqueness of European values—particularly human rights and democracy—and argues that these values are Europe’s most precious gifts to the larger world. Without seeking to diminish the remarkable intellectual and cultural achievements of European peoples, this presentation will suggest a more nuanced view of relations between Europe and the larger world. Human rights and democracy mean different things to different peoples in different contexts at different times, and there have in fact been numerous expressions of both in societies beyond Europe. Furthermore, European theorists of human rights and democracy drew influence from societies beyond Europe. To the extent that the Europeanization of the world is a persuasive idea, it is possible only because of a prior globalization of Europe.

  1. [Longlived examples. Function and formal principles of historical exempla of old age in the early-modern dietetic literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Since antiquity, the exemplum can be proven in numerous types of texts, as it fulfills a notable didactic and rhetorical function: On the one hand it serves to a deductive illustration of common doctrines; on the other it is until the Enlightenment the scientific basis of cognition: in the view of medieval artistotelists, of who FRANCIS BACON was (in a special sense) one of the last champions, the exemplum takes on an inductive function: the sensual perception of the exampla generates the understanding of the universal, as the exemplum always refers to the exemplar, to the original form. Regarding the eminent deductive/inductive significance of the exempla, it is not surprising that they are an essential factor in dietetic literature. Whereas such exemples were very rare in the general literature on health care written by physicians and in specific papers of old-age assistance, they formed an integral part of texts composed for a large public by medical laymen such as (Ps.-) ROGER BACON, MARSILIO FICINO, ALVISE CORNARO or FRANCIS BACON. In these studies, the issue of a natural limit of human life was discussed intensively. In this context the "historical" sources were of high importance, even if, from a todays point of view, their use was completely non-historical. Often their crude instrumentalization and new interpretations can only be understood in the scholarly context of the time: E.g. in debates of specialists with outsiders or when serving as argument for physiological theories and therapeutical regimes. Not until late Renaissance, the historical exemple was replaced by the individual experience. It is striking that most of all historical exemples found in dietetic papers were positive. This humanistic and Christian ideal concept of old age, which completely contradicts the medical reality, had obviously a stronger fascination on the authors of early modern times than the inductive function of negative exempla (which are very important for a rational

  2. Late neogene and early quaternary paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions in southwestern Europe: isotopic analyses on mammalian taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Laura; Koch, Paul L; Hernández Fernández, Manuel; Fox, David L; Domingo, M Soledad; Alberdi, María Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Climatic and environmental shifts have had profound impacts on faunal and floral assemblages globally since the end of the Miocene. We explore the regional expression of these fluctuations in southwestern Europe by constructing long-term records (from ~11.1 to 0.8 Ma, late Miocene-middle Pleistocene) of carbon and oxygen isotope variations in tooth enamel of different large herbivorous mammals from Spain. Isotopic differences among taxa illuminate differences in ecological niches. The δ(13)C values (relative to VPDB, mean -10.3 ± 1.1‰; range -13.0 to -7.4‰) are consistent with consumption of C3 vegetation; C4 plants did not contribute significantly to the diets of the selected taxa. When averaged by time interval to examine secular trends, δ(13)C values increase at ~9.5 Ma (MN9-MN10), probably related to the Middle Vallesian Crisis when there was a replacement of vegetation adapted to more humid conditions by vegetation adapted to drier and more seasonal conditions, and resulting in the disappearance of forested mammalian fauna. The mean δ(13)C value drops significantly at ~4.2-3.7 Ma (MN14-MN15) during the Pliocene Warm Period, which brought more humid conditions to Europe, and returns to higher δ(13)C values from ~2.6 Ma onwards (MN16), most likely reflecting more arid conditions as a consequence of the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation. The most notable feature in oxygen isotope records (and mean annual temperature reconstructed from these records) is a gradual drop between MN13 and the middle Pleistocene (~6.3-0.8 Ma) most likely due to cooling associated with Northern Hemisphere glaciation.

  3. Late neogene and early quaternary paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions in southwestern Europe: isotopic analyses on mammalian taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Domingo

    Full Text Available Climatic and environmental shifts have had profound impacts on faunal and floral assemblages globally since the end of the Miocene. We explore the regional expression of these fluctuations in southwestern Europe by constructing long-term records (from ~11.1 to 0.8 Ma, late Miocene-middle Pleistocene of carbon and oxygen isotope variations in tooth enamel of different large herbivorous mammals from Spain. Isotopic differences among taxa illuminate differences in ecological niches. The δ(13C values (relative to VPDB, mean -10.3 ± 1.1‰; range -13.0 to -7.4‰ are consistent with consumption of C3 vegetation; C4 plants did not contribute significantly to the diets of the selected taxa. When averaged by time interval to examine secular trends, δ(13C values increase at ~9.5 Ma (MN9-MN10, probably related to the Middle Vallesian Crisis when there was a replacement of vegetation adapted to more humid conditions by vegetation adapted to drier and more seasonal conditions, and resulting in the disappearance of forested mammalian fauna. The mean δ(13C value drops significantly at ~4.2-3.7 Ma (MN14-MN15 during the Pliocene Warm Period, which brought more humid conditions to Europe, and returns to higher δ(13C values from ~2.6 Ma onwards (MN16, most likely reflecting more arid conditions as a consequence of the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation. The most notable feature in oxygen isotope records (and mean annual temperature reconstructed from these records is a gradual drop between MN13 and the middle Pleistocene (~6.3-0.8 Ma most likely due to cooling associated with Northern Hemisphere glaciation.

  4. Late Neogene and Early Quaternary Paleoenvironmental and Paleoclimatic Conditions in Southwestern Europe: Isotopic Analyses on Mammalian Taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Laura; Koch, Paul L.; Hernández Fernández, Manuel; Fox, David L.; Domingo, M. Soledad; Alberdi, María Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Climatic and environmental shifts have had profound impacts on faunal and floral assemblages globally since the end of the Miocene. We explore the regional expression of these fluctuations in southwestern Europe by constructing long-term records (from ∼11.1 to 0.8 Ma, late Miocene–middle Pleistocene) of carbon and oxygen isotope variations in tooth enamel of different large herbivorous mammals from Spain. Isotopic differences among taxa illuminate differences in ecological niches. The δ13C values (relative to VPDB, mean −10.3±1.1‰; range −13.0 to −7.4‰) are consistent with consumption of C3 vegetation; C4 plants did not contribute significantly to the diets of the selected taxa. When averaged by time interval to examine secular trends, δ13C values increase at ∼9.5 Ma (MN9–MN10), probably related to the Middle Vallesian Crisis when there was a replacement of vegetation adapted to more humid conditions by vegetation adapted to drier and more seasonal conditions, and resulting in the disappearance of forested mammalian fauna. The mean δ13C value drops significantly at ∼4.2−3.7 Ma (MN14–MN15) during the Pliocene Warm Period, which brought more humid conditions to Europe, and returns to higher δ13C values from ∼2.6 Ma onwards (MN16), most likely reflecting more arid conditions as a consequence of the onset of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation. The most notable feature in oxygen isotope records (and mean annual temperature reconstructed from these records) is a gradual drop between MN13 and the middle Pleistocene (∼6.3−0.8 Ma) most likely due to cooling associated with Northern Hemisphere glaciation. PMID:23717470

  5. Representationalism and the linguistic question in early modern philosophy%早期现代哲学中的语言问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨大春

    2008-01-01

    The view of language is greatly changed from early modern philosophy to later modern philosophy and to postmodern philosophy. The linguistic question in early modern philosophy, which is characterized by rationalism and empiricism, is discussed in this paper. Linguistic phenomena are not at the center of philosophical reflections in early modern philosophy. The subject of consciousness is at the center of the philosophy, which makes language serve purely as an instrument for representing thoughts. Locke, Leibniz and Descartes consider language from a representationalist point of view. To them, language itself is idealized and represents thought as if it were thought representing itself. Like the structural linguist Saussure, the founders of phenomenology and analytical philosophy give much attention to the logical or static structure of language, and stick up for the representationalism of early modern philosophy. However, their successors refuse to accept this attitude, meaning the final collapse of representationalism.%从早期现代哲学剑后期现代哲学再到后现代哲学,在语言观上产生了重大的变化.早期现代哲学以唯理论和经验论为典型形式.语言现象没有成为该时期哲学反思的中心问题;意识主体处于哲学的中心,这使得语言仅仅充当着表象思想的工具.洛克、莱布尼茨和笛卡尔都从表象论的角度看待语言,在他们那里,语言本身被观念化了,它们表象思想,就像思想在表象它自身.正像结构语言学家索绪尔一样,现象学和分析哲学的创始人火注的都是语言的逻辑结构或静态结构,他们延续了早期现代哲学的表象论,但他们的后继者拒绝接受这种态度,而这意味着最终突破表象论.

  6. The Blaník Gneiss in the southern Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic): a rare rock composition among the early palaeozoic granites of Variscan Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    René, Miloš; Finger, Fritz

    2016-08-01

    Metamorphosed and deformed tourmaline-bearing leucogranites with a Cambro-Ordovician formation age are widespread in the Monotonous Group of the Variscan southern Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic. The rocks, known locally as Blaník gneiss, are strongly peraluminous and classify as phosphorus-rich low-T, S-type granite. The magma formed from a metapelitic source, most likely through muscovite dehydration melting. With respect to its low-T origin and the abundance of tourmaline, the Blaník gneiss is exotic within the spectrum of Early Palaeozoic granites of the Variscan fold belt of Central Europe. Coeval granitic gneisses in the neighbouring Gföhl unit of the Bohemian Massif can be classified as higher T S-type granites and were probably generated through biotite dehydration melting. The geochemical differences between the Early Palaeozoic granitic magmatism in the Gföhl unit and the Monotonous Group support models claiming that these two geological units belonged to independent peri-Gondwana terranes before the Variscan collision. It is suggested here, that the Gföhl unit and the Monotonous Group represent zones of higher and lower heat flow within the Early Palaeozoic northern Gondwana margin, respectively. The geochemical data presented in this study could be helpful for terrane correlations and palaeogeographic reconstructions.

  7. U-Pb (LA-PIMMS) Ages of Inherited Zircons from Early Palaeozoic Granitoids of the W Sudetes, N Bohemian Massif, Central Europe: Implications for Neoproterozoic Continental Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Q. G.; Patocka, F.; Kachlík, V.

    2003-04-01

    A U-Pb laser ablation plasma ionisation multi-collector mass spectrometry (LA-PIMMS) geochronological study of zircons from early Palaeozoic (meta)granitoids of the Czech W Sudetes (E Saxothuringian Zone), NW Bohemian Massif, was carried out in order to determine the range of inherited age spectra preserved in these lithologies. Backscattered SEM images indicate that many zircons have distinct cores and rims. The majority of inherited zircon components yield concordant U-Pb ages that fall into the following age ranges: (1) 520-770 Ma, (2) 1.9-2.2 Ga and (3) ca. 3.0 Ga. These three age populations are typical of the W African Craton and the Armorican Terrane Assemblage of Europe. The age spectra correspond to Cadomian, Birimian / Icartian / Eburnean / Burkinian and Leonian events respectively. Some previous Pb-Pb zircon and whole rock Nd studies of similar lithologies from the W Sudetes (e.g. Hegner &Kröner, 2000) have attributed the presence of Mesoproterozoic 207Pb/206Pb ages to a peri-Amazonian provenance. Although some zircons from this study have yielded apparent Mesoproterozoic ages, they are discordant and can be resolved into early Palaeozoic to Neoproterozoic lower intercept and Palaeoproterozoic to Archaean upper intercept components. This unequivocally proves that an inherited Grenvillian component does not exist in these lithologies. We therefore favour derivation of the Saxothuringian zone and associated members of the Armorican Terrane Assemblage from a W African Craton Gondwanan setting. References: Hegner, E, &Kröner, A. 2000. Review of Nd data and xenocrystic and detrital ages from the pre-Variscan basement in the Eastern Bohemian Massif: speculations on palinspastic reconstructions. In: Franke, W., Altherr, R., Haak, V. &Oncken, O. (eds.), Orogenic Processes: Quantification and Modelling in the Variscan Belt of Central Europe Geological Society of London Special Publication, 179, 113-129.

  8. Early Paleogene Arctic terrestrial ecosystems affected by the change of polar hydrology under global warming:Implications for modern climate change at high latitudes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaytha; A.; LANGLOIS

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of both the role and impact of Arctic environmental changes under the current global warming climate is rather limited despite efforts of improved monitoring and wider assessment through remote sensing technology. Changes of Arctic ecosystems under early Paleogene warming climate provide an analogue to evaluate long-term responses of Arctic environmental alteration to global warming. This study reviews Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and their transformation under marked change of hydrological conditions during the warmest period in early Cenozoic, the Paleocene and Eocene. We describe a new approach to quantitatively reconstruct high latitudinal paleohydrology using compound-specific hydrogen isotope analysis which applies empirically derived genus-specific hydrogen isotope fractionations to in situ biomolecules from fossil plants. We propose a moisture recycling model at the Arctic to explain the reconstructed hydrogen isotope signals of ancient high latitude precipitation during early Paleogene, which bears implications to the likely change of modern Arctic ecosystems under the projected accelerated global warming.

  9. 'The king is on huntunge': on the relation between progressive and absentive in Old and Early Modern English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, C.; Hannay, M.; Steen, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the diachronic development of two periphrastic constructions in Old and Middle English, 'He wæs huntende' and 'He wæs on huntunge', into the progressive in Modern English. The literature on the origin of the progressive offers several hypotheses for explaining the coalescence of

  10. The Aggradational Successions of the Aniene River Valley in Rome: Age Constraints to Early Neanderthal Presence in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceruleo, Piero; Pandolfi, Luca; Petronio, Carmelo; Rolfo, Mario F.; Salari, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    We revise the chronostratigraphy of several sedimentary successions cropping out along a 5 km-long tract of the Aniene River Valley in Rome (Italy), which yielded six hominin remains previously attributed to proto- or archaic Neanderthal individuals, as well as a large number of lithic artefacts showing intermediate characteristics somewhere between the local Acheulean and Mousterian cultures. Through a method of correlation of aggradational successions with post-glacial sea-level rises, relying on a large set of published 40Ar/39Ar ages of interbedded volcanic deposits, we demonstrate that deposition of the sediments hosting the human remains spans the interval 295–220 ka. This is consistent with other well constrained ages for lithic industries recovered in England, displaying transitional features from Lower to Middle Paleolithic, suggesting the appearance of Mode 3 during the MIS 9-MIS 8 transition. Moreover, the six human bone fragments recovered in the Aniene Valley should be regarded as the most precisely dated and oldest hominin remains ascribable to Neanderthal-type individuals in Europe, discovered to date. The chronostratigraphic study presented here constitutes the groundwork for addressing re-analysis of these remains and of their associated lithic industries, in the light of their well-constrained chronological picture. PMID:28125602

  11. The Yankees of Europe? A New View on Technology and Productivity in German Manufacturing in the Early Twentieth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Marcel P.; Veenstra, Joost; Woltjer, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Labor productivity in German manufacturing lagged behind the United States in the early twentieth century. Traditionally, this is attributed to dichotomous technology paths across the Atlantic. However, various industry case studies suggest rapid diffusion of U.S. technologies in Germany. We develop

  12. The Yankees of Europe? A New View on Technology and Productivity in German Manufacturing in the Early Twentieth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Marcel P.; Veenstra, Joost; Woltjer, Pieter J.

    Labor productivity in German manufacturing lagged persistently behind the United States in the early twentieth century. Traditionally, this is attributed to dichotomous technology paths across the Atlantic. However, various industry case studies suggest rapid diffusion of U.S. technologies in

  13. Late-Modern Symbolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis of key texts, I seek to demonstrate the explanative potential of Durkheim’s sociology of religion in the present context. I critically readdress the idea, found in his early work, that modernity is characterized by a rupture with pre-modern forms of solidarity. First, I investigate...... the ways in which Durkheim sets up a stark distinction between the pre-modern and the modern in his early work, and how this distinction is further cemented by his orthodox critique of the modern economy and its negative effects on social life. Second, I show how another timeless and positive understanding...... of “mechanical” solidarity is to be found behind the “symbolist” template crystalizing in Durkheim’s late work. Third, I develop this template for a modern context by critically addressing and removing other obstacles and prejudices on Durkheim’s part....

  14. CYTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE SPECTRUM SUBPOPULATION OF T LYMPHOCYTES IN THE EARLY FORMS OF CHRONIC BRAIN ISCHEMIA VETERANS OF MODERN WARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zurochka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the earliest forms of chronic brain ischemia veterans of modern wars accompanied by an increase in the systemic circulation of the population of T lymphocytes and monocytes, reflecting the activation of central mechanisms lymphopoiesis. In step vascular encephalopathy is an increase in circulating pool of T lymphocytes expressing the activation markers early positive reflecting readiness cells to IL-2 dependent proliferation. When progessirovanii chronic brain ischemia decreased levels of circulating T-regulatory cells, which may reflect a violation of self-tolerance in relation to brain antigens.

  15. OCLC in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Christine

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the early days of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) in Europe, and developments in its usage. Highlights include negotiations between OCLC and France; retrospective conversion; reorganization and restructuring; the gradual approach to international use of OCLC; problems facing European libraries using OCLC; and benefits. (AEF)

  16. Klostersturm and Secularization in Central Europe: What Happened to the Libraries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Garrett

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the secularization of church property--including libraries--in England during the Reformation, the far greater secularization of church and monastery libraries that took place in Catholic Europe between 1773 and the early-to-mid 1800s has received little attention in Anglo-American historiography. This essay presents an overview of mostly German-language scholarship, including many older studies, dealing with the dissolution and disposition of monastery libraries across German-speaking Europe during these decades. It also considers research suggesting that modern library science arose from efforts to manage the flood of books that came into state possession during these years.

  17. A humid corridor across the Sahara for the migration of early modern humans out of Africa 120,000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Anne H; Vance, Derek; Rohling, Eelco J; Barton, Nick; Rogerson, Mike; Fello, Nuri

    2008-10-28

    It is widely accepted that modern humans originated in sub-Saharan Africa approximately 150-200 thousand years ago (ka), but their route of dispersal across the currently hyperarid Sahara remains controversial. Given that the first modern humans north of the Sahara are found in the Levant approximately 120-90 ka, northward dispersal likely occurred during a humid episode in the Sahara within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (130-117 ka). The obvious dispersal route, the Nile, may be ruled out by notable differences between archaeological finds in the Nile Valley and the Levant at the critical time. Further west, space-born radar images reveal networks of-now buried-fossil river channels that extend across the desert to the Mediterranean coast, which represent alternative dispersal corridors. These corridors would explain scattered findings at desert oases of Middle Stone Age Aterian lithic industries with bifacial and tanged points that can be linked with industries further to the east and as far north as the Mediterranean coast. Here we present geochemical data that demonstrate that water in these fossil systems derived from the south during wet episodes in general, and penetrated all of the way to the Mediterranean during MIS 5e in particular. This proves the existence of an uninterrupted freshwater corridor across a currently hyperarid region of the Sahara at a key time for early modern human migrations to the north and out of Africa.

  18. Liquid Modernity & Late Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.

    In Liquid Modernity, Bauman portrays Adorno and the rest of the early Frankfurt School as sociologists and thinkers belonging to the ‘heavy’ phase of modernity. In other words, they are deemed irrelevant to the discussion of current sociological time diagnoses and the purpose of critique under co...

  19. Did trees grow up to the light, up to the wind, or down to the water? How modern high productivity colors perception of early plant evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, C Kevin; Fan, Ying; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2017-07-01

    Contents I. II. III. IV. V. Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Flowering plants can be far more productive than other living land plants. Evidence is reviewed that productivity would have been uniformly lower and less CO2 -responsive before angiosperm evolution, particularly during the early evolution of vascular plants and forests in the Devonian and Carboniferous. This introduces important challenges because paleoecological interpretations have been rooted in understanding of modern angiosperm-dominated ecosystems. One key example is tree evolution: although often thought to reflect competition for light, light limitation is unlikely for plants with such low photosynthetic potential. Instead, during this early evolution, the capacities of trees for enhanced propagule dispersal, greater leaf area, and deep-rooting access to nutrients and the water table are all deemed more fundamental potential drivers than light. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. SafeLand guidelines for landslide monitoring and early warning systems in Europe - Design and required technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, S.

    2012-04-01

    Landslide monitoring means the comparison of landslide characteristics like areal extent, speed of movement, surface topography and soil humidity from different periods in order to assess landslide activity. An ultimate "universal" methodology for this purpose does not exist; every technology has its own advantages and disadvantages. End-users should carefully consider each one to select the methodologies that represent the best compromise between pros and cons, and are best suited for their needs. Besides monitoring technology, there are many factors governing the choice of an Early Warning System (EWS). A people-centred EWS necessarily comprises five key elements: (1) knowledge of the risks; (2) identification, monitoring, analysis and forecasting of the hazards; (3) operational centre; (4) communication or dissemination of alerts and warnings; and (5) local capabilities to respond to the warnings received. The expression "end-to-end warning system" is also used to emphasize that EWSs need to span all steps from hazard detection through to community response. The aim of the present work is to provide guidelines for establishing the different components for landslide EWSs. One of the main deliverables of the EC-FP7 SafeLand project addresses the technical and practical issues related to monitoring and early warning for landslides, and identifies the best technologies available in the context of both hazard assessment and design of EWSs. This deliverable targets the end-users and aims to facilitate the decision process by providing guidelines. For the purpose of sharing the globally accumulated expertise, a screening study was done on 14 EWSs from 8 different countries. On these bases, the report presents a synoptic view of existing monitoring methodologies and early-warning strategies and their applicability for different landslide types, scales and risk management steps. Several comprehensive checklists and toolboxes are also included to support informed

  1. Dinoflagellate cysts as indicators of palaeoenvironmental and sea-level change: the Late Cenomanian - Early Coniacian (Cretaceous) of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde, Kate; Jarvis, Ian; Pearce, Martin; Tocher, Bruce

    2014-05-01

    The Late Cretaceous represented a period of greenhouse climate of Earth history, and was characterised by high temperatures, high atmospheric CO2 and high eustatic sea level, with large areas of shallow, warm, epicontinental sea. Understanding the dynamics of the Late Cretaceous climate is important for understanding the Earth System and the impact of modern climate change. The productive Late Cretaceous oceans led to the deposition of a large portion of the world's oil and gas resources, so reconstruction of depositional environments and refinement of stratigraphic correlation are important for the petroleum industry. Dinoflagellates were a prolific and diverse group within the phyto- and zooplankton throughout Late Cretaceous oceans, and their cysts display good preservation across different facies, and so are a good group for biostratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental study. Selected results from a high-resolution quantitative study of the palynology from 5 European Upper Cenomanian to the Lower Coniacian (Upper Cretaceous) sections are summarised, along with their carbon stable-isotope chemostratigraphy. The sections are from a range of palaeolatitudes and basins, including the North Sea Basin, the Anglo-Paris Basin, the Bohemian Basin, the Polish Trough and the Vocontian Basin. Palynological assemblages differ between sections in the concentration of palynomorphs, proportions of terrestrial and marine palynomorphs, and in the diversity and varying proportions of species of dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts). Dinocyst distribution is considered to have been controlled largely by nutrient levels, but was also impacted by temperature, sea level, and water mass changes. Influxes of certain species are related to changes in salinity, changes in temperature, and water mass change, and increased communication between basins. High dinocyst abundance, and particularly a high proportion of peridinioid cysts (which are thought to be derived from eutrophy

  2. European Regional Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Brian Canizaro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, beginning with the publication in 2003 of Liane Lefaivre and Alexander Tzonis’ 'Critical Regionalism', followed by my 'Architectural Regionalism: Collected Writings on Place, Identity, Modernity and Tradition 'in 2007, there has been a quiet resurgence in the discourse of architectural regionalism.' 'Leuven University Press’s 'Regionalism and Modernity: Architecture in Western Europe 1914–1940 'continues in this direction, with eleven chapters devoted to variations of the regionalist tendency in European architecture focused primarily on Belgium and France, but also Great Britain, Italy, and Germany.

  3. An early bone tool industry from the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave, South Africa: implications for the origins of modern human behaviour, symbolism and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshilwood, C S; d'Errico, F; Marean, C W; Milo, R G; Yates, R

    2001-12-01

    Twenty-eight bone tools were recovered in situ from ca. 70 ka year old Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave between 1992 and 2000. These tools are securely provenienced and are the largest collection to come from a single African Middle Stone Age site. Detailed analyses show that tool production methods follow a sequence of deliberate technical choices starting with blank production, the use of various shaping methods and the final finishing of the artefact to produce "awls" and "projectile points". Tool production processes in the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave conform to generally accepted descriptions of "formal" techniques of bone tool manufacture. Comparisons with similar bone tools from the Later Stone Age at Blombos Cave, other Cape sites and ethnographic collections show that although shaping methods are different, the planning and execution of bone tool manufacture in the Middle Stone Age is consistent with that in the late Holocene. The bone tool collection from Blombos Cave is remarkable because bone tools are rarely found in African Middle or Later Stone Age sites before ca. 25 ka. Scarcity of early bone tools is cited as one strand of evidence supporting models for nonmodern behaviour linked to a lack of modern technological or cognitive capacity before ca. 50 ka. Bone artefacts are a regular feature in European sites after ca. 40 ka, are closely associated with the arrival of anatomically modern humans and are a key behavioural marker of the Upper Palaeolithic "symbolic explosion" linked to the evolution of modern behaviour. Taken together with recent finds from Klasies River, Katanda and other African Middle Stone Age sites the Blombos Cave evidence for formal bone working, deliberate engraving on ochre, production of finely made bifacial points and sophisticated subsistence strategies is turning the tide in favour of models positing behavioural modernity in Africa at a time far earlier than previously accepted. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. The Importance of British Teaching Experience (Late 20th – Early 21st Century for Modern Training of Ukrainian Primary School Teachers in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berladyn Olha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with peculiarities of primary schools teachers’ professional training in the UK (late 20th – early 21st century in terms of European integration, analyses development priorities, substantiates the possibilities to use the ideas of the British experience in the training of local primary schools teachers in rural areas. The ideas which have been determined as leading are: development of unified system of standards and teachers training in the context of general integrated requirements for its competence; teachers’ skills to manage their teaching and training activities; modernizing the content of professional training; ensuring continuity of professional training for primary school teachers and their close cooperation with universities, schools and local education system, etc. The results of theoretical research confirm that the development of primary schools in Great Britain has always being and remains a leading factor in the modernization of teacher training. Teacher Education in UK has considerable experience in combining traditional and modern innovation in the time of reforms in that sector, updating the organizational and semantic principles taking into account the European dimension of education. The experience of Great Britain as an active member of formation processes in common European education space, with a rich history, cultural traditions and innovative achievements in terms of professional training of primary school teachers will provide an opportunity to identify and use positive ideas to upgrade the pedagogical education in Ukraine and present its achievements in the European education space. The UK has implemented its own national approach to the modernization of primary school teachers’ professional training on the basis of common European integration processes and changes.

  5. The Sky in Early Modern English Literature A Study of Allusions to Celestial Events in Elizabethan and Jacobean Writing, 1572-1620

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, David H

    2011-01-01

    When a dissertation gets completed, the normal rule is that it is never read. By anyone.  David H. Levy’s dissertation - The Sky in Early Modern English Literature:  A Study of Allusions to Celestial Events in Elizabethan and Jacobean Writing, 1572-1620 - is different.  It opens a whole new interdisciplinary field, which involves the beautiful relationship between the night sky and the works of the early modern period of English Literature.  Although the sky enters into much of literature through the ages, the period involving William Shakespeare and his colleagues is particularly rich.               When Shakespeare was about 8 years old, his father probably took him outside his Stratford home into their northward-facing back yard.  There, father and son gazed upon the first great new star visible in the past 500 years, shining forth as brightly as Venus, and even visible in daylight.  This new star, which we now know as a supernova, completely unhinged old ideas about the cosmos.  Com...

  6. HISTORICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF BELIEF IN WEREWOLVES IN WESTERN EUROPEAN SOCIETY FROM THE LATE MIDDLE AGES-EARLY MODERN TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kholina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian historiography in recent decades, there has been increased interest in the problems of everyday life in different historical periods and epochs. Regarding the middle ages and new time, an integral part of everyday life was the belief in the struggle between God and Devil, and Man in this confrontation was one of the conflicting parties. Holy Inquisition has been fighting with the followers of dark forces, witches and apostates – heretics since the XIII century. However, special attention should be paid to the fact that in addition to the above-mentioned victims of the ecclesiastical court, become and other devil's servants are werewolves. An important point is that the belief in creatures that can change their appearance, one way or another is present in all peoples of the world, but the massive scale, amounting to hysteria, she gets in Europe. According to the results of the research, the authors note that theories and facts that shaped the consciousness of man at the crossroads of two historical epochs – the middle ages and modern times, under the influence of Church ideologues and demonic studies, as well as reasoning of the average man which has been formed through the prism of perception of that time, belief in werewolves firmly occupies its own niche in daily life for a long time.

  7. Engagements in Early Modern Spain and the Importance of the «Promise». Traditions and Conflits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta RUIZ SASTRE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available  The present work studies the strength that betrothals had in Western society during Modern Times. Even without having a sacra- mental nature and without being formally required for the celebration of a religious ceremony, the betrothal created in the collective mind a bond that was dif!cult to break. The promisethat was exchanged forced those who were involved to stay true to it until the very act of marriage. This appeared in this way in modern –ecclesiastical and secular– legislation, and it would be thus supported by popular opinion. Neither the Council of Trent nor the ecclesiastical institutions –despite the decree Tametsi– managed to avert the continued existence of its meaning, and common practice would continue to keep its value, adapting the spirit of the sacrament to everyday reality: the expression of free consent and its consummation through «carnal knowledge». The analysis of lawsuits for breach of promise of marriage reflects the persistence of an old social practice and reveals part of the historical scheme of the marriage process.

  8. Modernity after Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A strategy for the second modernization raises, beyond objectives, a series of epistemicresponsibilities. It is known that modernization stemming from the Enlightment had, among other things,the pretense that it is a project which is self-legitimating. Its profound rationales are the only justification.Referential self-centering proved to be the one that made possible a practice of the new. Modernizationhaving the function of renouncing myth – meaning an eliminatory formula for the past – and thefixation in the opportunity and potentiality of the present, seemed to close an insoluble but extremelyengrossing problem: that of a propensity towards utopia, of the risky escape towards the future. Thetraditionalization of the new constitutes a support for the daring to break out of the captivity of themoment.Modernization becomes the experience of combining the new which, thus, creates a succession ofpresent times. The future is no longer the result of fantasy, but a system’s direct expression to combine thenew. Therefore the future is an option for one or another model of the present, often tested previouslysomewhere else. In a non-metaphysical way, the future can be seen, touched, tried, lived by simplegeographical movement. The sense of evolution has de-temporalized taking the form of the concomitant,parallel, enclosed, neighboring space. We just have to be in the trend, to evolve in the context.Globalization defines the context and its conception – as a project of the second modernity – showsus the trends. The problem is how to understand the context in order to find the sense of the trend. Are wethe load the sense with the values of the first modernity or will we have to turn to the values of anothermodernity? Why do we have to move away from the significance of the processes which made up the firstmodernity? How do we relate to the content of the new context in which the structural trends of today’sworld are taking place? What is the

  9. Multilingual Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Multilingual Europe: Multilingual Europeans. (European Studies: An Interdisciplinary Series in European Culture, History and Politics, Vol. 29). Eds. Láslá Maràcz & Mireille Rosello. Rodopi, 2012. 323 pp.......Review of: Multilingual Europe: Multilingual Europeans. (European Studies: An Interdisciplinary Series in European Culture, History and Politics, Vol. 29). Eds. Láslá Maràcz & Mireille Rosello. Rodopi, 2012. 323 pp....

  10. Rewilding Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pellis, A.; Jong, De, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    Rewilding is discussed here as a relatively new but contested discourse and practice in Europe. Rewilding represents an additional, entrepreneurial and somewhat bold strategy in biodiversity conservation, which aims for a return to more natural processes in places that have predominantly become shaped by human interventions. By allowing more space for nature to do its ‘own’ work, prominent organizations like Rewilding Europe propose to experiment with forms of passive management after initial...

  11. Early oesophageal cancer: results of a European multicentre survey. Group Européen pour l'Etude des Maladies de l'Oesophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonavina, L

    1995-01-01

    Early oesophageal cancer has been extensively studied in Far-Eastern countries, where its prevalence is high. A multicentre survey was conducted within the Groupe Européen pour l'Etude des Maladies de l'Oesophage to analyse results of surgical treatment in patients with disease staged as pTis-T1 N0 M0 according to the tumour node metastasis classification. Of 9743 patients with squamous cell oesophageal carcinoma observed since 1980, 4663 underwent resection; 253 (5.4 per cent) of these fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in the study. The overall mortality rate was 9.1 per cent (23 patients), and was higher after transthoracic than transhiatal oesophagectomy (10.7 versus 6 per cent, P not significant). Pathological examination showed an intraepithelial tumour in 46 patients (18.2 per cent), intramucosal carcinoma in 64 (25.3 per cent) and a submucosal lesion in 143 (56.5 per cent). The overall 5-year survival rate for patients with intraepithelial, intramucosal and submucosal tumours was 92.8, 72.8 and 44.3 per cent respectively. The 5-year survival rate was higher after transthoracic than transhiatal oesophagectomy (66 versus 52 per cent). No survival advantage was observed after either operation in patients with mucosal tumours. Of 21 patients with recurrent disease, 20 had a submucosal lesion. The 5-year survival rate in patients with submucosal tumour was higher after transthoracic than transhiatal oesophagectomy (54.2 versus 25.5 per cent).

  12. Attitudes and referral patterns of lung cancer specialists in Europe to Specialized Palliative Care (SPC) and the practice of Early Palliative Care (EPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Haris; Pallis, Athanasios; Hasan, Baktiar; O'Brien, Mary

    2014-01-01

    To examine availability of Palliative Care (PC) services and referral patterns of European Lung cancer specialists to PC. All members of the EORTC Lung Cancer Group (LCG) were asked via email to participate in an on-line survey. 50 out of 170 (29.4%) replied: 24 medical oncologists, 14 radiation/clinical oncologists, 11 pulmonologists and 1 thoracic surgeon. All but two of respondents (96%) had access to at least one component of PC services. In terms of referral of patients to PC almost 75% of respondents would refer most of their patients when there were no treatment options or at the end of life, while only 22% would refer patients at earlier stages of disease. Barriers for referral to PC were negative attitudes of patients to PC (26%), lack of availability of PC services (20%), lack of expertise of PC physicians(18%), the belief that referral to PC signifies abandoning patients (8%), and that PC specialists discourage active oncological therapy (8%). Whilst most of the respondents expressed positive attitudes, 12-22% had overtly negative attitudes towards PC. Seventy-eight (78%) of respondents expressed an interest to participate in a trial of early PC (EPC). Despite good availability of SPC services at institutions of members of the EORTC LCG, and most respondents expressing positive attitudes towards PC, their practice involved referral of patients to PC late in the disease trajectory, hence Lung Cancer specialists in Europe have not adopted the practice of EPC concurrent with active oncological care.

  13. Implications of Nubian-Like Core Reduction Systems in Southern Africa for the Identification of Early Modern Human Dispersals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Manuel; Mackay, Alex; Phillips, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Lithic technologies have been used to trace dispersals of early human populations within and beyond Africa. Convergence in lithic systems has the potential to confound such interpretations, implying connections between unrelated groups. Due to their reductive nature, stone artefacts are unusually prone to this chance appearance of similar forms in unrelated populations. Here we present data from the South African Middle Stone Age sites Uitpanskraal 7 and Mertenhof suggesting that Nubian core reduction systems associated with Late Pleistocene populations in North Africa and potentially with early human migrations out of Africa in MIS 5 also occur in southern Africa during early MIS 3 and with no clear connection to the North African occurrence. The timing and spatial distribution of their appearance in southern and northern Africa implies technological convergence, rather than diffusion or dispersal. While lithic technologies can be a critical guide to human population flux, their utility in tracing early human dispersals at large spatial and temporal scales with stone artefact types remains questionable.

  14. The Democratic School and the Pedagogy of Janusz Korczak: A Model of Early Twentieth Century Reform in Modern Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Liba H.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the history and pedagogy of Janusz Korczak within the context of his contemporary early Twentieth-Century European Innovative Educators which include Maria Montessori, Homer Lane, A.S. Neill, and Anton Semyonovitch Makarenko. The pedagogies of the aforementioned are compared and contrasted within the literature.

  15. The bivalve Glycymeris planicostalis as a high-resolution paleoclimate archive for Rupelian (Early Oligocene) of Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliser, E. O.; Schöne, B. R.; Tütken, T.; Zirkel, J.; Grimm, K. I.; Pross, J.

    2014-10-01

    Current global warming is likely to result in a unipolar glaciated world with unpredictable repercussions on atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. These changes are expected to affect seasonality as well as the frequency and intensity of decadal climate oscillations. To better constrain the mode and tempo of the anticipated changes, climatologists require high-resolution proxy data of time intervals in the past, e.g. the Early Oligocene during which boundary conditions were similar to those predicted for the near future. As demonstrated by the present study, pristinely preserved shells of the long-lived bivalve mollusk Glycymeris planicostalis from the late Rupelian of the Mainz Basin, Germany, provide an excellent archive to reconstruct changes of sea surface temperature on seasonal to inter-annual time scales. Their shells grew uninterruptedly during winter and summer and therefore recorded the full seasonal temperature amplitude that prevailed in the Mainz Basin 30 Ma ago. Absolute sea surface temperature data were faithfully reconstructed from δ18 Oshell values assuming a δ18Owater signature that was extrapolated from coeval sirenian tooth enamel. Extreme values ranged between 12.3 and 22.0°C and agree well with previous estimates based on planktonic foraminifera and shark teeth. However, summer and winter temperatures varied greatly on inter-annual time-scales. Winter and summer temperatures averaged over 40 annual increments of three specimens equaled 13.6 ± 0.8°C and 17.3 ± 1.2°C, respectively. Unless many samples are analyzed, this variability is hardly seen in foraminiferan tests. Our data also revealed decadal-scale oscillations of seasonal extremes which have - in the absence of appropriate climate archives - never been identified before for the Oligocene. This information can be highly relevant for numerical climate studies aiming to predict possible future climates in a unipolar glaciated or, ultimately, polar ice-free world.

  16. Levantine cranium from Manot Cave (Israel) foreshadows the first European modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Israel; Marder, Ofer; Ayalon, Avner; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Yasur, Gal; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Caracuta, Valentina; Alex, Bridget; Frumkin, Amos; Goder-Goldberger, Mae; Gunz, Philipp; Holloway, Ralph L; Latimer, Bruce; Lavi, Ron; Matthews, Alan; Slon, Viviane; Mayer, Daniella Bar-Yosef; Berna, Francesco; Bar-Oz, Guy; Yeshurun, Reuven; May, Hila; Hans, Mark G; Weber, Gerhard W; Barzilai, Omry

    2015-04-09

    A key event in human evolution is the expansion of modern humans of African origin across Eurasia between 60 and 40 thousand years (kyr) before present (bp), replacing all other forms of hominins. Owing to the scarcity of human fossils from this period, these ancestors of all present-day non-African modern populations remain largely enigmatic. Here we describe a partial calvaria, recently discovered at Manot Cave (Western Galilee, Israel) and dated to 54.7 ± 5.5 kyr bp (arithmetic mean ± 2 standard deviations) by uranium-thorium dating, that sheds light on this crucial event. The overall shape and discrete morphological features of the Manot 1 calvaria demonstrate that this partial skull is unequivocally modern. It is similar in shape to recent African skulls as well as to European skulls from the Upper Palaeolithic period, but different from most other early anatomically modern humans in the Levant. This suggests that the Manot people could be closely related to the first modern humans who later successfully colonized Europe. Thus, the anatomical features used to support the 'assimilation model' in Europe might not have been inherited from European Neanderthals, but rather from earlier Levantine populations. Moreover, at present, Manot 1 is the only modern human specimen to provide evidence that during the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic interface, both modern humans and Neanderthals contemporaneously inhabited the southern Levant, close in time to the likely interbreeding event with Neanderthals.

  17. From the Renaissance to the Modern World—Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Iver Kaufman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On November 11 and 12, 2011, a symposium held at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill honored John M. Headley, Emeritus Professor of History. The organizers, Professor Melissa Bullard—Headley’s colleague in the department of history at that university—along with Professors Paul Grendler (University of Toronto and James Weiss (Boston College, as well as Nancy Gray Schoonmaker, coordinator of the Program in Medieval and Early Modern Studies—assembled presenters, respondents, and dozens of other participants from Western Europe and North America to celebrate the career of their prolific, versatile, and influential colleague whose publications challenged and often changed the ways scholars think about Martin Luther, Thomas More, the Habsburg empire, early modern Catholicism, globalization, and multiculturalism. [...

  18. Warp Weighted Looms: Then and Now Anglo-Saxon and Viking Archaeological Evidence and Modern Practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines the warp weighted loom during the Anglo-Saxon and Viking eras in England through archaeological, linguistic, and art evidence, supported by similar information about the loom from Northern Continental Europe. Some evidence from other parts of the world where this specific type of loom was used is also included for clarity. In order to further understanding of the possible functioning and abilities of the loom, modern individuals with experience weaving with this early med...

  19. Giovanni Verga (1879-1923), author of a pioneering treatise on pituitary surgery: the foundations of this new field in Europe in the early 1900s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, José M; Mongardi, Lorenzo; Prieto, Ruth; Castro-Dufourny, Inés; Rosdolsky, María; Strauss, Sewan; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Winter, Eduard; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2017-05-27

    The field of pituitary surgery was born in the first decade of the twentieth century in Europe, and it evolved rapidly with the development of numerous innovative surgical techniques by some of the founding fathers of neurosurgery. This study investigates the pioneering Italian treatise on pituitary surgery, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi (Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis), published in 1911 by Giovanni Verga (1879-1923), a surgeon from Pavía and one of Golgi's disciples. This little-known monograph compiles the earliest experience on pituitary surgery through the analysis of the first 50 procedures performed between 1903 and 1911. We conducted a biographical survey of Giovanni Verga and the motivations for his work on pituitary surgery. In addition, a systematic analysis of all original reports and historical documents about these pituitary procedures referenced in Verga's treatise was carried out. Verga's treatise provides a summary of the techniques employed and surgical outcomes for the first 50 attempted procedures of pituitary tumor removal. This monograph is the only scientific source that includes a complete account of the series of 10 pituitary tumors operated on by Sir Victor Horsley in the 1900s. Three major types of surgery were employed: (i) palliative procedures of craniectomy (n = 6); (ii) transcranial approaches to the pituitary gland, either subfrontal or subtemporal (n = 13); and (iii) transphenoidal routes to expose the sella turcica, either using an upper transnasal-transethmoidal approach (n = 19) or a lower sublabial/endonasal-transeptal one (n = 12). An operative mortality rate of 36% (n = 17) was observed in these early series. The pathological nature of the tumors operated on was available in 42 cases. There were 28 adenomas and 15 craniopharyngiomas. Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916) and the Viennese surgeons Anton von Eiselsberg (1860-1939) and Oskar Hirsch (1877-1965) were the leading European figures in the development

  20. Transnational Circulations of "Laban" Methods: Gender, Power Relations, and Negotiated Meanings in Early Twenty-First Century South Korea's Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Hye-Won

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates western-developed "Laban" methods that middle-class Korean female Laban specialists transported to South Korea and, there, tactically adapted to South Korean contexts during the 1990s and the early twenty-first century. It particularly focuses on how these Korean women's repurposings of "Laban" methods intersect with conditions of global capitalism and specific South Korean cultural politics, job markets, and dance instruction and employment networks. I claim th...

  1. Mass spectrometric U-series dating of Huanglong Cave in Hubei Province, Central China: evidence for early presence of modern humans in Eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guanjun; Wu, Xianzhu; Wang, Qian; Tu, Hua; Feng, Yue-xing; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2013-08-01

    Most researchers believe that anatomically modern humans (AMH) first appeared in Africa 160-190 ka ago, and would not have reached eastern Asia until ∼50 ka ago. However, the credibility of these scenarios might have been compromised by a largely inaccurate and compressed chronological framework previously established for hominin fossils found in China. Recently there has been a growing body of evidence indicating the possible presence of AMH in eastern Asia ca. 100 ka ago or even earlier. Here we report high-precision mass spectrometric U-series dating of intercalated flowstone samples from Huanglong Cave, a recently discovered Late Pleistocene hominin site in northern Hubei Province, central China. Systematic excavations there have led to the in situ discovery of seven hominin teeth and dozens of stone and bone artifacts. The U-series dates on localized thin flowstone formations bracket the hominin specimens between 81 and 101 ka, currently the most narrow time span for all AMH beyond 45 ka in China, if the assignment of the hominin teeth to modern Homo sapiens holds. Alternatively this study provides further evidence for the early presence of an AMH morphology in China, through either independent evolution of local archaic populations or their assimilation with incoming AMH. Along with recent dating results for hominin samples from Homo erectus to AMH, a new extended and continuous timeline for Chinese hominin fossils is taking shape, which warrants a reconstruction of human evolution, especially the origins of modern humans in eastern Asia.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genomes reveal neolithic expansion into Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaomei Fu

    Full Text Available The Neolithic transition from hunting and gathering to farming and cattle breeding marks one of the most drastic cultural changes in European prehistory. Short stretches of ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA from skeletons of pre-Neolithic hunter-gatherers as well as early Neolithic farmers support the demic diffusion model where a migration of early farmers from the Near East and a replacement of pre-Neolithic hunter-gatherers are largely responsible for cultural innovation and changes in subsistence strategies during the Neolithic revolution in Europe. In order to test if a signal of population expansion is still present in modern European mitochondrial DNA, we analyzed a comprehensive dataset of 1,151 complete mtDNAs from present-day Europeans. Relying upon ancient DNA data from previous investigations, we identified mtDNA haplogroups that are typical for early farmers and hunter-gatherers, namely H and U respectively. Bayesian skyline coalescence estimates were then used on subsets of complete mtDNAs from modern populations to look for signals of past population expansions. Our analyses revealed a population expansion between 15,000 and 10,000 years before present (YBP in mtDNAs typical for hunters and gatherers, with a decline between 10,000 and 5,000 YBP. These corresponded to an analogous population increase approximately 9,000 YBP for mtDNAs typical of early farmers. The observed changes over time suggest that the spread of agriculture in Europe involved the expansion of farming populations into Europe followed by the eventual assimilation of resident hunter-gatherers. Our data show that contemporary mtDNA datasets can be used to study ancient population history if only limited ancient genetic data is available.

  3. The institutional context of art production in the Southern Low Countries during the early modern period: the Ghent craft guild of gold and silversmiths in relation to the Ghent academy in the second half of the eighteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    De Doncker, Tim

    2011-01-01

    In local, as well as in national and international contexts, the relationships between the different craft guilds and the academies were intricate. The different institutions engaged in dialogues as well as in conflicts and determined the state of the art world in the middle, early modern and modern ages. Questions about the foundation, the organization, and the membership of the craft guilds and academies, about rules, regulations, and flexibility, about artistic practice...

  4. [São Paulo residents known as "Southern Yankees" and the "modern disease," namely neurasthenia, in the early decades of the twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    In a brief period of time the coffee boom, European immigration and the "atlanticization" of various sectors of life saw São Paulo transform from a small village into a thriving Atlantic metropolis. In the early decades of the twentieth century, observers described the city as Yankee City, due to its progress and activity. To what extent does neurasthenia, namely "the most modern and American of disorders", tally with that image? After analysis of advertisements, scientific books and texts for the dissemination of science, as well as articles in journals, it can be stated that neurasthenia was prevalent and widespread. This work emphasizes the socio-cultural familiarity of São Paulo with the phenomenon of neurasthenia.

  5. FASHIONING THE BODY THROUGH WOMEN’S MAGAZINES: REMAKING THE “MODERN TURKISH WOMAN” IN THE EARLY REPUBLICAN PERIOD

    OpenAIRE

    Yakalı-Çamoğlu, Dikmen; Ataman, Bora

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the newly constructed female identities and subjectivities of the early republican era in Turkey. Through a thematic analysis of four contemporary women’s magazines (Aile Dostu Ev-İş, Kadın-Ev and Asrın Kadını) it aims to examine how female bodies were refashioned in the magazines to fit the image of the newly constructed “woman of the republic”. It argues that the subjectivi...

  6. La géographie de l’étrange ou l’esthétique du morbide dans le théâtre renaissant Morbid Geographies in Early Modern Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Rivère de Carles

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The spectacle of strangeness in early modern drama underscores a paradoxical dynamic of seduction and repulsion. How can a playwright stage the untenable spectacle of violence and maintain the attention of the audience? This study proposes to explore the various textual and dramatic techniques used to stage the spectacle of infamy. Focusing on both metaphorical and material means of expression, we will try to delineate the geographies of morbidity on the early modern stage. Dwelling on the notion of paradoxical spaces common to the stranger and the familiar and on that of the dead body as a locus of anxiety, we will try to analyse the strategies employed by early modern playwrights to express the concept of strangeness.

  7. Early 2016/17 vaccine effectiveness estimates against influenza A(H3N2): I-MOVE multicentre case control studies at primary care and hospital levels in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissling, E.; Rondy, M.

    2017-01-01

    We measured early 2016/17 season influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against influenza A(H3N2) in Europe using multicentre case control studies at primary care and hospital levels. IVE at primary care level was 44.1%, 46.9% and 23.4% among 0–14, 15–64 and ≥ 65 year-olds, and 25.7% in the influenza

  8. Eocene (Lutetian) Shark-Rich Coastal Paleoenvironments of the Southern North Sea Basin in Europe: Biodiversity of the Marine Fürstenau Formation Including Early White and Megatooth Sharks

    OpenAIRE

    C. G. Diedrich

    2012-01-01

    The Fürstenau Formation (Lutetian, Paleogene, Eocene) is based on type sections near Fürstenau in Germany (central Europe) and is built of 22 meter thick marine glauconitic and strongly bioturbated sands, clays, and a vertebrate-rich conglomerate bed. The conglomerate layer from the Early Lutetian transgression reworked Lower Cretaceous, and Paleogene marine sediments. It is dominated by pebbles from the locally mountains which must have been transported by an ancient river in a delta fan. Ma...

  9. JPRS Report, East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    state emblem of the Slovak Republic is a red Early Gothic shield with a double silver cross standing on the middle one of three blue hillocks. 2. An...the object of assuring peace in Europe. For the time being concepts of this kind are still too novel to be elaborated. They will be discussed at the...draft of the new law [prepared by] the trade unions, on the other hand, envisages a novel approach to resolving collective bargaining disputes and

  10. Place of upbringing in early childhood as related to inflammatory bowel diseases in adulthood: a population-based cohort study in Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Signe; Svanes, Cecilie; Janson, Christer; Sigsgaard, Torben; Johannessen, Ane; Gislason, Thorarinn; Jogi, Rain; Omenaas, Ernst; Forsberg, Bertil; Torén, Kjell; Holm, Mathias; Bråbäck, Lennart; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2014-06-01

    The two inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, has increased rapidly during the twentieth century, but the aetiology is still poorly understood. Impaired immunological competence due to decreasing biodiversity and altered microbial stimulation is a suggested explanation. Place of upbringing was used as a proxy for the level and diversity of microbial stimulation to investigate the effects on the prevalence of IBD in adulthood. Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE) III is a postal follow-up questionnaire of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) cohorts established in 1989-1992. The study population was 10,864 subjects born 1945-1971 in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia, who responded to questionnaires in 2000-2002 and 2010-2012. Data were analysed in logistic and Cox regression models taking age, sex, smoking and body mass index into consideration. Being born and raised on a livestock farm the first 5 years of life was associated with a lower risk of IBD compared to city living in logistic (OR 0.54, 95 % CI 0.31; 0.94) and Cox regression models (HR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.31; 0.98). Random-effect meta-analysis did not identify geographical difference in this association. Furthermore, there was a significant trend comparing livestock farm living, village and city living (p early childhood on the occurrence of IBD in adulthood, however only among subjects born after 1952. We speculate that lower microbial diversity is an explanation for the findings.

  11. Social Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul Dekker; Sjef Ederveen; Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers; Ruud de Mooij

    2003-01-01

    There is broad support for the European Union (EU) in the Netherlands: 73% of Dutch believe that EU membership is a 'good thing'. The figure in Germany is 59%, in France it is 50% and in the United Kingdom 30%. By contrast, engagement with Europe is very low in the Netherlands. In late 2002 fewer th

  12. Europe phrasebook

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This book replaces "Western Europe Phrasbook". It includes Basque, Catalan, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Irish, Italian, Maltese, Portugese, Scottish Gaelic, Spanish and Welsh. This fully updated edition includes special sections on going out, sports and festivals, as well as local dishes, shopping and sightseeing.

  13. Rewilding Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellis, A.; Jong, de R.G.

    2016-01-01

    Rewilding is discussed here as a relatively new but contested discourse and practice in Europe. Rewilding represents an additional, entrepreneurial and somewhat bold strategy in biodiversity conservation, which aims for a return to more natural processes in places that have predominantly become shap

  14. The emergence of modern type rain forests and mangroves and their traces in the palaeobotanical record during the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Barbara; Coiffard, Clément

    2014-05-01

    The origin of modern rain forests is still very poorly known. This ecosystem could have potentially fully evolved only after the development of relatively high numbers of flowering plant families adapted to rain forest conditions. During the early phase of angiosperm evolution in the early Cretaceous the palaeo-equatorial region was located in a seasonally dry climatic belt, so that during this phase, flowering plants often show adaptations to drought, rather than to continuously wet climate conditions. Therefore it is not surprising that except for the Nymphaeales, the most basal members of extant angiosperm families have members that do not necessarily occur in the continuously wet tropics today. However, during the late Early Cretaceous several clades emerged that later would give rise to families that are typically found today mostly in (shady) moist places in warmer regions. This is especially seen among the monocotyledons, a group of the mesangiosperms, that developed in many cases large leaves often with very specific venation patterns that make these leaves very unique and well recognizable. Especially members of three groups are here of interest: the arum family (Araceae), the palms (Arecaceae) and the Ginger and allies (Zingiberales). The earliest fossil of Araceae are restricted to low latitudes during the lower Cretaceous. Arecaceae and Zingiberales do not appear in the fossil record before the early late Cretaceous and occur at mid latitudes. During the Late Cretaceous, Araceae are represented at mid latitudes by non-tropical early diverging members and at low latitudes by derived rainforest members. Palms became widespread during the Late Cretataceous and also Nypa, a typical element of tropical to subtropical mangrove environments evolved during this time period. During the Paleocene Arecaceae appear to be restricted to lower latitudes as well as Zingiberales. All three groups are again widespread during the Eocene, reaching higher latitudes and

  15. Early diagenetic quartz formation at a deep iron oxidation front in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific - A modern analogue for banded iron/chert formations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Patrick; Chapligin, Bernhard; Picard, Aude; Meyer, Hanno; Fischer, Cornelius; Rettenwander, Daniel; Amthauer, Georg; Vogt, Christoph; Aiello, Ivano W.

    2014-07-01

    concentration is locally decreased below opal-A and opal-CT saturation allowing for precipitation of the thermodynamically more stable phase: quartz. This mechanism of chert formation at the iron oxidation front in suboxic zones may explain why early-diagenetic microcrystalline chert only occurs sporadically in modern marine sediments. It may also serve as a modern analogue for the deposition of much more abundant banded iron/chert formations at the time of the great oxidation event around 2.4 Ga BP, which was probably the largest iron oxidation front in Earth's history.

  16. Distal tephras of the eastern Lake Victoria basin, equatorial East Africa: correlations, chronology and a context for early modern humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blegen, Nick; Tryon, Christian A.; Faith, J. Tyler; Peppe, Daniel J.; Beverly, Emily J.; Li, Bo; Jacobs, Zenobia

    2015-08-01

    The tephrostratigraphic framework for Pliocene and Early Pleistocene paleoanthropological sites in East Africa has been well established through nearly 50 years of research, but a similarly comprehensive framework is lacking for the Middle and particularly the Late Pleistocene. We provide the first detailed regional record of Late Pleistocene tephra deposits associated with artifacts or fossils from the Lake Victoria basin of western Kenya. Correlations of Late Pleistocene distal tephra deposits from the Wasiriya beds on Rusinga Island, the Waware beds on Mfangano Island and deposits near Karungu, mainland Kenya, are based on field stratigraphy coupled with 916 electron microprobe analyses of eleven major and minor element oxides from 50 samples. At least eight distinct distal tephra deposits are distinguished, four of which are found at multiple localities spanning >60 km over an approximately north to south transect. New optically stimulated luminescence dates help to constrain the Late Pleistocene depositional ages of these deposits. Our correlation and characterization of volcaniclastic deposits expand and refine the current stratigraphy of the eastern Lake Victoria basin. This provides the basis for relating fossil- and artifact-bearing sediments and a framework for ongoing geological, archaeological and paleontological studies of Late Pleistocene East Africa, a crucial time period for human evolution and dispersal within and out of Africa.

  17. Database Urban Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutjes, B.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Database Urban Europe: ResSegr database on segregation in The Netherlands. Collaborative research on residential segregation in Europe 2014–2016 funded by JPI Urban Europe (Joint Programming Initiative Urban Europe).

  18. Conflicting Discourses on Female Dissent in the Early Modern Period: The Case of Antoinette Bourignon (1616-1680

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam de Baar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Quelles sont donc les bases de l'identification plus ou moins évidente d'un certain type – considéré comme acceptable et reconnu au début des Temps modernes – de religiosité au fanatisme, voire à l'hystérie, qui semble d'autant plus évidente lorsqu'il s'agit d'un prophète féminin ? La prophétesse du dix-septième siècle Antoinette Bourignon est à cet égard un cas très intéressant, parce que, immédiatement après sa mort en 1680, une lutte acharnée éclata entre deux intellectuels de premier plan, Pierre Poiret et Pierre Bayle, tous les deux théologiens, sur la question de la signification qu'il fallait attribuer à sa vie et à son œuvre. Poiret faisait partie des disciples les plus fidèles de Bourignon et il se battit, après la mort de celle-ci, pour publier un recueil de ses œuvres et inscrire son ancien guide spirituel dans une tradition mystico-théologique. L'accent était mis chez lui sur la femme pieuse qui était si réceptive à l'illumination divine et qui pouvait apporter un soutien spirituel aux âmes craignant Dieu grâce à sa connaissance et à son amour de Dieu. Bayle par contre ne pouvait voir en Bourignon qu'un charlatan et la traiter qu'avec défiance et suspicion. En fait, il s'agissait ici de deux discours diamétralement opposés sur la « dissidence féminine ». L'un (la vision de Poiret finit à terme par avoir le dessous au profit de l'autre (le jugement de Bayle. Le fait que Bayle a pu explicitement marquer de son empreinte la perception historique de Bourignon, peut être attribué à l'autorité qui fut accordée à son Dictionnaire au sein de l'histoire intellectuelle. Mais ce fut justement aussi l'identification d'auteurs éclairés ultérieurs avec l'aversion de Bayle pour ce qu'il qualifiait d'« enthousiasme » et avec ses normes implicites de la féminité, qui fit que son jugement ou plus exactement son préjugé contre Bourignon continua à se répercuter également à long

  19. A humid corridor across the Sahara for the migration "Out of Africa" of early modern humans 120,000 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, A. H.; Vance, D.; Rohling, E. J.; Barton, N.; Rogerson, M.; Fello, N.

    2008-12-01

    a currently hyperarid region of the Sahara at a key time for early modern human migrations to the north and out of Africa. 1Scrivner, A.E. et al. (2004) Geology 32, 565-568.

  20. Family planning in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blayo, C

    1993-06-01

    Today Europe has the lowest fertility ever, and even Albania and Ireland are recording less than 3 children/woman. Europe can be divided into 3 groups of countries: 1) countries in which women rely on medical contraception, where abortion is used only to correct contraceptive failures, and where there are few sterilizations; 2) countries where abortion is less frequent (UK, the Netherlands especially), because sterilization is much more widespread; and 3) countries of the former Communist bloc where abortion frequently takes the place of contraception and sterilizations are insignificant. Couples' free access to birth control in practice faces legal and administrative restrictions and poor reception systems that discriminate against adolescents, ethnic minorities, and migrants. In Europe a certain inequality of access to birth control persists. The legislators occasionally resist, as in Ireland and in Poland. In many eastern European countries there is resistance toward the widespread distribution of modern contraceptive methods; other countries place more emphasis on sterilization than on stricter practice of contraception. Voluntary sterilization of couples reached the 40 or 50% level in the US and Canada at the end of the 1980s, while it has only exceeded 20% in the UK and the Netherlands. Europe has made progress in legislation on abortion. Prohibitions had disastrous effects on the maternal mortality rates in Albania and Romania before the recent political changes. The European birth control literature is rife with analyses based on approximations, biased indexes, and partial statistics, but assessment is often avoided because of political and economic interests. In order to comprehend the resistance to the spread of contraception and the reasons for the sociocultural choice of abortion, sterilization, or contraception, these events in particular abortions and sterilizations, must be recorded.

  1. On The Modern Figures In T.S. Eliot's Early Poetry%艾略特早期诗歌中的现代人物形象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚丽

    2001-01-01

    T.S. Eliot, as a modem perceptive poet, was good at writing the essence of the earthly people in the modem society, especially, in his early poems (1910--1925). The time that Eliot and his contemporaries lived in was a chaotic period. People found their orderly life had been destroyed and their hope and convictions had been lost after world war I, they became aimless for they could not understand the modern world. Eliot, a great thinker, looked into the true colors of the world and the modern people's spiritual world. This was shown in his early poems like the Hollow Men, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock and Gerontion. He depicted vividly the modem figures like hollow men, Prufrock and Gerontion who are typical embodiments of the modem people, revealing their spiritual emptiness, emotional conflicts, timidity, commonplace and hopelessness%T.S艾略特,一个现代的、深刻的诗人,善于描写现实社会中的现代人物形象。这一切都表现在他的早期诗歌中,艾略特生活的年代是一个混乱无序的年代。一战后,人们发现他们有序的生活遭到了破坏,面对这个令他们困感无助的现代世界,他们丧失了一切希望和信仰,变得空虚、无助。 艾略特,作为一个伟大的思想者,看透了现代世界的本质及其现代人的精神世界。在他的早期诗歌如《空心人》,《普鲁佛洛克的情歌》,《小老头》等诗中揭示了现代人的精神空虚|情感矛盾|生活平庸及绝望。

  2. Mid-Carboniferous conglomerates in southwestern Europe record early Variscan intracontinental convergence: evidence that channels were exhumed before thermal weakening of the lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Francisco J.; Dietsch, Craig; Aleinikoff, John; Cirès, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    The early part of the intracontinental geodynamic evolution of the Variscan chain in southwestern Europe is recorded by polymict conglomerates found in flysch basins paired with exhumed crystalline massifs. The conglomerates contain pebbles and cobbles of deformed granite and mid- to lower-crustal metamorphic rock, and in southern France and northeastern Spain have been assigned a Visean-Namurian age based on biostratigraphy. In the Catalan Coastal Ranges, where Alpine deformation and metamorphism are absent, conglomerates are deformed, cross-cut by granite, and contact metamorphosed to andalusite-cordierite grade. Foliation in the pebbles and cobbles is not coplanar with foliation in their pelitic matrix: the conglomerates record exhumation of crust that was already deformed, metamorphosed, and exhumed before the Visean. In the Guilleries massif of NE Spain, gneisses were exhumed ≈10 km before 324 Ma. Conglomerate samples from eight flysch basins, from north to south: Montagne Noire, Mouthoumet massif, SE Pyrenees, and five localities in the Catalan Coastal Ranges, were collected for detrital zircon age determinations using the USGS/Stanford SHRIMP-RG. The flysch basins have principal sources of pre-Cadomian, Cadomian, Cambro-Ordovician, Devonian, and Carboniferous ages. The dominance of Paleozoic ages indicates local orthogneiss and Variscan granite as primary sources, implying intra-Carboniferous exhumation rates as high as 5-10 mm/a. The maximum depositional age of each flysch conglomerate may show a trend of younging to the south [330 Ma (Montagne Noire) - 340 Ma (Mouthoumet) - 324 Ma (Poblet) -328 (Perinet)], suggesting deposition in front of advancing thrust nappes. In the Pineda basin, a dike of undeformed granite which cross-cuts conglomerate is 304 ± 2 Ma (SHRIMP U-Pb zircon data), providing a minimum age constraint on the time of deposition. In the Montagne Noire and the Mouthoumet massif, flysch basins are deformed by structures related to nappe

  3. Archive and museum: the medieval and early modern section of the historical archive of the civic museums of ancient art in Bologna, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Benevolo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A museum’s historical archive contains the documents relating to past administration and conservation, providing an understanding of both the museum’s history and its various collections. In many cases, the archive is composed of heterogeneous writings, whose variety makes them invaluable also for the study of the cultural atmosphere in which the institution was born and operated. This is especially true in the case of the “musei civici”, Italy’s municipal museums. This article not only calls attention once again to the relationship between archive and museum but also discusses the reorganization of the Archivio storico dei Musei Civici d’Arte Antica di Bologna, which include the documentation relating to the Medieval and Early Modern Section of Bologna’s former Museo Civico (founded 1881. The archive is the result of many documentary separations and reunions; this article describes aspects and problems addressed during the rediscovery of the original documentary arrangement.

  4. Mortality profiles of the large herbivores from the Lingjing Xuchang Man Site,Henan Province and the early emergence of the modern human behaviors in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ShuangQuan; LI ZhanYang; ZHANG Yue; GAO Xing

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a detailed study of mortality profiles of the large herbivores from the Middle Palaeolithic (MP) bone assemblage of the Lingjing Xuchang Man Site,Henan Province.Based on the analysis of the crown heights of fossil teeth from this assemblage,we come to a conclusion that aurochs (Bos primigenius) and horse (Equus caballus) are the major prey species in this assemblage and the age structures of these animals can be best described as the "prime-dominated pattern".This study confirmed the well-established notions at many Middle and Upper Palaeolithic sites across Eurasia and Africa that MSA/MP foragers were fully effective in hunting aggressive prey species,particularly aurochs and horse.This find indicates that the hunting behaviors and subsistence strategies were not significantly different between MP and UP (the Upper Palaeolithic) humans in East Asia and hence suggests the early emergence of the modern human behaviors in this area.

  5. 'He plays on the pillory'. The use of musical instruments for punishment in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzfeld-Schild, Marie Louise

    2013-01-01

    Illustrations by the Dutch renaissance artists Pieter Bruegel the Elder and Jan Wierix both show a man imprisoned on a pillory, a former place of enforcement of judicial sentences, and playing a musical instrument. Taken as legal iconographic sources, these illustrations of the old saying 'He plays on the pillory' can be understood as references to a specific kind of punishment used in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Era. Specifically, delinquents had to wear wooden or iron 'neck violins' or 'neck flutes' while being pilloried or chased through the streets in order to be humiliated in public. As well as this historical fact, there also exists an interpretation that takes the illustrations by Bruegel and Wierix literally. It suggests that these punishment practices originally date back to a more ancient use of real instruments in a penal system that was applied and understood as a 'healing punishment' (poena medicinalis) to banish the ill and re-establish the good in the delinquent, the community and the world as a whole due to musical sounds. By means of legal iconographical and historical methods, this article explores the different nuances of punishment that employed real or symbolic musical instruments. Thus, it examines a historical aspect of 'music in detention' where the (symbolic) sounds do not emanate from the punisher but from the punished themselves.

  6. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. Here we analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000–7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3......–6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas there is no evidence of the earliest modern humans in Europe contributing to the genetic composition of present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single...... ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners became widespread in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European prehistory....

  7. Unhomely Europes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Eleftheriotis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of PORTAL constitutes an indirect, sideways reflection on the EU’s move toward (re-discovering, establishing, and promoting shared cultural values. It seeks to unveil not the official historical contexts and traditions in which contemporary inventions of cultural identity occur. Rather, its aim is to discover and listen to competing voices and alternative visions—be they cultural, social, political, literary or cinematic—that give different shape to trans-European identities and model union, commonality, and belonging, according to transregional or translocal values. The special issue, then, is an exploration of possible forms of frictions occurring across the European cultural and historical landscape. It questions the pre-eminence of formal EU discourses on values, and the branding of Europe in the global marketplace, by listening to marginalised, unheard or discordant Euro-voices. The issue demonstrates the need for more rigorous theorisations of notions such as ‘value,’ whether ‘shared’ or ‘cultural,’ in the European region, and posits alternative mappings and visions of European belonging and identity. The essays included in this special issue consider Europe as a locus of frictions, consensus, tension, contestation and reconciliation. This locus is capable of co-locating Scotland with the Costa Brava, crossing Swedish views of Russia with their converse, recognising a Europe of borders that continuously unfold, acknowledging the interference of historical memories, and inflecting the Houellebecquian Euro-futurescape with Greco-Australian undertones; to cite a few examples of vibrant transvaluation occurring in the issue.

  8. Modernity: Are Modern Times Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Hunt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Modernity” has recently been the subject of considerable discussion among historians. This article reviews some of the debates and argues that modernity is a problematic concept because it implies a complete rupture with “traditional” ways of life. Studies of key terms are undertaken with the aid of Google Ngrams. These show that “modernity,” “modern times,” and “traditional” —in English and other languages— have a history of their own. A brief analysis of the shift from a self oriented toward equilibrium to a self oriented toward stimulation demonstrates that modernity is not necessary to historical analysis.

  9. Liquid Modernity & Late Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.

    conditions of such liquid modernity. In this paper, I want to argue that this picture of Adorno is mistaken and extend the view proposed by Frederic Jameson that Adorno was not only the philosopher of 1990’s but is also very useful in the 2010’s. In fact, the critique of critical theory and emancipation......In Liquid Modernity, Bauman portrays Adorno and the rest of the early Frankfurt School as sociologists and thinkers belonging to the ‘heavy’ phase of modernity. In other words, they are deemed irrelevant to the discussion of current sociological time diagnoses and the purpose of critique under....... The paper argues that there are great similarities but that Adorno (and the rest of the Early Frankfurt School) has a much more well founded philosophical layout of their critique of individualization....

  10. Roman and early-medieval long-distance transport routes in north-western Europe : Modelling frequent-travel zones using a dendroarchaeological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lanen, Rowin J.; Jansma, Esther; van Doesburg, Jan; Groenewoudt, Bert J.

    2016-01-01

    To what extent long-distance transport in north-western Europe changed after the Roman period is generally unknown. Few historical sources are available and existing archaeological records are unclear and sometimes conflicting. Traditionally, research on the long-distance exchange of goods mostly ha

  11. Roman and early-medieval long-distance transport routes in north-western Europe : Modelling frequent-travel zones using a dendroarchaeological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lanen, Rowin J.; Jansma, Esther; van Doesburg, Jan; Groenewoudt, Bert J.

    2016-01-01

    To what extent long-distance transport in north-western Europe changed after the Roman period is generally unknown. Few historical sources are available and existing archaeological records are unclear and sometimes conflicting. Traditionally, research on the long-distance exchange of goods mostly

  12. The expansion of hazel (Corylus avellana L.) in the southern Alps: a key for understanding its early Holocene history in Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finsinger, W.; Tinner, W.; Knaap, W.O. van der; Ammann, B.

    2006-01-01

    In Northwestern and Central Europe the Holocene expansion of Corylus occurred before or at the same time as that of other thermophilous trees (e.g. Quercus). This sequence of expansion has been explained by migrational lag, competition, climatic changes, human assistance, or disturbance by fire. In

  13. The expansion of hazel (Corylus avellana L.) in the southern Alps: a key for understanding its early Holocene history in Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finsinger, W.; Tinner, W.; Knaap, W.O. van der; Ammann, B.

    2006-01-01

    In Northwestern and Central Europe the Holocene expansion of Corylus occurred before or at the same time as that of other thermophilous trees (e.g. Quercus). This sequence of expansion has been explained by migrational lag, competition, climatic changes, human assistance, or disturbance by fire. In

  14. An investigation into the former consulate of Britain as one of the first samples of modern architecture in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Parsaee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Bushehr city (Iran had been the center of attention in different historical periods by foreign countries and central government due to political and economic strategic position in Persian Gulf. The situation and condition of Bushehr, especially in Qajar era, caused that the city encountered the changes and reformations as a result of both inner and outer factors. So, the modernism process occurred in this city not long after it had emerged in Europe. So that, some buildings were built in the city which contained the features of modernism. This research, at first, introduces the former consulate of Britain (Sabzabad edifice and discovers when the building was built based on a historical-interpretative method. After that, the principals of modern architecture are explained from the different theorists’ stand point and also the characteristics of early modern architecture in Iran are explained. Finally, by describing the Bushehr condition in the early arrival of modernism, a qualitative and adaptive comparison has been done between Sabzabad architectural mechanism and the principals of modern architecture and its features in Iran. Thus, Sabzabad edifice is regarded as one of the first samples of modern architecture in Iran. The results of this research demonstrate the political, economic and also the architectural status of Bushehr city in the process of modernism in Iran which has been neglected by researchers and historians thus far.

  15. Comparison of historic Grübler dyes with modern counterparts using thin layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titford, M

    2007-08-01

    The aniline dye industry was created in 1856 when William Perkin prepared the dye, mauve, from coal tar. Following that discovery, several dye manufacturing businesses were formed in Western Europe, most successfully in Germany. It was to these companies that early investigators turned to obtain these new dyes for the developing field of biology. In 1880, Dr. Georg Grübler started a company in Germany to supply the needs of biologists. Grübler dyes developed a reputation for excellence. In the study reported here, 29 samples of 12 Grübler dyes were compared to modern counterparts using thin layer chromatography. The dyes studied were basic fuchsine, acid fuchsine, safranine, pyronine, aniline blue, ponceau, gentian violet, methylene blue, orange G, malachite green, and Sudan III and IV. I found that these early Grübler dyes closely resembled modern day counterparts; however, the use of synonyms was confusing and some of the fat stains were mislabeled by modern criteria. The chromatograms of some dyes exhibited smearing, probably representing multiple closely related dye species. The study of old dyes provides interesting comparisons with modern counterparts as the center of dye manufacturing is moving from Europe and the United States to Asia.

  16. Evaluation of an early warning system for heat wave related mortality in Europe: implications for sub-seasonal-to-seasonal forecasting and climate services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R.; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g. 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions inferred from using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for seasonal climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat-health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe.

  17. Evaluation of an Early-Warning System for Heat Wave-Related Mortality in Europe: Implications for Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Forecasting and Climate Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Rachel; García-Díez, Markel; Ballester, Joan; Creswick, James; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R; Rodó, Xavier

    2016-02-06

    Heat waves have been responsible for more fatalities in Europe over the past decades than any other extreme weather event. However, temperature-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable. Reliable sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) climate forecasts of extreme temperatures could allow for better short-to-medium-term resource management within heat-health action plans, to protect vulnerable populations and ensure access to preventive measures well in advance. The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which S2S climate forecasts could be incorporated into heat-health action plans, to support timely public health decision-making ahead of imminent heat wave events in Europe. Forecasts of apparent temperature at different lead times (e.g., 1 day, 4 days, 8 days, up to 3 months) were used in a mortality model to produce probabilistic mortality forecasts up to several months ahead of the 2003 heat wave event in Europe. Results were compared to mortality predictions, inferred using observed apparent temperature data in the mortality model. In general, we found a decreasing transition in skill between excellent predictions when using observed temperature, to predictions with no skill when using forecast temperature with lead times greater than one week. However, even at lead-times up to three months, there were some regions in Spain and the United Kingdom where excess mortality was detected with some certainty. This suggests that in some areas of Europe, there is potential for S2S climate forecasts to be incorporated in localised heat-health action plans. In general, these results show that the performance of this climate service framework is not limited by the mortality model itself, but rather by the predictability of the climate variables, at S2S time scales, over Europe.

  18. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  19. An Introduction: Around Southern Modernisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha Leal, Joana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this special issue you will find a discussion on southern modernisms stemming from an exploratory research project funded by the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT between 2014 and 2015. As a project, southern modernisms had a theoretical and historiographical focus driven to discuss the resonances of the two words associated in its title, as well as the disquieting effect of their combination in the fields of visual arts and architecture. The first word – modernisms – stood against the standardized canon of modernism, thus bonding the research to the critical revision of that concept occurring in art history since the closing decades of the 20th century; the second word based the project in southern Europe, meaning that Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece would set the ground for selecting case studies.

  20. 论近代早期英国学徒的社会关系%On the Social Relations of Apprenticeships in the Early Modern Britain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯鹏

    2015-01-01

    学徒是近代早期英国城镇中的重要群体,他们因身份独特与家庭、行东及国家形成多层面关系。从父母与学徒关系看,英国父母对子女并非冷漠严厉,而是着眼长远,慎重安排;学徒期间,行东与学徒也并非纯粹阶级关系,而是结成相对平等的伙伴关系模式;面对学徒的“调皮捣蛋”,政府从父权制文化立场出发,对他们既保护又管制。新社会史视角下的学徒社会关系,呈现出复杂多样的外貌特征。%Abstracts:Apprenticeship is an important social group in the early modern English towns .They form multiple social relations with families ,shop ownerships ,and states because of their unique iden‐tity .As for the relations of apprentice with parents ,the English parents are not cold or hard to their children but prudent for the long run .During the apprenticeship ,apprentices and their ow ners are not pure different classes but equal companions .The state takes a patriarchic attitude towards naughty apprentices ,protecting and disciplining them .The social apprenticeships present a more complex look from the new perspective of society .

  1. Modern algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Seth

    1990-01-01

    Standard text provides an exceptionally comprehensive treatment of every aspect of modern algebra. Explores algebraic structures, rings and fields, vector spaces, polynomials, linear operators, much more. Over 1,300 exercises. 1965 edition.

  2. Behavioural Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural Modernity explores the changing politics of representation and ethics of care in curatorial practice, necessitated by an increasing blurring of boundaries between the human, the technological, and the planetary.

  3. Modernity's Prometheus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Argues for reframing and reforging the relationship between text and context. Argues that the silences that modernity's tribute to text invites are grotesque, untenable, and fundamentally anti-intellectual. (SR)

  4. Modernity's Prometheus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Argues for reframing and reforging the relationship between text and context. Argues that the silences that modernity's tribute to text invites are grotesque, untenable, and fundamentally anti-intellectual. (SR)

  5. Fertility decline in Punjab, India: parallels with historical Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M D

    1995-11-01

    Two interesting features emerge from this study of fertility behaviour in Punjab. First, it brings out the common features of peasant life and demographic behaviour found in this developing-country setting and in historical Europe. As in much of Europe, marriage was regulated to adjust to the availability of land and other resources. It is interesting to note that the operation of this 'nuptiality valve' was quite consistent with a system of joint families and partible inheritance. Secondly, the findings suggest that we need to re-define what we understand to be the features of socio-economic development which are crucial for fertility decline. Fertility began to decline steadily in this part of Punjab as early as 1940, at a time when the society was overwhelmingly agrarian, illiterate, and infant mortality was high with no access to modern contraceptive technology, as in historical Europe. The onset of the decline was brought about by development interventions which stabilized fluctuations in crop yields and mortality, thus radically improving stability of people's expectations. This study also points out the inapplicability of Mamdani's theories of fertility behaviour to the people he studies.

  6. Risk of Pathologic Upgrading or Locally Advanced Disease in Early Prostate Cancer Patients Based on Biopsy Gleason Score and PSA: A Population-Based Study of Modern Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caster, Joseph M.; Falchook, Aaron D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Hendrix, Laura H. [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Ronald C., E-mail: Ronald_chen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2015-06-01

    upgrading based on clinically available information in modern patients. These data inform the selection of radiation therapy strategies and an understanding of whether prostatectomy alone is likely to be curative for patients with early prostate cancers.

  7. Pisolithus tinctorius, Fungal Extremophile and Modern Analog to an Early Earth Environment; An Unlikely Harbor for Deeply Diverging and Novel Chemoautrophic Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, K. C.; Lauzon, C.; Marinkovich, N.; Truong, T.

    2014-12-01

    that branches at the base of the Archaeal clade indicating the presence of, at the very least, a new Phylum/Division within this group. Thus, the data provide a model for furthering our understanding of the diversification of life, in a novel modern analog to an early Earth environment.

  8. Evolution, revolution or saltation scenario for the emergence of modern cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Francesco; Stringer, Chris B.

    2011-01-01

    Crucial questions in the debate on the origin of quintessential human behaviours are whether modern cognition and associated innovations are unique to our species and whether they emerged abruptly, gradually or as the result of a discontinuous process. Three scenarios have been proposed to account for the origin of cultural modernity. The first argues that modern cognition is unique to our species and the consequence of a genetic mutation that took place approximately 50 ka in Africa among already evolved anatomically modern humans. The second posits that cultural modernity emerged gradually in Africa starting at least 200 ka in concert with the origin of our species on that continent. The third states that innovations indicative of modern cognition are not restricted to our species and appear and disappear in Africa and Eurasia between 200 and 40 ka before becoming fully consolidated. We evaluate these scenarios in the light of new evidence from Africa, Asia and Europe and explore the mechanisms that may have led to modern cultures. Such reflections will demonstrate the need for further inquiry into the relationship between climate and demographic/cultural change in order to better understand the mechanisms of cultural transmission at work in Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens populations. PMID:21357228

  9. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittlebank, Andrew; Hermans, Marc; Bhugra, Dinesh; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Rojnic-Kuzman, Martina; Fiorillo, Andrea; Kurimay, Tamas; Hanon, Cecile; Wasserman, Danuta; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an additional European Framework for Competencies in Psychiatry in 2009. Yet these have not been implemented throughout Europe. In this paper, the diversity in training throughout Europe is approached from different angles: the cultural differences between countries with regards to how mental health care is considered and founded on, the cultural differences between people throughout Europe in all states. The position of psychotherapy is emphasised. What once was the cornerstone of psychiatry as medical specialty seems to have become a neglected area. Seeing the patient with mental health problems within his cultural context is important, but considering him within his family context. The purpose of any training is enabling the trainee to gain the knowledge and acquire the competencies necessary to become a well-equipped professional is the subject of the last paragraph in which trainees consider their position and early career psychiatrists look back to see whether what they were trained in matches with what they need in the working situation. Common standard for training and certification are a necessity within Europe, for the benefit of the profession of psychiatrist but also for patient safety. UEMS is advised to join forces with the Council of National Psychiatric Associations (NPAs) within the EPA and trainings and early career psychiatrist, to discuss with the users what standards should be implemented in all European countries and how a European board examination could ensure professional quality of psychiatrists throughout the continent.

  10. Swedish Masters of Modernism: A Review of Nicholas Adams, Gunnar Asplund’s Gothenburg: The Transformation of Public Architecture in Interwar Europe, and Janne Ahlin, Sigurd Lewerentz, Architect 1885–1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Blundell Jones

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas Adams, Gunnar Asplund’s Gothenburg: The Transformation of Public Architecture in Interwar Europe, University Park: Penn State University Press, 288 pages, 152 illustrations, 2014, ISBN: 978-0-271-05984-6 Janne Ahlin, Sigurd Lewerentz, Architect 1885–1975, with an epilog by Wilfried Wang, Zürich: Park Books, 204 pages, 29 colour and 307 b/w illustrations, plans and drawings, 2014, ISBN: 978-3-906027-48-7, (facsimile of the original edition by Byggförlaget, Stockholm and MIT Press, Cambridge MA, 1987

  11. The Early Aurignacian human remains from La Quina-Aval (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, Christine; Dujardin, Véronique; Trinkaus, Erik

    2012-05-01

    There is a dearth of diagnostic human remains securely associated with the Early Aurignacian of western Europe, despite the presence of similarly aged early modern human remains from further east. One small and fragmentary sample of such remains consists of the two partial immature mandibles plus teeth from the Early Aurignacian of La Quina-Aval, Charente, France. The La Quina-Aval 4 mandible exhibits a prominent anterior symphyseal tuber symphyseos on a vertical symphysis and a narrow anterior dental arcade, both features of early modern humans. The dental remains from La Quina-Aval 1 to 4 (a dm(1), 2 dm(2), a P(4) and a P(4)) are unexceptional in size and present occlusal configurations that combine early modern human features with a few retained ancestral ones. Securely dated to ~33 ka (14)C BP (~38 ka cal BP), these remains serve to confirm the association of early modern humans with the Early Aurignacian in western Europe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Overcoming obstacles to late presentation for HIV infection in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Jürgens, R; Weait, M;

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of the HIV in Europe Initiative is to promote testing and treatment throughout Europe and Central Asia in order to decrease the number of people living with HIV presenting late for care. This article summarizes the results from the HIV in Europe 2009 Conference and the early resu...

  13. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. Here we analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000–7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3–...

  14. Malaria epidemics in Europe after the First World War: the early stages of an international approach to the control of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachelin, Gabriel; Opinel, Annick

    2011-06-01

    The severity and endemicity of malaria declined gradually in Europe until WWI. During and after the war, the number of malaria cases increased substantially and peaked in 1922-1924. This prompted the Hygiene Commission of the League of Nations to establish a Malaria Commission in 1923 to define the most efficient anti-malaria procedures. Additionally, between 1924 and 1930 there were several international meetings and collaborations concerning malaria, which involved the main institutes of parasitology and the Rockefeller Foundation. The Commission reports, the guidelines for anti-malaria campaigns and the scientific programs which came out of these meetings and collaborations are analyzed in the present paper.

  15. Aesthetic primitivism revisited: The global diaspora of ‘primitive art’ and the rise of indigenous modernisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth B. Phillips

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the global export of the construct of primitive art which developed in Europe in the early-twentieth century and the catalytic role it played in the emergence of modernist art forms produced by Indigenous peoples. It argues for the need to distinguish between sociological primitivism grounded in cultural evolutionist theory and the aesthetic primitivism promoted by artists, ethnologists and patrons who admired and appropriated the traditional arts of non-Western peoples classified as 'primitive.' Case studies of two refugees from Nazi Europe, German ethnologist Leonhard Adam and Austrian artist George Swinton, demonstrate the tension between received understandings of primitive art and these men's growing awareness, following emigration, of Indigenous modernities. It also led to their active promotion of modern Australian Aboriginal and Inuit arts, despite the undoubted links between aesthetic primitivism and the oppressive assimilationist policies justified through sociological primitivism.

  16. Hysterical paralysis and premature burial: a medieval Persian case, fear and fascination in the West, and modern practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agutter, Paul S; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Khalili, Majid; Hosseini, Seyed Fazel; Ghabili, Kamyar; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Loukas, Marios

    2013-04-01

    Premature burial (taphophobia) is an ancient fear, but it became especially common in 18th and 19th century Europe and may have a modern-day counterpart. Examination of a well-documented case from medieval Persia reveals the importance of funeral practices in the risk of actual premature burial and sheds light on the question of why taphophobia became so prevalent in Europe during the early industrial revolution period. The medieval Persian case was attributed to hysterical paralysis (conversion). We discuss the relationship between hysterical paralysis and premature burial more generally and show that although understanding of conversion syndrome remains incomplete, modern knowledge and practices have limited the risk of any similar tragedy today. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Der geeichte Eichpunt - niederländische Kultur um 1650 europäisch kontextualisiert: 'Bevochten eendracht' von Willem Frijhoff und Marijke Spies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Schilling

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available 1650Heinz SchillingThe paper evaluates the 1650-IJkpunt-volume as a well-conceptualized and well-written example of up-to-date, national cultural history in a European perspective, which should serve as a historiographical model for research and syntheses on other national cultures and histories in early modern Europe. It comments in detail first on the theoretical and methodological principles of research and writing on early modern European societies after the end of the continent's division into two power blocs (§ I. Second, on the implications of 'time' and 'space', in which 1650 acts as a starting point for both the geographical meaning of 'Europe' and its cultural history, and it is argued, from a cultural perspective, that a specific type of Latin-European civilization should be distinguished from the Orthodox-European type of civilization on the one hand and from the transatlantic offshoots of Latin civilization on the other. Research should focus on the exchange between these different civilizations, with emphasis on the benefits and returns of this exchange for Latin Europe, especially for the agents of European expansion such as Dutch society (§ II. Finally, the paper focuses in more detail on issues such as the meaning of education and literature, political culture, the relationship between Church and State and tolerance within early modern Dutch society and culture.

  18. PERFORMING DOUBT: THE ART OF BELIEVING IN EARLY MODERN SPAIN = EL EJERCICIO DE LA DUDA: EL ARTE DE CREER EN LA ESPAÑA ALTO MODERNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pereda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available If it is true that works of art belong to a context, it is also important to bear in mind that they also help to define it. This dialogic relation, this complicity, as it were, between art and reality, between the object of art and their agents- patrons, potential public and censors- does not always receive the attention it deserves. The present article proposes a model of analysis for one of the most representative aspects of material and figurative culture in early modern Spain: the sacred image. The article problematizes the definition of religious imaginary as devotional, and investigates the narrative elements with which images define the religious experience. Placing the medium and not the message in the center of attention –as it is argued in this text-offers an alternative to those explanation models in which the work of art is presented as the reflection (be it spontaneous or censured of its context.Las obras de arte pertenecen a un contexto, pero también son productoras del mismo. Esta relación dialógica, o si se prefiere cómplice, entre el arte y la realidad, entre los artefactos y sus agentes -ya sean sus patronos, su potencial público o sus censores- no siempre recibe la atención que merece. El presente artículo propone un modelo de análisis para uno de los aspectos más representativos de la cultura material y figurativa de la España altomoderna: la imagen sacra. El artículo problematiza la definición de la imaginería religiosa como arte devocional, investigando en su lugar los recursos narrativos con los que las imágenes definen dicha experiencia religiosa. Poner el medio (y no el mensaje en el centro de análisis -se argumenta en este trabajo- ofrece una alternativa a aquéllos modelos de explicación en los que la obra de arte aparece como el reflejo (ya sea espontáneo o censurado de su contexto.

  19. Upper Palaeolithic genomes reveal deep roots of modern Eurasians

    KAUST Repository

    Jones, Eppie R.

    2015-11-16

    We extend the scope of European palaeogenomics by sequencing the genomes of Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,300 years old, 1.4-fold coverage) and Mesolithic (9,700 years old, 15.4-fold) males from western Georgia in the Caucasus and a Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,700 years old, 9.5-fold) male from Switzerland. While we detect Late Palaeolithic–Mesolithic genomic continuity in both regions, we find that Caucasus hunter-gatherers (CHG) belong to a distinct ancient clade that split from western hunter-gatherers ~45 kya, shortly after the expansion of anatomically modern humans into Europe and from the ancestors of Neolithic farmers ~25 kya, around the Last Glacial Maximum. CHG genomes significantly contributed to the Yamnaya steppe herders who migrated into Europe ~3,000 BC, supporting a formative Caucasus influence on this important Early Bronze age culture. CHG left their imprint on modern populations from the Caucasus and also central and south Asia possibly marking the arrival of Indo-Aryan languages.

  20. The expansion of hazel ( Corylus avellana L.) in the southern Alps: a key for understanding its early Holocene history in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsinger, Walter; Tinner, Willy; van der Knaap, W. O.; Ammann, Brigitta

    2006-03-01

    In Northwestern and Central Europe the Holocene expansion of Corylus occurred before or at the same time as that of other thermophilous trees (e.g. Quercus). This sequence of expansion has been explained by migrational lag, competition, climatic changes, human assistance, or disturbance by fire. In the southern Alps, however, hazel expanded around 10,500 cal yr BP, more than two millennia after oak had become important. This delayed expansion is in contrast with the rapid expansion often assumed for hazel in central Northern Europe. We use two well-dated pollen and charcoal records from the southern forelands of the Alps: Lago Piccolo di Avigliana and Lago di Origlio. We conclude that distance of refugia, speed of seed dispersal, and competition cannot sufficiently explain the absence of the hazel expansion prior to the establishment of mixed oak forests in the southern Alps. Instead our records indicate that higher moisture availability and low temperatures inhibited hazel and favoured the establishment of pine and mixed oak forests during the Allerød. The expansion of hazel ˜11,000-10,500 cal yr BP was favoured by a combination of high seasonality, summer drought and frequent fires, which helped hazel to out-compete oak in the south as well as north of the Alps.

  1. Montreal Modern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Through analyses of the retro scenes in Montreal, Canada, the article discusses retro culture’s role as cultural memory. It is shown how Montreal’s cultural identity is formed by memories of modern culture such as the Red-light and Sin City reputation of the illicit nightlife of the 1940s and 1950s...

  2. Modern Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Gordon M.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the basic ideas of modern spectroscopy. Both the angular momenta and wave-nature approaches to the determination of energy level patterns for atomic and molecular systems are discussed. The interpretation of spectra, based on atomic and molecular models, is considered. (LC)

  3. Italian Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    assumptions that have substituted for thought and that have perpetuated prejudices both within and outside Italy’s borders. Grounded in meticulous historical and ethnological research, Italian Modernities deserves as wide an audience as its scholarship is deep.” (Michael Herzfeld, Ernest E. Monrad Professor...

  4. [The demographic transition in Latin America and Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala De Cosio, M E

    1992-12-01

    This work describes and analyzes the "European model of demographic transition" and compares it to the fertility transition in Latin America, arguing that two different types of demographic transition coexist in Latin America. Chesnais has defined 3 principal postulates of the theory of demographic transition that he believes are universally valid: the precedence in time of mortality decline; the occurrence of reproductive transition in 2 phases, limitation of marriages followed by limitation of births; and the influence of economic growth on the initiation of the secular fertiilty decline. This work is largely limited to discussion of the first 2 postulates. In all the European transitions analyzed, mortality has declined before the occurrence of fertility changes. Exceptions cited in the literature have probably been caused by omissions or other problems in the data. The level of mortality at the beginning of the transition and the rate of decline differ, giving unique character to each transition. Imbalances resulting from mortality decline are at the root of modern fertility transitions. The French demographic transition was distinguished by early appearance of birth limitation by married couples, as part of the regulation of population growth. In the rest of Europe, during the pretransitional period, the traditional system of reproduction was regulated primarily by control of nuptiality. Only at a second stage was marital fertiity controlled, when limitation of marriage was no longer sufficient or had exceeded the limits of social acceptability. All countries of Northern and Western Europe recorded increased proportions definitively single as the demographic situation began to change, until the moment when couples began to limit births. The demographic transition in Latin America began at the end of the 19th century, with mortality decline. Fertility increased initially in Latin America as it had in Europe and for the same reasons, but the impact was greater

  5. Modern electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John B

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Materials focuses on the development of electronic components. The book first discusses the history of electronic components, including early developments up to 1900, developments up to World War II, post-war developments, and a comparison of present microelectric techniques. The text takes a look at resistive materials. Topics include resistor requirements, basic properties, evaporated film resistors, thick film resistors, and special resistors. The text examines dielectric materials. Considerations include basic properties, evaporated dielectric materials, ceramic dielectri

  6. Climate during the Roman and early-medieval periods in North-western Europe: a review of climate reconstructions from terrestrial archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelmann, Dana F. C.; Gouw-Bouman, Marjolein T. I. J.; Hoek, Wim Z.; van Lanen, Rowin J.; Stouthamer, Esther; Jansma, Esther

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution palaeoclimate reconstructions are essential to identify possible influences of climate variability on landscape evolution and landscape-related cultural changes (e.g., shifting settlement patterns and long-distance trade relations). North-western Europe is an ideal research area for comparison between climate variability and cultural transitions given its geomorphological diversity and the significant cultural changes that took place in this region during the last two millennia (e.g., the decline of the Roman Empire and the transition to medieval kingdoms). Compared to more global climate records, such as ice cores and marine sediments, terrestrial climate proxies have the advantage of representing a relatively short response time to regional climatic change. Furthermore for this region large quantity of climate reconstructions is available covering the last millennium, whereas for the first millennium AD only few high resolution climate reconstructions are available. We compiled climate reconstructions for sites in North-western Europe from the literature and its underlying data. All these reconstructions cover the time period of AD 1 to 1000. We only selected data with an annual to decadal resolution and a minimum resolution of 50 years. This resulted in 18 climate reconstructions from different archives such as chironomids (1), pollen (4), Sphagnum cellulose (1), stalagmites (6), testate amoebae (4), and tree-rings (2). The compilation of the different temperature reconstructions shows similar trends in most of the records. Colder conditions since AD 300 for a period of approximately 400 years and warmer conditions after AD 700 become apparent. A contradicting signal is found before AD 300 with warmer conditions indicated by most of the records but not all. This is likely the result of the use of different proxies, reflecting temperatures linked to different seasons. The compilation of the different precipitation reconstructions also show similar

  7. Modern Metropolis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    URUMQI, capital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, is a modem metropolis. On billboards around the airportare the smiling faces of international and domestic stars advertising mobile phones and trendy clothes, The road leading downtownis broad and lined with multi-story buildings like any other big city, the only difference being that they are in a distinctively monotone 1970s style. Visual relief, however, comes in the form of a large, exotically Islamic-style building complex known locally as the international bazaar. Its proprietors, Han and indigenous alike, purvey goodsmade in Xinjiang as well as from neighboring India and Pakistan, and occasionally from Europe.

  8. Pleistocene Paleoart of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As in Australia, Pleistocene rock art is relatively abundant in Europe, but it has so far received much more attention than the combined Ice Age paleoart of the rest of the world. Since archaeology initially rejected its authenticity for several decades, the cave art of France and Spain and the portable paleoart from various regions of Europe have been the subjects of thousands of studies. It is shown, however, that much of the published information is unreliable and subjective, and that fundamental trends in the evidence have been misunderstood. In particular, the data implies that the paleoart of the Early Upper Paleolithic, the work of robust humans such as Neanderthals, is considerably more sophisticated and developed that that of more recent times. Thus, the European paleoart demonstrates that the teleological model of cultural “evolution” is false, which is to be expected because evolution is purely dysteleological. This is confirmed by the extensive record of pre-Upper Paleolithic European paleoart, which is comprehensively reviewed in this paper.

  9. Effect of early intensive multifactorial therapy on 5-year cardiovascular outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes detected by screening (ADDITION-Europe)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffin, Simon J; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Davies, Melanie J

    2011-01-01

    Intensive treatment of multiple cardiovascular risk factors can halve mortality among people with established type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of early multifactorial treatment after diagnosis by screening....

  10. Testing the hypothesis of fire use for ecosystem management by neanderthal and upper palaeolithic modern human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Daniau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that a greater control and more extensive use of fire was one of the behavioral innovations that emerged in Africa among early Modern Humans, favouring their spread throughout the world and determining their eventual evolutionary success. We would expect, if extensive fire use for ecosystem management were a component of the modern human technical and cognitive package, as suggested for Australia, to find major disturbances in the natural biomass burning variability associated with the colonisation of Europe by Modern Humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analyses of microcharcoal preserved in two deep-sea cores located off Iberia and France were used to reconstruct changes in biomass burning between 70 and 10 kyr cal BP. Results indicate that fire regime follows the Dansgaard-Oeschger climatic variability and its impacts on fuel load. No major disturbance in natural fire regime variability is observed at the time of the arrival of Modern Humans in Europe or during the remainder of the Upper Palaeolithic (40-10 kyr cal BP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results indicate that either Neanderthals and Modern humans did not influence fire regime or that, if they did, their respective influence was comparable at a regional scale, and not as pronounced as that observed in the biomass burning history of Southeast Asia.

  11. Modern maths

    CERN Document Server

    Thom,R

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. R. Thom expose ses vues sur l'enseignement des mathématiques modernes et des mathémathiques de toujours. Il est un grand mathématicien et était professeur à Strasbourg; maintenant il est professeur de hautes études scientifiques et était invité par le Prof. Piaget à Genève

  12. Cyberspace modernization :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keliiaa, Curtis M.; McLane, Victor N.

    2014-07-01

    A common challenge across the communications and information technology (IT) sectors is Internet + modernization + complexity + risk + cost. Cyberspace modernization and cyber security risks, issues, and concerns impact service providers, their customers, and the industry at large. Public and private sectors are struggling to solve the problem. New service opportunities lie in mobile voice, video, and data, and machine-to-machine (M2M) information and communication technologies that are migrating not only to predominant Internet Protocol (IP) communications, but also concurrently integrating IP, version 4 (IPv4) and IP, version 6 (IPv6). With reference to the Second Internet and the Internet of Things, next generation information services portend business survivability in the changing global market. The planning, architecture, and design information herein is intended to increase infrastructure preparedness, security, interoperability, resilience, and trust in the midst of such unprecedented change and opportunity. This document is a product of Sandia National Laboratories Tribal Cyber and IPv6 project work. It is a Cyberspace Modernization objective advisory in support of bridging the digital divide through strategic partnership and an informed path forward.

  13. The Pronunciation of Hebrew in the Western Sephardic Settlements (XVIth-XXth Centuries. First Part: Early Modern Venice and Ferrara (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    di Leone Leoni, Aron

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In or around 1552, Isac Cavallero in Venice and Yomtob Atias in Ferrara published various Spanish translations of the Hebrew prayer-book. Almost at the same time in Ferrara, Abraham Usque produced some new vulgarizations of the Hebrew ritual. These works were conceived mainly for the former Marranos who had embraced the Jewish religion but were still unfamiliar with Hebrew. In order to enable them to recite at least a part of the most important prayers, the authors of these vulgarizations transliterated into Latin characters some passages of different prayers and blessings. These translations of the prayer-book were repeatedly reprinted throughout the following centuries in Venice, Amsterdam and in several North-European cities. The subsequent editions followed very closely the pattern of the Ferrara prototypes, however several re-issues bore different additions. Of particular interest are the transliterations of new and wider passages from various prayers and hymns. By carrying on an extensive graphematic analysis of these prayer-books as well as of other texts such as grammar-books, registers of the deliberations of the Sephardic communities, notarial deeds and other documents, it was possible to ascertain the features of the Sephardi pronunciation in the early modern communities of Venice and Ferrara and in the West-European settlements. The main differences and analogies between the Sephardi, the Judeo-Italian and the Ashkenazi pronunciation were also examined. Special attention has been paid to the consonant 'Ayin which, in the 16th century, had a phonetic value equal to zero or tending to zero.En torno a 1552, Isac Cavallero en Venecia y Yomtob Atías en Ferrara publicaron varias traducciones al español del oracional judío. De manera casi simultánea en Ferrara,Abraham Usque publicó nuevas versiones del ritual judío en lengua vernácula. Estas obras estaban concebidas principalmente para individuos de origen converso que hab

  14. Music Therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Professional development and recognition is an 'old' issue in music therapy but still a relevant, complex and crucial one. Burning questions regarding professionalisation are at the forefront of most music therapy associations’ agendas across Europe and beyond, and feed back directly to the work...... of the EMTC. Considering the wider political, socio-economic, cultural and disciplinary aspects of professionalisation, different development pathways impact directly on music therapy practice, training, ethics, professional collaboration and employment conditions. Although a number of endeavours have been...... implemented regarding music therapy’s professional development and recognition in different countries, documentation and sharing of such endeavours on international level has been limited and scattered. Drawing from the EMTC’s work since the early ‘90s, as well as from colleagues’ experiences (and struggles...

  15. A 28,000 years old Cro-Magnon mtDNA sequence differs from all potentially contaminating modern sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Caramelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA sequences from ancient specimens may in fact result from undetected contamination of the ancient specimens by modern DNA, and the problem is particularly challenging in studies of human fossils. Doubts on the authenticity of the available sequences have so far hampered genetic comparisons between anatomically archaic (Neandertal and early modern (Cro-Magnoid Europeans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We typed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA hypervariable region I in a 28,000 years old Cro-Magnoid individual from the Paglicci cave, in Italy (Paglicci 23 and in all the people who had contact with the sample since its discovery in 2003. The Paglicci 23 sequence, determined through the analysis of 152 clones, is the Cambridge reference sequence, and cannot possibly reflect contamination because it differs from all potentially contaminating modern sequences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Paglicci 23 individual carried a mtDNA sequence that is still common in Europe, and which radically differs from those of the almost contemporary Neandertals, demonstrating a genealogical continuity across 28,000 years, from Cro-Magnoid to modern Europeans. Because all potential sources of modern DNA contamination are known, the Paglicci 23 sample will offer a unique opportunity to get insight for the first time into the nuclear genes of early modern Europeans.

  16. The oldest hand-axes in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Gary R; Gibert, Luis

    2009-09-03

    Stone tools are durable reminders of the activities, skills and customs of early humans, and have distinctive morphologies that reflect the development of technological skills during the Pleistocene epoch. In Africa, large cutting tools (hand-axes and bifacial chopping tools) became part of Palaeolithic technology during the Early Pleistocene ( approximately 1.5 Myr ago). However, in Europe this change had not been documented until the Middle Pleistocene (<0.5 Myr ago). Here we report dates for two western Mediterranean hand-axe sites that are nearly twice the age of the supposed earliest Acheulian in western Europe. Palaeomagnetic analysis of these two sites in southeastern Spain found reverse polarity magnetozones, showing that hand-axes were already in Europe as early as 0.9 Myr ago. This expanded antiquity for European hand-axe culture supports a wide geographic distribution of Palaeolithic bifacial technology outside of Africa during the Early Pleistocene.

  17. 清季民初时期哈尔滨城市现代化的维度及特征%The Dimensions and Characteristics of Modernization of Harbin in the Late Qing Dynasty and the Early Republic of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博强; 邵华

    2012-01-01

    The Modernization is the traditional social experience economic, political and cultural changesto modern society process, in this process, the human economy through industrialization, democratization of the political and cultural rationalization gradually alter ego, achieve social modernity. The Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China, in the northeast corner of partial Harbin through economic, political and euhural dimensions of three modern dimension, gradually from a traditional country society to modern international city transformation. In economic modernization in Harbin based on the dimension, colonial expansion of the background to realize state - owned business and the rise of foreign trade development ; in the political modernization in the dimension, Harbin organ of self - government and the business community to establish, promote the Harbin social change ; in the cultural level of the modern dimensions, rising of new education and the city the planning establishment, promote Harbin become strong Western color city. After the three dimensions as the center in the process of social change, the modernization of Harbin performance based on exogenous factors of modernization and colonial color of strong dependent characteristics of modernization.%现代化是传统社会经历经济、政治与文化变迁后向现代社会迈进的过程,在这一过程中,人类通过经济产业化、政治民主化与文化理性化逐渐改变自我,实现社会的现代性。清季民初时期,偏于东北一隅的哈尔滨通过经济层面、政治层面与文化层面三个现代化的维度,逐渐实现由传统乡村社会向现代国际都市的转变。在经济层面的现代化维度中,哈尔滨基于殖民扩张的背景实现国有工商业的崛起与对外贸易的拓展; 在政治层面的现代化维度中,哈尔滨自治机关与工商社团的设立,推动了哈尔滨的社会变革;在文化层面的现代化维度中,新式教育的兴起与

  18. Via Illyria to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Mihajlović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Archaeology in Serbia was shaped as a discipline by the end of the 19th century. Its founders, mainly educated at the universities in the German-speaking lands, in the spirit of Altertumswissenschaft, have brought with them the corresponding attitude towards the Classical antiquity. In the process of transfer of the concepts a certain blurring occurred, but not absolute abandonment of the previous narratives about the ancient past, for example the one developed in the framework of Proto-Illyrism. From its inception in the humanistic histories of the 16th century, the Proto- Illyrian idea was the framework of political action, the pivotal point of identity construction, but as well the grounds for territorial aspirations. In these tendencies a major role was played by the Classical past. Through the usage of Classical ethnonyms and toponymes, political concepts and historical narratives, the advocates of Proto-Illyrism took part in the positioning of the Balkans in the temporal and spatial domain of the modern Europe. The paper points to the role of the Proto-Illyrian idea in the affirmation and/or legitimizing of various interests (individual, group, as well as in constructing various identities in the Western Balkans.

  19. Modernism and tradition and the traditions of modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kros Džonatan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, the story of musical modernism has been told in terms of a catastrophic break with the (tonal past and the search for entirely new techniques and modes of expression suitable to a new age. The resulting notion of a single, linear, modernist mainstream (predicated on the basis of a Schoenbergian model of musical progress has served to conceal a more subtle relationship between past and present. Increasingly, it is being recognized that there exist many modernisms and their various identities are forged from a continual renegotiation between past and present, between tradition(s and the avant-garde. This is especially relevant when attempting to discuss the reception of modernism outside central Europe, where the adoption of (Germanic avant-garde attitudes was often interpreted as being "unpatriotic". The case of Great Britain is examined in detail: Harrison Birtwistle’s opera The Mask of Orpheus (1973–83 forms the focus for a wider discussion of modernism within the context of late/post-modern thought.

  20. An Unexpected Early Rhabdodontid from Europe (Lower Cretaceous of Salas de los Infantes, Burgos Province, Spain) and a Re-Examination of Basal Iguanodontian Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieudonné, Paul-Emile; Tortosa, Thierry; Torcida Fernández-Baldor, Fidel; Canudo, José Ignacio; Díaz-Martínez, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Disarticulated and incomplete remains from a new diminutive ornithopod are described. They come from the Cameros Basin in the north of Spain and were collected from the red clays of the Castrillo de la Reina Formation, ranging from Upper Barremian to Lower Aptian. The new ornithopod described here is slender and one of the smallest ever reported. An up-to-date phylogenetic analysis recovers this taxon as a basal iguanodontian. Its unique combination of characters makes it more derived than slender ornithopods like Hyphilophodon and Gasparinisaura, and bring very interesting insights into the basal iguanodontian phylogeny. Though possessing a minimum of three premaxillary teeth, this taxon also bears an extensor ilio-tibialis groove on the distal part of its femur. Moreover, its dentary and maxillary teeth are unique, remarkably similar to those regarded as having a “rhabdomorphan” affinity. This unknown taxon is suggested to be a stem taxon within Rhabdodontidae, a successful clade of basal iguanodonts from the Late Cretaceous of Europe. The Gondwanan ornithopods share the strongest affinities with this family, and we confirm Muttaburrasaurus as a sister taxon of the Rhabdodontidae within a newly defined clade, the Rhabdodontomorpha. PMID:27333279

  1. An Unexpected Early Rhabdodontid from Europe (Lower Cretaceous of Salas de los Infantes, Burgos Province, Spain and a Re-Examination of Basal Iguanodontian Relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Emile Dieudonné

    Full Text Available Disarticulated and incomplete remains from a new diminutive ornithopod are described. They come from the Cameros Basin in the north of Spain and were collected from the red clays of the Castrillo de la Reina Formation, ranging from Upper Barremian to Lower Aptian. The new ornithopod described here is slender and one of the smallest ever reported. An up-to-date phylogenetic analysis recovers this taxon as a basal iguanodontian. Its unique combination of characters makes it more derived than slender ornithopods like Hyphilophodon and Gasparinisaura, and bring very interesting insights into the basal iguanodontian phylogeny. Though possessing a minimum of three premaxillary teeth, this taxon also bears an extensor ilio-tibialis groove on the distal part of its femur. Moreover, its dentary and maxillary teeth are unique, remarkably similar to those regarded as having a "rhabdomorphan" affinity. This unknown taxon is suggested to be a stem taxon within Rhabdodontidae, a successful clade of basal iguanodonts from the Late Cretaceous of Europe. The Gondwanan ornithopods share the strongest affinities with this family, and we confirm Muttaburrasaurus as a sister taxon of the Rhabdodontidae within a newly defined clade, the Rhabdodontomorpha.

  2. Modern plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Maradudin, Alexei A; Barnes, William L

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics is entering the curriculum of many universities, either as a stand alone subject, or as part of some course or courses. Nanotechnology institutes have been, and are being, established in universities, in which plasmonics is a significant topic of research. Modern Plasmonics book offers a comprehensive presentation of the properties of surface plasmon polaritons, in systems of different structures and various natures, e.g. active, nonlinear, graded, theoretical/computational and experimental techniques for studying them, and their use in a variety of applications. Contains materia

  3. Perinatal morbidity and mortality in early-onset fetal growth restriction : cohort outcomes of the trial of randomized umbilical and fetal flow in Europe (TRUFFLE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, C.; Marlow, N.; Arabin, B.; Bilardo, C. M.; Brezinka, C.; Derks, J. B.; Duvekot, J.; Frusca, T.; Diemert, A.; Ferrazzi, E.; Ganzevoort, W.; Hecher, K.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, A. T.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T. M.; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Valcamonico, A.; Visser, G. H. A.; Wolf, H.

    2013-01-01

    ObjectivesFew data exist for counseling and perinatal management of women after an antenatal diagnosis of early-onset fetal growth restriction. Yet, the consequences of preterm delivery and its attendant morbidity for both mother and baby are far reaching. The objective of this study was to describe

  4. Perinatal morbidity and mortality in early-onset fetal growth restriction : cohort outcomes of the trial of randomized umbilical and fetal flow in Europe (TRUFFLE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, C.; Marlow, N.; Arabin, B.; Bilardo, C. M.; Brezinka, C.; Derks, J. B.; Duvekot, J.; Frusca, T.; Diemert, A.; Ferrazzi, E.; Ganzevoort, W.; Hecher, K.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, A. T.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T. M.; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Valcamonico, A.; Visser, G. H. A.; Wolf, H.

    2013-01-01

    ObjectivesFew data exist for counseling and perinatal management of women after an antenatal diagnosis of early-onset fetal growth restriction. Yet, the consequences of preterm delivery and its attendant morbidity for both mother and baby are far reaching. The objective of this study was to describe

  5. English-Only Europe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    English-Only Europe? explores the role of languages in the process of European integration. Languages are central to the development of an integrated Europe. The way in which the European Union deals with multilingualism has serious implications for both individual member countries...... Europe. Drawing on examples of countries with explicit language policies such as Canada and South Africa, the book sets out Phillipson's vision of an inclusive language policy for Europe, and describes how it can be attained....

  6. KENIZÉ MOURAD AND EARLY MIDDLE EASTERN FEMINISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Armianu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the waning days of the Ottoman Empire and emergence of the modern state system in the early twentieth century Levant from the purview of Kenizé Mourad's self-narrative Regards from the Dead Princess: Novel of a Life.  A work of history and literary fiction, Mourad's novel is an account of the last remnants of a secular Levantine culture, the story of a crumbling empire, and the personal tale of a young woman and her exiled imperial family strewn about the continents, torn between Lebanon, Europe, and the Indian subcontinent.

  7. The Early Flowers and Angiosperm Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Else Marie; Crane, P.R.; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard

    of the evolutionary history of flowering plants from their earliest phases in obscurity to their dominance in modern vegetation. The discussion provides comprehensive biological and geological background information, before moving on to summarise the fossil record in detail. Including previously unpublished results...... based on research into Early and Late Cretaceous fossil floras from Europe and North America, the authors draw on direct palaeontological evidence of the pattern of angiosperm evolution through time. Synthesising palaeobotanical data with information from living plants, this unique book explores...

  8. Early detection and treatment of type 2 diabetes reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality : A simulation of the results of the Anglo-Danish-Dutch study of intensive treatment in people with screen-detected diabetes in primary care (ADDITION-Europe)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herman, William H.; Ye, Wen; Griffin, Simon J.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Davies, Melanie J.; Khunti, Kamlesh; Rutten, Guy E. H. M.; Sandbaek, Annelli; Lauritzen, Torsten; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Brown, Morton B.; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the benefits of screening and early treatment of type 2 diabetes compared with no screening and late treatment using a simulation model with data from the ADDITION-Europe study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used the Michigan Model, a validated computer simulation model, and d

  9. Europe's Second Demographic Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kaa, Dirk J.

    1987-01-01

    By 1985, fertility rates in Europe were below the replacement level of 2.1 births per woman in all but Albania, Ireland, Malta, Poland, and Turkey, following a steady decline from a 1965 postwar peak well above 2.5 in Northern, Western, and Southern Europe and an erratic trend from a lower level in Eastern Europe. Natural decrease (fewer births…

  10. Climatic and palaeoceanographic changes during the Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic) inferred from clay mineralogy and stable isotope (C-O) geochemistry (NW Europe)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bougeault, Cédric; Pellenard, Pierre; Deconinck, Jean François

    2017-01-01

    The Early Jurassic was broadly a greenhouse climate period that was punctuated by short warm and cold climatic events, positive and negative excursions of carbon isotopes, and episodes of enhanced organic matter burial. Clay minerals from Pliensbachian sediments recovered from two boreholes...... isotope excursion at the so-called Sinemurian Pliensbachian Boundary Event (SPBE). The Early/Late Pliensbachian transition was also characterised by more humid conditions. This warm interval is associated with a major change in oceanic circulation during the Davoei Zone, likely triggered by sea-level rise......), which occurred also during a warm period, favouring organic matter production and preservation. Our study highlights the major role of the London Brabant Massif in influencing oceanic circulation of the NW European area, as a topographic barrier (emerged lands) during periods of lowstand sea...

  11. [Side Effects of Modernity : Dam Building, Health Care, and the Construction of Power in the Context of the Control of Schistosomiasis in Egypt in the 1960s and early 1970s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Benjamin

    2017-08-16

    This article analyzes the modernization campaigns in Egypt in the 1960s and early 1970s. The regulation of the Nile by the Aswan High Dam and the resulting irrigation projects caused the rate of schistosomiasis infestation in the population to rise. The result was a discourse between experts from the global north and Egyptian elites about modernization, development aid, dam building and health care. The fight against schistosomiasis was like a cipher, which combined different power-laden concepts and arguments. This article will decode the cipher and allow a deeper look into the contemporary dimensions of power bound to this subject. The text is conceived around three thematic axes. The first deals with the discursive interplay of modernization, health and development aid in and for Egypt. The second focuses on far-reaching and long-standing arguments within an international expert discourse about these concepts. Finally, the third presents an exemplary case study of West German health and development aid for fighting schistosomiasis in the Egyptian Fayoum oasis.

  12. New archeointensity data from French Early Medieval pottery production (6th–10th century AD). Tracing 1500 years of geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Nineteen new archeointensity results were obtained from the analysis of groups of French pottery fragments dated to the Early Middle Ages (6th to 10th centuries AD). They are from several medieval ceramic production sites, excavated mainly in Saran (Central France), and their precise dating was established based on typo-chronological characteristics. Intensity measurements were performed using the Triaxe protocol, which takes into account the effects on the intensity d...

  13. Modern pentathlon and the First World War: when athletes and soldiers met to practise martial manliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    In the nationalistic atmosphere of the early twentieth century, a nurturing medium for sports practising martial manliness abounded throughout Europe. This framework supported the invention of a new multi-disciplinary sport, aided by Baron Pierre de Coubertin himself: modern pentathlon. Though the idea of a new form of pentathlon was already born in 1894, it took 30 years, until Paris 1924, to establish modern pentathlon within the Olympic Games. This study is concerned with the reasons for that delay. It will be assessed whether the active military preparations around the First World War and the contemporary image of masculinity had a decisive influence on the early history of modern pentathlon. By including historical documents from the IOC archives in Lausanne, Switzerland, the research office for military history in Potsdam, Germany, and the LA84 Foundation in Los Angeles, USA, as well as literature on gender, military sport and Olympic history, this study offers an entirely new view on the early history of a sport that was born in an atmosphere of glorifying manliness and apparent militarism. The history of modern pentathlon thereby provides a particularly appropriate area for the analysis of connections between sport, militarism and masculinity. It was not by chance that the implementation of a combined sport, which included besides swimming and running the three military disciplines of shooting, fencing and horse riding, arose in a pre-war context. Though in 1912 the Great War had not yet begun, the awareness of an upcoming battle was rising and led to a higher attention to Coubertin's almost forgotten assumption of a new sport. In 1924 the advantages were finally admitted on two sides: the army recruited modern pentathletes as future military officers; the sports community appointed skilled officers as successful competitors. Thus the lobby for an Olympic recognition of modern pentathlon was found.

  14. Opportunities for Grid Modernization Collaboration: U.K.-U.S. Grid Modernization Workshop Report, February 28 - March 2, 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-28

    This report captures the discussions and takeaways from the U.K.-U.S. Grid Modernization Workshop on February 28-March 2, 2017 at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Speakers from across the United States and Europe convened to discuss the challenges associated with grid modernization for the 21st century, while identifying transatlantic solutions and opportunities for collaboration.

  15. Modern optics

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, B D

    2015-01-01

    Modern Optics is a fundamental study of the principles of optics using a rigorous physical approach based on Maxwell's Equations. The treatment provides the mathematical foundations needed to understand a number of applications such as laser optics, fiber optics and medical imaging covered in an engineering curriculum as well as the traditional topics covered in a physics based course in optics. In addition to treating the fundamentals in optical science, the student is given an exposure to actual optics engineering problems such as paraxial matrix optics, aberrations with experimental examples, Fourier transform optics (Fresnel-Kirchhoff formulation), Gaussian waves, thin films, photonic crystals, surface plasmons, and fiber optics. Through its many pictures, figures, and diagrams, the text provides a good physical insight into the topics covered. The course content can be modified to reflect the interests of the instructor as well as the student, through the selection of optional material provided in append...

  16. Modern electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zangwill, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    An engaging writing style and a strong focus on the physics make this comprehensive, graduate-level textbook unique among existing classical electromagnetism textbooks. Charged particles in vacuum and the electrodynamics of continuous media are given equal attention in discussions of electrostatics, magnetostatics, quasistatics, conservation laws, wave propagation, radiation, scattering, special relativity and field theory. Extensive use of qualitative arguments similar to those used by working physicists makes Modern Electrodynamics a must-have for every student of this subject. In 24 chapters, the textbook covers many more topics than can be presented in a typical two-semester course, making it easy for instructors to tailor courses to their specific needs. Close to 120 worked examples and 80 applications boxes help the reader build physical intuition and develop technical skill. Nearly 600 end-of-chapter homework problems encourage students to engage actively with the material. A solutions manual is availa...

  17. Modern thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2017-01-01

    This textbook introduces thermodynamics with a modern approach, starting from four fundamental physical facts (the atomic nature of matter, the indistinguishability of atoms and molecules of the same species, the uncertainty principle, and the existence of equilibrium states) and analyzing the behavior of complex systems with the tools of information theory, in particular with Shannon's measure of information (or SMI), which can be defined on any probability distribution. SMI is defined and its properties and time evolution are illustrated, and it is shown that the entropy is a particular type of SMI, i.e. the SMI related to the phase-space distribution for a macroscopic system at equilibrium. The connection to SMI allows the reader to understand what entropy is and why isolated systems follow the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Llaw is also formulated for other systems, not thermally isolated and even open with respect to the transfer of particles. All the fundamental aspects of thermodynamics are d...

  18. Modern Italian libraries – between tradition and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Adamiak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, lands currently belonging to the Republic of Italy boasted the greatest and the most illustrious libraries in Europe. From the Middle Ages to Renaissance, they developed extensively and were dominant in the Old World. The present article, however, concentrates on modern Italian libraries and provides an extensive review of their functioning today. The following issues are covered in the discussion: types of libraries and their cooperation, legal circumstances, the activity of national libraries, library associations and their initiatives and projects aimed at utilization of state-of-the-art IT infrastructures in librarianship. The article also emphasizes strong and weak points of Italian librarianship and ponders on the following: What is the role of Italian libraries today when they are evidently past their prime times? Can the libraries in question meet the requirements of modern times?

  19. Early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases - the long awaited Holy Grail and bottleneck of modern brain research - 19th HUPO BPP workshop: May 22-24, 2013, Dortmund, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrötter, Andreas; Magraoui, Fouzi El; Gröttrup, Bernd; Wiltfang, Jens; Heinsen, Helmut; Marcus, Katrin; Meyer, Helmut E; Grinberg, Lea T; Park, Young Mok

    2013-10-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 19th workshop in Dortmund, Germany, from May 22 to 24, 2013. The focus of the spring workshop was on strategies and developments concerning early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Climatic and palaeoceanographic changes during the Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic) inferred from clay mineralogy and stable isotope (C-O) geochemistry (NW Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougeault, Cédric; Pellenard, Pierre; Deconinck, Jean-François; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Dommergues, Jean-Louis; Bruneau, Ludovic; Cocquerez, Théophile; Laffont, Rémi; Huret, Emilia; Thibault, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    The Early Jurassic was broadly a greenhouse climate period that was punctuated by short warm and cold climatic events, positive and negative excursions of carbon isotopes, and episodes of enhanced organic matter burial. Clay minerals from Pliensbachian sediments recovered from two boreholes in the Paris Basin, are used here as proxies of detrital supplies, runoff conditions, and palaeoceanographic changes. The combined use of these minerals with stable isotope data (C-O) from bulk carbonates and organic matter allows palaeoclimatic reconstructions to be refined for the Pliensbachian. Kaolinite/illite ratio is discussed as a reliable proxy of the hydrological cycle and runoff from landmasses. Three periods of enhanced runoff are recognised within the Pliensbachian. The first one at the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian transition shows a significant increase of kaolinite concomitant with the negative carbon isotope excursion at the so-called Sinemurian Pliensbachian Boundary Event (SPBE). The Early/Late Pliensbachian transition was also characterised by more humid conditions. This warm interval is associated with a major change in oceanic circulation during the Davoei Zone, likely triggered by sea-level rise; the newly created palaeogeography, notably the flooding of the London-Brabant Massif, allowed boreal detrital supplies, including kaolinite and chlorite, to be exported to the Paris Basin. The last event of enhanced runoff occurred during the late Pliensbachian (Subnodosus Subzone of the Margaritatus Zone), which occurred also during a warm period, favouring organic matter production and preservation. Our study highlights the major role of the London Brabant Massif in influencing oceanic circulation of the NW European area, as a topographic barrier (emerged lands) during periods of lowstand sea-level and its flooding during period of high sea-level. This massif was the unique source of smectite in the Paris Basin. Two episodes of smectite-rich sedimentation ('smectite