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Sample records for early luteal phase

  1. Improving the luteal phase after ovarian stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Vilbour Andersen, K

    2014-01-01

    The human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) trigger used for final follicular maturation in connection with assisted reproduction treatment combines ovulation induction and early luteal-phase stimulation of the corpora lutea. The use of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) for final...... follicular maturation has, however, for the first time allowed a separation of the ovulatory signal from the early luteal-phase support. This has generated new information that may improve the currently employed luteal-phase support. Thus, combined results from a number of randomized controlled trials using...

  2. Characterization of hormonal profiles during the luteal phase in regularly menstruating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecochard, Rene; Bouchard, Thomas; Leiva, Rene; Abdulla, Saman; Dupuis, Olivier; Duterque, Olivia; Garmier Billard, Marie; Boehringer, Hans; Genolini, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    To characterize the variability of hormonal profiles during the luteal phase in normal cycles. Observational study. Not applicable. Ninety-nine women contributing 266 menstrual cycles. The women collected first morning urine samples that were analyzed for estrone-3-glucuronide, pregnanediol-3-alpha-glucuronide (PDG), FSH, and LH. The women had serum P tests (twice per cycle) and underwent ultrasonography to identify the day of ovulation. The luteal phase was divided into three parts: the early luteal phase with increasing PDG (luteinization), the midluteal phase with PDG ≥10 μg/mg Cr (progestation), and the late luteal phase (luteolysis) when PDG fell below 10 μg/mg Cr. Long luteal phases begin with long luteinization processes. The early luteal phase is marked by low PDG and high LH levels. Long luteinization phases were correlated with low E1G and low PDG levels at day 3. The length of the early luteal phase is highly variable between cycles of the same woman. The duration and hormonal levels during the rest of the luteal phase were less correlated with other characteristics of the cycle. The study showed the presence of a prolonged pituitary activity during the luteinization process, which seems to be modulated by an interaction between P and LH. This supports a luteal phase model with three distinct processes: the first is a modulated luteinization process, whereas the second and the third are relatively less modulated processes of progestation and luteolysis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Luteal Phase after GnRHa Trigger-Understanding An Enigma

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    Kathrine Leth-Moller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The luteal phase of all stimulated in vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI cycles is disrupted, which makes luteal phase support (LPS mandatory. The cause of the disruption is thought to be the multifollicular development achieved during ovarian stimulation which results in supraphysiological concentrations of steroids secreted by a high number of corpora lutea during the early luteal phase. This will directly inhibit luteinizing hormone (LH secretion by the pituitary via negative feedback at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, leading to a luteal phase defect. With the introduction of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist protocol, it became feasible to trigger final oocyte maturation and ovulation with a single bolus of GnRH agonist (GnRHa as an alternative to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. GnRHa triggering presents several advantages, including the reduction in or even elimination of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Despite the potential advantages of GnRHa triggering, previous randomized controlled trials reported a poor clinical outcome with high rates of early pregnancy losses, despite supplementation with a standard LPS in the form of progesterone and estradiol. Following these disappointing results, several studies now report a luteal phase rescue after modifications of the LPS, resulting in a reproductive outcome comparable to that seen after hCG triggering. We herein review luteal phase differences between the natural cycle, hCG trigger and GnRHa trigger and present the most recent data on handling the luteal phase after GnRHa triggering.

  4. The Luteal Phase after GnRHa Trigger-Understanding An Enigma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Moller, Kathrine; Hammer Jagd, Sandra; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    results in supraphysiological concentrations of steroids se- creted by a high number of corpora lutea during the early luteal phase. This will directly inhibit luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion by the pituitary via negative feedback at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, leading to a luteal...... several advantages, including the reduction in or even elimination of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Despite the potential advantages of GnRHa trig- gering, previous randomized controlled trials reported a poor clinical outcome with high rates of early pregnancy losses, despite supplementation...

  5. Luteal phase of the menstrual cycle increases sweating rate during exercise

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    Garcia A.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated whether the luteal phase elevation of body temperature would be offset during exercise by increased sweating, when women are normally hydrated. Eleven women performed 60 min of cycling exercise at 60% of their maximal work load at 32ºC and 80% relative air humidity. Each subject participated in two identical experimental sessions: one during the follicular phase (between days 5 and 8 and the other during the luteal phase (between days 22 and 25. Women with serum progesterone >3 ng/mL, in the luteal phase were classified as group 1 (N = 4, whereas the others were classified as group 2 (N = 7. Post-exercise urine volume (213 ± 80 vs 309 ± 113 mL and specific urine gravity (1.008 ± 0.003 vs 1.006 ± 0.002 changed (P < 0.05 during the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase in group 1. No menstrual cycle dependence was observed for these parameters in group 2. Sweat rate was higher (P < 0.05 in the luteal (3.10 ± 0.81 g m-2 min-1 than in the follicular phase (2.80 ± 0.64 g m-2 min-1 only in group 1. During exercise, no differences related to menstrual cycle phases were seen in rectal temperature, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, mean skin temperature, and pre- and post-exercise body weight. Women exercising in a warm and humid environment with water intake seem to be able to adapt to the luteal phase increase of basal body temperature through reduced urinary volume and increased sweating rate.

  6. Effects of metformin treatment on luteal phase progesterone concentration in polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Meenakumari K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The causes of luteal phase progesterone deficiency in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS are not known. To determine the possible involvement of hyperinsulinemia in luteal phase progesterone deficiency in women with PCOS, we examined the relationship between progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and insulin during the luteal phase and studied the effect of metformin on luteal progesterone levels in PCOS. Patients with PCOS (19 women aged 18-35 years were treated with metformin (500 mg three times daily for 4 weeks prior to the test cycle and throughout the study period, and submitted to ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate. Blood samples were collected from control (N = 5, same age range as PCOS women and PCOS women during the late follicular (one sample and luteal (3 samples phases and LH, insulin and progesterone concentrations were determined. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Duncan's test and Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation (r. The endocrine study showed low progesterone level (4.9 ng/ml during luteal phase in the PCOS women as compared with control (21.6 ng/ml. A significant negative correlation was observed between insulin and progesterone (r = -0.60; P < 0.01 and between progesterone and LH (r = -0.56; P < 0.05 concentrations, and a positive correlation (r = 0.83; P < 0.001 was observed between LH and insulin. The study further demonstrated a significant enhancement in luteal progesterone concentration (16.97 ng/ml in PCOS women treated with metformin. The results suggest that hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance may be responsible for low progesterone levels during the luteal phase in PCOS. The luteal progesterone level may be enhanced in PCOS by decreasing insulin secretion with metformin.

  7. Outpatient management of severe early OHSS by administration of GnRH antagonist in the luteal phase: an observational cohort study

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    Lainas George T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of established severe OHSS requires prolonged hospitalization, occasionally in intensive care units, accompanied by multiple ascites punctures, correction of intravascular fluid volume and electrolyte imbalance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether it is feasible to manage women with severe OHSS as outpatients by treating them with GnRH antagonists in the luteal phase. Methods This is a single-centre, prospective, observational, cohort study. Forty patients diagnosed with severe OHSS, five days post oocyte retrieval, were managed as outpatients after administration of GnRH antagonist (0.25 mg daily from days 5 to 8 post oocyte retrieval, combined with cryopreservation of all embryos. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients with severe OHSS, in whom outpatient management was not feasible. Results 11.3% (95% CI 8.3%-15.0% of patients (40/353 developed severe early OHSS. None of the 40 patients required hospitalization following luteal antagonist administration and embryo cryopreservation. Ovarian volume, ascites, hematocrit, WBC, serum oestradiol and progesterone decreased significantly (P  Conclusions The current study suggests, for the first time, that successful outpatient management of severe OHSS with antagonist treatment in the luteal phase is feasible and is associated with rapid regression of the syndrome, challenging the dogma of inpatient management. The proposed management is a flexible approach that minimizes unnecessary embryo transfer cancellations in the majority (88.7% of high risk for OHSS patients.

  8. Treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder with luteal phase dosing of sertraline.

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    Halbreich, Uriel; Kahn, Linda S

    2003-11-01

    Sertraline (Zoloft, Pfizer Inc.) is a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) which has been approved by the US FDA for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). PMDD is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) which affects at least 5 - 8% of women of reproductive age. It is characterised by cyclic appearance at the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and disappearance following the beginning of menses, with no symptoms during at least 1 week of the cycle - usually during the mid-follicular phase. Due to the cyclic luteal occurrence of PMDD, luteal phase dosing of SSRIs has been suggested and proven effective for sertraline as well as several other SSRIs. The clinical response of sertraline is reported to be within several days following initiation of treatment. Despite repeated cyclic discontinuation, no significant discontinuation adverse effects have been reported. In addition to its proven clinical efficacy, luteal-phase dosing may offer the advantages of minimising adverse effects of SSRIs while reducing the personal and economic burden of taking a prescription medication continuously for long periods and thus increasing compliance.

  9. The steroidogenic response and corpus luteum expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein after human chorionic gonadotropin administration at different times in the human luteal phase.

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    Kohen, Paulina; Castro, Olga; Palomino, Alberto; Muñoz, Alex; Christenson, Lane K; Sierralta, Walter; Carvallo, Pilar; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2003-07-01

    This study was designed 1) to assess corpus luteum (CL) steroidogenesis in response to exogenous human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) at different times during the luteal phase, 2) to examine the effect of hCG on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression within the CL, 3) to correlate StAR expression and luteal steroidogenic responses to hCG, and 4) to determine whether endogenous LH regulates ovarian steroidogenesis in the early luteal phase. Blood was collected before and after hCG treatment for steroid and hCGbeta determinations. CL were obtained at the time of surgery to assess StAR gene and protein expression. During the early luteal phase various women received the GnRH antagonist for 24-48 h; some of them also received hCG 24 h after the GnRH antagonist. A slight steroidogenic response to hCG was observed in early luteal phase; 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, but not progesterone (P4), levels were significantly increased 8 h post-hCG, indicating a differential response by the granulosa and theca-lutein cells. The 1.6- and 4.4-kb StAR transcripts and the 37-kDa preprotein and 30-kDa mature StAR protein did not change post-hCG administration in early luteal phase CL. In contrast, the StAR 4.4- and 1.6-kb transcripts diminished significantly (P < 0.05) after the antagonist treatment. Immunohistochemical staining for StAR protein was weak, particularly in granulosa-lutein cells. Treatment with hCG restored StAR mRNA and protein and plasma P4 levels within 24 h in antagonist-treated women. hCG stimulated the highest plasma concentrations of P4 and estradiol in the midluteal phase, indicating its greatest steroidogenic capacity. Midluteal tissue StAR gene and protein expression increased by 1.6- and 1.4-fold after 24 h of hCG treatment, respectively. Administration of hCG resulted in the greatest increment in plasma P4 (4-fold) and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (3-fold) levels over baseline in the late luteal phase. This was associated with an increase in

  10. Luteal phase support for assisted reproduction cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M. van der; Buckingham, K.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Metwally, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progesterone prepares the endometrium for pregnancy by stimulating proliferation in response to human chorionic gonadotropin(hCG) produced by the corpus luteum. This occurs in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In assisted reproduction techniques(ART), progesterone and/or hCG

  11. Luteal phase support for assisted reproduction cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M. Van der; Buckingham, K.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Metwally, M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progesterone prepares the endometrium for pregnancy by stimulating proliferation in response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is produced by the corpus luteum. This occurs in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In assisted reproduction techniques (ART) the progesterone

  12. The luteal phase after GnRH-agonist triggering of ovulation: present and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, Peter; Papanikolaou, E G; Kyrou, D

    2012-01-01

    In stimulated IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles, the luteal phase is disrupted, necessitating luteal-phase supplementation. The most plausible reason behind this is the ovarian multifollicular development obtained after ovarian stimulation, resulting in supraphysiological steroid...... with a GnRH agonist instead of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG). The first studies applying this concept, however, showed a very poor pregnancy rate, despite standard luteal-phase support with progesterone. This review discusses the reason for the poor results and the newest studies, using GnRH agonist...

  13. OCT-4 expression in follicular and luteal phase endometrium: a pilot study

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    Huber Johannes C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stem cell marker Octamer-4 (OCT-4 is expressed in human endometrium. Menstrual cycle-dependency of OCT-4 expression has not been investigated to date. Methods In a prospective, single center cohort study of 98 women undergoing hysteroscopy during the follicular (n = 49 and the luteal (n = 40 phases of the menstrual cycle, we obtained endometrial samples. Specimens were investigated for OCT-4 expression on the mRNA and protein levels using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Expression of OCT-4 was correlated to menstrual cycle phase. Results Of 89 women sampled, 49 were in the follicular phase and 40 were in the luteal phase. OCT-4 mRNA was detected in all samples. Increased OCT-4 mRNA levels in the follicular and luteal phases was found in 35/49 (71% and 27/40 (68% of women, respectively (p = 0.9. Increased expression of OCT-4 protein was identified in 56/89 (63% samples. Increased expression of OCT-4 protein in the follicular and luteal phases was found in 33/49 (67% and 23/40 (58% of women, respectively (p = 0.5. Conclusions On the mRNA and protein levels, OCT-4 is not differentially expressed during the menstrual cycle. Endometrial OCT-4 is not involved in or modulated by hormone-induced cyclical changes of the endometrium.

  14. Luteal phase administration of agents for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

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    Freeman, Ellen W

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on current information about luteal phase administration (i.e. typically for the last 2 weeks of the menstrual cycle) of pharmacological agents for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Compared with continuous administration, a luteal phase administration regimen reduces the exposure to medication and lowers the costs of treatment. Based on evidence from randomised clinical trials, SSRIs are the first-line treatment for PMDD at this time. Of these agents, sertraline, fluoxetine and paroxetine (as an extended-release formulation) are approved by the US FDA for luteal phase, as well as continuous, administration. Clinical trials of these agents and citalopram have demonstrated that symptom reduction is similar with both administration regimens. When used to treat PMDD, SSRI doses are consistent with those used for major depressive disorder. The medications are well tolerated; discontinuation symptoms with this intermittent administration regimen have not been reported. Other medications that have been examined in clinical trials for PMDD or severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS) using luteal phase administration include buspirone, alprazolam, tryptophan and progesterone. Buspirone and alprazolam show only modest efficacy in PMS (in some but not all studies), but there may be a lower incidence of sexual adverse effects with these medications than with SSRIs. Symptom reduction with tryptophan was significantly greater than with placebo, but the availability of this medication is strictly limited because of safety concerns. Progesterone has consistently failed to show efficacy for severe PMS/PMDD in large, randomised, placebo-controlled trials.

  15. Cytological image of the endometrium in cows in follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle and in cows with follicular and luteal ovarian cysts

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    Brodzki Piotr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted on 30 Holstein-Friesian cows: 10 cows in the follicular phase of the cycle and in the luteal phase 10 d later, 10 cows with follicular cysts, and 10 with luteal cysts. The presence of the ovarian structures was confirmed by ultrasonography. Serum levels of progesterone and 17β-oestradiol were tested with ELISA. Samples for cytological examination were collected from the uterus of all cows using a cytological brush. Following staining, the smears were evaluated in terms of quality and percentages of endometrial cells. In the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle, cells of type A - superficial cells (64.6 ± 4.48 were proportionally the largest group of cells. Cells of type C - basal cells (19.8 ± 2.75 were also present. In the luteal phase, the highest percentage of cells was of type B - intermediate cells (76.9 ± 4.26. When follicular cysts were present on the ovaries, the cytology resembled the follicular phase of the cycle, but with many younger type C cells (33.1 ± 4.11. In the case of luteal cysts on the ovaries, the cytology was similar to that of the luteal phase of the cycle, however with a lower percentage of type B cells (58.1 ± 5.71, and a slightly higher percentage of the other types. The differences in the cytological image of the uterus when different ovarian structures are present, depend on the hormonal activity of those structures. Due to the lack of literature data, the results of the study are important as a model, and may substantially facilitate identification of phases of the oestrus cycle, or the pathologies described, as well as indicate the current status of the endometrium

  16. The impact of luteal phase support on endometrial estrogen and progesterone receptor expression: a randomized control trial

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    Brezina Paul R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the impact of luteal phase support on the expression of estrogen receptor (ER alpha and progesterone receptors B (PR-B on the endometrium of oocyte donors undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH. Methods A prospective, randomized study was conducted in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for oocyte donation. Participants were randomized to receive no luteal support, vaginal progesterone alone, or vaginal progesterone plus orally administered 17 Beta estradiol. Endometrial biopsies were obtained at 4 time points in the luteal phase and evaluated by tissue microarray for expression of ER alpha and PR-B. Results One-hundred and eight endometrial tissue samples were obtained from 12 patients. No differences were found in expression of ER alpha and PR-B among all the specimens with the exception of one sample value. Conclusions The administration of progesterone during the luteal phase of COH for oocyte donor cycles, either with or without estrogen, does not significantly affect the endometrial expression of ER alpha and PR.

  17. Administration of single-dose GnRH agonist in the luteal phase in ICSI cycles: a meta-analysis

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    Oliveira João

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a administered in the luteal phase remains controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of the administration of a single-dose of GnRH-a in the luteal phase on ICSI clinical outcomes. Methods The research strategy included the online search of databases. Only randomized studies were included. The outcomes analyzed were implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate (CPR per transfer and ongoing pregnancy rate. The fixed effects model was used for odds ratio. In all trials, a single dose of GnRH-a was administered at day 5/6 after ICSI procedures. Results All cycles presented statistically significantly higher rates of implantation (P Conclusions These findings demonstrate that the luteal-phase single-dose GnRH-a administration can increase implantation rate in all cycles and CPR per transfer and ongoing pregnancy rate in cycles with GnRH antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol. Nevertheless, by considering the heterogeneity between the trials, it seems premature to recommend the use of GnRH-a in the luteal phase. Additional randomized controlled trials are necessary before evidence-based recommendations can be provided.

  18. Effects of cholesterol on progesterone production by goat luteal cell subpopulations at two different stages of the luteal phase.

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    Arikan, Ş; Kalender, H; Simsek, O

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cholesterol on progesterone production during long-term culturing of luteal cell subpopulations at early and late luteal stages of the goat corpora lutea. Corpora lutea were collected from Angora goats on days 5 and 15 of the oestrous cycle. Luteal cells were isolated by collagenase digestion. The cells were separated into two distinct subpopulations by Percoll density-gradient centrifugation. Both subpopulations of luteal cells staining positively for 3β-HSD activities (5 × 10(4)  cell/well) were cultured with or without 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC) in serum-free culture medium for periods of up to 7 days. Cells were incubated with serum (10%) for the first 18 h of incubation followed by serum-free medium. Cell treatment (10 and 20 μg/ml) was performed on days 1, 3 and 5. Treatment of cells with both concentrations of 22R-HC resulted in significant (p  0.05) on progesterone production in both fractions of cells throughout 7 days of incubation. Treatment of the cells with cholesterol resulted in 2.5- and 9.0-fold increases in progesterone accumulation on day 3 of incubation. Steroid production was maintained throughout the incubations when cells are incubated in serum-free media treated with cholesterol and ITS premix. Cells collected from higher density of percoll layers produced 2.82 and 2.32 times more progesterone, in comparison to the lover density percoll layer, on days 5 and 15 of the oestrous cycle in untreated cell groups, respectively. Progesterone accumulation was decreased as incubation time advanced in all groups of untreated cells. These results demonstrated that goat luteal cell subpopulations secrete substantial amounts of progesterone in response to cholesterol treatment at least for 7 days, and cholesterol is required as progesterone precursor for maintaining a high-level steroidogenesis during long-life culturing of both cell subpopulations. © 2010 Blackwell

  19. Luteal blood flow in patients undergoing GnRH agonist long protocol

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    Takasaki Akihisa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood flow in the corpus luteum (CL is closely related to luteal function. It is unclear how luteal blood flow is regulated. Standardized ovarian-stimulation protocol with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa long protocol causes luteal phase defect because it drastically suppresses serum LH levels. Examining luteal blood flow in the patient undergoing GnRHa long protocol may be useful to know whether luteal blood flow is regulated by LH. Methods Twenty-four infertile women undergoing GnRHa long protocol were divided into 3 groups dependent on luteal supports; 9 women were given ethinylestradiol plus norgestrel (Planovar orally throughout the luteal phase (control group; 8 women were given HCG 2,000 IU on days 2 and 4 day after ovulation induction in addition to Planovar (HCG group; 7 women were given vitamin E (600 mg/day orally throughout the luteal phase in addition to Planovar (vitamin E group. Blood flow impedance was measured in each CL during the mid-luteal phase by transvaginal color-pulsed-Doppler-ultrasonography and was expressed as a CL-resistance index (CL-RI. Results Serum LH levels were remarkably suppressed in all the groups. CL-RI in the control group was more than the cutoff value (0.51, and only 2 out of 9 women had CL-RI values Conclusion Patients undergoing GnRHa long protocol had high luteal blood flow impedance with very low serum LH levels. HCG administration improved luteal blood flow impedance. This suggests that luteal blood flow is regulated by LH.

  20. [Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinemia. Results of a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study].

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    Milewicz, A; Gejdel, E; Sworen, H; Sienkiewicz, K; Jedrzejak, J; Teucher, T; Schmitz, H

    1993-07-01

    The efficacy of a Vitex agnus castus preparation (Strotan capsules) was investigated in a randomized double blind study vs. placebo. This clinical study involved 52 women with luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinaemia. The daily dose was one capsule (20 mg) Vitex agnus castus preparation and placebo, respectively. Aim of the study was to prove whether the elevated pituitary prolactin reserve can be reduced and deficits in luteal phase length and luteal phase progesterone synthesis be normalized. Blood for hormonal analysis was taken at days 5-8 and day 20 of the menstrual cycle before and after three month of therapy. Latent hyperprolactinaemia was analysed by monitoring the prolactin release 15 and 30 min after i.v. injection of 200 micrograms TRH. 37 complete case reports (placebo: n = 20, verum: n = 17) after 3 month of therapy were statistically evaluated. The prolactin release was reduced after 3 months, shortened luteal phases were normalised and deficits in the luteal progesterone synthesis were eliminated. These changes were significant and occurred only in the verum group. All other hormonal parameters did not change with the exception of 17 beta-estradiol which rouse up in the luteal phase in patients receiving verum. Side effects were not seen, two women treated with the Vitex agnus castus preparation got pregnant. The tested preparation is thought to be an efficient medication in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinaemia.

  1. Progesterone concentration, pregnancy and calving rate in Simmental dairy cows after oestrus synchronisation and hCG treatment during the early luteal phase.

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    Šuluburić, Adam; Milanović, Svetlana; Vranješ-Đurić, Sanja; Jovanović, Ivan B; Barna, Tomislav; Stojić, Milica; Fratrić, Natalija; Szenci, Ottó; Gvozdić, Dragan

    2017-09-01

    Early embryonic development may be negatively affected by insufficient progesterone (P4) production. Therefore, the aim of our study was to increase P4 by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and/or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatments after inducing oestrus by prostaglandin (PG) treatment. Lactating Simmental dairy cows (n = 110), between 1 to 5 lactations, with an average milk production of 6,500 1/305 days, at 40-80 days postpartum were used and grouped as follows: (1) PG + GnRH treatment at AI (GnRH group), (2) PG + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (hCG group), (3) PG + GnRH at AI + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (GnRH/hCG group), and (4) spontaneous oestrus (C: control group). All animals were double inseminated (at the time of oestrus detection and 12 ± 2 h thereafter). Blood serum and milk samples were collected at the day of observed oestrus (day 0), and 14, 21 and 28 days after AI. Serum P4 was determined using a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) test (INEP, Zemun), and milk P4 was determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) test (NIV Novi Sad). Pregnancy status was confirmed by ultrasonography between days 28 and 35 after AI. Differences of serum or milk P4 medians, pregnancy (and calving) rate were determined using Dunn's Multiple Comparison Tests and Z test, respectively. Serum P4 medians were significantly higher at days 14, 21 and 28 after AI in the hCG-treated animals, indicating increased luteal activity, with a similar tendency in whole milk P4 values. Treatment with hCG during the early luteal phase significantly contributed to the maintenance of gestation at days 28-35 after AI, and also increased the calving rate in Simmental dairy cows.

  2. Effect of duration of the GnRH agonists in the luteal phase in the outcome of assisted reproduction cycles.

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    Geber, Selmo; Sampaio, Marcos

    2013-06-01

    The effect of long-acting GnRHa, in the luteal phase, during ART cycles varies from one patient to another. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of long-acting GnRHa in the luteal phase, in ART cycles, affects pregnancy rates according to the duration of its action in such phase. This is a retrospective study of 367 patients submitted to ovulation induction for in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures that used long-acting depot GnRHa for pituitary suppression. Patients were stratified according to the period of action of the agonist in the luteal phase: group 1, ≤ 6 days; group 2, 7 to 12 days; and group 3, >12 days. The following variables were analyzed: ovarian response, age, infertility causes and pregnancy rates. Group 1 (n = 53) had a mean age of 33.8 ± 4.55 years (23-44 years) and a pregnancy rate of 45.2%. In group 2 (n = 118), mean age was 33.7 ± 4.5 years (24-44 years) and the pregnancy rate was 38.9%. In group 3 (n = 196), mean age was 33.7 ± 4.4 years (23-43 years) and the pregnancy rate was 47.4%. Regardless of the duration of depot GnRHa action in the luteal phase, no significant association with pregnancy rates was found.

  3. Comparison between two forms of vaginally administered progesterone for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles.

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    Geber, Selmo; Moreira, Ana Carolina Ferreira; de Paula, Sálua Oliveira Calil; Sampaio, Marcos

    2007-02-01

    The use of progesterone for luteal phase support has been demonstrated to be beneficial in assisted reproduction cycles using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa). Two micronized progesterone preparations are available for vaginal administration: capsules and gel. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of these two forms for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles. A total of 244 couples undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were included in the study and were randomly allocated (sealed envelopes) into two groups: group 1 (122) received vaginal capsules of 200 mg of micronized progesterone (Utrogestan), 3 times daily, and group 2 (122) received micronized progesterone in gel (Crinone 8%), once daily. Both groups received progesterone for 13 days beginning day 1 after oocyte retrieval, continuing until the pregnancy test was performed and until 12 weeks of pregnancy. Groups were compared by clinical data and assisted reproduction results and had similar ages and causes of infertility. Although the pregnancy rate was higher for those receiving progesterone gel than capsules (44.26 and 36.06% respectively), this difference was not statistically significant. The study showed that vaginal progesterone gel and capsules used for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles with long protocol GnRHa result in similar pregnancy rates.

  4. Changes in insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 messenger ribonucleic acid in endothelial cells of the human corpus luteum: a possible role in luteal development and rescue.

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    Fraser, H M; Lunn, S F; Kim, H; Duncan, W C; Rodger, F E; Illingworth, P J; Erickson, G F

    2000-04-01

    In the human menstrual cycle, extensive angiogenesis accompanies luteinization; and the process is physiologically important for corpus luteum (CL) function. During luteolysis, the vasculature collapses, and the endothelial cells die. In a conceptual cycle, the CL persists both functionally and structurally beyond the luteoplacental shift. Although luteal rescue is not associated with increased angiogenesis, endothelial survival is extended. Despite the central role of the luteal vasculature in fertility, the mechanisms regulating its development and demise are poorly understood. There is increasing evidence that insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) may be important effectors of luteal function. Here, we have found that IGFBP-3 messenger RNA is expressed in the endothelium of the human CL and that the levels of message change during luteal development and rescue by human CG. The signal was strong during the early luteal phase, but it showed significant reduction during the mid- and late luteal phases. Interestingly, administration of human CG caused a marked increase in the levels of IGFBP-3 messenger RNA in luteal endothelial cells that was comparable to that observed during the early luteal phase. We conclude that endothelial cell IGFBP-3 expression is a physiological property of the CL of menstruation and pregnancy. These observations raise the intriguing possibility that the regulated expression of endothelial IGFBP-3 may play a role in controlling angiogenesis and cell responses in the human CL by autocrine/paracrine mechanisms.

  5. The expression pattern of microRNAs in granulosa cells of subordinate and dominant follicles during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessie Salilew-Wondim

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the miRNA expression patterns in granulosa cells of subordinate (SF and dominant follicle (DF during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle. For this, miRNA enriched total RNA isolated from granulosa cells of SF and DF obtained from heifers slaughtered at day 3 and day 7 of the estrous cycle was used for miRNAs deep sequencing. The results revealed that including 17 candidate novel miRNAs, several known miRNAs (n = 291-318 were detected in SF and DF at days 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle of which 244 miRNAs were common to all follicle groups. The let-7 families, bta-miR-10b, bta-miR-26a, bta-miR-99b and bta-miR-27b were among abundantly expressed miRNAs in both SF and DF at both days of the estrous cycle. Further analysis revealed that the expression patterns of 16 miRNAs including bta-miR-449a, bta-miR-449c and bta-miR-222 were differentially expressed between the granulosa cells of SF and DF at day 3 of the estrous cycle. However, at day 7 of the estrous cycle, 108 miRNAs including bta-miR-409a, bta-miR-383 and bta-miR-184 were differentially expressed between the two groups of granulosa cell revealing the presence of distinct miRNA expression profile changes between the two follicular stages at day 7 than day 3 of the estrous cycle. In addition, unlike the SF, marked temporal miRNA expression dynamics was observed in DF groups between day 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle. Target gene prediction and pathway analysis revealed that major signaling associated with follicular development including Wnt signaling, TGF-beta signaling, oocyte meiosis and GnRH signaling were affected by differentially expressed miRNAs. Thus, this study highlights the miRNA expression patterns of granulosa cells in subordinate and dominant follicles that could be associated with follicular recruitment, selection and dominance during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle.

  6. Stimulatory effect of vascular endothelial growth factor on progesterone production and survivability of cultured bubaline luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, V S; Dangi, S S; Gupta, M; Babitha, V; Khan, F A; Panda, R P; Yadav, V P; Singh, G; Sarkar, M

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on progesterone (P4) synthesis in cultured luteal cells from different stages of the estrous cycle and on expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STARD1), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage (CYP11A1) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B), antiapoptotic gene PCNA, and proapoptotic gene BAX in luteal cells obtained from mid-luteal phase (MLP) of estrous cycle in buffalo. Corpus luteum samples from the early luteal phase (ELP; day 1st-4th; n=4), MLP (day 5th-10th; n=4), and the late luteal phase (LLP; day 11th-16th; n=4) of oestrous cycle were obtained from a slaughterhouse. Luteal cell cultures were treated with VEGF (0, 1, 10 and 100 ng/ml) for 24, 48 and 72h. Progesterone was assessed by RIA, while mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results indicated a dose- and time-dependent stimulatory effect of VEGF on P4 synthesis and expression of steroidogenic enzymes. Moreover, VEGF treatment led to an increase in PCNA expression and decrease in BAX expression. In summary, these findings suggest that VEGF acts locally in the bubaline CL to modulate steroid hormone synthesis and cell survivability, which indicates that this factor has an important role as a regulator of CL development and function in buffalo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Growth Hormone Supplementation in the Luteal Phase Before Microdose GnRH Agonist Flare Protocol for In Vitro Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Caitlin; Seethram, Ken; Roberts, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH) acts in both early and late follicular development to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of granulosa cells and to increase the production of estradiol in animal and human ovaries. Investigators have therefore explored GH supplementation to improve outcomes in women undergoing in vitro fertilization, with the greatest interest in women with diminished ovarian reserve. Recent meta-analyses indicate that GH supplementation can be beneficial for poor responders undergoing IVF. In most studies, GH has been given concomitantly with gonadotropins during the follicular phase; this may not be optimal, since follicular recruitment begins during the preceding luteal phase. We therefore wished to examine the effect of GH supplementation in the luteal phase before controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) with a microdose GnRH agonist flare (MDF) protocol in women undergoing in vitro fertilization. We performed a retrospective matched case-control study of patients undergoing treatment at a private IVF facility between June 2012 and July 2013. Patients identified as poor responders to COH were offered adjuvant GH treatment as part of their ovarian stimulation regimen. The patients in the experimental group chose to take GH, 3.33 mg daily by subcutaneous injection for 14 days, before starting COH. All patients had an MDF stimulation protocol using 450 IU of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) daily. A total of 42 women were included in the study. There were 14 women in the experimental group (GH) and 28 controls (C) matched for age, BMI, and day 3 FSH level. There was no difference between the groups in clinical pregnancy rate (GH = 29%, C = 32%, P = 0.99), number of mature oocytes retrieved (GH = 2.5, C = 5.0, P = 0.13), cycle cancellation rate (GH = 21%, C = 14%, P = 0.88), duration of COH (GH = 10.1, C = 10.1, P = 0.93), or mean peak estradiol level (GH = 4174 pmol/L, C = 5105 pmol/L, P = 0.44). The administration of growth hormone during the

  8. Cytokine production by natural killer lymphocytes in follicular and luteal phase of the ovarian cycle in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, A.; Moes, H; Heineman, MJ; De Leij, LFMH; Faas, MM

    PROBLEM: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, during luteal phase of the ovarian cycle, as compared with follicular phase, the cytokine productive capacity of peripheral natural killer (NK)-lymphocytes in humans is shifted towards a "Th2-type"-like response. METHOD OF STUDY:

  9. Gender-specific cerebral activation during cognitive tasks using functional MRI: comparison of women in mid-luteal phase and men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizewski, Elke R.; Wanke, Isabel; Forsting, Michael; Krause, Eva; Senf, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies of gender-specific differences in functional imaging during spatial and language tasks have been inconclusive. Furthermore, among women, such differences may occur during mid-luteal phase compared to the rest of the menstrual cycle. In order to examine further gender differences, functional MRI was performed in 12 male volunteers and 12 female volunteers (in the mid-luteal phase) during mental rotation and verb-generation tests. Two-sample t-tests with uncorrected P values of <0.001 for the specific regions of interest (ROIs) revealed cerebral activation differences in both stimuli. During mental rotation tests, higher levels of activation were noted in the right medial frontal, precentral, and bilateral inferior parietal cortex, while in women this occurred in the right inferior and medial temporal, right superior frontal cortex, and left fusiform gyrus. During verb-generation tests, higher levels of activation in men was found in the left medial temporal and precentral cortex. Our results indicate that differences in cerebral activity during cognitive tasks can be shown between men and women in the mid-luteal phase. Gender differences while performing a mental rotation task were more prominent than during a verb-generation task. (orig.)

  10. Porcine Luteal Function in Relation to IGF-1 Levels Following Ovulation During Lactation or After Weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, P.; Brand, van den H.; Gerritsen, R.; Quesnel, H.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents relationships between peripheral progesterone and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations during the early luteal phase in sows. Data were derived from three experiments, one with primiparous weaned sows (n = 21) and two with multiparous sows that either ovulated

  11. Analysis of human mammary fibroadenoma by Ki-67 index in the follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, M F; Navarrete, M A L H; Facina, G; Falzoni, R; Silva, R; Baracat, E C; Nazario, A C P

    2009-04-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common benign mammary condition among women aged 35 or younger. Expression of Ki-67 antigen has been used to compare proliferative activity of mammary fibroadenoma epithelium in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Ninety eumenorrheic women were selected for tumour excision; they were assigned to either of the two groups, according to their phase of menstrual cycle. At the end of the study, 75 patients with 87 masses were evaluated by epithelial cell Ki-67 expression, blind (no information given concerning group to which any lesion belonged). Both groups were found to be homogeneous relative to age, menarche, body mass index, previous gestation, parity, breastfeeding, number of fibroadenomas, family history of breast cancer and tabagism. Median tumour size was 2.0 cm and no relationship between proliferative activity and nodule diameter was observed. No typical pattern was observed in the expression of Ki-67 in distinct nodules of the same patient. Average values for expression of Ki-67 (per 1000 epithelial cells) in follicular and luteal phases were 27.88 and 37.88, respectively (P = 0.116). Our findings revealed that proliferative activities in the mammary fibroadenoma epithelium did not present a statistically significant difference in the follicular and luteal phases. The present study contributes to clarifying that fibroadenoma is a neoplasm and does not undergo any change in the proliferative activity during the menstrual cycle.

  12. High progesterone levels during the luteal phase related to the use of an aromatase inhibitor in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alviggi, C; Marci, R; Vallone, R; Conforti, A; Di Rella, F; Strina, I; Picarelli, S; De Rosa, P; De Laurentiis, M; Yding Andersen, C; De Placido, G

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the hormonal profile in three breast cancer patients who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation in the presence of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. In IVF University referral center, a case series of three breast cancer patients who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with recombinant FSH and letrozole were investigated. Ovulation was induced with hCG (case No. 1) or with GnRH agonist (case No. 2-3). The primary outcome of our study was the detection of progesterone levels in the luteal phase. Very high progesterone values (mean 186.6 ± 43.6 ng/mL) during the luteal phase were recorded in all three cases. High progesterone levels can be related to the use of letrozole independently of the most commonly used trigger regimen. Although progesterone has long been considered a protective factor against breast cancer, several studies have demonstrated that progesterone could expand a transformation-sensitive stem cell population in the mammary glands. The estrogen negative feedback effect on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis and the disruption of steroid biosynthesis and could represent an intriguing reason behind this phenomenon. Our results highlight the need to evaluate further the increase in progesterone levels in the luteal phase in women with breast cancer undergoing COS with letrozole.

  13. Progesterone production is affected by unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling during the luteal phase in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo-Jin; Park, Sun-Ji; Koo, Deog-Bon; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kong, Il-Keun; Ryoo, Jae-Woong; Park, Young-Il; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2014-09-15

    We examined whether the three unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathways, which are activated in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress, are involved in progesterone production in the luteal cells of the corpus luteum (CL) during the mouse estrous cycle. The luteal phase of C57BL/6 female mice (8 weeks old) was divided into two stages: the functional stage (16, 24, and 48 h) and the regression stage (72 and 96 h). Western blotting and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR were performed to analyze UPR protein/gene expression levels in each stage. We investigated whether ER stress affects the progesterone production by using Tm (0.5 μg/g BW) or TUDCA (0.5 μg/g BW) through intra-peritoneal injection. Our results indicate that expressions of Grp78/Bip, p-eIF2α/ATF4, p50ATF6, and p-IRE1/sXBP1 induced by UPR activation were predominantly maintained in functional and early regression stages of the CL. Furthermore, the expression of p-JNK, CHOP, and cleaved caspase3 as ER-stress mediated apoptotic factors increased during the regression stage. Cleaved caspase3 levels increased in the late-regression stage after p-JNK and CHOP expression in the early-regression stage. Additionally, although progesterone secretion and levels of steroidogenic enzymes decreased following intra-peritoneal injection of Tunicamycin, an ER stress inducer, the expression of Grp78/Bip, p50ATF6, and CHOP dramatically increased. These results suggest that the UPR signaling pathways activated in response to ER stress may play important roles in the regulation of the CL function. Furthermore, our findings enhance the understanding of the basic mechanisms affecting the CL life span. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Luteal function during the estrous cycle in arginine-treated ewes fed different planes of nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Casie S; Redmer, Dale A; Kaminski, Samantha L; Grazul-Bilska, Anna T

    2017-03-01

    Functions of corpus luteum (CL) are influenced by numerous factors including hormones, growth and angiogenic factors, nutritional plane and dietary supplements such as arginine (Arg), a semi-essential amino acid and precursor for proteins, polyamines and nitric oxide (NO). The aim of this study was to determine if Arg supplementation to ewes fed different planes of nutrition influences: (1) progesterone (P4) concentrations in serum and luteal tissue, (2) luteal vascularity, cell proliferation, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and receptor (R) soluble guanylate cyclase β protein and mRNA expression and (3) luteal mRNA expression for selected angiogenic factors during the estrous cycle. Ewes (n = 111) were categorized by weight and randomly assigned to one of three nutritional planes: maintenance control (C), overfed (2× C) and underfed (0.6× C) beginning 60 days prior to onset of estrus. After estrus synchronization, ewes from each nutritional plane were assigned randomly to one of two treatments: Arg or saline. Serum and CL were collected at the early, mid and late luteal phases. The results demonstrated that: (1) nutritional plane affected ovulation rates, luteal vascularity, cell proliferation and NOS3, GUCY1B3, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGFR2 mRNA expression, (2) Arg affected luteal vascularity, cell proliferation and NOS3, GUCY1B3, VEGF and VEGFR2 mRNA expression and (3) luteal vascularity, cell proliferation and the VEGF and NO systems depend on the stage of the estrous cycle. These data indicate that plane of nutrition and/or Arg supplementation can alter vascularization and expression of selected angiogenic factors in luteal tissue during the estrous cycle in sheep. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  15. GnRH Agonist Trigger and LH Activity Luteal Phase Support versus hCG Trigger and Conventional Luteal Phase Support in Fresh Embryo Transfer IVF/ICSI Cycles—A Systematic PRISMA Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Haahr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe use of GnRH agonist (GnRHa for final oocyte maturation trigger in oocyte donation and elective frozen embryo transfer cycles is well established due to lower ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS rates as compared to hCG trigger. A recent Cochrane meta-analysis concluded that GnRHa trigger was associated with reduced live birth rates (LBRs in fresh autologous IVF cycles compared to hCG trigger. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and recent trials have found encouraging reproductive outcomes among couples undergoing GnRHa trigger and individualized luteal LH activity support. Thus, the aim was to compare GnRHa trigger followed by luteal LH activity support with hCG trigger in IVF patients undergoing fresh embryo transfer.Material and methodsWe conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials published until December 14, 2016. The population was infertile patients submitted to IVF/ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonist cotreatment who underwent fresh embryo transfer. The intervention was GnRHa trigger followed by LH activity luteal phase support (LPS. The comparator was hCG trigger followed by a standard LPS. The critical outcome measures were LBR and OHSS rate. The secondary outcome measures were number of oocytes retrieved, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates, and miscarriage rates.ResultsA total of five studies met the selection criteria comprising a total of 859 patients. The LBR was not significantly different between the GnRHa and hCG trigger groups (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.62, 1.14. OHSS was reported in a total of 4/413 cases in the GnRHa group compared to 7/413 in the hCG group (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.15, 1.60. We observed a slight, but non-significant increase in miscarriage rate in the GnRHa triggered group compared to the hCG group (OR 1.85; 95% CI 0.97, 3.54.ConclusionGnRHa trigger with LH activity LPS resulted in comparable LBRs compared to hCG trigger. The most recent trials reported LBRs close to unity

  16. Expression and localization of insulin-like growth factor system in corpus luteum during different stages of estrous cycle in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and the effect of insulin-like growth factor I on production of vascular endothelial growth factor and progesterone in luteal cells cultured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, S; Panda, R P; Chouhan, V S; Yadav, V P; Hyder, I; Dangi, S S; Gupta, M; Khan, F A; Sharma, G T; Bag, S; Sarkar, M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the expression and localization of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system at different stages of buffalo CL and the role of IGF-I in stimulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and progesterone (P4) production in cultured luteal cells. The mRNA expression of IGF system, VEGF, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, P450scc, and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) was investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Protein expression of IGF was demonstrated by Western blot and localization by immunohistochemistry. Progesterone and VEGF production was assayed using RIA and ELISA. A relatively high mRNA expression of IGF-I and IGF-II in early, mid- and late luteal phases with immunoreactivity mostly restricted to cytoplasm of large luteal cells indicates their autocrine role, whereas very weak immunoreactivity in endothelial cells during the mid-luteal phase indicates their paracrine role. Insulin-like growth factor receptors, IGF-IR and IGF-IIR, were restricted to large luteal cells with high mRNA and protein expressions in the mid-luteal phase. The significantly higher expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1, -3, -5, and -6 in the early or mid-luteal phase suggested their stimulatory role, whereas that of IGFBP-2 and -4 in mid-, late, and regressive luteal stages implied their inhibitory role. The mRNA expressions of key steroidogenic factors and VEGF were significantly higher (P production (P production of VEGF in luteal cells and steroid synthesis through the production of key steroidogenic factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of GnRH agonist triggering and intensive luteal steroid support on live-birth rates and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Lan, Vuong Thi Ngoc; Tuong, Ho Manh

    2013-01-01

    Conventional luteal support packages are inadequate to facilitate a fresh transfer after GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger in patients at high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). By providing intensive luteal-phase support with oestradiol and progesterone satisfactory implanta......Conventional luteal support packages are inadequate to facilitate a fresh transfer after GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger in patients at high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). By providing intensive luteal-phase support with oestradiol and progesterone satisfactory...... implantation rates can be sustained. The objective of this study was to assess the live-birth rate and incidence of OHSS after GnRHa trigger and intensive luteal steroid support compared to traditional hCG trigger and conventional luteal support in OHSS high risk Asian patients....

  18. Luteal function and conception in lactating cows and some factors influencing luteal function after first insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommeida, Abdelrahim; Nakao, Toshihiko; Kubota, Hirokazu

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the types and incidence of luteal sub-function in lactating cows after artificial insemination (AI) and their relationship with pregnancy, and to clarify the relationship between luteal function and parity, body condition score (BCS), milk yield, and dietary intake. In 19 cows, milk samples were collected daily from AI to confirmation of pregnancy. Milk progesterone concentrations were determined by EIA. Based on peak progesterone concentration and the day of onset of luteal phase, 15 of 30 progesterone profiles (50%) were normal, with progesterone concentration reaching 1.0 ng/ml within 5 days after insemination and > or =2.0 ng/ml thereafter. In addition, 6 (20%) were insufficient, (progesterone concentration remained 1.0 ng/ml for only 7 days), and one (3%) remained basal. Cows with a normal profile had a higher (P rate than those with an abnormal profile (87% versus 33%, respectively). The amount of progesterone secreted in milk after first AI, as indicated by progesterone area under curve (AUC), was negatively correlated with milk yield (r = -0.83, P rates and high milk production and increased dietary intake during breeding were associated with reduced progesterone concentrations.

  19. Late follicular phase administration of levonorgestrel as an emergency contraceptive changes the secretory pattern of glycodelin in serum and endometrium during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Marta; Seppala, Markku; Cravioto, Ma Del Carmen; Koistinen, Hannu; Koistinen, Riitta; González-Macedo, José; Larrea, Fernando

    2005-06-01

    This study examined serum glycodelin concentrations and endometrial expression during the luteal phase following oral administration of levonorgestrel (LNG) at different stages of the ovarian cycle. Thirty women were recruited and allocated into three groups. All groups were studied during two consecutive cycles, a control cycle and the treatment cycle. In the treatment cycle, each woman received two doses of 0.75 mg LNG taken 12 h apart on days 3-4 before the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge (Group 1), at the time of LH rise (Group 2) and 48 h after the rise in LH was detected (Group 3). Serum progesterone (P) and glycodelin were measured daily during the luteal phase, and an endometrial biopsy was taken at day LH +9 for immunohistochemical glycodelin-A staining. In Group 1, serum P levels were significantly lower, serum glycodelin levels rose earlier and endometrial glycodelin-A expression was weaker than in Groups 2 and 3, in which no differences were found between control and treatment cycles. Levonorgestrel taken for emergency contraception (EC) prior to the LH surge alters the luteal phase secretory pattern of glycodelin in serum and endometrium. Based on the potent gamete adhesion inhibitory activity of glycodelin-A, the results may account for the action of LNG in EC in those women who take LNG before the LH surge.

  20. Leukocyte changes across menstruation, ovulation, and mid-luteal phase and association with sex hormone variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Judyta; Borkowska, Barbara; Pawlowski, Boguslaw

    2016-09-10

    Total leukocyte count (white blood cells-WBC) and the count of each subpopulation vary across the menstrual cycle, but results of studies examining the time and direction of these changes are inconsistent and methodologically flawed. Besides, no previous study focused on leukocyte count on the day of ovulation. Blood samples were obtained from 37 healthy and regularly cycling women aged 19.8-36.1 years. Samples were taken three times: during menstruation (M), ovulation (O), and in the mid-luteal phase (ML). WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, mixed cells, progesterone (P,) and estradiol (E) were measured in each of the three target phases of the cycle. Compared to menstruation, WBC (P = 0.002) and neutrophils (P < 0.001) increased around ovulation and remained stable in the mid-luteal phase, whereas lymphocyte and mixed cell counts did not change throughout the menstrual cycle. There were some correlations of sex hormone variation with leukocyte changes between M and O (positive for E and WBC, negative for P and WBC and for P and neutrophil count; P < 0.05), but not between O and ML. Peripheral leukocyte changes taking place in the second half of the cycle are already observable on the day of ovulation and they are associated with sex hormone variation. We speculate that these changes may lead to increased immune protection against pathogens at a time when fertilization and implantation typically occur. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:721-728, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Daily low-dose hCG stimulation during the luteal phase combined with GnRHa triggered IVF cycles without exogenous progesterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Elbaek, Helle Olesen; Alsbjerg, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    antagonist protocol. Two study arms were included both having 125 IU hCG daily for luteal phase support without exogenous progesterone after using a GnRHa trigger for ovulation induction. In both study arms exogenous FSH was stopped on stimulation day 6 and replaced by exogenous hCG that was initiated...... on either stimulation day 2 or day 6. Blood samples were obtained on the day of ovulation induction, on the day of oocyte pickup (OPU) and day OPU + 7. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The mean serum levels of hCG did not exceeded the normal physiological range of LH activity in any samples. Mid...... were seen between groups. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The number of patients included is limited and conclusions need to be verified in a larger RCT. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Endogenous production of progesterone may become more attractive as the luteal phase support with levels of LH...

  2. The effect of metritis on luteal function in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Disturbed uterine involution impairs ovarian function in the first weeks after calving. This study analyzed the long-term effect of metritis on luteal function of 47 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows during the first four postpartum estrous cycles. Cows with abnormal uterine enlargement and malodorous lochia were classified as having metritis (group M, n = 18), and all others were considered healthy (group H, n = 29). Luteal size was measured once between days 9 and 13 of the first (group H, n = 11; group M, n = 12), second (group H, n = 23; group M, n = 18) and fourth (group H, n = 11; group M, n = 7) postpartum luteal phases. Serum progesterone concentration was measured at the same time. Sixteen cows (group H, n = 9; group M, n = 7) underwent transvaginal luteal biopsy for gene expression analysis of steroidogenic regulatory proteins during the second and fourth cycles. Cows with persistence of the corpus luteum (CL) underwent determination of luteal size, luteal biopsy and serum progesterone measurement once between days 29 and 33, followed by prostaglandin treatment to induce luteolysis. The same procedures were repeated once between days 9 and 13 of the induced cycle. Results The cows in group M had smaller first-cycle CLs than the cows in group H (p = 0.04), but progesterone concentrations did not differ between groups. Luteal size, progesterone concentration and gene expression did not differ between the two groups during the second and fourth cycles. Compared with healthy cows (10%), there was a trend (p = 0.07) toward a higher prevalence of persistent CLs in cows with metritis (33%). Persistent CLs were limited to the first cycle. Persistent CLs and the induced cyclic CLs did not differ with regard to the variables investigated. Conclusions An effect of metritis on luteal activity was apparent in the first postpartum estrous cycle. However, after the first postpartum cycle, no differences occurred

  3. Effect of Estradiol Prescribed during Luteal Phase of Art Cycles and Pregnancy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karimzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Implantation is one of the most important steps in ART cycles and it depends upon embryo and endometrial reception. Different protocols have been suggested for getting better endometrium. It seems estrogen increases the endometrial reception and pregnancy rate by inducing changes in the hormonal status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of estradiol(E2 on luteal phase support and pregnancy rate in ART cycles Methods: This prospective randomized study was done in Yazd at the IVF center from March until December, 2002. 68 patients who had undergone IVF or ICSI were enrolled in the study. Exclusion criteria was age>40, endometriosis and ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome. Induction ovulation protocol was long suppression with GnRH analogues.After embryo transfer, patients were divided in two groups randomly. Both groups received 100mg progesterone IM daily from the transfer day. Estradiol valerate 2 mg/day was added from the 7th transfer day to progesterone in Group I and continued if the BhCG became positive. Abortion and malformations were measured in all patients. Data analyzed with SPSS 11.0 and P value <0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Pregnancy rate in the 34 patients of estradiol group (group I was 26.5%which was significantly higher than 11.8 %( 4 cases in the other group (Pvalue=0.034. Abortion rate was higher in estradiol group (3 cases, but there was no abortion in the progesterone group(P=0.119. 2 cases of major fetal malformations were observed in E2 supplementation group (P=0.246 . Conclusions: E2 suplementation to progesterone in the luteal phase of ART cycles, especially in the long GnRH analogues causes higher endometrial receptivity and pregnancy rate.

  4. Micro-dose hCG as luteal phase support without exogenous progesterone administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C Yding; Fischer, R; Giorgione, V

    2016-01-01

    RHa trigger to induce ovulation showed that exogenous progesterone administration without hCG supplementation was insufficient to obtain satisfactory pregnancy rates. This has prompted development of alternative strategies for LPS. Augmenting the local endogenous production of progesterone by the multiple......For the last two decades, exogenous progesterone administration has been used as luteal phase support (LPS) in connection with controlled ovarian stimulation combined with use of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger for the final maturation of follicles. The introduction of the Gn...... corpora lutea has been one focus with emphasis on one hand to avoid development of ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and, on the other hand, to provide adequate levels of progesterone to sustain implantation. The present study evaluates the use of micro-dose hCG for LPS support and examines the potential...

  5. Deficiencies in luteal function during re-initiation of cyclic breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    such conversion to large luteal cells occurs only during the early part of the oestrous cycle. There may even be stem .... anoestrous ewes, stimulation of the pre-ovulatory follicle ...... time relationships concerning oestrus, ovulation and electrical.

  6. A randomized trial of microdose leuprolide acetate protocol versus luteal phase ganirelix protocol in predicted poor responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLuigi, Andrea J; Engmann, Lawrence; Schmidt, David W; Benadiva, Claudio A; Nulsen, John C

    2011-06-30

    We performed a randomized trial to compare IVF outcomes in 54 poor responder patients undergoing a microdose leuprolide acetate (LA) protocol or a GnRH antagonist protocol incorporating a luteal phase E(2) patch and GnRH antagonist in the preceding menstrual cycle. Cancellation rates, number of oocytes retrieved, clinical pregnancy rates (PR), and ongoing PRs were similar between the two groups. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Age-related changes in luteal dynamics: preliminary associations with antral follicular dynamics and hormone production during the human menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerwald, Angela; Vanden Brink, Heidi; Hunter, Caitlin; Beuker, Denae; Lim, Hyun; Lee, Chel Hee; Chizen, Donna

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the development of luteal phase dominant follicles (LPDFs) as women age is associated with abnormal luteal function. Luteal and antral follicle diameter were quantified in ovulatory women of midreproductive age (MRA; 18-35 y; n = 9) and advanced reproductive age (ARA; 45-55 y; n = 16) every 1 to 3 days during one complete interovulatory interval. Blood was drawn at each visit and assayed for progesterone, estradiol, inhibin A, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. Luteal diameter and hormone profiles were compared within MRA and ARA women with versus without LPDFs. Luteal growth and regression profiles were similar in MRA women with typical versus no LPDFs (13.9, 14.8 mm; P > 0.1); however, luteal phase estradiol and progesterone were greater in MRA women with typical (91.1 ng/L, 8.81 μg/L) versus no (48.8 ng/L, 7.32 μg/L) LPDFs, respectively (LPDF effect, P < 0.1). In the ARA group, mean luteal diameter was lowest in women with atypical LPDFs (12.3 mm), greatest in those with typical LPDFs (16.0 mm), and moderate in those with no LPDFs (13.6 mm), (P < 0.1). Reduced luteal growth in ARA women with atypical versus typical and/or no LPDFs occurred simultaneously to greater luteal phase estradiol (199 vs 69.0, 78.4 ng/L) lower progesterone (7.38 vs 10.7, 13.8 ug/L), and lower inhibin A (36.3, 35.6, 51.2) (P < 0.1). The development of LPDFs as women age was associated with reduced luteal growth, greater estradiol, lower progesterone, and lower inhibin A. These findings provide preliminary evidence that variations in antral folliculogenesis contribute to luteal insufficiency during the menopausal transition.

  8. Molecular Signatures of Immune Activation and Epithelial Barrier Remodeling Are Enhanced during the Luteal Phase of the Menstrual Cycle: Implications for HIV Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birse, Kenzie; Arnold, Kelly B; Novak, Richard M; McCorrister, Stuart; Shaw, Souradet; Westmacott, Garrett R; Ball, Terry B; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Burgener, Adam

    2015-09-01

    The variable infectivity and transmissibility of HIV/SHIV has been recently associated with the menstrual cycle, with particular susceptibility observed during the luteal phase in nonhuman primate models and ex vivo human explant cultures, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we performed an unbiased, mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis to better understand the mucosal immunological processes underpinning this observed susceptibility to HIV infection. Cervicovaginal lavage samples (n = 19) were collected, characterized as follicular or luteal phase using days since last menstrual period, and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Biological insights from these data were gained using a spectrum of computational methods, including hierarchical clustering, pathway analysis, gene set enrichment analysis, and partial least-squares discriminant analysis with LASSO feature selection. Of the 384 proteins identified, 43 were differentially abundant between phases (P HIV. Recent studies have discovered an enhanced susceptibility to HIV infection during the progesterone-dominant luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. However, the mechanism responsible for this enhanced susceptibility has not yet been determined. Understanding the source of this vulnerability will be important for designing efficacious HIV prevention technologies for women. Furthermore, these findings may also be extrapolated to better understand the impact of exogenous hormone application, such as the use of hormonal contraceptives, on HIV acquisition risk. Hormonal contraceptives are the most widely used contraceptive method in sub-Saharan Africa, the most HIV-burdened area of the world. For this reason, research conducted to better understand how hormones impact host immunity and susceptibility factors important for HIV infection is a global health priority. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Differential effects of exogenous progesterone administration at different stages of the luteal phase on endogenous oestradiol concentration in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, G R; Mann, G E

    2010-04-01

    We have investigated the effects administering exogenous progesterone, via insertion of a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) for 4 days, from either day 5 or day 12 of the oestrous cycle on plasma oestradiol concentrations. In study 1, in which progesterone was administered from day 5, measurement of plasma oestradiol in daily samples revealed a significant (p < 0.001) decrease in peripheral oestradiol concentration. In contrast, in study 2, similar administration of progesterone from day 12 had no effect on plasma oestradiol concentration. In study 3, collection of hourly samples following progesterone treatment on day 5 revealed peak progesterone concentrations within 1 h of CIDR insertion and nadir oestradiol concentrations within 4 h. The results demonstrate that treatment with progesterone early in the luteal phase causes a rapid inhibition of oestradiol secretion, while later treatment does not. While improvements in pregnancy rate following progesterone treatment at this time have traditionally been attributed to increases in progesterone, the potential involvement of decreased oestradiol secretion has often been overlooked.

  10. Assessment of the proliferative, apoptotic and cellular renovation indices of the human mammary epithelium during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, Maria Alicia H; Maier, Carolina M; Falzoni, Roberto; Quadros, Luiz Gerk de Azevedo; Lima, Geraldo R; Baracat, Edmund C; Nazário, Afonso CP

    2005-01-01

    During the menstrual cycle, the mammary gland goes through sequential waves of proliferation and apoptosis. In mammary epithelial cells, hormonal and non-hormonal factors regulate apoptosis. To determine the cyclical effects of gonadal steroids on breast homeostasis, we evaluated the apoptotic index (AI) determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining in human mammary epithelial cells during the spontaneous menstrual cycle and correlated it with cellular proliferation as determined by the expression of Ki-67 during the same period. Normal breast tissue samples were obtained from 42 randomly selected patients in the proliferative (n = 21) and luteal (n = 21) phases. Menstrual cycle phase characterization was based on the date of the last and subsequent menses, and on progesterone serum levels obtained at the time of biopsy. The proliferation index (PI), defined as the number of Ki-67-positive nuclei per 1,000 epithelial cells, was significantly larger in the luteal phase (30.46) than in the follicular phase (13.45; P = 0.0033). The AI was defined as the number of TUNEL-positive cells per 1,000 epithelial cells. The average AI values in both phases of the menstrual cycle were not statistically significant (P = 0.21). However, the cell renewal index (CRI = PI/AI) was significantly higher in the luteal phase (P = 0.033). A significant cyclical variation of PI, AI and CRI was observed. PI and AI peaks occurred on about the 24th day of the menstrual cycle, whereas the CRI reached higher values on the 28th day. We conclude that proliferative activity is dependent mainly on hormonal fluctuations, whereas apoptotic activity is probably regulated by hormonal and non-hormonal factors

  11. Luteal-phase ovarian stimulation increases the number of mature oocytes in older women with severe diminished ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashtian, Justin; Zhang, John

    2018-03-22

    In older women with severe diminished ovarian response (DOR), in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is much less successful due to the low number of mature oocytes collected. The objective of this study was to assess whether follicular-phase stimulation (FPS) and luteal-phase stimulation (LPS) in the same menstrual cycle (double ovarian stimulation) in older women with severe DOR will produce a higher number of oocytes compared to FPS alone. Women with DOR (n = 69; mean age = 42.4) who underwent double ovarian stimulation for IVF were included. Women underwent ovarian stimulation in FPS using clomiphene citrate, letrozole, and gonadotropins followed by oocyte retrieval. The next day following oocyte retrieval, women underwent a second ovarian stimulation (LPS) using the same medications followed by a second oocyte retrieval. T-test was performed in order to compare the clinical characteristics and outcome in the same participant between FPS and LPS. Although antral follicle count at the start of FPS tended to be higher than at the start of the LPS cycle, there was no statistically significant difference between the duration of ovarian stimulation, peak estradiol levels, number of small (FPS alone. The addition of LPS to the conventional FPS increases the number of mature oocytes retrieved in the same IVF cycle, thus potentially increasing the chances of pregnancy in older women with severe DOR. AFC: antral follicle count; BMI: body mass index; DOR: diminished ovarian reserve; E2: estradiol; FPS: follicular-phase stimulation; FSH: follicle stimulating hormone; GnRH: gonadotropin-releasing hormone; HCG: human chorionic gonadotropin; IRB: institutional review board; IVF: in vitro fertilization; LH: luteinizing hormone; LPS: luteal-phase stimulation; MII: metaphase II.

  12. Ultrastructural and biochemical evidence for the presence of mature steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in the cytoplasm of human luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierralta, Walter D; Kohen, Paulina; Castro, Olga; Muñoz, Alex; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2005-10-20

    The distribution of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) inside thecal and granulosa-lutein cells of human corpus luteum (CL) was assessed by immunoelectron microscopy. We found greater levels of StAR immunolabeling in steroidogenic cells from early- and mid-than in late luteal phase CL and lower levels in cells from women treated with a GnRH antagonist in the mid-luteal phase. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed significant levels of StAR antigen in the mitochondria and in the cytoplasm of luteal cells. The 30 kDa mature StAR protein was present in both mitochondria and cytosol (post-mitochondrial) fractions from homogenates of CL at different ages, whereas cytochrome c and mitochondrial HSP70 were detected only in the mitochondrial fraction. Therefore, we hypothesized that either appreciable processing of StAR 37 kDa pre-protein occurs outside the mitochondria, or mature StAR protein is selectively released into the cytoplasm after mitochondrial processing. The presence of mature StAR in the cytoplasm is consonant with the notion that StAR acts on the outer mitochondrial membrane to effect sterol import, and that StAR may interact with other cytoplasmic proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism, including hormone sensitive lipase.

  13. Endocrine and molecular control of luteal and placental function in dogs: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, M P

    2012-12-01

    In the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), the corpus luteum (CL) is the only source of progesterone (P4) in non-pregnant and pregnant animals. The progesterone secretion profiles are almost identical in both conditions until the last third of the luteal phase when the gradual P4 decline turns into a steep drop in pregnant bitches, indicating the onset of parturition. Consequently, the length of the CL-phase in non-pregnant dogs exceeds the luteal lifespan in pregnant animals. The canine CL-function is regulated by many species-specific regulatory mechanisms, the most intriguing of which is the reported independence of gonadotropic support during the first third of dioestrus. Recently, PGE2 has been proposed as one of the most important luteotropic factors acting locally during this time, but afterwards prolactin (PRL) appears to be the main luteotropic factor. Luteal regression/luteolysis occurs, however, in spite of an increased gonadotropic support. Lately, by demonstrating the expression of PRL-receptor (PRLr), a new insight into possible regulatory mechanisms has indicated that the supply of P4 could be controlled upstream of the steroidogenic machinery at the level of PRLr expression and/or function, subsequently leading to the functional suppression of the steroidogenic machinery. An endogenous source of a luteolytic agent is apparently lacking, implicating the luteal regression in non-pregnant bitches as a passive, degenerative process even if the PGF2α-receptor is constitutively expressed in canine CL. This is in contrast to pregnant dogs in which prepartum luteolysis seems to be an active process of CL destruction by PGF2α of utero/placental origin targeting the luteal PGF2α-receptor. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Isolation and functional aspects of free luteal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luborsky, J.L.; Berhrman, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of luteal cell isolation employ enzymatic treatment of luteal tissue with collagenase and deoxyribonuclease. Additional enzymes such as hyaluronidase or Pronase are also used in some instances. Isolated luteal cells retain the morphological characteristics of steroid secreting cells after isolation. They contain mitochondria, variable amounts of lipid droplets, and an extensive smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Isolated luteal cells have been used in numerous studies to examine the regulation of steriodogenesis by luteinizing hormone (LH). LH receptor binding studies were employed to quantitate specific properties of hormone-receptor interaction in relation to cellular function. Binding of [ 125 I]LH to bovine luteal cells and membranes was compared and it was concluded that the enzymatic treatment used to isolate cells did not change the LH receptor binding kinetics

  15. Effects of oestradiol for luteal phase support in fresh embryo transfer cycles: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Liu, Yifeng; Xu, Peng; Wu, Yiqing; Chen, Kai; Guo, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Fan; Huang, Yun; Zhu, Linlin; Zhang, Runjv; Zhang, Dan

    2018-05-12

    Any benefit of oestradiol supplementation with progesterone for luteal support after fresh embryo transfer in in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles remains controversial. In this study, we further addressed this question in cycles using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist for ovarian stimulation. A retrospective cohort study in a tertiary teaching and research hospital. A total of 1602 patients were given oestradiol valerate (E) in addition to progesterone (P) as luteal support. One thousand six hundred and two patients receiving progesterone alone were selected as the control group. Live birth rate. Secondary measures included clinical pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate and premature birth rate. Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were similar for the P alone vs the P+E group. In cycles with oestradiol (E2) levels less than 5000 pmol/L on the day of hCG trigger, E supplementation resulted in a significantly higher live birth rate (23.44% vs 32.92%, OR = 1.60 [95% CI 1.05 to 2.46]). In cycles with oestradiol levels 5000 to 10 000 pmol/L on the day of hCG trigger, E supplementation did not increase the live birth rate (34.43% vs 35.42%, OR = 0.90 [95% CI 0.80 to 1.01]). In cycles with oestradiol levels over 10 000 pmol/L on the day of hCG trigger, the live birth rate was significantly lower (36.83% vs 31.37%, OR = 0.78 [95% CI 0.62 to 0.99]) and the premature birth rate was significantly higher (19.66% vs 28.73%,OR = 1.65 [95% CI 1.05 to 2.59]) in the E supplementation group. Any benefit of oestradiol supplementation for luteal phase support appears to correlate with the serum oestradiol level on the day of hCG trigger. Oestradiol supplementation is beneficial for improving live birth rate in cycles with oestradiol levels less than 5000 pmol/L, but is not recommended in cycles with oestradiol levels over 10 000 pmol/L. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Non-reproductive Effects of Anovulation: Bone Metabolism in the Luteal Phase of Premenopausal Women Differs between Ovulatory and Anovulatory Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niethammer, B; Körner, C; Schmidmayr, M; Luppa, P B; Seifert-Klauss, V R

    2015-12-01

    Introduction: Several authors have linked subclinical ovulatory disturbances in normal length menstrual cycles to premenopausal fracture risk and bone changes. This study systematically examined the influence of ovulation and anovulation on the bone metabolism of premenopausal women. Participants and Methods: In 176 cycles in healthy premenopausal women, FSH, 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) as well as bone alkalic phosphatase (BAP), pyridinoline (PYD) and C-terminal crosslinks (CTX) were measured during the follicular and during the luteal phase. The probability and timing of ovulation was self-assessed by a monitoring device. In addition, bone density of the lumbar spine was measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) at baseline and at the end of the study. Analysis was restricted to blood samples taken more than three days before the following menstruation. Results: 118 cycles out of the 176 collected cycles were complete with blood samples taken within the correct time interval. Of these, 56.8 % were ovulatory by two criteria (ovulation symbol shown on the monitor display and LP progesterone > 6 ng/ml), 33.1 % were possibly ovulatory by one criterion (ovulation symbol shown on the monitor display or LP progesterone > 6 ng/ml), and 10.2 % were anovulatory by both criteria). Ovulation in the previous cycle and in the same cycle did not significantly influence the mean absolute concentrations of the bone markers. However, bone formation (BAP) was higher in the luteal phase of ovulatory cycles than in anovulatory cycles (n. s.) and the relative changes within one cycle were significantly different for bone resorption (CTX) during ovulatory vs. anovulatory cycles (p cycles following each other directly, both ovulation in the previous cycle and ovulation in the present cycle influenced CTX, but not the differences of other bone markers. Conclusion: Ovulatory cycles reduce bone resorption in their luteal phase and that of the

  17. Effect of antiprogestin ZK 98.734 on the ovarian cycle, early pregnancy, and on its binding to progesterone receptors in the myometrium of marmoset Callithrix jacchus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, C.P.; Kholkute, S.D.; Pongubala, J.M.; Patil, R.K.; Elger, W.A.; Jayaraman, S.

    1988-01-01

    The antiprogestin ZK 98.734 (11 beta-(4-dimethylaminophenyl-17 beta-hydroxy-17 alpha-(3-hydroxy-prop-1(Z)-enyl-4,9(10)-estradien-3-one) was administered i.m. (5 mg/day) for three consecutive days to two groups of common marmosets. In one group (nonpregnant, n = 6), it was injected during the luteal phase, and to the second group (pregnant, n = 7), it was injected during early pregnancy, on Days 24-26 of the mid-cycle estradiol peak. Administration of ZK 98.734 during the luteal phase caused a sharp drop in plasma progesterone levels. The luteal phase was shortened whether the drug was administered during the early or the late luteal phase. Similarly, administration of ZK 98.734 during early pregnancy caused a significant drop in progesterone levels, and pregnancy was terminated in all of the animals. The post-treatment cycles in both groups of animals were ovulatory and of normal duration. 3 H-ZK 98.734 showed specific binding to myometrial cytosol fraction. ZK 98.734 also displaced the binding of 3 H-progesterone to progesterone receptors. However, progesterone had higher binding affinity than did ZK 98.734. The antifertility action of ZK 98.734 could be a result either of its luteolytic action or of its blocking the progesterone receptors in the target tissue. This study, therefore, indicates that in the common marmoset ZK 98.734 is a progesterone antagonist with a potential to terminate early pregnancy

  18. Colour Doppler Ultrasonography as a Tool to Assess Luteal Function in Santa Inês Ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, L M; Fonseca, J F; Arashiro, Ekn; Souza-Fabjan, Jmg; Ribeiro, Acs; Oba, E; Viana, Jhm; Brandão, F Z

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate luteal dynamics in the Santa Inês ewes using colour Doppler (CD) ultrasonography. Oestrus was synchronized in nulliparous females (n = 18), and subsequently, they were only teased (n = 6) or teased and mated (n = 12). Blood samples were collected daily for plasma progesterone (P4 ) concentrations. Ultrasonographic images of corpora lutea (CL) in CD mode were obtained for further analysis in its largest diameter. The CD mode allowed an early sequential monitoring of CL that was visualized by the first time 0.77 ± 0.62 days after ovulation, with luteal area 29.68 ± 13.21 mm(2) . During the luteogenesis, a progressive increase was observed, followed by a plateau of luteal area, vascularization area and plasma concentrations of P4 reaching maximum values in D11 (124.0 ± 38.0 mm(2) , 52.78 ± 24.08 mm(2) and 11.23 ± 4.89 ng/ml, respectively). In the luteolysis, the plasma concentrations of P4 decreased sharply, whereas luteal and vascularization area gradually. The vascularization area was positively correlated with plasma concentrations of P4 during the luteogenesis (r = 0.22) and luteolysis (r = 0.48). The luteal dynamics of Santa Inês ewes showed patterns similar to those observed in other sheep breeds studied. The CD ultrasonography has the potential to be used as a tool to assess luteal function in sheep. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Protective role of melatonin in progesterone production by human luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, Toshiaki; Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Lee, Lifa; Kizuka, Fumie; Tamura, Isao; Taniguchi, Ken; Maekawa, Ryo; Asada, Hiromi; Shimamura, Katsunori; Reiter, Russel J; Sugino, Norihiro

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated whether melatonin protects luteinized granulosa cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) as an antioxidant to enhance progesterone production in the follicle during ovulation. Follicular fluid was sampled at the time of oocyte retrieval in women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Melatonin concentrations in the follicular fluid were positively correlated with progesterone concentrations (r = 0.342, P progesterone and 8-OHdG concentrations were negatively correlated (r = -0.246, P Progesterone production by luteinized granulosa cells was significantly inhibited by H(2)O(2). Melatonin treatment overcame the inhibitory effect of H(2) O(2) . Twenty-five patients who had luteal phase defect (serum progesterone concentrations progesterone concentrations (>10 ng/mL during the mid-luteal phase) in nine of 14 women (64.3%), whereas only two of 11 women (18.1%) showed normal serum progesterone levels in the control group. In conclusion, melatonin protects granulosa cells undergoing luteinization from ROS in the follicle and contributes to luteinization for progesterone production during ovulation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Relationship of oestrus synchronization method, circulating hormones, luteinizing hormone and prostaglandin F-2 alpha receptors and luteal progesterone concentration to premature luteal regression in superovulated sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiewe, M C; Fitz, T A; Brown, J L; Stuart, L D; Wildt, D E

    1991-09-01

    Ewes were treated with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and oestrus was synchronized using either a dual prostaglandin F-2 alpha (PGF-2 alpha) injection regimen or pessaries impregnated with medroxy progesterone acetate (MAP). Natural cycling ewes served as controls. After oestrus or AI (Day 0), corpora lutea (CL) were enucleated surgically from the left and right ovaries on Days 3 and 6, respectively. The incidence of premature luteolysis was related (P less than 0.05) to PGF-2 alpha treatment and occurred in 7 of 8 ewes compared with 0 of 4 controls and 1 of 8 MAP-exposed females. Sheep with regressing CL had lower circulating and intraluteal progesterone concentrations and fewer total and small dissociated luteal cells on Day 3 than gonadotrophin-treated counterparts with normal CL. Progesterone concentration in the serum and luteal tissue was higher (P less than 0.05) in gonadotrophin-treated ewes with normal CL than in the controls; but luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors/cell were not different on Days 3 and 6. There were no apparent differences in the temporal patterns of circulating oestradiol-17 beta, FSH and LH. High progesterone in gonadotrophin-treated ewes with normal CL coincided with an increase in total luteal mass and numbers of cells, which were primarily reflected in more small luteal cells than in control ewes. Gonadotrophin-treated ewes with regressing CL on Day 3 tended (P less than 0.10) to have fewer small luteal cells and fewer (P less than 0.05) low-affinity PGF-2 alpha binding sites than sheep with normal CL. By Day 6, luteal integrity and cell viability was absent in ewes with prematurely regressed CL. These data demonstrate that (i) the incidence of premature luteal regression is highly correlated with the use of PGF-2 alpha; (ii) this abnormal luteal tissue is functionally competent for 2-3 days after ovulation, but deteriorates rapidly thereafter and (iii) luteal-dysfunctioning ewes experience a reduction in numbers of

  1. Apoptosis is increased and cell proliferation is decreased in out-of-phase endometria from infertile and recurrent abortion patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irigoyen Marcela

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various endometrial abnormalities have been associated with luteal phase deficiency: a significant dyssynchrony in the maturation of the glandular epithelium and the stroma and a prevalence of out-of-phase endometrial biopsy specimens. Out-of phase endometrium is a controversial disorder related to failed implantation, infertility and early pregnancy loss. Given that the regulation of the apoptotic process in endometrium of luteal phase deficiency is still unknown, the aim of this study was to evaluate cell proliferation, apoptosis and the levels of the main effector caspase, caspase-3 in the luteal in-phase and out-of-phase endometrium. Methods Thirty-seven endometrial samples from sterile or recurrent abortion patients were included in this study: 21 in-phase samples (controls and 16 samples with out-of-phase endometrium. Biopsy specimens of eutopic endometrium were obtained from all subjects during days 21-25 of the menstrual cycle. The endometrium with endometrial maturity of cycle day 25 or less at the time of menstruation was considered out-of phase. Endometrial tissues were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde. For apoptosis quantification, sections were processed for in situ immunohistochemical localization of nuclei exhibiting DNA fragmentation, by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT-mediated dUTP digoxygenin nick-end labeling (TUNEL technique. Expressions of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA as a marker of cell proliferation, and of cleaved caspase-3 as a marker of apoptosis, were assessed by immunohistochemistry in the luteal in-phase and out-of-phase endometrium from infertile and recurrent abortion patients. Results Luteal out-of-phase endometrium had increased apoptosis levels compared to in-phase endometrium (p Conclusions this study represents the first report describing variations at the cell proliferation and cell death levels in the out-of-phase endometrium in comparison with in-phase

  2. Cardiovascular response to short-term fasting in menstrual phases in young women: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Kumiko; Okita, Yoshimitsu; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Mase, Tomoki; Miyawaki, Chiemi; Nakamura, Harunobu

    2015-08-28

    Menstrual cycle-related symptoms are an important health issue for many women, and some may affect cardiac autonomic regulation. In the present study, we evaluated the cardiovascular and physiological stress response to 12-h short-term fasting in the menstrual phases of healthy young women. We performed a randomized crossover study. Subjects were seven female university students (age: 22.3 ± 1.0 years). The experiments comprised four sessions: meal intake in the follicular phase, meal intake in the luteal phase, fasting in the follicular phase, and fasting in the luteal phase. All subjects participated in a total of four experimental sessions during two successive phases (follicular and luteal phase in the same menstrual cycle, or luteal phase and follicular phase in the next menstrual cycle) according to a randomized crossover design. R-R intervals were continuously recorded before and after meals, and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was performed. Other physiological data were obtained before and 20, 40, 60, and 80 min after meal intake or after the corresponding time point of meal intake (fasting in the follicular or luteal phase). Heart rate decreased during fasting in the follicular and luteal phases. High frequency power increased during fasting in the follicular and luteal phases. In addition, salivary cortisol concentrations decreased during fasting in the luteal phase. In the present study, short-term fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and lower cortisol levels in the luteal phase in these young women. These results indicate a possibility to produce an anti-stress effect in the luteal phase, which may reduce menstrual symptoms.

  3. Transcriptomes of bovine ovarian follicular and luteal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Romereim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Affymetrix Bovine GeneChip® Gene 1.0 ST Array RNA expression analysis was performed on four somatic ovarian cell types: the granulosa cells (GCs and theca cells (TCs of the dominant follicle and the large luteal cells (LLCs and small luteal cells (SLCs of the corpus luteum. The normalized linear microarray data was deposited to the NCBI GEO repository (GSE83524. Subsequent ANOVA determined genes that were enriched (≥2 fold more or decreased (≤−2 fold less in one cell type compared to all three other cell types, and these analyzed and filtered datasets are presented as tables. Genes that were shared in enriched expression in both follicular cell types (GCs and TCs or in both luteal cells types (LLCs and SLCs are also reported in tables. The standard deviation of the analyzed array data in relation to the log of the expression values is shown as a figure. These data have been further analyzed and interpreted in the companion article “Gene expression profiling of ovarian follicular and luteal cells provides insight into cellular identities and functions” (Romereim et al., 2017 [1].

  4. INFLUENCE OF EMBRYO IMPLANTATION ON ENDOMETRIUM IN LUTEAL PHASE OF MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Dmitrović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on the facts known from embryology, rapid endometrial growth during late luteal phase of the cycle could be expected. In this research, we sought to establish if normal intrauterine pregnancy could be confirmed before gestational sac vizualization, by trans- vaginal ultrasound and hormonal tests. The primary hypothesis was that the endometrial thickness and/or volume in the luteal phase of the cycle, in cycles resulting in normal intra- uterine pregnancy, is significantly different compared to non-conception cycles. We also hypothesized that endometrial thickness and/or volume are different in cycles resulting in normal intrauterine pregnancy compared to cycles resulting in abnormal pregnancy, namely biochemical and ectopic pregnancy, and spontaneous abortion. Additionally, next to endometrial volumes, we decided to measure the endometrium in three planes (thick- ness, length and width, to see if the hypothesized endometrial volume differences could be approximated by this simple surrogate technique, which is available in most parts of the world. Methods: This was a prospective observational study of women enrolled in an assisted reproduction program. Patients were stimulated with standard stimulation protocols. The oocyte retrieval was performed 36 hours after the hCG administration and the embryo was transferred 3 or 5 days later. Patients were first seen on day 20–24 of the cycle , and then on day 27–30 of the cycle. A blood sample was taken, and 3D transvaginal ultrasound was done. Following the completion of study visits, patients with a positive HCG test received phone call check- ups until week 12 of pregnancy, and were stratified according to pregnancy outcome. Results: 80 subjects signed the informed consent form. 4 patients had the IUI in the stimulated cycle, one had ET in spontaneous cycle, and 74 patients had undergone IVF/ET in the stimulated cycle. 63 patients in the stimulated cycles completed the study and

  5. The role of adrenergic activation on murine luteal cell viability and progesterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Tang, Min; Jiang, Huaide; Wu, Bing; Cai, Wei; Hu, Chuan; Bao, Riqiang; Dong, Qiming; Xiao, Li; Li, Gang; Zhang, Chunping

    2016-09-15

    Sympathetic innervations exist in mammalian CL. The action of catecholaminergic system on luteal cells has been the focus of a variety of studies. Norepinephrine (NE) increased progesterone secretion of cattle luteal cells by activating β-adrenoceptors. In this study, murine luteal cells were treated with NE and isoprenaline (ISO). We found that NE increased the viability of murine luteal cells and ISO decreased the viability of luteal cells. Both NE and ISO promoted the progesterone production. Nonselective β-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol reversed the effect of ISO on cell viability but did not reverse the effect of NE on cell viability. Propranolol blocked the influence of NE and ISO on progesterone production. These results reveal that the increase of luteal cell viability induced by NE is not dependent on β-adrenergic activation. α-Adrenergic activation possibly contributes to it. Both NE and ISO increased progesterone production through activating β-adrenergic receptor. Further study showed that CyclinD2 is involved in the increase of luteal cell induced by NE. 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, LHR, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and PGF2α contribute to the progesterone production induced by NE and ISO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Expression of the GnRH and GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) genes in the hypothalamus and of the GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland of anestrous and luteal phase ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowska, Magdalena; Lapot, Magdalena; Malewski, Tadeusz; Mateusiak, Krystyna; Misztal, Tomasz; Przekop, Franciszek

    2008-11-01

    Data exists showing that seasonal changes in the innervations of GnRH cells in the hypothalamus and functions of some neural systems affecting GnRH neurons are associated with GnRH release in ewes. Consequently, we put the question as to how the expression of GnRH gene and GnRH-R gene in the hypothalamus and GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland is reflected with LH secretion in anestrous and luteal phase ewes. Analysis of GnRH gene expression by RT-PCR in anestrous ewes indicated comparable levels of GnRH mRNA in the preoptic area, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus. GnRH-R mRNA at different concentrations was found throughout the preoptic area, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus, stalk/median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. The highest GnRH-R mRNA levels were detected in the stalk/median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. During the luteal phase of the estrous cycle in ewes, the levels of GnRH mRNA and GnRH-R mRNA in all structures were significantly higher than in anestrous ewes. Also LH concentrations in blood plasma of luteal phase ewes were significantly higher than those of anestrous ewes. In conclusion, results from this study suggest that low expression of the GnRH and GnRH-R genes in the hypothalamus and of the GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland, amongst others, may be responsible for a decrease in LH secretion and the anovulatory state in ewes during the long photoperiod.

  7. Ruptured corpus luteal cyst: Prediction of clinical outcomes with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Seok; Moon, Min Hoan; Woo, Hyun Sik; Sung, Chang Kyu; Jeon, Hye Won; Lee, Taek Sang [SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the determinant pretreatment CT findings that can predict surgical intervention for patients suffering from corpus luteal cyst rupture with hemoperitoneum. From January 2009 to December 2014, a total of 106 female patients (mean age, 26.1 years; range, 17–44 years) who visited the emergency room of our institute for acute abdominal pain and were subsequently diagnosed with ruptured corpus luteal cyst with hemoperitoneum were included in the retrospective study. The analysis of CT findings included cyst size, cyst shape, sentinel clot sign, ring of fire sign, hemoperitoneum depth, active bleeding in portal phase and attenuation of hemoperitoneum. The comparison of CT findings between the surgery and conservative management groups was performed with the Mann-Whitney U test or chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant CT findings in predicting surgical intervention for a ruptured cyst. Comparative analysis revealed that the presence of active bleeding and the hemoperitoneum depth were significantly different between the surgery and conservative management groups and were confirmed as significant CT findings for predicting surgery, with adjusted odds ratio (ORs) of 3.773 and 1.318, respectively (p < 0.01). On the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis for hemoperitoneum depth, the optimal cut-off value was 5.8 cm with 73.7% sensitivity and 58.6% specificity (Az = 0.711, p = 0.004). In cases with a hemoperitoneum depth > 5.8 cm and concurrent active bleeding, the OR for surgery increased to 5.786. The presence of active bleeding and the hemoperitoneum depth on a pretreatment CT scan can be predictive warning signs of surgery for a patient with a ruptured corpus luteal cyst with hemoperitoneum.

  8. GnRHa trigger and individualized luteal phase hCG support according to ovarian response to stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, Peter; Polyzos, N P; Alsbjerg, B

    2013-01-01

    , there was a lack of blinding in the RCTs. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Although a non-significant result, one bolus of 1.500 IU hCG after GnRHa trigger tended to reduce the OHSS rate in patients with 15-25 follicles ≥11 mm as well as secure the ongoing pregnancy rate. In contrast, in patients at low risk......STUDY QUESTION: Does a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger followed by a bolus of 1.500 IU hCG in a group of patients at risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) reduce the OHSS incidence compared with hCG trigger? SUMMARY ANSWER: A GnRHa trigger followed by early luteal hCG support with one bolus...... of 1.500 IU hCG appears to reduce OHSS in patients at risk of OHSS; however, in a low-risk group a second bolus of 1.500 IU hCG induced two cases of late onset OHSS. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A GnRHa trigger is an alternative to hCG in GnRH antagonist co-treated cycles. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Two...

  9. Association of menstrual phase with smoking behavior, mood and menstrual phase-associated symptoms among young Japanese women smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroko; Ohashi, Kazutomo

    2013-03-02

    Previous studies of the relationship between the menstrual phases and smoking behavior have been problematic, so the association of menstrual phases with smoking behavior and correlations among smoking, psychological and physical conditions in each phase of the menstrual cycle are unclear. To accurately examine the association between menstrual phases and the amount of smoking (number of cigarettes smoked and breath CO concentration), craving of smoking on visual analogue scale (VAS), depression in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and menstrual phase-associated symptoms in the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ), we improved various methodological issues, specifically, 1) Ovulation was confirmed by measuring the basal body temperature and identifying a urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in two cycles; 2) The menstrual, follicular, and luteal phases were clearly defined for subjects with different menstrual cycles; 3) The breath CO concentration was measured every day. A notice was posted on public bulletin boards to recruit research subjects and twenty-nine young Japanese women smokers aged 19 to 25 years old were analyzed. The number of cigarettes smoked was greater and the CO concentration was higher in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase. The levels of craving for smoking (VAS), depressiveness (CES-D), and menstrual phase-associated symptoms (MDQ) in the menstrual and luteal phases were higher than those in the follicular phase. The mean score for CES-D was 16 points (the cut-off value in screening for depression) or higher in the menstrual (16.9 ± 8.2) and luteal phases (17.2 ± 8.4).The number of cigarettes smoked and CO concentration were significantly correlated with the levels of craving for smoking, depressiveness, and menstrual phase-associated symptoms in all phases except for MDQ scores in follicular phase. The amount of smoking in the luteal phase was most strongly correlated with these symptoms

  10. Astaxanthin increases progesterone production in cultured bovine luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Hachiro; Akagi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Shinya

    2017-06-29

    Although astaxanthin (AST) is known to be a strong antioxidant, its effects on reproductive function in domestic animals have not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, we investigated the effects of AST on luteal cells, which produce progesterone (P4), an important hormone for maintaining pregnancy. Luteal cells were prepared by collagenase dispersion of the corpus luteum (CL). The addition of racemic AST at a low concentration (production than RR-AST. When 1 mg/kg·body weight of SS-AST derived from green algae was fed to cows for 2 weeks, its concentration in blood plasma was 10.9 nM on average, which was sufficient to expect an in vitro effect on the production of P4 in cows. These results suggested the potential of SS-AST supplements for cows to elevate luteal function.

  11. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on corticolimbic brain activation by visual food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Tamar C; Kim, Ginah L; Krzemien, Alicja; Van Vugt, Dean A

    2010-12-02

    Food intake is decreased during the late follicular phase and increased in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. While a changing ovarian steroid milieu is believed to be responsible for this behavior, the specific mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Brain activity in response to visual food stimuli was compared during the estrogen dominant peri-ovulatory phase and the progesterone dominant luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Twelve women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during the peri-ovulatory and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in a counterbalanced fashion. Whole brain T2* images were collected while subjects viewed pictures of high calorie (HC) foods, low calorie (LC) foods, and control (C) pictures presented in a block design. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the late follicular phase and luteal phase was determined for the contrasts HC-C, LC-C, HC-LC, and LC-HC. Both HC and LC stimuli activated numerous corticolimbic brain regions in the follicular phase, whereas only HC stimuli were effective in the luteal phase. Activation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala, and hippocampus in response to the HC-C contrast and the hippocampus in response to the LC-C contrast was significantly increased in the late follicular phase compared to the luteal phase. Activation of the orbitofrontal cortex and mid cingulum in response to the HC-LC contrast was greater during the luteal phase. These results demonstrate for the first time that brain responses to visual food cues are influenced by menstrual cycle phase. We postulate that ovarian steroid modulation of the corticolimbic brain contributes to changes in ingestive behavior during the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Menstrual phase-related differences in the pulsatility index on the central retinal artery suggest an oestrogen vasodilatation effect that antagonizes with progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Luiz Carlos; Faria, Marcos; Pettersen, Heverton; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2011-03-01

    The actual effect of steroid hormones on cerebral microcirculation is still controversial. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate vascular flow variations in the central retinal artery that may exist during the ovulatory menstrual cycle. A total of 34 healthy women were included in this observational, longitudinal, and prospective study. All participants were submitted to dopplerfluxometric evaluation of the eyes in order to study the pulsatility index (PI) of the central retinal arteries, during four phases of the menstrual cycle: early follicular, mid follicular, periovulatory, and mid luteal phases. Subjects' ages ranged from 14 to 47 years old (mean: 29.7 ± 10.1) and PI did not differ among age groups. The PI of the central retinal artery was different among the four phases of the menstrual cycle. PI showed a significant decrease from early follicular phase (1.72) to mid follicular phase (1.57) (p = 0.037), and was similar during periovulatory phase (1.56) and significantly increased in mid luteal phase (1.70). After that it returned to the values observed in the early follicular phase. Our results suggest the existence of an oestrogen vasodilatation effect on the central retinal artery that is menstrual phase-related and antagonized by progesterone.

  13. Nonsupplemented luteal phase characteristics after the administration of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin, recombinant luteinizing hormone, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist to induce final oocyte maturation in in vitro fertilization patients after ovarian stimulation with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone and GnRH antagonist cotreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Macklon (Nick); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); M. Ludwig (Michael); R.E. Felberbaum; K. Diedrich; S. Bustion; E. Loumaye; B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart); N.G.M. Beckers (Nicole)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractReplacing GnRH agonist cotreatment for the prevention of a premature rise in LH during ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF) by the late follicular phase administration of GnRH antagonist may render supplementation of the luteal phase redundant, because

  14. The relationship between serum adiponectin and postpartum luteal activity in high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafi, Mojtaba; Tamadon, Amin; Saeb, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to initially determine the pattern of serum adiponectin concentrations during a normal estrous cycle in high-producing postpartum dairy cows and then evaluate the relationship between the serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin with the commencement of postpartum luteal activity and ovarian activities in clinically healthy high-producing Holstein dairy cows. During a normal estrous cycle of cows (n = 6), serum adiponectin concentrations gradually decreased (P Cows with higher peak of milk yield had lower serum adiponectin concentrations by week 7 postpartum (P = 0.01). Serum adiponectin and insulin concentrations in cows with different postpartum luteal activity (based on the progesterone profile) were evaluated using the following class of cows: normal (≤45 days, n = 11) and delayed (>45 days, n = 11) commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) and four different profiles of normal luteal activity (NLA, n = 5), prolonged luteal phase (n = 6), delayed first ovulation (n = 6), and anovulation (AOV, n = 5). Serum adiponectin concentrations decreased gradually by week 3 postpartum in NLA and then increased; whereas in AOV and delayed first ovulation, they were decreased after week 3 postpartum (P cows was more than that of NLA cows. Insulin concentrations were almost maintained at a stable level in NLA cows (P > 0.05), whereas they increased in the other groups (P cows with C-LA greater than 45 days decreased more than those with C-LA 45 days or less after week 3 postpartum (P = 0.002). Serum adiponectin concentrations at week 7 postpartum were lower in delayed C-LA (P = 0.01). Milk yield in cows with C-LA greater than 45 days increased more than cows with C-LA 45 days or less postpartum (P = 0.002). Insulin concentrations increased relatively in parallel from weeks 1 to 7 postpartum in cows either with C-LA greater than 45 or with C-LA 45 days or less. We showed for the first time the profile of serum adiponectin concentrations

  15. Impact of peak/mid luteal estradiol on pregnancy outcome after intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, R.; Hussain, Z.; Zahir, H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare peak to mid estradiol ratio with the probability of successful conception after intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. Method: The quasi-experimental study was conducted in an infertility clinic at Islamabad from June 2010 till August 2011, and comprised couples subjected to intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. Down-regulation of ovaries was followed by calculated stimulation, ovulation induction, oocytes retrieval, intra cytoplasmic sperm injection, in vitro maturation of embryos and finally blastocysts transfer. Serum estradiol was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on ovulation induction day and the day of embryo transfer. Failure of procedure was detected by beta human chorionic gonadotropin 5-25mIU/ml (Group I; non-pregnant). Females with beta human chorionic gonadotropin>25mIU/ml and no cardiac activity after 4 weeks of transfer were placed in Group II (pre-clinical abortion), and confirmation of foetal heart in the latter comprised Group III (clinical pregnancy). Data was analysed using SPSS 15. Results: Of the 323 couples initially enrolled, embryo transfer was carried out in 282(87.3%) females. Clinical pregnancy was achieved in 101(36%) of the cases, while 61(21.63%) had pre-clinical abortion, and 120(42%) remained non-pregnant. The peak/mid-luteal estradiolratio was low (2.3) in patients who had high oocyte maturity (p=0.001) and fertilisation rate (p=0.003) compared to non-pregnant patients with high peak/mid-luteal estradiolratio (2.56). Conclusion: High peak estradiol with maintenance of optimal levels in mid-luteal phase is required for implantation of fertilised ovum and accomplishment of clinical pregnancy. (author)

  16. The Adequate Corpus Luteum: miR-96 Promotes Luteal Cell Survival and Progesterone Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Bushra T; Sontakke, Sadanand D; Ioannidis, Jason; Duncan, W Colin; Donadeu, F Xavier

    2017-07-01

    Inadequate progesterone production from the corpus luteum is associated with pregnancy loss. Data available in model species suggest important roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in luteal development and maintenance. To comprehensively investigate the involvement of miRNAs during the ovarian follicle-luteal transition. The effects of specific miRNAs on survival and steroid production by human luteinized granulosa cells (hLGCs) were tested using specific miRNA inhibitors. Candidate miRNAs were identified through microarray analyses of follicular and luteal tissues in a bovine model. An academic institution in the United Kingdom associated with a teaching hospital. hLGCs were obtained by standard transvaginal follicular-fluid aspiration from 35 women undergoing assisted conception. Inhibition of candidate miRNAs in vitro. Levels of miRNAs, mRNAs, FOXO1 protein, apoptosis, and steroids were measured in tissues and/or cultured cells. Two specific miRNA clusters, miR-183-96-182 and miR-212-132, were dramatically increased in luteal relative to follicular tissues. miR-96 and miR-132 were the most upregulated miRNAs within each cluster. Database analyses identified FOXO1 as a putative target of both these miRNAs. In cultured hLGCs, inhibition of miR-96 increased apoptosis and FOXO1 protein levels, and decreased progesterone production. These effects were prevented by small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of FOXO1. In bovine luteal cells, miR-96 inhibition also led to increases in apoptosis and FOXO1 protein levels. miR-96 targets FOXO1 to regulate luteal development through effects on cell survival and steroid production. The miR-183-96-182 cluster could provide a novel target for the manipulation of luteal function. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  17. Effects of single dose GnRH agonist as luteal support on pregnancy outcome in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles: an RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Davar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no doubt that luteal phase support is essential to enhance the reproductive outcome in IVF cycles. In addition to progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin, several studies have described GnRH agonists as luteal phase support to improve implantation rate, pregnancy rate and live birth rate, whereas other studies showed dissimilar conclusions. All of these studies have been done in fresh IVF cycles. Objective: To determine whether an additional GnRH agonist administered at the time of implantation for luteal phase support in frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET improves the embryo developmental potential. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective controlled trial study in 200 FET cycles, patients were randomized on the day of embryo transfer into group 1 (n=100 to whom a single dose of GnRH agonist (0.1 mg triptorelin was administered three days after transfer and group 2 (n=100, who did not receive agonist. Both groups received daily vaginal progesterone suppositories plus estradiol valerate 6 mg daily. Primary outcome measure was clinical pregnancy rate. Secondary outcome measures were implantation rate, chemical, ongoing pregnancy rate and abortion rate. Results: A total of 200 FET cycles were analyzed. Demographic data and embryo quality were comparable between two groups. No statistically significant difference in clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates was observed between the two groups (26% versus 21%, p=0.40 and 21% versus 17%, p=0.37, respectively. Conclusion: Administration of a subcutaneous GnRH agonist at the time of implantation does not increase clinical or ongoing pregnancy.

  18. Comparison of the Efficacy of Two Vaginal Progesterone Formulations, Crinone 8% Gel and Utrogestan Capsules, Used for Luteal Support in Blastocyst Stage Embryo Transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jung Wang

    2009-12-01

    Conclusion: Luteal phase support with Crinone 8% vaginal gel (90 mg daily resulted in better clinical pregnancy and implantation rates than Utrogestan vaginal capsules (200 mg, 4 times daily in IVF/ICSI–BT cycles.

  19. Transcriptome analysis reveals differences in mechanisms regulating cessation of luteal function in pregnant and non-pregnant dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatta, Sophie; Rehrauer, Hubert; Gram, Aykut; Boos, Alois; Kowalewski, Mariusz Pawel

    2017-09-27

    In the domestic dog, corpora lutea (CL) are the only source of progesterone (P4), both in pregnant and non-pregnant cycles because there is no placental steroidogenesis. The absence of an endogenous luteolysin in absence of pregnancy results in long-lasting physiological pseudopregnancy, strongly contrasting with the acute luteolysis observed prepartum. The underlying biological mechanisms and the involvement of P4 signalling remain, however, not fully understood. Therefore, here, next-generation sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on CL from the late luteal phase and compared with normally luteolyzing CL collected at the prepartum P4 decrease. The contrast "luteal regression over luteolysis" yielded 1595 differentially expressed genes (DEG). The CL in late luteal regression were predominantly associated with functional terms linked to extracellular matrix (p = 5.52e-05). Other terms related to transcriptional activity (p = 2.45e-04), and steroid hormone signalling (p = 2.29e-04), which were more highly represented in late regression than during luteolysis. The prepartum luteolysis was associated with immune inflammatory responses (p = 2.87e-14), including acute-phase reaction (p = 4.10e-06). Immune system-related events were also more highly represented in CL derived from normal luteolysis (p = 7.02e-04), compared with those from dogs in which luteolysis was induced with an antigestagen (1480 DEG in total). Additionally, the withdrawal of P4 at mid-gestation resulted in 92 DEG; over-represented terms enriched in antigestagen-treated dogs were related to the inflammatory response (p = 0.005) or response to IL1 (p = 7.29e-05). Terms related to proliferation, e.g., centrosome organization (p = 0.002) and steroid metabolic processes (p = 0.001), prevailed at mid-gestation. Thereby, our results revealed the nature of luteotropic effects of P4 within canine CL. It appears that, even though they result in diminished steroidogenic output, the effect of

  20. The methoxychlor metabolite, HPTE, inhibits rat luteal cell progesterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Yucel; Derk, Raymond C; Meighan, Terence; Rao, K Murali Krishna; Murono, Eisuke P

    2011-07-01

    The methoxychlor metabolite, HPTE, was shown to inhibit P450-cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) activity resulting in decreased progesterone production by cultured ovarian follicular cells in previous studies. It is not known whether HPTE has any effect on progesterone formation by the corpus luteum. Exposure to 100 nM HPTE reduced progesterone production by luteal cells with progressive declines to progesterone formation and P450scc catalytic activity of hCG- or 8 Br-cAMP-stimulated luteal cells. However, HPTE did not alter mRNA and protein levels of P450scc. Compounds acting as estrogen (17 β-estradiol, bisphenol-A or octylphenol), antiestrogen (ICI) or antiandrogen (monobutyl phthalate, flutamide or M-2) added alone to luteal cells did not mimic the action of HPTE on progesterone and P450scc activity. These results suggest that HPTE directly inhibits P450scc catalytic activity resulting in reduced progesterone formation, and this action was not mediated through estrogen or androgen receptors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Quantitative comparison of luteal histology in the rat and rabbit: changes from mid- to late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmarajan, A M; Bruce, N W; Meyer, G T

    1989-01-01

    Progesterone secretion by the corpora lutea (CL) of rats and rabbits declines from a peak, at about Day 16 of gestation, to near term (Day 22 rats and 28 rabbits). However there are major differences between the two species in CL growth and blood flow over this period. In the present work quantitative histological measurements were made of CL at these stages to examine the accompanying structural changes. Eight rats and five rabbits were examined at each stage: standard morphometric techniques were used. There was gross discrepancy between the two species in the histology of their CL at peak secretory activity. Although the proportions of the major tissue components were similar, the rabbit luteal cell (52 pl) was five times larger than that in the rat (9 pl). There was substantially less vascular and interstitial space in the rabbit, all characteristics which might affect transport processes between luteal cell cytoplasm and blood. Over the period examined, there was no change in CL volume in the rat but a 37% reduction in the rabbit due to loss of luteal cells. The vascular space in the rat, however, was reduced, whereas that in the rabbit declined only in proportion to the overall decrease in CL volume. These results show that structurally there is a substantial difference in patterns of early regression between the two species which reflect different mechanisms involved. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2621138

  2. Degradation of high density lipoprotein in cultured rat luteal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, V.P.; Menon, K.M.J.

    1986-01-01

    In rat ovary luteal cells, degradation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) to tricholoracetic acid (TCA)-soluble products accounts for only a fraction of the HDL-derived cholesterol used for steroidogenesis. In this study the authors have investigated the fate of 125 I]HDL bound to cultured luteal cells using pulse-chase technique. Luteal cell cultures were pulse labeled with [ 125 I]HDL 3 and reincubated in the absence of HDL. By 24 h about 50% of the initallay bound radioactivity was released into the medium, of which 60-65% could be precipitated with 10% TCA. Gel filtration of the chase incubation medium on 10% agarose showed that the amount of TCA-soluble radioactivity was nearly completely accounted for by a sharp peak in the low molecular weight region which was identified as 96% monoiodotyrosine by paper chromatography. The TCA-precipitable radioactivity was nearly completely accounted for by a sharp peak in the low molecular weight region which was identified as 96% monoiodotyrosine by paper chromatography. The TCA-precipitable radioactivity eluted over a wide range of molecular weights (15,000-80,000), and there was very little intact HDL present. Electrophoresis of the chase medium showed that component of the TCA-precipitable portion had mobility similar to apo AI. Lysosomal inhibitors of receptor-mediated endocytosis had no effect on the composition or quantity of radioactivity released during chase incubation. The results show that HDL 3 binding to luteal cells is followed by complete degradation of the lipoprotein, although the TCA-soluble part does not reflect the extent of degradation

  3. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on the concentration of individual carotenoids in lipoproteins of premenopausal women: a controlled dietary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M R; Johnson, E J; Lanza, E; Graubard, B I; Beecher, G R; Muesing, R

    1998-01-01

    Because premenopausal women experience cyclic fluctuations of plasma carotenoids and their lipoprotein carriers, it is hypothesized that carotenoid concentrations in lipoprotein fractions fluctuate by phase of the menstrual cycle. Nine women ate a standard set of carotenoid-rich foods daily for two cycles under isoenergetic conditions. In the second cycle, hormones and carotenoids in lipoprotein fractions were measured in the early and late follicular and luteal phases. alpha-Carotene concentrations in the LDL fraction were lower in the early than in the late follicular phase (P = 0.03) on the basis of regression analysis. beta-carotene concentrations in the LDL fraction and the HDL2 subfraction were higher in the late follicular than in the luteal phase (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively). Lutein/zeaxanthin concentrations in the LDL and HDL fractions were higher in the late follicular than in the luteal phase (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively). In each phase, 80% of alpha-carotene, 82% of beta-carotene, 85% of lycopene, and 64% of lutein/zeaxanthin were distributed in the LDL fraction. Among the hydrocarbon cartenoids, 18% of alpha-carotene and of beta-carotene and 13% of lycopene were distributed in the HDL fraction, with slightly more in the HDL2 than in the HDL3 subfraction. In contrast 34% of lutein/zeaxanthin was distributed in the HDL fraction with more concentrated in the HDL3 than in the HDL2 subfraction. Less than 4% of any carotenoid was found in the VLDL + IDL (intermediate-density-lipoprotein) fractions. Thus, the hydrocarbon carotenoids were highly concentrated in the LDL fraction and xanthophyll was more evenly distributed in the LDL and HDL fractions. The cyclic fluctuations of these carotenoids in lipoprotein fractions add another dimension to the understanding of their transport and physiologic function.

  4. Transvaginal sonographic evaluation at different menstrual cycle phases in diagnosis of uterine lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajishaiha M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Masomeh Hajishaiha1, Mohammad Ghasemi-rad2, Nazila Karimpour1, Nikol Mladkova3, Farzaneh Boromand11Department of Gynecology, 2Student Research Committee (SRC, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Islamic Republic of Iran; 3Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, London, UKPurpose: Intrauterine lesions (IULs are a common finding in women of reproductive age, particularly infertile women. Transvaginal sonography (TVS is a popular tool for IUL detection, but there are conflicting data with respect to its accuracy.Methods: Five hundred and six women were enrolled into the study. Of these, 496 underwent hysterosalpingography and subsequent TVS six different times during the course of their menstrual cycle. If a lesion was detected, it was further evaluated by sonohysterography (SHG and hysteroscopy.Results: Of 496 women, 41 were shown to have IULs by TVS and those lesions were confirmed in 39 by SHG and hysteroscopy. All 39 lesions were detectable during the ovulatory and early luteal phase (days 16–19 of the menstrual cycle. Accuracy of TVS during different phases was largely dependent on the size of the lesion. TVS falsely detected two lesions and missed fine adhesions in two patients.Conclusion: Accuracy of TVS in detection of IULs is highly dependent on the menstrual cycle phase, with the ovulatory and early luteal phase being the optimal time for this examination.Keywords: menstrual cycle phase, space occupying lesions, transvaginal sonography

  5. Impact of gender and menstrual cycle phase on plasma cytokine concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Sinead M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: The lifetime prevalence of major depression is twice as high in females as in males. Depression is known to increase at periods where there are changes in gonadal hormones. We examined pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels during the normal menstrual cycle of healthy females compared to similar time points in healthy males. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in healthy females during the normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and also in males at similar time points. RESULTS: The luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is associated with increased production of sIL-6R, IL-4 and TNF-alpha compared to the early follicular phase. No change was observed in IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 concentration throughout the menstrual cycle. We found IL-4 positively correlated with oestrogen while TNF-alpha positively correlated with progesterone. Females were found to have significantly higher concentrations of TNF-alpha and sIL-6R across all phases of the menstrual cycle, compared to males across similar time points. CONCLUSION: The normal menstrual cycle is associated with increased production of sIL-6R, IL-4 and TNF-alpha in the luteal phase compared to the early follicular phase. Females have significantly higher concentrations of sIL-6R and TNF-alpha at all time points across the menstrual cycle than males.

  6. The mediation effect of menstrual phase on negative emotion processing: evidence from N2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Chen, Chunping; Cheng, Dazhi; Yang, Suyong; Huang, Ruiwang; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown a 'negativity bias' in emotion processing and effect of menstrual phase on emotion processing. Most of these results, however, did not match the arousal of different types of stimuli. The present study examined the time course of negative emotion processing across different menstrual phases (e.g., late luteal/premenstrual phase and follicular phase) when the arousal level of negative and neutral stimuli was equal. Following previous studies, an oddball paradigm was utilized in present study. Participants viewed neutral and negative (highly (HN) and moderately negative (MN)) stimuli with matched arousal and were asked to make deviant vs. standard judgments. The behavioral results showed a higher accuracy for HN stimuli than neutral stimuli, and the other comparisons were not significant. The major event-related potential (ERP) finding was that N2 amplitude was larger for MN than neutral in the late luteal phase, whereas such difference was absent during the follicular phase. Moreover, The N2 for HN stimuli was larger in late luteal phase than in follicular phase. Therefore, female may be with higher sensitivity to MN stimuli during late luteal phase than during follicular phase when the arousal of stimuli was well controlled. These results provide additional insight to premenstrual affective syndrome and affective disorder.

  7. Expression and localization of ghrelin and its functional receptor in corpus luteum during different stages of estrous cycle and the modulatory role of ghrelin on progesterone production in cultured luteal cells in buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M; Dangi, S S; Chouhan, V S; Hyder, I; Babitha, V; Yadav, V P; Khan, F A; Sonwane, A; Singh, G; Das, G K; Mitra, A; Bag, S; Sarkar, M

    2014-07-01

    Evidence obtained during recent years provided has insight into the regulation of corpus luteum (CL) development, function, and regression by locally produced ghrelin. The present study was carried out to evaluate the expression and localization of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in bubaline CL during different stages of the estrous cycle and investigate the role of ghrelin on progesterone (P4) production along with messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of P4 synthesis intermediates. The mRNA and protein expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a was significantly greater in mid- and late luteal phases. Both factors were localized in luteal cells, exclusively in the cytoplasm. Immunoreactivity of ghrelin and GHS-R1a was greater during mid- and late luteal phases. Luteal cells were cultured in vitro and treated with ghrelin each at 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL concentrations for 48 h after obtaining 75% to 80% confluence. At a dose of 1 ng/mL, there was no significant difference in P4 secretion between control and treatment group. At 10 and 100 ng/mL, there was a decrease (P production in buffalo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Luteinizing hormone receptors in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamoto, M.; Nakano, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Ikoma, H.; Furukawa, K.

    1986-01-01

    The binding of 125 I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (hLH) to the 2000-g fraction of human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the entire menstrual cycle was examined. Specific high affinity, low capacity receptors for hLH were demonstrated in the 2000-g fraction of both follicles and corpora lutea. Specific binding of 125 I-labeled hLH to follicular tissue increased from the early follicular phase to the ovulatory phase. Specific binding of 125 I-labeled hLH to luteal tissue increased from the early luteal phase to the midluteal phase and decreased towards the late luteal phase. The results of the present study indicate that the increase and decrease in receptors for hLH during the menstrual cycle might play an important role in the regulation of the ovarian cycle

  9. 1,500 IU human chorionic gonadotropin administered at oocyte retrieval rescues the luteal phase when gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist is used for ovulation induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, Peter; Bredkjær, Helle Ejdrup; Westergaard, Lars Grabow

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the reproductive outcome with a small bolus of hCG administered on the day of oocyte retrieval after ovulation induction with a GnRH agonist (GnRHa). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized trial. SETTING: Three hospital-based IVF clinics. PATIENT(S): Three hundred five...... IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection patients after a GnRH antagonist protocol. INTERVENTION(S): Ovulation induction was performed with either 10,000 IU hCG or 0.5 mg GnRHa (buserelin) supplemented with 1,500 IU hCG on the day of oocyte retrieval. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Reproductive outcome...... bolus of hCG in the GnRHa group secured the luteal phase, resulting in a comparable reproductive outcome in the two groups. However, a nonsignificant difference of 7% in delivery rates justifies further studies to refine the use of GnRHa for ovulation induction....

  10. Luteinizing hormone receptors in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamoto, M.; Nakano, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Ikoma, H.; Furukawa, K.

    1986-08-01

    The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (hLH) to the 2000-g fraction of human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the entire menstrual cycle was examined. Specific high affinity, low capacity receptors for hLH were demonstrated in the 2000-g fraction of both follicles and corpora lutea. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hLH to follicular tissue increased from the early follicular phase to the ovulatory phase. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hLH to luteal tissue increased from the early luteal phase to the midluteal phase and decreased towards the late luteal phase. The results of the present study indicate that the increase and decrease in receptors for hLH during the menstrual cycle might play an important role in the regulation of the ovarian cycle.

  11. Effects of electroacupuncture on luteal regression and steroidogenesis in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome model rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuan; Chen, Li; Xia, You-Bing; Xie, Min; Sun, Qin; Yao, Bing

    2018-03-15

    Electroacupuncture (EA) is an effective and safe therapeutic method widely used for treating clinical diseases. Previously, we found that EA could decrease serum hormones and reduce ovarian size in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) rat model. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that contribute to these improvements remain unclear. HE staining was used to count the number of corpora lutea (CL) and follicles. Immunohistochemical and ELISA were applied to examine luteal functional and structural regression. Immunoprecipitation was used for analyzing the interaction between NPY (neuropeptide Y) and COX-2; western blotting and qRT-PCR were used to evaluate the expressions of steroidogenic enzymes and PKA/CREB pathway. EA treatment significantly reduced the ovarian weight and the number of CL, also decreased ovarian and serum levels of PGE2 and COX-2 expression; increased ovarian PGF2α levels and PGF2α/PGE2 ratio; decreased PCNA expression and distribution; and increased cyclin regulatory inhibitor p27 expression to have further effect on the luteal formation, and promote luteal functional and structural regression. Moreover, expression of COX-2 in ovaries was possessed interactivity increased expression of NPY. Furthermore, EA treatment lowered the serum hormone levels, inhibited PKA/CREB pathway and decreased the expressions of steroidogenic enzymes. Hence, interaction with COX-2, NPY may affect the levels of PGF2α and PGE2 as well as impact the proliferation of granulosa cells in ovaries, thus further reducing the luteal formation, and promoting luteal structural and functional regression, as well as the ovarian steroidogenesis following EA treatment. EA treatment could be an option for preventing OHSS in ART. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interactive Effects of Dopamine Baseline Levels and Cycle Phase on Executive Functions: The Role of Progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Hidalgo-Lopez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol and progesterone levels vary along the menstrual cycle and have multiple neuroactive effects, including on the dopaminergic system. Dopamine relates to executive functions in an “inverted U-shaped” manner and its levels are increased by estradiol. Accordingly, dopamine dependent changes in executive functions along the menstrual cycle have been previously studied in the pre-ovulatory phase, when estradiol levels peak. Specifically it has been demonstrated that working memory is enhanced during the pre-ovulatory phase in women with low dopamine baseline levels, but impaired in women with high dopamine baseline levels. However, the role of progesterone, which peaks in the luteal cycle phase, has not been taken into account previously. Therefore, the main goals of the present study were to extend these findings (i to the luteal cycle phase and (ii to other executive functions. Furthermore, the usefulness of the eye blink rate (EBR as an indicator of dopamine baseline levels in menstrual cycle research was explored. 36 naturally cycling women were tested during three cycle phases (menses–low sex hormones; pre-ovulatory–high estradiol; luteal–high progesterone and estradiol. During each session, women performed a verbal N-back task, as measure of working memory, and a single trial version of the Stroop task, as measure of response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Hormone levels were assessed from saliva samples and spontaneous eye blink rate was recorded during menses. In the N-back task, women were faster during the luteal phase the higher their progesterone levels, irrespective of their dopamine baseline levels. In the Stroop task, we found a dopamine-cycle interaction, which was also driven by the luteal phase and progesterone levels. For women with higher EBR performance decreased during the luteal phase, whereas for women with lower EBR performance improved during the luteal phase. These findings suggest an important

  13. Estado nutricional e consumo alimentar de mulheres jovens na fase lútea e folicular do ciclo menstrual Nutritional status and food consumption of young women in the luteal and follicular phases of the menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Almenara Silva dos Santos

    2011-04-01

    percentage of women with above-average body water during the luteal phase (77%. The consumption of foods from the complementary group was higher during the luteal phase. The consumption of foods from all other groups during both phases was below the recommended levels, except for meats. Food cravings were mild during the entire menstrual cycle and there were no significant differences between the phases. Food cravings were positively associated with increased intake of foods from the complementary group. CONCLUSION: In healthy women, the menstrual cycle influences food consumption and the luteal phase causes water retention.

  14. A Proof-of-Concept Clinical Trial of A Single Luteal Use of Long-Acting Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonist Degarelix in Controlled Ovarian Stimulation for In Vitro Fertilization: Long Antagonist Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos G. Papanikolaou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionA drawback of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist protocols in in vitro fertilization (IVF is that they have limited flexibility in cycle programming. This proof of concept study explored the efficacy of a single-dose, long-acting GnRH antagonist IVF protocol. Trial registration number is NCT03240159, retrospectively registered on March 08, 2017.Materials and methodsThe efficacy of a single-dose long-acting antagonist, degarelix, was explored initially in healthy donors and subsequently in infertile patients. In the first part, five healthy oocyte donors underwent ovarian stimulation with this new protocol: in the late luteal phase, at day 24, a bolus injection of degarelix was administered subcutaneously to control the LH surge in the follicular phase. Ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins was initiated subsequently from day 7 to day 10. End points were first to inhibit the LH surge later in the follicular phase and, second, to retrieve mature oocytes for IVF. In the second part, five infertile women received the same bolus injection of degarelix administered during the luteal phase at day 24. Different gonadotropin starting days (day 2 through day 8 were tested in order to observe possible differences in ovarian stimulation. In these infertile patients, fresh embryo transfers were performed to assess the pregnancy efficacy of this protocol on pregnancy outcomes and to address any possible negative effects on endometrium receptivity.ResultsIn the first part of the study, all donors were effectively downregulated with a single luteal dose of 0.5 ml of degarelix for up to 22 days until the final oocyte maturation triggering day. Mature oocytes were retrieved after 36 h from all patients and all produced 2–7 blastocysts. In the second part, all five infertile patients achieved sufficient LH downregulation and completed ovarian stimulation without any LH surge. All patients (except one with freeze all strategy had

  15. Effects of concanavalin A on the progesterone production by bovine steroidogenic luteal cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro, F C; Martin, I; Landim-Alvarenga, Fdc; Ferreira, Jcp; Pate, J L

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of concanavalin A (CONA) on the progesterone (P4) production by bovine steroidogenic luteal cells (LCs) in vitro. Luteal cells were collected during the mid-luteal stage (at 10-12 days following ovulation) and processed in the laboratory. Luteal cells were grown for 7 days in a humid atmosphere with 5% CO2 , with or without 10% foetal bovine serum, and were subjected to the following treatments: control: no treatment; CONA (10 μg/ml); LH (100 μg/ml); CONA + LH; LH (100 μg/ml) + prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) (10 ng/ml); CONA + LH + PGF2α. Samples of the culture media were collected on days 1 (D1) and 7 (D7) for P4 quantification. The cells were counted on D7 of culture. Differences between treatments were considered statistically significant at p < .05. Culture in the presence of CONA decreased the P4-secreting capacity of LCs on D7 of culture, particularly in the absence of serum. The cell numbers did not change between treatments. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Effects of cholesterol and cAMP on progesterone production in cultured luteal cells isolated from pseudopregnant cat ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Sevket; Yigit, Ayse Arzu

    2009-10-01

    The present study was designed to incubate luteal cells isolated from pseudopregnant cats and to investigate the effects of cholesterol and cAMP on luteal progesterone production. Corpora lutea were collected from the cats on days 10 and 15 of pseudopregnancy. Luteal cells were isolated from the ovaries by collagenase digestion. Steroidogenic luteal cells were stained for 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) activity. Cells (2 x 10(4)) staining positive for 3beta-HSD were cultured for up to 7 days. The cells were treated with 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC) and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) on days 1, 3 and 7. Treatment of cells with 22R-HC resulted in a dose-dependent increase (pprogesterone production. When 22R-HC was used at a concentration of 10 microg/ml, it resulted in 2.7- and 5.1-fold increases in progesterone production on days 3 and 5, respectively. When the dose was doubled (20 microg/ml), treated cells produced four times more progesterone on days 3 and 7, and three times more on day 5. By day 7, progesterone production increased up to 9.1 times more than the control. Incubation of cells with both concentrations of dbcAMP (0.1 mM and 1 mM) resulted in significant stimulations of progesterone on days 5 and 7 (pProgesterone production was increased up to 2- and 2.9-fold of the control when cells were treated with lower concentration of dbcAMP (0.1 mM) on days 5 and 7, respectively. Incubation of cells with 1 mM concentrations of dbcAMP induced a 3.2-fold increase on day 5 and a 5-fold increase on day 7. In conclusion, a successful incubation was performed for long-life culturing of luteal cells collected from pseudopregnant cats. The method works well and allows for optimal growth and development of cells in the culture. The present study also demonstrated that incubating cat luteal cells with 22R-HC and dbcAMP induces a significant increase in luteal progesterone synthesis.

  17. Induced endometrial trauma (endometrial scratch) in the mid-luteal menstrual cycle phase preceding first cycle IVF/ICSI versus usual IVF/ICSI therapy: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Clare; Chatters, Robin; Cohen, Judith; Brian, Kate; Cheong, Ying C; Laird, Susan; Mohiyiddeen, Lamiya; Skull, Jonathan; Walters, Stephen; Young, Tracey; Metwally, Mostafa

    2018-05-20

    Endometrial trauma commonly known as endometrial scratch (ES) has been shown to improve pregnancy rates in women with a history of repeated implantation failure undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF), with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). However, the procedure has not yet been fully explored in women having IVF/ICSI for the first time. This study aims to examine the effect of performing an ES in the mid-luteal phase prior to a first-time IVF/ICSI cycle on the chances of achieving a clinical pregnancy and live birth. If ES can influence this success rate, there would be a significant cost saving to the National Health Service through decreasing the number of IVF/ICSI cycles necessary to achieve a pregnancy, increase the practice of single embryo transfer and consequently have a large impact on risks and costs associated with multiple pregnancies. This 30-month, UK, multicentre, parallel group, randomised controlled trial includes a 9-month internal pilot and health economic analysis recruiting 1044 women from 16 fertility units. It will follow up participants to identify if IVF/ICSI has been successful and live birth has occurred up to 6 weeks post partum. Primary analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis. A substudy of endometrial samples obtained during the ES will assess the role of immune factors in embryo implantation. Main trial recruitment commenced on January 2017 and is ongoing.Participants randomised to the intervention group will receive the ES procedure in the mid-luteal phase of the preceding cycle prior to first-time IVF/ICSI treatment versus usual IVF/ICSI treatment in the control group, with 1:1 randomisation. The primary outcome is live birth rate after completed 24 weeks gestation. South Central-Berkshire Research Ethics Committee approved the protocol. Findings will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals and abstracts to relevant national and international conferences. ISRCTN23800982; Pre-results. © Article author

  18. Factors related to declining luteal function in women during the menopausal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, N; Crawford, S L; Lasley, W L; Luborsky, J L; Matthews, K A; McConnell, D; Randolph, J F; Gold, E B; Greendale, G A; Korenman, S G; Powell, L; Sowers, M F; Weiss, G

    2008-05-01

    Reproductive hormones are incompletely characterized during the menopause transition (MT). Increased anovulation and decreased progesterone accompany progress through the MT. The Daily Hormone Study (DHS) of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) included 848 women aged 43-53 yr at baseline who collected daily urine for one cycle or up to 50 d annually for 3 yr. LH, FSH, estrone conjugates, and pregnanediol glucuronide levels were assessed. Cycles were classified by presumed luteal (ovulatory) status and bleeding. Hormones were related to time in study, age, menopausal status, and selected variables. Ovulatory-appearing cycles declined from 80.9% at baseline to 64.7% by the third assessment (H3). Cycles presumed anovulatory and not ending with bleeding by 50 d (anovulatory/nonbleeding) increased from 8.4 to 24% by H3 and were associated with progress to early perimenopause [odds ratio (OR) = 2.66; confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-6.04] or late perimenopause (OR = 56.21; CI = 18.79-168.12; P school education (OR = 3.51; CI = 1.62-7.62). Anovulatory cycles ending with bleeding remained at about 10% from baseline to H3; compared with ovulatory cycles, they were associated with obesity (OR = 4.68; CI = 1.33-16.52) and more than high school education (OR = 2.12; CI = 1.22-3.69; P = 0.02). Serum estradiol in both the highest and lowest categories was associated with anovulatory/nonbleeding collections. Pregnanediol glucuronide decreased 6.6% for each year on study. Insulin sensitivity measures did not relate strongly to menstrual cycle hormones. Anovulation without bleeding represents progression of the MT. A small but detectable decrease in luteal progesterone excretion occurs as women progress through the MT.

  19. Influence of a low-carbohydrate diet on thermoregulatory responses to exercise in women during follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Pokora

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on thermoregulatory responses to exercise in women during follicular (F and luteal (L phase of the menstrual cycle. Ten subjects performed a graded bicycle exercise in a thermoneutral environment (23oC, 52-60% relative humidity. Women were tested after consuming, for 3 days, a control diet (C: 60% carbohydrates, 20% fat, 20% protein and after that a low-carbohydrate diet (LCHO: 50% fat, 35% protein and 5% carbohydrates, in each phase of the menstrual cycle. Tympanic temperature (Tty, mean skin temperature (Tsk, electrical skin resistance (ESR, oxygen uptake (VO2, heart rate (HR as well as blood β-hydroxybutyrate acid (β-HB, glucose (Glu and lactate (LA concentrations were measured. On the basis of ESR, dynamics of sweating was estimated. No differences in Tty and Tsk were found between the C and LCHO during exercise tests. However, Tty was significantly higher during L than F phase. Delay time for sweating was shorter after LCHO (F: 10.8 vs 9.4 min, P<0.05, L: 9.9 vs 9.3 N.S., but temperature threshold for this reaction was unchanged (L: 37.22 vs 37.37 and F: 36.91 vs 36.94 oC. Sweating sensitivity was greater after LCHO during both F and L. Resting blood Glu and LA concentrations were similar in women after C and LCHO diet. Before exercise β-HB level was F: 0.45, L: 0.35 mM after LCHO and F: 0.08, L: 0.09 mM after C diet (P<0.05, respectively. At rest and during exercise HR was significantly higher after LCHO diet in women during F phase. In submaximal exercise loads VO2 after LCHO diet were significantly higher than after C diet in all women. It was concluded that the low-carbohydrate diet ingested by young women in both phases of the menstrual cycle have no effect on body temperature, however, it affects heat dissipation mechanism during exercise.

  20. Metabolomics study on primary dysmenorrhea patients during the luteal regression stage based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ling; Gu, Caiyun; Liu, Xinyu; Xie, Jiabin; Hou, Zhiguo; Tian, Meng; Yin, Jia; Li, Aizhu; Li, Yubo

    2017-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a common gynecological disorder which, while not life-threatening, severely affects the quality of life of women. Most patients with PD suffer ovarian hormone imbalances caused by uterine contraction, which results in dysmenorrhea. PD patients may also suffer from increases in estrogen levels caused by increased levels of prostaglandin synthesis and release during luteal regression and early menstruation. Although PD pathogenesis has been previously reported on, these studies only examined the menstrual period and neglected the importance of the luteal regression stage. Therefore, the present study used urine metabolomics to examine changes in endogenous substances and detect urine biomarkers for PD during luteal regression. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to create metabolomic profiles for 36 patients with PD and 27 healthy controls. Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminate analysis were used to investigate the metabolic alterations associated with PD. Ten biomarkers for PD were identified, including ornithine, dihydrocortisol, histidine, citrulline, sphinganine, phytosphingosine, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, and 15-keto-prostaglandin F2α. The specificity and sensitivity of these biomarkers was assessed based on the area under the curve of receiver operator characteristic curves, which can be used to distinguish patients with PD from healthy controls. These results provide novel targets for the treatment of PD. PMID:28098892

  1. Presence of the acute phase protein, bikunin, in the endometrium of gilts during estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinger, A M; Allen, M R; Zhang, B R; Goad, D W; Malayer, J R; Geisert, R D

    2001-08-01

    Noninvasive, epitheliochorial placental attachment in the pig is regulated through endometrial production of protease inhibitors. The objective of the present study was to determine if the light-chain serine protease inhibitor of the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family, bikunin, is produced by the porcine endometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of bikunin in uterine flushings of gilts collected during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy (Days 12-18). However, bikunin unbound to the inter-alpha-trypsin heavy chains was detected only in endometrial explant culture medium obtained from estrus and pregnant (Days 12, 15, and 18) gilts. Endometrial bikunin gene expression was lowest on Day 10 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy, followed by a 30- to 77-fold increase on Day 15 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Bikunin gene expression decreased on Day 18 of the estrous cycle, whereas endometrial bikunin gene expression continued to increase in pregnant gilts. Bikunin mRNA was localized to the uterine glands between Days 15 and 18 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. In addition to its role as a protease inhibitor, bikunin functions in stabilization of the extracellular matrix, which suggests that bikunin could be involved with facilitating placental attachment to the uterine epithelial surface in the pig.

  2. Effects and safety of GnRH-a as a luteal support in women undertaking assisted reproductive technology procedures: follow-up results for pregnancy, delivery, and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiqin; Zhuang, Yanyan; Pan, Yanping; Xia, Fei

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effects and safety of gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-a) as an addition to progesterone luteal support in women who underwent in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET) and achieved a clinical pregnancy. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 214 patients who underwent IVF/ICSI-ET procedures with standard long mid-luteal protocol, of which 123 received GnRH-a-free protocol and 91 received GnRH-a-added protocol. The patients' pregnancy and delivery course, and their neonates' status at birth and growth/development after birth were statistically compared. There was no significant difference between both study groups regarding embryo risks and maternal complications during early pregnancy. as well as fetal risks during the middle and late stages and neonate risks during birth, except that the twin pregnancies of the GnRH-a-added group had a considerably greater male/female ratio, and a significantly higher rate of premature delivery and low birth weight than those of the GnRH-a-free group. In addition, there was no significant difference in neonate risks within 2 years after birth between both cohorts. With precautions taken to control the number of implanted embryos and reduce the incidence of twinning pregnancy, the addition of GnRH-a to luteal support is relatively safe and effective.

  3. There are differences in cerebral activation between females in distinct menstrual phases during viewing of erotic stimuli: A fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizewski, Elke R; Krause, Eva; Karama, Sherif; Baars, Anneke; Senf, Wolfgang; Forsting, Michael

    2006-09-01

    There is evidence that men experience more sexual arousal than women but also that women in mid-luteal phase experience more sexual arousal than women outside this phase. Recently, a few functional brain imaging studies have tackled the issue of gender differences as pertaining to reactions to erotica. The question of whether or not gender differences in reactions to erotica are maintained with women in different phases has not yet been answered from a functional brain imaging perspective. In order to examine this issue, functional MRI was performed in 22 male and 22 female volunteers. Subjects viewed erotic film excerpts alternating with emotionally neutral excerpts in a standard block-design paradigm. Arousal to erotic stimuli was evaluated using standard rating scales after scanning. Two-sample t-test with uncorrected P erotic stimuli and with corrected P erotic stimuli. Furthermore, gender differences with women in mid-luteal phases are similar to those in females outside the mid-luteal phase.

  4. Involvement of microtubules in lipoprotein degradation and utilization for steroidogenesis in cultured rat luteal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, V.P.; Menon, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cells isolated from superovulated rat ovaries metabolize low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) of human or rat origin and use the lipoprotein-derived cholesterol as a precursor for progesterone production. Under in vitro conditions, both lipoproteins are internalized and degraded in the lysosomes, although degradation of HDL is of lower magnitude than that of LDL. In this report we have examined the role of cellular microtubules in the internalization and degradation of human LDL and HDL in cultured rat luteal cells. The microtubule depolymerizing agents colchicine, podophyllotoxin, vinblastine, and nocodazole as well as taxol, deuterium oxide, and dimethyl sulfoxide, which are known to rapidly polymerize cellular tubulin into microtubules, were used to block the function of microtubules. When these antimicrotubule agents were included in the incubations, degradation of the apolipoproteins of [ 125 I]iodo-LDL and [ 125 I]iodo-HDL by the luteal cells was inhibited by 50-85% compared to untreated control values. Maximum inhibitory effects were observed when the cells were preincubated with the inhibitor for at least 4 h at 37 C before treatment with the labeled lipoprotein. Lipoprotein-stimulated progesterone production by luteal cells was also inhibited by 50% or more in the presence of antimicrotubule agents. However, basal and hCG-stimulated progesterone production were unaffected by these inhibitors. The binding of [ 125 I]iodo-LDL and [ 125 I]iodo-HDL to luteal cell plasma membrane receptors was not affected by the microtubule inhibitors. Although binding was unaffected and degradation was impaired in the presence of the inhibitors, there was no detectable accumulation of undegraded lipoprotein within the cells during the 24 h of study

  5. Effect of LH and prolactin on steroid secretion by perifused luteal tissue from pregnant gilts with induced hypoprolactinemia or after passive immunoneutralization of LH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szafranska, B.; Przala, J.; Grazul-Bilska, A.

    1992-01-01

    The study was performed using luteal tissue obtained from 24 pregnant gilts. Group 1 was treated with bromocriptine (BR) from 37th to 42nd day of day of pregnancy. Group 2 was treated with homologous anti-pLH serum from 37th to 42nd day of pregnancy. Group 3 was given BR from 67th to 72nd day of gestation. Group 4 received anti-pLH serum from 67th to 72nd day of pregnancy. The effect of exogenous LH or prolactin (100 ng/ml) on secretion of progesterone (P 4 ) and estradiol (E 2 ) by luteal tissue was studied using perfusion technique. Prolactin caused a significant (P 4 secretion by luteal tissue from gilts in groups 1 and 4. Both LH and prolactin decreased (P 4 and E 2 secretion by luteal tissue from gilts from groups 4 and 2, respectively. The results demonstrate that both LH and prolactin have a regulatory role in steroid secretion by luteal tissue of gilts in the mid- and late period of pregnancy. (author). 28 refs, 2 figs

  6. Effects of menstrual cycle phase on cocaine self-administration in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ziva D; Foltin, Richard W; Evans, Suzette M

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological findings suggest that men and women vary in their pattern of cocaine use resulting in differences in cocaine dependence and relapse rates. Preclinical laboratory studies have demonstrated that female rodents are indeed more sensitive to cocaine's reinforcing effects than males, with estrous cycle stage as a key determinant of this effect. The current study sought to extend these findings to normally cycling female rhesus macaques, a species that shares a nearly identical menstrual cycle to humans. Dose-dependent intravenous cocaine self-administration (0.0125, 0.0250, and 0.0500 mg/kg/infusion) using a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement was determined across the menstrual cycle. The menstrual cycle was divided into 5 discrete phases - menses, follicular, periovulatory, luteal, and late luteal phases - verified by the onset of menses and plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone. Dependent variables including number of infusions self-administered per session, progressive ratio breakpoint, and cocaine intake were analyzed according to cocaine dose and menstrual cycle phase. Analysis of plasma hormone levels verified phase-dependent fluctuations of estradiol and progesterone, with estrogen levels peaking during the periovulatory phase, and progesterone peaking during the luteal phase. Progressive ratio breakpoint, infusions self-administered, and cocaine intake did not consistently vary based on menstrual cycle phase. These findings demonstrate that under the current experimental parameters, the reinforcing effects of cocaine did not vary across the menstrual cycle in a systematic fashion in normally cycling rhesus macaques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Women's preferences for men's beards show no relation to their ovarian cycle phase and sex hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Barnaby J W; Lee, Anthony J; Blake, Khandis R; Jasienska, Grazyna; Marcinkowska, Urszula M

    2018-01-01

    According to the ovulatory shift hypothesis, women's mate preferences for male morphology indicative of competitive ability, social dominance, and/or underlying health are strongest at the peri-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle. However, recent meta-analyses are divided on the robustness of such effects and the validity of the often-used indirect estimates of fertility and ovulation has been called into question in methodological studies. In the current study, we test whether women's preferences for men's beardedness, a cue of male sexual maturity, androgenic development and social dominance, are stronger at the peri-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle compared to during the early follicular or the luteal phase. We also tested whether levels of estradiol, progesterone, and the estradiol to progesterone ratio at each phase were associated with facial hair preferences. Fifty-two heterosexual women completed a two-alternative forced choice preference test for clean-shaven and bearded male faces during the follicular, peri-ovulatory (validated by the surge in luteinizing hormone or the drop in estradiol levels) and luteal phases. Participants also provided for one entire menstrual cycle daily saliva samples for subsequent assaying of estradiol and progesterone. Results showed an overall preference for bearded over clean-shaven faces at each phase of the menstrual cycle. However, preferences for facial hair were not significantly different over the phases of menstrual cycle and were not significantly associated with levels of reproductive hormones. We conclude that women's preferences for men's beardedness may not be related to changes in their likelihood of conception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Endometrial cytology in the female cat (Felis catus) during diestrus

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Riquelme, Alfonso; Arias Ruiz, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe and quantify cytological findings in the cat’s endometrium (Felis catus). Twenty genital tracts were obtained by ovariohysterectomy. To establish the status of the estrous cycle, vaginal cytology was evaluated and ovarian structures were recorded, resulting that all females were in the luteal phase. According to the presence of corpora lutea and follicles, a classification of the luteal phase was proposed: early diestrus: corpora lutea and follicles of...

  9. Effect of anabolics on bovine granulosa-luteal cell primary cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomeo Biolatti

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumours are observed with increased frequency among calves slaughtered in Northern Italy. The use of illegal anabolics in breeding was taken into account as a cause of this pathology. An in vitro approach was used to detect the possible alterations of cell proliferation induced by anabolics on primary cultures of bovine granulosa-luteal cells. Cultures were treated with different concentrations of substances illegally used in cattle (17beta-estradiol, clenbuterol and boldione. Cytotoxicity was determined by means of MTT test, to exclude toxic effects induced by anabolics and to determine the highest concentration to be tested. Morphological changes were evaluated by means of routine cytology, while PCNA expression was quantified in order to estimate cell proliferation. Cytotoxic effects were revealed at the highest concentrations. The only stimulating effect on cell proliferation was detected in boldione treated cultures: after 48 h treated cells, compared to controls, showed a doubled expression of PCNA. In clenbuterol and 17beta-estradiol treated cells PCNA expression was similar to controls or even decreased. As the data suggest an alteration in cell proliferation, boldione could have a role in the early stage of pathogenesis of granulosa cell tumour in cattle.

  10. Role of P2X7 on steroid synthesis in murine luteal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP regulates different cellular functions through activating purinergic receptors as a signalling molecule or neurotransmitter. P2X7 is highly expressed in murine small luteal cells. In this study, murine luteal cells were cultured in vitro and treated with P2X7 agonists – ATP and 2′(3′-O-(4-benzoyl-benzoyl-adenosine 50-triphosphate (BzATP and with P2X7 antagonist – brilliant blue G (BBG. We found that ATP and BzATP increased the production of progesterone and had no influence on the production of estradiol. BBG reversed the effect of BzATP and ATP. Further studies demonstrated that ATP and BzATP promoted the expression of CYP11A. These results revealed that P2X7 receptor activation is involved in the steroid synthesis in corpus luteum.

  11. Influences of the Menstrual Phase on Cortisol Response to Stress in Nicotine Dependent Women: A Preliminary Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Motohiro; Allen, Sharon; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2018-04-10

    Evidence indicates that menstrual cycle phase plays a role in smoking withdrawal symptoms and craving. Stress increases these symptoms. Whether the stress regulatory mechanism is associated with menstrual phase and withdrawal symptoms is not well understood. Thirty-seven female smokers and 16 female nonsmokers were asked to complete a laboratory session. In each group, approximately half of the participants were tested when they were in the follicular phase and the other half was tested in the luteal phase. The session included resting baseline, stress, and recovery periods. Saliva samples for the measurement of cortisol and subjective measures of craving and withdrawal symptoms were collected at the end of each period. A series of repeated measures ANCOVAs found a significant smoking group x menstrual phase x sampling time interaction in cortisol levels (p < .05). Follow-up analyses indicated a reduced cortisol stress response in the luteal group relative to the follicular group in smokers (p < .02). This difference was not found in nonsmokers. Menstrual cycle phase is related to hormonal stress response and smoking withdrawal symptomatology. We show influences of the menstrual cycle phase on stress response among smokers. This is demonstrated by a reduced cortisol response to stress in the luteal group relative to the follicular group among smokers. This menstrual phase difference was not found in nonsmokers.

  12. Menstrual-cycle dependent fluctuations in ovarian hormones affect emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Janine; Schultz, Heidrun; Gamer, Matthias; Sommer, Tobias

    2014-04-01

    The hormones progesterone and estradiol modulate neural plasticity in the hippocampus, the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. These structures are involved in the superior memory for emotionally arousing information (EEM effects). Therefore, fluctuations in hormonal levels across the menstrual cycle are expected to influence activity in these areas as well as behavioral memory performance for emotionally arousing events. To test this hypothesis, naturally cycling women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during the encoding of emotional and neutral stimuli in the low-hormone early follicular and the high-hormone luteal phase. Their memory was tested after an interval of 48 h, because emotional arousal primarily enhances the consolidation of new memories. Whereas overall recognition accuracy remained stable across cycle phases, recognition quality varied with menstrual cycle phases. Particularly recollection-based recognition memory for negative items tended to decrease from early follicular to luteal phase. EEM effects for both valences were associated with higher activity in the right anterior hippocampus during early follicular compared to luteal phase. Valence-specific modulations were found in the anterior cingulate, the amygdala and the posterior hippocampus. Current findings connect to anxiolytic actions of estradiol and progesterone as well as to studies on fear conditioning. Moreover, they are in line with differential networks involved in EEM effects for positive and negative items. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sleep and Premenstrual Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehan, Shazia; Auguste, Evan; Hussain, Mahjabeen; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.; Brzezinski, Amon; Gupta, Ravi; Attarian, Hrayr; Jean-Louis, Giradin; McFarlane, Samy I.

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is unknown; it may be due to the normal effect of hormones during the menstrual cycle as it occurs in the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.PMS affects women of childbearing age and remits with the onset of menstruation. The menstrual phase is known to influence stage 2 and REM sleep in women, irrespective of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Women with PMDD showed a decreased response to melatonin in their luteal phase as compared to the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. However, melatonin duration or timing of offset in the morning has not been reported to correlate with the mood. Rather, improvement in mood-related symptoms of PMDD has been found to be influenced by sleep deprivation, be it sleep restrictions in early or late night. Sleep disturbance and decreased melatonin secretions due to hormonal fluctuations during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle could explain the sleep complaints of PMDD. PMID:28239684

  14. Relationships between luteal activity, fertility, blood metabolites and body condition score in multiparous Estonian Holstein dairy cows under different management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarütel, Jaak; Waldmann, Andres; Ling, Katri; Jaakson, Hanno; Kaart, Tanel; Leesmäe, Andres; Kärt, Olav

    2008-11-01

    The objective was to compare the relationships between luteal activity and fertility, and relate these parameters to metabolic indices and body condition changes in multiparous Estonian Holstein cows on two commercial dairy farms under different management and levels of production and nutrition (higher, H, n=54 (71 lactations) and lower, L, n=39 (39 lactations)). For statistical analysis cows were categorized according to their milk progesterone (P4) profiles as follows: normal ovarian function; delayed start of cyclicity (DC) (interval from calving to first luteal response (P45 ng/ml up to and more than 50 d respectively, followed by regular cyclicity); cessation of luteal activity (prolonged interluteal interval, P4bodies, non-esterified fatty acids, total cholesterol) and aspartate aminotransferase, body condition scores (BCS) and fertility parameters between the two farms, and also fertility parameters between the farms within P4 categories. Differences in milk fat/protein ratio, ketone body levels and BCS indicated a deeper negative energy balance (NEB) during the first month after calving on farm L. On both farms nearly 50% of the recently calved dairy cows suffered from ovarian dysfunction during the post-partum period. Delayed start of cyclicity was the most prevalent abnormal P4 profile, 25% and 28% on farms H and L, respectively. Prolonged luteal activity accounted for one-third of atypical ovarian patterns on farm H, and cessation of luteal activity on farm L. On farm L, DC cows had lower BCS values from day 10 to day 90 after calving compared with normal cows (Pcows lost more BCS (1.2 units) during the 40 d after calving than normal resumption cows (0.75 units; P<0.05). On farm H with moderate NEB the delayed start of ovulation post partum did not impair subsequent reproductive performance.

  15. Early Phase Process Evaluation: Industrial Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfan Adi Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Process route evaluation is a part of research and development (R&D works in an industrial chemical project life cycle. In this early phase, good process evaluation, including process synthesis and designs, provide guidance’s on the R&D project. The paper aimed to collect practical methods used in this early phase process route evaluation from author’s 10 years of industrial experiences.  The collected methods range from forward-backward process synthesis, functional process design, use of cost estimation, and applications of Monte Carlo simulation. Led by a good project management (e.g. via a stage-gate approach use of these methods have shown beneficial results. Some important results are strong arguments on whether or not the project will continue, as well as relevant technical and economic issues identified during this early phase process synthesis and design. Later on, these issues become guidance’s to the follow-up project, if it is continued.

  16. The acute phase protein ceruloplasmin as a non-invasive marker of pseudopregnancy, pregnancy, and pregnancy loss in the giant panda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Willis

    Full Text Available After ovulation, non-pregnant female giant pandas experience pseudopregnancy. During pseudopregnancy, non-pregnant females exhibit physiological and behavioral changes similar to pregnancy. Monitoring hormonal patterns that are usually different in pregnant mammals are not effective at determining pregnancy status in many animals that undergo pseudopregnancy, including the giant panda. Therefore, a physiological test to distinguish between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in pandas has eluded scientists for decades. We examined other potential markers of pregnancy and found that activity of the acute phase protein ceruloplasmin increases in urine of giant pandas in response to pregnancy. Results indicate that in term pregnancies, levels of active urinary ceruloplasmin were elevated the first week of pregnancy and remain elevated until 20-24 days prior to parturition, while no increase was observed during the luteal phase in known pseudopregnancies. Active ceruloplasmin also increased during ultrasound-confirmed lost pregnancies; however, the pattern was different compared to term pregnancies, particularly during the late luteal phase. In four out of the five additional reproductive cycles included in the current study where females were bred but no birth occurred, active ceruloplasmin in urine increased during the luteal phase. Similar to the known lost pregnancies, the temporal pattern of change in urinary ceruloplasmin during the luteal phase deviated from the term pregnancies suggesting that these cycles may have also been lost pregnancies. Among giant pandas in captivity, it has been presumed that there is a high rate of pregnancy loss and our results are the first to provide evidence supporting this notion.

  17. Luteal and placental function in the bitch: spatio-temporal changes in prolactin receptor (PRLr expression at dioestrus, pregnancy and normal and induced parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Bernd

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine mechanisms governing canine reproductive function remain still obscure. Progesterone (P4 of luteal origin is required for maintenance of pregnancy. Corpora lutea (CL are gonadotrop-independent during the first third of dioestrus; afterwards prolactin (PRL is the primary luteotropic factor. Interestingly, the increasing PRL levels are accompanied by decreasing P4 concentrations, thus luteal regression/luteolysis occurs in spite of an increased availability of gonadotropic support. PRL acts through its receptor (PRLr, the expression of which has not yet been thoroughly investigated at the molecular and cellular level in the dog. Methods The expression of PRLr was assessed in CL of non-pregnant dogs during the course of dioestrus (days 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 65 post ovulation; p.o. as well as in CL, the utero/placental compartments (Ut/Pl and interplacental free polar zones (interplacental sites from pregnant dogs during the pre-implantation, post-implantation and mid-gestation period of pregnancy and during the normal and antigestagen-induced luteolysis. Expression of PRLr was tested by Real Time PCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results In non-pregnant CL the PRLr expression was significantly upregulated at day 15 p.o. and decreased significantly afterwards, towards the end of dioestrus. CL of pregnancy showed elevated PRLr expression until mid gestation while prepartal downregulation was observed. Interestingly, placental but not interplacental expression of PRLr was strongly time-related; a significant upregulation was observed towards mid-gestation. Within the CL PRLr was localized to the luteal cells; in the Ut/Pl it was localized to the fetal trophoblast and epithelial cells of glandular chambers. Moreover, in mid-pregnant animals treated with an antigestagen, both the luteal and placental, but not the uterine PRLr were significantly downregulated. Conclusions The data presented suggest that the

  18. Luteal and placental function in the bitch: spatio-temporal changes in prolactin receptor (PRLr) expression at dioestrus, pregnancy and normal and induced parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Mariusz P; Michel, Erika; Gram, Aykut; Boos, Alois; Guscetti, Franco; Hoffmann, Bernd; Aslan, Selim; Reichler, Iris

    2011-08-03

    Endocrine mechanisms governing canine reproductive function remain still obscure. Progesterone (P4) of luteal origin is required for maintenance of pregnancy. Corpora lutea (CL) are gonadotrop-independent during the first third of dioestrus; afterwards prolactin (PRL) is the primary luteotropic factor. Interestingly, the increasing PRL levels are accompanied by decreasing P4 concentrations, thus luteal regression/luteolysis occurs in spite of an increased availability of gonadotropic support. PRL acts through its receptor (PRLr), the expression of which has not yet been thoroughly investigated at the molecular and cellular level in the dog. The expression of PRLr was assessed in CL of non-pregnant dogs during the course of dioestrus (days 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 65 post ovulation; p.o.) as well as in CL, the utero/placental compartments (Ut/Pl) and interplacental free polar zones (interplacental sites) from pregnant dogs during the pre-implantation, post-implantation and mid-gestation period of pregnancy and during the normal and antigestagen-induced luteolysis. Expression of PRLr was tested by Real Time PCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. In non-pregnant CL the PRLr expression was significantly upregulated at day 15 p.o. and decreased significantly afterwards, towards the end of dioestrus. CL of pregnancy showed elevated PRLr expression until mid gestation while prepartal downregulation was observed. Interestingly, placental but not interplacental expression of PRLr was strongly time-related; a significant upregulation was observed towards mid-gestation. Within the CL PRLr was localized to the luteal cells; in the Ut/Pl it was localized to the fetal trophoblast and epithelial cells of glandular chambers. Moreover, in mid-pregnant animals treated with an antigestagen, both the luteal and placental, but not the uterine PRLr were significantly downregulated. The data presented suggest that the luteal provision of P4 in both pregnant and non-pregnant dogs

  19. Fluctuating serotonergic function in premenstrual dysphoric disorder and premenstrual syndrome: findings from neuroendocrine challenge tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Y; Terao, T; Iwata, N; Okamoto, K; Kojima, H; Okamoto, T; Yoshimura, R; Nakamura, J

    2007-02-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) has been assumed to be a subtype of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) with depressive symptoms, such as depressive mood, tension, anxiety, and mood liability during luteal phase. At present, no conclusion has been established about serotonergic function in PMDD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the serotonergic function of PMDD subjects in comparison to PMS without PMDD subjects and normal controls via neuroendocrine challenge tests. Twenty-four women (seven with PMDD, eight with PMS without PMDD, and nine normal controls) were tested on three occasions (follicular phase, early luteal phase, and late luteal phase) receiving paroxetine 20 mg orally as a serotonergic probe at 8:00 A: .M: . Plasma ACTH and cortisol were measured prior to the administration and every hour for 6 h thereafter. As a whole, there were significant differences in serotonergic function measured by ACTH and cortisol responses to paroxetine challenge across these three groups. PMDD subjects showed higher serotonergic function in follicular phase but lower serotonergic function in luteal phase, compared with women with PMS without PMDD and normal controls. The present findings suggest that PMDD women have fluctuating serotonergic function across their menstrual cycles and that the pattern may be different from PMS without PMDD.

  20. [EEG alpha indices in dependence on the menstrual cycle phase and salivary progesterone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Kondratenko, A V; Kuz'minova, O I; Muravleva, K B; Petrova, S E

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the neurohumoral status on the EEG alpha - activity indices were studied in a within-subject design with 78 women aged 18-27 years during 1-2 menstrual cycle. Psychometric and EEG indices of alpha waves basal body temperature, saliva progesterone and cortisol level were monitored every 2-3 days. Menstrual and follicular recording sessions occurred before the ovulatory temperature rise, luteal recording session--after increasing progesterone level more than 20% respect to previous day and premenstrual sessions after decreasing progesterone level more that 20% respect to previous day. The design consisted of rest and task periods EEG, EMG and ECG recordings. Half the subjects began during their menstrual phase and half began during their luteal phase. All 5 phases were compared for differences between psychometric features EEG alpha activity, EMG and ECG baseline resting levels, as well as for reactivity to cognitive task. The results showed menstrual phase differences in all psychometric and alpha EEG indices. The cognitive fluency, alpha peak frequency, alpha band width, power in alpha-2 frequency range are maximal at luteal, alpha visual activation and reactivity to cognitive task performance--at follicular phase. The hypothesis that the EEG alpha activity depends on the hormonal status supported by the positive association salivary progesterone level with the alpha peak frequency, power in the alpha-2 band and negative--with the power of the alpha-1 band. According these results, we conclude that psycho-physiological recording sessions with women might be provided with a glance to phase of menstrual cycle.

  1. Onset and duration of luteal activity postpartum and their effect on first insemination conception rate in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommeida, Abdelrahim; Nakao, Toshihiko; Kubota, Hirokazu

    2005-10-01

    The incidence of different types of luteal activity postpartum and their effect on reproductive performance were studied in 21 postpartum dairy cows. Progesterone concentrations in defatted milk collected 3 times a week were determined by EIA. Reproductive tract examination was undertaken every other week postpartum. Body weight and body condition score (BCS) were measured before and after calving and the average 100-day milk yield was calculated. Nine (42.9%) cows had normal ovarian activity (first luteal activity or = 20 days pre-service) and in 7 (33.3%) cows the first luteal activity was shown later than 50 days postpartum (DOV). When compared with normal cows, both PLP and DOV had longer interval to first insemination (63.1 +/- 22.0 days versus 77.6 +/- 21.6 and 93.0 +/- 22.3 days, Pconception rate (88.9% versus 0.0% and 57.1%, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) and greater BCS loss (0.81 +/- 0.2 versus 1.05 +/- 0.21 and 1.04 +/- 0.10, respectively, P<0.01). Cows with PLP showed longer interval to uterine involution than normal and DOV groups (54.0 +/- 8.3 days versus 42.4 +/- 5.5 and 43.3 +/- 8.3 days, respectively, P<0.01) and higher 100-day milk yield (38.8 +/- 2.7 kg versus 33.6 +/- 4.7 and 29.9 +/- 6.1 kg, respectively, P<0.01). In conclusion, more than half of the cows had abnormal luteal activity postpartum, which adversely affected reproductive performance.

  2. Analysis of genes that influence sheep follicular development by different nutrition levels during the luteal phase using expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, F; Jia, R; Ying, S; Wang, Z; Wang, F

    2016-06-01

    Nutrition is an important factor that regulates reproductive performance of sheep and affects follicle development. However, the correlation between nutrition and follicle development is poorly understood at the molecular level. To study its possible molecular mechanisms, we performed expression profiling of granulosa cells isolated from sheep that were fed different levels of nutrition levels during the luteal phase. To do this, ewes received a maintenance diet (M), and their estrus was synchronized by intravaginal progestogen sponges for 12 days. Ewes were randomly divided into the short-term dietary-restricted group (R; 0.5 × M) and the nutrient-supplemented group (S; 1.5 × M). RNA samples were extracted from granulosa cells. Transcriptome libraries from each group were constructed by Illumina sequencing. Among 18 468 detected genes, 170 genes were significantly differentially expressed, of which 140 genes were upregulated and 30 genes were downregulated in group S relative to group R. These genes could be candidates regulating follicular development in sheep. Gene Ontology, KEGG and clustering analyses were performed. Genes related to oocyte meiosis, such as ADCY7, were upregulated. We identified two important groups of related genes that were upregulated with improved nutrition: one group comprising the genes PTGS2, UCP2 and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and the other group comprising interleukin-1A and interleukin-1B. The genes within each group showed similar expression patterns. Additionally, all five genes are involved in the reproduction process. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to validate the results of expression profiling. These data in our study are an abundant genomic resource to expand the understanding of the molecular and cellular events underlying follicle development. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  3. Luteal and placental function in the bitch: spatio-temporal changes in prolactin receptor (PRLr) expression at dioestrus, pregnancy and normal and induced parturition

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann Bernd; Guscetti Franco; Boos Alois; Gram Aykut; Michel Erika; Kowalewski Mariusz P; Aslan Selim; Reichler Iris

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Endocrine mechanisms governing canine reproductive function remain still obscure. Progesterone (P4) of luteal origin is required for maintenance of pregnancy. Corpora lutea (CL) are gonadotrop-independent during the first third of dioestrus; afterwards prolactin (PRL) is the primary luteotropic factor. Interestingly, the increasing PRL levels are accompanied by decreasing P4 concentrations, thus luteal regression/luteolysis occurs in spite of an increased availability of g...

  4. Peak visual gamma frequency is modified across the healthy menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Rachael L; McMillan, Rebecca L; Shaw, Alexander D; Singh, Krish D; Sundram, Fred; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D

    2018-04-17

    Fluctuations in gonadal hormones over the course of the menstrual cycle are known to cause functional brain changes and are thought to modulate changes in the balance of cortical excitation and inhibition. Animal research has shown this occurs primarily via the major metabolite of progesterone, allopregnanolone, and its action as a positive allosteric modulator of the GABA A receptor. Our study used EEG to record gamma oscillations induced in the visual cortex using stationary and moving gratings. Recordings took place during twenty females' mid-luteal phase when progesterone and estradiol are highest, and early follicular phase when progesterone and estradiol are lowest. Significantly higher (∼5 Hz) gamma frequency was recorded during the luteal compared to the follicular phase for both stimuli types. Using dynamic causal modeling, these changes were linked to stronger self-inhibition of superficial pyramidal cells in the luteal compared to the follicular phase. In addition, the connection from inhibitory interneurons to deep pyramidal cells was found to be stronger in the follicular compared to the luteal phase. These findings show that complex functional changes in synaptic microcircuitry occur across the menstrual cycle and that menstrual cycle phase should be taken into consideration when including female participants in research into gamma-band oscillations. © 2018 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Consistent high clinical pregnancy rates and low ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome rates in high-risk patients after GnRH agonist triggering and modified luteal support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Blockeel, Christophe; Tremellen, Kelton P

    2013-01-01

    Are clinical pregnancy rates satisfactory and the incidence of OHSS low after GnRH agonist trigger and modified intensive luteal support in patients with a high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)?......Are clinical pregnancy rates satisfactory and the incidence of OHSS low after GnRH agonist trigger and modified intensive luteal support in patients with a high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)?...

  6. Therapeutic misconception in early phase gene transfer trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gail E; Easter, Michele M; Zimmer, Catherine; King, Nancy M P; Davis, Arlene M; Rothschild, Barbra Bluestone; Churchill, Larry R; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Nelson, Daniel K

    2006-01-01

    Many subjects in early phase clinical trials expect to benefit in some way from the research intervention. It is understandable that people hope for improvement in their condition, no matter what the evidence. Yet unreasonable expectation of medical benefit may reflect problems with informed consent: Investigators may not disclose clearly that direct medical benefit from an early phase experimental intervention is unlikely or impossible, or subjects may not appreciate the differences between treatment and research. This paper presents findings from recent interviews with researchers and subjects and analysis of consent forms in early phase gene transfer research, a cutting-edge technology often called 'gene therapy'. We use three variables to construct a composite measure of therapeutic misconception TM, tapping misconceptions about the purposes of early phase research and the potential for direct medical benefit in these trials. Our multivariate model demonstrates the importance of both subject- and study-level factors as predictors of this TM index: education, disease type, and communication by study personnel about the likelihood of benefit. We hope that this work will deepen the discussion of how to define and measure TM, and refine the specification of factors that are related to subjects' TM.

  7. Standardization of the radioimmunoassay of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) plasmatic and his application to the study of secretion of E{sub 2} in normal women, during the menstrual cycle and after the infusion of the gonadotropin (LH/FSH/RH) release factor; Padronizacao do metodo de radioimunoensaio de 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) plasmatico e sua aplicacao ao estudo da secrecao de E{sub 2} em mulheres normais, durante o ciclo menstrual e apos a infusao do fator liberador de gonadotrofinas (LH/FSH/RH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyan, Takeko Shimizu

    1979-07-01

    A radioimmunoassay method for measurement of plasma E{sub 2} was standardized utilizing a highly specific antisera against E{sub 2} [-6 (-0-carboxymethyl)-oxime] BSA without the need of previous chromatographic purification. The anti-E{sub 2} serum was highly specific, showing high affinity with affinity constants: K{sub 1}=1 .62x10{sup 12} M{sup -1} and K{sub 2} = 2.94x10{sup 11} M{sup -1}, calculated by Scatchard plot. The standard curve sensitivity was 2 pico grams. The method was specific and accurate, showing an intra-assay precision with a mean C.V. of 2.9%, with the inter-assay evaluation showing a mean C.V. of 5.0%. This method was employed to evaluate E{sub 2} secretion during the menstrual cycle in 6 normal females, as indicated below: Days: -14 to -10 (early follicular phase..64.68 pg/ml{+-}12.14; - 9 to - 1(late follicular phase).122.39 pg/ml {+-}33,54; Peak day 281.28 pg/ml {+-}66 ,59; + 1 to + 7(early luteal phase) 127.47 pg/ml {+-}24.88; + 8 to +14 (late luteal phase) 87.57 pg/ml{+-}37,56. The effect of the acute and prolonged infusion of LH/FSH-RH(synthetic hypothalamic LH and FSH releasing hormone) was evaluated in the follicular and luteal phase in some of the normal females. (author)

  8. Standardization of the radioimmunoassay of 17β-estradiol (E2) plasmatic and his application to the study of secretion of E2 in normal women, during the menstrual cycle and after the infusion of the gonadotropin (LH/FSH/RH) release factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyan, Takeko Shimizu

    1979-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay method for measurement of plasma E 2 was standardized utilizing a highly specific antisera against E 2 [-6 (-0-carboxymethyl)-oxime] BSA without the need of previous chromatographic purification. The anti-E 2 serum was highly specific, showing high affinity with affinity constants: K 1 =1 .62x10 12 M -1 and K 2 = 2.94x10 11 M -1 , calculated by Scatchard plot. The standard curve sensitivity was 2 pico grams. The method was specific and accurate, showing an intra-assay precision with a mean C.V. of 2.9%, with the inter-assay evaluation showing a mean C.V. of 5.0%. This method was employed to evaluate E 2 secretion during the menstrual cycle in 6 normal females, as indicated below: Days: -14 to -10 (early follicular phase..64.68 pg/ml±12.14; - 9 to - 1(late follicular phase).122.39 pg/ml ±33,54; Peak day 281.28 pg/ml ±66 ,59; + 1 to + 7(early luteal phase) 127.47 pg/ml ±24.88; + 8 to +14 (late luteal phase) 87.57 pg/ml±37,56. The effect of the acute and prolonged infusion of LH/FSH-RH(synthetic hypothalamic LH and FSH releasing hormone) was evaluated in the follicular and luteal phase in some of the normal females. (author)

  9. Simulated conditions of microgravity suppress progesterone production by luteal cells of the pregnant rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, G. K.; Yang, H.; Sridaran, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether simulated conditions of microgravity induce changes in the production of progesterone by luteal cells of the pregnant rat ovary using an in vitro model system. The microgravity environment was simulated using either a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) bioreactor with free fall or a clinostat without free fall of cells. A mixed population of luteal cells isolated from the corpora lutea of day 8 pregnant rats was attached to cytodex microcarrier beads (cytodex 3). These anchorage dependent cells were placed in equal numbers in the HARV or a spinner flask control vessel in culture conditions. It was found that HARV significantly reduced the daily production of progesterone from day 1 through day 8 compared to controls. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cells attached to the microcarrier beads throughout the duration of the experiment in both types of culture vessels. Cells cultured in chamber slide flasks and placed in a clinostat yielded similar results when compared to those in the HARV. Also, when they were stained by Oil Red-O for lipid droplets, the clinostat flasks showed a larger number of stained cells compared to control flasks at 48 h. Further, the relative amount of Oil Red-O staining per milligram of protein was found to be higher in the clinostat than in the control cells at 48 h. It is speculated that the increase in the level of lipid content in cells subjected to simulated conditions of microgravity may be due to a disruption in cholesterol transport and/or lesions in the steroidogenic pathway leading to a fall in the synthesis of progesterone. Additionally, the fall in progesterone in simulated conditions of microgravity could be due to apoptosis of luteal cells.

  10. Effects of intraluteal implants of prostaglandin E1 or E2 on angiogenic growth factors in luteal tissue of Angus and Brahman cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Yoshie S; Ma, Yan; Ford, Stephen P; Nett, Terry M; Vann, Rhonda C; Lewis, Andrew W; Neuendorff, Don A; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D; Weems, Charles W

    2014-12-01

    Previously, it was reported that intraluteal implants containing prostaglandin E1 or E2 (PGE1 and PGE2) in Angus or Brahman cows prevented luteolysis by preventing loss of mRNA expression for luteal LH receptors and luteal unoccupied and occupied LH receptors. In addition, intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 upregulated mRNA expression for FP prostanoid receptors and downregulated mRNA expression for EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors. Luteal weight during the estrous cycle of Brahman cows was reported to be lesser than that of Angus cows but not during pregnancy. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 alter vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1), and angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) protein in Brahman or Angus cows. On Day 13 of the estrous cycle, Angus cows received no intraluteal implant and corpora lutea were retrieved, or Angus and Brahman cows received intraluteal silastic implants containing vehicle, PGE1, or PGE2 on Day 13 and corpora lutea were retrieved on Day 19. Corpora lutea slices were analyzed for VEGF, FGF-2, ANG-1, and ANG-2 angiogenic proteins via Western blot. Day-13 Angus cow luteal tissue served as preluteolytic controls. Data for VEGF were not affected (P > 0.05) by day, breed, or treatment. PGE1 or PGE2 increased (P Angus cows compared with Day-13 and Day-19 Angus controls but decreased (P Angus controls. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of PGE1 or PGE2 on ANG-1 in Angus luteal tissue when compared with Day-13 or Day-19 controls, but ANG-1 was decreased (P Angus Vehicle controls when compared with Day-13 Angus controls, which was prevented (P Angus cows. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of PGE1 or PGE2 on ANG-2 in Brahman cows. PGE1 or PGE2 may alter cow luteal FGF-2, ANG-1, or ANG-2 but not VEGF to prevent luteolysis; however, species or breed differences may exist. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. 40 CFR 73.20 - Phase II early reduction credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phase II early reduction credits. 73.20 Section 73.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations § 73.20 Phase II early reduction credits...

  12. Effects of menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptives on alertness, cognitive performance, and circadian rhythms during sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, K. P. Jr; Badia, P.; Czeisler, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The influence of menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptive use on neurobehavioral function and circadian rhythms were studied in healthy young women (n = 25) using a modified constant routine procedure during 24 h of sleep deprivation. Alertness and performance worsened across sleep deprivation and also varied with circadian phase. Entrained circadian rhythms of melatonin and body temperature were evident in women regardless of menstrual phase or oral contraceptive use. No significant difference in melatonin levels, duration, or phase was observed between women in the luteal and follicular phases, whereas oral contraceptives appeared to increase melatonin levels. Temperature levels were higher in the luteal phase and in oral contraceptive users compared to women in the follicular phase. Alertness on the maintenance of wakefulness test and some tests of cognitive performance were poorest for women in the follicular phase especially near the circadian trough of body temperature. These observations suggest that hormonal changes associated with the menstrual cycle and the use of oral contraceptives contribute to changes in nighttime waking neurobehavioral function and temperature level whereas these factors do not appear to affect circadian phase.

  13. Corpora lutea in superovulated ewes fed different planes of nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraisoon, A; Redmer, D A; Bass, C S; Navanukraw, C; Dorsam, S T; Valkov, V; Reyaz, A; Grazul-Bilska, A T

    2018-01-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is an ovarian structure which is critical for the maintenance of reproductive cyclicity and pregnancy support. Diet and/or diet components may affect some luteal functions. FSH is widely used to induce multiple follicle development and superovulation. We hypothesized that FSH would affect luteal function in ewes fed different nutritional planes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if FSH-treatment affects (1) ovulation rate; (2) CL weight; (3) cell proliferation; (4) vascularity; (5) expression of endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS) and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) proteins; and (6) luteal and serum progesterone (P4) concentration in control (C), overfed (O), and underfed (U) ewes at the early- and mid-luteal phases. In addition, data generated from this study were compared to data obtained from nonsuperovulated sheep and described by Bass et al. Ewes were categorized by weight and randomly assigned into nutrition groups: C (2.14 Mcal/kg; n = 11), O (2xC; n = 12), and U (0.6xC; n = 11). Nutritional treatment was initiated 60 d prior to day 0 of the estrous cycle. Ewes were injected with FSH on day 13-15 of the first estrous cycle, and blood samples and ovaries were collected at early- and mid-luteal phases of the second estrous cycle. The number of CL/ewe was determined, and CL was dissected and weighed. CL was fixed for evaluation of expression of Ki67 (a proliferating cell marker), CD31 (an endothelial cell marker), and eNOS and sGC proteins using immunohistochemistry and image analysis. From day 0 until tissue collection, C maintained, O gained, and U lost body weight. The CL number was greater (P ewes; however, concentration of P4 in luteal tissues was similar in both groups. Thus, in superovulated ewes, luteal cell proliferation and vascularity, expression of eNOS, and serum P4 concentration depend on the stage of luteal development, but not diet. Comparison to control ewes demonstrated several differences and some

  14. Duration of luteal support (DOLS with progesterone pessaries to improve the success rates in assisted conception: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazvani Rafet

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Luteal support with progesterone is necessary for successful implantation of the embryo following egg collection and embryo transfer in an in-vitro fertilization (IVF cycle. Progesterone has been used for as little as 2 weeks and for as long as 12 weeks of gestation. The optimal length of treatment is unresolved at present and it remains unclear how long to treat women receiving luteal supplementation. Design The trial is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of the duration of luteal support with progesterone in IVF cycles. Following 2 weeks standard treatment and a positive biochemical pregnancy test, this randomized control trial will allocate women to a supplementary 8 weeks treatment with vaginal progesterone or 8 weeks placebo. Further studies would be required to investigate whether additional supplementation with progesterone is beneficial in early pregnancy. Discussion Currently at the Hewitt Centre, approximately 32.5% of women have a positive biochemical pregnancy test 2 weeks after embryo transfer. It is this population that is eligible for trial entry and randomization. Once the patient has confirmed a positive urinary pregnancy test they will be invited to join the trial. Once the consent form has been completed by the patient a trial prescription sheet will be sent to pharmacy with a stated collection time. The patient can then be randomized and the drugs dispensed according to pharmacy protocol. A blood sample will then be drawn for measurement of baseline hormone levels (progesterone, estradiol, free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, Activin A, Inhibin A and Inhibin B. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of all randomized women that continue successfully to a viable pregnancy (at least one fetus with fetal heart rate >100 beats/minute on transabdominal/transvaginal ultrasound at 10 weeks post embryo

  15. The Effects of Melatonin on Menstrual Characteristics, Prolactin and Premenstrual Syndrome-Like Symptoms During a Simulated Eastward Deployment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirby, Albert

    1998-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the effect of exogenous melatonin (10 mg) given at bedtime (2300) for 7 consecutive days during the late follicular and early luteal phase of the monthly cycle, on menstrual characteristics...

  16. Internalized stigma in adults with early phase versus prolonged psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Ruth L; Lysaker, Paul H; Luther, Lauren; Yanos, Philip T; Leonhardt, Bethany; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2018-03-30

    Although internalized stigma is associated with negative outcomes among those with prolonged psychosis, surprisingly little work has focused on when in the course of one's illness stigma is internalized and the impact of internalization on symptoms or social functioning over the course of the illness. Therefore, this study investigated whether (1) internalized stigma is greater among those later in the course of psychosis and (2) whether internalized stigma has a stronger negative relationship with social functioning or symptoms among those with prolonged compared to early phase psychosis. Individuals with early phase (n = 40) and prolonged psychosis (n = 71) who were receiving outpatient services at an early-intervention clinic and a VA medical center, respectively, completed self-report measures of internalized stigma and interview-rated measures of symptoms and social functioning. Controlling for education, race and sex differences, internalized stigma was significantly greater among those with prolonged psychosis compared to early phase. Internalized stigma was negatively related to social functioning and positively related to symptoms in both groups. Furthermore, the magnitude of the relationship between cognitive symptoms and internalized stigma was significantly greater among those with early phase. Stereotype endorsement, discrimination experiences and social withdrawal also differentially related to symptoms and social functioning across the 2 samples. Findings suggest that internalized stigma is an important variable to incorporate into models of early psychosis. Furthermore, internalized stigma may be a possible treatment target among those with early phase psychosis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Non-invasive identification of protein biomarkers for early pregnancy diagnosis in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C Koester

    Full Text Available Approximately 80% of cheetahs living in typical zoological collections never reproduce. In more than 60% of breedings, the female is confirmed to ovulate, but parturition fails to occur. It is unknown if these non-pregnant intervals of elevated progesterone (deemed luteal phases are conception failures or a pregnancy terminating in embryonic/fetal loss. There have been recent advances in metabolic profiling and proteome analyses in many species with mass spectrometry used to identify 'biomarkers' and mechanisms indicative of specific physiological states (including pregnancy. Here, we hypothesized that protein expression in voided cheetah feces varied depending on pregnancy status. We: 1 identified the expansive protein profile present in fecal material of females; and 2 isolated proteins that may be candidates playing a role in early pregnancy establishment and diagnosis. Five hundred and seventy unique proteins were discovered among samples from pregnant (n = 8, non-pregnant, luteal phase (n = 5, and non-ovulatory control (n = 5 cheetahs. Four protein candidates were isolated that were significantly up-regulated and two were down-regulated in samples from pregnant compared to non-pregnant or control counterparts. One up-regulated candidate, immunoglobulin J chain (IGJ; an important component of the secretory immune system was detected using a commercially available antibody via immunoblotting. Findings revealed that increased IGJ abundance could be used to detect pregnancy successfully in >80% of 23 assessed females within 4 weeks after mating. The discovery of a novel fecal pregnancy marker improves the ability to determine reproductive, especially gestational, status in cheetahs managed in an ex situ insurance and source population.

  18. Non-invasive identification of protein biomarkers for early pregnancy diagnosis in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Diana C; Wildt, David E; Maly, Morgan; Comizzoli, Pierre; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 80% of cheetahs living in typical zoological collections never reproduce. In more than 60% of breedings, the female is confirmed to ovulate, but parturition fails to occur. It is unknown if these non-pregnant intervals of elevated progesterone (deemed luteal phases) are conception failures or a pregnancy terminating in embryonic/fetal loss. There have been recent advances in metabolic profiling and proteome analyses in many species with mass spectrometry used to identify 'biomarkers' and mechanisms indicative of specific physiological states (including pregnancy). Here, we hypothesized that protein expression in voided cheetah feces varied depending on pregnancy status. We: 1) identified the expansive protein profile present in fecal material of females; and 2) isolated proteins that may be candidates playing a role in early pregnancy establishment and diagnosis. Five hundred and seventy unique proteins were discovered among samples from pregnant (n = 8), non-pregnant, luteal phase (n = 5), and non-ovulatory control (n = 5) cheetahs. Four protein candidates were isolated that were significantly up-regulated and two were down-regulated in samples from pregnant compared to non-pregnant or control counterparts. One up-regulated candidate, immunoglobulin J chain (IGJ; an important component of the secretory immune system) was detected using a commercially available antibody via immunoblotting. Findings revealed that increased IGJ abundance could be used to detect pregnancy successfully in >80% of 23 assessed females within 4 weeks after mating. The discovery of a novel fecal pregnancy marker improves the ability to determine reproductive, especially gestational, status in cheetahs managed in an ex situ insurance and source population.

  19. Dual phase helical CT: diagnosis value for early pancreatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Bingqi; Zhang Ling; Zheng Keguo; Xu Dasheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study dual-phase helical CT for the evaluation of early pancreatic cacinoma. Methods: Dual-phase helical CT was performed on 21 patients with early pancreatic carcinoma. In the enhanced imaging the contrast material was intravenously injected in a dose of 1.5 ml/kg at a rate of 3 ml/s. The image acquisition of the lesion in pancreatic phase (PP) and portal venous phase (PVP) were started at 35 seconds and 65 seconds after the start of the injection respectively. The enhancement of normal pancreas and tumor during the two phases was observed and compared. All data were statistically analyzed. Results: Tumor-pancreas contrast was significantly greater in PP (45.16±113.23) HU than in PVP (23.15±12.44) HU (t=2.13, P<0.01). Conclusion: Dual-phase helical CT scan for pancreas, including the imaging of the pancreatic and portal , venous phase, can be applied as an optimal selection. It can delineate early pancreatic carcinoma clearly and provide more information for the diagnosis of the lesion. The tumor-pancreas contrast was much higher' in PP than in PVP. (authors)

  20. Determination of the Elasticity of Breast Tissue during the Menstrual Cycle Using Real-Time Shear Wave Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Jian-Nan; Fan, Zhi-Ying; Kang, Shu; Liu, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Xia; Wang, Xue-Mei

    2015-12-01

    We examined breast tissue elasticity during the menstrual cycle using real-time shear wave elastography (RT-SWE), a recent technique developed for soft tissue imaging. Written informed consent for RT-SWE was obtained from all eligible patients, who were healthy women aged between 19 and 52 y. Young's moduli of the breast tissue in the early follicular, late phase and luteal phase were compared. There were no significant differences in the mean, maximum and minimum elasticity values (Emean, Emax and Emin) and standard deviation (ESD). RT-SWE of glandular tissue revealed that ESD was increased in the early follicular phase compared with the luteal phase. Means ± SD of Emin, Emax and Emean in glandular tissue were 5.174 ± 2.138, 8.308 ± 3.166 and 6.593 ± 2.510, respectively, and in adipose tissue, 3.589 ± 2.083, 6.733 ± 3.522 and 4.857 ± 2.564, respectively. There were no significant differences in stiffness between glandular and adipose tissues throughout the menstrual cycle, but glandular tissue stiffness was lower in the luteal phase than in the early follicular phase. On the basis of these observations in normal healthy women, we believe we have obtained sufficient information to establish the baseline changes in human breast elasticity during the menstrual cycle. In the future, we intend to compare the elasticity values of healthy breast tissue with those of breast tissue affected by various pathologies. Our results reveal the significant potential of RT-SWE in the rapid and non-invasive clinical diagnosis of breast diseases, such as breast cancers. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of luteal estradiol patch and gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist suppression protocol before gonadotropin stimulation versus microdose gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist protocol for patients with a history of poor in vitro fertilization outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Vanessa N; Engmann, Lawrence; DiLuigi, Andrea; Maier, Donald; Nulsen, John; Benadiva, Claudio

    2009-07-01

    To compare IVF outcomes in poor-responder patients undergoing stimulation after luteal phase E(2) patch/GnRH antagonist (LPG) protocol versus microdose GnRH agonist protocol. Retrospective analysis. University-based IVF center. Forty-five women undergoing ovarian stimulation for IVF using the LPG protocol were compared with 76 women stimulated with the microdose GnRH agonist protocol from May 2005 to April 2006. Cancellation rate, number of oocytes retrieved, and clinical pregnancy rates. The mean number of oocytes (9.1 +/- 4.1 vs. 8.9 +/- 4.3) and mature oocytes (6.7 +/- 3.5 vs. 6.8 +/- 3.1) retrieved were similar, as were the fertilization rates (70.0% +/- 24.2% vs. 69.9% +/- 21.5%) and the number of embryos transferred (2.5 +/- 1.1 vs. 2.7 +/- 1.3). The cancellation rate was not significantly different between the groups (13/45, 28.9% vs. 23/76, 30.3%). Likewise, there were no significant differences among the implantation rate (15.0% vs. 12.5%), clinical pregnancy rate (43.3% vs. 45.1%), and ongoing pregnancy rate per transfer (33.3% vs. 26.0%) between both groups. This study demonstrates that the use of an E(2) patch and a GnRH antagonist during the preceding luteal phase in patients with a history of failed cycles can provide similar IVF outcomes when compared with the microdose GnRH agonist protocol.

  2. Thymosin-∞1 in the ovary and the levels of thymosin-∞1 and T lymphocytes during estrous cycle in swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakharia, D.D.; Kinder, J.E.; Wise, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental evidence in rodents has emphasized the role of thymic hormones, particularly thymosin-α 1 (ThA1), thymosin-β 4 and T lymphocytes, in regulation of ovarian development. Similar information is unavailable for farm animals including swine. Serum and follicular fluid (FF) ThA1 levels and percentage of peripheral blood (PB) T lymphocyte population during different phases of the estrous cycle were determined. T lymphocytes in PB were enumerated by the sheep erythrocyte rosette test. Percentage of T lymphocyte population at both early luteal (EL) and mid luteal phases (ML) were significantly (P<0.01) higher than during late luteal phase (LL). ThA1 measured by radioimmunoassay in FF of follicles of diameter <8 mm was significantly (P<0.01) higher than serum levels. Culture supernatants of corpus luteum (CL) and cells derived from follicles of diameter <8 mm (CF) contained significant amounts of ThA1 suggesting release of ThA1 from CL and CF. Germinal epithelium, follicular basal membrane, theca cells, granulosa cells and cells in CL stained positive for ThA1 by immunofluorescence test. Gilt estrous cycle phase was determined either by observing ovary morphology or counting the days after estrous. ThA1 levels in follicular fluid were significantly (P<0.01) higher during luteal phase than during follicular phase. Levels during ML or LL were significantly (P<0.01) higher than EL. ThA1 secreted by ovary may have a regulatory role in cyclicity of gilts and follicle development

  3. Menstrual cycle phase affects discrimination of infant cuteness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmaier, Janek S; Probst, Fabian; Perrett, David I; Heinrichs, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that women are more sensitive than men to subtle cuteness differences in infant faces. It has been suggested that raised levels in estradiol and progesterone may be responsible for this advantage. We compared young women's sensitivity to computer-manipulated baby faces varying in cuteness. Thirty-six women were tested once during ovulation and once during the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle. In a two alternative forced-choice experiment, participants chose the baby which they thought was cuter (Task 1), younger (Task 2), or the baby that they would prefer to babysit (Task 3). Saliva samples to assess levels of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone were collected at each test session. During ovulation, women were more likely to choose the cuter baby than during the luteal phase, in all three tasks. These results suggest that cuteness discrimination may be driven by cyclic hormonal shifts. However none of the measured hormones were related to increased cuteness sensitivity. We speculate that other hormones than the ones measured here might be responsible for the increased sensitivity to subtle cuteness differences during ovulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Opposing Roles of Leptin and Ghrelin in the Equine Corpus Luteum Regulation: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Galvão

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic hormones have been associated with reproductive function modulation. Thus, the aim of this study was: (i to characterize the immunolocalization, mRNA and protein levels of leptin (LEP, Ghrelin (GHR and respective receptors LEPR and Ghr-R1A, throughout luteal phase; and (ii to evaluate the role of LEP and GHR on progesterone (P4, prostaglandin (PG E2 and PGF2α, nitric oxide (nitrite, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF; macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF secretion, and on angiogenic activity (BAEC proliferation, in equine corpus luteum (CL from early and mid-luteal stages. LEPR expression was decreased in late CL, while GHR/Ghr-R1A system was increased in the same stage. Regarding secretory activity, GHR decreased P4 in early CL, but increased PGF2α, nitrite and TNF in mid CL. Conversely, LEP increased P4, PGE2, angiogenic activity, MIF, TNF and nitrite during early CL, in a dose-dependent manner. The in vitro effect of LEP on secretory activity was reverted by GHR, when both factors acted together. The present results evidence the presence of LEP and GHR systems in the equine CL. Moreover, we suggest that LEP and GHR play opposing roles in equine CL regulation, with LEP supporting luteal establishment and GHR promoting luteal regression. Finally, a dose-dependent luteotrophic effect of LEP was demonstrated.

  5. PROFIL PROTEIN HIPOFISA SAPI PERAH PERANAKAN FRIES HOLLAND (PFH BETINA FASE FOLIKULER DAN LUTEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Isnaini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK   Penelitian dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui profil protein hipofisa sapi perah PFH betina fase folikuler dan fase luteal dengan menggunakan metode SDS-PAGE. Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dapat digunakan sebagai acuan untuk melaksanakan pengujian jenis protein tertentu yang terdapat dalam hipofisa sapi perah PFH.Materi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah hipofisa sapi perah PFH betina Fase Folikuler dan Fase Luteal. Sampel hipofisa didapatkan dari Rumah Potong Hewan (RPH Singosari Malang. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode observasi. Dimana sampel hipofisa sapi perah PFH fase folikuler dan fase luteal dilakukan isolasi protein, dan ditentukan Berat Molekul (BM proteinnya. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis diskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa profil protein hipofisa fase folikuler dan fase luteal sapi perah PFH memiliki perbedaan. Pada hipofisa fase folikuler memiliki 12 pita protein, yaitu 163; 112,3; 101,3; 85,8; 80,6; 71,2; 53,3; 45,2; 39,9; 32,4; 29,8; dan 24,8 kDa. Pada hipofisa fase luteal memiliki 12 pita protein, yaitu 163; 112,3; 101,3; 85,8; 71,2; 60,3; 53,3; 45,2; 39,9; 32,4; 29,8; dan 24,8 kDa. Pita protein yang membedakan adalah pita dengan berat molekul 80,6 kDa hanya terdapat pada hipofisa fase folikuler, dan pita dengan berat molekul 60,3 kDa hanya terdapat pada hipofisa fase luteal. Kesimpulan yang diperoleh dari penelitian ini adalah terdapat perbedaan profil protein yang dihasilkan pada hipofisa fase folikuler dengan hipofisa fase luteal. Saran yang diberikan adalah perlu dilakukan penelitian lanjutan yaitu uji immunoblothing atau westernblothing (WB untuk memastikan keberadaan  protein-protein tertentu.   Kata kunci: Hipofisa, folikuler, luteal, berat molekul protein. HIPOPHISIS PROTEIN PROFILE OF CROSSBREED FRIESH HOLLAND DAIRY CATTLE IN FOLLICULAR AND LUTEAL PHASE   ABSTRACT   The aim of this research was to identification of

  6. The effects of EGF and IGF-1 on FSH-mediated in vitro maturation of domestic cat oocytes derived from follicular and luteal stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Koray; Vural, M Rıfat; Küplülü, Sükrü; Ozcan, Ziya; Polat, I Mert

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-1) on the in vitro maturation of cat oocytes recovered from follicular and luteal stage ovaries. Oocytes from follicular (n=580) and luteal (n=209) stages were harvested and divided into four groups, which were cultured in FSH-mediated maturation medium supplemented with: (1) EGF alone (25ng/mL); (2) IGF-1 alone (100ng/mL); (3) EGF+IGF-1 (25ng/mL EGF+100ng/mL IGF-I); or (4) no growth factor (control). The proportion of follicular stage oocytes reaching the metaphase II stage was significantly higher than that of oocytes obtained at the luteal stage in both control and study groups (pIGF-1, and 78.1% in EGF+IGF-1 groups, whereas the respective values for gametes collected from luteal stage ovaries were 12.5%, 17.5%, 12.5%, and 16.9%. Additionally, the differences between the study and control groups were significant in the case of follicular stage oocytes. Finally, supplementing the maturation medium with EGF and/or IGF-1 significantly enhanced the meiotic maturation of oocytes recovered from follicular stage ovaries. The present study also demonstrated that the combination of EGF and IGF-I provides an additional or synergic effect on meiotic maturation of oocytes recovered from the follicular stage. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of menstrual phase on orthodontic pain following initial archwire engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, H; Gao, M; Zhu, Y; Liu, H; Zhou, Y; Liao, L; Lai, W

    2017-04-01

    To explore the effects of menstrual cycle on orthodontic pain following initial archwire engagement. Female participants with regular menstrual cycles were recruited and assigned into follicular group or luteal group. Demographical and baseline variables were collected: age, education, menstrual duration, anxiety, oral health impact profile-14 (OHIP-14), and index of complexity outcome and need (ICON). Following initial archwire engagement, orthodontic pain was determined through visual analogue scale (VAS) on 1st day, 2nd day, and 3rd day. Demographical and baseline variables were compared between the two groups. Two-way repeated-measures anova was used to examine the effects of menstrual phase, time, and their interactions on orthodontic pain. Multivariate linear regression was employed to examine the independent effect of each variable on orthodontic pain. Finally, 37 and 39 were assigned to the follicular and luteal groups, respectively, with balanced demographical and baseline data. Orthodontic pain was significantly affected by menstrual phase and time (both P  0.05). Moreover, orthodontic pain was independently predicted by menstrual phase, OHIP, education level, and anxiety (all P < 0.05). We suggest that practitioners arrange female patients to receive initial archwire engagement during their follicular phases to relieve orthodontic pain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on glucose kinetics in healthy women & women with premenstrual symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena K. Nandimath

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the blood glucose levels during the two phases of the menstrual cycle between healthy women and patients with premenstrual syndrome (PMS.Methods: From January of 2012 to the August of 2013, a descriptive cross-sectional study was performed among staff of tertiary care hospital.Inclusion Criteria: 1100 women aged 18 to 45 years, 2 Regular Menstrual cycle.Exclusion Criteria: 1 Menopause 2 Patient on Oral Contraceptive pills.After approval from IEC and informed consent from the 100 enrolled subjects with either the most severe symptoms of PMS or healthy controls. 2ml of venous blood was collected on fasting condition during the follicular phase (5-11 days of  menstrual cycleand the luteal phase of the cycle (19-28 days menstrual cycle and analyzed the serum concentrations of glucose by using the glucose oxidase method.Results: The statistical analysis was done using student's paired T test. P value less than 0.0001was taken as significant.No significant differences between the demographic data of the control and PMS groups were observed. The mean concentrations of glucose were significantly different during the follicular and luteal phases.

  9. Oestrogen supplementation in gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    2005-02-06

    Feb 6, 2005 ... intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) — a prospective randomised study. ARTICLE. Objective. To investigate the impact of oestrogen supplementation from the early luteal to the late proliferative phase on biochemical and ongoing pregnancy rates in gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). Methods. Ninety-five ...

  10. GnRH agonist ovulation trigger and hCG-based, progesterone-free luteal support: a proof of concept study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Shahar; Humaidan, Peter; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    in normal responder IVF patients. We here present a novel approach for luteal support after a GnRHa trigger. METHODS Normal responder patients who failed at least one previous IVF attempt, during which a conventional hCG trigger was used, were consecutively enrolled in the study. A GnRH antagonist...

  11. Sex and menstrual cycle influences on three aspects of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Belinda; Harris, Ti-Anni; Ortner, Tuulia

    2017-10-01

    Sex differences and menstrual cycle influences have been investigated in a variety of cognitive abilities, but results regarding attention are comparably sparse. In the present study, 35 men and 32 naturally cycling women completed three attention tasks, which are commonly used in neuropsychological assessment situations. All participants completed two sessions, which were time-locked to the follicular (low progesterone) and luteal cycle phase (high progesterone) in women. The results reveal higher operation speed during sustained attention in men, but no sex differences in selected and divided attention. Menstrual cycle influences were observed on accuracy in all three tasks. During divided and sustained attention, for which a male advantage was previously reported, accuracy was higher during the early follicular compared to the mid-luteal cycle phase. Furthermore, during selected and sustained attention the learning effect from the first to the second test session was higher in women who started the experiment in their luteal cycle phase. These results suggest a possible role of progesterone in modulating the ability to focus on certain stimulus aspects, while inhibiting others and to sustain attention over a longer period of time. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Resting state alpha frequency is associated with menstrual cycle phase, estradiol and use of oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brötzner, Christina P; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Doppelmayr, Michael; Zauner, Andrea; Kerschbaum, Hubert H

    2014-08-19

    Ongoing intrinsic brain activity in resting, but awake humans is dominated by alpha oscillations. In human, individual alpha frequency (IAF) is associated with cognitive performance. Noticeable, performance in cognitive and emotional tasks in women is associated with menstrual cycle phase and sex hormone levels, respectively. In the present study, we correlated frequency of alpha oscillation in resting women with menstrual cycle phase, sex hormone level, or use of oral contraceptives. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 57 women (aged 24.07 ± 3.67 years) having a natural menstrual cycle as well as from 57 women (aged 22.37 ± 2.20 years) using oral contraceptives while they sat in an armchair with eyes closed. Alpha frequency was related to the menstrual cycle phase. Luteal women showed highest and late follicular women showed lowest IAF or center frequency. Furthermore, IAF as well as center frequency correlated negatively with endogenous estradiol level, but did not reveal an association with endogenous progesterone. Women using oral contraceptives showed an alpha frequency similar to women in the early follicular phase. We suggest that endogenous estradiol modulate resting alpha frequency. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dual QCD and phase transition in early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, Akhilesh; Raina, P.K.; Nandan, Hemwati

    2009-01-01

    The quantum chromodynamics (QCD) vacuum with condensed monopoles/ dyons (i.e., a dual Ginzburg- Landau (DGL) type model of QCD or dual QCD) has been quite successful to describe the large-distance behavior of QCD vacuum. Further, such DGL theory of QCD at finite temperature is also found to be useful in studying the phase transition process as believed to occur in early universe. In the present article, we have used the DGL theory of QCD with dyons to study the hadronisation in early universe. The effective potential at finite temperature is calculated. The notions of the phase transition in the background of the dyonically condensed QCD vacuum has been investigated by calculating the critical temperature in view of the temperature dependent couplings

  14. SU119. Internalized Stigma in Adults With Early-Phase vs Prolonged Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Ruth; Vohs, Jenifer; Luther, Lauren; Yanos, Philip; Leonhardt, Bethany; Lysaker, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: While internalized stigma is associated with negative outcomes among those with prolonged psychosis, surprisingly little work has focused on when in the course of one’s illness stigma is internalized and the impact of internalization on symptoms or quality of life over the course of the illness. Therefore, this study investigated whether (1) internalized stigma is greater among those later in the course of psychosis and (2) whether internalized stigma has a stronger negative relationship with quality of life or symptoms among those with prolonged compared to early-phase psychosis. Methods: Individuals with early-phase (n = 40) and prolonged psychosis (n = 71) who were receiving outpatient services at an early-intervention clinic and a VA medical center, respectively, completed self-report measures of internalized stigma and interview-rated measures of symptoms and quality of life. Results: Controlling for education, race, and sex differences, internalized stigma was significantly greater among those with prolonged compared to early-phase psychosis. Internalized stigma was negatively related to quality of life and positively related to symptoms in both groups. Furthermore, the magnitude of the relationship between cognitive symptoms and internalized stigma was significantly greater among those with early-phase psychosis. Stereotype endorsement, discrimination experiences, and social withdrawal also deferentially related to symptoms and quality of life across the 2 samples. Conclusion: Findings suggest that internalized stigma is an important variable to incorporate into models of early psychosis. Further, internalized stigma may be a possible treatment target among those in their early phase of psychosis.

  15. The effects of menstrual cycle phase on physical performance in female soccer players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Ross; Hecksteden, Anne; Fullagar, Hugh H. K.; Meyer, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Background Female soccer has grown extensively in recent years, however differences in gender-specific physiology have rarely been considered. The female reproductive hormones which rise and fall throughout the menstrual cycle, are known to affect numerous cardiovascular, respiratory, thermoregulatory and metabolic parameters, which in turn, may have implications on exercise physiology and soccer performance. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to investigate potential effects of menstrual cycle phase on performance in soccer specific tests. Methods Nine sub elite female soccer players, all of whom have menstrual cycles of physiological length; performed a series of physical performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent endurance test (Yo-Yo IET), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 3x30 m sprints). These were conducted at distinct time points during two main phases of the menstrual cycle (early follicular phase (FP) and mid luteal phase (LP)) where hormones contrasted at their greatest magnitude. Results Yo-Yo IET performance was considerably lower during the mid LP (2833±896 m) as compared to the early FP (3288±800 m). A trend towards significance was observed (p = 0.07) and the magnitude based inferences suggested probabilities of 0/61/39 for superiority/equality/inferiority of performance during the mid LP, leading to the inference of a possibly harmful effect. For CMJ (early FP, 20.0±3.9 cm; mid LP 29.6±3.0 cm, p = 0.33) and sprint (early FP, 4.7±0.1 s; mid LP, 4.7±0.1 s, p = 0.96) performances the results were unclear (8/24/68, 48/0/52, respectively). Conclusion The results of this study are in support of a reduction in maximal endurance performance during the mid LP of the menstrual cycle. However, the same effect was not observed for jumping and sprint performance. Therefore, consideration of cycle phase when monitoring a player’s endurance capacity may be worthwhile. PMID:28288203

  16. Tongue color changes within a menstrual cycle in eumenorrheic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Feng Hsieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue color (舌色 shé sè has been used to diagnose abnormal body conditions for thousands of years in traditional Chinese Medicine (中醫 zhōng yī. However, it is not clear whether tongue color alters with physiological changes within a normal menstrual cycle (月經周期 yuè jīng zhōu qī. This study investigated difference in tongue color between the follicular phase and luteal phase in eumenorrheic women. Tongue surface photographs were taken in the follicular phase and the luteal phase of thirty-two volunteers with biphasic basal body temperature. Color values on five areas of the tongue surface were examined and comparisons of color values were made between the two phases according to the red–green–blue (RGB, hue–saturation–brightness (HSB, luminance-a-b (Lab, and cyan–magenta–yellow–black (CMYK models. Based on the RGB model, the values of green and blue in the tip area were larger in the follicular phase than both in the luteal phase. The values of magenta and yellow based in the CMYK model were smaller in the tip area in the follicular phase than that in the luteal phase. The saturation in the tip area was smaller in the follicular phase than that in the luteal phase. Based on the Lab model, b value in the middle area was smaller in the follicular phase than that in the luteal phase. The data revealed that tongue color varied within a eumenorrheic menstrual cycle, suggesting that tongue color differences between the follicular and luteal phases need to be considered while practicing tongue diagnosis (舌診 shé zhěn or performing clinical studies among childbearing women.

  17. Monitoring the reproductive performance in awassi ewes using progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Jugular serum progesterone (P-4) concentrations were assessed using radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits for about 1 year in 16 local Awassi ewes aged about 1 year and weighing on average 37.4 ±4.9 (range 29.5-44.0 kg). Average pre-mating live weight of animals was different (P 0.05) between animals in average basal pre-mating P-4 concentration, maximum P-4 concentration during the luteal phase in non-pregnant ewes and in the length of the gestation period average basal pre-mating P-4 concentration was 0.62±0.44 (range 0-1.7 nmol l -1 ). Average maximum P-4 concentration during the luteal phase in non-pregnant ewes was 11.0±3.3 (range 5.8-18 nmol l -1 ). Length of gestation period varied from 149 to 155 days with an average of 152±2.3 days. Maximum P-4 concentration during gestation was different (P -1 ). The accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis at around 21 days pot-mating using RIA was 100%. It was concluded that Awassi sheep in Syria have a long breeding season that could start as early as April and last through September. Therefore, ewes might be included in oestrous synchronisation programmes to give three lambs in 2 years. It was also concluded that P-4 concentration under 3.18 nmol l -1 is indicative of either anoestrous or follicular and early luteal phase of the oestrous cycle in Awassi ewes kept in Syria and that RIA could be used for P-4 determination and successful early diagnosis of pregnancy in Awassi sheep. (author)

  18. Implementing Effective Mission Systems Engineering Practices During Early Project Formulation Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moton, Tryshanda

    2016-01-01

    Developing and implementing a plan for a NASA space mission can be a complicated process. The needs, goals, and objectives of any proposed mission or technology must be assessed early in the Project Life Cycle. The key to successful development of a space mission or flight project is the inclusion of systems engineering in early project formulation, namely during Pre-phase A, Phase A, and Phase B of the NASA Project Life Cycle. When a space mission or new technology is in pre-development, or "pre-Formulation", feasibility must be determined based on cost, schedule, and risk. Inclusion of system engineering during project formulation is key because in addition to assessing feasibility, design concepts are developed and alternatives to design concepts are evaluated. Lack of systems engineering involvement early in the project formulation can result in increased risks later in the implementation and operations phases of the project. One proven method for effective systems engineering practice during the pre-Formulation Phase is the use of a mission conceptual design or technology development laboratory, such as the Mission Design Lab (MDL) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper will review the engineering process practiced routinely in the MDL for successful mission or project development during the pre-Formulation Phase.

  19. Establishing a cost model when estimating product cost in early design phases

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppsson, Johanna; Sjöberg, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    About 75% of the total product cost is determined in the early design phase, which means that the possibilities to affect costs are relatively small when the design phase is completed. For companies, it is therefore vital to conduct reliable cost estimates in the early design phase, when selecting between different design choices. When conducting a cost estimate there are many uncertainties. The aim with this study is therefore to explore how uncertainties regarding product cost can be consid...

  20. Association analysis of polymorphism in KiSS1 gene with reproductive traits in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S; Zaglool, Asmaa W; El-Tarabany, Akram A; Awad, Ashraf

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the genetic information of related genes is helpful for the selection and breeding course through marker assisted selection. The aim of the current study was to detect polymorphisms of the KiSS1 gene in 137 animals, including Baladi, Zaraibi and Damascus goat breeds by PCR-RFLP, and DNA sequencing and to investigate the association between these variants and reproductive traits. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence indicated the substitution of T with A at position 121 (T121A) in the intron 1 of the KiSS1 gene in all goat breeds. This substitution distorts the restriction site of the XmnI restriction enzyme and consequently two genotypes were detected (TA and TT). The T121A SNP is associated significantly with litter size in Damascus and Zaribi breeds (p=0.025 and 0.001, respectively). The animals with the TT genotype in Damascus and Zaribi breeds had a significantly higher estradiol 17β level than that recorded in TA genotype at estrus phase (p=0.013 and 0.028, respectively) and late-luteal phase (p=0.067 and 0.041, respectively) of the estrus cycle. Furthermore, animals with the TT genotype in Damascus and Zaribi breeds had significant higher progesterone level at mid-luteal (p=0.037 and 0.045, respectively) phase. Meanwhile, there were no significant differences in progesterone level in late-luteal phase between both genotypes in Zaribi breed (p=0.267). The current trial indicated that the prolific TT genotype in both Damascus and Zaribi breeds had superior estradiol 17β level at estrus phase and an eminent progesterone level at both early and mid-luteal phases of the estrous cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cortisol levels during prolonged exercise: the influence of menstrual phase and menstrual status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaley, J A; Boileau, R A; Bahr, J M; Misner, J E; Nelson, R A

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of menstrual phase and menstrual status on the cortisol response during 90 minutes of treadmill running at 60% VO2max. Eight eumenhorrheic athletes were tested in the early follicular (EF) (day 3-5), late follicular (LF) (day 13-15) and mid-luteal (ML) (day 22-24) phases. Six amenorrheic athletes were tested on two separate occasions. The resting cortisol levels were similar in each menstrual phase and overall a decreasing pattern of cortisol response to exercise was observed in all menstrual phases (P greater than .05). The amenorrheic athletes had a significantly greater (P less than .01) pattern of cortisol response than was observed in eumenorrheic athletes. The net increment in cortisol levels during exercise were distinctly greater (P less than .01) in amenorrheic than eumenorrheic athletes (amenorrheic: 413.8 +/- 113.1, eumenorrheic: EF: -482.8 +/- 88.3, LF: -311.8 +/- 102.1, ML: -386.3 +/- 146.2 nmol.l-1). In conclusion the cortisol levels are independent of menstrual phase. Also a larger cortisol increment is observed in amenorrheic athletes in response to prolonged submaximal exercise. The elevated cortisol levels in amenorrheics at rest and throughout exercise provides further evidence that disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function are associated with exercise-induced amenorrhea, although the site(s) of physiological disturbance have not been identified.

  2. Proteomic analysis of early phase of conidia germination in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Taek; Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jeong Geun; Ro, Hyeon-Su; Lee, Chang-Won; Kim, Jae Won

    2010-03-01

    In order to investigate proteins involved in early phase of conidia germination, proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) in conjunction with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). The expression levels of 241 proteins varied quantitatively with statistical significance (Pproteomic analysis of early phase of conidia germination and will contribute to a better understanding of the molecular events involved in conidia germination process. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lower peripheral circulation in eumenorrheic young women with premenstrual symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsumi Noriyuki

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A majority of women from all cultures and socioeconomic levels experience diverse psychosomatic and behavioral symptoms premenstrually, a phenomenon commonly termed premenstrual syndrome, although symptoms and discomfort levels vary from woman to woman. The underlying pathological mechanisms of premenstrual syndrome remain unknown; however, altered function or even slight disorder of the blood circulation system, which contributes to the orchestrations of the human internal environment, could cause bio-psychological changes leading to complaints and ultimately compromising a woman's overall health. The present study, therefore, investigates to what extent and how the menstrual cyclicity of peripheral circulation is associated with premenstrual symptomatology. Methods Twenty-one eumenorrheic young women participated in this study. All subjects were investigated during the follicular and late luteal phases. Cycle phase was determined by the onset of menstruation and oral temperature and was verified by concentrations of ovarian hormones, estrone, and pregnanediol in a urine sample taken early in the morning. Peripheral circulation was evaluated with the Astrim (Sysmex, Kobe, a portable non-invasive monitoring device using the principle of near-infrared spectroscopy, which calculates the venous oxygenation index (VOI based on the ratio of light absorption of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin, a proven reliable indicator of peripheral blood circulation. The Menstrual Distress Questionnaire was applied to measure physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms accompanying the menstrual cycle of the subjects. Results The oral temperature and urinary ovarian hormones adjusted for creatinine significantly increased in the late luteal phase in all subjects. While 10 subjects experienced no symptoms during the menstrual cycle, 11 subjects had apparent physical and psychological discomfort in the late luteal phase. We found that VOI

  4. Evidence that polymorphonuclear neutrophils infiltrate into the developing corpus luteum and promote angiogenesis with interleukin-8 in the cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Takashi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After ovulation in the cow, the corpus luteum (CL rapidly develops within a few days with angiogenesis and progesterone production. CL formation resembles an inflammatory response due to the influx of immune cells. Neutrophils play a role in host defense and inflammation, and secrete chemoattractants to stimulate angiogenesis. We therefore hypothesized that neutrophils infiltrate in the developing CL from just after ovulation and may play a role in angiogenesis of the CL. Methods and Results Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN were detected in CL tissue by Pas-staining, and interleukin-8 (IL-8, a neutrophil-specific chemoattractant was measured in supernatant of the CL tissue culture: considerable amounts of PMNs and the high level of IL-8 were observed during the early luteal phase (days 1-4 of the estrous cycle. PMNs and IL-8 were low levels in the mid and late luteal phases, but IL-8 was increased during luteal regression. The PMN migration in vitro was stimulated by the supernatant from the early CL but not from the mid CL, and this activity was inhibited by neutralizing with an anti-IL-8 antibody, indicating the major role of IL-8 in inducing active PMN migration in the early CL. Moreover, IL-8 stimulated proliferation of CL-derived endothelial cells (LECs, and both the supernatant of activated PMNs and IL-8 stimulated formation of capillary-like structures of LECs. Conclusion PMNs migrate into the early CL partially due to its major chemoattractant IL-8 produced at high levels in the CL, and PMNs is a potential regulator of angiogenesis together with IL-8 in developing CL in the cow.

  5. Generic features of vacuum phase transitions in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kephart, T.W.; Weiler, T.J.; Yuan, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    A simple Higgs model is utilized to show the occurrence of a four-phase pattern of vacuum symmetry. As temperature changes, an interplay of spontaneous symmetry breaking and spontaneous symmetry restoration ensues, and resonant field interchange occurs. The generality of models which may contain a sequence of vacuum phase transitions is emphasized. The laboratory for these multi-phase transitions is the early Universe. (orig.)

  6. Statistical controversies in clinical research: early-phase adaptive design for combination immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wages, N A; Slingluff, C L; Petroni, G R

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, investigators have asserted that the 3 + 3 design lacks flexibility, making its use in modern early-phase trial settings, such as combinations and/or biological agents, inefficient. More innovative approaches are required to address contemporary research questions, such as those posed in trials involving immunotherapies. We describe the implementation of an adaptive design for identifying an optimal treatment regimen, defined by low toxicity and high immune response, in an early-phase trial of a melanoma helper peptide vaccine plus novel adjuvant combinations. Operating characteristics demonstrate the ability of the method to effectively recommend optimal regimens in a high percentage of trials with reasonable sample sizes. The proposed design is a practical, early-phase, adaptive method for use with combined immunotherapy regimens. This design can be applied more broadly to early-phase combination studies, as it was used in an ongoing study of two small molecule inhibitors in relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Histamine-induced paradoxical GH response to TRH/GnRH in men and women: dependence on gonadal steroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U; Thuesen, B; Dejgaard, A

    1990-01-01

    .025), but not during the early follicular phase of the cycle (GH peak: 1.7 +/- 0.5 vs 1.6 +/- 0.3 micrograms/l). In luteal-phase women the GH response to TRH/GnRH correlated with the serum estradiol-17 beta level (GH area/E2: r = 0.98; p less than 0.005) and the serum estrone level (GH area/E1: r = 0.81; p less than 0...

  8. Sympathetic activation during early pregnancy in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Bivens, Tiffany B; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Casey, Brian M; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Sympathetic activity has been reported to increase in normotensive pregnant women, and to be even greater in women with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia at term. Whether sympathetic overactivity develops early during pregnancy, remaining high throughout gestation, or whether it only occurs at term providing the substrate for hypertensive disorders is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that sympathetic activation occurs early during pregnancy in humans. Eleven healthy women (29 ± 3 (SD) years) without prior hypertensive pregnancies were tested during the mid-luteal phase (PRE) and early pregnancy (EARLY; 6.2 ± 1.2 weeks of gestation). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and haemodynamics were measured supine, at 30 deg and 60 deg upright tilt for 5 min each. Blood samples were drawn for catecholamines, direct renin, and aldosterone. MSNA was significantly greater during EARLY than PRE (supine: 25 ± 8 vs. 14 ± 8 bursts min−1, 60 deg tilt: 49 ± 14 vs. 40 ± 10 bursts min−1; main effect, P < 0.05). Resting diastolic pressure trended lower (P = 0.09), heart rate was similar, total peripheral resistance decreased (2172 ± 364 vs. 2543 ± 352 dyne s cm−5; P < 0.05), sympathetic vascular transduction was blunted (0.10 ± 0.05 vs. 0.36 ± 0.47 units a.u.−1 min−1; P < 0.01), and both renin (supine: 27.9 ± 6.2 vs. 14.2 ± 8.7 pg ml−1, P < 0.01) and aldosterone (supine: 16.7 ± 14.1 vs. 7.7 ± 6.8 ng ml−1, P = 0.05) were higher during EARLY than PRE. These results suggest that sympathetic activation is a common characteristic of early pregnancy in humans despite reduced diastolic pressure and total peripheral resistance. These observations challenge conventional thinking about blood pressure regulation during pregnancy, showing marked sympathetic activation occurring within the first few weeks of conception, and may provide the substrate for pregnancy induced cardiovascular complications. PMID:22687610

  9. Gaia Science Alerts: Early Validation Phase Data from Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Nicholas; Hodgkin, Simon; van Leeuwen, Floor

    2015-08-01

    The ESA Gaia satellite launched Dec 2013, and after successful completion of its in orbit commissioning in July 2014, begun routine operations, with the aim to accurately measure the astrometric and astrophysical properties of more than a billion stars in our Milky Way.As a significant by product of its observational scanning law, where each point on the sky is observed multiple times (~80 revisits on average) over the nominal 5 year mission, Gaia has significant utility in detecting new transients, both flux (e.g. Supernovae, Flare stars) and positional (e.g. Asteroids).We will present the current status of the Gaia Photometric Science Alerts (PSA) system that has been developed within the Gaia DPAC. The PSA pipeline provides a quick look analysis of the daily data stream from Gaia, and identifies new photometric alerts, from analysis of the object photometric and the low resolution spectro-photometric data. Via a set of filters, those identified as astrophysical in nature, are published to the community. The information provided currently includes positional and flux information.The Gaia Alerts working group has organised a significant early stage followup campaign, providing access to a wide variety of followup facilities. These have been used to provide classification spectra of the Gaia alert candidates, with the early phase data confirming that the alerts issued are indeed largely astrophysical transients, with only a small contamination rate.The presentation will address the early phase issues that have been addressed in localising and classifying alerts in the early phase of Gaia observations (for instance, how lack of early knowledge of the sky as seen by Gaia was mitigated by reference to external image data), and how the alert rate published by the PSA will ramp up towards the end of 2015, with the availability of more Gaia sky data.Information concerning the Gaia alerts system can be found at http://gaia.ac.uk/selected-gaia-science-alerts

  10. Enhanced response to ozone exposure during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, S.D.; Adams, W.C.; Brookes, K.A.; Lasley, B.L. (Univ. of Calfornia, Davis (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Exposure to ozone (O[sub 3]), a toxic component of photochemical smog, results in significant airway inflammation, respiratory discomfort, and pulmonary function impairment. These effects can be reduced via pretreatment with anti-inflammatory agents. Progesterone, a gonadal steroid, is known to reduce general inflammation in the uterine endometrium. However, it is not known whether fluctuation in blood levels of progesterone, which are experienced during the normal female menstrual cycle, could alter O[sub 3] inflammatory-induced pulmonary responses. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that young, adult females are more responsive to O[sub 3] inhalation with respect to pulmonary function impairment during their follicular (F) menstrual phase when progesterone levels are lowest that during their mid-luteal (ML) phase when progesterone levels are highest. Nine subjects with normal ovarian function were exposed in random order for 1 hour each to filtered air and to 0.30 ppm O[sub 3] in their F and ML menstrual phases. Ozone responsiveness was measured by percent change in pulmonary function from pre- to postexposure. Significant gas concentration effects (filtered air versus O[sub 3]) were observed for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV[sub 1]), and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF[sub 25-75]), showed a significant menstrual phase and gas concentration interaction effect, with larger decrements observed in the F menstrual phase when progesterone concentrations were significantly lower. We conclude that young, adult females appear to be more responsive to acute O[sub 3] exposure during the F phase than during the ML phase of their menstrual cycles. This difference in pulmonary function response could be related to the anti-inflammatory effects of increased progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase.

  11. A specific association between facial disgust recognition and estradiol levels in naturally cycling women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunjeev K Kamboj

    Full Text Available Subtle changes in social cognition are associated with naturalistic fluctuations in estrogens and progesterone over the course of the menstrual cycle. Using a dynamic emotion recognition task we aimed to provide a comprehensive description of the association between ovarian hormone levels and emotion recognition performance using a variety of performance metrics. Naturally cycling, psychiatrically healthy women attended a single experimental session during a follicular (days 7-13; n = 16, early luteal (days 15-19; n = 14 or late luteal phase (days 22-27; n = 14 of their menstrual cycle. Correct responses and reaction times to dynamic facial expressions were recorded and a two-high threshold analysis was used to assess discrimination and response bias. Salivary progesterone and estradiol were assayed and subjective measures of premenstrual symptoms, anxiety and positive and negative affect assessed. There was no interaction between cycle phase (follicular, early luteal, late luteal and facial expression (sad, happy, fearful, angry, neutral and disgusted on any of the recognition performance metrics. However, across the sample as a whole, progesterone levels were positively correlated with reaction times to a variety of facial expressions (anger, happiness, sadness and neutral expressions. In contrast, estradiol levels were specifically correlated with disgust processing on three performance indices (correct responses, response bias and discrimination. Premenstrual symptoms, anxiety and positive and negative affect were not associated with emotion recognition indices or hormone levels. The study highlights the role of naturalistic variations in ovarian hormone levels in modulating emotion recognition. In particular, progesterone seems to have a general slowing effect on facial expression processing. Our findings also provide the first behavioural evidence of a specific role for estrogens in the processing of disgust in humans.

  12. Improvement of Dairy Cattle Productivity Through Early Non-Pregnancy Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indetie, D.

    2002-01-01

    Reproductive wastage bears a great deal on the productivity of dairy cattle by prolonging the calving intervals thereby reducing the milk produced and the number of calves born over the lifetime of a cow. early identification of a non-cyclic or non-pregnant cows can result in early intervention and rebreeding of the affected cattle ths improving productivity. Determination of progesterone levels in milk can be used as a good indicator of the reproductive status of dairy cows. five hundred and thirty two cows were sampled by collecting milk sample on day of AI, day 12 and 13 and day 22 to 24 after AI. The milk samples were assayed to determine progesterone levels at these stages of the estrus cycle, which were then used to deduce the reproductive status of the cow. Out of the cows sampled 16% were not cycling and had progesterone levels of 1 nm/L or less during the mid luteal phase. Insemination of cows whose Progesterone levels were less than 3 nm/L resulted in conception rates of 80% and indication of the timeliness of insemination. Inseminating cows 19 hours after onset of standing heat resulted in conception rates of 79% compared with insemination early whose conception rates were 15%.It can be concluded that the timeliness of AI will determine the success of conception rates if heat is detected properly and the cow is in the right reproductive state. Early non-pregnancy diagnosis using progesterone can reduce the anoestrus period as well as detecting cows with reproductive anomalies which can be rectified early and the cows presented for rebreeding thus reducing the calving interval and improving the productivity of the dairy enterprise

  13. Evaluation of early-phase [18F]-florbetaben PET acquisition in clinical routine cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Daerr

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Early-phase FBB acquisitions correlate on a relative quantitative and visual level with FDG PET scans, irrespective of the amyloid plaque density assessed in late FBB imaging. Thus, early-phase FBB uptake depicts a metabolism-like image, suggesting it as a valid surrogate marker for synaptic dysfunction, which could ultimately circumvent the need for additional FDG PET investigation in diagnosis of dementia.

  14. 2079-IJBCS-Article-Omorogiuwa Arthur

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    This study compares the hematological values of the ovulation phase with the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Sixty subjects with 30 subjects each in the ovulation and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle were studied. Ethical clearance and informed consent were obtained for the study. Hematological parameters of.

  15. Soccer-related performance in eumenorrheic Tunisian high-level soccer players: effects of menstrual cycle phase and moment of day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounsi, Mohamed; Jaafar, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Souissi, Nizar

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the combined effects of menstrual cycle phase and moment of day on female soccer players' performances in the five-jump test (5JT), the repeated shuttle-sprint ability test (RSSA), and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIRT1). Eleven eumenorrheic Tunisian high-level soccer players volunteered to participate. Each subject individually participated in three testing periods: one in the early follicular phase (menses), one in the late follicular phase, and another in the luteal phase. In each period, two test sessions were conducted: one at 07:30 and another at 17:30. The testing routines included the 5JT, the RSSA, and the YYIRT1. None of the measured variables were altered due to menstrual cycle phase (all P>0.05). Mean time during RSSA was significantly lower in the afternoon session compared to the morning session (8.48±0.27 s and 8.77±0.34 s, respectively, P<0.001), while 5JT performance was significantly higher in the afternoon compared to the morning (9.08±0.58 m and 8.60±0.56 m, respectively, P<0.001). Soccer-specific endurance as well as jumping and repeated sprinting ability of Tunisian female high-level soccer players are not affected due to menstrual cycle phase neither in the morning nor in the afternoon.

  16. Expression of costimulatory molecules in the bovine corpus luteum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pate Joy L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine luteal parenchymal cells express class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules and stimulate class II MHC-dependent activation of T cells in vitro. The ability of a class II MHC-expressing cell type to elicit a response from T cells in vivo is also dependent on expression of costimulatory molecules by the antigen presenting cell and delivery of a costimulatory signal to the T cell. Whether bovine luteal parenchymal cells express costimulatory molecules and can deliver the costimulatory signal is currently unknown. Methods Bovine luteal tissue was collected during the early (day 5; day of estrus = day 0, mid (day 11–12, or late (day 18 luteal phase of the estrous cycle, and at 0, 0.5, 1, 4, 12 or 24 hours following administration of PGF2alpha to cows on day 10 of the estrous cycle. Northern analysis was used to measure CD80 or CD86 mRNA concentrations in luteal tissue samples. Mixed luteal parenchymal cell cultures and purified luteal endothelial cell cultures were prepared, and real-time RT-PCR was used to examine the presence of CD80 and CD86 mRNA in each culture type. Monoclonal antibodies to CD80 and CD86 were added to a mixed luteal parenchymal cell-T cell co-culture in vitro T cell proliferation assay to assess the functional significance of costimulatory molecules on activation of T lymphocytes by luteal parenchymal cells. Results Northern analysis revealed CD80 and CD86 mRNAs in luteal tissue, with greatest steady-state concentrations at midcycle. CD80 and CD86 mRNAs were detected in mixed luteal parenchymal cell cultures, but only slight amounts of CD80 (and not CD86 mRNA were detected in cultures of luteal endothelial cells. Luteinizing hormone, PGF2alpha and TNF-alpha were without effect on concentrations of CD80 or CD86 mRNA in mixed luteal parenchymal cells cultures. Anti-CD80 or anti-CD86 monoclonal antibodies inhibited T cell proliferation in the in vitro T cell proliferation assay

  17. Challenges and perspective of drug repurposing strategies in early phase clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shumei; Moulder, Stacy L; Ueno, Naoto T; Wheler, Jennifer J; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kurzrock, Razelle; Janku, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant investments in the development of new agents only 5% of cancer drugs entering Phase I clinical trials are ultimately approved for routine clinical cancer care. Drug repurposing strategies using novel combinations of previously tested anticancer agents could reduce the cost and improve treatment outcomes. At MD Anderson Cancer Center, early phase clinical trials with drug repurposing strategies demonstrated promising outcomes in patients with both rare and common treatment refractory advanced cancers. Despite clinical efficacy advancing drug repurposing strategies in the clinical trial trajectory beyond early phase studies has been challenging mainly due to lack of funding and interest from the pharmaceutical industry. In this review, we delineate our experience and challenges with drug repurposing strategies.

  18. Culture of porcine luteal cells as a substrate for in vitro maturation of porcine cumulus oocyte complexes. Establishment and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teplitz MA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish and characterize the porcine luteal cells (PLC culture for the subsequent coculture with porcine COC. The final purpose is to promote the oocyte maturation. The PLC was established using corpora lutea obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries. Corpora lutea were dissected and luteal tissue submitted to a mechanical and enzymatic digestion with collagenase IV. The cell suspension was filtered and centrifuged and the cells obtained were diluted in 15 mL of DMEM-F12 supplemented media. Diluted cells were seeded in 3 culture flasks T25, staying in a controlled environment and changing the medium every 2 days. For the analysis and characterization, the cells were assessed by the Nile red staining to detect intracellular lipids, immunocytochemistry (ICC for 3β-hydroxy steroid dehidrogenase (3β-HSD and ELISA for P4 determination. We observed the presence of lipid intracellular droplets. Also, we observed an increase of P4 concentration at 48, 96 y 144 h of primary culture and almost all the cells were positive to the ICC evaluation for 3β-HSD, showing the steroidogenic capacity of the culture cells.

  19. Emergency management in the early phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crick, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: An overview of emergency management is provided from a systems approach with the aim of providing a common understanding for the diverse symposium participants of the elements of the management system required for preparedness and response for the early phase of an emergency at a nuclear installation. The systems approach starts with the recognition of response goals, and using detailed analyses of threats, past experience, international law and principles, a response strategy is developed. This step is illustrated with the case of severe accidents at PWRs and identifies the need for and nature of: emergency classification based an plant conditions; notification; radiological monitoring and assessment strategies; operational criteria for implementing protective action decisions; management of public information. From the strategy, detailed functional requirements can be defined addressing: establishing emergency management and operations; identifying, notifying and activating; taking mitigatory action; taking urgent protective action; providing information and issuing instructions and warnings to the public; protecting emergency workers; assessing the initial phase; managing the medical response; keeping the public informed; taking countermeasures against ingestion; mitigating the non-radiological consequences of the emergency and the response. Meeting these requirements necessitates decisions from competent authorities, the means to implement them, and mechanisms for response co-ordination, which need to be prepared in advance. These are supported by infrastructure, including: clear authorities; organization; coordinated plans and procedures; logistical support, facilities and tools; training and exercises; and a quality assurance programme. Some reflections an the key differences between response to emergencies arising from accidents and these arising from deliberate acts will be provided. An impression will be given of the level of preparedness and

  20. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis: Case report with history of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis (APD) is a rare autoimmune response to raised endogenous progesterone levels that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Cutaneous, mucosal lesions and other systemic manifestations develop cyclically during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle when ...

  1. Effect of Air Pollution on Menstrual Cycle Length-A Prognostic Factor of Women's Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merklinger-Gruchala, Anna; Jasienska, Grazyna; Kapiszewska, Maria

    2017-07-20

    Air pollution can influence women's reproductive health, specifically menstrual cycle characteristics, oocyte quality, and risk of miscarriage. The aim of the study was to assess whether air pollution can affect the length of the overall menstrual cycle and the length of its phases (follicular and luteal). Municipal ecological monitoring data was used to assess the air pollution exposure during the monitored menstrual cycle of each of 133 woman of reproductive age. Principal component analyses were used to group pollutants (PM 10 , SO₂, CO, and NO x ) to represent a source-related mixture. PM 10 and SO₂ assessed separately negatively affected the length of the luteal phase after standardization (b = -0.02; p = 0.03; b = -0.06; p = 0.02, respectively). Representing a fossil fuel combustion emission, they were also associated with luteal phase shortening (b = -0.32; p = 0.02). These pollutants did not affect the follicular phase length and overall cycle length, neither in single- nor in multi-pollutant models. CO and NO x assessed either separately or together as a traffic emission were not associated with overall cycle length or the length of cycle phases. Luteal phase shortening, a possible manifestation of luteal phase deficiency, can result from fossil fuel combustion. This suggests that air pollution may contribute to fertility problems in women.

  2. Changes in nucleosome repeat lengths precede replication in the early replicating metallothionein II gene region of cells synchronized in early S phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Anna, J.A.; Tobey, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Previous investigations showed that inhibition of DNA synthesis by hydroxyurea, aphidicolin, or 5-fluorodeoxyuridine produced large changes in the composition and nucleosome repeat lengths of bulk chromatin. There the authors report results of investigations to determine whether the changes in nucleosome repeat lengths might be localized in the initiated replicons, as postulated. In most experiments, Chinese hamster (line CHO) cells were synchronized in G1, or they were synchronized in early S phase by allowing G1 cells to enter S phase in medium containing 1 mM hydroxyurea or 5 μg mL -1 aphidicolin, a procedure believed to produce an accumulation of initiated replicons that arise from normally early replicating DNA. Measurements of nucleosome repeat lengths of bulk chromatin, the early replicating unexpressed metallothionein II (MTII) gene region, and a later replicating repeated sequence indicate that the changes in repeat lengths occur preferentially in the early replicating MTII gene region as G1 cells enter and become synchronized in early S phase. During that time, the MTII gene region is not replicated nor is there any evidence for induction of MTII messenger RNA. Thus, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in chromatin structure occur preferentially in the early replicating (presumably initiated) replicons at initiation or that changes in chromatin structure can precede replication during inhibition of DNA synthesis. The shortened repeat lengths that precede MTII replication are, potentially, reversible, because they become elongated when the synchronized early S-phase cells are released to resume cell cycle progression

  3. Random-start ovarian stimulation in women desiring elective cryopreservation of oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nigel; Voskuilen-Gonzalez, Anna; Hancock, Kolbe; Lekovich, Jovana P; Schattman, Glenn L; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-10-01

    The current study investigates the utility of random-start ovarian stimulation in women desiring elective oocyte cryopreservation. Women in the study cohort underwent random-start ovarian stimulation, and were subdivided based on the phase of the menstrual cycle that ovarian stimulation began, i.e. early follicular, late follicular or luteal phase. Women undergoing conventional cycle day (CD) 2/3 ovarian stimulation start were controls. A total of 1302 women were included - 859 (66.0%) conventional CD 2/3, 342 (26.3%) early follicular, 42 (3.2%) late follicular and 59 (4.5%) luteal ovarian stimulation starts. There was no difference in the demographics or baseline ovarian stimulation characteristics. The duration of ovarian stimulation (11 versus 9 days; P start group. The number of total and MII oocytes in the control and random-start groups was similar. A non-significant trend towards increased cycle cancellation was noted in the late follicular start group (7.1%). Study findings indicate the number of total and MII oocytes derived from random-start protocols initiated during any phase of the menstrual cycle is similar to conventional CD 2/3 ovarian stimulation start protocols in women desiring elective oocyte cryopreservation. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Early phase in e-money development: from Edvard Bellamy to Frank Macknamary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Vysochan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the phases of e-money development from the first mentioning of «a credit card» in literary sources to the appearance of Diners Club which preceded modern credit cards. The author has used the historical and geographic method for the decomposition of the early phase in the e-money development concerning the basic motives that induced emitters to develop and implement particular credit-payment systems. The article singles out three stages within the early phase of the e-money development, namely, the beginning of the ХХ-th century (supplying with short-term credits to obtain consumer’s goods, from 1920 to 1940 (guarantee of consumer’s loyalty to a brand, increasing the safety of clearing transactions by payer’s authorization, and 1950-ies (the use of the same credit for payment to various enterprises. It establishes the main features of the early phase in the e-money development; they are such as the absence of the necessary technical supply; emission, sale, guaranty on credits, on the cards issued take place outside the banking system; the lack of corporation credit card segment; the limitation of the application area; the low level of safety of the transactions accomplished.

  5. Assimilation of spatio-temporal distribution of radionuclides in early phase of radiation accident

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofman, Radek; Šmídl, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, 7/8 (2010), s. 226-228 ISSN 1210-7085 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : decision support * early phase * Gaussian model * radioactive pollution transport Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/AS/hofman-assimilation of spatio-temporal distribution of radionuclides in early phase of radiation accident .pdf

  6. Retaining older workers: the effect of phased retirement on delaying early retirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsmund Hermansen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phased retirement involves reducing working time in the final years before retirement. The aim of phased retirement is to extend working careers and retain older workers who would otherwise opt for full early retirement. This article investigates the effect of offering phased retirement on early-retirement behaviour in Norway.Method: The data used in the analysis covers the period between 2000 and 2010 and comprises all employees between 61 and 62 years of age (N= 18 174 who were employed in any of the 442 companies that participated in a 2010 survey carried out by the Fafo Institute for Labour and Social Research and Respons Analyse AS, a Norwegian research firm. I use a difference-in-differences approach and logistic regression, which enables the measurement of changes in the individual relative risk of retiring full-time on the contractual pension (AFP, avtalefestet pensjon, contractual early-retirement pension, before and after the introduction of phased retirement as a retention measure.Results: The results show that working in a company that offers reduced working hours for older workers does not have an effect on the relative risk of a 61- or 62-year-old withdrawing a full contractual pension in the next two years of their employment. This result is evident both before and after controlling for a range of known individual risk factors, as well as after controlling for company characteristics.Discussion: In the search for suitable measures for retaining older workers, offering phased retirement may still be part of the answer. Though my analysis does not support the idea that more flexible working hours is a decisive factor for those who choose to opt for full early retirement, a possible next step could be to investigate the impact of offering flexible working hours on the employment duration of those who do remain in employment.

  7. Soluble Flt-1 and PlGF: new markers of early pregnancy loss?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muttukrishna, Shanthi

    2012-01-31

    Recent data have indicated a relationship between placental oxygen and angiogenic protein levels in the first trimester of normal pregnancies. Our objective was to investigate if maternal serum levels of angiogenic factors Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1), soluble Endoglin and placental growth factor (PlGF) are altered in women with symptoms of threatened miscarriage (TM) and if they are predictive of a subsequent miscarriage. Blood samples were collected at 6-10 weeks from women presenting with TM (n = 40), from asymptomatic controls (n = 32) and from non- pregnant women in their luteal phase (n = 14). All samples were assayed for serum level of sFLT-1, PlGF, sEndoglin and HSP70 using commercial ELISAs. Samples were analysed retrospectively on the basis of pregnancy outcome. TM group included 21 women with a normal pregnancy outcome and 19 with subsequent complete miscarriage. The latter subgroup had significantly lower mean maternal serum (MS) sFlt-1 (83%, P<0.001) and PlGF (44%, P<0.001) compared to those with a normal pregnancy outcome. Asymptomatic control pregnant women had similar MS levels of sFlt-1 and PlGF compared to the TM patients with a normal outcome. The mean MS sFlt-1 (>10 fold) and MS PlGF ( approximately 2 fold) levels were significantly (P<0.001) higher in control pregnant women compared to the non-pregnant group in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Soluble Endoglin was not altered in the normal pregnant women compared to non pregnant women, although lower in the TM subgroup with a subsequent miscarriage ( approximately 25%, P<0.001) compared to TM with a live birth. There was no significant difference in the mean MS HSP 70 levels between the different groups. This study shows that sFlt1 and PlGF MS levels are increased by several folds in early pregnancy and that MS sFlt-1 and MS PlGF are markedly decreased in threatened miscarriage patients who subsequently have a miscarriage suggesting these

  8. Soluble Flt-1 and PlGF: new markers of early pregnancy loss?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muttukrishna, Shanthi

    2011-01-01

    Recent data have indicated a relationship between placental oxygen and angiogenic protein levels in the first trimester of normal pregnancies. Our objective was to investigate if maternal serum levels of angiogenic factors Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1), soluble Endoglin and placental growth factor (PlGF) are altered in women with symptoms of threatened miscarriage (TM) and if they are predictive of a subsequent miscarriage. Blood samples were collected at 6-10 weeks from women presenting with TM (n = 40), from asymptomatic controls (n = 32) and from non- pregnant women in their luteal phase (n = 14). All samples were assayed for serum level of sFLT-1, PlGF, sEndoglin and HSP70 using commercial ELISAs. Samples were analysed retrospectively on the basis of pregnancy outcome. TM group included 21 women with a normal pregnancy outcome and 19 with subsequent complete miscarriage. The latter subgroup had significantly lower mean maternal serum (MS) sFlt-1 (83%, P<0.001) and PlGF (44%, P<0.001) compared to those with a normal pregnancy outcome. Asymptomatic control pregnant women had similar MS levels of sFlt-1 and PlGF compared to the TM patients with a normal outcome. The mean MS sFlt-1 (>10 fold) and MS PlGF (∼2 fold) levels were significantly (P<0.001) higher in control pregnant women compared to the non-pregnant group in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Soluble Endoglin was not altered in the normal pregnant women compared to non pregnant women, although lower in the TM subgroup with a subsequent miscarriage (∼25%, P<0.001) compared to TM with a live birth. There was no significant difference in the mean MS HSP 70 levels between the different groups. This study shows that sFlt1 and PlGF MS levels are increased by several folds in early pregnancy and that MS sFlt-1 and MS PlGF are markedly decreased in threatened miscarriage patients who subsequently have a miscarriage suggesting these proteins are

  9. Dispositional Optimism and Therapeutic Expectations in Early Phase Oncology Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A.; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Klein, William MP; Weinstein, Neil D.; Mori, Motomi; Daffé, Racky; Sulmasy, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials. Optimism, however, is not a unitary construct – it can also be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. We assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. We also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. Methods Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. Results Dispositional optimism was significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman r=0.333, poptimism was weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r=0.215, p=0.005). In multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (p=0.02) and unrealistic optimism (poptimism (p=.0001), but not dispositional optimism, was independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. Conclusion High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information about the trials. Our data reveal that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations about specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have different consequences for informed consent in early phase oncology research. PMID:26882017

  10. The loss of luteal progesterone production in women is associated with a galectin switch via α2,6-sialylation of glycoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Boswell, Lyndsey; Amano, Maho; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Duncan, W Colin

    2014-12-01

    Luteal progesterone is fundamental for reproduction, but the molecular regulation of the corpus luteum (CL) in women remains unclear. Galectin-1 and galectin-3 bind to the sugar chains on cells to control key biological processes including cell function and fate. The expression and localization of LGALS1 and LGALS3 were analyzed by quantitative PCR and histochemical analysis, with special reference to α2,6-sialylation of glycoconjugates in carefully dated human CL collected across the menstrual cycle and after exposure to human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) in vivo. The effects of hCG and prostaglandin E2 on the expression of galectins and an α2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (ST6GAL1) in granulosa lutein cells were analyzed in vitro. Galectin-1 was predominantly localized to healthy granulosa lutein cells and galectin-3 was localized to macrophages and regressing granulosa lutein cells. Acute exposure to luteotrophic hormones (hCG and prostaglandin E2) up-regulated LGALS1 expression (P progesterone synthesis. Luteotrophic hormones differentially regulate galectin-1 and galectin-3/α2,6-sialylation in granulosa lutein cells, suggesting a novel galectin switch regulated by luteotrophic stimuli during luteolysis and luteal rescue.

  11. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf; Haug, Anders

    2008-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system...

  12. Improving decision making in the early phases of configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Harlou, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    During the early phases of configuration projects very important decisions are made which will heavily influence the performance of the company, benefits in different functional areas (production, sales, purchase, product development, service etc), maintenance of the configuration system...

  13. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers. 76.8 Section 76.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1...

  14. Uptake of novel statistical methods for early-phase clinical studies in the UK public sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaki, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the success rate of confirmatory studies has been poor resulting in more emphasis on the conduct of exploratory studies. As one possibility to improve decision-making during the early stages of development, adaptive and Bayesian methods have been recommended. To investigate the current practice in designing early-phase studies in UK public sector research institutions and the use of adaptive and Bayesian methods in particular and to determine factors that hinder the penetration of methodological advances into practice. A questionnaire was sent to all UK clinical trials units (CTUs) to gauge their involvement in early-phase studies and to learn about the designs used in these studies. Follow-up visits to units conducting early-phase studies with round-table discussions around the methods used and the obstacles faced when using adaptive methods were undertaken. More than half of the CTUs are involved in early-phase studies, but conservatism in the methods used in these studies is present. Reasons for novel methodology not being used include a lack of expertise, incompatible funding and unit structure, and a lack of software. Information is collected from UK CTUs, which undertake a large portion (but not all) publicly funded trials. The use of adaptive and Bayesian methods for early-phase clinical studies in the UK public sector is at present limited. Various different initiatives aim to support and facilitate the use of these methods, however, so that an increased use of these methods can be anticipated in the future.

  15. Luteal activity of pregnant rats with hypo-and hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Juneo Freitas; Ocarino, Natália Melo; Serakides, Rogéria

    2014-07-12

    Luteal activity is dependent on the interaction of various growth factors, cytokines and hormones, including the thyroid hormones, being that hypo- and hyperthyroidism alter the gestational period and are also a cause of miscarriage and stillbirth. Because of that, we evaluated the proliferation, apoptosis and expression of angiogenic factors and COX-2 in the corpus luteum of hypo- and hyperthyroid pregnant rats. Seventy-two adult female rats were equally distributed into three groups: hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and control. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism were induced by the daily administration of propylthiouracil and L-thyroxine, respectively. The administration began five days before becoming pregnant and the animals were sacrificed at days 10, 14, and 19 of gestation. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis to evaluate the expression of CDC-47, VEGF, Flk-1 (VEGF receptor) and COX-2. Apoptosis was evaluated by the TUNEL assay. We assessed the gene expression of VEGF, Flk-1, caspase 3, COX-2 and PGF2α receptor using real time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed by SNK test. Hypothyroidism reduced COX-2 expression on day 10 and 19 (P Hyperthyroidism increased the expression of COX-2 on day 19 (P hyperthyroid animals, being this effect dependent of the gestational period.

  16. Use of specific radioimmunoassays to determine the renal clearance rates of estrone and 17. beta. -estradiol during the menstrual cycle. [Tritium tracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, K.; Collins, D.C.; Preedy, J.R.K.

    1978-11-01

    Specific RIAs requiring ether extraction only were established for estrone and 17..beta..-estradiol both in plasma and in urine from the nonpregnant female. These assays were used to measure the renal clearance rates of estrone and of 17..beta..-estradiol in eight ambulatory women in the follicular and in the luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The mean (+-SE) for the renal clearance rate of estrone was 0.71 +- 0.058 ml/min in the follicular phase and 1.26 +- 0.35 ml/min in the luteal phase. The mean (+-SE) renal clearance rate of 17..beta..-estradiol was 0.44 +- 0.055 ml/min in the follicular phase and 0.29 +- 0.043 ml/min in the luteal phase. There was no significant difference in the renal clearance rates of either estrone or of 17..beta..-estradiol between the follicular and luteal phases of the cycle. The renal clearances of estrone and 17..beta..-estradiol were highly correlated (r = 0.84; P < 0.01). The renal clearance rate of estrone was significantly greater than that of 17..beta..-estradiol in both phases of the cycle (P < 0.01).

  17. Differential gene expression profiling of endometrium during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle between a repeat breeder (RB) and non-RB cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken-Go; Hosoe, Misa; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Fujii, Shiori; Kanahara, Hiroko; Takahashi, Toru; Sakumoto, Ryosuke

    2017-03-23

    Repeat breeding directly affects reproductive efficiency in cattle due to an increase in services per conception and calving interval. This study aimed to investigate whether changes in endometrial gene expression profile are involved in repeat breeding in cows. Differential gene expression profiles of the endometrium were investigated during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle between repeat breeder (RB) and non-RB cows using microarray analysis. The caruncular (CAR) and intercaruncular (ICAR) endometrium of both ipsilateral and contralateral uterine horns to the corpus luteum were collected from RB (inseminated at least three times but not pregnant) and non-RB cows on Day 15 of the estrous cycle (4 cows/group). Global gene expression profiles of these endometrial samples were analyzed with a 15 K custom-made oligo-microarray for cattle. Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate the cellular localization of proteins of three identified transcripts in the endometrium. Microarray analysis revealed that 405 and 397 genes were differentially expressed in the CAR and ICAR of the ipsilateral uterine horn of RB, respectively when compared with non-RB cows. In the contralateral uterine horn, 443 and 257 differentially expressed genes were identified in the CAR and ICAR of RB, respectively when compared with non-RB cows. Gene ontology analysis revealed that genes involved in development and morphogenesis were mainly up-regulated in the CAR of RB cows. In the ICAR of both the ipsilateral and contralateral uterine horns, genes related to the metabolic process were predominantly enriched in the RB cows when compared with non-RB cows. In the analysis of the whole uterus (combining the data above four endometrial compartments), RB cows showed up-regulation of 37 genes including PRSS2, GSTA3 and PIPOX and down-regulation of 39 genes including CHGA, KRT35 and THBS4 when compared with non-RB cows. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CHGA, GSTA3 and PRSS2 proteins

  18. Gonadotropin binding sites in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, K.; Kitayama, S.; Nakano, R.

    1987-05-01

    Gonadotropin binding sites were localized by autoradiography after incubation of human ovarian sections with /sup 125/I-labeled gonadotropins. The binding sites for /sup 125/I-labeled human follicle-stimulating hormone (/sup 125/I-hFSH) were identified in the granulosa cells and in the newly formed corpora lutea. The /sup 125/I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (/sup 125/I-hLH) binding to the thecal cells increased during follicular maturation, and a dramatic increase was preferentially observed in the granulosa cells of the large preovulatory follicle. In the corpora lutea, the binding of /sup 125/I-hLH increased from the early luteal phase and decreased toward the late luteal phase. The changes in 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the corpora lutea corresponded to the /sup 125/I-hLH binding. Thus, the changes in gonadotropin binding sites in the follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle may help in some important way to regulate human ovarian function.

  19. An evaluation of the effect of altering nutrition and nutritional strategies in early lactation on reproductive performance and estrous behavior of high-yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, H S; Young, F J; Patterson, D C; Wylie, A R G; Law, R A; Kilpatrick, D J; Elliott, C T; Mayne, C S

    2011-07-01

    Reproductive performance in the high-yielding dairy cow has severely decreased in the last 40 yr. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 4 nutritional strategies in improving the reproductive performance of high-yielding dairy cows. It was hypothesized that offering cows a high-starch ration in early lactation would enhance the onset of luteal activity, and that decreasing the severity of negative energy balance in the early postcalving period would improve reproductive parameters. Nutritional regimens aimed at improving fertility were applied to 96 Holstein-Friesian dairy animals. Upon calving, animals were allocated in a balanced manner to one of 4 dietary treatments. Primiparous animals were balanced according to live weight, body condition score and calving date. Multiparous animals were balanced according to parity, previous lactation milk yield, liveweight, body condition score and calving date. Treatment 1 was based on an industry best practice diet (control) to contain 170 g of crude protein/kg of dry matter. Treatment 2 was an individual cow feeding strategy, whereby the energy balance (EB) of individual animals was managed so as to achieve a predetermined target daily EB profile (±10 MJ/d). Treatment 3 was a high-starch/high-fat combination treatment, whereby an insulinogenic (high-starch) diet was offered in early lactation to encourage cyclicity and followed by a lipogenic (low-starch, high-fat) diet to promote embryo development. Treatment 4 was a low-protein diet, containing 140 g of crude protein/kg of dry matter, supplemented with protected methionine at an inclusion level of 40 g per animal per day. The nutritional strategies implemented in this study had no statistically significant effects on cow fertility measures, which included the onset of luteal activity, conception rate, in-calf rate, and the incidence of atypical cycles. The individual cow feeding strategy improved EB in early lactation but had no benefit on conception

  20. Dispositional optimism and therapeutic expectations in early-phase oncology trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S; Klein, William M P; Weinstein, Neil D; Mori, Motomi; Daffé, Racky; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2016-04-15

    Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials. However, optimism is not a unitary construct; it also can be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. The authors assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. The authors also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. Dispositional optimism was found to be significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman rank correlation coefficient [r], 0.333; Poptimism was found to be weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r, 0.215; P = .005). On multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (P = .02) and unrealistic optimism (Poptimism (P = .0001), but not dispositional optimism, was found to be independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information regarding the trials. The data from the current study indicate that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations concerning specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have different consequences for informed consent in early-phase oncology research. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  1. Evaluation of hormonal changes in menstrual cycle of women infected with pulmonary tuberculosis in Nnewi, south eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukibe, N R; Onyenekwe, C C; Ahaneku, J E; Ukibe, S N; Meludu, S C; Emelumadu, O; Ifeadike, C O; Ilika, A; Ifeanyichukwu, M O; Igwegbe, A O; Nnadozie, O

    2014-04-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the hormonal changes in menstrual cycle of premenopausal women infected with pulmonary tuberculosis in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi. A prospective study involving sixty-seven (67) female participants within the child-bearing age were randomly recruited and grouped based on their tuberculosis status as: Symptomatic TB infected females (n=20), Symptomatic TB infected females on ATT (n=20) and Control females (n=27). After due consent, a detailed medical history was obtained and routine investigations of pulmonary tuberculosis and confirmation using Ziehl Neelsen and sputum culture techniques for AFB and chest x-ray were done. Blood samples collected from the participants were used for hormonal assay using immunoenzymometric method. The results showed that the serum levels of FSH and LH (IU/ml) were significantly higher while progesterone and estradiol were significantly lower in Symptomatic TB females compared to Symptomatic TB females on ATT at follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle (P<0.05). The serum levels of FSH and LH were significantly reduced in Symptomatic TB females on ATT while progesterone and estradiol were significantly increased at follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle (P<0.05). FSH was significantly higher at follicular phase while estradiol was significantly higher at luteal phase of menstrual cycle in Symptomatic TB females on ATT. Tuberculosis induced hypogonadism in affected women which seemed to be reversed on treatment. Routine investigation for Tuberculosis should be done for women presenting with infertility, since early treatment can reverse the abnormality.

  2. Wide-field phase imaging for the endoscopic detection of dysplasia and early-stage esophageal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C. R. M.; Gordon, G. S. D.; Sawyer, T. W.; Wilkinson, T. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.

    2018-02-01

    Esophageal cancer has a 5-year survival rate below 20%, but can be curatively resected if it is detected early. At present, poor contrast for early lesions in white light imaging leads to a high miss rate in standard-of- care endoscopic surveillance. Early lesions in the esophagus, referred to as dysplasia, are characterized by an abundance of abnormal cells with enlarged nuclei. This tissue has a different refractive index profile to healthy tissue, which results in different light scattering properties and provides a source of endogenous contrast that can be exploited for advanced endoscopic imaging. For example, point measurements of such contrast can be made with scattering spectroscopy, while optical coherence tomography generates volumetric data. However, both require specialist interpretation for diagnostic decision making. We propose combining wide-field phase imaging with existing white light endoscopy in order to provide enhanced contrast for dysplasia and early-stage cancer in an image format that is familiar to endoscopists. Wide-field phase imaging in endoscopy can be achieved using coherent illumination combined with phase retrieval algorithms. Here, we present the design and simulation of a benchtop phase imaging system that is compatible with capsule endoscopy. We have undertaken preliminary optical modelling of the phase imaging setup, including aberration correction simulations and an investigation into distinguishing between different tissue phantom scattering coefficients. As our approach is based on phase retrieval rather than interferometry, it is feasible to realize a device with low-cost components for future clinical implementation.

  3. Biomarkers in early phase development of central nervous system drugs : a conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Jeroen-Paul van der

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide a conceptual framework for the use of Central Nervous System (CNS) biomarkers in early phase clinical drug development. In the Introduction the current use of biomarkers in early CNS drug development is discussed. A conceptual framework for the

  4. Characterization of endocrine events during the periestrous period in sheep after estrous synchronization with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleeff, J; Karsch, F J; Padmanabhan, V

    1998-01-01

    The Controlled Internal Drug Releasing (CIDR) device is an intravaginal pessary containing progesterone (P4) designed for synchronizing estrus in ruminants. To date, there has been little information available on the timing, duration, and quality of the follicular phase after CIDR removal and how those characteristics compare with natural periovulatory endocrine events. The present communication relates the results of methods we used to characterize the endocrine events that followed CIDR synchronization. Breeding-season ewes were given an injection (10 mg) of Lutalyse (PGF2 alpha), and then studied during three consecutive estrous cycles, beginning in the luteal phase after the estrus induced by PGF2 alpha. Cycle 1 estrus was synchronized with 1 CIDR (Type G) inserted for 8 d beginning 10 d after PGF2 alpha. Cycles 2 and 3 were synchronized with two CIDRs for 8 d beginning 10 d after previous CIDR removal. Cycle 1 estrous behavior and serum gonadotropins showed a follicular phase (the interval from CIDR withdrawal to gonadotropin surge [surge] peak) of 38.2 +/- 1.5 hr. Two CIDRs lengthened the interval to 46.2 +/- 1.5 hr (P synchronization concentrated surges within a 24-hr period in 92% of the ewes in Cycles 1 and 2. Cycles 3 ewes were euthanized at estimated luteal, early follicular, late follicular, LH surge, and secondary FSH rise timepoints. Endocrine data and ovaries showed that 88% of the ewes synchronized with two CIDRs were in the predicted stage of the estrous cycle. These data demonstrate that the CIDR device applied during the luteal phase effectively synchronizes estrus and results in a CIDR removal-to-surge interval of similar length to a natural follicular phase.

  5. Modelling production system architectures in the early phases of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Ravn, Poul Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2016-01-01

    are needed and appropriate to enable determination of obtainable product quality. In order to meet this challenge, it is suggested that a visual modelling framework be adopted that clarifies which product and production features are known at a specific time of the project and which features will be worked...... on – leading to an improved basis for prioritizing activities in the project. Requirements for the contents of the framework are presented, and literature on production and system models is reviewed. The production system architecture modelling framework is founded on methods and approaches in literature......This article suggests a framework for modelling a production system architecture in the early phases of product development.The challenge in these phases is that the products to be produced are not completely defined and yet decisions need to be made early in the process on what investments...

  6. RODOS and decision conferencing on early phase protective actions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Lindstedt, M.; Salo, A.

    1998-12-01

    This work was undertaken in order to study the utilisation of decision conferencing and of the RODOS system when considering early phase protective actions in the case of a nuclear accident. Altogether four meetings with various people were organised. The meetings were attended by competent national safety authorities and technical level decision-makers, i.e., those who are responsible for preparing advice or making presentations of matters for decision-makers responsible for practical implementation of actions. In the first set of meetings the aim was to elicit the factors/attributes that have to be considered when making a decision on sheltering, evacuation and iodine tablets. No uncertainties nor a threat phase were considered but everything was assumed to happen as described in the given scenario. The theme in the second set of meetings was to study the implications of probabilities. All information was calculated with the support of the RODOS system. In the early phases of a nuclear accident time is limited. Prestructured generic value trees or a list of possible attributes can help to save time. A possible approach is to present a large generic value tree. Either the decision-makers select the attributes that are suitable for the case in hand or the facilitator offers a choice between more structured value trees. The decision-makers then just examine the suggested value trees, check the generic tree to make sure that no important factors have been omitted and choose the appropriate one. As in previous RODOS exercises, the participants felt that RODOS could be used for providing information but found it more problematic to use decision analysis methods when deciding on countermeasures in the early phase of a nuclear accident. Furthermore, it was noted that understanding the actual meaning of 'soft' attributes, such as socio-psychological impacts or political cost, was not a straightforward issue. Consequently, the definition of attributes in advance would be

  7. RODOS and decision conferencing on early phase protective actions in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Lindstedt, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Systems Analysis Lab.; Sinkko, K.; Ammann, M. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Salo, A

    1998-12-01

    This work was undertaken in order to study the utilisation of decision conferencing and of the RODOS system when considering early phase protective actions in the case of a nuclear accident. Altogether four meetings with various people were organised. The meetings were attended by competent national safety authorities and technical level decision-makers, i.e., those who are responsible for preparing advice or making presentations of matters for decision-makers responsible for practical implementation of actions. In the first set of meetings the aim was to elicit the factors/attributes that have to be considered when making a decision on sheltering, evacuation and iodine tablets. No uncertainties nor a threat phase were considered but everything was assumed to happen as described in the given scenario. The theme in the second set of meetings was to study the implications of probabilities. All information was calculated with the support of the RODOS system. In the early phases of a nuclear accident time is limited. Prestructured generic value trees or a list of possible attributes can help to save time. A possible approach is to present a large generic value tree. Either the decision-makers select the attributes that are suitable for the case in hand or the facilitator offers a choice between more structured value trees. The decision-makers then just examine the suggested value trees, check the generic tree to make sure that no important factors have been omitted and choose the appropriate one. As in previous RODOS exercises, the participants felt that RODOS could be used for providing information but found it more problematic to use decision analysis methods when deciding on countermeasures in the early phase of a nuclear accident. Furthermore, it was noted that understanding the actual meaning of `soft` attributes, such as socio-psychological impacts or political cost, was not a straightforward issue. Consequently, the definition of attributes in advance would be

  8. Catastrophic phase transitions and early warnings in a spatial ecological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, A; Fort, H

    2009-01-01

    Gradual changes in exploitation, nutrient loading, etc produce shifts between alternative stable states (ASS) in ecosystems which, quite often, are not smooth but abrupt or catastrophic. Early warnings of such catastrophic regime shifts are fundamental for designing management protocols for ecosystems. Here we study the spatial version of a popular ecological model, involving a logistically growing single species subject to exploitation, which is known to exhibit ASS. Spatial heterogeneity is introduced by a carrying capacity parameter varying from cell to cell in a regular lattice. Transport of biomass among cells is included in the form of diffusion. We investigate whether different quantities from statistical mechanics—like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness—may serve as early warnings of catastrophic phase transitions between the ASS. In particular, we find that the patch-size distribution follows a power law when the system is close to the catastrophic transition. We also provide links between spatial and temporal indicators and analyse how the interplay between diffusion and spatial heterogeneity may affect the earliness of each of the observables. We find that possible remedial procedures, which can be followed after these early signals, become more effective as the diffusion becomes lower. Finally, we comment on similarities of and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid–vapour change of state for a fluid like water

  9. Serum Leptin Concentrations during the Menstrual Cycle in Iranian Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Einollahi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nLeptin, a circulating 16-kd polypeptide consisting of 167 amino acids, appears to be involved in the body weight homeostasis. Moreover leptin plays an important role for the reproductive system, early embryogenesis, and fat metabolism during pregnancy and puberty. Significant correlations have been found between leptin and sexual hormones, which is a cytokine and has hormonal properties. The aim of this study was to determine serum leptin levels during the menstrual cycle, and the association between serum leptin and reproductive hormones in young, healthy Iranian women. 42 healthy women volunteered for the study. They all had regular menstrual cycles, with cycle length varying between 26 and 32 days. None of them used oral contraceptives. All were of normal weight, with body mass index ( BMI < 25 Kg/m2. Fasting blood samples were collected during the follicular phase, mid cycle and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. FSH and LH were measured with coated tube immunoradiometric assay. Estrogen and progesterone were measured using antibody -coated tubes. Serum Leptin concentration were measured by Leptin (sandwich ELISA. In menstruating women, serum leptin increased from 13.15+/-1.60 ng/ml in the early follicular phase to 16.57+/-1.68 ng/ml (P<0.01 at the luteal phase. Serum leptin concentration negatively correlated with LH and progesterone (P<0.05. Mean serum leptin levels correlated with body mass index (BMI (r =0.78, P<0.001.

  10. Expression of progesterone receptor protein in the ovine uterus during the estrous cycle: Effects of nutrition, arginine and FSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazul-Bilska, Anna T; Thammasiri, Jiratti; Kraisoon, Aree; Reyaz, Arshi; Bass, Casie S; Kaminski, Samantha L; Navanukraw, Chainarong; Redmer, Dale A

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate expression of progesterone receptor (PGR) AB in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-treated or non-treated sheep administered with arginine (Arg) or saline (Sal) fed a control (C), excess (O) or restricted (U) diet, uterine tissues were collected at the early, mid and/or late luteal phases. In exp. 1, ewes from each diet were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, Arg or Sal administration three times daily from day 0 of the first estrous cycle until uterine tissue collection. In exp. 2, ewes were injected twice daily with FSH on days 13-15 of the first estrous cycle. Uterine tissues were immunostained to detect PGR followed by image analysis. PGR were detected in luminal epithelium (LE), endometrial glands (EG), endometrial stroma (ES), myometrium (Myo), and endometrial and myometrial blood vessels. The percentage of PR-positive cells and/or intensity of staining were affected by phase of the estrous cycle, plane of nutrition, and/or FSH but not by Arg. In exp. 1, percentage of PGR-positive cells in LE and EG but not in ES and Myo was greater at the early and mid than late luteal phase, was not affected by plane of nutrition, and was similar in LE and EG. Intensity of staining was affected by phase of the estrous cycle and plane of nutrition in LE, EG and Myo, and was the greatest in LE, less in EG, and least in ES and Myo. In exp. 2, percentage of PGR-positive cells in LE, EG, ES and Myo was affected by phase of the estrous cycle, but not by plane of nutrition; was greater at the early than mid luteal phase; and was greatest in LE and EG, less in luminal (superficial) ES and Myo and least in deep ES. Intensity of staining was affected by phase of the estrous cycle and plane of nutrition in all compartments but ES, and was the greatest in LE and luminal EG, less in deep EG, and least in ES and Myo. Comparison of data for FSH (superovulated) and Sal-treated (non-superovulated) ewes demonstrated that FSH affected PR expression in all evaluated

  11. Predictive value of repeated measurements of luteal progesterone and estradiol levels in patients with intrauterine insemination and controlled ovarian stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Panagiotis; Simopoulou, Maria; Giner, Maria; Drakakis, Petros; Panagopoulos, Perikles; Vlahos, Nikolaos

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to assess if the difference of repeated measurements of estradiol and progesterone during luteal phase predict the outcome of intrauterine insemination. Prospective study. Reproductive clinic. 126 patients with infertility. Patients underwent controlled ovarian stimulation with recombinant FSH (50-150 IU/d). The day of IUI patients were given p.o natural micronized progesterone in a dose of 100 mg/tds. The area under the receiver characteristic operating curve (ROC curve) in predicting clinical pregnancy for % change of estradiol level on days 6 and 10 was 0.892 with 95% CI: 0.82-0.94. A cutoff value of change > -29.5% had a sensitivity of 85.7 with a specificity of 90.2. The corresponding ROC curve for % change of progesterone level was 0.839 with 95% CI: 0.76-0.90. A cutoff value of change > -33% had a sensitivity of 85 with a specificity of 75. The % change of estradiol and progesterone between days 6 and 10 has a predictive ability of pregnancy after IUI with COS of 89.2% and 83.4%, respectively. The addition of % of progesterone to % change of estradiol does not improve the predictive ability of % estradiol and should not be used.

  12. Early-type galaxy core phase densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, R. G.; Hartwick, F. D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Early-type galaxies have projected central density brightness profile logarithmic slopes, γ', ranging from about 0 to 1. We show that γ' is strongly correlated, r = 0.83, with the coarse grain phase density of the galaxy core, Q 0 ≡ ρ/σ 3 . The luminosity-γ' correlation is much weaker, r = –0.51. Q 0 also serves to separate the distribution of steep core profiles, γ' > 0.5, from shallow profiles, γ' < 0.3, although there are many galaxies of intermediate slope, at intermediate Q 0 , in a volume-limited sample. The transition phase density separating the two profile types is approximately 0.003 M ☉ pc –3 km –3 s 3 , which is also where the relation between Q 0 and core mass shows a change in slope, the rotation rate of the central part of the galaxy increases, and the ratio of the black hole to core mass increases. These relations are considered relative to the globular cluster inspiral core buildup and binary black hole core scouring mechanisms for core creation and evolution. Mass-enhanced globular cluster inspiral models have quantitative predictions that are supported by data, but no single model yet completely explains the correlations.

  13. The not-so-bitter pill: Effects of combined oral contraceptives on peripheral physiological indicators of emotional reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Diana; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Strobel, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Combined oral contraceptives (COC) are used by millions of women worldwide. Although findings are not entirely consistent, COC have been found to impact on brain function and, thus, to modulate affective processes. Here, we investigated electro-physiological responses to emotional stimuli in free cycling women in both the early follicular and late luteal phase as well as in COC users. Skin conductance response (SCR), startle reflex, corrugator and zygomaticus activity were assessed. COC users showed reduced overall startle magnitude and SCR amplitude, but heightened overall zygomaticus activity, although effect sizes were small. Thus, COC users displayed reduced physiological reactions indicating negative affect and enhanced physiological responses signifying positive affect. In free cycling women, endogenous 17β-estradiol levels were associated with fear potentiated startle in both cycle phases as well as with SCR and zygomaticus activity during the follicular phase. Testosterone was associated with corrugator and zygomaticus activity during the luteal phase, while progesterone levels correlated with corrugator activity in the follicular phase. To the contrary, in COC users, endogenous hormones were not associated with electro-physiological measures. The results further underscore the importance of considering COC use in psychophysiological studies on emotional processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Numerical investigation of the early flight phase in ski-jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardan, N; Schneider, A; Polidori, G; Trenchard, H; Seigneur, J M; Beaumont, F; Fourchet, F; Taiar, R

    2017-07-05

    The purpose of this study is to develop a numerical methodology based on real data from wind tunnel experiments to investigate the effect of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. To improve our knowledge of the aerodynamic behavior of the ski jumper and his equipment during the early flight phase of the ski jump, we applied CFD methodology to evaluate the influence of angle of attack (α=14°, 21.5°, 29°, 36.5° and 44°) and speed (u=23, 26 and 29m/s) on aerodynamic forces in the situation of stable attitude of the ski jumper's body and skis. The standard k-ω turbulence model was used to investigate both the influence of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic performance during the early flight phase. Numerical results show that the ski jumper's speed has very little impact on the lift and drag coefficients. Conversely, the lift and drag forces acting on the ski jumper's body during the early flight phase of the jump are strongly influenced by the variations of the angle of attack. The present results suggest that the greater the ski jumper's angle of inclination, with respect to the relative flow, the greater the pressure difference between the lower and upper parts of the skier. Further studies will focus on the dependency of the parameters with both the angle of attack α and the body-ski angle β as control variables. It will be possible to test and optimize different ski jumping styles in different ski jumping hills and investigate different environmental conditions such as temperature, altitude or crosswinds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Line Evolution of the Nova V5587 Sgr from Early to Nebula Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kajikawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The spectral evolution of the nova V5587 Sgr has been monitored at Koyama Astronomical Observatory and Higashi-Hiroshima Observatory, Japan, from the early to nebula phase. The nova rebrightened several times. The spectra during the early phase showed emission lines of H α, H β, O I, He I, He II, N II, Fe II. Nova V5587 Sgr is classified into the Fe II type. The helium abundance of the nova is estimated as N(He/N(H = 0.134 ± 0.09. The light curve, the spectral evolution, and the helium abundance in V5587 Sgr are similar to those of the nova PW Vul.

  16. Features of natural and gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-induced corpus luteum regression and effects of in vivo human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Canto, Felipe; Sierralta, Walter; Kohen, Paulina; Muñoz, Alex; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2007-11-01

    The natural process of luteolysis and luteal regression is induced by withdrawal of gonadotropin support. The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare the functional changes and apoptotic features of natural human luteal regression and induced luteal regression; 2) to define the ultrastructural characteristics of the corpus luteum at the time of natural luteal regression and induced luteal regression; and 3) to examine the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on the steroidogenic response and apoptotic markers within the regressing corpus luteum. Twenty-three women with normal menstrual cycles undergoing tubal ligation donated corpus luteum at specific stages in the luteal phase. Some women received a GnRH antagonist prior to collection of corpus luteum, others received an injection of hCG with or without prior treatment with a GnRH antagonist. Main outcome measures were plasma hormone levels and analysis of excised luteal tissue for markers of apoptosis, histology, and ultrastructure. The progesterone and estradiol levels, corpus luteum DNA, and protein contents in induced luteal regression resembled those of natural luteal regression. hCG treatment raised progesterone and estradiol in both natural luteal regression and induced luteal regression. The increase in apoptosis detected in induced luteal regression by cytochrome c in the cytosol, activated caspase-3, and nuclear DNA fragmentation, was similar to that observed in natural luteal regression. The antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was significantly lower during natural luteal regression. The proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak were at a constant level. Apoptotic and nonapoptotic death of luteal cells was observed in natural luteal regression and induced luteal regression at the ultrastructural level. hCG prevented apoptotic cell death, but not autophagy. The low number of apoptotic cells disclosed and the frequent autophagocytic suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in cell death at luteal

  17. Change in women's eating habits during the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun, Ines; Ben Saâda, Wafa; Sifaou, Amira; Haouat, Emna; Kandara, Hajer; Ben Salem, Leila; Ben Slama, Claude

    2017-02-01

    During the menstrual cycle, the influence of hormonal variations on dietary habits in women has been suggested by several studies. In this context, our work aimed to assess the spontaneous food intake and the anthropometric parameters of women at different periods of their menstrual cycles. This prospective study included 30 healthy women with regular periods (28 to 30 days), aged between 18 and 45. We assessed the spontaneous food intake and the anthropometric measurements (weight and waist circumference) of the participants, during the follicular, peri-ovulatory and luteal phases of their menstrual cycles. Our results showed a slight but significant increase in body weight during the luteal phase (P=0.022) and the follicular phase (P=0.017) compared with the peri-ovulatory phase, without any significant change in waist circumference. The caloric intake increased during the peri-ovulatory (P<0.001) and the luteal phases (P<0.001), compared with the follicular phase, with a significant increase in carbohydrate (P<0.001), lipid (P=0.008) and protein (P=0.008) intake. Our study showed a significant decrease in women's weight during the peri-ovulatory phase, with a significant increase in caloric intake during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Divergent results have been reported by other authors and the physiopathology of these changes is still poorly understood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Cholesterol transport and steroidogenesis by the corpus luteum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christenson Lane K

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The synthesis of progesterone by the corpus luteum is essential for the establishment and maintenance of early pregnancy. Regulation of luteal steroidogenesis can be broken down into three major events; luteinization (i.e., conversion of an ovulatory follicle, luteal regression, and pregnancy induced luteal maintenance/rescue. While the factors that control these events and dictate the final steroid end products are widely varied among different species, the composition of the corpus luteum (luteinized thecal and granulosa cells and the enzymes and proteins involved in the steroidogenic pathway are relatively similar among all species. The key factors involved in luteal steroidogenesis and several new exciting observations regarding regulation of luteal steroidogenic function are discussed in this review.

  19. Early follicular phase hormone levels in relation to patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and coffee use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, J; Harlow, B L; Barbieri, R L; Sluss, P; Cramer, D W

    2001-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco use on early follicular phase FSH, LH, E2, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Cross-sectional study. Academic medical center. Four hundred ninety-eight women selected from the general population, ages 36-45, who were not currently pregnant, breast feeding, or using exogenous hormones. A general questionnaire assessing demography, anthropometry, and smoking habits and a standardized dietary questionnaire assessing food and beverage frequencies, including sources of alcohol and caffeine. FSH, LH, E2, and SHBG levels measured during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Significant associations observed in a univariate analysis included age > or =40 and current smoking associated with higher FSH; higher body mass index (BMI) associated with lower SHBG levels; and daily alcohol use, cholesterol consumption greater than the median, and coffee use >1 cup/d associated with higher E2 levels. In a multivariate model, total caffeine use was significantly associated with E2 levels after adjustment for age, BMI, total calories, current smoking, alcohol, cholesterol consumption, and day of sampling. Early follicular phase E2 increased from 28.2 pg/mL for women consuming or =500 mg of caffeine per day, about a 70% increase. Coffee consumption and total caffeine use may increase early follicular phase E2 levels independent of related habits of alcohol or tobacco use.

  20. The retention of academics in the early career phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coenraad Bester

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent academics in the early career phase at a South African higher education institution are committed to the institution in question and the impact which this commitment has on labour turnover. More than 21% of the original respondents left the institution while this research was still underway. Insufficient financial remuneration was the most important reason why the respondents considered leaving the institution.

  1. The Use of rLH, HMG and hCG in Controlled Ovarian Stimulation for Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    responders involves the use of the microdose flare protocol. This protocol avoids the profound suppression of endogenous LH and FSH in the early...follicular phase normally achieved with long luteal downregulation protocols. Scott and Novat’s initial investigation of the microdose flare found it to...protocol increases live birth rates (113-116). One RCT did not show any benefit to adding either rLH or low-dose rHCG to a microdose flare protocol for

  2. Diffusion-weighted imaging in the evaluation of hormonal cyclic changes in abdominal wall endometriomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genç, B.; Solak, A.; Şahin, N.; Genç, M.; Oğul, H.; Sivrikoz, O. Nermin; Kantarcı, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the utility of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of abdominal wall endometrioma (AWE) and to compare the ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) values of AWE with those of the uterine endometrium during two different phases of the menstrual cycle. Materials and methods: A total of 22 women aged between 27 and 42 years (mean 32.8 years) and who had regular menstrual cycles were included in the study. These patients had a total of 25 AWE lesions. The mean and standard deviation of the ADC values of the normal endometrium/AWE were calculated for the menstrual and luteal phases. All examinations were performed using a 1.5 T magnet (b-values of 50, 400, and 800 mm/s 2 ). The results were analysed using the Shapiro–Wilk test, the Pearson correlation test, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, and the paired sample t-test. Results: The ADC values of the endometrium were different in the two phases of the menstrual cycle (menstrual phase: 0.924 ± 0.171; luteal phase: 1.171 ± 0.135). Similarly, the ADC values of the AWE were different in these phases (menstrual phase: 0.937 ± 0.256, luteal phase: 1.256 ± 0.215). In both AWE and the uterine endometrium, the ADC measurements were significantly lower in the menstrual phase than during the luteal phase. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the ADC values between the endometrial layer and AWE during the same phase (p = 0.216 for menstrual phase, p = 0.104 for luteal phase, paired sample t-test). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that in all patients, the DWI features of AWEs were significantly similar to those of the uterine endometrial tissue. Additionally, the ADC measurements of the patients showed similar cyclical changes. These results suggest that the ADC values of a lesion close to the uterine endometrium may be used to differentiate AWE from the other disease entities of the abdominal wall

  3. Administration of Zinc plus Cyclo-(His-Pro Increases Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Rats during the Early Phase of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Young Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of zinc supplementation on hippocampal neurogenesis in diabetes mellitus have not been studied. Herein, we investigated the effects of zinc plus cyclo-(His-Pro (ZC on neurogenesis occurring in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus after streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes. ZC (27 mg/kg was administered by gavage once daily for one or six weeks from the third day after the STZ injection, and histological evaluation was performed at 10 (early phase or 45 (late phase days after STZ injection. We found that the proliferation of progenitor cells in STZ-induced diabetic rats showed an increase in the early phase. Additionally, ZC treatment remarkably increased the number of neural progenitor cells (NPCs and immature neurons in the early phase of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, ZC treatment showed increased survival rate of newly generated cells but no difference in the level of neurogenesis in the late phase of STZ-induced diabetic rats. The present study demonstrates that zinc supplementation by ZC increases both NPCs proliferation and neuroblast production at the early phase of diabetes. Thus, this study suggests that zinc supplemented with a histidine/proline complex may have beneficial effects on neurogenesis in patients experiencing the early phase of Type 1 diabetes.

  4. Impact of menstrual cycle phase on endocrine effects of partial sleep restriction in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, Amanda; Wright, Lisa; Perrot, Tara; Rusak, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    There is extensive evidence that sleep restriction alters endocrine function in healthy young men, increasing afternoon cortisol levels and modifying levels of other hormones that regulate metabolism. Recent studies have confirmed these effects in young women, but have not investigated whether menstrual cycle phase influences these responses. The effects on cortisol levels of limiting sleep to 3h for one night were assessed in two groups of women at different points in their menstrual cycles: mid-follicular and mid-luteal. Eighteen healthy, young women, not taking oral contraceptives (age: 21.8±0.53; BMI: 22.5±0.58 [mean±SEM]), were studied. Baseline sleep durations, eating habits and menstrual cycles were monitored. Salivary samples were collected at six times of day (08:00, 08:30, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, 20:00) during two consecutive days: first after a 10h overnight sleep opportunity (Baseline) and then after a night with a 3h sleep opportunity (Post-sleep restriction). All were awakened at the same time of day. Women in the follicular phase showed a significant decrease (p=0.004) in their cortisol awakening responses (CAR) after sleep restriction and a sustained elevation in afternoon/evening cortisol levels (p=0.008), as has been reported for men. Women in the luteal phase showed neither a depressed CAR, nor an increase in afternoon/evening cortisol levels. Secondary analyses examined the impact of sleep restriction on self-reported hunger and mood. Menstrual cycle phase dramatically altered the cortisol responses of healthy, young women to a single night of sleep restriction, implicating effects of spontaneous changes in endocrine status on adrenal responses to sleep loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Strontium ranelate causes osteophytes overgrowth in a model of early phase osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Jian-Guo; Dai, Mu-Wei; Wang, Yu; Tian, Fa-Ming; Song, Hui-Ping; Xiao, Ya-Ping; Shao, Li-Tao; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Zhang, Liu

    2017-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) involves cartilage changes as well as modifications of subchondral bone and synovial tissues. Strontium ranelate (SR), an anti-osteoporosis compound, which is currently in phase III clinical trial for treatment of OA. Evidences suggest that SR preferably deposited in osteophyte, other than in subchondral bone in early phase of OA. This phenomenon raises concern about its utility for OA treatment as a disease-modifying drug. To evaluate the effect of SR on cartil...

  6. Repeated allergen exposure reduce early phase airway response and leukotriene release despite upregulation of 5-lipoxygenase pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Zhi-Hua

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergen induced early phase airway response and airway plasma exudation are predominantly mediated by inflammatory mast cell mediators including histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs and thromboxane A2 (TXA2. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether repeated allergen exposure affects early phase airway response to allergen challenge. Methods A trimellitic anhydride (TMA sensitized guinea pig model was used to investigate the effects of low dose repeated allergen exposure on cholinergic airway responsiveness, early phase airway response and plasma exudation, as well as local airway production of mast cell derived cysteinyl leukotrienes and thromboxane B2 (TXB2 after allergen challenge. Results Repeated low dose allergen exposure increased cholinergic airway responsiveness. In contrast, early phase airway response and plasma exudation in response to a high-dose allergen challenge were strongly attenuated after repeated low dose allergen exposure. Inhibition of the airway response was unspecific to exposed allergen and independent of histamine receptor blocking. Furthermore, a significant reduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2 was found in the airways of animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen. However, in vitro stimulation of airway tissue from animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen with arachidonic acid and calcium ionophore (A23187 induced production of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2, suggesting enhanced activity of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways. Conclusions The inhibition of the early phase airway response, cysteinyl leukotriene and TXB2 production after repeated allergen exposure may result from unresponsive effector cells.

  7. The role of ambiguity and discrepancy in the early phases of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Linda Nhu; Tollestrup, Christian H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Innovation literature mainly focuses on eliminating ambiguity and discrepancy from the early phases of innovation. This study questions this implicit assumption, as it may provide an oversimplified view on, how to attain proficiency. Instead of narrowly focusing on reducing ambiguity and discrepa...

  8. Liver CT for vascular mapping during radioembolisation workup: comparison of an early and late arterial phase protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoven, Andor F. van den; Braat, Manon N.G.J.A.; Prince, Jip F.; Doormaal, Pieter J. van; Leeuwen, Maarten S. van; Lam, Marnix G.E.H.; Bosch, Maurice A.A.J. van den [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-01-15

    To compare right gastric (RGA) and segment 4 artery (A4) origin detection rates during radioembolisation workup between early and late arterial phase liver CT protocols. 100 consecutive patients who underwent liver CT between May 2012-January 2015 with early or late arterial phase protocol (n = 50 each, 10- vs. 20-s post-threshold delay) were included. RGA/A4 origin detection rates, assessed by two raters, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the hepatic artery relative to the portal vein were compared between the protocols. The first-second rater scored the RGA origin as visible in 58-65 % (specific proportion of agreement 82 %, κ = 0.62); A4 origin in 96-89 % (94 %, κ = 0.54). Thirty-six percent of RGA origins not detectable by DSA were identified on CT. Origin detection rates were not significantly different for early/late arterial phases. Mean CNR was higher in the early arterial phase protocol (1.7 vs. 1.2, p < 0.001). A 10-s delay arterial phase CT protocol does not significantly improve detection of small intra- and extrahepatic branches. RGA origin detection requires further optimization, whereas A4/MHA origin detection is adequate, with good inter-rater reproducibility. CT remains important for preprocedural planning, because it may reveal arterial anatomy not discernible on DSA. (orig.)

  9. Effects of the menstrual cycle on language and visual working memory: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Kiyomi; Kumashiro, Masaharu; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Awa, Yayoi

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects on language and visual working memory of the follicle, luteal, and menstruation phases. The subjects were 12 female students. We added visual information and the assignment of experimental tasks, which requires the faculty of sight, to the previous study; therefore, this study has an index of visual and linguistic working memory. Computer-based tasks formulated by the authors, using the working memory that actively retains the information as the index, were used for experiments of 30 min during the follicle, luteal, and menstruation phases. After completion of the experiment of each phase, blood samples were collected in order to clearly distinguish the three phases of the subjects' menstrual cycle, and the session order was counter-balanced. The results showed that mental workload was higher in the luteal phase and stress was more easily felt. Indefinite complaints were most frequent during the menstruation phase, but task performance was good regardless of the indefinite complaint. It suggested that when the same tasks were performed during three phases, the sympathetic nerve was ascendant.

  10. The cytoskeleton proteins and LH-regulated steroidogenesis in porcine luteal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoraszczuk, Ewa L.; Slomczynska, Maria

    1996-01-01

    The involvement of microtubules (MT) and microflilaments (MF) in LH-regulation of luteal cell stereoidogenesis was assessed at the middle stage of corpus luteum development. The influence microtubule- and microfilament-altering agents on basal and LH-stimulated progesterone (P4) production and secretion into the incubation medium was determined by RIA. LH-stimulated P4 production was 2.5 times higher than in the control cultures. Cytochalasis B (Cyt B) was without effect on basal P4 synthesis but increased the basal fraction of P4 secreted into the incubation medium, while colchicine (Col) increased both basal P4 synthesis and the fraction of P4 secreted into the incubation medium. LH-stimulated progesterone synthesis was reduced by Col, but the fraction secreted into the incubation medium increased. Cyt B had no effect on LH-stimulated synthesis but it decreased the fraction of P4 secreted into the incubation medium. Our findings demonstrate significant differences in the effect of Cyt B and Col on steroidogenesis in corpus luteum. We conclude that microtubules play an important role in the process of LH-stimulated P4 synthesis, while microfilaments act in the process of basal and LH-stimulated P4 secretion. (author). 23 refs, 4 figs

  11. Early mortality estimates for different nuclear accidents. Final Phase I report, October 1977-April 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F.F.

    1979-08-01

    Several studies have previously been made of the number of early deaths which might be expected in a population exposed to a cloud of radionuclides which could result from a nuclear accident. These analyses, however, have been limited to one accident scenario or to exposures involving limited numbers of radionuclides. The purpose of this Phase I study was to examine the existing data on the early health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and determined what, if any, new studies were needed to make reasonable estimates of early mortality after exposure of a population to a cloud of radionuclides of any type. The approach used in the Phase I project was to analyze the data bases available on the health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and document those which were adequate and useful. Using these data, a computer based simulation model was developed depicting exposure to a radioactive aerosol, the dose to an individual exposed to the aerosol and the probability of dying from early effects.

  12. Early mortality estimates for different nuclear accidents. Final Phase I report, October 1977-April 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.

    1979-08-01

    Several studies have previously been made of the number of early deaths which might be expected in a population exposed to a cloud of radionuclides which could result from a nuclear accident. These analyses, however, have been limited to one accident scenario or to exposures involving limited numbers of radionuclides. The purpose of this Phase I study was to examine the existing data on the early health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and determined what, if any, new studies were needed to make reasonable estimates of early mortality after exposure of a population to a cloud of radionuclides of any type. The approach used in the Phase I project was to analyze the data bases available on the health effects of inhaled radioactive materials and document those which were adequate and useful. Using these data, a computer based simulation model was developed depicting exposure to a radioactive aerosol, the dose to an individual exposed to the aerosol and the probability of dying from early effects

  13. A phenotypical approach to the effects of production traits, parturition, puerperium and body condition on commencement of luteal activity in high yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Ariane; Becker, Frank; Martin, Gunter; Nürnberg, Gerd; Römer, Anke; Kanitz, Wilhelm

    2015-06-01

    The interval from calving to commencement of luteal activity (CLA) was determined by progesterone measurements from milk samples obtained once a week until the 14th week post-partum in 513 German Holstein cows in first to third parity. Milk samples were analyzed by an "on-farm" device (eProCheck(®), Minitüb, Germany) and simultaneously by RIA. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of milk yield, protein content and body condition of a cow on the CLA post-partum. Milk progesterone concentrations of "on-farm" measurements correlated with measurements done by the RIA-method significantly (r=0.72; PCows with a milk protein content at 1st milk recording of ≤3.5% revealed first luteal activity 1.3±0.3 weeks later than cows that had a content of >3.75% protein (Pcows with assisted calving or dystocia presented significantly later CLA than cows which required no help during the calving process (Pfertility cannot be confirmed regarding to CLA. The negative energy balance after calving, caused by the high milk yields, is more detrimental for the cyclical activity as was shown by the parameters milk protein content and change in BFT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 78 FR 5816 - Guidance for Industry on Clinical Pharmacogenomics: Premarket Evaluation in Early-Phase Clinical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    .... The guidance provides recommendations on when and how genomic principles should be considered and... recommendations on when and how genomic principles should be considered and applied in early-phase clinical... the larger, later adequate, and well-controlled trials (phase 3) that are needed to support marketing...

  15. Dioxin exposure and porcine reproductive hormonal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoraszczuk Ewa L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD during both the follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle, the direct effect of TCDD was investigated in vitro using a system of primary monolayer cell culture. Granulosa and theca cells were collected from the preovulatory follicles and cultured as a co-culture, thus resembling follicles in vivo. Luteal cells were isolated from the corpora lutea collected during the midluteal phase. In both cases cells were isolated from the ovaries of animals exhibiting natural estrus cycle. Results of these experiments suggest that TCDD decreases estradiol secretion by follicular cells and progesterone secretion by luteal cells in a dose-dependent manner. It was also shown that TCDD disrupts steroidogenesis through its influence on the activity of enzymes involved in the steroid biosynthesis cascade. In luteal cells, its action is mediated via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR and is probably independent of estrogen receptor (ER stimulation. Endocrine disruptors that interfere with estradiol production in the follicles can act as ovulatory disruptors, and while interfering with progesterone production by luteal cells they can act as abortifacients.

  16. Production of Vibrio vulnificus metalloprotease VvpE begins during the early growth phase: usefulness of gelatin-zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choon-Mee; Kang, Sang-Mee; Jeon, Ho-Jong; Shin, Sung-Heui

    2007-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that expression of the vvpE gene begins during the early growth phase albeit at low levels. However, we found that the traditional protease assay method that is used to measure caseinolytic activity in culture supernatants is not suitable for the measurement of extracellular VvpE that is produced at low levels during the early growth phase. By using gelatin-zymography in place of the protease assay, we could specifically detect only VvpE of several proteases produced by Vibrio vulnificus. Moreover, we could sensitively measure VvpE produced at low levels during the early growth phase, which was consistent with transcription of the vvpE gene. The extracellular production of VvpE was reduced or delayed by mutation of the pilD gene which encodes for the type IV leader peptidase/N-methyltransferase associated with the type II general secretion system; the delayed production of VvpE was recovered by in trans complementation of the wild-type pilD gene. These results indicate that VvpE begins to be produced during the early growth phase via the PilD-mediated type II general secretion system, and that the use of gelatin-zymography is recommended as a simple method for the sensitive and specific detection of VvpE production.

  17. Serum Thyrotropin and Phase of the Menstrual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Benvenga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available About one-fifth of patients treated with levothyroxine have serum thyrotropin (TSH above target concentrations but, in approximately 15% of them, the cause of this TSH insufficient normalization remains unknown. We report the cases of two regularly menstruating women with known thyroid disease who had TSH levels consistently >3 mU/L (and sometimes above target levels during mid-cycle, but consistently lower serum levels during the follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle. A major TSH release by the thyrotrophs in response to high circulating levels of estradiol (E2 at mid-cycle may increase levels of TSH compared to other phases of the cycle. The increased TSH can be misinterpreted as refractory hypothyroidism if the woman is under L-T4 replacement therapy or as subclinical hypothyroidism if the woman is not. Our findings might have important implications for diagnosis and management of thyroid disease, suggesting to request serum TSH measurements outside of the periovulatory days.

  18. Altered autonomic nervous system activity as a potential etiological factor of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tamaki; Ushiroyama, Takahisa; Kimura, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Moritani, Toshio

    2007-12-20

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) encompasses a wide variety of cyclic and recurrent physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms occurring during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and abating shortly following the beginning of menses. Although PMS is widely recognized, its etiopathogenesis is not yet understood. The present study investigates whether the activity of the autonomic nervous system, which plays a vital role in orchestrating physiological homeostasis within the human body, is altered during the menstrual cycle of women with different degrees of premenstrual symptomatology. Sixty-two women in their 20s to 40s with regular menstrual cycles participated in this study. All subjects were examined during the follicular and late luteal phases. Cycle phase was determined by the onset of menstruation and oral temperature and was verified by concentrations of ovarian hormones, estrone, and pregnanediol in a urine sample taken early in the morning. Autonomic nervous system activity was assessed by means of heart-rate variability (HRV) power spectral analysis during supine rest. The Menstrual Distress Questionnaire was used to evaluate physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms accompanying the menstrual cycle of the subjects. The subjects were categorized in three groups, Control, PMS, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) groups, depending on the severity of premenstrual symptomatology. No intramenstrual cycle difference in any of the parameters of HRV was found in the Control group, which had no or a small increase in premenstrual symptoms. In contrast, Total power and high frequency power, which reflect overall autonomic and parasympathetic nerve activity, respectively, significantly decreased in the late luteal phase from the follicular phase in the PMS group. As for the PMDD group, which had more severe symptoms premenstrually, heart-rate fluctuation as well as all components of the power spectrum of HRV were markedly decreased regardless of the

  19. Sudomotor and vasomotor activity during the menstrual cycle with global heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Lee, Haneul; Khowailed, Iman Akef

    2017-07-01

    Many studies have reported that there are changes in sympathetic activity throughout the menstrual cycle as there are oestrogen receptor in the hypothalamus and all other parts of the sympathetic nervous system. The purpose of this study was to see whether there were variations in sympathetic activity, skin vasomotor and sweat gland sudomotor rhythms during the menstrual cycle. Eight young female subjects with a regular menstrual cycle participated in the study. Subjects were tested once during the follicular phase and once during the luteal phase. Skin blood flow and sweat rate were significantly higher in the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase (p < .05), but the frequency and magnitude of sudomotor and vasomotor rhythms were significantly greater in the follicular phase (p < .05). In contrast, spectral data showed less sympathetic activity in the luteal phase. A significant finding here is that the sudomotor rhythm of sweat glands is altered by the menstrual cycle. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of early phase nuclear accident clean-up procedures for Nordic residential areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.

    1996-12-01

    The work reported was carried out as a part of the EKO-5 project under the framework of the Nordic co-operative NKS programme. The project is aimed at giving guidelines relating to Nordic conditions for the reduction of external doses in the early phase of a major accidental airborne nuclear contamination (essentially with 137 Cs) situation in urban areas. The material in this report describes the expected effects, in terms of immediate dose rate reduction and of reduction of the integrated doses over 70 years, of implementation of the methods which were considered to be feasible for early phase treatment of contaminated urban surfaces. Also given are estimates of the integrated doses if no action were taken. The given estimates were based on the experience obtained through large amounts of in situ measurements on different types of surface, mainly since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The computer model URGENT, was used to apply the information on the migration of the radioactive material with time, together with the results of Monte Carlo photon transport calculations, for the time-integrated dose estimates. 66 data sheets describe the beneficial effects, costs and disadvantages of application of a feasible method for cleaning in the early phase of a specific type of surface in one of five different urban or suburban environments. These data form the foundation for the recommendations on guidelines, which are the ultimate goal of the EKO-5 project. References are given to recommended supplementary reading. (EG)

  1. Information about robustness, reliability and safety in early design phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Vinicius Kaster

    methods, and an industrial case to assess how the use of information about robustness, reliability and safety as practised by current methods influences concept development. Current methods cannot be used in early design phases due to their dependence on detailed design information for the identification...... alternatives. This prompts designers to reuse working principles that are inherently flawed, as they are liable to disturbances, failures and hazards. To address this issue, an approach based upon individual records of early design issues consists of comparing failures and benefits from prior working...... principles, before making a decision, and improving the more suitable alternatives through this feedback. Workshops were conducted with design practitioners to evaluate the potential of the approach and to simulate decision-making and gain feedback on a proof-of-concept basis. The evaluation has demonstrated...

  2. Effect of the menstrual cycle on the optic nerve head in diabetes: analysis by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Munire Erman; Yucel, Iclal; Erdem, Uzeyir; Taskin, Omur; Ozel, Alper; Akar, Yusuf

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare menstrual-cycle-dependent topographic changes in the optic nerve head of normally menstruating women with different grades of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We studied the right eyes of 123 normally menstruating women (36 with severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy [NPDR], 42 with mild NPDR and 45 healthy subjects). All subjects underwent a complete ocular examination at baseline. At 4 hormonally distinct phases of the menstrual cycle (early follicular, late follicular, mid-luteal and late luteal), we analysed the topography of the optic nerve head, using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, and measured the serum levels of estradiol, progesterone and luteinizing hormone. We excluded from analysis the data for 8 patients with severe NPDR, 10 patients with mild NPDR and 15 control subjects who were lost to follow-up examinations during the menstrual cycle. The mean age and optic disc area did not differ significantly among the 3 groups. The duration of diabetes was significantly longer in the patients with severe NPDR than in those with mild NPDR (p cup-shape measure, linear cup/disc ratio, cup/disc area ratio and cup area in the late luteal phase compared with the other phases of the menstrual cycle (p menstrual cycle. Severe NPDR is associated with significant topographic changes in the rim and cup of the optic nerve head during the menstrual cycle. This must be considered in the evaluation of women with both diabetes and glaucoma. The normal fluctuations in serum sex hormone levels during the menstrual cycle of diabetic women seem to affect the optic nerve head more when the disease is advanced.

  3. Tradeoff analysis for Dependable Real-Time Embedded Systems during the Early Design Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Junhe

    Embedded systems are becoming increasingly complex and have tight competing constraints in terms of performance, cost, energy consumption, dependability, flexibility, security, etc. The objective of this thesis is to propose design methods and tools for supporting the tradeoff analysis of competing...... to processing elements, as well as the processor voltage and frequency levels for executing each task, such that transient faults are tolerated, the real-time constraints of the application are satisfied, and the energy consumed is minimized. In this thesis, we target the early design phases, when decisions...... have a high impact on the subsequent implementation choices. However, due to a lack of information, the early design phases are characterized by uncertainties, e.g., in the worst-case execution times (WCETs), in the functionality requirements, or in the hardware component costs. In this context, we...

  4. Estradiol, SHBG and leptin interplay with food craving and intake across the menstrual cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To understand the association between ovarian hormones, non-acute satiety hormones and craving calorie dense foods in the luteal phase. Methods: 17 premenopausal women, mean age 23.2 y, mean BMI 22.4 kg/m2 with regular menstrual cycles were studied during late follicular (FP) and luteal ...

  5. The updated Cochrane review 2014 on GnRH agonist trigger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Shahar; Humaidan, Peter; Alsbjerg, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    the chance of pregnancy in fresh autologous IVF and intracytoplasmic injection treatment cycles. We argue that the new review repeats previous errors by compiling data from studies that were not comparable as different luteal phase protocols were used. From the clinical point of view, the luteal support used...

  6. On the behavior of surface electromyographic variables during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Fabiano Araujo; Salomoni, Sauro Emerick; De Carvalho, Joao Luiz Azevedo; Nascimento, Francisco Assis de Oliveira; Veneziano, Wilson Henrique; Pires, Kenia Fonseca; Da Rocha, Adson Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work is to study the behavior of electromyographic variables during the menstrual cycle. Ten female volunteers (24.0 ± 2.8 years of age) performed fatiguing isometric contractions, and electromyographic signals were measured on the biceps brachii in four phases of the menstrual cycle. Adaptations of classical algorithms were used for the estimation of the root mean square (RMS) value, absolute rectified value (ARV), mean frequency (MNF), median frequency (MDF), and conduction velocity (CV). The CV estimator had a higher (p = 0.002) rate of decrease at the end of the follicular phase and at the end of the luteal phase. The MDF (p = 0.002) and MNF (p = 0.004) estimators had a higher rate of decrease at the beginning of the follicular phase and at the end of the luteal phase. No significant differences between phases of the menstrual cycle were detected with the ARV and RMS estimators (p > 0.05). These results suggest that the behavior of the muscles in women presents different characteristics during different phases of the menstrual cycle. In particular, women were more susceptible to fatigue at the end of the luteal phase

  7. The cost of the nuclear energy-turnaround. An early nuclear phase-out and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, Metin

    2013-01-01

    The booklet on the consequences of an early nuclear phase-out includes a description of the value creation strategy in the electricity market and the basic relations of the electricity price formation and a survey and evaluation of selected studies. The analysis was performed for the following studies: Energy policy scenarios for a nuclear phase-out in Germany; Economic consequences of a nuclear phase-out in Germany; Transformation of the electricity production systems with a forced nuclear phase-out - a contribution on sustainable energy systems following the reactor accident of Fukushima; Cost of a nuclear phase-out until 2022 in Germany and Bavaria.

  8. Integrating Pharmacoproteomics into Early-Phase Clinical Development: State-of-the-Art, Challenges, and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Nandal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacoproteomics is the study of disease-modifying and toxicity parameters associated with therapeutic drug administration, using analysis of quantitative and temporal changes to specific, predetermined, and select proteins, or to the proteome as a whole. Pharmacoproteomics is a rapidly evolving field, with progress in analytic technologies enabling processing of complex interactions of large number of unique proteins and effective use in clinical trials. Nevertheless, our analysis of clinicaltrials.gov and PubMed shows that the application of proteomics in early-phase clinical development is minimal and limited to few therapeutic areas, with oncology predominating. We review the history, technologies, current usage, challenges, and potential for future use, and conclude with recommendations for integration of pharmacoproteomic in early-phase drug development.

  9. Determination of serum progesterone by radioimmunoassay (RIA) on fertility control and early pregnancy diagnosis in angora goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsar, S.; Guven, B.; Ozekin, N.; Noyan, A.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide information on diagnosis of cyclicity, confirmation of estrus so that mating timing and confirmation of return on non-return (pregnancy diagnosis) in Angora goats by using progesterone radioimmunoassay (RIA) in serum as well as observing the sexual behaviours of the goats. The cyclic reproductive activity of 20 mature Angora goat does with normal previous reproductive function, 5 does which had never become pregnant in the previous breeding seasons, and 10 does which were old for breeding was investigated. Circulating progesterone was relatively low (0.45 ng/ml) at estrus (day 0) and increased progressively to 3.45 ng/ml during the subsequent luteal phase. This high level was maintained until day-3 of the succeding estrus cycle, when it decreased abruptly. Pregnancy diagnosis based on the levels of progesterone in serum was confirmed by kidding. 1.5 ng/ml or more progesterone was used as an indication of pregnancy (within 21 days after mating). The accuracy of pregnancy by progesterone assay was 100%. It was concluded that the use of progesterone RIA in serum is a reliable and convenient means of monitoring ovarian activity and early pregnancy. (author)

  10. Hormonal causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, Nicola; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Wenger, Jean Marie; Petignat, Patrick; Streuli, Isabelle; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disorders play a major role in approximately 8% to 12% of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Indeed, the local hormonal milieu is crucial in both embryo attachment and early pregnancy. Endocrine abnormalities, including thyroid disorders, luteal phase defects, polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperprolactinaemia and diabetes have to be evaluated in any case of RPL. Moreover, elevated androgen levels and some endocrinological aspects of endometriosis are also factors contributing to RPL. In the present article, we review the significance of endocrine disease on RPL.

  11. Distribution and quantitative changes in amounts of aquaporin 1, 5 and 9 in the pig uterus during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skowronski Mariusz T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aquaporins (AQPs are a family of membrane channel proteins that facilitate bulk water transport. To date, 11 isoforms of AQPs have been reported to be expressed in the female and male reproductive systems. The purpose of our study was to determine the localization and quantitative changes in the expression of AQP1, 5 and 9 within the pig uterus during different stages of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Methods Immunoperoxidase and semi-quantitative immunoblotting techniques were used to examine the distribution and changes in amounts of AQP1, AQP5 and AQP9 in uteral cells of pigs at the early (Days 2-4, middle (10-12, late (14-16 stage of the luteal phase and late (18-20 stage of the follicular phase of the estrous cycle as well as on Days 14-16 and 30-32 of gestation (the onset and the end of implantation process. Results The results demonstrated that AQP1, 5, and 9 were clearly detected in all studied stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. AQP1 was localized within uterine blood vessels. In cyclic gilts, endometrial and myometrial expression of AQP1 protein did not change significantly but increased during gestation. AQP5 was localized in smooth muscle cells and uterine epithelial cells. Endometrial expression of AQP5 protein did not change significantly between Days 2-4 and 10-12 of the estrous cycle but increased on Days 14-16 and 18-20 as well as during early pregnancy. Myometrial expression of AQP5 did not differ significantly during the estrous cycle but increased in the pregnancy. The anti-AQP9 antibody labeled uterine epithelial cells of uterus. Endometrial expression of AQP9 did not change significantly between Days 2-4 and 10-12 of the estrous cycle but increased on Days 14-16 and 18-20 as well as during early pregnancy. Conclusions The results suggest that a functional and distinctive collaboration exists among diverse AQPs in water handling during the different uterine phases in the estrous cycle and

  12. PP22. PROGRESSING RADIOTHERAPY-DRUG COMBINATIONS TOWARDS EARLY PHASE CLINICAL TRIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dr Hazel; Stock, Dr Julie; Chalmers, Prof Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Radiotherapy-Drug Combinations consortium (RaDCom) works with UK-based investigators to design and deliver high quality preclinical projects evaluating specific radiotherapy-drug combinations. We have several collaborations with industry, from in vitro projects to understand the novel agent in the context of radiobiology, through to preclinical studies that will generate data to support the development of radiotherapy combination trials. RaDCom facilitates the coordination of industry interactions, triage new proposals, monitor active projects, and engages with the radiotherapy community to promote collaboration and networking (via a capability map). The CRUK New Agents Committee Preclinical Combination Grant scheme provides one of the funding options for these studies, with the potential to feed into early phase clinical trials via the ECMC Combinations Alliance. RaDCom also supports broader radiotherapy research initiatives, by working to improve preclinical quality assurance and identifying a route to registration for radiotherapy-drug treatments. These activities will place the UK at the forefront of radiotherapy-drug preclinical research and provide a significant incentive for pharmaceutical companies to invest in this area and utilise the RaDCom network. Further information can be found on our webpage: http://ctrad.ncri.org.uk/research-support/radiation-drug-combinations-radcom Successful projects from RaDCom can then move into early phase combinations trials within the Combinations Alliance. The Combinations Alliance supports early phase combination studies in the UK via the ECMC (Experimental Cancer Medicine Centres) network. It focuses on translational research, and enables clinical project teams to work with disease experts to set up investigator led trials. The CRUK Centre of Drug Development (CDD) supports these studies with further management and coordination ensuring more robust timelines and delivery. The Combinations Alliance framework

  13. Decreased endometrial vascularity and receptivity in unexplained recurrent miscarriage patients during midluteal and early pregnancy phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu-Yin; Hang, Fu; Purvarshi, Gowreesunkur; Li, Min-Qing; Meng, Da-Hua; Huang, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of three-dimensional (3D)-power Doppler sonography on recurrent miscarriage. The study patients were divided into a recurrent miscarriage group (30 cases) and a normal pregnancy group (21 cases). Measurement of endometrial thickness was performed using two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound in the midluteal phase. The endometrial volume, vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization-flow index (VFI) in midluteal and placenta volume, as well as the VI, FI, and VFI of early pregnancy were measured using Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis of 3D-power Doppler ultrasound. Endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, endometrial vascular data, VI, FI, and VFI of the midluteal phase were lower in the recurrent miscarriage group compared with the normal pregnancy group (p FI between the recurrent miscarriage and control groups during early pregnancy (p > 0.05). The predictive accuracy of endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, and placenta volume, VI, FI, and VFI in early pregnancy as measured by the receiver operating characteristic curve to predict miscarriage before 12 gestational weeks in participants was 0.681, 0.876, 0.770, 0.720, 0.879, 0.771, 0.907, 0.592, respectively. The 3D-power Doppler ultrasound is a more comprehensive and sensitive method for evaluating endometrial receptivity. Endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, as well as VI in early pregnancy, can be considered as predictive factors for recurrent miscarriage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Why we haven't died out yet: changes in women's mimic reactions to visual erotic stimuli during their menstrual cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, Reinhard; Hölldorfer, Marion; Moll, Bettina; Bauer, Renate; Wolf, Karsten

    2009-02-01

    From an evolutionary point of view, female sexual desire contributes greatly to the success of reproduction by coordinating sexual behavior. It is known that female sexual desire fluctuates with the menstrual cycle. However, little is known about the role of basic emotions during menstrual cycle. We designed a facial EMG study to investigate facial expressions of joy during the menstrual cycle. 35 healthy women underwent 2 EMG sessions (T1 and T2). T1 took place in the follicular phase, T2 in the luteal phase. IAPS pictures of nude men (erotic stimuli) or of animals (control stimuli) were presented at both sessions. The activity of musculus zygomaticus major (responsible for expressing joy) was measured. We tested the hypothesis that zygomaticus activity is more pronounced in the follicular phase than in the luteal phase. The main result was that during the follicular phase, significantly more zygomaticus reactions were observed than during the luteal phase. This effect was restricted only to erotic stimuli. We concluded that an increased positive emotional responsiveness to erotic stimuli during the follicular phase is an important precondition for the probability of sexual activity during the conceptive days and thus for the success of reproduction.

  15. Bridging the gap between selection decisions of facade systems at the early design phase: Issues, challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Kassema

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Building facade has a significant impact on the environmental and economic performance of buildings and projects. The specification of their elements at the early design phase depends on numerous technical, environmental and economic factors and involves several stakeholders. The procurement and delivery of the facade work package from the early design phase, through detailed design and manufacture, to installation is a process with several inherent risk factors due to the involved cost, technical and engineering complexities and its position on the critical path in all projects. This research investigates the process of selection and specification of building facade elements at the early design phases with the overarching aim of identifying the issues affecting specification decisions, their root causes and impact on projects. The research utilizes a mixed research approach which combines a retrospective case study and an industry survey as two research methods that build on each other. The findings suggest that the complexity of specification at the early design phases is exacerbated by factors such as the inadequate technical knowledge of stakeholders involved in the decision making process, the non-involvement of building facade consultants, the late involvement of specialist facade subcontractors, and in a few cases by some commercial exclusivity agreements that restricts specification decisions. 

  16. The value of the phase analysis for the diagnosis of COPD complicated with early cor pulmonale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Binxiang; Zhang Qingxian; Wang Shujun

    1993-01-01

    The phase analysis was examined in 14 cases of COPD complicated with early cor pulmonale, 10 cases of coronary heart disease and 19 cases of normal subjects by the radionuclide gated blood pool imaging. Right heart catheterization was also performed in COPD group. It was shown that RVW (right ventricular phase angle width) in the COPD were significantly increased than that in the coronary heart disease group and the normal group, while LVW (left ventricular phase angle width) in the coronary heart disease group were significantly increased. It was worthy to be pointed out that in 3 of 4 cases of COPD with normal pulmonary artery pressure the RVW definitely prolonged. Therefore, it was suggested that RVW may be taken as an index for diagnosis of COPD complicated with early cor pulmonale

  17. Statistical analysis of the early phase of SBO accident for PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozmenkov, Yaroslav, E-mail: y.kozmenkov@hzdr.de; Jobst, Matthias, E-mail: m.jobst@hzdr.de; Kliem, Soeren, E-mail: s.kliem@hzdr.de; Schaefer, Frank, E-mail: f.schaefer@hzdr.de; Wilhelm, Polina, E-mail: p.wilhelm@hzdr.de

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Best estimate model of generic German PWR is used in ATHLET-CD simulations. • Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the early phase of SBO accident is presented. • Prediction intervals for occurrence of main events are evaluated. - Abstract: A statistical approach is used to analyse the early phase of station blackout accident for generic German PWR with the best estimate system code ATHLET-CD as a computation tool. The analysis is mainly focused on the timescale uncertainties of the accident events which can be detected at the plant. The developed input deck allows variations of all input uncertainty parameters relevant to the case. The list of identified and quantified input uncertainties includes 30 parameters related to the simulated physical phenomena/processes. Time uncertainties of main events as well as the major contributors to these uncertainties are defined. The uncertainty in decay heat has the highest contribution to the uncertainties of the analysed events. A linear regression analysis is used for predicting times of future events from detected times of occurred/past events. An accuracy of event predictions is estimated and verified. The presented statistical approach could be helpful for assessing and improving existing or elaborating additional emergency operating procedures aimed to prevent severe damage of reactor core.

  18. Liver CT for vascular mapping during radioembolisation workup : comparison of an early and late arterial phase protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoven, Andor F; Braat, Manon N G J A; Prince, Jip F; van Doormaal, Pieter J; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; Lam, Marnix G E H; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J

    OBJECTIVES: To compare right gastric (RGA) and segment 4 artery (A4) origin detection rates during radioembolisation workup between early and late arterial phase liver CT protocols. METHODS: 100 consecutive patients who underwent liver CT between May 2012-January 2015 with early or late arterial

  19. Cosmological QCD phase transition in steady non-equilibrium dissipative Hořava–Lifshitz early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodadi, M.; Sepangi, H.R.

    2014-01-01

    We study the phase transition from quark–gluon plasma to hadrons in the early universe in the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. According to the standard model of cosmology, a phase transition associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electro-weak transition has occurred when the universe was about 1–10 μs old. We focus attention on such a phase transition in the presence of a viscous relativistic cosmological background fluid in the framework of non-detailed balance Hořava–Lifshitz cosmology within an effective model of QCD. We consider a flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker universe filled with a non-causal and a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid respectively and investigate the effects of the running coupling constants of Hořava–Lifshitz gravity, λ, on the evolution of the physical quantities relevant to a description of the early universe, namely, the temperature T, scale factor a, deceleration parameter q and dimensionless ratio of the bulk viscosity coefficient to entropy density (ξ)/s . We assume that the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeys the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively. -- Highlights: •In this paper we have studied quark–hadron phase transition in the early universe in the context of the Hořava–Lifshitz model. •We use a flat FRW universe with the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeying the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively

  20. The levels of adipokines in relation to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle in young, normal-weight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wyskida

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: The aim of this study was to assess the plasma leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, omentin-1, vaspin, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 levels in relation to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle in young, healthy, normal-weight women. Methods: The study involved 52 young, healthy, normal-weight women. Anthropometric parameters, body composition and levels of plasma leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, omentin-1, vaspin, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 in addition to serum FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, 17-OH progesterone, androgens, SHBG and insulin concentrations were measured during a morning in fasting state three times: between days 2–4, days 12–14 and days 24–26 of the menstrual cycle. Results: Plasma adiponectin, omentin-1, resistin and visfatin/NAMPT, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 concentrations were stable during the menstrual cycle, while leptin and vaspin levels were significantly higher in both the midcycle and the luteal phases than those in the follicular phase. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that changes in leptin and vaspin levels between the follicular and the luteal phase are strongly related to changes in total testosterone levels. Conclusions: Our results revealed stable levels of adipokines during the phases of the physiological menstrual cycle, except for leptin and vaspin, which showed increased levels in both the midcycle and the luteal phases. This effect was significantly associated with changes in the secretion of testosterone, 17-OH progesterone and insulin in the luteal phase.

  1. Changes in neural circuitry associated with depression at pre-clinical, pre-motor and early motor phases of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Janina; Allende-Castro, Camilo; Laliena, Almudena; Guerrero, Néstor; Silva, Hernán; Concha, Miguel L

    2017-02-01

    Although Parkinson's Disease (PD) is mostly considered a motor disorder, it can present at early stages as a non-motor pathology. Among the non-motor clinical manifestations, depression shows a high prevalence and can be one of the first clinical signs to appear, even a decade before the onset of motor symptoms. Here, we review the evidence of early dysfunction in neural circuitry associated with depression in the context of PD, focusing on pre-clinical, pre-motor and early motor phases of the disease. In the pre-clinical phase, structural and functional changes in the substantia nigra, basal ganglia and limbic structures are already observed. Some of these changes are linked to motor compensation mechanisms while others correspond to pathological processes common to PD and depression and thus could underlie the appearance of depressive symptoms during the pre-motor phase. Studies of the early motor phase (less than five years post diagnosis) reveal an association between the extent of damage in different monoaminergic systems and the appearance of emotional disorders. We propose that the limbic loop of the basal ganglia and the lateral habenula play key roles in the early genesis of depression in PD. Alterations in the neural circuitry linked with emotional control might be sensitive markers of the ongoing neurodegenerative process and thus may serve to facilitate an early diagnosis of this disease. To take advantage of this, we need to improve the clinical criteria and develop biomarkers to identify depression, which could be used to determine individuals at risk to develop PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum IgE and IgG4 against muscle larva excretory-secretory products during the early and late phases of human trichinellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Marcela A; Forastiero, María A; Saracino, María P; Vila, Cecilia C; Venturiello, Stella M

    2017-11-01

    In human trichinellosis, the relevance of the presence and persistence of specific serum IgE and IgG4 during the early and late phases of infection is still controversial.The aim of this work was to determine the percentage of human sera presenting IgE and IgG4 against Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae excretory-secretory products as well as their levels during the early and late phases of the infection. The antigen recognition pattern by serum total immunoglobulins (IgGAM), IgE, and IgG4 was assessed over time. Serum samples during early and late phases were analyzed by ELISA and immunoelectrotransfer blot (IETB).Results showed that (a)-IgE and IgG4 are present at constant levels in both phases; (b)-IgE recognized the glycoproteins of ~ 45 and ~ 55 kDa and IgG4 only the ~ 45 kDa; (c)-in the late phase, the percentage of specific IgE positive sera was higher than that of specific IgG4 by IETB; while in serum samples taken during the early phase, no differences were found between both isotypes; (d)-both isotypes displayed different glycoprotein recognition patterns: the pattern corresponding to IgE was coincident with that of IgGAM, comprising seven glycoproteins (ranging from ~ 116 to ~ 29 kDa), whereas IgG4 revealed four glycoproteins (ranging from ~ 97 to ~ 45 kDa), showing a different sera recognition percentage depending on the phase studied.In conclusion, IgE and IgG4 cannot be considered exclusive isotypes of neither the early nor the late phase of infection and they are as useful as the detection of total antibodies in the early diagnosis.

  3. Chlamydia detection during the menstrual cycle: a cross-sectional study of women attending a sexual health service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana S Forcey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the detection of chlamydia at different stages of the menstrual cycle. METHODS: Electronic medical records for women attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between March 2011 and 31(st December 2012, who were tested for chlamydia by nucleic acid amplification of high vaginal, cervical, or urinary samples, and who recorded a date of last normal menstrual period (LNMP between 0-28 days were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the association of chlamydia with menstrual cycle adjusted by demographics and behavioural variables. Chlamydia and beta globin load were determined on those with stored samples. RESULTS: Of the 10,017 consultations that included a test for chlamydia and a valid LNMP, there were 417 in which chlamydia was detected. The proportion of samples with chlamydia was greater in the luteal phase (4.8%, 184/3831 than in the follicular phase (3.4%, 233/6816 both in the crude (OR 1.29 95%CI 1.1-1.6, p = 0.01 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR 1.4 (95%CI 1.1-1.8, p = 0.004. Among women using hormonal contraception, there was no significant association with the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (aOR 1.3, 95%CI 0.9, 1.8, p = 0.18. Among women not using hormonal contraception, there was a significant association with the luteal phase (aOR 1.6, (95% CI 1.1-2.3, p = 0.007. The chlamydia load was not significantly different in the 329 positive stored samples in weeks 3 and 4 vs weeks 1 and 2 for any site (P>0.12. CONCLUSIONS: The higher detection of chlamydia detection in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in only those not taking hormonal contraception suggest that hormonal factors influence chlamydia detection. The absence of a significantly highly chlamydia load in women during the luteal phase raises questions about the mechanism.

  4. Risk factors for and impact of respiratory failure on mortality in the early phase of acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Tilde; Kristensen, Marlene Østermark; Rysgaard, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    : Retrospective cohort study including 359 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis. Information was gathered from electronic patient records. We defined respiratory failure based on the modified Marshall scoring system in the revised Atlanta criteria. Predictors of respiratory failure were evaluated......, or pneumonia may develop respiratory failure, suggests that acute lung injury, possibly associated with systemic inflammation, may be important.......BACKGROUND: The incidence of respiratory failure and other respiratory complications in the early phase of acute pancreatitis (AP) is not well investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of respiratory failure, and its impact on mortality in the early phase AP. METHODS...

  5. Sustainability certification systems as guidelines for early-phase urban design processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard; Bjerre, Lærke; Mansfelt, Lise

    2016-01-01

    The German Sustainable Building Council (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen or DGNB) has one of the most comprehensive sustainability certification systems for urban districts (UD). Their explicit aim is that the system should impact the very earliest design decisions. The Technical University of Denmark has tested the DGNB-UD system in two experimental design projects for similar locations to find out how it can be used in the early-phase design process. This paper describes these ...

  6. Enabling Parametric Optimal Ascent Trajectory Modeling During Early Phases of Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James B.; Dees, Patrick D.; Diaz, Manuel J.

    2015-01-01

    During the early phases of engineering design, the costs committed are high, costs incurred are low, and the design freedom is high. It is well documented that decisions made in these early design phases drive the entire design's life cycle. In a traditional paradigm, key design decisions are made when little is known about the design. As the design matures, design changes become more difficult -- in both cost and schedule -- to enact. Indeed, the current capability-based paradigm that has emerged because of the constrained economic environment calls for the infusion of knowledge acquired during later design phases into earlier design phases, i.e. bring knowledge acquired during preliminary and detailed design into pre-conceptual and conceptual design. An area of critical importance to launch vehicle design is the optimization of its ascent trajectory, as the optimal trajectory will be able to take full advantage of the launch vehicle's capability to deliver a maximum amount of payload into orbit. Hence, the optimal ascent trajectory plays an important role in the vehicle's affordability posture as the need for more economically viable access to space solutions are needed in today's constrained economic environment. The problem of ascent trajectory optimization is not a new one. There are several programs that are widely used in industry that allows trajectory analysts to, based on detailed vehicle and insertion orbit parameters, determine the optimal ascent trajectory. Yet, little information is known about the launch vehicle early in the design phase - information that is required of many different disciplines in order to successfully optimize the ascent trajectory. Thus, the current paradigm of optimizing ascent trajectories involves generating point solutions for every change in a vehicle's design parameters. This is often a very tedious, manual, and time-consuming task for the analysts. Moreover, the trajectory design space is highly non-linear and multi

  7. Divided attention can enhance early-phase memory encoding: the attentional boost effect and study trial duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W; Spataro, Pietro

    2015-07-01

    Divided attention during encoding typically produces marked reductions in later memory. The attentional boost effect (ABE) is a surprising variation on this phenomenon. In this paradigm, each study stimulus (e.g., a word) is presented along with a target or a distractor (e.g., different colored circles) in a detection task. Later memory is better for stimuli co-occurring with targets. The present experiments indicate that the ABE arises during an early phase of memory encoding that involves initial stimulus perception and comprehension rather than at a later phase entailing controlled, elaborative rehearsal. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the ABE was robust at a short study duration (700 ms) and did not increase with increasing study trial durations (1,500 ms and 4,000 ms). Furthermore, the target condition is boosted to the level of memory performance in a full-attention condition for the short duration but not the long duration. Both results followed from the early-phase account. This account also predicts that for very short study times (limiting the influence of late-phase controlled encoding and thus minimizing the usual negative effect of divided attention), the target condition will produce better memory than will the full-attention condition. Experiment 2 used a study time of 400 ms and found that words presented with targets lead to greater recognition accuracy than do either words presented with distractors or words in the full-attention condition. Consistent with the early-phase account, a divided attention condition actually produced superior memory than did the full-attention condition, a very unusual but theoretically predicted result. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Efficient runner safety assessment during early design phase and root cause analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Q W; Lais, S; Gentner, C; Braun, O

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue related problems in Francis turbines, especially high head Francis turbines, have been published several times in the last years. During operation the runner is exposed to various steady and unsteady hydraulic loads. Therefore the analysis of forced response of the runner structure requires a combined approach of fluid dynamics and structural dynamics. Due to the high complexity of the phenomena and due to the limitation of computer power, the numerical prediction was in the past too expensive and not feasible for the use as standard design tool. However, due to continuous improvement of the knowledge and the simulation tools such complex analysis has become part of the design procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO. This article describes the application of most advanced analysis techniques in runner safety check (RSC), including steady state CFD analysis, transient CFD analysis considering rotor stator interaction (RSI), static FE analysis and modal analysis in water considering the added mass effect, in the early design phase. This procedure allows a very efficient interaction between the hydraulic designer and the mechanical designer during the design phase, such that a risk of failure can be detected and avoided in an early design stage.The RSC procedure can also be applied to a root cause analysis (RCA) both to find out the cause of failure and to quickly define a technical solution to meet the safety criteria. An efficient application to a RCA of cracks in a Francis runner is quoted in this article as an example. The results of the RCA are presented together with an efficient and inexpensive solution whose effectiveness could be proven again by applying the described RSC technics. It is shown that, with the RSC procedure developed and applied as standard procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO such a failure is excluded in an early design phase. Moreover, the RSC procedure is compatible with different commercial and open source codes and can be easily adapted to apply for

  9. Efficient runner safety assessment during early design phase and root cause analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q. W.; Lais, S.; Gentner, C.; Braun, O.

    2012-11-01

    Fatigue related problems in Francis turbines, especially high head Francis turbines, have been published several times in the last years. During operation the runner is exposed to various steady and unsteady hydraulic loads. Therefore the analysis of forced response of the runner structure requires a combined approach of fluid dynamics and structural dynamics. Due to the high complexity of the phenomena and due to the limitation of computer power, the numerical prediction was in the past too expensive and not feasible for the use as standard design tool. However, due to continuous improvement of the knowledge and the simulation tools such complex analysis has become part of the design procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO. This article describes the application of most advanced analysis techniques in runner safety check (RSC), including steady state CFD analysis, transient CFD analysis considering rotor stator interaction (RSI), static FE analysis and modal analysis in water considering the added mass effect, in the early design phase. This procedure allows a very efficient interaction between the hydraulic designer and the mechanical designer during the design phase, such that a risk of failure can be detected and avoided in an early design stage.The RSC procedure can also be applied to a root cause analysis (RCA) both to find out the cause of failure and to quickly define a technical solution to meet the safety criteria. An efficient application to a RCA of cracks in a Francis runner is quoted in this article as an example. The results of the RCA are presented together with an efficient and inexpensive solution whose effectiveness could be proven again by applying the described RSC technics. It is shown that, with the RSC procedure developed and applied as standard procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO such a failure is excluded in an early design phase. Moreover, the RSC procedure is compatible with different commercial and open source codes and can be easily adapted to apply for

  10. PRODROMAL PHASE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY ONSET SCHIZOPHRENIC PSYCHOSIS - CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kostić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia and other mental disorders are often preceded by prodromal changes in behavior that can last from several days to several years, indicating the beginning of psychosis. If the disease starts at an earlier age, especially in adolescence, the prodromal phase is more non-specific and difficult to detect. There is a large number of operational instruments used for clinical assessment and quantification of prodromal symptoms and "at risk mental state", as well as the predictive potential for psychosis. This paper describes the prodromal phase in the development of early onset schizophrenic psychosis, with the emphasis on gradual, several-month psychopathological accumulation and evolution of nonspecific and subclinical, prodromal symptoms to florid schizophrenic symptoms.

  11. Phase III trial of high- vs. low-dose-rate interstitial radiotherapy for early mobile tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takehiro; Inoue, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimamoto, Shigetoshi; Tanaka, Eiichi; Yamazaki, Hideya; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Teshima, Teruki; Furukawa, Souhei

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Early mobile tongue cancer can be controlled with interstitial radiotherapy (ISRT). We carried out a Phase III trial to compare the treatment results of low-dose-rate (Ld) ISRT and high-dose-rate (HDR) ISRT for early mobile tongue cancer. Methods and Materials: From April 1992 through October 1996, 59 patients with cancer of the early mobile tongue were registered in this Phase III study. Eight patients were excluded from the evaluation because of violations of the requirements for this study. Of 51 eligible patients, 26 patients were treated with LDR-ISRT (70 Gy/4-9 days) and 25 patients with HDR-ISRT (60 Gy/10 fractions/1 week). For the hyperfractionated HDR-ISRT, the time interval between 2 fractions was more than 6 h. Results: Five-year local control rates of the LDR and HDR groups were 84% and 87% respectively. Nodal metastasis occurred in 6 patients in each group. Five-year nodal control rates of the LDR and HDR groups were 77% and 76%, respectively. Conclusion: Hyperfractionated HDR-ISRT for early mobile tongue cancer has the same local control compared with continuous LDR-ISRT. Hyperfractionated HDR-ISRT is an alternative treatment for continuous LDR-ISRT

  12. Expression of Progesterone and Androgen Receptors in the Breast of Premenopausal Women, Considering Menstrual Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlén, Mia; Zhang, Hua; Löfgren, Lars; Masironi, Britt; VON Schoultz, Eva; VON Schoultz, B O; Sahlin, Lena

    2018-03-01

    Progesterone and androgens are important for normal development and tumorigenesis of the breast. Breast tissue samples from 49 premenopausal women were obtained. The progesterone receptors (PRA, PRB, PGRMC1 and PGRMC2) and the androgen receptor (AR) were determined in malignant and benign breast tumors and control tissues. The PRB and AR mRNA levels were highest in tumors. PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 mRNA levels were higher in malignant tumors compared to their paired normal tissues. PRA protein showed most immunostaining in benign tumors. PRB immunostaining varied according to menstrual phase. AR immunostaining was highest in the glands of malignant tumors. Progesterone and androgen receptors are differently regulated in tumors compared to normal breast tissues. A malignant breast tumor could appear PR-negative if collected in the luteal phase, but positive in the follicular phase. This finding may have clinical implications. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  13. Kadar dan Daya Luteolitik PGF2? Produksi Sel Monolayer Vesikula Seminalis dan Endometrium Sapi Bali (PROSTAGLANDIN F2? CONCENTRATIONS OF BALI CATTLE ENDOMETRIAL AND SEMINAL VESICLE MONOLAYER CELLS CULTURE PRODUCTS AND ITS IN VITRO TEST ON LUTEAL MONOLAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjok Gde Oka Pemayun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine PGF2? concentration the produced by bali cattlesendometrial and seminal vesicle monolayer cell culture and in vitro luteolytic ability on luteal monolayercell culture. The endometrial and seminal vesicle epithelial cell of bali cattle were cultured in tissueculture medium (TCM 199 growth medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and 10% EstrusMare Serum. The cells were cultured at 1.9 x 106 density per ml medium. Then Followed by incubation at38.50 C in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 12 days. The level of PGF2? in the cell culture medium were assayed byRadioimmnuassay (RIA technique. The luteal cells were cultured in 9 days incubation and divided into 2groups. Group I were added with 10% of cell culture product and group II were added with 1,25 mgdinoprost/ml. The level of progesterone produced by luteal cell culture was measured at day 9th and 11thincubation. The result showed concentration of PGF2? cell product of seminal vesicle cell culture wassignificantly higher (P < 0.05 compared to endometrial cell culture. There was no significant difference(P>0.05 in luteolytic ability between PGF2? cell culture product and dinoprost. In conclusion, the PGF2?could be produced by monolayer cell culture of bali cattle is endometrial and seminal vesicle epithelialcells more over they have similar ability with dinoprost in luteolytic ability.

  14. Fluoxetine improves functional work capacity in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, M; Brown, E; Trzepacz, P; Dillon, J; Berger, C; Carter, D; Reid, R; Stewart, D

    2003-02-01

    Interference with social and occupational functioning is a key criterion for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and distinguishes it from the less severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS). We conducted a post hoc analysis of the results of a previously reported study evaluating the efficacy of fluoxetine in the management of PMDD, to determine the extent to which women with PMDD perceived impairment in their functional work capacity during the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle. The effects of two doses of fluoxetine vs placebo in alleviating PMDD symptoms and restoring normal work capacity during this period were assessed. We measured baseline follicular vs luteal phase presence of 8 patient-rated functional work capacity-related symptoms on the Premenstrual Tension Scale-Self Rated in 320 women who met diagnostic criteria for late luteal phase dysphoric disorder, now known as PMDD. Women were then randomized to double-blind treatment with either fluoxetine 20 mg/d, fluoxetine 60 mg/d, or placebo daily for 6 menstrual cycles. All 8 work capacity-related symptoms were more likely to be present in the baseline luteal phase than in the baseline follicular phase. A statistically significant improvement from baseline to the average treatment score for the work capacity subscale was detected for both fluoxetine groups compared to the placebo group. This beneficial response to fluoxetine was evident by the first cycle of treatment. Our results demonstrate that fluoxetine at a relatively low dose of 20 mg/d quickly reduced symptoms that negatively affect work capacity and was well tolerated.

  15. Association of a trait-like bias towards the perception of negative subjective life events with risk of developing premenstrual symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Xenia; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Csukly, Gabor; Telek, Tamas; Pap, Dorottya; Rihmer, Zoltan; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2010-04-16

    Premenstrual symptoms affect the majority of healthy women. Premenstrual symptomatology has earlier been linked to stress and a state-like alteration in the perception of life events in the late-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. We hypothesised that there is also a trait-like negative bias in the perception of life events evident throughout the whole cycle which is associated with the likelihood to manifest more marked symptoms in the late-luteal phase of the cycle. 88 healthy women completed the PRISM calendar for three consecutive cycles and the Objective and Subjective Event Checklist during the follicular phase of the first cycle. Association between PRISM score change from the follicular through the late-luteal phase and life event variables was investigated by Generalized Linear Model Analysis (GENMOD). The PRISM score change showed a significant negative association with the ratio of positive subjective life events and a significant positive association with the ratio of negative subjective life events. There were no significant results in case of the objective life events. Our results indicate that women manifesting a more marked increase of symptoms from the late follicular through the late-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle are more likely to notice negative subjective life events and less likely to notice positive subjective life events. This suggest a trait-like negative bias in the perception of life events present throughout the whole reproductive cycle which may play an important role in the emergence of premenstrual symptoms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of ACTH on corticosteroid and progesterone levels in female baboons depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todua, T.N.; Goncharov, N.P.; Katsiya, G.V.; Lapin, B.A.; Vorontsov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effect of ACTH on the endocrine function of steroid producing glands depending on the level of sex hormones in the body, a comparative study of the dynamics of steroid hormones in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in response to a standard does of ACTH was undertaken in experiments on hamadryad baboons. Concentrations of corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and progesterone were determined in duplicate samples of plasma by radioimmunoassay. It is shown that the sensitivity of the adrenals to a single injection of ACTH is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and the inhibitory effects of ACTH on progesterone secretion is exhibited only in the presence of an actively functioning corpus luteus of the ovary

  17. Effects of ACTH on corticosteroid and progesterone levels in female baboons depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todua, T.N.; Goncharov, N.P.; Katsiya, G.V.; Lapin, B.A.; Vorontsov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effect of ACTH on the endocrine function of steroid producing glands depending on the level of sex hormones in the body, a comparative study of the dynamics of steroid hormones in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in response to a standard does of ACTH was undertaken in experiments on hamadryad baboons. Concentrations of corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and progesterone were determined in duplicate samples of plasma by radioimmunoassay. It is shown that the sensitivity of the adrenals to a single injection of ACTH is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and the inhibitory effects of ACTH on progesterone secretion is exhibited only in the presence of an actively functioning corpus luteus of the ovary.

  18. [Abnormal processing characteristics to basic emotional faces in the early phase in children with autism spectrum disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiong-Xi; Wu, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Zeng-Jian; Pan, Ning; Xu, Cai-Juan; Jing, Jin; Jin, Yu

    2018-02-01

    To explore the recognition ability and abnormal processing characteristics to basic emotional faces in the early phase in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Photos of Chinese static faces with four basic emotions (fearful, happy, angry and sad) were used as stimulus. Twenty-five ASD children and twenty-two age- and gender-matched typical developed children (normal controls) were asked to match the emotional faces with words. Event-related potential (ERP) data were recorded concurrently. N170 latencies for total emotion and fearful face in the left temporal region were faster than in the right one in normal controls (P<0.05), but the results were not noted in ASD children. Further, N170 latencies in the left temporal region of ASD children were slower than normal controls for total emotion, fearful and happy faces (P<0.05), and their N170 latencies in the right temporal region were prone to slower than normal controls for angry and fearful faces. The holistic perception speed of emotional faces in the early cognitive processing phase in ASD children is slower than normal controls. The lateralized response in the early phase of recognizing emotional faces may be aberrant in children with ASD.

  19. Informing Early-Phase Technology Decisions in Paradigmatic Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kjeldal; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    their knowledge-world in such a radical manner, they start facing problems with making efficient decisions as knowledge generated through experience is mainly useful when the future mimics the past, which is not the case for such radical changes. Therefore, a 3 year long research project within this industry has......The innovation activities of a company facing paradigmatic change with regard to both technology and business model includes taking many decisions, where the information available, as well as the decision makers’ ability to understand this information, is limited. Technology decisions in the very...... early phases of innovation have been explored in a Scandinavian energy-utilities company facing exactly these paradigmatic changes. In the company there are 5500 employees, with the major footprint in Denmark. The company has activities in the full energy value-chain including: production & trade of oil...

  20. Antigravity treadmill training during the early rehabilitation phase following unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Hao; Schroeder, E Todd; Powers, Christopher

    2018-02-26

    Patients who have undergone unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) have been reported to exhibit altered gait 19-25 months post-surgery. The most common gait impairment in this population is inadequate knee flexion and a corresponding decrease in the knee extensor moment during loading response (i.e., quadriceps avoidance). The purpose of this case series was to determine whether incorporation of antigravity treadmill training into a standard physical therapy program can eliminate quadriceps avoidance gait during the early rehabilitation phase following UKA. Four females who underwent UKA were recruited for this study. Participants completed antigravity treadmill training three times per week for 12 weeks in addition to their standard physical therapy program. Instrumented gait analysis was performed at baseline (pre-intervention), week 6 (mid-intervention), and week 12 (post-intervention). We found that peak knee flexion and the peak knee extensor moment during the weight acceptance phase of gait increased to normal values following the 12-week intervention period (14.1 ± 6.5° to 20.6 ± 1.5° and 0.4 ± 0.3 to 0.7 ± 0.2 Nm/kg respectively). The findings of this case series suggest that a standard physical therapy program that incorporates early gait training using an antigravity treadmill may be beneficial in eliminating "quadriceps avoidance" during the early rehabilitation phase following UKA.

  1. Relationship Between the Menstrual Cycle and Timing of Ovulation Revealed by New Protocols: Analysis of Data from a Self-Tracking Health App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohda, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kenta; Igari, Ichiro

    2017-11-27

    There are many mobile phone apps aimed at helping women map their ovulation and menstrual cycles and facilitating successful conception (or avoiding pregnancy). These apps usually ask users to input various biological features and have accumulated the menstrual cycle data of a vast number of women. The purpose of our study was to clarify how the data obtained from a self-tracking health app for female mobile phone users can be used to improve the accuracy of prediction of the date of next ovulation. Using the data of 7043 women who had reliable menstrual and ovulation records out of 8,000,000 users of a mobile phone app of a health care service, we analyzed the relationship between the menstrual cycle length, follicular phase length, and luteal phase length. Then we fitted a linear function to the relationship between the length of the menstrual cycle and timing of ovulation and compared it with the existing calendar-based methods. The correlation between the length of the menstrual cycle and the length of the follicular phase was stronger than the correlation between the length of the menstrual cycle and the length of the luteal phase, and there was a positive correlation between the lengths of past and future menstrual cycles. A strong positive correlation was also found between the mean length of past cycles and the length of the follicular phase. The correlation between the mean cycle length and the luteal phase length was also statistically significant. In most of the subjects, our method (ie, the calendar-based method based on the optimized function) outperformed the Ogino method of predicting the next ovulation date. Our method also outperformed the ovulation date prediction method that assumes the middle day of a mean menstrual cycle as the date of the next ovulation. The large number of subjects allowed us to capture the relationships between the lengths of the menstrual cycle, follicular phase, and luteal phase in more detail than previous studies. We

  2. Roles of prostaglandin F2alpha and hydrogen peroxide in the regulation of Copper/Zinc superoxide dismutase in bovine corpus luteum and luteal endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Hai V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF induces luteolysis in cow by inducing a rapid reduction in progesterone production (functional luteolysis followed by tissue degeneration (structural luteolysis. However the mechanisms of action of PGF remain unclear. Reactive oxygen species (ROS play important roles in regulating the luteolytic action of PGF. The local concentration of ROS is controlled by superoxide dismutase (SOD, the main enzyme involved in the control of intraluteal ROS. Thus SOD seems to be involved in luteolysis process induced by PGF in cow. Methods To determine the dynamic relationship between PGF and ROS in bovine corpus luteum (CL during luteolysis, we determined the time-dependent change of Copper/Zinc SOD (SOD1 in CL tissues after PGF treatment in vivo. We also investigated whether PGF and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 modulates SOD1 expression and SOD activity in cultured bovine luteal endothelial cells (LECs in vitro. Results Following administration of a luteolytic dose of PGF analogue (0 h to cows at the mid-luteal stage, the expression of SOD1 mRNA and protein, and total SOD activity in CL tissues increased between 0.5 and 2 h, but fell below the initial (0 h level at 24 h post-treatment. In cultured LECs, the expression of SOD1 mRNA was stimulated by PGF (1–10 microM and H2O2 (10–100 microM at 2 h (P

  3. Characteristics of the early flight phase in the Olympic ski jumping competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, Mikko; Isolehto, Juha; Komi, Paavo; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Müller, Erich; Schwameder, Hermann

    2005-11-01

    Early flight phase (approximately 40 m) of the athletes participating in the final round of the individual large hill ski jumping competition in Salt Lake City Olympics was filmed with two high-speed pan & tilt video cameras. The results showed that jumpers' steady flight position was almost completed within 0.5s. The most significant correlation with the length of the jump was found in the angle between the skis and body (r=.714, p.001 at 1.1s after the take-off). This particular phase seemed to be important because the ski angle of attack was also related to the jumping distance at the same phase. Although the more upright ski position relative to flight path resulted in longer jumping distance, the winner of the competition had significantly lower ski position as compared to the other good jumpers. This may be due to the high altitude (>2000 m) of the ski jumping stadium in this competition. Because of the low air density, the aerodynamic forces were also low and this probably caused less skillful jumpers to lean too much forward at this phase. Maintenance of speed seemed to be emphasized in this particular competition.

  4. Expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNA in the preoptic region of the brain during the estrous cycle of the ewe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompolo, S.; Clarke, I.J.; Scott, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is thought to regulate gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones located in the preoptic area (POA). GABA neurons in this region,express estrogen receptors, and synapse with GnRH cells. Reduced levels of GABA are thought to be permissive of the preovulatory LH surge. We aimed to determine whether the function of GABA changes across the ovine estrous cycle. GAD is an enzyme that synthesises GABA. We measured mRNA levels for the GAD-65 transcript in the diagonal band of Broca (dbB), POA and bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BnST) of ewes (4/group) that were killed (overdose of Pentobarbital) during the luteal (L), follicular (F) or estrous (E) phase of the estrous cycle. Brains were perfused and processed for in situ hybridisation.Sections (20 μm) were hybridised with an 35 S-labelled GAD-65 probe and the number of silver grains/cell was counted. Grains/cell were similar across the cycle in dbB and the ventral BnST. In the dorsal and lateral BnST, GAD expression was greater (P<0.05) in the L (65 ± 3;SEM) than in F (56 ± 30), with a return to luteal phase levels at estrus (70 ± 3). Expression in the POA was lower (P<0.05) during estrus (54 ± 3) than during the luteal phase (70 ± 4). These data show that expression of GAD-65 is lower in some regions of BnST at the time of the cycle (follicular) when estrogen initiates events that lead to the preovulatory LH surge. Expression in the POA is lower at estrus (during the GnRH/LH surge) than during the luteal phase:this could be permissive of the surge. Higher GAD-65 expression in the luteal phase could be due to high progesterone levels at this time of the cycle. Copyright (2001) Australian Neuroscience Society

  5. A Case Study of Idea Work in the Early Phases of Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv; Clausen, Christian; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2009-01-01

    development. Based on our case we will point out four central findings: 1) Early idea work is a complex process and interlinked with many other activities both inside and outside the organization. 2) Ideas evolve,combine and change over time. 3) Idea work involves a wide range of actors. 4) Carrying ideas......Focus in this paper is on the early innovation activities, in particular idea work. Based on a case study from industrial practice on the development of a new circulator (the Alpha Pro circulator) we aim at getting a better understanding of the work with ideas in the early phases of product...... through demands continuous mobilization of support among a range of actors. We suggest that the actors involved in idea work and their interaction such as negotiating different understandings of what constitutes a qualified idea as well as the continuous mobilization of support to their ideas among...

  6. The history of natural progesterone, the never-ending story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, P

    2018-05-28

    The term progesterone should only be used for the natural hormone produced by the ovaries or included in a registered drug. The modern history of progesterone begins with the first book-length description of the female reproductive system including the corpus luteum and later with the Nobel Prize winner, Adolf Butenandt who took a crucial step when he succeeded in converting pregnanediol into a chemically pure form of progesterone, the corpus luteum hormone. The deficient production of progesterone was shown first to be the cause of the luteal-phase deficiency responsible for infertility and early pregnancy loss due to inadequate secretory transformation of the endometrium. Later, progesterone was confirmed to be the best and safest method of providing luteal-phase support in assisted reproductive technology. Progesterone provides adequate endometrial protection and is suggested to be the optimal progestagen in menopausal hormone therapy in terms of cardiovascular effects, venous thromboembolism, probably stroke and even breast cancer risk. Neuroprotective effects of progesterone have also been demonstrated in several of experimental models including cerebral ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Vaginal progesterone was shown to decrease the risk of preterm birth in women with a mid-trimester sonographic short cervix and to improve perinatal outcomes in singleton and twin gestations.

  7. The relationship between the menstrual cycle and cortisol secretion: Daily and stress-invoked cortisol patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-López, Eva; Santos-Ruiz, Ana; García-Ríos, M Carmen; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Manuel; Rogers, Heather L; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel

    2018-03-29

    The menstrual cycle involves significant changes in hormone levels, causing physical and psychological changes in women that are further influenced by stress. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between menstrual cycle phase and salivary cortisol patterns during the day as well as the salivary cortisol response to the Virtual Reality Version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-VR). Forty two women not taking oral contraceptives (24 in follicular phase and 18 in luteal phase) participated in the study. Five samples of salivary cortisol collected during the day and another five samples of cortisol during the TSST-VR were analyzed. Psychological stress measures and psychopathological symptomatology were also evaluated. A 2 × 4 mixed ANCOVA showed an interaction between the two groups on the TSST-RV invoked cortisol response to the [F(3,42) = 3.681; p = 0.023) where women in luteal phase showed higher cortisol post exposure levels (5.96 ± 3.76 nmol/L) than women in follicular phase (4.31 ± 2.23 nmol/L). No other significant differences were found. Our findings provide evidence that menstrual cycle phase tended to influence cortisol response to laboratory-induced mental stress, with more reactivity observed in the luteal phase. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of the menstrual cycle on optic nerve head analysis in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Munire Erman; Taskin, Omur; Yucel, Iclal; Akar, Yusuf

    2004-12-01

    To determine the effect of the menstrual cycle on optic nerve head topographic analysis in normally menstruating, healthy women. The study included single eyes selected randomly from each of 52 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles. All subjects underwent a complete ocular examination. Optic nerve head topographic analyses were performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II (HRT II, software version 1.6). The analyses were repeated three times during the menstrual cycle: in the follicular phase (days 7-10 of the cycle), at ovulation, and in the late luteal phase (days 1-3 before menstrual bleeding). Serum oestradiol, progesterone and luteinizing hormone levels were measured at each menstrual phase. Fourteen subjects were excluded from the study. The mean age of the subjects (n = 38) was 25.6 +/- 3.7 years (range 21-34 years). Blood oestradiol levels were significantly lower in the late luteal phase (35.8 pg/ml) (p cup : disc ratio, cup : disc area ratio and the cup area were significantly higher during the luteal phase (p menstrual cycle in healthy women significantly alter neuroretinal rim area and cup variables of the optic nerve head. These findings should be taken into consideration in the clinical follow-up of young women with glaucoma.

  9. Fetal programming: prenatal testosterone treatment leads to follicular persistence/luteal defects; partial restoration of ovarian function by cyclic progesterone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Steckler, Teresa L; Welch, Kathleen B; Inskeep, E Keith; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2006-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess during midgestation leads to estrous cycle defects and polycystic ovaries in sheep. We hypothesized that follicular persistence causes polycystic ovaries and that cyclic progesterone (P) treatment would overcome follicular persistence and restore cyclicity. Twice-weekly blood samples for P measurements were taken from control (C; n = 16) and prenatally T-treated (T60; n = 14; 100 mg T, im, twice weekly from d 30-90 of gestation) Suffolk sheep starting before the onset of puberty and continuing through the second breeding season. A subset of C and T60 sheep were treated cyclically with a modified controlled internal drug-releasing device for 13-14 d every 17 d during the first anestrus (CP, 7; TP, 6). Transrectal ovarian ultrasonography was performed for 8 d in the first and 21 d in the second breeding season. Prenatal T excess reduced the number, but increased the duration of progestogenic cycles, reduced the proportion of ewes with normal cycles, increased the proportion of ewes with subluteal cycles, decreased the proportion of ewes with ovulatory cycles, induced the occurrence of persistent follicles, and reduced the number of corpora lutea in those that cycled. Cyclic P treatment in anestrus, which produced one third the P concentration seen during luteal phase of cycle, did not reduce the number of persistent follicles, but increased the number of progestogenic cycles while reducing their duration. These findings suggested that follicular persistence might contribute to the polycystic ovarian morphology. Cyclic P treatment was able to only partially restore follicular dynamics, but this may be related to the low replacement concentrations of P achieved.

  10. Phase Transitions in the Early Universe: The Cosmology of Non-Minimal Scalar Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Jeffrey D.

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically--such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions--the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this thesis, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the total late-time abundance of the system--often by many orders of magnitude--but also its distribution across the different fields. Second, we find that these effects can produce large parametric resonances which render the energy densities of the fields highly sensitive to the degree of mixing as well as the duration of the time interval over which the phase transition unfolds. Finally, we find that these effects can even give rise to a "re-overdamping" phenomenon which causes the total energy density of the system to behave in novel ways that differ from those exhibited by pure dark matter or vacuum energy. All of these features therefore give rise to new possibilities for early-universe phenomenology and cosmological evolution. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the time dependence associated with phase transitions in cosmological settings. In the second part of this thesis, we proceed to study the early-universe cosmology of a Kaluza-Klein (KK

  11. From the endometrium physiology to a comprehensive strategy for the discovery of ovarian cancer biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janos L. Tanyi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of comprehensive strategies for biomarker discovery of gynecological cancers is needed. The unique physiology of the female genital track revolves around ovulatory cycles ending by the proteolysis of the endometrium triggered by progesterone decline during the last part of the luteal phase. Building on the known link between incessant ovulation and ovarian cancer, we hypothesize that life-long menstruations could damage neighboring organs such as fallopian tubes, ovaries and peritoneum via endometrial secretions, and thus endometrium neighboring structures may have developed highly efficient protective strategies that could, in turn, be hijacked by cancer cells for survival and invasion. After literature review, we could classify the molecules involved in ovulation and menstruation pathways in three main categories: proteases, proteases inhibitors and cell-surface protectors. Strikingly, all validated biomarkers for ovarian cancers belong to at least one of these categories. We thus propose the development of comprehensive methods for identification of early diagnostic markers for gynecological cancers using systematical mapping and characterization of surface or soluble molecules belonging to physiological pathways linked to menstruation and differently expressed during luteal cycles.

  12. Analyses of the pathways involved in early- and late-phase induction of IFN-beta during C. muridarum infection of oviduct epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sishun Hu

    Full Text Available We previously reported that the IFN-β secreted by Chlamydia muridarum-infected murine oviduct epithelial cells (OE cells was mostly dependent on the TLR3 signaling pathway. To further characterize the mechanisms of IFN-β synthesis during Chlamydia infection of OE cells in vitro, we utilized specific inhibitory drugs to clarify the roles of IRF3 and NF-κB on both early- and late-phase C. muridarum infections. Our results showed that the pathways involved in the early-phase of IFN-β production were distinct from that in the late-phase of IFN-β production. Disruption of IRF3 activation using an inhibitor of TBK-1 at early-phase Chlamydia infection had a significant impact on the overall synthesis of IFN-β; however, disruption of IRF3 activation at late times during infection had no effect. Interestingly, inhibition of NF-κB early during Chlamydia infection also had a negative effect on IFN-β production; however, its impact was not significant. Our data show that the transcription factor IRF7 was induced late during Chlamydia infection, which is indicative of a positive feedback mechanism of IFN-β synthesis late during infection. In contrast, IRF7 appears to play little or no role in the early synthesis of IFN-β during Chlamydia infection. Finally, we demonstrate that antibiotics that target chlamydial DNA replication are much more effective at reducing IFN-β synthesis during infection versus antibiotics that target chlamydial transcription. These results provide evidence that early- and late-phase IFN-β production have distinct signaling pathways in Chlamydia-infected OE cells, and suggest that Chlamydia DNA replication might provide a link to the currently unknown chlamydial PAMP for TLR3.

  13. Analysis of Loss-of-Coolant Accidents in the NIST Research Reactor - Early Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Joo S.; Diamond, David

    2016-12-06

    A study of the fuel temperature during the early phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in the NIST research reactor (NBSR) was completed. Previous studies had been reported in the preliminary safety analysis report for the conversion of the NBSR from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched (LEU) fuel. Those studies had focused on the most vulnerable LOCA situation, namely, a double-ended guillotine break in the time period after reactor trip when water is drained from either the coolant channels inside the fuel elements or the region outside the fuel elements. The current study fills in a gap in the analysis which is the early phase of the event when there may still be water present but the reactor is at power or immediately after reactor trip and pumps have tripped. The calculations were done, for both the current HEU-fueled core and the proposed LEU core, with the TRACE thermal-hydraulic systems code. Several break locations and different break sizes were considered. In all cases the increase in the clad (or fuel meat) temperature was relatively small so that a large margin to the temperature threshold for blistering (the Safety Limit for the NBSR) remained.

  14. Unknown loads affect force production capacity in early phases of bench press throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Davó, J L; Sabido Solana, R; Sarabia Marínm, J M; Sánchez Martos, Á; Moya Ramón, M

    2015-10-01

    Explosive strength training aims to improve force generation in early phases of movement due to its importance in sport performance. The present study examined the influence of lack of knowledge about the load lifted in explosive parameters during bench press throws. Thirteen healthy young men (22.8±2.0 years) participated in the study. Participants performed bench press throws with three different loads (30, 50 and 70% of 1 repetition maximum) in two different conditions (known and unknown loads). In unknown condition, loads were changed within sets in each repetition and participants did not know the load, whereas in known condition the load did not change within sets and participants had knowledge about the load lifted. Results of repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that unknown conditions involves higher power in the first 30, 50, 100 and 150 ms with the three loads, higher values of ratio of force development in those first instants, and differences in time to reach maximal rate of force development with 50 and 70% of 1 repetition maximum. This study showed that unknown conditions elicit higher values of explosive parameters in early phases of bench press throws, thereby this kind of methodology could be considered in explosive strength training.

  15. Impact of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy on plasma chemistry values in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywicki, Micaela E; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J

    2018-03-01

    Normative data for plasma chemistry values in pregnant and non-pregnant reproductive age ewes are scant. Availability of data would aid monitoring of ewe health for both research and veterinary medicine. We determined specific plasma chemistry 95% confidence reference intervals (RIs) in non-pregnant and pregnant ewes. Mixed Western-breed ewes were grouped based on phase of ovarian cycle: luteal ( n = 15), follicular ( n = 17), or late-gestation pregnant ( n = 102). Plasma samples were collected for analysis on a commercial biochemical analyzer. For RIs, chemistry panels for the 3 groups of ewes included nutrients and metabolites (glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, and bilirubin), enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]), and micronutrients (calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium, and chloride). Sample chemistry values for glucose and total protein in pregnant ewes were lower than in follicular ewes; cholesterol was lower in pregnant and luteal ewes than in follicular ewes. In addition, total bilirubin in pregnant ewes differed from that in luteal ewes, and that in follicular ewes also differed from luteal ewes. ALP in pregnant ewes was higher than other groups; phosphorus in pregnant ewes was lower than in luteal ewes. Iron was higher in pregnant ewes than in luteal ewes, with iron in luteal ewes lower than in follicular ewes. These data provide clinical RIs comparing pregnant and non-pregnant ewes for use in monitoring ewe health in both human research and veterinary medicine.

  16. Dealing with subjectivity in early product design phase: a systematic approch to exploit QFD potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raharjo, H.; Brombacher, A.C.; Xie, M.

    2008-01-01

    Quality Function Deployment (QFD), as a customer-driven tool, is generally used in the early phase of new or improved products/services design process, and therefore most of the input parameters are highly subjective in nature. The five major input components of the QFD, which are laid in the House

  17. Auto-inhibitory regulation of angiotensin II functionality in hamster aorta during the early phases of dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Priscila Cristina; Pernomian, Larissa; Côco, Hariane; Gomes, Mayara Santos; Franco, João José; Marchi, Kátia Colombo; Hipólito, Ulisses Vilela; Uyemura, Sergio Akira; Tirapelli, Carlos Renato; de Oliveira, Ana Maria

    2016-06-15

    Emerging data point the crosstalk between dyslipidemia and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Advanced dyslipidemia is described to induce RAS activation in the vasculature. However, the interplay between early dyslipidemia and the RAS remains unexplored. Knowing that hamsters and humans have a similar lipid profile, we investigated the effects of early and advanced dyslipidemia on angiotensin II-induced contraction. Cumulative concentration-response curves for angiotensin II (1.0pmol/l to 1.0µmol/l) were obtained in the hamster thoracic aorta. We also investigated the modulatory action of NAD(P)H oxidase on angiotensin II-induced contraction using ML171 (Nox-1 inhibitor, 0.5µmol/l) and VAS2870 (Nox-4 inhibitor, 5µmol/l). Early dyslipidemia was detected in hamsters treated with a cholesterol-rich diet for 15 days. Early dyslipidemia decreased the contraction induced by angiotensin II and the concentration of Nox-4-derived hydrogen peroxide. Advanced dyslipidemia, observed in hamsters treated with cholesterol-rich diet for 30 days, restored the contractile response induced by angiotensin II by compensatory mechanism that involves Nox-4-mediated oxidative stress. The hyporresponsiveness to angiotensin II may be an auto-inhibitory regulation of the angiotensinergic function during early dyslipidemia in an attempt to reduce the effects of the upregulation of the vascular RAS during the advanced stages of atherogenesis. The recovery of vascular angiotensin II functionality during the advanced phases of dyslipidemia is the result of the upregulation of redox-pro-inflammatory pathway that might be most likely involved in atherogenesis progression rather than in the recovery of vascular function. Taken together, our findings show the early phase of dyslipidemia may be the most favorable moment for effective atheroprotective therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of different five-day progesterone-based fixed-time AI protocols on follicular/luteal dynamics and fertility in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    GARCIA-ISPIERTO, Irina; LÓPEZ-GATIUS, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This study compares in two experiments the responses of lactating dairy cows to four different progesterone-based protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in terms of their effects on follicular/luteal dynamics and fertility. The protocols consisted of a progesterone intravaginal device fitted for five days, along with the administration of different combinations of gonadotropin releasing hormone, equine chorionic gonadotropin and a single or double dose (24 h apart) of prostaglandin F2α. In Experiment I, the data were derived from 232 lactating cows. Binary logistic regression identified no effects of treatment on ovulation failure or multiple ovulation 10 days post artificial insemination (AI). Based on the odds ratio, the likelihood of ovulation failure was lower (by a factor of 0.1) in cows showing at least one corpus luteum (CL) upon treatment than in cows lacking a CL; repeat breeders (> 3 AI) and cows with multiple CLs at treatment showed lower (by a factor of 0.44) and higher (by a factor of 9.0) risks of multiple ovulation, respectively, than the remaining animals. In Experiment II, the data were derived from 5173 AIs. The independent variable treatment failed to affect the conception rate 28–34 days post AI, twin pregnancy or early fetal loss 58–64 days post AI. The results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of 5-day progesterone-based protocols for FTAI. All four protocols examined were able to induce ovulation in both cyclic and non-cyclic animals so that FTAI returned a similar pregnancy rate to spontaneous estrus. Our results suggest that the ovarian response and fertility resulting from each treatment are due more to the effect of ovarian structures at treatment than to the different combinations of hormones investigated. PMID:25196275

  19. Decreased endometrial vascularity and receptivity in unexplained recurrent miscarriage patients during midluteal and early pregnancy phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Tan

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The 3D-power Doppler ultrasound is a more comprehensive and sensitive method for evaluating endometrial receptivity. Endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, as well as VI in early pregnancy, can be considered as predictive factors for recurrent miscarriage.

  20. Recurrent surgical site infection of the spine diagnosed by dual 18F-NaF-bone PET/CT with early-phase scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Jai-Joon; Lee, Jeong Won; Jeon, Min Hyok; Lee, Sang Mi

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 31-year-old man who showed recurrently elevated level of the serum inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) after spinal operation. He underwent 18 F-flurodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and dual 18 F-sodium-fluoride ( 18 F-NaF) PET/CT with an additional early-phase scan to find a hidden inflammation focus. Only mildly increased 18 F-FDG was found at the surgical site of T11 spine on 18 F-FDG PET/CT. In contrast, dual 18 F-NaF bone PET/CT with early-phase scan demonstrated focal active inflammation at the surgical site of T11 spine. After a revision operation of the T11 spine, serum CRP level decreased to the normal range without any symptom or sign of inflammation. Inflammatory focus in the surgical site of the spine can be detected with using dual 18 F-NaF bone PET/CT scan with early-phase scan. (orig.)

  1. The differences in RCAS1 and DFF45 endometrial expression between late proliferative, early secretory, and mid-secretory cycle phases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Sikora

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available RCAS1 expression is related to the regulation of activated immune cells and to connective tissue remodeling within the endometrium. DFF45 seems to play an important role in the apoptotic process, most likely by acting through the regulation of DNA fragmentation. Its expression changes within the endometrium seem to be related to the resistance of endometrial cells to apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate RCAS1 and DFF45 endometrial expressions during ovulation and the implantation period. RCAS1 and DFF45 expression was assessed by the Western-blot method in endometrial tissue samples obtained from 20 patients. The tissue samples were classified according to the menstrual cycle phases in which they were collected, with a division into three phases: late proliferative, early secretory, and mid-secretory. The lowest level of RCAS1 and the highest level of DFF45 endometrial expression was found during the early secretory cycle phase. Statistically significantly higher RCAS1 and statistically significantly lower DFF45 endometrial expression was identified in the endometrium during the late proliferative as compared to the early secretory cycle phase. Moreover, statistically significantly higher RCAS1 and statistically significantly lower DFF45 expression was found in the endometrium during the mid-secretory as compared to the early secretory cycle phase. The preparation for implantation process in the endometrium is preceded by dynamic changes in endometrial ECM and results from the proper interaction between endometrial and immune cells. The course of this process is conditioned by the immunomodulating activity of endometrial cells and their resistance to immune-mediated apoptosis. These dynamic changes are closely related to RCAS1 and DFF45 expression alterations.

  2. Dietary Soy Supplement on Fibromyalgia Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Early Phase Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Thompson, Jeffrey M.; Luedtke, Connie A.; King, Susan M.; Cha, Stephen S.; Elkin, Peter L.; Bruce, Barbara K.; Townsend, Cynthia O.; Bergeson, Jody R.; Eickhoff, Andrea L.; Loehrer, Laura L.; Sood, Amit; Bauer, Brent A.

    2011-01-01

    Most patients with fibromyalgia use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Properly designed controlled trials are necessary to assess the effectiveness of these practices. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, early phase trial. Fifty patients seen at a fibromyalgia outpatient treatment program were randomly assigned to a daily soy or placebo (casein) shake. Outcome measures were scores of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention. Analysis was with standard statistics based on the null hypothesis, and separation test for early phase CAM comparative trials. Twenty-eight patients completed the study. Use of standard statistics with intent-to-treat analysis showed that total FIQ scores decreased by 14% in the soy group (P = .02) and by 18% in the placebo group (P fibromyalgia treatment program, provide a decrease in fibromyalgia symptoms. Separation between the effects of soy and casein (control) shakes did not favor the intervention. Therefore, large-sample studies using soy for patients with fibromyalgia are probably not indicated. PMID:18990724

  3. Challenges Facing Early Phase Trials Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute: An Analysis of Corrective Action Plans to Improve Accrual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massett, Holly A; Mishkin, Grace; Rubinstein, Larry; Ivy, S Percy; Denicoff, Andrea; Godwin, Elizabeth; DiPiazza, Kate; Bolognese, Jennifer; Zwiebel, James A; Abrams, Jeffrey S

    2016-11-15

    Accruing patients in a timely manner represents a significant challenge to early phase cancer clinical trials. The NCI Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program analyzed 19 months of corrective action plans (CAP) received for slow-accruing phase I and II trials to identify slow accrual reasons, evaluate whether proposed corrective actions matched these reasons, and assess the CAP impact on trial accrual, duration, and likelihood of meeting primary scientific objectives. Of the 135 CAPs analyzed, 69 were for phase I trials and 66 for phase II trials. Primary reasons cited for slow accrual were safety/toxicity (phase I: 48%), design/protocol concerns (phase I: 42%, phase II: 33%), and eligibility criteria (phase I: 41%, phase II: 35%). The most commonly proposed corrective actions were adding institutions (phase I: 43%, phase II: 85%) and amending the trial to change eligibility or design (phase I: 55%, phase II: 44%). Only 40% of CAPs provided proposed corrective actions that matched the reasons given for slow accrual. Seventy percent of trials were closed to accrual at time of analysis (phase I = 48; phase II = 46). Of these, 67% of phase I and 70% of phase II trials met their primary objectives, but they were active three times longer than projected. Among closed trials, 24% had an accrual rate increase associated with a greater likelihood of meeting their primary scientific objectives. Ultimately, trials receiving CAPs saw improved accrual rates. Future trials may benefit from implementing CAPs early in trial life cycles, but it may be more beneficial to invest in earlier accrual planning. Clin Cancer Res; 22(22); 5408-16. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Mileham and Kim, p. 5397. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Men Managing, Not Teaching Foundation Phase: Teachers, Masculinity and the Early Years of Primary Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Shaaista; Bhana, Deevia

    2017-01-01

    In this article we argue that eliminating the divisions of labour between men and women could work towards counteracting gender inequality within professions. Globally women are over-represented in the teaching of young children in the early years of primary school, or Foundation Phase (FP), as it is known in South Africa. We are concerned to go…

  5. Determination of estradiol, estrone and progesterone in serum and human endometrium in correlation to the content of steroid receptors and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity during menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Gollwitzer, M.; Eiletz, J.; Pachaly, J.

    1977-01-01

    A study has been carried out to compare the influence of estradiol estrone and progesterone on the estradiol and progesterone receptor levels and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) activity in human endometrium. The steroid hormone concentrations were measured simultaneously in both serum and endometrial tissue. The estradiol receptor levels were highest during the early proliferative phase and were inversely correlated to the endometrial tissue and serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone. The highest progesterone binding capacity was found in endometrical cytosol during the late proliferative phase (midcycle) of the menstrual cycle. The midcycle peak of the progesterone receptor level correlated well with the first peak of the serum and tissue concentrations of estradiol. During,the luteal phase, in contrast to the proliferative phase, the progesterone receptor level decreased whereas serum progesterone concentrations were high. Estrone concentrations were higher in secretory than proliferative endometrium and were correlated to the increase of progesterone receptor content and 17β-HSD activity during early secretory phase. The 17β-HSD activity was approximately 10-fold higher during the early secretory than during the proliferative phase. The progesterone receptor level was highly correlated to the specific 17β-HSD activity of the microsomal fraction whereas a significant inverse correlation between the enzyme activity and the estradiol receptor level was observed. (orig.) [de

  6. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory: Fast Response Space Missions for Early Time Phase of Gamma Ray Bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I.H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the unexplored domains in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the early time phase of the optical light curve. We have proposed Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) to address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of small space missions. The UFFO...

  7. The Low-luminosity Type IIP Supernova 2016bkv with Early-phase Circumstellar Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Kawabata, Koji S.; Maeda, Keiichi; Tanaka, Masaomi; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Moriya, Takashi J.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Morokuma, Tomoki; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Kawabata, Miho; Kawahara, Naoki; Itoh, Ryosuke; Shiki, Kensei; Mori, Hiroki; Hirochi, Jun; Abe, Taisei; Uemura, Makoto; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Moritani, Yuki; Ueno, Issei; Urano, Takeshi; Isogai, Mizuki; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Nagayama, Takahiro

    2018-06-01

    We present optical and near-infrared observations of a low-luminosity (LL) Type IIP supernova (SN) 2016bkv from the initial rising phase to the plateau phase. Our observations show that the end of the plateau is extended to ≳140 days since the explosion, indicating that this SN takes one of the longest times to finish the plateau phase among Type IIP SNe (SNe IIP), including LL SNe IIP. The line velocities of various ions at the middle of the plateau phase are as low as 1000–1500 km s‑1, which is the lowest even among LL SNe IIP. These measurements imply that the ejecta mass in SN 2016bkv is larger than that of the well-studied LL IIP SN 2003Z. In the early phase, SN 2016bkv shows a strong bump in the light curve. In addition, the optical spectra in this bump phase exhibit a blue continuum accompanied by a narrow Hα emission line. These features indicate an interaction between the SN ejecta and the circumstellar matter (CSM) as in SNe IIn. Assuming the ejecta–CSM interaction scenario, the mass loss rate is estimated to be ∼ 1.7× {10}-2 {M}ȯ yr‑1 within a few years before the SN explosion. This is comparable to or even larger than the largest mass loss rate observed for the Galactic red supergiants (∼ {10}-3 {M}ȯ yr‑1 for VY CMa). We suggest that the progenitor star of SN 2016bkv experienced a violent mass loss just before the SN explosion.

  8. Data assimilation in the early phase: Kalman filtering RIMPUFF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrup, P.; Turcanu, C.; Puch, R.O.; Palma, C.R.; Mikkelsen, T.

    2004-09-01

    In the framework of the DAONEM project (Data Assimilation for Off-site Nuclear Emergency Management), a data assimilation module, ADUM (Atmospheric Dispersion Updating Module), for the mesoscale atmospheric dispersion program RIMPUFF (Risoe Mesoscale Puff model) part of the early-phase programs of RODOS (Realtime Online DecisiOn Support system for nuclear emergencies) has been developed. It is built on the Kalman filtering algorithm and it assimilates 10-minute averaged gamma dose rates measured at ground level stations. Since the gamma rates are non-linear functions of the state vector variables, the applied Kalman filter is the so-called Extended Kalman filter. In more ways the implementation is non standard: 1) the number of state vector variables varies with time, and 2) the state vector variables are prediction updated with 1-minute time steps but only Kalman filtered every 10 minutes, and this based on time averaged measurements. Given reasonable conditions, i.e. a spatially dense distribution of gamma monitors and a realistic wind field, the developed ADUM module is found to be able to enhance the prediction of the gamma dose field. Based on some of the Kalman filtering parameters, another module, ToDeMM, has been developed for providing the late-phase DeMM (Deposition Monitoring Module) of RODOS with an ensemble of fields of ground level air concentrations and wet deposited material. This accounts for the uncertainty estimation of this kind of quantities as calculated by RIMPUFF for use by DeMM. (au)

  9. Effects of Menstrual Phase-Dependent Resistance Training Frequency on Muscular Hypertrophy and Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamaki-Sunaga, Mikako; Min, Seokki; Kamemoto, Kayoko; Okamoto, Takanobu

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated how different training frequencies during menstrual phases affect muscle hypertrophy and strength. Fourteen eumenorrheic women performed 3 sets of arm curls (8-15 repetitions) until failure for 12 weeks. Depending on the menstrual cycle phase, each subject trained each arm separately after either a 3- or a 1-d·wk training protocol during the follicular phase (FP-T) and a 3- or 1-d·wk training protocol during the luteal phase (LP-T). Cross-sectional area (CSA), 1 repetition maximum, and maximum voluntary contraction significantly increased 6.2 ± 4.4, 36.4 ± 11.9, and 16.7 ± 5.6%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05 vs. before training), in the FP-T group and 7.8 ± 4.2, 31.8 ± 14.1, and 14.9 ± 12.7%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05 vs. before training), in the LP-T group. Changes in CSA between the FP-T and the LP-T groups significantly and positively correlated (r = 0.54, p ≤ 0.05). There were no major differences among the different training protocols with regard to muscle hypertrophy and strength. Therefore, we suggest that variations in female hormones induced by the menstrual cycle phases do not significantly contribute to muscle hypertrophy and strength gains during 12 weeks of resistance training.

  10. The significance of monitoring sex hormones levels after ovarian tissue auto-transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiuwei; Xu Peizhen; Yu Bin; Zhou Hong

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the significance of monitoring serum sex hormones levels after ovarian tissue auto-transplantation. Methods: Twenty-five patients with stage IV recurrent endometriosis after one or two times of conservative surgeries underwent radical surgery. Their ovarian tissue fragments were transplanted to greater omentum. Serum follicle-stimulation hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E 2 ) levels were measured monthly since fourth month post-operatively. After E 2 was increased, based body temperature was measured and vaginal hormone cytology was examined weekly for maturation index (MI) to assess the ovulatory phase and luteal phase in those with viable ovarian tissues. Serum levels of FSH, LH and E 2 in ovulatory phase and luteal phase were determined 20 women with viable ovarian tissues for three cycles as well as in 20 normal sexually mature women and 20 operative menopausal women. Results: There were 12 cases who had increasing of E 2 at four months post operatively and 8 cases more at six months. The other 5 cases with low serum E 2 levels and high FSH and LH levels at 12 months were designated as failures. The survival rate of transplanted ovarian tissue was 80.0%. There were no significant differences of the serum FSH, LH and E 2 levels in ovulatory phase and luteal phase between women with viable grafted ovarian tissues and normal sexually mature women. Conclusion: Monitoring of sex hormones is a good means to assess the viability of the transplanted ovarian tissue fragments

  11. The early phase of /see symbol/ production development in adult Japanese learners of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Munro, Murray J

    2014-12-01

    Although previous research indicates that Japanese speakers' second language (L2) perception and production of English /see symbol/ may improve with increased L2 experience, relatively little is known about the fine phonetic details of their /see symbol/ productions, especially during the early phase of L2 speech learning. This cross-sectional study examined acoustic properties of word-initial /see symbol/ from 60 Japanese learners with a length of residence of between one month and one year in Canada. Their performance was compared to that of 15 native speakers of English and 15 low-proficiency Japanese learners of English. Formant frequencies (F2 and F3) and F1 transition durations were evaluated under three task conditions--word reading, sentence reading, and timed picture description. Learners with as little as two to three months of residence demonstrated target-like F2 frequencies. In addition, increased LOR was predictive of more target-like transition durations. Although the learners showed some improvement in F3 as a function of LOR, they did so mainly at a controlled level of speech production. The findings suggest that during the early phase of L2 segmental development, production accuracy is task-dependent and is influenced by the availability of L1 phonetic cues for redeployment in L2.

  12. Oxytocin is not involved in luteolysis and early maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Michela; Waqas, Muhammad Salman; Pru, James K; Tibary, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Pregnancy maintenance depends on the maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP), a physiological process by which the lifespan of the corpus luteum is prolonged. This mechanism is not well characterized in camelids. The objectives of the present research were to determine if exogenous oxytocin prolongs the corpus luteum activity in alpacas and to evaluate expression and localization of oxytocin receptors within the endometrium at 9 and 14days post-mating. In the oxytocin studies, plasma progesterone profiles were determined after ovulation in the same alpacas on 2 cycles: one cycle without oxytocin treatment and one cycle with oxytocin treatment. Oxytocin was administered daily by intramuscular injections (IM) at a dose of 20IU (experiment 1, n=6) or 60IU (experiment 2, n=7 from day 3 through day 10 after induction of ovulation with GnRH IM. There was no significant difference in the length of the luteal phase (i.e. corpus luteum lifespan) between the treated and control cycles using either 20 or 60IU of oxytocin. In the final experiment, uteri from open and pregnant alpacas (n=4 per group) at 9 and 14days post-mating were evaluated for expressions of oxytocin receptors by immunohistochemistry. No significant difference (P≤0.05) in the expression of oxytocin receptors was observed between open and pregnant animals in either staining intensity or tissue localization. We conclude that oxytocin is not involved in luteolysis and early MRP in alpacas. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Ultrastructural Complexity of Nuclear Components During Early Apoptotic Phases in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Castelli

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractal morphometry was used to investigate the ultrastructural features of the plasma membrane, perinuclear membrane and nuclear chromatin in SK‐BR‐3 human breast cancer cells undergoing apoptosis. Cells were incubated with 1 μM calcimycin (A23187 for 24 h. Cells in the early stage of apoptosis had fractal dimension (FD values indicating that their plasma membranes were less rough (lower FD than those of control cells, while their perinuclear membranes were unaffected. Changes of the chromatin texture within the entire nucleus and in selected nuclear domains were more pronounced in treated cells. This confirms that the morphological reorganization imputable to a loss of structural complexity (reduced FD occurs in the early stage of apoptosis, is accompanied by the inhibition of distinct enzymatic events and precedes the onset of conventional cellular markers, which can only be detected during the active phases of the apoptotic process.

  14. Maintenance phase in psoralen-ultraviolet A phototherapy of early-stage mycosis fungoides. A critically appraised topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, V; Delfino, C; Pileri, A; Pimpinelli, N

    2017-08-01

    A 65-year-old patient affected by mycosis fungoides (MF) stage IB achieved complete remission (CR) after a cycle of PUVA phototherapy. The U.S. Cutaneous Lymphoma Consortium (USCLC) guidelines suggest that the patient should be kept in the maintenance phase, defined as a 'period of gradual decrease of frequency of UVL [ultraviolet light] while in clinical remission before discontinuation of phototherapy' by slowly tapering the number of psoralen-ultraviolet A (PUVA) applications over time up to clinical relapse. The USCLC guidelines also suggest a standardized schedule for the maintenance phase. Alternatively, the patient could end PUVA therapy and go straight to follow-up. The aim of this critically appraised topic (CAT) was to determine if a maintenance phase gives a significant benefit in terms of relapse rate (RR) and RFI in patients affected by early-stage MF who had achieved CR under PUVA phototherapy. Embase, PubMed and TRIP databases were searched for 'mycosis fungoides' AND [('photochemotherapy' OR 'puva') OR 'psoralen'] in June 2016. Three articles matched our inclusion criteria and are discussed in this CAT. In this field of research the literature is poor and the reported level of evidence is low. Only one of the studies was conducted prospectively, and none were randomized. No significant difference in terms of reduction in relapse rate or increase in RFI in patients who underwent a PUVA maintenance phase emerged when compared with those who went for simple follow-up. Further randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are required in order to evaluate maintenance phase vs. no treatment before it can be favoured as the standard protocol of treatment in early-stage MF. At the time of writing this paper, we report an ongoing Austrian multicentre RCT (Clinical Trial.gov identifier: NCT01686594) that will hopefully give useful results in this topic. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Differential association with cellular substructures of pseudorabies virus DNA during early and late phases of replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Porat, T.; Veach, R.A.; Blankenship, M.L.; Kaplan, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pseudorabies virus DNA synthesis can be divided into two phases, early and late, which can be distinguished from each other on the basis of the structures of the replicating DNA. The two types of replicating virus DNA can also be distinguished from each other on the basis of the cellular substructures with which each is associated. Analysis by electron microscopic autoradiography showed that during the first round of replication, nascent virus DNA was found in the vicinity of the nuclear membrane; during later rounds of replication the nascent virus DNA was located centrally within the nucleus. The degree of association of virus DNA synthesized at early and late phases with the nuclear matrix fractions also differed; a larger proportion of late than of early nascent virus DNA was associated with this fraction. While nascent cellular DNA only was associated in significant amounts with the nuclear matrix fraction, a large part (up to 40%) of all the virus DNA remained associated with this fraction. However, no retention of specific virus proteins in this fraction was observed. Except for two virus proteins, which were preferentially extracted from the nuclear matrix, approximately 20% of all virus proteins remained in the nuclear matrix fraction. The large proportion of virus DNA associated with the nuclear fraction indicated that virus DNA may be intimately associated with some proteins

  16. Cosmological phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1993-10-01

    If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions

  17. Radiological Emergency Preparedness after the Early Phase of an Accident : Focusing on an Air Contamination Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyo Joon; Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee

    2010-01-01

    Toxic materials in an urban area can be caused by a variety of events, such as accidental releases on industrial complexes, accidents during the transportation of hazardous materials and intentional explosions. Most governments around the world and their citizens have become increasingly worried about intentional accidents in urban area after the 911 terrorist attack in the United States of America. Even though there have been only a few attempted uses of Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs), accidental releases have occurred many times at commercial nuclear power plants and nuclear waste disposal sites. When an intentional release of radioactive materials occurs in an urban area, air quality for radioactive materials in the environment is of great importance to take action for countermeasures and environmental risk assessments. Atmospheric modeling is part of the decision making tasks and that it is particularly important for emergency managers as they often need to take actions quickly on very inadequate information(1). A simple model such as HOTSPOT required wind direction and source term would be enough to support the decision making in the early phase of an accident, but more sophisticated atmospheric modeling is required to adjust decontamination area and relocation etc after the early phase of an accidental event. In this study, we assume an explosion of 137 Cs using RDDs in the metropolitan area of Soul, South Korea. California Puff Model (CALPUFF) is used to calculate an atmospheric dispersion and transport for 137 Cs. Atmospheric dispersion and quantitative radiological risk analysis for 137 Cs were performed assuming an intentional explosion in the metropolitan area of Soul, South Korea after the early phase of emergency. These kinds of atmospheric modeling and risk analysis could provide a means for decision makers to take action on important issues such as the cleanup of the contaminated area and countermeasures to protect the public caused by

  18. A tale of two timescales: Mixing, mass generation, and phase transitions in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Kost, Jeff; Thomas, Brooks

    2016-02-01

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically—such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions—the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this paper, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the total late-time abundance of the system—often by many orders of magnitude—but also its distribution across the different fields. Second, we find that these effects can produce large parametric resonances which render the energy densities of the fields highly sensitive to the degree of mixing as well as the duration of the time interval over which the phase transition unfolds. Finally, we find that these effects can even give rise to a "reoverdamping" phenomenon which causes the total energy density of the system to behave in novel ways that differ from those exhibited by pure dark matter or vacuum energy. All of these features therefore give rise to new possibilities for early-universe phenomenology and cosmological evolution. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the time dependence associated with phase transitions in cosmological settings.

  19. Secretory activity and cell cycle alteration of alveolar type II cells in the early and late phase after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, Jochen; Vordermark, Dirk; Schmidt, Michael; Gassel, Andreamaria; Flentje, Michael; Wirtz, Hubert

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Type II cells and the surfactant system have been proposed to play a central role in pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis. We analyzed the secretory function and proliferation parameters of alveolar type II cells in the early (until 24 h) and late phase (1-5 weeks) after irradiation (RT) in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Type II cells were isolated from rats according to the method of Dobbs. Stimulation of secretion was induced with terbutaline, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for a 2-h period. Determination of secretion was performed using 3 H-labeled phosphatidylcholine. For the early-phase analysis, freshly isolated and adherent type II cells were irradiated in vitro with 9-21 Gy (stepwise increase of 3 Gy). Secretion stimulation was initiated 1, 6, 24, and 48 h after RT. For late-phase analysis, type II cells were isolated 1-5 weeks after 18 Gy whole lung or sham RT. Each experiment was repeated at least fivefold. Flow cytometry was used to determine cell cycle distribution and proliferating cell nuclear antigen index. Results: During the early-phase (in vitro) analysis, we found a normal stimulation of surfactant secretion in irradiated, as well as unirradiated, cells. No change in basal secretion and no dose effect were seen. During the late phase, 1-5 weeks after whole lung RT, we observed enhanced secretory activity for all secretagogues and a small increase in basal secretion in Weeks 3 and 4 (pneumonitis phase) compared with controls. The total number of isolated type II cells, as well as the rate of viable cells, decreased after the second post-RT week. Cell cycle alterations suggesting an irreversible G 2 /M block occurred in the second post-RT week and did not resolve during the observation period. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen index of type II cells from irradiated rats did not differ from that of controls. Conclusion: In contrast to literature data, we observed no direct

  20. Proteomes of the Female Genital Tract During the Oestrous Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleilhavoup, Clement; Riou, Cindy; Tsikis, Guillaume; Labas, Valerie; Harichaux, Gregoire; Kohnke, Philippa; Reynaud, Karine; de Graaf, Simon P; Gerard, Nadine; Druart, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The female genital tract includes several anatomical regions whose luminal fluids successively interact with gametes and embryos and are involved in the fertilisation and development processes. The luminal fluids from the inner cervix, the uterus and the oviduct were collected along the oestrous cycle at oestrus (Day 0 of the cycle) and during the luteal phase (Day 10) from adult cyclic ewes. The proteomes were assessed by GeLC-MS/MS and quantified by spectral counting. A set of 940 proteins were identified including 291 proteins differentially present along the cycle in one or several regions. The global analysis of the fluid proteomes revealed a general pattern of endocrine regulation of the tract, with the cervix and the oviduct showing an increased differential proteins abundance mainly at oestrus while the uterus showed an increased abundance mainly during the luteal phase. The proteins more abundant at oestrus included several families such as the heat shock proteins (HSP), the mucins, the complement cascade proteins and several redox enzymes. Other proteins known for their interaction with gametes such as oviductin (OVGP), osteopontin, HSPA8, and the spermadhesin AWN were also overexpressed at oestrus. The proteins more abundant during the luteal phase were associated with the immune system such as ceruloplasmin, lactoferrin, DMBT1, or PIGR, and also with tissue remodeling such as galectin 3 binding protein, alkaline phosphatase, CD9, or fibulin. Several proteins differentially abundant between estrus and the luteal phase, such as myosin 9 and fibronectin, were also validated by immunohistochemistry. The potential roles in sperm transit and uterine receptivity of the proteins differentially regulated along the cycle in the female genital tract are discussed. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Phase-based x-ray scattering—A possible method to detect cancer cells in a very early stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feye-Treimer, U., E-mail: feye-treimer@helmholtz-berlin.de; Treimer, W. [Department of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, University of Applied Sciences, D-13353 Berlin, Germany and Joint Department G-GTOMO, Helmholtz Zentrum fuer Materialien und Energie Berlin, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: This theoretical work contains a detailed investigation of the potential and sensitivity of phase-based x-ray scattering for cancer detection in biopsies if cancer is in a very early stage of development. Methods: Cancer cells in their early stage of development differ from healthy ones mainly due to their faster growing cell nuclei and the enlargement of their densities. This growth is accompanied by an altered nucleus–plasma relation for the benefit of the cell nuclei, that changes the physical properties especially the index of refraction of the cell and the one of the cell nuclei. Interaction of radiation with matter is known to be highly sensitive to small changes of the index of refraction of matter; therefore a detection of such changes of volume and density of cell nuclei by means of high angular resolved phase-based scattering of x rays might provide a technique to distinguish malignant cells from healthy ones ifthe cell–cell nucleus system is considered as a coherent phase shifting object. Then one can observe from a thin biopsy which represents a monolayer of cells (no multiple scattering) that phase-based x-ray scattering curves from healthy cells differ from those of cancer cells in their early stage of development. Results: Detailed calculations of x-ray scattering patterns from healthy and cancer cell nuclei yield graphs and numbers with which one can distinguish healthy cells from cancer ones, taking into account that both kinds of cells occur in a tissue within a range of size and density. One important result is the role and the influence of the (lateral) coherence width of the radiation on the scattering curves and the sensitivity of phase-based scattering for cancer detection. A major result is that a larger coherence width yields a larger sensitivity for cancer detection. Further import results are calculated limits for critical sizes and densities of cell nuclei in order to attribute the investigated tissue to be healthy or

  2. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems: spatial early warnings and management procedures (Inspired in the physics of phase transitions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, H [Complex Systems Group, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, 11400 Montevideo (Uruguay); Mazzeo, N [Depto. de EcologIa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, 11400 Montevideo (Uruguay); Scheffer, M; Nes, E van, E-mail: hugo@fisica.edu.u [Wageningen Agricultural University, Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-09-01

    Ecosystems are complex systems which can respond to gradual changes of their conditions by a sudden shift to a contrasting regime or alternative stable state (ASS). Predicting such critical points before they are reached is extremely difficult and providing early warnings is fundamental to design management protocols for ecosystems. Here we study different spatial versions of popular ecological models which are known to exhibit ASS. The spatial heterogeneity is introduced by a local parameter varying from cell to cell in a regular lattice. Transport of biomass among cells occurs by simple diffusion. We investigate whether different quantities from statistical mechanics -like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness-may serve as early warnings of catastrophic phase transitions between the ASS. In particular, we find that the patch-size distribution follows a power law when the system is close to the catastrophic transition. We also provide links between spatial and temporal indicators and analyze how the interplay between diffusion and spatial heterogeneity may affect the earliness of each of the observables. Finally, we comment on similarities and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid-vapor change of state for a fluid like water.

  3. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems: spatial early warnings and management procedures (Inspired in the physics of phase transitions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, H; Mazzeo, N; Scheffer, M; Nes, E van

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystems are complex systems which can respond to gradual changes of their conditions by a sudden shift to a contrasting regime or alternative stable state (ASS). Predicting such critical points before they are reached is extremely difficult and providing early warnings is fundamental to design management protocols for ecosystems. Here we study different spatial versions of popular ecological models which are known to exhibit ASS. The spatial heterogeneity is introduced by a local parameter varying from cell to cell in a regular lattice. Transport of biomass among cells occurs by simple diffusion. We investigate whether different quantities from statistical mechanics -like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness-may serve as early warnings of catastrophic phase transitions between the ASS. In particular, we find that the patch-size distribution follows a power law when the system is close to the catastrophic transition. We also provide links between spatial and temporal indicators and analyze how the interplay between diffusion and spatial heterogeneity may affect the earliness of each of the observables. Finally, we comment on similarities and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid-vapor change of state for a fluid like water.

  4. Extension of quality-by-design concept to the early development phase of pharmaceutical R&D processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csóka, Ildikó; Pallagi, Edina; Paál, Tamás L

    2018-03-27

    Here, we propose the extension of the quality-by-design (QbD) concept to also fit the early development phases of pharmaceuticals by adding elements that are currently widely applied, but not yet included in the QbD model in a structured way. These are the introduction of a 'zero' preformulation phase (i.e., selection of drug substance, possible dosage forms and administration routes based on the evaluated therapeutic need); building in stakeholders' (industry, patient, and regulatory) requirements into the quality target product profile (QTTP); and the use of modern quality management tools during the composition and process design phase [collecting critical quality attributes (CQAs) and selection of CPPs) for (still laboratory-scale) design space (DS) development. Moreover, during industrial scale-up, CQAs (as well as critical process parameters; CPPs) can be changed; however, we recommend that the existing QbD elements are reconsidered and updated after this phase. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlation of early-phase 18F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET images to FDG images: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Lin, Kun-Ju; Huang, Chin-Chang; Hsu, Wen-Chun; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Kung, Mei-Ping

    2012-01-01

    18 F-Florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for imaging plaque pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD), while PET images of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for cerebral glucose metabolism can provide complementary information to amyloid plaque images for diagnosis of AD. The goal of this preliminary study was to investigate the perfusion-like property of relative cerebral blood flow estimates (R 1 ) and summed early-phase AV-45 images [perfusion AV-45 (pAV-45)] and optimize the early time frame for pAV-45. Dynamic AV-45 PET scans (0-180 min) were performed in seven subjects. pAV-45, late-phase AV-45, and FDG images were spatially normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute template aided by individual MRI images, and the corresponding standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) was computed. The R 1 images were derived from a simplified reference tissue model. Correlations between regional and voxelwise R 1 and the corresponding FDG images were calculated. An optimization of time frames of pAV-45 was conducted in terms of correlation to FDG images. The optimal early time frame was validated in a separate cohort. The regional distribution in the R 1 images correlated well (R = 0.91) to that of the FDG within subjects. Consistently high correlation was noted across a long range of time frames. The maximal correlation of pAV-45 to FDG SUVR of R = 0.95 was observed at the time frame of 1-6 min, while the peak correlation of R = 0.99 happened at 0-2 min between pAV-45 and R 1 . A similar result was achieved in the validation cohort. Preliminary results showed that the distribution patterns of R 1 and pAV-45 images are highly correlated with normalized FDG images, and the initial 5-min early time frame of 1-6 min is potentially useful in providing complementary FDG-like information to the amyloid plaque density by late-phase AV-45 images. (orig.)

  6. Decrease in early right alpha band phase synchronization and late gamma band oscillations in processing syntax in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, María Herrojo; Koelsch, Stefan; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigated the neural correlates associated with the processing of music-syntactical irregularities as compared with regular syntactic structures in music. Previous studies reported an early ( approximately 200 ms) right anterior negative component (ERAN) by traditional event-related-potential analysis during music-syntactical irregularities, yet little is known about the underlying oscillatory and synchronization properties of brain responses which are supposed to play a crucial role in general cognition including music perception. First we showed that the ERAN was primarily represented by low frequency (music-syntactical irregularities as compared with music-syntactical regularities, were associated with (i) an early decrease in the alpha band (9-10 Hz) phase synchronization between right fronto-central and left temporal brain regions, and (ii) a late ( approximately 500 ms) decrease in gamma band (38-50 Hz) oscillations over fronto-central brain regions. These results indicate a weaker degree of long-range integration when the musical expectancy is violated. In summary, our results reveal neural mechanisms of music-syntactic processing that operate at different levels of cortical integration, ranging from early decrease in long-range alpha phase synchronization to late local gamma oscillations. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. 78 FR 69690 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... (referred to collectively as CGT products) with recommendations to assist in designing early-phase clinical... Fishers Lane, Rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. Submit written requests for single copies of the draft... 20852-1448. Send one self-addressed adhesive label to assist the office in processing your request. The...

  8. 78 FR 39736 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... collectively as CGT products) with recommendations to assist in designing early-phase clinical trials of CGT...-addressed adhesive label to assist the office in processing your requests. The draft guidance may also be...-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. FOR FURTHER...

  9. Traumatic Brain Injury Pathophysiology and Treatments: Early, Intermediate, and Late Phases Post-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algattas, Hanna; Huang, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) affects a large proportion and extensive array of individuals in the population. While precise pathological mechanisms are lacking, the growing base of knowledge concerning TBI has put increased emphasis on its understanding and treatment. Most treatments of TBI are aimed at ameliorating secondary insults arising from the injury; these insults can be characterized with respect to time post-injury, including early, intermediate, and late pathological changes. Early pathological responses are due to energy depletion and cell death secondary to excitotoxicity, the intermediate phase is characterized by neuroinflammation and the late stage by increased susceptibility to seizures and epilepsy. Current treatments of TBI have been tailored to these distinct pathological stages with some overlap. Many prophylactic, pharmacologic, and surgical treatments are used post-TBI to halt the progression of these pathologic reactions. In the present review, we discuss the mechanisms of the pathological hallmarks of TBI and both current and novel treatments which target the respective pathways. PMID:24381049

  10. MCP/CCR2 signaling is essential for recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells during the early phase of fracture healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Ishikawa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate chemokine profiles and their functional roles in the early phase of fracture healing in mouse models. METHODS: The expression profiles of chemokines were examined during fracture healing in wild-type (WT mice using a polymerase chain reaction array and histological staining. The functional effect of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 on primary mouse bone marrow stromal cells (mBMSCs was evaluated using an in vitro migration assay. MCP-1-/- and C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2-/- mice were fractured and evaluated by histological staining and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT. RS102895, an antagonist of CCR2, was continuously administered in WT mice before or after rib fracture and evaluated by histological staining and micro-CT. Bone graft exchange models were created in WT and MCP-1-/- mice and were evaluated by histological staining and micro-CT. RESULTS: MCP-1 and MCP-3 expression in the early phase of fracture healing were up-regulated, and high levels of MCP-1 and MCP-3 protein expression observed in the periosteum and endosteum in the same period. MCP-1, but not MCP-3, increased migration of mBMSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Fracture healing in MCP-1-/- and CCR2-/- mice was delayed compared with WT mice on day 21. Administration of RS102895 in the early, but not in the late phase, caused delayed fracture healing. Transplantation of WT-derived graft into host MCP-1-/- mice significantly increased new bone formation in the bone graft exchange models. Furthermore, marked induction of MCP-1 expression in the periosteum and endosteum was observed around the WT-derived graft in the host MCP-1-/- mouse. Conversely, transplantation of MCP-1-/- mouse-derived grafts into host WT mice markedly decreased new bone formation. CONCLUSIONS: MCP-1/CCR2 signaling in the periosteum and endosteum is essential for the recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells in the early phase of fracture healing.

  11. Phase evolution during early stages of mechanical alloying of Cu–13 wt.% Al powder mixtures in a high-energy ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudina, Dina V.; Lomovsky, Oleg I.; Valeev, Konstantin R.; Tikhov, Serguey F.; Boldyreva, Natalya N.; Salanov, Aleksey N.; Cherepanova, Svetlana V.; Zaikovskii, Vladimir I.; Andreev, Andrey S.; Lapina, Olga B.; Sadykov, Vladislav A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase formation during early stages of Cu–Al mechanical alloying was studied. • The products of mechanical alloying are of highly non-equilibrium character. • X-ray amorphous phases are present in the products of mechanical alloying. • An Al-rich X-ray amorphous phase is distributed between the crystallites. - Abstract: We report the phase and microstructure evolution of the Cu–13 wt.% Al mixture during treatment in a high-energy planetary ball mill with a particular focus on the early stages of mechanical alloying. Several characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction phase analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, differential dissolution, thermal analysis, and electron microscopy/elemental analysis, have been combined to study the evolution of the phase composition of the mechanically alloyed powders and describe the microstructure of the multi-phase products of mechanical alloying at different length scales. The following reaction sequence has been confirmed: Cu + Al → CuAl 2 (+Cu) → Cu 9 Al 4 + (Cu) → Cu(Al). The phase evolution was accompanied by the microstructure changes, the layered structure of the powder agglomerates disappearing with milling time. This scheme is further complicated by the processes of copper oxidation, reduction of copper oxides by metallic aluminum, and by variation of the stoichiometry of Cu(Al) solid solutions with milling time. Substantial amounts of X-ray amorphous phases were detected as well. Differential dissolution technique has revealed that a high content of aluminum in the Cu(Al) solid solution-based powders is due to the presence of Al-rich phases distributed between the Cu(Al) crystallites

  12. Changes in the Width of the Tibiofibular Syndesmosis Related to Lower Extremity Joint Dynamics and Neuromuscular Coordination on Drop Landing During the Menstrual Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Michie; Kaneko, Masaaki; Ishida, Yukisato; Murase, Norio; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2017-09-01

    Many injuries of the lower extremities, especially the knee and ankle, occur during sports activity, and the incidence rate is higher in women than in men. The hypothesis was that phases of the menstrual cycle affect the width of the tibiofibular syndesmosis during drop landing in healthy young women and that such changes at the tibiofibular joint also affect the dynamics and neuromuscular coordination of the lower extremities. Descriptive laboratory study. Participants included 28 healthy young women (mean age, 21.0 ± 0.8 years). Blood samples were collected to determine plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone immediately before the performance of the task: drop landing on a single leg from a 30-cm platform. Using ultrasonography, the distance between the tibia and the distal end of the fibula, regarded as the width of the tibiofibular syndesmosis, was measured in an upright position without flexion of the ankle. The peak ground-reaction force (GRF) on landing was measured using a force platform. The time to peak GRF (Tp-GRF) was measured as the time from initial ground contact to the peak GRF. Hip, knee, and ankle joint angles during the single-leg landing were calculated using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Muscle activities of the lower extremities were measured using surface electromyography. The width of the tibiofibular syndesmosis was significantly greater in the luteal phase when compared with the menstrual, follicular, and ovulation phases (by 5%-8% of control). Also, during the luteal phase, the Tp-GRF was significantly shorter than in the follicular phase (by 6%); hip internal rotation and knee valgus were significantly greater than in the menstrual phase (by 43% and 34%, respectively); knee flexion was significantly less than in the menstrual and follicular phases (by 7%-9%); ankle dorsiflection was significantly less than in the follicular phase (by 11%); ankle adduction and eversion were significantly greater than in the menstrual and

  13. Multiple roles of hypoxia in ovarian function: roles of hypoxia-inducible factor-related and -unrelated signals during the luteal phase

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Ryo; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the role of oxygen conditions in the microenvironment of organs because of the discovery of a hypoxia-specific transcription factor, namely hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1. Ovarian function has several phases that change day by day, including ovulation, follicular growth and corpus luteum formation and regression. These phases are regulated by many factors, including pituitary hormones and local hormones, such as steroids, peptides and cytokines, as well as ox...

  14. Early stages of bipolar disorder: characterization and strategies for early intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiel C. Rios

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the early stages of bipolar disorder (BD, defined as the clinical prodrome/subsyndromal stage and first-episode phase, and strategies for their respective treatment. Methods: A selective literature search of the PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and ISI databases from inception until March 2014 was performed. Included in this review were articles that a characterized prodromal and first-episode stages of BD or b detailed efficacy and safety/tolerability of interventions in patients considered prodromal for BD or those with only one episode of mania/hypomania. Results: As research has only recently focused on characterization of the early phase of BD, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of any treatment option in the early phase of BD. Case management; individual, group, and family therapy; supportive therapy; and group psychoeducation programs have been proposed. Most evidence-based treatment guidelines for BD do not address treatment specifically in the context of the early stages of illness. Evidence for pharmacotherapy is usually presented in relation to illness polarity (i.e., manic/mixed or depressed or treatment phase. Conclusions: Although early recognition and treatment are critical to preventing unfavorable outcomes, there is currently little evidence for interventions in these stages of BD.

  15. The effect of sex, menstrual cycle phase, and monophasic oral contraceptive pill use on local and central arterial stiffness in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Stacey E; Shenouda, Ninette; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2018-04-20

    Arterial stiffness is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Previous sex-based investigations of local and central stiffness report inconsistent findings and have not controlled for menstrual cycle phase in women. There is also evidence that sex hormones influence the vasculature, but their impact on arterial stiffness across a natural menstrual (NAT) or oral contraceptive pill (OCP) cycle has been understudied. This study sought to 1) examine potential sex differences in local and central stiffness, 2) compare stiffness profiles between NAT and OCP cycles, and 3) investigate the relationship between duration of OCP use and arterial stiffness. Fifty-three healthy adults (22{plus minus}3 years; 20 men, 15 NAT, 18 OCP) underwent assessments of sex hormone concentrations, β-stiffness index (local stiffness), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV, central stiffness). All participants were tested three times (men: same day and time one week apart; NAT: menstrual, mid-follicular, luteal; OCP: placebo, early and late active pill). Men had higher β-stiffness than NAT and OCP (p0.05 for all) and were not associated with duration of OCP use (β-stiffness: r=0.003, p=0.99; cfPWV: r =-0.26, p=0.30). The apparent sex-differences in local, but not central stiffness highlight the importance of assessing both indices when comparing men and women. Furthermore, fluctuating sex hormones do not appear to influence β-stiffness or cfPWV. Therefore, these stiffness indices may only need to be assessed during one cycle phase in women in future investigations.

  16. Strontium ranelate causes osteophytes overgrowth in a model of early phase osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jian-Guo; Dai, Mu-Wei; Wang, Yu; Tian, Fa-Ming; Song, Hui-Ping; Xiao, Ya-Ping; Shao, Li-Tao; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Zhang, Liu

    2017-02-10

    Osteoarthritis (OA) involves cartilage changes as well as modifications of subchondral bone and synovial tissues. Strontium ranelate (SR), an anti-osteoporosis compound, which is currently in phase III clinical trial for treatment of OA. Evidences suggest that SR preferably deposited in osteophyte, other than in subchondral bone in early phase of OA. This phenomenon raises concern about its utility for OA treatment as a disease-modifying drug. To evaluate the effect of SR on cartilage, subchondral bone mass and subchondral trabecular bone structure in medial meniscectomized (MNX) guinea pigs. Thirty-six 3-month-old male Dunkin Hartley albino guinea pigs received either sham or medial meniscectomy operations. One week after the procedure, meniscectomized animals began 12 weeks of SR (625 mg/kg, daily) treatment by oral gavage for MNX + SR group, or normal saline for MNX + V group. All animals were euthanized 12 weeks later, cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone micro-architecture was analyzed. Both OARSI scores (P = 0.523 for marcoscopic scores, P = 0.297 for histological scores) and Cartilage thickness (P = 0.335) in MNX + SR group were comparable to MNX + V group. However, osteophyte sizes were larger in MNX + SR group (P = 0.014), and collapsed osteophytes in MNX + SR group (7 by 12) were significantly more than in MNX + V group (1 by 12) (P = 0.027), while immunohistochemistry indicates catabolic changes in osteophyte/plateau junction. Micro-CT analysis showed bone mineral density (BMD) (P = 0.001), bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (P = 0.008), trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) (P = 0.020), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (P = 0.012) and structure model index (SMI) (P = 0.005) levels to be significantly higher in the MNX + SR group than in the MNX + V group. SR (625 mg/kg/day) did not protect cartilage from degeneration in MNX guinea pigs but subchondral bone was significantly enhanced. In early

  17. Emotional and cognitive functional imaging of estrogen and progesterone effects in the female human brain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoletto, Simone; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Gingnell, Malin; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger; Comasco, Erika

    2014-12-01

    Ovarian hormones are pivotal for the physiological maintenance of the brain function as well as its response to environmental stimuli. There is mounting evidence attesting the relevance of endogenous ovarian hormones as well as exogenous estradiol and progesterone for emotional and cognitive processing. The present review systematically summarized current knowledge on sex steroid hormonal modulation of neural substrates of emotion and cognition revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-four studies of healthy naturally cycling and combined oral contraceptives (COC) user women, or women undergoing experimental manipulations, during their reproductive age, were included. Furthermore, six studies of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), a hormonally based mood disorder, and three of gender dysphoria (GD), which provides an intriguing opportunity to examine the effect of high-dose cross-sex hormone therapy (CSHT) on brain functioning, were included. Globally, low (early follicular and the entire follicular phase for estrogen and progesterone, respectively) and high (COC, CSHT, late follicular and luteal phase for estrogen; COC, mid- and late-luteal phase for progesterone) hormonal milieu diversely affected the response of several brain regions including the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, and inferior frontal gyrus, but their functional recruitment across groups and domains was scattered. The constellation of findings provides initial evidence of the influence of sex steroid hormones on cortical and subcortical regions implicated in emotional and cognitive processing. Further well-powered and multimodal neuroimaging studies will be needed to identify the neural mechanism of functional brain alterations induced by sex steroid hormones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Theoretical model of the early phases of an underground explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, I.G.; Scorgie, G.C.

    1970-01-01

    Introduction In the early phases of the intense underground explosions contemplated in peaceful applications the rock near the explosive exhibits fluid behaviour; at great distances its behaviour can usefully be investigated in terms of linear elasticity; and at intermediate distances we think of a solid exhibiting various inelastic effects including cracking and tensile fracture. The present paper outlines a mathematical model that attempts to include in some degree the main features of this range of behaviour. A more detailed treatment than is given here, and its relationship to the work of others, is given in a paper by the authors. A computer program ATHENE has been written based on this model and its use is illustrated by examining some aspects of two types of explosions. One is a chemical explosion which eventually formed a crater and the other a nuclear explosion which remained wholly contained

  19. Theoretical model of the early phases of an underground explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, I G; Scorgie, G C [Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    1970-05-01

    Introduction In the early phases of the intense underground explosions contemplated in peaceful applications the rock near the explosive exhibits fluid behaviour; at great distances its behaviour can usefully be investigated in terms of linear elasticity; and at intermediate distances we think of a solid exhibiting various inelastic effects including cracking and tensile fracture. The present paper outlines a mathematical model that attempts to include in some degree the main features of this range of behaviour. A more detailed treatment than is given here, and its relationship to the work of others, is given in a paper by the authors. A computer program ATHENE has been written based on this model and its use is illustrated by examining some aspects of two types of explosions. One is a chemical explosion which eventually formed a crater and the other a nuclear explosion which remained wholly contained.

  20. Activity of toluene-degrading Pseudomonas putida in the early growth phase of a biofilm for waste gas treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.R.; Møller, S.; Molin, S.

    1997-01-01

    A biological trickling filter for treatment of toluene-containing waste gas was studied. The overall kinetics of the biofilm growth was followed in the early growth phase. A rapid initial colonization took place during the first three days. The biofilm thickness increased exponentially, whereas...

  1. FLARE RIBBON ENERGETICS IN THE EARLY PHASE OF AN SDO FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, L.; Hannah, I. G.; Hudson, H. S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Innes, D. E. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

    2013-07-10

    The sites of chromospheric excitation during solar flares are marked by extended extreme ultraviolet ribbons and hard X-ray (HXR) footpoints. The standard interpretation is that these are the result of heating and bremsstrahlung emission from non-thermal electrons precipitating from the corona. We examine this picture using multi-wavelength observations of the early phase of an M-class flare SOL2010-08-07T18:24. We aim to determine the properties of the heated plasma in the flare ribbons, and to understand the partition of the power input into radiative and conductive losses. Using GOES, SDO/EVE, SDO/AIA, and RHESSI, we measure the temperature, emission measure (EM), and differential emission measure of the flare ribbons, and deduce approximate density values. The non-thermal EM, and the collisional thick target energy input to the ribbons are obtained from RHESSI using standard methods. We deduce the existence of a substantial amount of plasma at 10 MK in the flare ribbons, during the pre-impulsive and early-impulsive phase of the flare. The average column EM of this hot component is a few times 10{sup 28} cm{sup -5}, and we can calculate that its predicted conductive losses dominate its measured radiative losses. If the power input to the hot ribbon plasma is due to collisional energy deposition by an electron beam from the corona then a low-energy cutoff of {approx}5 keV is necessary to balance the conductive losses, implying a very large electron energy content. Independent of the standard collisional thick-target electron beam interpretation, the observed non-thermal X-rays can be provided if one electron in 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} in the 10 MK (1 keV) ribbon plasma has an energy above 10 keV. We speculate that this could arise if a non-thermal tail is generated in the ribbon plasma which is being heated by other means, for example, by waves or turbulence.

  2. Menstrual cycle influence on cognitive function and emotion processing - from the reproductive perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Sundström Sundström Poromaa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The menstrual cycle has attracted research interest ever since the 1930s. For many researchers the menstrual cycle is an excellent model of ovarian steroid influence on emotion, behavior, and cognition. Over the past years methodological improvements in menstrual cycle studies have been noted, and this review summarizes the findings of methodologically sound menstrual cycle studies in healthy women. Whereas the predominant hypotheses of the cognitive field state that sexually dimorphic cognitive skills that favor men are improved during menstrual cycle phases with low estrogen and that cognitive skills that favor women are improved during cycle phases with increased estrogen and/or progesterone, this review has not found sufficient evidence to support any of these hypotheses. Mental rotation has gained specific interest in this aspect, but a meta-analysis yielded a standardized mean difference in error rate of 1.61 (95% CI -0.35 – 3.57, suggesting, at present, no favor of an early follicular phase improvement in mental rotation performance. Besides the sexually dimorphic cognitive skills, studies exploring menstrual cycle effects on tasks that probe prefrontal cortex function, for instance verbal or spatial working memory, have also been reviewed. While studies thus far are few, results at hand suggest improved performance at times of high estradiol levels. Menstrual cycle studies on emotional processing, on the other hand, tap into the emotional disorders of the luteal phase, and may be of relevance for women with premenstrual disorders. Although evidence at present is limited, it is suggested that emotion recognition, consolidation of emotional memories, and fear extinction is modulated by the menstrual cycle in women. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, several studies report changes in brain reactivity across the menstrual cycle, most notably increased amygdala reactivity in the luteal phase.

  3. Serum Metabolomics Reveals Serotonin as a Predictor of Severe Dengue in the Early Phase of Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, Tun Linn; Fang, Jinling; Pang, Junxiong; Ooi, Eng Eong; Leo, Yee Sin; Ong, Choon Nam; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Effective triage of dengue patients early in the disease course for in- or out-patient management would be useful for optimal healthcare resource utilization while minimizing poor clinical outcome due to delayed intervention. Yet, early prognosis of severe dengue is hampered by the heterogeneity in clinical presentation and routine hematological and biochemical measurements in dengue patients that collectively correlates poorly with eventual clinical outcome. Herein, untargeted liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry metabolomics of serum from patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the febrile phase (1.5) in the serum, among which are two products of tryptophan metabolism–serotonin and kynurenine. Serotonin, involved in platelet aggregation and activation decreased significantly, whereas kynurenine, an immunomodulator, increased significantly in patients with DHF, consistent with thrombocytopenia and immunopathology in severe dengue. To sensitively and accurately evaluate serotonin levels as prognostic biomarkers, we implemented stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry and used convalescence samples as their own controls. DHF serotonin was significantly 1.98 fold lower in febrile compared to convalescence phase, and significantly 1.76 fold lower compared to DF in the febrile phase of illness. Thus, serotonin alone provided good prognostic utility (Area Under Curve, AUC of serotonin = 0.8). Additionally, immune mediators associated with DHF may further increase the predictive ability than just serotonin alone. Nine cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-8, G-CSF, MIP-1β, FGF basic, TNFα and RANTES were significantly different between DF and DHF, among which IFN-γ ranked top by multivariate statistics. Combining serotonin and IFN-γ improved the prognosis performance (AUC = 0.92, sensitivity = 77.8%, specificity = 95.8%), suggesting this duplex panel as accurate metrics for the early prognosis of DHF. PMID:27055163

  4. Follicular synchronization using transdermal estradiol patch and GnRH antagonists in the luteal phase; does it increase oocyte yield in poor responders to gonadotropin stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF)? A comparative study with microdose flare-up protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Baris; Zeng, Xing; Son, Weon Y; Holzer, Hananel; Tan, Seang L

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the oocyte yield with the luteal estradiol patch (LPA) - GnRH antagonist and microdose (MD) flare-up protocols in anticipated poor responders. Fifty-seven women who underwent IVF treatment following stimulation with LPA or MD protocols at McGill Reproductive Centre were matched for age and markers of ovarian reserve. Numbers of oocytes collected (6 vs 7), mature oocytes collected (5 vs 5), and oocyte maturation rates (72% vs 74%) were similar. The numbers of good quality embryos available (2 vs 1) and embryos transferred (3 vs 3) were likewise similar. Embryo implantation rate of 16.7% and clinical pregnancy rate of 38.9% achieved in the LPA group were almost 50% higher than the corresponding figures at 10.3% and 22.2% in the MD group; however, the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Although the results do not suggest an increased oocyte yield or follicular synchronization with the LPA protocol, the observed trend toward higher embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy rates requires further research.

  5. Luteal cell steroidogenesis in relation to delayed embryonic development in the Indian short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakumari, Karukayil J; Banerjee, Arnab; Krishna, Amitabh

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the possible cause of slow or delayed embryonic development in Cynopterus sphinx by investigating morphological and steroidogenic changes in the corpus luteum (CL) and circulating hormone concentrations during two pregnancies of a year. This species showed delayed post-implantational embryonic development during gastrulation of the first pregnancy. Morphological features of the CL showed normal luteinization during both pregnancies. The CL did not change significantly in luteal cell size during the delay period of the first pregnancy as compared with the second pregnancy. The circulating progesterone and 17beta-estradiol concentrations were significantly lower during the period of delayed embryonic development as compared with the same stage of embryonic development during the second pregnancy. We also showed a marked decline in the activity of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, P450 side chain cleavage enzyme, and steroidogenic acute regulatory peptide in the CL during the delay period. This may cause low circulating progesterone and estradiol synthesis and consequently delay embryonic development. What causes the decrease in steroidogenic factors in the CL during the period of delayed development in C. sphinx is under investigation.

  6. Internal Dose from Food and Drink Ingestion in the Early Phase after the Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Masaki; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Takizawa, Mari; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Shunji; Miyatake, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Gen

    2017-09-01

    Activity concentrations in food and drink, represented by water and vegetables, have been monitored continuously since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, with a focus on radioactive cesium. On the other hand, iodine-131 was not measured systematically in the early phase after the accident. The activity concentrations of iodine-131 in food and drink are important to estimate internal exposure due to ingestion pathway. When the internal dose from ingestion in the evacuation areas is estimated, water is considered as the main ingestion pathway. In this study, we estimated the values of activity concentrations in water in the early phase after the accident, using a compartment model as an estimation method. The model uses measurement values of activity concentration and deposition rate of iodine-131 onto the ground, which is calculated from an atmospheric dispersion simulation. The model considers how drinking water would be affected by radionuclides deposited into water. We estimated the activity concentrations of water on Kawamata town and Minamisouma city during March of 2011 and the committed effective doses were 0.08 mSv and 0.06 mSv. We calculated the transfer parameters in the model for estimating the activity concentrations in the areas with a small amount of measurement data. In addition, we estimated the committed effective doses from vegetables using atmospheric dispersion simulation and FARMLAND model in case of eating certain vegetables as option information.

  7. Correlation of early-phase {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET images to FDG images: preliminary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Lin, Kun-Ju [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Taipei (China); Chang Gung University, Healthy Aging Research Center and Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Huang, Chin-Chang; Hsu, Wen-Chun [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Neurology, Taipei (China); Yen, Tzu-Chen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Taipei (China); Kung, Mei-Ping [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Taipei (China); Chang Gung University, Healthy Aging Research Center and Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-04-15

    {sup 18}F-Florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for imaging plaque pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD), while PET images of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for cerebral glucose metabolism can provide complementary information to amyloid plaque images for diagnosis of AD. The goal of this preliminary study was to investigate the perfusion-like property of relative cerebral blood flow estimates (R{sub 1}) and summed early-phase AV-45 images [perfusion AV-45 (pAV-45)] and optimize the early time frame for pAV-45. Dynamic AV-45 PET scans (0-180 min) were performed in seven subjects. pAV-45, late-phase AV-45, and FDG images were spatially normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute template aided by individual MRI images, and the corresponding standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) was computed. The R{sub 1} images were derived from a simplified reference tissue model. Correlations between regional and voxelwise R{sub 1} and the corresponding FDG images were calculated. An optimization of time frames of pAV-45 was conducted in terms of correlation to FDG images. The optimal early time frame was validated in a separate cohort. The regional distribution in the R{sub 1} images correlated well (R = 0.91) to that of the FDG within subjects. Consistently high correlation was noted across a long range of time frames. The maximal correlation of pAV-45 to FDG SUVR of R = 0.95 was observed at the time frame of 1-6 min, while the peak correlation of R = 0.99 happened at 0-2 min between pAV-45 and R{sub 1}. A similar result was achieved in the validation cohort. Preliminary results showed that the distribution patterns of R{sub 1} and pAV-45 images are highly correlated with normalized FDG images, and the initial 5-min early time frame of 1-6 min is potentially useful in providing complementary FDG-like information to the amyloid plaque density by late-phase AV-45 images. (orig.)

  8. Ganirelix for luteolysis in poor responder patients undergoing IVF treatment: a Scandinavian multicenter 'extended pilot study'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lena; Andersen, A.N.; Lindenberg, Svend

    2010-01-01

    To enhance oocyte yield and pregnancy outcome in poor responder women undergoing IVF treatment, daily low dose GnRH antagonist administration was given during the late luteal phase to induce luteolysis and possibly secure a more synchronous cohort of recruitable follicles. An open extended pilot...... study in four Scandinavian fertility centers was done including 60 patients. Poor response was defined as when 2000 IU FSH. GnRH antagonist (ganirelix) was given, 0.25 mg s.c. daily, from days 3 to 5...... oocyte retrievals resulting in 5 pregnancies (4 delivered). Despite GnRH antagonist administration in the late luteal phase and menstrual bleeding, FSH was not sufficiently reduced to secure a more synchronic cohort of recruitable follicles. Novel GnRH antagonists more specifically targeting FSH release...

  9. Study on reproductive endocrinological function in postmenopausal women treated with estriol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenqi; Zhou Zhenli; Zhou Jiwen; Li Xin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the reproductive endocrinological function in postmenopausal women treated with ultralente estriol for 3 years. Methods: Serum levels of six reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, PRL, T, E 2 , P) were measured with RIA in 1) 136 normal 1-5yrs post-menopausal women 2) 48 post-menopausal women treated with estriol for 3 years 3) 131 healthy women of child-bearing age during follicular and luteal phases. Results: Serum levels of the six reproductive hormones in women of child-bearing age at both follicular and luteal phases were significantly different from those in post-menopausal women (p 2 , P and T levels were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Serum reproductive hormones assay is important for monitoring hormone replacement therapy in aging women

  10. Effects of the Natural and Artificial Menstrual Cycle on the Production of Osteoprotegerin and the Bone Resorptive Cytokines IL-1b and IL-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B.; Stilgren, L.S.; Rettmer, E.

    2003-01-01

    ) within the menstrual cycle prevent the increase in bone remodelling, which would otherwise have been the result of the luteal increase in the capacity for producing resorptive cytokines. The study population consisted of healthy female volunteers: premenopausal women (n = 11, mean age 39.4 y +/- 6.......1) without cycle irregularities. Postmenopausal women (n = 11, mean age 56.8 y +/- 3.6) receiving cyclic HRT (estradiol and noretisterone acetate). Luteal and follicular phase blood samples were diluted and cultured for 24 hours with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The supernatant was assayed for IL-1...

  11. 7T T-2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals cortical phase differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooden, S.; Doan, N.T.; Versluis, M.J.; Goos, J.D.C.; Webb, A.G.; Oleksik, A.M.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scheltens, P.; Barkhof, F.; Weverlinge-Rynsburger, A.W.E.; Blauw, G. J.; Reiber, J.H.C.; van Buchem, M.A.; Milles, J.; van der Grond, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore regional iron-related differences in the cerebral cortex, indicative of Alzheimer's disease pathology, between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, LOAD, respectively) patients using 7T magnetic resonance phase images. High-resolution T

  12. Early symptoms in the prodromal phase of delirium: a prospective cohort study in elderly patients undergoing hip surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonghe, Jos F M; Kalisvaart, Kees J; Dijkstra, Marty; van Dis, Huib; Vreeswijk, Ralph; Kat, Martin G; Eikelenboom, Piet; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; van Gool, Willem A

    2007-02-01

    The authors investigated prodromal delirium symptoms in elderly patients undergoing hip surgery. This was a prospective cohort study in the setting of a large medical school-affiliated general hospital in Alkmaar, The Netherlands. Participants were patients undergoing hip surgery aged 70 and older at risk for delirium. Before surgery, patients were randomized to low-dose prophylactic haloperidol treatment or placebo. Daily assessments were based on patient interviews with the Mini-Mental State Examination and Digit Span test. The Delirium Rating Scale-Revised (DRS-R-98) was used to measure early symptoms during the prodromal phase before the onset of delirium. Data of 66 patients with delirium were compared with those of 35 at-risk patients who did not develop delirium: 14 of 66 patients (21%) had delirium on the day of surgery or early the day after, 32 of 66 (48%) on the second day, 14 of 66 on the third, and six of 66 (9%) on the fourth. The average DRS-R-98 total scores on day -4 to day -1 before delirium were 1.9 for the comparison group patients and 5.0, 4.3, 5.8, and 10.7 for patients with postoperative delirium. Multivariate analysis showed that the early symptoms memory impairments, incoherence, disorientation, and underlying somatic illness predict delirium. Most elderly patients undergoing hip surgery with postoperative delirium already have early symptoms in the prodromal phase of delirium. These findings are potentially useful for screening purposes and for optimizing prevention strategies targeted at reducing the incidence of postoperative delirium.

  13. Effect of progesterone concentration and duration of proestrus on fertility in beef cattle after fixed-time artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadarwal, D; Mapletoft, R J; Adams, G P; Pfeifer, L F M; Creelman, C; Singh, J

    2013-03-15

    The objective was to determine the effect of plasma progesterone concentration and the duration of proestrus during growth of the ovulatory follicle on fertility in beef cattle. Heifers (N = 61) and postpartum cows (N = 79) were assigned randomly to four groups in a two-by-two design involving luteal-phase versus subluteal-phase plasma progesterone concentrations and normal versus short proestrus. To synchronize follicular wave emergence, estradiol-17β was given im during the midluteal phase (Day 0) and concurrently, a once-used controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing device was placed intravaginally. In the subluteal-phase progesterone groups, a luteolytic dose of PGF(2α) was given on Day 0 and again 12 hours later. In the luteal-phase progesterone groups, PGF(2α) was not given (so as to retain a functional CL). The controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing device was removed and PGF(2α) was given on Days 7 or 8 in the normal- and short-proestrus groups, respectively. Cattle were given lutropin im 12 or 36 hours later in the short- and normal-proestrus groups, respectively, with AI at 12 hours after lutropin treatment. Transrectal ultrasonography was used to monitor ovarian response during treatments and to diagnose pregnancy 60 days after AI. Cattle (heifers and cows combined) in the subluteal-phase progesterone groups and normal proestrus groups had a larger follicle at the time of AI, and a larger CL that secreted more progesterone 9 days after AI than cattle with luteal-phase progesterone concentrations or those with short proestrus (P < 0.03). There was a higher incidence of ovulation (P < 0.01) the day after AI in heifers (55/61; 90%) than in cows (44/79; 56%). Pregnancy rates ranged from 11% to 54%, and were higher in cattle (heifers and cows combined) in the subluteal-phase progesterone groups and normal proestrus groups than in the luteal-phase progesterone or short proestrus groups, respectively, (P < 0.02). In conclusion, a short

  14. Differences in Dietary Intake as a Function of Sexual Activity and Hormonal Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S. Fleischman

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the need to downregulate some maternal immune responses so as to tolerate paternal genetic material following conception, the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is associated with increased susceptibility to infection. Because meat was one of the primary sources of foodborne pathogens throughout our evolutionary history, Fessler (2001 predicted a decrease in meat intake during the luteal phase; the current research provides the first test of this prediction. Based on the assumption that any such behavioral changes would be hormonally mediated, we also investigated the effects of varying levels of exogenous hormones on meat consumption by examining dietary intake in women using hormonal contraceptives. Lastly, because, from a functional perspective, immunomodulation is unnecessary during anovulatory cycles and in women who are not currently sexually active, luteal phase compensatory behavioral prophylaxis was predicted to be absent in these contexts. Although we find that women who are sexually active eat less meat than those who are not, we do not find support for the core prediction regarding effect of cycle phase on meat consumption, nor do we find support for the ancillary prediction that meat consumption would be influenced by the presence or withdrawal of exogenous hormones. We replicate the finding that periovulatory total food intake is decreased compared to the rest of the cycle and find that sexually active women show a greater periovulatory decrease in food intake than sexually inactive women.

  15. The progesterone receptor antagonist, onapristone has differential effects on the timing and control of the luteolytic mechanism depending on timing of administration in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G E; Wathes, D C; Robinson, R S

    2013-08-25

    Cyclic ewes were treated with control vehicle or progesterone receptor antagonist (onapristone; 100mg i.m. twice daily) during either early (day 3-5) or late (day 12-14) luteal phase and plasma samples collected for hormone analysis and to determine endogenous and oxytocin induced PGF2α release. On day 14 and 17, ewes were euthanised and reproductive tracts collected for ovarian morphology and endometrium for oxytoxin and steroid hormone receptor analysis. Early treatment increased LH, but not progesterone or oestradiol, while late treatment elevated all three hormones. Early treatment delayed the up-regulation of endometrial oxytocin receptors and responsiveness to oxytocin challenge, delaying luteolysis. Late treatment advanced development of oxytocin receptors and responsiveness to oxytocin though not timing of luteolysis. Patterns of hormone receptor mRNA were differentially disrupted by treatments. Results provide mechanistic insight into hormonal control of the oestrous cycle and identify the ability of the luteolytic mechanism to dissociate from functional luteolysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Geraghty, J. A. Seibert, and S. L. Wootton-Gorges, “Dose reduction in pediatric CT : A rational approach,” Radiology 228, 352–360 (2003). Medical...improvement in image quality can be quantified as large as 450 [Fig. 6(c)] and 350 [Fig. 6(d)] Hounsfield units (HUs), where the Hounsfield unit is defined...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0138 TITLE: Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  17. Breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy reports more unmet supportive care needs in the early treatment phase, than patients treated only with radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Johansen, Mikael Birkelund; Meldgaard, Anette; Henriksen, Jette

    2016-01-01

    of a large battery of selfadministered questionnaires, the women filled out at home, the Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-SF34) together with demographic items (socioeconomic status, working hours, marital status etc.). The SCNS-SF34 includes 5 different domains of needs: Psychological-, Health system...... Aims: The purpose was to identify unmet supportive care needs in the early treatment phase of women treated for breast cancer and to investigate differences in needs between groups treated with chemo-therapy and radiationtherapy. If it is possible to identify early unmet needs, it may be possible...... to predict levels of unmet needs in the post-treatment phase and target an early rehabilitation to specific groups and with specific interventions. Population: Over a six-month period, 123 Danish women treated with mastectomy or lumpectomy, were assessed for eligibility in the midst of their primary...

  18. F247. INTERNALIZED STIGMA HAS A STRONGER RELATIONSHIP WITH INTRINSIC MOTIVATION COMPARED TO AMOTIVATION IN EARLY PHASE AND PROLONGED SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Ruth; Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul; Vohs, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Motivation deficits predict decreased functioning in schizophrenia. Recent work suggests deficits reflect challenges in separate domains: intrinsic motivation (one’s internal drive to engage in a behavior out of enjoyment or interest) and amotivation (one’s broader decrease in motivated behavior linked to avolition and anhedonia). Internalized stigma is another determinant of functioning for people with schizophrenia that may impact motivation. However, little is known about these relationships, including which aspects of motivation it may impact nor when these links emerge. Identifying the link between these constructs may help to identify whether internalized stigma may be a novel treatment target to facilitate improvements in motivation. Methods Forty adults with early phase schizophrenia and 66 adults with prolonged schizophrenia completed measures of internalized stigma, intrinsic motivation, and amotivation. Pearson’s correlations were examined followed by Fischer’s r-to-z transformations to compare differences in the magnitude of associations between internalized stigma and intrinsic motivation and internalized stigma and amotivation among the first episode and prolonged samples. Next, we conducted stepwise regressions to examine whether internalized stigma was associated with intrinsic motivation above and beyond associations with amotivation in each sample. Results In the early phase sample, the association between internalized stigma was greater with intrinsic motivation (r=-0.48, p=.00) compared to amotivation (r=0.27, p=0.10). Associations with internalized stigma in the prolonged sample were also greater with intrinsic motivation (r=-0.30, p=0.02) versus amotivation (r=0.19, p=0.12). The magnitude of the associations between internalized stigma and intrinsic motivation (z=1.03, p=0.15) and between internalized stigma and amotivation (z=0.41, p = 0.34) did not significantly differ when comparing phase of illness. Regression

  19. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder and prefrontal reactivity during anticipation of emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingnell, Malin; Bannbers, Elin; Wikström, Johan; Fredrikson, Mats; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2013-11-01

    Premenstrual disorder (PMDD) affects around 5% of women in childbearing ages. An increased sensitivity in emotion processing areas of the brain to variations in ovarian steroid levels has been suggested as part of the pathophysiology in PMDD, but prior neuroimaging studies of emotion processing are yet inconclusive. Previous behavioral studies of women with PMDD have, however, reported enhanced luteal phase startle responsivity during emotional anticipation. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate central neural circuitry activity during anticipation of, and exposure to, emotional stimuli across the menstrual cycle in women with and without PMDD. As compared to healthy controls, women with PMDD displayed significantly enhanced reactivity in the prefrontal cortex during anticipation of, but not exposure to, negative emotional stimuli during the luteal phase. In PMDD patients, BOLD reactivity during anticipation or viewing of negative emotional stimuli was not dependent on absolute levels of estradiol or progesterone. However, progesterone levels were positively correlated with emotion-induced reactivity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to positive emotional stimuli. These findings suggest that cortical emotional circuitry reactivity during anticipation is altered in PMDD during the luteal phase, which might be part of the pathophysiology behind the emotional symptoms or lack of emotional control reported by women with PMDD. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of menstrual cycle phase on pulmonary function in asthmatic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Kristin I; Mickleborough, Timothy D; Ray, Shahla; Lindley, Martin R; Koceja, David M; Stager, Joel M

    2006-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between menstrual cycle phase and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in female athletes with mild atopic asthma. Seven eumenorrheic subjects with regular 28-day menstrual cycles were exercised to volitional exhaustion on day 5 [mid-follicular (FOL)] and day 21 [mid-luteal (LUT)] of their menstrual cycle. Pulmonary function tests were conducted pre- and post-exercise. The maximal percentage decline in post-exercise forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and forced expiratory flow from 25 to 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF(25-75%)) was significantly greater (Pphase) (-17.35+/-2.32 and -26.28+/-6.04%, respectively), when salivary progesterone concentration was highest, compared to day 5 (mid-FOL phase) (-12.81+/-3.35 and -17.23+/-8.20%, respectively), when salivary progesterone concentration was lowest. The deterioration in the severity of EIB during the mid-LUT phase was accompanied by worsening asthma symptoms and increased bronchodilator use. There was a negative correlation between the percent change in pre- to post-exercise FEV(1) and salivary progesterone concentration. However, no such correlation was found between salivary estradiol and the percentage change in pre- to post-exercise FEV(1). This study has shown for the first time that menstrual cycle phase is an important determinant of the severity of EIB in female athletes with mild atopic asthma. Female asthmatic athletes may need to adjust their training and competition schedules to their menstrual cycle and to consider the potential negative effects of the LUT phase of the menstrual cycle on exercise performance.

  1. A prospective randomized multicentre study comparing vaginal progesterone gel and vaginal micronized progesterone tablets for luteal support after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Christina; Lindenberg, Svend; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2012-01-01

    fertility centres in Denmark and Sweden between March 2006 and January 2010. A web-based randomization program was used with concealed allocation of patients. Patients were randomized to one of two groups: vaginal progesterone gel or vaginal micronized progesterone tablets. There was no blinding of patients....... PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A total of 2057 women ≤ 40 years of age were included and down-regulated, using the long agonist protocol and rFSH for stimulation. Luteal support was given for 19 days after embryo transfer or until a negative pregnancy test Day 14 after embryo transfer. Patient convenience...... (pregnancy) is robust, blinding would have been unlikely to affect the results. Unfortunately, owing to an error in the randomization, the intended age distribution allocated older women to the micronized progesterone tablet group. In the analysis of results, adjustments were made for age and number...

  2. 7T T₂*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals cortical phase differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooden, Sanneke; Doan, Nhat Trung; Versluis, Maarten J; Goos, Jeroen D C; Webb, Andrew G; Oleksik, Ania M; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Weverling-Rynsburger, Annelies W E; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Reiber, Johan H C; van Buchem, Mark A; Milles, Julien; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore regional iron-related differences in the cerebral cortex, indicative of Alzheimer's disease pathology, between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, LOAD, respectively) patients using 7T magnetic resonance phase images. High-resolution T2(∗)-weighted scans were acquired in 12 EOAD patients and 17 LOAD patients with mild to moderate disease and 27 healthy elderly control subjects. Lobar peak-to-peak phase shifts and regional mean phase contrasts were computed. An increased peak-to-peak phase shift was found for all lobar regions in EOAD patients compared with LOAD patients (p < 0.05). Regional mean phase contrast in EOAD patients was higher than in LOAD patients in the superior medial and middle frontal gyrus, anterior and middle cingulate gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior and inferior parietal gyrus, and precuneus (p ≤ 0.042). These data suggest that EOAD patients have an increased iron accumulation, possibly related to an increased amyloid deposition, in specific cortical regions as compared with LOAD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between ADAMTS13 activity, von Willebrand factor antigen levels and platelet function in the early and late phases after TIA or ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Dominick J H; Murphy, Stephen J X; Starke, Richard; Harrison, Paul; Brown, Martin M; Sidhu, Paul S; Mackie, Ian J; Scully, Marie; Machin, Samuel J

    2015-01-15

    Reduced ADAMTS13 activity is seen in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), and may lead to accumulation of prothrombotic ultra-large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) multimers in vivo. ADAMTS13 activity and its relationship with VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) levels and platelet function in 'non-TTP related' TIA or ischaemic stroke has not been comprehensively studied. In this prospective pilot observational analytical case-control study, ADAMTS13 activity and VWF:Ag levels were quantified in platelet poor plasma in 53 patients in the early phase (≤ 4 weeks) and 34 of these patients in the late phase (≥ 3 months) after TIA or ischaemic stroke on aspirin. Data were compared with those from 22 controls not on aspirin. The impact of ADAMTS13 on platelet function in whole blood was quantified by measuring Collagen-ADP (C-ADP) and Collagen-Epinephrine closure times on a platelet function analyser (PFA-100(®)). Median ADAMTS13 activity was significantly reduced in the early phase (71.96% vs. 95.5%, P TIA or stroke compared with controls (86.3% vs. 95.5%, P=0.19). There was a significant inverse relationship between ADAMTS13 activity and VWF:Ag levels in the early phase (r=-0.31; P=0.024), but not in the late phase after TIA or stroke (P=0.74). There was a positive correlation between ADAMTS13 activity and C-ADP closure times in early phase patients only, likely mediated via VWF:Ag levels. ADAMTS13 activity is reduced and VWF:Ag expression is increased within 4 weeks of TIA or ischaemic stroke onset, and can promote enhanced platelet adhesion and aggregation in response to stimulation with collagen and ADP via VWF-mediated pathways. These data improve our understanding of the dynamic haemostatic and thrombotic profiles of ischaemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) patients, and are important in view of the potential future role that ADAMTS13 may have to play as an anti-thrombotic agent in CVD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Concentrations of steroid hormones, estrous, ovarian and reproductive responses in sheep estrous synchronized with different prostaglandin-based protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, S; Viñoles, C; Olivera-Muzante, J

    2016-04-01

    To determine estrous, ovarian and reproductive responses after different prostaglandin (PG)-based protocols, ewes were assigned to groups PG10, PG12, PG14 or PG16 (twoPG injections administered 10, 12, 14 or 16 days apart; respectively). Experiment I (n=132) was conducted to evaluate the estrous response, ovulation rate (OR), conception and fertility. Experiment II (n=24) was conducted to evaluate ovarian follicle growth, steroid concentrations and the interval from the second PG injection to estrus (PG-estrus) and ovulation (PG-ovulation). Estrous response was less with the PG16 (P0.05). From 8 to 4 days before estrus, progesterone (P4) concentrations were greater for the PG14 and PG16 than for the PG10 and PG12 (P<0.05) groups. There were more days where concentrations of P4 were above 3.18 nmol/L with the PG14 and PG16 than PG10 and PG12 (P<0.05) treatments. Use of the PG14 and PG16 treatments resulted in greater estradiol (E2) at estrus and 12h later than use of the PG10 and PG12 treatments. A positive correlation was observed between the duration of the luteal phase and maximum E2 concentrations, and between duration of the luteal phase and days with E2 concentrations above 10 pmol/L. Conception and fertility were greater with use of the PG14 compared with PG10 and PG12 (P<0.05) treatments. The administration of two PG injections 10, 12, 14 or 16 days apart resulted in different durations of the luteal phase that were positively associated with E2 concentrations and the reproductive outcome. The shorter luteal phases were associated with greater synchrony in time of estrus. The intervals for the variables PG-estrus, PG-ovulation and OR were similar among groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist triggering of oocyte maturation in assisted reproductive technology cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Türkgeldi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa have gained increasing attention in the last decade as an alternative trigger for oocyte maturation in patients at high risk for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. They provide a short luteinizing hormone (LH peak that limits the production of vascular endothelial growth factor, which is the key mediator leading to increased vascular permeability, the hallmark of OHSS. Initial studies showed similar oocyte yield and embryo quality compared with conventional human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG triggering; however, lower pregnancy rates and higher miscarriage rates were alarming in GnRHa triggered groups. Therefore, two approaches have been implemented to rescue the luteal phase in fresh transfers. Intensive luteal phase support (iLPS involves administiration of high doses of progesterone and estrogen and active patient monitoring. iLPS has been shown to provide satisfactory fertilization and clinical pregnancy rates, and to be especially useful in patients with high endogenous LH levels, such as in polycystic ovary syndrome. The other method for luteal phase rescue is low-dose hCG administiration 35 hours after GnRHa trigger. Likewise, this method results in statistically similar ongoing pregnancy rates (although slightly lower than to those of hCG triggered cycles. GnRHa triggering decreased OHSS rates dramatically, however, none of the rescue methods prevent OHSS totally. Cases were reported even in patients who underwent cryopreservation and did not receive hCG. GnRH triggering induces a follicle stimulating hormone (FSH surge, similar to natural cycles. Its possible benefits have been investigated and dual triggering, GnRHa trigger accompanied by a simultaneous low-dose hCG injection, has produced promising results that urge further exploration. Last of all, GnRHa triggering is useful in fertility preservation cycles in patients with hormone sensitive tumors. In conclusion, GnRHa triggering

  6. Fetal programming: testosterone exposure of the female sheep during midgestation disrupts the dynamics of its adult gonadotropin secretion during the periovulatory period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan; Lee, James S; Herkimer, Carol; Sharma, Tejinder P; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal exposure of the female sheep to excess testosterone (T) leads to hypergonadotropism, multifollicular ovaries, and progressive loss of reproductive cycles. We have determined that prenatal T treatment delays the latency of the estradiol (E2)-induced LH surge. To extend this finding into a natural physiological context, the present study was conducted to determine if the malprogrammed surge mechanism alters the reproductive cycle. Specifically, we wished to determine if prenatal T treatment 1) delays the onset of the preovulatory gonadotropin surge during the natural follicular phase rise in E2, 2) alters pulsatile LH secretion and the dynamics of the secondary FSH surge, and 3) compromises the ensuing luteal function. Females prenatally T-treated from Day 60 to Day 90 of gestation (147 days is term) and control females were studied when they were approximately 2.5 yr of age. Reproductive cycles of control and prenatally T-treated females were synchronized with PGF2alpha, and peripheral blood samples were collected every 2 h for 120 h to characterize cyclic changes in E2, LH, and FSH and then daily for 14 days to monitor changes in luteal progesterone. To assess LH pulse patterns, blood samples were also collected frequently (each 5 min for 6 h) during the follicular and luteal phases of the cycle. The results revealed that, in prenatally T-treated females, 1) the preovulatory increase in E2 was normal; 2) the latencies between the preovulatory increase in E2 and the peaks of the primary LH and FSH surges were longer, but the magnitudes similar; 3) follicular-phase LH pulse frequency was increased; 4) the interval between the primary and secondary FSH surges was reduced but there was a tendency for an increase in duration of the secondary FSH surge; but 5) luteal progesterone patterns were in general unaltered. Thus, exposure of the female to excess T before birth produces perturbances and maltiming in periovulatory gonadotropin secretory dynamics, but these

  7. Early cytokine modulation after the rapid induction phase of sublingual immunotherapy with mite monomeric allergoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gioacchino, M; Perrone, A; Petrarca, C; Di Claudio, F; Mistrello, G; Falagiani, P; Dadorante, V; Verna, N; Braga, M; Ballone, E; Cavallucci, E

    2008-01-01

    The influence of different treatment schedules of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in activating IL-10-producing T-cells, crucial in inducing allergen-specific tolerance, is not completely understood. The present work was designed to evaluate allergen driven interleukin release by mononuclear cells in the early phase of SLIT, after application of different induction schemes. Twenty mite-allergic patients were enrolled, 10 (group A) treated with a traditional 98 day induction scheme and 10 (group B) with a 16 day scheme with monomeric allergoid vaccine. At the end of the induction phase, the cumulative doses taken by group A and group B patients were equivalent to 50.5 and 50.3 microg of mite group 1 allergens, respectively. The release of Th1-, Th2- and Treg-related interleukins was assessed in culture supernatants of 5 microg/ml Der-p1-stimulated mononuclear cells, isolated before and after the induction phases. No relevant treatment-related side effects were observed. Interleukin release was similar in the two groups at the enrolment. Non-stimulated and Der p 1 stimulated release of studied cytokines was similar in the two groups at enrolment. Der p 1 stimulation significantly increased IL-10 release (pallergoids are utilized.

  8. SURVIVAL OF INTERSTELLAR MOLECULES TO PRESTELLAR DENSE CORE COLLAPSE AND EARLY PHASES OF DISK FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincelin, U.; Wakelam, V.; Hersant, F.; Guilloteau, S.; Commerçon, B.

    2013-01-01

    An outstanding question of astrobiology is the link between the chemical composition of planets, comets, and other solar system bodies and the molecules formed in the interstellar medium. Understanding the chemical and physical evolution of the matter leading to the formation of protoplanetary disks is an important step for this. We provide some new clues to this long-standing problem using three-dimensional chemical simulations of the early phases of disk formation: we interfaced the full gas-grain chemical model Nautilus with the radiation-magnetohydrodynamic model RAMSES, for different configurations and intensities of the magnetic field. Our results show that the chemical content (gas and ices) is globally conserved during the collapsing process, from the parent molecular cloud to the young disk surrounding the first Larson core. A qualitative comparison with cometary composition suggests that comets are constituted of different phases, some molecules being direct tracers of interstellar chemistry, while others, including complex molecules, seem to have been formed in disks, where higher densities and temperatures allow for an active grain surface chemistry. The latter phase, and its connection with the formation of the first Larson core, remains to be modeled

  9. Nano-scale clusters formed in the early stage of phase decomposition of Al-Mg-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirosawa, S.; Sato, T. [Dept. of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The formation of nano-scale clusters (nanoclusters) prior to the precipitation of the strengthening {beta}'' phase significantly influences two-step aging behavior of Al-Mg-Si alloys. In this work, the existence of two kinds of nanoclusters has been verified in the early stage of phase decomposition by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP). Pre-aging treatment at 373 K before natural aging was also found to form preferentially one of the two nanoclusters, resulting in the remarkable restoration of age-hardenability at paint-bake temperatures. Such microstructural control by means of optimized heat-treatments; i.e. nanocluster assist processing (NCAP), possesses great potential for enabling Al-Mg-Si alloys to be used more widely as a body-sheet material of automobiles. (orig.)

  10. Some remarks on the transitional phase between Early Roman and Late Roman Periods in the region north of the Middle Danube

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tejral, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2015), s. 43-101 ISSN 1211-7250 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Early and Late Roman Period * transitional phase * Marcomanic Wars and their aftermath * ethnical and social backround of the B2/C1 phase Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://prehled-vyzkumu.arub.avcr.cz/miranda2/export/sitesavcr/arub-prehled-vyzkumu/prehled-cisel-a-clanku/prehled-vydanych-cisel/files/PV56_2_Studie2_Tejral.pdf

  11. GnRH agonist trigger for the induction of oocyte maturation in GnRH antagonist IVF cycles: a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Lawrence; Benadiva, Claudio; Humaidan, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) trigger is effective in the induction of oocyte maturation and prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome during IVF treatment. This trigger concept, however, results in early corpora lutea demise and consequently luteal phase dysfunction and impaired endometrial receptivity. The aim of this strenghths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis was to summarize the progress made over the past 15 years to optimize ongoing pregnancy rates after GnRHa trigger. The advantages and potential drawbacks of this type of triggering are reviewed. The current approach to the management of GnRHa trigger in autologous cycles is based on the peak serum oestradiol level or follicle number and aims at a fresh embryo transfer or a segmentation approach with elective cryopreservation policy. We recommend intensive luteal support with transdermal oestradiol and intramuscular progesterone alone if peak serum oestradiol is 4000 or more pg/ml after GnRHa trigger or dual trigger with GnRHa and HCG 1000 IU if peak serum oestradiol is less than 4000 pg/mL. On the contrary, we recommend HCG 1500 IU 35 h after GnRHa trigger if there are less than 25 follicles, or freeze all oocytes or embryos if there are over 25 follicles. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Early Origins of Child Obesity: Bridging Disciplines and Phases of Development - September 30–October 1, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Wang, Xiaobin; Binns, Helen J.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes a conference: “Early Origins of Child Obesity: Bridging Disciplines and Phases of Development”, held in Chicago on September 30–October 1, 2010. The conference was funded in part by the National Institutes of Health and the Williams Heart Foundation, to achieve the conference objective: forging a next-step research agenda related to the early origins of childhood obesity. This research agenda was to include working with an array of factors (from genetic determinants to societal ones) along a continuum from prenatal life to age 7, with an emphasis on how the developing child deals with the challenges presented by his/her environment (prenatal, parental, nutritional, etc.). The conference offered a unique opportunity to facilitate communication and planning of future work among a variety of researchers whose work separately addresses different periods in early life. Over the span of two days, speakers addressed existing, critical research topics within each of the most-studied age ranges. On the final day, workshops fostered the discussion needed to identify the highest priority research topics related to linking varied early factor domains. These are presented for use in planning future research and research funding. PMID:23443002

  13. Review of hardware cost estimation methods, models and tools applied to early phases of space mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivailo, O.; Sippel, M.; Şekercioğlu, Y. A.

    2012-08-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to review currently existing cost estimation methods, models, tools and resources applicable to the space sector. While key space sector methods are outlined, a specific focus is placed on hardware cost estimation on a system level, particularly for early mission phases during which specifications and requirements are not yet crystallised, and information is limited. For the space industry, cost engineering within the systems engineering framework is an integral discipline. The cost of any space program now constitutes a stringent design criterion, which must be considered and carefully controlled during the entire program life cycle. A first step to any program budget is a representative cost estimate which usually hinges on a particular estimation approach, or methodology. Therefore appropriate selection of specific cost models, methods and tools is paramount, a difficult task given the highly variable nature, scope as well as scientific and technical requirements applicable to each program. Numerous methods, models and tools exist. However new ways are needed to address very early, pre-Phase 0 cost estimation during the initial program research and establishment phase when system specifications are limited, but the available research budget needs to be established and defined. Due to their specificity, for vehicles such as reusable launchers with a manned capability, a lack of historical data implies that using either the classic heuristic approach such as parametric cost estimation based on underlying CERs, or the analogy approach, is therefore, by definition, limited. This review identifies prominent cost estimation models applied to the space sector, and their underlying cost driving parameters and factors. Strengths, weaknesses, and suitability to specific mission types and classes are also highlighted. Current approaches which strategically amalgamate various cost estimation strategies both for formulation and validation

  14. Expression and localization of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and its two receptors (VEGFR1/FLT1 and VEGFR2/FLK1/KDR) in the canine corpus luteum and utero-placental compartments during pregnancy and at normal and induced parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Aykut; Hoffmann, Bernd; Boos, Alois; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2015-11-01

    VEGFA is one of the most potent known inducers of angiogenesis. However, the function of angiogenic factors in the canine corpus luteum (CL) of pregnancy and in the pregnant uterus and placenta has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, here we investigated the expression and localization of VEGFA and its receptors (VEGFR1/FLT1 and VEGFR2/FLK1/KDR) in the canine CL and utero-placental compartments (ut-pl) throughout pregnancy until prepartum luteolysis. Antigestagen-mediated effects on expression of VEGF system in ut-pl were elucidated in mid-pregnant dogs. While displaying high individual variation, the luteal VEGFA was elevated during pre-implantation and post-implantation, followed by a decrease during mid-gestation, which was more pronounced at the mRNA level, and showed constant expression afterwards. Within the uterus, it increased following implantation and during mid-gestation in ut-pl compartments, but was downregulated at prepartum luteolysis. Luteal VEGFR1 expression resembled that of VEGFA; VEGFR2 remained unaffected throughout pregnancy. In ut-pl compartments, both receptors increased gradually towards mid-gestation; a prepartum decrease was observed for VEGFR1. Antigestagen-treatment resulted in decreased expression of ut-pl VEGFR1. In the CL, VEGFA stained in luteal cells. Uterine signals of VEGFA and its two receptors were observed in epithelial and vascular compartments, and in myometrium. In placental labyrinth, additionally, trophoblast stained positively. Luteal VEGFR1 was localized to the luteal cells and tunica media of blood vessels, whereas VEGFR2 stained only in capillary endothelial cells. The upregulation of luteal and the ut-pl VEGF system during early gestational stages supports the increased vascularization rate during this time. The diminishing effects of the prepartum endocrine milieu on VEGFA function seem to be more pronounced in the ut-pl units. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. S-phase Synchronization Facilitates the Early Progression of Induced-Cardiomyocyte Reprogramming through Enhanced Cell-Cycle Exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektik, Emre; Dennis, Adrienne; Pawlowski, Gary; Zhou, Chen; Maleski, Danielle; Takahashi, Satoru; Laurita, Kenneth R; Deschênes, Isabelle; Fu, Ji-Dong

    2018-05-04

    Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs) holds a great promise for regenerative medicine and has been studied in several major directions. However, cell-cycle regulation, a fundamental biological process, has not been investigated during iCM-reprogramming. Here, our time-lapse imaging on iCMs, reprogrammed by Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT) monocistronic retroviruses, revealed that iCM-reprogramming was majorly initiated at late-G1- or S-phase and nearly half of GMT-reprogrammed iCMs divided soon after reprogramming. iCMs exited cell cycle along the process of reprogramming with decreased percentage of 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine (EdU)⁺/α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC)-GFP⁺ cells. S-phase synchronization post-GMT-infection could enhance cell-cycle exit of reprogrammed iCMs and yield more GFP high iCMs, which achieved an advanced reprogramming with more expression of cardiac genes than GFP low cells. However, S-phase synchronization did not enhance the reprogramming with a polycistronic-viral vector, in which cell-cycle exit had been accelerated. In conclusion, post-infection synchronization of S-phase facilitated the early progression of GMT-reprogramming through a mechanism of enhanced cell-cycle exit.

  16. Differential involvement of IL-6 in the early and late phase of 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA) release in Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternak, Magdalena; Jakubowski, Andrzej; Czarnowska, Elzbieta; Slominska, Ewa M; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Szafarz, Malgorzata; Walczak, Maria; Sitek, Barbara; Wojcik, Tomasz; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Kaminski, Karol; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Exogenous 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA) displays anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this work was to characterize the profile of release of endogenous MNA during the initiation and progression of murine hepatitis induced by Concanavalin A (ConA). In particular we aimed to clarify the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as the energy state of hepatocytes in MNA release in early and late phases of ConA-induced hepatitis in mice. Hepatitis was induced by ConA in IL-6(+/+) and IL-6(-/-) mice, and various parameters of liver inflammation and injury, as well as the energy state of hepatocytes, were analysed in relation to MNA release. The decrease in ATP/ADP and NADH/NAD ratios, cytokine release (IL-6, IFN-ɤ), acute phase response (e.g. haptoglobin) and liver injury (alanine aminotransaminase, ALT) were all blunted in ConA-induced hepatitis in IL-6(-/-) mice as compared to IL-6(+/+) mice. The release of MNA in response to Con A was also significantly blunted in IL-6(-/-) mice as compared to IL-6(+/+) mice in the early stage of ConA-induced hepatitis. In turn, nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) and aldehyde oxidase (AO) activities were blunted in the liver and MNA plasma concentration was elevated to similar degree in the late stage after Concanavalin A in IL-6(+/+) and IL-6(-/-) mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated that in ConA-induced hepatitis, early, but not late MNA release was IL-6-dependent. Our results suggest that in the initiation and early hepatitis, MNA release is linked to the energy deficit/impaired redox status in hepatocytes, while in a later phase, MNA release is rather linked to the systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Variations in steroid hormone receptor content throughout age and menopausal periods, and menstrual cycle in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic-Vukosavljevic, D.; Vasiljevic, N.; Brankovic-Magic, M.; Polic, D.

    1996-01-01

    Variations in steroid hormone receptor contents throughout age and menopausal periods define three breast carcinoma groups: younger pre-menopausal carcinomas (aged up to 45), middle-aged carcinomas (aged up to 45), middle-aged carcinomas (pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal aged 45-59) and older postmenopausal carcinomas (aged over 59). Age-related steroid hormone receptor contents within pre-menopausal and postmenopausal carcinoma groups are characterized by the important increase of both receptor contents, while menopausal-related steroid hormone receptor contents within middle-aged carcinoma group (aged 45-59) are characterized by the important decrease of progesterone receptor content and estrogen receptor functionality. No variations in steroid hormone receptor contents throughout menstrual cycle within the follicular and the luteal phases were obtained. The important cycle within the follicular and the luteal phases were obtained. The important decrease of estrogen receptor content in the mid-cycle phase versus the peri-menstrual phase was found. Variations in steroid hormone receptor contents throughout age and menopausal periods, as well as throughout menstrual cycle could nod be associated with variations in the blood steroid hormone concentrations. However, important association between steroid hormone receptor contents and the blood steroid hormone concentrations was found within the luteal phase carcinoma group and within older postmenopausal carcinoma group. It is interesting that within carcinoma group with the highest concentration of progesterone, progesterone receptor content increases with an increase of the ration of estradiol and progesterone blood concentrations, while within carcinoma group with the lowest steroid hormone concentration and the highest content of estrogen receptor content, estrogen receptor content decreases with an increase of either the blood estradiol concentration or the ratio of the blood estradiol and progesterone blood

  18. Development and application of a biorelevant dissolution method using USP apparatus 4 in early phase formulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiang B; Robertson, Vivian K; Rawat, Archana; Flick, Tawnya; Tang, Zhe J; Cauchon, Nina S; McElvain, James S

    2010-10-04

    Dissolution testing is frequently used to determine the rate and extent at which a drug is released from a dosage form, and it plays many important roles throughout drug product development. However, the traditional dissolution approach often emphasizes its application in quality control testing and usually strives to obtain 100% drug release. As a result, dissolution methods are not necessarily biorelevant and meaningful application of traditional dissolution methods in the early phases of drug product development can be very limited. This article will describe the development of a biorelevant in vitro dissolution method using USP apparatus 4, biorelevant media, and real-time online UV analysis. Several case studies in the areas of formulation selection, lot-to-lot variability, and food effect will be presented to demonstrate the application of this method in early phase formulation development. This biorelevant dissolution method using USP apparatus 4 provides a valuable tool to predict certain aspects of the in vivo drug release. It can be used to facilitate the formulation development/selection for pharmacokinetic (PK) and clinical studies. It may also potentially be used to minimize the number of PK studies, and to aid in the design of more efficient PK and clinical studies.

  19. Endometrial blood flow measured by xenon 133 clearance in women with normal menstrual cycles and dysfunctional uterine bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, I.S.; McCarron, G.; Hutton, B.; Macey, D.

    1987-01-01

    Endometrial blood flow was measured through the menstrual cycle in nonpregnant women (28 studies of 17 women with normal menstrual cycles and 32 studies of 20 women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding) with use of a clearance technique in which 100 to 400 microCi of the gamma-emitting isotope, xenon 133 in saline solution was instilled into the uterine cavity. The mean (+/- SEM) endometrial blood flow in normal cycles was 27.7 +/- 2.6 ml/100 gm/min, with a significant elevation in the middle to late follicular phase, followed by a substantial fall and a secondary slow luteal phase rise that was maintained until the onset of menstruation. There was a significant correlation between plasma estradiol levels and endometrial blood flow in the follicular but not the luteal phase. Blood flow patterns in women with ovulatory dysfunctional bleeding were similar to normal, except for a significantly lower middle follicular rate. Women with anovulatory dysfunctional bleeding exhibited exceedingly variable flow rates

  20. Influences of menstrual cycle position and sex hormone levels on spontaneous intrusive recollections following emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferree, Nikole K; Kamat, Rujvi; Cahill, Larry

    2011-12-01

    Spontaneous intrusive recollections (SIRs) are known to follow emotional events in clinical and non-clinical populations. Previous work in our lab has found that women report more SIRs than men after exposure to emotional films, and that this effect is driven entirely by women in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. To replicate and extend this finding, participants viewed emotional films, provided saliva samples for sex hormone concentration analysis, and estimated SIR frequency following film viewing. Women in the luteal phase reported significantly more SIRs than did women in the follicular phase, and SIR frequency significantly correlated with salivary progesterone levels. The results are consistent with an emerging pattern in the literature suggesting that menstrual cycle position of female participants can potently influence findings in numerous cognitive domains. The potential implications of these results for disorders characterized by intrusions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Endometrial blood flow measured by xenon 133 clearance in women with normal menstrual cycles and dysfunctional uterine bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, I.S.; McCarron, G.; Hutton, B.; Macey, D.

    1987-01-01

    Endometrial blood flow was measured through the menstrual cycle in nonpregnant women (28 studies of 17 women with normal menstrual cycles and 32 studies of 20 women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding) with use of a clearance technique in which 100 to 400 microCi of the gamma-emitting isotope, xenon 133 in saline solution was instilled into the uterine cavity. The mean (+/- SEM) endometrial blood flow in normal cycles was 27.7 +/- 2.6 ml/100 gm/min, with a significant elevation in the middle to late follicular phase, followed by a substantial fall and a secondary slow luteal phase rise that was maintained until the onset of menstruation. There was a significant correlation between plasma estradiol levels and endometrial blood flow in the follicular but not the luteal phase. Blood flow patterns in women with ovulatory dysfunctional bleeding were similar to normal, except for a significantly lower middle follicular rate. Women with anovulatory dysfunctional bleeding exhibited exceedingly variable flow rates.

  2. Neuroanatomical organization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during the oestrus cycle in the ewe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batailler, Martine; Caraty, Alain; Malpaux, Benoît; Tillet, Yves

    2004-01-01

    Background During the preovulatory surge of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a very large amount of the peptide is released in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal blood for 24-36H00. To study whether this release is linked to a modification of the morphological organization of the GnRH-containing neurons, i.e. morphological plasticity, we conducted experiments in intact ewes at 4 different times of the oestrous cycle (before the expected LH surge, during the LH surge, and on day 8 and day 15 of the subsequent luteal phase). The cycle stage was verified by determination of progesterone and LH concentrations in the peripheral blood samples collected prior to euthanasia. Results The distribution of GnRH-containing neurons throughout the preoptic area around the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis was studied following visualisation using immunohistochemistry. No difference was observed in the staining intensity for GnRH between the different groups. Clusters of GnRH-containing neurons (defined as 2 or more neurons being observed in close contact) were more numerous during the late follicular phase (43 ± 7) than during the luteal phase (25 ± 6), and the percentage of clusters was higher during the beginning of the follicular phase than during the luteal phase. There was no difference in the number of labelled neurons in each group. Conclusions These results indicate that the morphological organization of the GnRH-containing neurons in ewes is modified during the follicular phase. This transitory re-organization may contribute to the putative synchronization of these neurons during the surge. The molecular signal inducing this plasticity has not yet been identified, but oestradiol might play an important role, since in sheep it is the only signal which initiates the GnRH preovulatory surge. PMID:15555074

  3. Neuroanatomical organization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during the oestrus cycle in the ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malpaux Benoît

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the preovulatory surge of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, a very large amount of the peptide is released in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal blood for 24-36H00. To study whether this release is linked to a modification of the morphological organization of the GnRH-containing neurons, i.e. morphological plasticity, we conducted experiments in intact ewes at 4 different times of the oestrous cycle (before the expected LH surge, during the LH surge, and on day 8 and day 15 of the subsequent luteal phase. The cycle stage was verified by determination of progesterone and LH concentrations in the peripheral blood samples collected prior to euthanasia. Results The distribution of GnRH-containing neurons throughout the preoptic area around the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis was studied following visualisation using immunohistochemistry. No difference was observed in the staining intensity for GnRH between the different groups. Clusters of GnRH-containing neurons (defined as 2 or more neurons being observed in close contact were more numerous during the late follicular phase (43 ± 7 than during the luteal phase (25 ± 6, and the percentage of clusters was higher during the beginning of the follicular phase than during the luteal phase. There was no difference in the number of labelled neurons in each group. Conclusions These results indicate that the morphological organization of the GnRH-containing neurons in ewes is modified during the follicular phase. This transitory re-organization may contribute to the putative synchronization of these neurons during the surge. The molecular signal inducing this plasticity has not yet been identified, but oestradiol might play an important role, since in sheep it is the only signal which initiates the GnRH preovulatory surge.

  4. Sex hormonal modulation of interhemispheric transfer time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, M; Hamm, J P; Waldie, K E; Kirk, I J

    2013-08-01

    It is still a matter of debate whether functional cerebral asymmetries (FCA) of many cognitive processes are more pronounced in men than in women. Some evidence suggests that the apparent reduction in women's FCA is a result of the fluctuating levels of gonadal steroid hormones over the course of the menstrual cycle, making their FCA less static than for men. The degree of lateralization has been suggested to depend on interhemispheric communication that may be modulated by gonadal steroid hormones. Here, we employed visual-evoked EEG potentials to obtain a direct measure of interhemispheric communication during different phases of the menstrual cycle. The interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) was estimated from the interhemispheric latency difference of the N170 component of the visual-evoked potential from either left or right visual field presentation. Nineteen right-handed women with regular menstrual cycles were tested twice, once during the menstrual phase, when progesterone and estradiol levels are low, and once during the luteal phase when progesterone and estradiol levels are high. Plasma steroid levels were determined by blood-based immunoassay at each session. It was found that IHTT, in particular from right-to-left, was generally longer during the luteal phase relative to the menstrual phase. This effect occurred as a consequence of a slowed absolute N170 latency of the indirect pathway (i.e. left hemispheric response after LVF stimulation) and, in particular, a shortened latency of the direct pathway (i.e. right hemispheric response after LVF stimulation) during the luteal phase. These results show that cycle-related effects are not restricted to modulation of processes between hemispheres but also apply to cortical interactions, especially within the right hemisphere. The findings support the view that plastic changes in the female brain occur during relatively short-term periods across the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Concentrations of testosterone, luteal hormone and prolactin in the serum as well as comparisons of sensitivity between radioimmunoassays and enzyme assays for the detection of acid prostate phosphatase in the presence of carcinomas of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vopelius-Feldt, F. von.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between carcinomas of the prostate and the plasma levels of testosterone, luteal hormone and prolactin as well as the possible influence of these neoplasms on the testosterone binding capacity and free testosterone index are investigated for various tumour stages and degrees of histological differentiation, in connection with several forms of local therapy as well as a variety of contrasexual methods. The sensitivity of enzyme assays and radioimmunoassays for the detection of acid prostate phosphatase is evaluated within the framework of this study. (MBL) [de

  6. Field trial on progesterone cycles, metabolic profiles, body condition score and their relation to fertility in Estonian Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarütel, J; Ling, K; Waldmann, A; Jaakson, H; Kaart, T; Leesmäe, A

    2008-08-01

    Resumption of luteal activity postpartum and fertility were investigated in an Estonian Holstein high milk production and good fertility dairy herd. Body condition was scored after every 10 days in 54 multiparous dairy cows (71 lactations) calving inside from December to March during 4-year period. Blood samples were taken 1-14 days before calving and 1-14, 28-42 and 63-77 days after calving: analytes estimated were serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose, ketone bodies, total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides. The general linear mixed model was used to compare the data for cows with different characteristics in luteal activity postpartum based on their milk progesterone profiles. Forty-five per cent of cases had abnormal profiles; delayed resumption of ovarian cyclicity postpartum (DC) was the most prevalent abnormality. There was no difference in body condition scores between the groups. The DC and prolonged luteal phase groups had higher serum AST activity (p fertility.

  7. Early Intervention in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha

    2018-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention. AJP AT 175 Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future April 1925: Interpretations of Manic-Depressive Phases Earl Bond and G.E. Partridge reviewed a number of patients with manic-depressive illness in search of a unifying endo-psychic conflict. They concluded that understanding either phase of illness was "elusive" and

  8. The Interplay between Inflammation, Coagulation and Endothelial Injury in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis: Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Dumnicka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis (AP is an inflammatory disease with varied severity, ranging from mild local inflammation to severe systemic involvement resulting in substantial mortality. Early pathologic events in AP, both local and systemic, are associated with vascular derangements, including endothelial activation and injury, dysregulation of vasomotor tone, increased vascular permeability, increased leukocyte migration to tissues, and activation of coagulation. The purpose of the review was to summarize current evidence regarding the interplay between inflammation, coagulation and endothelial dysfunction in the early phase of AP. Practical aspects were emphasized: (1 we summarized available data on diagnostic usefulness of the markers of endothelial dysfunction and activated coagulation in early prediction of severe AP; (2 we reviewed in detail the results of experimental studies and clinical trials targeting coagulation-inflammation interactions in severe AP. Among laboratory tests, d-dimer and angiopoietin-2 measurements seem the most useful in early prediction of severe AP. Although most clinical trials evaluating anticoagulants in treatment of severe AP did not show benefits, they also did not show significantly increased bleeding risk. Promising results of human trials were published for low molecular weight heparin treatment. Several anticoagulants that proved beneficial in animal experiments are thus worth testing in patients.

  9. Time and nature of the signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.

    1989-01-01

    A vital link in a complex of physiological processes occurring during early pregnancy is the so-called maternal recognition of pregnancy: the prolongation of ovarian luteal function for continuation of progesterone secretion by an anti-luteolytic action of the developing embryos.

  10. Milk progesterone to monitor reproductive performance in Holstein Fries ian cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubbadeh, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to monitor reproductive of lactating Holstein Fries ian cows by measuring milk progesterone levels. Sequential post-partum milk samples were collected weekly throughout 20 weeks after pregnancy. Progesterone concentrations were determined by solid phase RIA. Lactating cows required an average of 5.2 weeks to resume luteal activity; 48% of the cows conceived after first insemination and had significantly high progesterone concentrations during the first 5 weeks after insemination than cows which returned to heat 5-8 weeks after insemination> Results also revealed that adequate level of progesterone, which varied between 4.2 and 9.1 nmol/l, is required to maintain early pregnancy and progesterone level remains high in pregnant cows. (Author) 17 refs., 3 Tabs

  11. Migration as a turning point in food habits: the early phase of dietary acculturation among women from South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern Countries living in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terragni, Laura; Garnweidner, Lisa M; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the early phase of dietary acculturation after migration. South Asian, African and Middle Eastern women (N = 21) living in Norway were interviewed about their early experiences with food in a new context. The findings pointed to abrupt changes in food habits in the first period after migration. To various degrees, women reported unfamiliarity with foods in shops, uncertainty about meal formats and food preparation and fear of eating food prohibited by their religion. Their food consumption tended to be restricted to food items perceived as familiar or safe. Our findings indicate that the first period after migration represents a specific phase in the process of dietary acculturation. Early initiatives aimed at enhancing confidence in food and familiarity with the new food culture are recommended.

  12. Proliferation in the normal FTE is a hallmark of the follicular phase, not BRCA mutation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sophia H L; Milea, Anca; Shaw, Patricia A

    2012-11-15

    Women who have inherited germline mutations of BRCA1/BRCA2 are at increased risk of developing high-grade serous carcinoma, and many of these cancers arise in the distal fimbriated end of the fallopian tube. We have previously shown that the fallopian tube epithelia of BRCA1 mutation carriers (FTE-BRCA) have altered signaling pathways compared to nonmutation carriers. In this study, we sought to determine whether these differences result in a proliferative advantage to the epithelia in this high-risk patient population and to investigate whether the postovulation environment of the FTE-BRCA compared to FTE from nonmutation carriers experiences a differential abundance of immune cells. Immunohistochemistry for Ki67, CD3, CD8, CD20, and CD68 was performed on histologically normal tubal epithelium (ampulla, n = 83), fimbria (n = 18) with known ovarian cycle status and germline mutation status and for Ki67 on fimbrial epithelium from women (n = 144) with and without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations who underwent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC) with concomitant cancer (n = 15) were also analyzed for presence of immune infiltrates. All slides were digitized and analyzed using automated image analysis software. There was no significant difference in the proliferative index in histologically normal FTE between BRCA1/BRCA2 and non-BRCA, in 144 fimbriae and 83 ampullae. The FTE-BRCA1 epithelia did not exhibit a differential presence of lymphocytes or macrophages, however more macrophages were present in the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase epithelia. In STICs macrophages were more abundant than lymphocytes with an incremental increase noted with disease progression. BRCA1/2 mutation carriers exhibited no significant increase in proliferation in the fallopian tube epithelial cells either in the ampulla or fimbriated ends of the tube. Rather, a significant proliferative increase was defined in the cases determined

  13. High temperature phase equilibria and phase diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chu-Kun; Yan, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature

  14. Allopregnanolone and mood disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bäckström, T.; Bixo, M.; Johansson, M.; Nyberg, S.; Ossewaarde, L.; Ragagnin, G.; Savic, I.; Strömberg, J.; Timby, E.; van Broekhoven, F.; van Wingen, G.

    2014-01-01

    Certain women experience negative mood symptoms during the menstrual cycle and progesterone addition in estrogen treatments. In women with PMDD increased negative mood symptoms related to allopregnanolone increase during the luteal phase of ovulatory menstrual cycles. In anovulatory cycles no

  15. 17beta-estradiol and progesterone do not influence the production of cytokines from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Annechien; Schipper, Martin; Heineman, Maas Jan; Faas, Marijke

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test whether 17beta-estradiol or progesterone influence the cytokine productive capacity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes in humans. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Academic research institution. PATIENT(S): Seven women in the luteal phase of a normal ovarian cycle,

  16. 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone do not influence the production of cytokines from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, M; Heineman, MJ; Faas, M; Bouman, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To test whether 17beta-estradiol or progesterone influence the cytokine productive capacity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes in humans. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Academic research institution. Patient(s): Seven women in the luteal phase of a normal ovarian cycle,

  17. Assessment of uterine, subendometrial blood flows and endometrial gland vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF in women with unexplained infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. El-Zenneni

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Subendometrial, but not the uterine, blood flow and the EG-VEGF score seem to be significantly lower during the mid-luteal phase in women with unexplained infertility. This may suggest significantly poorer angiogenesis during the assumed peri-implantation period.

  18. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, nucleotide phosophate, and organic and inorganic phosphate levels during the early phases of diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Y; Gerson, J R; Bessman, A N

    1977-05-01

    The relation between serum and red blood cell (RBC) inorganic phosphate levels, RBC 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels, RBC nucleotide phosphate (Pn), and RBC total phosphate (Pt) levels were studied during the early phases of treatment and recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). A steady drop in serum inorganic phosphate was found during the first 24 hours of insulin treatment and was most profound at 24 hours. No statistically significant changes (P less than 0.05) were found in red cell inorganic phosphate or nucleotide phosphate levels during the 24-hour study period. The levels of total red cell phosphate were lower in this group of patients than in nonacidotic diabetic subjects and decreased slightly after 24 hours of treatment. The red cell 2,3-DPG levels were low at the initiation of therapy and remained low during the 24-hour study period. Glucose, bicarbonate, lactate, and ketone levels fell in linear patterns with treatment. In view of the current evidence for the effects of low 2,3-DPG on oxygen delivery and the relation of low serum phosphate levels to RBC glycolysis and 2,3-DPG formation, this study reemphasizes the need for phosphate replacement during the early phases of treatment of DKA.

  19. Postpartum Circulating Markers of Inflammation and the Systemic Acute-Phase Response After Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Bas B; Bruinse, Hein W; Veerbeek, Jan H; Post Uiterweer, Emiel D; Koenen, Steven V; van der Bom, Johanna G; Rijkers, Ger T; Roest, Mark; Franx, Arie

    2016-02-01

    Preeclampsia is an inflammatory-mediated hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and seems to be an early indicator of increased cardiovascular risk, but mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. In this study, we identified levels of circulating inflammatory markers and dynamic changes in the systemic acute-phase response in 44 women with a history of severe early-onset preeclampsia, compared with 29 controls with only uneventful pregnancies at 1.5 to 3.5 years postpartum. Models used were in vivo seasonal influenza vaccination and in vitro whole-blood culture with T-cell stimulants and the toll-like receptor-4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. Outcome measures were C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-18, fibrinogen, myeloperoxidase, and a panel of 13 cytokines representative of the innate and adaptive inflammatory response, in addition to established cardiovascular markers. The in vivo acute-phase response was higher for women with previous preeclampsia than that for controls without such a history, although only significant for C-reactive protein (P=0.04). Preeclampsia was associated with higher IL-1β (Ppreeclampsia: an adaptive response cluster associated with increased C-reactive protein and IL-6 before and after vaccination, increased weight, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and a toll-like receptor-4 mediated the cluster associated with increased IL-18 before and after vaccination but not associated with other cardiovascular markers. Furthermore, we found interactions between previous preeclampsia, common TLR4 gene variants, and the IL-18 response to vaccination. In conclusion, preeclampsia is associated with alterations in the inflammatory response postpartum mostly independent of other established cardiovascular risk markers. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Dietary Soy Supplement on Fibromyalgia Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Early Phase Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietlind L. Wahner-Roedler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with fibromyalgia use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Properly designed controlled trials are necessary to assess the effectiveness of these practices. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, early phase trial. Fifty patients seen at a fibromyalgia outpatient treatment program were randomly assigned to a daily soy or placebo (casein shake. Outcome measures were scores of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention. Analysis was with standard statistics based on the null hypothesis, and separation test for early phase CAM comparative trials. Twenty-eight patients completed the study. Use of standard statistics with intent-to-treat analysis showed that total FIQ scores decreased by 14% in the soy group (P = .02 and by 18% in the placebo group (P < .001. The difference in change in scores between the groups was not significant (P = .16. With the same analysis, CES-D scores decreased in the soy group by 16% (P = .004 and in the placebo group by 15% (P = .05. The change in scores was similar in the groups (P = .83. Results of statistical analysis using the separation test and intent-to-treat analysis revealed no benefit of soy compared with placebo. Shakes that contain soy and shakes that contain casein, when combined with a multidisciplinary fibromyalgia treatment program, provide a decrease in fibromyalgia symptoms. Separation between the effects of soy and casein (control shakes did not favor the intervention. Therefore, large-sample studies using soy for patients with fibromyalgia are probably not indicated.

  1. Epithelial lining of the endometrium during the luteal phase in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... The endometrium is receptive for the embryo and presents an implantation ... This study is aimed at highlighting an alternation in pinopod expression and to ... underwent two endometrial biopsies 2-7 days after human chronic ...

  2. Menstrual Changes in Body Composition of Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachoń, Aleksandra Jadwiga

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether the tendencies and scope of changes in body mass, body composition and body girths across the menstrual cycle were similar or different in women of different body build. Anthropometric examinations were carried out in a group of 40 naturally regularly menstruated females practicing team sports (aged 19-21, B-v 169.3+/-6.4 cm, body mass 59.6+/-7.0 kg), in the follicular, periovulatory and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The phases were determined on the basis of data from two consecutive menstrual cycles taking into account the cycle’s length. To establish the type of body build, Body Mass Index, hydration status and skinfold thickness were measured. For a statistical analysis, a multiple comparisons with multiple confidence intervals were applied. The increase in body mass between the follicular and the luteal phases was observed in all groups of women, the biggest gain was recorded in slim women, who in the luteal phase weighted 0.8 kg more. The amount of fat mass increased significantly across the menstrual cycle only in more hydrated (by about 0.66 kg) and slim women (by about 0.54 kg). Significant changes between consecutive phases of the menstrual cycle in waist and hip girths, and suprailiac skinfold thickness in some groups of women also indicate influence of fatness and hydration status and slenderness. In view of the presented results, the body build seems important for an analysis of the pattern of each component’s changes across the menstrual cycle, especially for female athletes. Certain changes can be seen only in some groups of women, therefore somatic features can be considered as a predictor of the intensity of changes.

  3. THE FRAME NETWORK OF INTERDISCIPLINARY STAKEHOLDER COMPOSITIONS IN THE EARLY PHASES OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Alexander Kjær; Nafei, Nadiim Mohamed Adel Abd El Fatta; Larsen, Michael Planck

    2017-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) projects have continually become more complex over the years and now involve a diverse range of stakeholders, who have different disciplinary backgrounds, values, objectives, and experience. This makes them create different ‘frames’, which may represent conflicting p...... also identifies core activities and events of the framing process and propose a model describing an iterative cycle of six phases that stakeholders in New Product Development go through, which we in this article call ‘The Interdisciplinary Framing Loop’.......New Product Development (NPD) projects have continually become more complex over the years and now involve a diverse range of stakeholders, who have different disciplinary backgrounds, values, objectives, and experience. This makes them create different ‘frames’, which may represent conflicting...... in the early phases of NPD projects involving interdisciplinary stakeholders in organisational settings. The study indicates that stakeholders create isolated aspired values and working principles and from these form a ‘network’ of ‘partial frames’ before connecting them into ‘fully defined frames’. The study...

  4. TRAVELLERS: a school-based early intervention programme helping young people manage and process change, loss and transition. Pilot phase findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Pauline; Coggan, Carolyn; Bennett, Sara

    2003-06-01

    This paper outlines the conceptual background and findings from the pilot phase of TRAVELLERS--an early intervention programme designed to enhance protective factors for young people experiencing change, loss and transition events and early signs of emotional distress. The pilot study aimed to determine whether TRAVELLERS was a feasible, acceptable and promising intervention for young people within secondary schools in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The conceptual origins of the TRAVELLERS programme are described in terms of: adolescent mental health concerns; emerging mental health promotion theory and practice; and prevention and early intervention models. The key elements of the TRAVELLERS programme are described. The programme was piloted in two secondary schools, one rural and one urban with 34 participants (females n = 24, males n = 10). Evaluation methods included: review of programme materials; identification of potential selection tools appropriate to Year 9 students; analysis of selection questionnaire; and conduct of feedback from participants, facilitators and parents/caregivers. The TRAVELLERS programme provides a means of identifying and selecting young people who may benefit from participating in an early intervention programme. The programme has achieved a statistically significant reduction in participants' distress (p Young people were overwhelmingly enthusiastic about most aspects of TRAVELLERS. School personnel reported that TRAVELLERS was an appropriate and acceptable programme to the school. Targeted interventions provided within a supportive school environment can contribute to enhancing protective factors such as personal and interpersonal coping strategies, increased help-seeking behaviour, and young people feeling more positive about themselves and their lives. The pilot programme has been amended and prepared for a two year trial phase in 10 secondary schools during 2002-2003.

  5. Sex differences in the relationship between prolactin levels and impaired processing speed in early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Itziar; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Creus, Marta; Cabezas, Ángel; Solé, Montse; Algora, Maria José; Sánchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Vilella, Elisabet; Labad, Javier

    2018-06-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia is commonly observed in people with psychotic disorders due to D2 receptor blockade by antipsychotic drugs, although it may also exist in drug-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis. Recent studies suggest that hyperprolactinaemia may have a negative impact on cognitive function in people with early psychosis. We aimed to explore whether there are sex differences in the association between prolactin levels and cognitive performance in early psychosis patients. We studied 60 young patients with early psychosis (aged 18-35 years, 35% females) and a sex- and age-matched control group of 50 healthy subjects. Cognitive assessment was performed with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery. Prolactin, total cortisol, follicular-stimulating hormone, luteal hormone and sex steroids (testosterone in men, oestradiol and progesterone in women) were measured in plasma. Salivary cortisol was measured at different sampling times (awakening response, 10:00 and 23:00). Psychopathological status was assessed, and antipsychotic treatment was registered. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to explore the relationship between prolactin and cognitive tasks while adjusting for covariates. Prolactin levels were associated with impaired processing speed in men, and this association was independent of cortisol and testosterone. In women, prolactin levels were not associated with processing speed tasks, although we observed a negative effect of prolactin on verbal learning and spatial working memory in female healthy subjects. The male-dependent effect maintained its significance after adjusting for education status, antipsychotic treatment and negative symptoms. Our study demonstrates that the previously reported association between high prolactin levels and impaired cognitive processes in early psychosis is restricted to men.

  6. Studying forced expiratory volume at 1 second over menstrual segments in asthmatic and non-asthmatic women: assessing protocol feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegienka Ganesa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex hormones may play an important role in observed gender differences in asthma incidence and severity, as well as in the observed changes in asthma symptoms during times of hormonal fluctuation (i.e.; premenstrual, pregnancy, etc.. This pilot study sought to demonstrate the feasibility of data collection methods to investigate the effects of sex hormones on lung function in women. Findings A cohort of 13 women (6 with and 7 without prior asthma diagnoses who were having menstrual periods and were not taking hormones collected urine samples daily for measurement of estrogen (estrone E1C and progesterone (Pregnanediol-glucuronide PDG metabolites over the course of a menstrual segment (bleeding episode plus the following bleeding-free interval. Hormones were used to estimate menstrual segment phase (follicular versus luteal based on a published algorithm. Daily bleeding and FEV1 measurements were recorded and percent predicted FEV1 was calculated. Percent predicted FEV1 decreased over the course of the follicular but not the luteal phase. More specifically, among women without a prior asthma diagnosis, the E1C/PDG ratio and E1C and PDG were individually associated with FEV1 in the follicular phase. No associations were found between hormones and percent predicted FEV1 in the luteal phase or among asthmatic women. E1C was associated with FEV1 in the five days before bleeding onset only among non-asthmatic women. Discussion A study of contiguous daily hormones and symptoms over menstrual segments from a large group of women with and without asthma is needed to better determine within-woman cyclicity of the observed patterns.

  7. Early-Time Solution of the Horizontal Unconfined Aquifer in the Buildup Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravanis, Elias; Akylas, Evangelos

    2017-10-01

    We derive the early-time solution of the Boussinesq equation for the horizontal unconfined aquifer in the buildup phase under constant recharge and zero inflow. The solution is expressed as a power series of a suitable similarity variable, which is constructed so that to satisfy the boundary conditions at both ends of the aquifer, that is, it is a polynomial approximation of the exact solution. The series turns out to be asymptotic and it is regularized by resummation techniques that are used to define divergent series. The outflow rate in this regime is linear in time, and the (dimensionless) coefficient is calculated to eight significant figures. The local error of the series is quantified by its deviation from satisfying the self-similar Boussinesq equation at every point. The local error turns out to be everywhere positive, hence, so is the integrated error, which in turn quantifies the degree of convergence of the series to the exact solution.

  8. Orientation selection process during the early stage of cubic dendrite growth: A phase-field crystal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Sai; Wang Zhijun; Guo Yaolin; Wang Jincheng; Yu Yanmei; Zhou Yaohe

    2012-01-01

    Using the phase-field crystal model, we investigate the orientation selection of the cubic dendrite growth at the atomic scale. Our simulation results reproduce how a face-centered cubic (fcc) octahedral nucleus and a body-centered cubic (bcc) truncated-rhombic dodecahedral nucleus choose the preferred growth direction and then evolve into the dendrite pattern. The interface energy anisotropy inherent in the fcc crystal structure leads to the fastest growth velocity in the 〈1 0 0〉 directions. New { 1 1 1} atomic layers prefer to nucleate at positions near the tips of the fcc octahedron, which leads to the directed growth of the fcc dendrite tips in the 〈1 0 0〉 directions. A similar orientation selection process is also found during the early stage of bcc dendrite growth. The orientation selection regime obtained by phase-field crystal simulation is helpful for understanding the orientation selection processes of real dendrite growth.

  9. Candidate gene expression in Bos indicus ovarian tissues: pre-pubertal and post-pubertal heifers in diestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15 and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1 and TGFB2 and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2, type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1, and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1 could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase. Six post-pubertal (POST heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six pre-pubertal (PRE heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1 and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1 and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the down-regulation of LHR and up-regulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Up-regulation of IGF1 expression pre-puberty, compared to post-puberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0

  10. Regulation of intraluteal production of prostaglandins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottobre Joseph S

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is clear evidence for intraluteal production of prostaglandins (PGs in numerous species and under a variety of experimental conditions. In general, secretion of PGs appears to be elevated in the early corpus luteum (CL and during the period of luteolysis. Regulation of intraluteal PG production is regulated by a variety of factors. An autoamplification pathway in which PGF-2alpha stimulates intraluteal production of PGF-2alpha has been identified in a number of species. The mechanisms underlying this autoamplification pathway appear to differ by species with expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 and activity of phospholipase A2 acting as important physiological control points. In addition, a number of other responses that are induced by PGF-2alpha (decreased luteal progesterone, increased endothelin-1, increased cytokines also have been found to increase intraluteal PGF-2alpha production. Thus, regulation of intraluteal PG production may serve to initiate or amplify physiological signals to the CL and may be important in specific aspects of luteal physiology particularly during luteal regression.

  11. The elasticity of cervical-vaginal secretions is abnormal in polycystic ovary syndrome: Case report of five PCOS women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Shamim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is a leading cause of infertility. We studied the rheological properties of cervical-vaginal secretions in five PCOS patients during variable treatment intervals with metformin. Five ovulatory normal women for a total of thirteen cycles served as control patients. All subjects collected daily cervical-vaginal fluid(CVF samples with an aspirator, and CVF samples were characterized by a flow metric, die swell ratio (B, which measured CVF elasticity. Ovulatory cycles were indexed to the day of positive urine or serum LH (luteinizing hormone. CVF B levels from ovulatory normal women had a characteristic concave parabolic pattern of a minimum near the day of ovulation with higher values outside the periovulatory phase. In contrast, the five PCOS patients with or without metformin treatment had no periodicity of CVF B, and their CVF B levels were typically less compared to those in the early preovulatory and luteal phases of normal patients.

  12. [Sodium restriction during pregnancy: an outdated advice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, P W; Peeters, L L

    1999-10-23

    Even in an early phase of pregnancy marked haemodynamic changes occur, including a fall in vascular resistance and blood pressure and a rise in cardiac output. To compensate for the increased intravascular capacity the kidney retains more sodium and water. Apparently, the set point of sodium homeostasis shifts to a higher level at the expense of an expansion of extracellular volume. Studies during the normal menstrual cycle have shown that these changes, albeit smaller, also occur during the luteal phase. These fluctuations with the menstrual cycle are less apparent if salt intake is low, suggesting that a high salt intake is needed to facilitate the process of sodium retention. In pregnancies complicated by hypertension and/or pre-eclampsia body fluid volumes are low with an enhanced tendency to retain sodium after a volume challenge. These data, together with the lack of an apparent benefit of sodium restriction, suggest that the practice of prescribing a low-salt diet to hypertensive pregnant women should be abandoned.

  13. Early Dementia Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the population of the world increases, there will be larger numbers of people with dementia and an emerging need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early dementia screening is the process by which a patient who might be in the prodromal phases of a dementing illness is determined as having, or not having, the hallmarks of a neurodegenerative condition. The concepts of mild cognitive impairment, or mild neurocognitive disorder, are useful in analyzing the patient in the prodromal phase of a dementing disease; however, the transformation to dementia may be as low as 10% per annum. The search for early dementia requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, determination of functional status, corroborative history and imaging (including MRI, FDG-PET and maybe amyloid PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination assaying Aβ1–42, T-τ and P-τ might also be helpful. Primary care physicians are fundamental in the screening process and are vital in initiating specialist investigation and treatment. Early dementia screening is especially important in an age where there is a search for disease modifying therapies, where there is mounting evidence that treatment, if given early, might influence the natural history—hence the need for cost-effective screening measures for early dementia.

  14. Skin manifestations in sulfur mustard exposed victims with ophthalmologic complications: Association between early and late phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Hejazi, MD

    Full Text Available Context: Sulfur mustard (SM was used during the Iraq-Iran war (1980–1988. Exposed veterans continue to suffer from its ocular, skin, and respiratory complications. Objective: We aimed to evaluate associations between early (at the time of acute exposure and decades later skin manifestations in individuals with severe ophthalmologic complications secondary to sulfur mustard exposure. Materials and methods: One hundred forty-nine veterans with severe ocular injuries were evaluated for acute and chronic skin complications. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between early and late skin manifestations. Results: Late skin complaints were observed in nearly all survivors who had early skin lesions (131 out of 137; 95.62%. Seven out of 12 patients (58.33% who did not have early skin lesions ultimately developed late skin complications. There was a significant relationship between the presence of lesions at the time of exposure and developing late skin complaints (two-sided Fisher's exact test, OR = 15.59, p < 0.001. There was an association between having at least one early skin lesion and occurrence of late skin complications. Survivors with blisters at the time of chemical exposure were more likely to complain of itching (95% CI: 3.63–25.97, p < 0.001, burning (OR = 11.16; 95% CI: 2.97–41.89, p < 0.001, pigmentation changes (OR = 10.17; 95% CI: 2.54–40.75, p = 0.001, dryness (OR = 6.71, 95% CI: 1.22–37.01, p = 0.03 or cherry angioma (OR = 2.59; 95% CI:1.21–5.55, p = 0.01 during the late phase. Using multivariate logistic models, early blisters remained significantly associated with latent skin complaints. Of note, the genitalia and great flexure areas were the most involved anatomical sites for both early and late skin lesions in SM exposed survivors. Conclusion: According to this study, the presence of blisters at the time of exposure to SM is the most important predictor of developing

  15. Prolactin modulates luteal activity in the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx during delayed embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha; Krishna, Amitabh

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of prolactin as a modulator of luteal steroidogenesis during the period of delayed embryonic development in Cynopterus sphinx. A marked decline in circulating prolactin levels was noted during the months of November through December coinciding with the period of decreased serum progesterone and delayed embryonic development. The seasonal changes in serum prolactin levels correlated positively with circulating progesterone (P) level, but inversely with circulating melatonin level during first pregnancy showing delayed development in Cynopterus sphinx. The results also showed decreased expression of prolactin receptor-short form (PRL-RS) both in the corpus luteum and in the utero-embryonic unit during the period of delayed embryonic development. Bats treated in vivo with prolactin during the period of delayed development showed significant increase in serum progesterone and estradiol levels together with significant increase in the expression of PRL-RS, luteinizing hormone receptor (LH-R), steroidogenic acute receptor protein (STAR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in the ovary. Prolactin stimulated ovarian angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor) and cell survival (B-cell lymphoma 2) in vivo. Significant increases in ovarian progesterone production and the expression of prolactin-receptor, LH-R, STAR and 3β-HSD proteins were noted following the exposure of LH or prolactin in vitro during the delayed period. In conclusion, short-day associated increased melatonin level may be responsible for decreased prolactin release during November-December. The decline in prolactin level might play a role in suppressing P and estradiol-17β (E2) estradiol levels thereby causing delayed embryonic development in C. sphinx. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Switching between forest and trees: Opposite relationship of progesterone and testosterone to global–local processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Belinda; Petasis, Ourania; Cahill, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in attentional selection of global and local components of stimuli have been hypothesized to underlie sex differences in cognitive strategy choice. A Navon figure paradigm was employed in 32 men, 41 naturally cycling women (22 follicular, 19 luteal) and 19 users of oral contraceptives (OCs) containing first to third generation progestins in their active pill phase. Participants were first asked to detect targets at any level (divided attention) and then at either the global or the local level only (focused attention). In the focused attention condition, luteal women showed reduced global advantage (i.e. faster responses to global vs. local targets) compared to men, follicular women and OC users. Accordingly, global advantage during the focused attention condition related significantly positively to testosterone levels and significantly negatively to progesterone, but not estradiol levels in a multiple regression model including all naturally cycling women and men. Interference (i.e. delayed rejection of stimuli displaying targets at the non-attended level) was significantly enhanced in OC users as compared to naturally cycling women and related positively to testosterone levels in all naturally cycling women and men. Remarkably, when analyzed separately for each group, the relationship of testosterone to global advantage and interference was reversed in women during their luteal phase as opposed to men and women during their follicular phase. As global processing is lateralized to the right and local processing to the left hemisphere, we speculate that these effects stem from a testosterone-mediated enhancement of right-hemisphere functioning as well as progesterone-mediated inter-hemispheric decoupling. PMID:24874173

  17. The inter-relationship of premenstrual symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, M; Abraham, S; McNeil, D; Vizzard, J; Macaskill, P; Fraser, I; Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1995-09-01

    The prospective symptom reports of women seeking treatment for premenstrual symptoms and control subjects was investigated. In order to compare symptom reports from premenstrual symptom sufferers and control subjects a method of combining and analysing prospectively collected menstrual cycle symptom data is required. A technique that uses the time of onset of menses and the time of ovulation (as measured by urinary luteinizing hormone excretion) to standardize each cycle into 14 time points was developed. Summary factors were then empirically derived from data collected prospectively from 30 premenstrual symptom sufferers and 19 control subjects. Twenty-two mood symptoms were summarized into a single factor and the 29 most frequently occurring physical symptoms were summarized into two factors. Factor scores were calculated on the basis of these factors and the effect of time during the menstrual cycle on these scores examined. Both physical symptom factor scores increased significantly in the luteal phase for both the premenstrual symptom sufferer group and the control group. The single mood factor score increased significantly in the luteal phase for the premenstrual sufferer group but not for the control group, suggesting that the only qualitative difference between the groups was the presence of cyclic mood symptoms in the premenstrual symptom sufferer group. The premenstrual symptom sufferer group recorded significantly higher scores on each of the three factors than the control group. The correlation between the scores on each of the factors over three cycles was high both in the follicular and luteal phase suggesting that these factor scores provide a reproducible measure of menstrual cycle symptomatology.

  18. Prognostic Performance Evaluation of the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis and the Korean Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis Scores in the Early Phase of Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Sug; Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Byung Kook; Cho, Yong Soo

    2018-01-15

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) contributes to poor outcome in the early phase of trauma. We aimed to analyze and compare the prognostic performances of the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) and the Korean Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (KSTH) scores in the early phase of trauma. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to examine the prognostic performance of both scores, and multivariate analysis was used to estimate the prognostic impact of the ISTH and KSTH scores in the early phase of trauma. The primary outcome was 24-hour mortality and the secondary outcome was massive transfusion. Of 1,229 patients included in the study, the 24-hour mortality rate was 7.6% (n = 93), and 8.1% (n = 99) of patients who received massive transfusions. The area under the curves (AUCs) of the KSTH and ISTH scores for 24-hour mortality were 0.784 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.760-0.807) and 0.744 (95% CI, 0.718-0.768), respectively. The AUC of KSTH and ISTH scores for massive transfusion were 0.758 (95% CI, 0.734-0.782) and 0.646 (95% CI, 0.619-0.673), respectively. The AUCs of the KSTH score was significantly different from those of the ISTH score. Overt DIC according to KSTH criteria only, was independently associated with 24-hour mortality (odds ratio [OR], 2.630; 95% CI, 1.456-4.752). Only the KSTH score was independently associated with massive transfusion (OR, 1.563; 95% CI, 1.182-2.068). The KSTH score demonstrates a better prognostic performance for outcomes than the ISTH score in the early phase of trauma. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  19. Sex hormones play a role in vulnerability to sleep loss on emotion processing tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Lustig

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The central aim of this study was to investigate hormones as a predictor of individual vulnerability or resiliency on emotion processing tasks following one night of sleep restriction. The restriction group was instructed to sleep 3 a.m.–7 a.m. (13 men, 13 women in follicular phase, 10 women in luteal phase of menstrual cycle, and a control group slept 11 p.m.–7 a.m. (12 men, 12 follicular women, 12 luteal women. Sleep from home was verified with actigraphy. Saliva samples were collected on the evening prior to restriction, and in the morning and afternoon following restriction, to measure testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone. In the laboratory, event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded during presentation of images and faces to index neural processing of emotional stimuli. Compared to controls, sleep-restricted participants had a larger amplitude Late Positive Potential (LPP ERP to positive vs neutral images, reflecting greater motivated attention towards positive stimuli. Sleep-restricted participants were also less accurate categorizing sad faces and exhibited a larger N170 to sad faces, reflecting greater neural reactivity. Sleep-restricted luteal women were less accurate categorizing all images compared to control luteal women, and progesterone was related to several outcomes. Morning testosterone in men was lower in the sleep-restricted group compared to controls; lower testosterone was associated with lower accuracy to positive images, a greater difference between positive vs neutral LPP amplitude, and lower accuracy to sad and fearful faces. In summary, women higher in progesterone and men lower in testosterone were more vulnerable to the effects of sleep restriction on emotion processing tasks. This study highlights a role for sex and sex hormones in understanding individual differences in vulnerability to sleep loss. Keywords: Sleep restriction, Emotion processing, Testosterone, Progesterone, Estradiol

  20. Changes In Men’s Salivary Testosterone And Cortisol Levels, And In Sexual Desire After Smelling Female Axillary And Vulvar Scents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo eMondragón-Ceballos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that a woman’s vaginal or axillary odors convey information on her attractivity. Yet, whether such scents induce psychoneuroendocrinological changes in perceivers is still controversial. We studied if smelling axillary and vulvar odors collected in the periovulatory and late luteal phases of young women modify salivary testosterone and cortisol levels, as well as sexual desire in men. Forty-five women and 115 men, all of them college students and unacquainted with each other, participated in the study. Female odors were collected on pads affixed to the axilla and on panty protectors both worn the entire night before experiments. Men provided five saliva samples, a basal one before the smelling procedure, and four more 15, 30, 60 and 75 min after exposure to odors. Immediately after smelling the odor source, men answered a questionnaire rating hedonic qualities of scents, and after providing the last saliva sample they answered questionnaire on sexual desire. We found that periovulatory axillary and vulvar odors increased testosterone and cortisol levels, with vulvar scents producing a more prolonged effect. Luteal axilla odors decreased testosterone and cortisol levels, while luteal vulva odors increased cortisol. Periovulatory axilla and vulva scents accounted for a general increase of interest in sex. These odors were also rated as more pleasant and familiar, while luteal vulvar odors were perceived as intense and unpleasant.

  1. Psychotropic and Anticonvulsant Drug Usage in Early Childhood Special Education Programs I. Phase One: A Preliminary Report: Prevalence, Attitude, Training, and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    As part of a three phase study designed to survey the teachers and parents of children receiving psychotropic and anticonvulsant drugs, 208 teachers of preschool special education children on medication were mailed questionnaires. The Early Childhood Medication Questionnaire used in the survey included items relating to teacher, program, and…

  2. Ganirelix for luteolysis in poor responder patients undergoing IVF treatment: a Scandinavian multicenter 'extended pilot study'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lena; Andersen, A.N.; Lindenberg, Svend

    2010-01-01

    To enhance oocyte yield and pregnancy outcome in poor responder women undergoing IVF treatment, daily low dose GnRH antagonist administration was given during the late luteal phase to induce luteolysis and possibly secure a more synchronous cohort of recruitable follicles. An open extended pilot...

  3. Spectro-polarimetric study of the early evolutionary phases of the most massive galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernet, Joel

    2001-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the early phases of evolution of the most massive galaxies (giant elliptic), a fundamental process which is a matter of study for various reasons exposed by the author in his introduction. While presented results are based on spectro-polarimetric observations, the author first presents specific instruments and methods used by spectropolarimetry which provides access to variations of all vectorial properties of light, without loss of information. Then, he reports the study of a near powerful radio-galaxy, Cygnus A, the study of nine radio-galaxies with a high redshift, and the study of a far ultra-luminous infrared galaxy (SMM J02399-0136). Results are then discussed and perspectives of research are proposed. Appendices present the theoretical study of the contribution of massive stars to the diffuse extragalactic ionizing background, and observations made on a near radio-galaxy (NGC 6251)

  4. Leu72Met408 Polymorphism of the Ghrelin Gene Is Associated With Early Phase of Gastric Emptying in the Patients With Functional Dyspepsia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Futagami, Seiji; Shimpuku, Mayumi; Shindo, Tomotaka; Maruki, Yuuta; Nagoya, Hiroyuki; Kodaka, Yasuhiro; Sato, Hitomi; Gudis, Katya; Kawagoe, Tetsuro; Sakamoto, Choitsu

    2015-01-01

    There are no available data about the relationship between ghrelin gene genotypes and early phase of gastric emptying in functional dyspepsia (FD) as defined by Rome III classification. We enrolled 74 patients presenting with typical symptoms of FD and 64 healthy volunteers. Gastric motility was evaluated using the 13C-acetate breath test. We used Rome III criteria to evaluate upper abdominal symptoms and self-rating questionnaires for depression (SRQ-D) scores to determine status of depression. The Arg51Gln (346G->A), preproghrelin (3056T->C), Leu72Met (408C->A), Gln90Leu (3412T->A) and G-protein 3 (825C->T) polymorphisms were analyzed in the DNA from blood samples of enrolled subjects. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction. There was a significant relationship between the Gln90Leu3412 genotype and SRQ-D score in FD patients (P = 0.009). Area under the curve at 15 minutes (AUC15) value was significantly associated with the Leu72Met408 genotype (P = 0.015) but not with entire gastric emptying. The Leu72Met (408C->A) single nucleotide polymorphism was significantly associated with early phase of gastric emptying in FD patients. Further studies will be necessary to clarify the association between ghrelin gene single nucleotide polymorphisms and early phase of gastric emptying in FD patients.

  5. Flow Test to Predict Early Hypotony and Hypertensive Phase After Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) Surgical Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jason; Beltran-Agullo, Laura; Buys, Yvonne M; Moss, Edward B; Gonzalez, Johanna; Trope, Graham E

    2016-06-01

    To assess the validity of a preimplantation flow test to predict early hypotony [intraocular pressure (IOP)≤5 mm Hg on 2 consecutive visits and hypertensive phase (HP) (IOP>21 mm Hg) after Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) implantation. Prospective interventional study on patients receiving an AGV. A preimplantation flow test using a gravity-driven reservoir and an open manometer was performed on all AGVs. Opening pressure (OP) and closing pressure (CP) were defined as the pressure at which fluid was seen to flow or stop flowing through the AGV, respectively. OP and CP were measured twice per AGV. Patients were followed for 12 weeks. In total, 20 eyes from 19 patients were enrolled. At 12 weeks the mean IOP decreased from 29.2±9.1 to 16.8±5.2 mm Hg (P<0.01). The mean AGV OP was 17.5±5.4 mm Hg and the mean CP was 6.7±2.3 mm Hg. Early (within 2 wk postoperative) HP occurred in 37% and hypotony in 16% of cases. An 18 mm Hg cutoff for the OP gave a sensitivity of 0.71, specificity of 0.83, positive predictive value of 0.71, and negative predictive value of 0.83 for predicting an early HP. A 7 mm Hg cutoff for the CP yielded a sensitivity of 1.0, specificity of 0.38, positive predictive value of 0.23, and negative predictive value of 1.0 for predicting hypotony. Preoperative OP and CP may predict early hypotony or HP and may be used as a guide as to which AGV valves to discard before implantation surgery.

  6. Monitoring the postpartum ovarian activity of Luxi cattle by use of plasma progesterone solid phase RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaorong; Wang Jianchen; Liu Zhixi; Wu Hao; Zhang Dequn

    1992-01-01

    The blood samples were collected from 22 Luxi cattle, aged 2.5-8 years, from calving day (day 0) to 80 days postpartum at 4-day interval. Progesterone (P 4 ) levels in plasma were determined by solid phase RIA. The results are summarized as follows: P 4 levels in plasma of the cows remained at 0.34 +- 0.04-0.55 +- 0.06 ng/ml before 10.6 +- 3.9-13.6 +- 4.4 days postpartum, then they began to rise and the ovarian activity appeared. The plasma P 4 profiles of the cows can be classified into 4 types, characterized by (I) 3 normal cycles; (II) a short cycle followed by 2 normal cycles; (III) a normal cycle followed by a short cycle and a normal cycle; and (IV) some irregular cycles respectively. The lowest and the highest P 4 levels were 0.45 +- 0.15-0.60 +- 0.38 and 2.65 +- 1.95-4.17 +- 2.35 ng/ml respectively in luteal cycles. It is also concluded that determining plasma P 4 concentrations at 4-day interval can precisely identify the oestrus cycles of cows, and that the solid phase P 4 -RIA have practical value for determination of plasma P 4 concentration

  7. Quantitative early phase scintigraphy in the prediction of healing of tibial fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.L.; Strachan, R.K.; Hughes, S.P.F.

    1992-01-01

    Imaging with technetium-99m methylene diphsophonate ( 99m Tc-MDP) is established in the diagnosis of infection, neoplasia and ischaemic necrosis in orthopaedic practice, but its role in fracture healing is less well-defined. Previous studies have shown a relationship between fracture site activity (region A), activity in adjacent normal bone (region C) and time to union. The predictive value of the A/C ratio of the image obtained 300-800 s after injection was assessed in a prospective study of 50 patients with closed tibial fractures managed with plaster casts, external fixators and intramedullary nails. There were significant differences in absolute uptake and A/C ratio between the three groups (P 99m -Tc-MDP uptake so as to reduce the A/C ratio (1.10±0.20), but there is a promissing role for early phase bone scanning in non-operative (A/C=1.40±0.21) or externally fixed (A/C=1.26±0.22) fractures in conjunction with other non-invasive methods of monitoring the biomechanical environment. (orig.)

  8. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  9. Paradoxical effects of GABA-A modulators may explain sex steroid induced negative mood symptoms in some persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bäckström, T.; Haage, D.; Löfgren, M.; Johansson, I. M.; Strömberg, J.; Nyberg, S.; Andréen, L.; Ossewaarde, L.; van Wingen, G. A.; Turkmen, S.; Bengtsson, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Some women have negative mood symptoms, caused by progestagens in hormonal contraceptives or sequential hormone therapy or by progesterone in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, which may be attributed to metabolites acting on the GABA-A receptor. The GABA system is the major inhibitory system

  10. Species differences in the effect of pregnancy on lymphocyte cytokine production between human and rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, Marijke M.; Bouman, Annechien; Veenstra van Nieuwenhoven, Angelique L.; van der Schaaf, Gerda; Moes, Henk; Heineman, Maas Jan; de Vos, Paul

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated whether lymphocyte cytokine production during human and rat pregnancy shifts toward T helper cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine production. Therefore, blood samples were taken during the follicular and luteal phase and during pregnancy in rats and humans. Whole blood was

  11. Couple Therapy with Veterans: Early Improvements and Predictors of Early Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Melanie S; Bhatia, Vickie; Baddeley, Jenna L; Al-Jabari, Rawya; Libet, Julian

    2017-07-28

    Family services within Veterans Affairs Medical Centers fulfill an important role in addressing relationship distress among Veterans, which is highly prevalent and comorbid with psychopathology. However, even for evidence-based couple therapies, effectiveness is weaker compared to controlled studies, maybe because many Veteran couples drop out early and do not reach the "active" treatment stage after the 3-4 session assessment. In order to improve outcomes, it is critical to identify couples at high risk for early dropout, and understand whether couples may benefit from the assessment as an intervention. The current study examined (a) demographics, treatment delivery mode, relationship satisfaction, and psychological symptoms as predictors of dropout during and immediately following the assessment phase, and (b) changes in relationship satisfaction during assessment. 174 couples completed questionnaires during routine intake procedures. The main analyses focused on 140 male Veterans and their female civilian partners; 36.43% dropped out during the assessment phase and 24.74% of the remaining couples immediately following the first treatment session. More severe depressive symptoms in non-Veteran partners were associated with dropout during assessment. Relationship satisfaction improved significantly during the assessment phase for couples who did not drop out, with larger gains for non-Veteran partners. No demographics or treatment delivery mode were associated with dropout. Although more research is needed on engaging couples at risk for early dropout and maximizing early benefits, the findings suggest that clinicians should attend to the civilian partner's and Veteran's depressive symptoms at intake and consider the assessment part of active treatment. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  12. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis: Case report with history of urticaria, petechiae and palpable pinpoint purpura triggered by medical abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonile, Lumuli

    2016-03-17

    Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis (APD) is a rare autoimmune response to raised endogenous progesterone levels that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Cutaneous, mucosal lesions and other systemic manifestations develop cyclically during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle when progesterone levels are elevated. APD symptoms usually start 3 - 10 days before menstruation and resolve 1 - 2 days after menstruation ceases. A 30-year-old woman presented with urticaria, petechiae and palpable pinpoint purpura lesions of the legs, forearms, neck and buttocks 1 week prior to her menses starting and 2 months after a medical abortion. She was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis and topical steroids were prescribed. Her skin conditions did not improve and were associated with her menstrual cycle. We performed an intradermal test using progesterone, which was positive. She was treated with oral contraceptive pills and the symptoms were resolved. This is a typical case of APD triggered by increased sensitivity to endogenous progesterone induced a few months after medical abortion.

  13. The cost of the nuclear energy-turnaround. An early nuclear phase-out and its consequences; Die Kosten der Energiewende. Ein zeitiger Ausstieg aus der Nuklearenergie und seine Folgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, Metin

    2013-10-01

    The booklet on the consequences of an early nuclear phase-out includes a description of the value creation strategy in the electricity market and the basic relations of the electricity price formation and a survey and evaluation of selected studies. The analysis was performed for the following studies: Energy policy scenarios for a nuclear phase-out in Germany; Economic consequences of a nuclear phase-out in Germany; Transformation of the electricity production systems with a forced nuclear phase-out - a contribution on sustainable energy systems following the reactor accident of Fukushima; Cost of a nuclear phase-out until 2022 in Germany and Bavaria.

  14. Robust and flexible mapping for real-time distributed applications during the early design phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Junhe; Pop, Paul; Gruian, Flavius

    2012-01-01

    has a high chance of being schedulable, considering the wcet uncertainties, whereas a flexible mapping has a high chance to successfully accommodate the future scenarios. We propose a Genetic Algorithm-based approach to solve this optimization problem. Extensive experiments show the importance......We are interested in mapping hard real-time applications on distributed heterogeneous architectures. An application is modeled as a set of tasks, and we consider a fixed-priority preemptive scheduling policy. We target the early design phases, when decisions have a high impact on the subsequent...... in the functionality requirements are captured using “future scenarios”, which are task sets that model functionality likely to be added in the future. In this context, we derive a mapping of tasks in the application, such that the resulted implementation is both robust and flexible. Robust means that the application...

  15. A phase I/II trial of AT9283, a selective inhibitor of aurora kinase in children with relapsed or refractory acute leukemia: challenges to run early phase clinical trials for children with leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vormoor, B; Veal, G J; Griffin, M J; Boddy, A V; Irving, J; Minto, L; Case, M; Banerji, U; Swales, K E; Tall, J R; Moore, A S; Toguchi, M; Acton, G; Dyer, K; Schwab, C; Harrison, C J; Grainger, J D; Lancaster, D; Kearns, P; Hargrave, D; Vormoor, J

    2017-06-01

    Aurora kinases regulate mitosis and are commonly overexpressed in leukemia. This phase I/IIa study of AT9283, a multikinase inhibitor, was designed to identify maximal tolerated doses, safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic activity in children with relapsed/refractory acute leukemia. The trial suffered from poor recruitment and terminated early, therefore failing to identify its primary endpoints. AT9283 caused tolerable toxicity, but failed to show clinical responses. Future trials should be based on robust preclinical data that provide an indication of which patients may benefit from the experimental agent, and recruitment should be improved through international collaborations and early combination with established treatment strategies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A Preliminary fMRI Study of a Novel Self-Paced Written Fluency Task: Observation of Left-Hemispheric Activation, and Increased Frontal Activation in Late vs. Early Task Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh eGolestanirad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological tests of verbal fluency are very widely used to characterize impaired cognitive function. For clinical neuroscience studies and potential medical applications, measuring the brain activity that underlies such tests with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is of significant interest - but a challenging proposition because overt speech can cause signal artifacts, which tend to worsen as the duration of speech tasks becomes longer. In a novel approach, we present the group brain activity of 12 subjects who performed a self-paced written version of phonemic fluency using fMRI-compatible tablet technology that recorded responses and provided task-related feedback on a projection screen display, over long-duration task blocks (60 s. As predicted, we observed robust activation in the left anterior inferior and medial frontal gyri, consisting with previously reported results of verbal fluency tasks which established the role of these areas in strategic word retrieval. In addition, the number of words produced in the late phase (last 30 s of written phonemic fluency was significantly less (p < 0.05 than the number produced in the early phase (first 30 s. Activation during the late phase vs. the early phase was also assessed from the first 20 s and last 20 s of task performance, which eliminated the possibility that the sluggish hemodynamic response from the early phase would affect the activation estimates of the late phase. The last 20 s produced greater activation maps covering extended areas in bilateral precuneus, cuneus, middle temporal gyrus, insula, middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus. Among them, greater activation was observed in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area BA 9 and cingulate gyrus (BA 24, 32 likely as part of the initiation, maintenance, and shifting of attentional resources.

  17. Human Dose-Response Data for Francisella tularensis and a Dose- and Time-Dependent Mathematical Model of Early-Phase Fever Associated with Tularemia After Inhalation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Gene; Coleman, Margaret; Crary, David; Thurman, Alec; Thran, Brandolyn

    2018-04-25

    Military health risk assessors, medical planners, operational planners, and defense system developers require knowledge of human responses to doses of biothreat agents to support force health protection and chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear (CBRN) defense missions. This article reviews extensive data from 118 human volunteers administered aerosols of the bacterial agent Francisella tularensis, strain Schu S4, which causes tularemia. The data set includes incidence of early-phase febrile illness following administration of well-characterized inhaled doses of F. tularensis. Supplemental data on human body temperature profiles over time available from de-identified case reports is also presented. A unified, logically consistent model of early-phase febrile illness is described as a lognormal dose-response function for febrile illness linked with a stochastic time profile of fever. Three parameters are estimated from the human data to describe the time profile: incubation period or onset time for fever; rise time of fever; and near-maximum body temperature. Inhaled dose-dependence and variability are characterized for each of the three parameters. These parameters enable a stochastic model for the response of an exposed population through incorporation of individual-by-individual variability by drawing random samples from the statistical distributions of these three parameters for each individual. This model provides risk assessors and medical decisionmakers reliable representations of the predicted health impacts of early-phase febrile illness for as long as one week after aerosol exposures of human populations to F. tularensis. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. HERCA-WENRA Approach for a better cross-border coordination of protective actions during the early phase of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijlholt, Jette; Constantinou, Costas; Janssens, Augustin; ); Djounova, Jana; Fueloep, Nandor; Gering, Florian; Lieser, Joachim; Halldorsson, Oskar; Haywood, Stephanie; Hofer, Peter; Isnard, Olivier; Kuhlen, Johannes; Rother, Wolfram; Majerus, Patrick; Murith, Christophe; Nizamska, Marina; Rauber, Dominique; Rusch, Ronald; Stahl, Thorsten; Stephen, Patrick; Tkavc, Marjan; Van Gelder, Iris; Degueldre, Didier; Vandecasteele, Christian; Fuchsova, Dagmar; Genthon, Benedicte; Jamet, Philippe; Gilli, Ludivine; Lachaume, Jean-Luc; Perrin, Marie-Line; Xicluna, Delphine; Goerts, Peter; Greipl, Christian; Kuhlen, Johannes; Gurgui, Antoni; Mozas, Alfredo; Calvaro, Jose-Manuel Martin; Hohl, Harry; Rauber, Dominique; Hubbard, Lynn; Lindh, Karin; Majerus, Patrick; McMahon, Ciara; Metke, Eduard; Sokolikova, Adriana; Piller, Georges; Reiman, Lasse; Aaltonen, Hannele; Kuusi, Antero; Senior, David; Temple, Charles; Ugletveit, Finn; Holo, Eldri; Vandecasteele, Christian; Guzman, Olvido; Mueller-Ecker, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    The HERCA-WENRA Approach is an incentive approach that comprises the necessary mechanisms for countries to exchange adequate information and to achieve practical and operational solutions on a voluntary basis during an emergency leading to a uniform way of dealing with any serious radiological emergency situation, regardless of national border line, hence allowing for coherent and coordinated protective actions. The HERCA-WENRA Approach has the potential to improve the coherence of the response in case of a nuclear accident with impact on territories of other countries and to be used as guidance to implement Article 99.11 and 99.22 of the Euratom-BSS. It also fulfils recommendation No. 12.7.b of the so-known ENCO study and it further addresses some of the other recommendations. Content: General presentation of the HERCA WENRA Approach for a better cross-border coordination of protective actions during the early phase of a nuclear accident. Part I - HERCA-WENRA Approach for a better cross-border coordination of protective actions during the early phase of a nuclear accident. - General Mechanism. Part II - HERCA-WENRA Approach in case of a Severe Accident requiring Rapid Decisions for Protective Actions, while very little is known about the Situation

  19. Semi-quantitative analysis of endometrial receptivity marker mRNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In fertile women, expression of molecular marker of endometrial receptivity, HOXA11, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and basic transcriptional element binding protein 1 (BTEB1), rises during the luteal phase with the peak occurring during the implantation window. We evaluated the transcript levels of HOXA-11, LIF and ...

  20. Type 2 diabetes mellitus with early phase acute inflammatory protein on serum protein electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ET Tuladhar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The onset of Type 2 diabetes has been associated with low grade systemic inflammation. The inflammatory status has been studied by measuring acute phase reactant proteins like hsCRP, α1- antitrypsin, α1-acid glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen. Most of these acute phase reactants form α1 and α2 bands on electropherogram of serum proteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate inflammatory status in controlled and uncontrolled type 2 diabetes using cellulose acetate electrophoresis and to find the impact of glycemic status as indicated by HbA1c on inflammation process. Materials and Methods: Serum protein electrophoresis was done on serum samples of 60 cases of Diabetes [controlled and uncontrolled] using cellulose acetate paper technique. The electropherogram obtained was stained with Ponseu S and then quantitated using densitometer. Glycemic status was studied by HbA1c analysis. The density of α1and α2 bands in electropherogram were correlated with HbA1c level. Result: A significant increase in the percentage of α1 and α2 band proteins (0.765 and 0.716, p<0.001 were found with the increasing level of HbA1c. With cutoff of HbA1c 7% (American Diabetic Association recommended, the α1 and α2 serum proteins concentration are significantly higher (p<0.001 in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus compared to controlled diabetes mellitus Conclusion: Cellulose acetate electrophoresis of serum proteins show early phase acute inflammatory status in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. The process of systemic inflammation worsens with uncontrolled glycemia as indicated by HbA1c. Inflammatory status should be studied adjunct to glycemic status. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i3.6024 JPN 2012; 2(3: 211-214

  1. The Early Neolithic phases of Beidha in a regional context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlott Hoffmann

    2007-01-01

    The paper is a preliminary account of the new analyses of the Beidha material and concentrates on the earliest levels from the site: the pre-architectural levels as well as a sample of material from Phase A1 buildings. A contextual analysis of some of the phase A1 buildings is introduced and the ......The paper is a preliminary account of the new analyses of the Beidha material and concentrates on the earliest levels from the site: the pre-architectural levels as well as a sample of material from Phase A1 buildings. A contextual analysis of some of the phase A1 buildings is introduced...

  2. [Clinical outcomes and economic analysis of two ovulation induction protocols in patients undergoing repeated IVF/ICSI cycles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Geng, Ling; Li, Hong

    2014-04-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of luteal phase down-regulation with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist protocol and GnRH antagonist protocol in patients undergoing repeated in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) cycles. A retrospective analysis of clinical outcomes and costs was conducted among 198 patients undergoing repeated IVF-ICSI cycles, including 109 receiving luteal phase down-regulation with GnRH agonist protocol (group A) and 89 receiving GnRH antagonist protocol (group B). The numbers of oocytes retrieved and good embryos, clinical pregnancy rate, abortion rate, the live birth rate, mean total cost, and the cost-effective ratio were compared between the two groups. In patients undergoing repeated IVF-ICSI cycles, the two protocols produced no significant differences in the number of good embryos, clinical pregnancy rate, abortion rate, or twin pregnancy rate. Compared with group B, group A had better clinical outcomes though this difference was not statistically significant. The number of retrieved oocytes was significantly greater and live birth rate significantly higher in group A than in group B (9.13=4.98 vs 7.11=4.74, and 20.2% vs 9.0%, respectively). Compared with group B, group A had higher mean total cost per cycle but lower costs for each oocyte retrieved (2729.11 vs 3038.60 RMB yuan), each good embryo (8867.19 vs 9644.85 RMB yuan), each clinical pregnancy (77598.06 vs 96139.85 RMB yuan). For patients undergoing repeated IVF/ICSI cycle, luteal phase down-regulation with GnRH agonist protocol produces good clinical outcomes with also good cost-effectiveness in spite an unsatisfactory ovarian reserve.

  3. Inhibin secretion in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome before and after treatment with progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anifandis George

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives It has been suggested that inhibin secretion is altered in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. However, the contribution of a preceding luteal phase has not been taken into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether progesterone in the context of a simulated luteal phase affects basal and FSH-induced inhibin secretion in women with PCOS and elevated LH. Methods Ten women with PCOS and 8 normally cycling women participated in an experimental procedure (Exp involving the administration of a single injection of recombinant FSH (450 IU sc. In the women with PCOS, the procedure was performed before (Exp 1 and after a 20-day treatment with progesterone (Exp 2, while in the normal women on day 2 of the cycle (Exp 3. Inhibin A and B levels were measured in blood samples taken before and 24 hours after the FSH injection. Results Basal LH levels were significantly higher and inhibin A levels were significantly lower in the PCOS group compared to the control group, while inhibin B levels were comparable in the two groups. In the PCOS group, after treatment with progesterone inhibin A and LH but not inhibin B levels decreased significantly (p Conclusions In women with PCOS, as compared to control women, the dissimilar pattern of inhibin A and inhibin B secretion in response to FSH appears to be independent of a preceding simulated luteal phase. It is possible that compared to normal ovaries, the PCOS ovaries are less sensitive to endogenous LH regarding inhibin A secretion and more sensitive to exogenous FSH stimulation in terms of inhibin A and inhibin B secretion.

  4. Impact of the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section on early-reaction-phase dynamics below 100 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basrak, Z.; Zoric, M.; Eudes, P.; Sebille, F.

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown theoretically [1] and confirmed experimentally [2] that heavy ion reactions (HIR) at intermediate energies, especially for central collisions, are strongly dominated by the mid-rapidity emission, a component which is emitted early during the dynamical reaction phase. This prompt and copious dynamical emission is proportional to the impact parameter 6 and evacuates a large amount of available system energy [1,3]. Since this emission occurs in the early compact phase of HIR, it is crucial to study details of the early transformation of the initial relative motion of the entrance reaction channel into other forms of energy in particular to its main components, heat E th and compression E compr . We have carried out such a study within the framework of the semi-classical Landau-Vlasov model with the momentum-dependent Gogny interaction D1-G1 [4]. In this model, σ NN is the free nucleon-nucleon cross section with its usual energy and isospin dependence. For the sake of simplicity, σ NN is assumed to be isotropic and density independent, an approximation which is fully justified in HIR below 100 MeV/u. In an earlier work the free nucleon-nucleon cross section was considered [5]. Here, we investigate the in-medium effects, i.e. how the change of σ NN influences the early energy transformation and the early particle emission. The change is taken into account by multiplying σ NN by a corrective constant factor F. In other words, we examine how the E th and E compr evolve with the reaction time and how the dynamical emission behaves and both as a function of the factor F. We investigate two systems: 3 6A r + 6 8N i and 6 8N i + 6 8N i reactions at 52, 74, and 95 MeV/u (52, 74, and 90 MeV/u for the latter reaction) at all impact parameters from central to peripheral collisions. The results of the simulations show that the time evolution of heat E th and compression E compr during the early dynamical reaction phase present maxima at all incident energies

  5. Ikaros is degraded by proteasome-dependent mechanism in the early phase of apoptosis induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Li-Cai; Xu, Han-Zhang; Gu, Zhi-Min; Liu, Chuan-Xu; Chen, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Yue-Fei; Wen, Dong-Hua; Wu, Ying-Li

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Chemotherapeutic drugs or UV treatment reduces Ikaros prior to caspase-3 activation. → Etoposide treatment does not alter the mRNA but shortens the half-life of Ikaros. → MG132 or epoxomicin but not calpeptin inhibits etoposide-induced Ikaros degradation. → Overexpression of Ikaros accelerates etoposide-induced apoptosis in NB4 cells. -- Abstract: Ikaros is an important transcription factor involved in the development and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. In this work, we found that chemotherapeutic drugs or ultraviolet radiation (UV) treatment could reduce the expression of full-length Ikaros (IK1) protein in less than 3 h in leukemic NB4, Kasumi-1 and Jurkat cells, prior to the activation of caspase-3. Etoposide treatment could not alter the mRNA level of IK1 but it could shorten the half-life of IK1. Co-treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 or epoxomicin but not calpain inhibitor calpeptin inhibited etoposide-induced Ikaros downregulation. Overexpression of IK1 could accelerate etoposide-induced apoptosis in NB4 cells, as evidenced by the increase of Annexin V positive cells and the more early activation of caspase 3. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that upon chemotherapy drugs or UV treatment, IK1 could be degraded via the proteasome system in the early phase of apoptosis induction. These data might shed new insight on the role of IK1 in apoptosis and the post-translational regulation of IK1.

  6. Inhibitory function of NKT cells during early induction phase of nickel allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Hironori; Satoh, Masashi; Takeuchi, Emiko; Eshima, Koji; Terashima, Masazumi; Komotori, Jun; Habu, Sonoko; Tamauchi, Hidekazu; Iwabuchi, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    Until now, metal allergies have been regarded as a Th1-type immune response. However, because the contribution of a Th2-type immune response has been suggested by clinical findings, we previously examined the Th2-type immune response during the development of metal allergies using a GATA-3 transgenic (GATA-3 Tg) mouse model. As a result, a Th2-type immunization reaction was suggested to be involved in the early phase of metal allergies. Recently, the involvement of NKT cells in metal allergies has been suggested. We examined this possibility using the activation of NKT cells and an NKT cell-deficient mouse model to determine the contribution of NKT cells to nickel allergy in the present study. In NKT cell-deficient mice, ear swelling was remarkably increased, compared with that in control mice. Also, in mice that had been treated with α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) to activate NKT cells, the ear swelling response was remarkably inhibited, compared with that in untreated mice. These facts show that NKT cells are involved in the inhibition of nickel allergy-induced ear swelling responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Adaptive designs for dose-finding in non-cancer phase II trials: influence of early unexpected outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Zohar, Sarah; Chevret, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    In non-cancer phase II trials, dose-finding trials are usually carried out using fixed designs, in which several doses including a placebo are randomly distributed to patients. However, in certain vulnerable populations, such as neonates or infants, there is an heightened requirement for safety, precluding randomization. To estimate the minimum effective dose of a new drug from a non-cancer phase II trial, we propose the use of adaptive designs like the Continual Reassessment Method (CRM). This approach estimates the dose closest to some target response, and has been shown to be unbiased and efficient in cancer phase I trials. Based on a motivating example, we point out the individual influence of first outliers in this setting. A weighted version of the CRM is proposed as a theoretical benchmark to control for these outliers. Using simulations, we illustrate how this approach provides further insight into the behavior of the CRM. When dealing with low targets like a 10% failure rate, the CRM appears unable to rapidly overcome an early unexpected outcome. This behavior persisted despite changing the inference (Bayesian or likelihood), underlying dose-response model (though slightly improved using the power model), and the number of patients enrolled at each dose level. The choices for initial guesses of failure rates, the vague prior for the model parameter, and the log-log shape of weights can appear somewhat arbitrary. In phase II dose-finding studies in which failure targets are below 20%, the CRM appears quite sensitive to first unexpected outcomes. Using a power model for dose-response improves some behavior if the trial is started at the first dose level and includes at least three to five patients at the starting dose before applying the CRM allocation rule.

  8. Preeclampsia-Associated Hormonal Profiles and Reduced Breast Cancer Risk Among Older Mothers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laudenslager, Mark

    2003-01-01

    ... to cases on race/ethnicity, current age, age at delivery, and breast-feeding status. A fasting blood and saliva sample was collected from each subject during the luteal phase (day 19-22) of the menstrual cycle and assayed for specific steroid and peptide hormones thought to be linked to breast cancer.

  9. Cambios cíclicos de los niveles de 17-B estradiol y de progesterona circulantes en sangre periférica del venado (Odocoileus virginianus gymnotis determinados por radioinmunoensayo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Avdelasis Ramírez Perilla

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonadal steroids were determined by Radioinmuneassay in two females white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus gymnotis. The ovarian cycles were between 21 and 31 days (average 24 ± 3.46 days with luteal and follicular phases from 11.33 :!: 5.55 and 12.6 ± 2.8 days, respectively.

  10. Safety and effectiveness of stem cell therapies in early-phase clinical trials in stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Anjali; Choy, Fong Chan; Howell, Stuart; Hillier, Susan; Chan, Fiona; Hamilton-Bruce, Monica A; Koblar, Simon A

    2017-08-30

    Stem cells have demonstrated encouraging potential as reparative therapy for patients suffering from post-stroke disability. Reperfusion interventions in the acute phase of stroke have shown significant benefit but are limited by a narrow window of opportunity in which they are beneficial. Thereafter, rehabilitation is the only intervention available. The current review summarises the current evidence for use of stem cell therapies in stroke from early-phase clinical trials. The safety and feasibility of administering different types of stem cell therapies in stroke seem to be reasonably proven. However, the effectiveness needs still to be established through bigger clinical trials with more pragmatic clinical trial designs that address the challenges raised by the heterogeneous nature of stroke per se, as well those due to unique characteristics of stem cells as therapeutic agents.

  11. New stimulation regimens: endogenous and exogenous progesterone use to block the LH surge during ovarian stimulation for IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massin, Nathalie

    2017-03-01

    The advent of embryo and oocyte vitrification today gives reproductive specialists an opportunity to consider new strategies for improving the practice and results of IVF attempts. As the freezing of entire cohorts does not compromise, and may even improve, the results of IVF attempts, it is possible to break away from the standard sequence of stimulation-retrieval-transfer. The constraints associated with ovarian stimulation in relation to the potential harmful effects of the hormonal environment on endometrial receptivity can be avoided. This review will look at the new stimulation protocols where progesterone is used to block the LH surge. Thanks to 'freeze all' strategies, the increase in progesterone could actually be no longer a cause for concern. There are two ways of using progesterone, whether it be endogenous, as in luteal phase stimulation, or exogenous, as in the use of progesterone in the follicular phase i.e. progestin primed ovarian stimulation. A literature search was carried out (until September 2016) on MEDLINE. The following text words were utilized to generate the list of citations: progestin primed ovarian stimulation, luteal phase stimulation, luteal stimulation, duostim, double stimulation, random start. Articles and their references were then examined in order to identify other potential studies. All of the articles are reported in this review. The use of progesterone during ovarian stimulation is effective in blocking the LH surge, whether endogenous or exogenous, and it does not affect the number of oocytes collected or the quality of the embryos obtained. Its main constraint is that it requires total freezing and delayed transfer. A variety of stimulation protocols can be derived from these two methods, and their implications are discussed, from fertility preservation to ovarian response profiles to organization for the patients and clincs. These new regimens enable more flexibility and are of emerging interest in daily practice. However

  12. Crying, oral contraceptive use and the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans, Sarah E; Clarkson, Rose F; Einstein, Gillian; Kreindler, David; Laredo, Sheila; Petrovic, Michele J; Stanley, James

    2017-01-15

    Crying, a complex neurobiological behavior with psychosocial and communication features, has been little studied in relationship to the menstrual cycle. In the Mood and Daily Life study (MiDL), a community sample of Canadian women aged 18-43 years, n=76, recorded crying proneness and crying frequency daily for six months along with menstrual cycle phase information. Crying proneness was most likely during the premenstruum, a little less likely during menses and least likely during the mid-cycle phase, with statistically significant differences although the magnitude of these differences were small. By contrast, actual crying did not differ between the three menstrual cycle phases. Oral contraceptive use did not alter the relationship between menstrual cycle phase and either crying variable. A wide range of menstrual cycle phase - crying proneness patterns were seen with visual inspection of the individual women's line graphs. timing of ovulation was not ascertained. Using a three phase menstrual cycle division precluded separate late follicular and early luteal data analysis. The sample size was inadequate for a robust statistical test of actual crying. reproductive aged women as a group report feeling more like crying premenstrually but may not actually cry more during this menstrual cycle phase. Individual patterns vary substantially. Oral contraceptive use did not affect these relationships. Suggestions for future research are included. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in sodium and uric acid concentrations in plasma during the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, M; Stewart, P M; Gebski, V; Llewellyn-Jones, D; Abraham, S F

    1984-03-01

    Hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle are well documented, but many other biochemical variables have not been studied. We find that in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle the concentrations of sodium and uric acid are significantly lower. The changes may be of significance for the determination of the normal reference interval.

  14. Reproductive steroids and ADHD symptoms across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Martel, Michelle M

    2018-02-01

    Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder shows (ADHD) male predominance, females are significantly impaired and exhibit additional comorbid disorders during adolescence. However, no empirical work has examined the influence of cyclical fluctuating steroids on ADHD symptoms in women. The present study examined estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and testosterone (T) associations with ADHD symptoms across the menstrual cycle in regularly-cycling young women (N=32), examining trait impulsivity as a moderator. Women completed a baseline measure of trait impulsivity, provided saliva samples e