WorldWideScience

Sample records for early lung function

  1. Early lung function abnormalities in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfante, A; Ciresi, A; Bellia, M; Cannizzaro, F; Bellia, V; Giordano, C; Scichilone, N

    2015-06-01

    Acromegaly is an insidious disorder caused by a pituitary growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenoma resulting in high circulating levels of GH and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Respiratory disorders are common complications in acromegaly, and can severely impact on quality of life, eventually affecting mortality. The present study aimed to explore structural and functional lung alterations of acromegalic subjects. We enrolled 10 consecutive patients (M/F: 5/5) affected by acromegaly. In all patients, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the presence of pituitary tumor. All patients underwent clinical, lung functional, biological, and radiological assessments. Ten healthy age-matched subjects also served as controls. No statistically significant differences in lung function were detected between acromegalic and healthy subjects (p ≥ 0.05 for all analyses). However, the diffusing capacity for CO (TLCO) was significantly lower in the acromegalic group than in healthy subjects (TLCO% predicted: 78.1 ± 16 vs. 90 ± 6 %, respectively, p = 0.04; KCO% predicted: 77 ± 16 vs. 93 ± 5 %, p = 0.02, respectively). None of the lung function parameters correlated with duration of the disease, or with inflammatory marker of the airways. In acromegalics, biological (exhaled NO concentrations) and imaging (total lung volume, TLV, and mean lung density, MLD) evaluations were within normal values. The TLV measured by HRCT was 3540 ± 1555 ml in acromegalics, and the MLD was -711 ± 73 HU. None of the lung functional, radiological, and biological findings correlated with GH or IGF-I levels, and no correlation was found with duration of disease. In the current study, lung function evaluation allowed to detect early involvement of lung parenchyma, as assessed by TLCO and KCO, even in the absence of parenchymal density alterations of the lung by HRCT. These findings suggest to routinely include the carbon monoxide diffusing capacity in the lung function assessment for an

  2. Early COPD patients with lung hyperinflation associated with poorer lung function but better bronchodilator responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chunlan Chen,* Wenhua Jian,* Yi Gao, Yanqing Xie, Yan Song, Jinping Zheng State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, China National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: It is unknown whether aggressive medication strategies should be used for early COPD with or without lung hyperinflation. We aimed to explore the characteristics and bronchodilator responsiveness of early COPD patients (stages I and II with/without lung hyperinflation.Methods: Four hundred and six patients with COPD who performed both lung volume and bronchodilation tests were retrospectively analyzed. Residual volume to total lung capacity >120% of predicted values indicated lung hyperinflation. The characteristics and bronchodilator responsiveness were compared between the patients with and without lung hyperinflation across all stages of COPD.Results: The percentages of patients with lung hyperinflation were 72.7% in the entire cohort, 19.4% in stage I, 68.5% in stage II, 95.3% in stage III, and 100.0% in stage IV. The patients with lung hyperinflation exhibited poorer lung function but better bronchodilator responsiveness of both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity than those without lung hyperinflation during early COPD (t=2.21–5.70, P=0.000–0.029, especially in stage I, while age, body mass index, smoking status, smoking history, and disease duration were similar between the two subgroups in the same stages. From stages I to IV of subgroups with lung hyperinflation, stage I patients had the best bronchodilator responsiveness. Use of bronchodilator responsiveness of forced vital capacity to detect the presence of lung hyperinflation in COPD patients showed relatively high sensitivities (69.5%–75.3% and specificities (70.3%

  3. Transient early wheeze and lung function in early childhood associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Marjan; Boezen, Hendrika; Granell, Raquel; Wijga, Alet H.; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Thijs, Carel; Mommers, Monique; Penders, John; Henderson, John; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been hypothesized that a disturbed early lung development underlies the susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Little is known about whether subjects genetically predisposed to COPD show their first symptoms or reduced lung function in childhood. Objective

  4. Low cognitive ability in early adulthood is associated with reduced lung function in middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Douglas; Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas;

    2011-01-01

    Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age....

  5. Interaction between asthma and lung function growth in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Jensen, Signe Marie; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The causal direction between asthma and lung function deficit is unknown, but important for the focus of preventive measures and research into the origins of asthma.......The causal direction between asthma and lung function deficit is unknown, but important for the focus of preventive measures and research into the origins of asthma....

  6. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness after Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Birgitte Kjær; Jensen, Jørgen S; Nielsen, Kim G

    2008-01-01

    follow-up examination including lung function testing (28 PCR-positive and 37 PCR-negative). In addition to the PCR-test for M. pneumoniae all respiratory tract specimens were additionally tested for other atypical bacteria and for viruses by PCR. Lung function was measured as specific airway resistance...... by whole-body plethysmography and bronchial hyperresponsiveness was assessed by cold, dry air hyperventilation. Neither baseline lung function nor bronchial response to cold dry air hyperventilation differed between M. pneumoniae-positive and -negative children: mean baseline lung function were 1.17 versus...... 1.21 (kPa sec), P = 0.45; and mean change in specific resistance was 13% versus 9%, P = 0.42. In conclusion, M. pneumoniae infection in early childhood was not associated with long-term effects on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness 2 years after infection....

  7. Lung function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005200 The effect of body position changes on lung function, lung CT imaging and pathology in an oleic acid induced acute lung injury model. JI Xin-ping (戢新平), et al. Dept Emergency, 1st Affili Hosp, China Med Univ, Shenyang 110001. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis, 2005;28(1) :33-36. Objective: To study the effect of body position changes on lung mechanics, oxygenation, CT images and pathology in an oleic acid-induced acute lung injury (ALl) model. Methods: The study groups con-

  8. Early Life Origins of Lung Ageing: Early Life Exposures and Lung Function Decline in Adulthood in Two European Cohorts Aged 28-73 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dratva

    Full Text Available Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied.Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9-11 years and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28-73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705 and ECRHS (n = 7157. The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1 decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression.Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95%CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80], of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49] of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]. Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78;5.18], and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16;2.09]. High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age.Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further.

  9. Intrauterine and early postnatal exposure to outdoor air pollution and lung function at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eva; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; de la Cruz, Oscar Asensio; Basterrechea, Mikel; Lertxundi, Aitana; de Dicastillo, Maria D Martinez López; Zabaleta, Carlos; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution on lung function at preschool age remain unexplored. We examined the association of exposure to air pollution during specific trimesters of pregnancy and postnatal life with lung function in preschoolers. Lung function was assessed with spirometry in preschoolers aged 4.5 years (n=620) participating in the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) cohort. Temporally adjusted land use regression (LUR) models were applied to estimate individual residential exposures to benzene and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) during specific trimesters of pregnancy and early postnatal life (the first year of life). Recent and current (1 year and 1 week before lung function testing, respectively) exposures to NO₂ and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were also assessed. Exposure to higher levels of benzene and NO₂ during pregnancy was associated with reduced lung function. FEV1 estimates for an IQR increase in exposures during the second trimester of pregnancy were -18.4 mL, 95% CI -34.8 to -2.1 for benzene and -28.0 mL, 95% CI -52.9 to -3.2 for NO₂. Relative risk (RR) of low lung function (<80% of predicted FEV1) for an IQR increase in benzene and NO₂ during the second trimester of pregnancy were 1.22, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.46 and 1.30, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.76, respectively. Associations for early postnatal, recent and current exposures were not statistically significant. Stronger associations appeared among allergic children and those of lower social class. Prenatal exposure to residential traffic-related air pollution may result in long-term lung function deficits at preschool age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Extent of Spine Deformity Predicts Lung Growth and Function in Rabbit Model of Early Onset Scoliosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Casey Olson

    Full Text Available Early onset deformity of the spine and chest wall (initiated <8 years of age is associated with increased morbidity at adulthood relative to adolescent onset deformity of comparable severity. Presumably, inhibition of thoracic growth during late stage alveolarization leads to an irreversible loss of pulmonary growth and thoracic function; however the natural history of this disease from onset to adulthood has not been well characterized. In this study we establish a rabbit model of early onset scoliosis to establish the extent that thoracic deformity affects structural and functional respiratory development. Using a surgical right unilateral rib-tethering procedure, rib fusion with early onset scoliosis was induced in 10 young New Zealand white rabbits (3 weeks old. Progression of spine deformity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and lung mass was tracked through longitudinal breath-hold computed tomography imaging up to skeletal maturity (28 weeks old. Additionally at maturity forced vital capacity and regional specific volume were calculated as functional measurements and histo-morphometry performed with the radial alveolar count as a measure of acinar complexity. Data from tethered rib rabbits were compared to age matched healthy control rabbits (N = 8. Results show unilateral rib-tethering created a progressive spinal deformity ranging from 30° to 120° curvature, the severity of which was strongly associated with pulmonary growth and functional outcomes. At maturity rabbits with deformity greater than the median (55° had decreased body weight (89%, right (59% and left (86% lung mass, right (74% and left (69% radial alveolar count, right lung volume at total lung capacity (60%, and forced vital capacity (75%. Early treatment of spinal deformity in children may prevent pulmonary complications in adulthood and these results provide a basis for the prediction of pulmonary development from thoracic structure. This model may

  11. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness after Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, B.B.; Jensen, J.S.; Nielsen, K.G.

    2008-01-01

    .17 versus 1.21 (kPa sec), P=0.45; and mean change in specific resistance was 13% versus 9%, P= 0.42. In conclusion, M. pneumoniae infection in early childhood was not associated with long-term effects on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness 2 years after infection Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6......Mycoplasma (M.) pneumoniae has been associated with exacerbation of symptoms in asthmatic school children and adults; and an etiological role in asthma has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether infection with M. pneumoniae in early childhood has a long-term influence...... on lung function and bronchial responsiveness. In a retrospective, clinical cohort-study children younger than 5 years-of-age when PCR-tested for M. pneumoniae were enrolled. Sixty-five children with clinical symptoms suggesting infection with M. pneumoniae during an epidemic season completed a clinical...

  12. Utility of SPECT Lung Perfusion Scans in Assessing the Early Changes in Pulmonary Function after Radiotherapy for Patients with Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjie Zhang; Rong Zheng; Luiun Zhao; Luhua Wang; Shengzu Chen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Radiation-induced lung injury commonly follows radiotherapy (RT) fortumors within and near the thorax. Lung function is usually measured by pulmonary function tests (PFTs). But RT-induced regional changes of pulmonary function cannot be accurately evaluated by PFTs. Lung perfusion scintigraphy compared with other radiographic methods can assess well regional pulmonary physiological function, and a 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy planning system can quantitatively calculate irradiation dosage. The purpose of this study is to assess, by lung perfusion scintigraphy, early changes in the pulmonary function of patients with lung cancer when receiving thoracic 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT).METHODS Nineteen patients receiving thoracic 3D-CRT for lung cancer were studied. A single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)lung perfusion scan, X-ray or CT scan before RT and after 40~50Gy radiation were performed. Pre-RT SPECT lung perfusion images were classified by comparing lung perfusion defects with radiological abnormalities before RT. Grade 0: There was no lung perfusion defect in the area of radiological abnormality. Grade 1: The size of the radiological abnormality was similar to the area of the lung perfusion defect. Grade 2: The area of the lung perfusion defect was bigger than the size of the radiological abnormality and extended to one lobe of the lung. Grade 3: The area of lung perfusion defect exceeded one lobe of the lung. The radiation field with more than 20 Gy was drawn as a region of interest (ROI). The proportion of radioactive dose within this ROI relative to total lung dose in one slice was calculated.RESULTS All patients had lung perfusion defects, nine patients with grade 1,five patients with grade 2 and five patients with grade 3 damage,respectively. All tumors in the 19 patients were reduced in CT or X-ray images to various degrees after 40~50 Gy radiation. The mean proportion of ROI in 19 patients was 53.7±29

  13. A prospective cohort study among new Chinese coal miners: the early pattern of lung function change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.L.; Wu, Z.E.; Du, Q.G.; Petsonk, E.L.; Peng, K.L.; Li, Y.D.; Li, S.K.; Han, G.H.; Atffield, M.D. [NIOSH, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2005-11-01

    The early pattern of lung function changes in 317 newly hired Chinese underground coal miners was compared to 132 referents. This three year prospective cohort study involved a pre-employment and 15 follow up health surveys, including a questionnaire and spirometry tests. Twice a month, total and respirable dust area sampling was done. The authors used a two stage analysis and a linear mixed effects model approach to analyse the longitudinal spirometry data, and to investigate the changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over time, controlling for age, height, pack years of smoking, mean respirable dust concentration, the room temperature during testing, and the group x time interaction terms. Results: FEV1 change over time in new miners is non-linear. New miners experience initial rapid FEV1 declines, primarily during the first year of mining, little change during the second year, and partial recovery during the third year. Both linear and quadratic time trends in FEV1 change are highly significant. Smoking miners lost more FEV1 than non-smokers. Referents, all age less than 20 years, showed continued lung growth, whereas the miners who were under age 20 exhibited a decline in FEV1. Conclusion: Dust and smoking affect lung function in young, newly hired Chinese coal miners. FEV1 change over the first three years of employment is non-linear. The findings have implications for both methods and interpretation of medical screening in coal mining and other dusty work: during the first several years of employment more frequent testing may be desirable, and caution is required in interpreting early FEV1 declines.

  14. Early Life Wildfire Smoke Exposure Is Associated with Immune Dysregulation and Lung Function Decrements in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Carolyn; Gerriets, Joan E; Fontaine, Justin H; Harper, Richart W; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Tablin, Fern; Schelegle, Edward S; Miller, Lisa A

    2017-05-01

    The long-term health effects of wildfire smoke exposure in pediatric populations are not known. The objectives of this study were to determine if early life exposure to wildfire smoke can affect parameters of immunity and airway physiology that are detectable with maturity. We studied a mixed-sex cohort of rhesus macaque monkeys that were exposed as infants to ambient wood smoke from a series of Northern California wildfires in the summer of 2008. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and pulmonary function measures were obtained when animals were approximately 3 years of age. PBMCs were cultured with either LPS or flagellin, followed by measurement of secreted IL-8 and IL-6 protein. PBMCs from a subset of female animals were also evaluated by Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway mRNA analysis. Induction of IL-8 protein synthesis with either LPS or flagellin was significantly reduced in PBMC cultures from wildfire smoke-exposed female monkeys. In contrast, LPS- or flagellin-induced IL-6 protein synthesis was significantly reduced in PBMC cultures from wildfire smoke-exposed male monkeys. Baseline and TLR ligand-induced expression of the transcription factor, RelB, was globally modulated in PBMCs from wildfire smoke-exposed monkeys, with additional TLR pathway genes affected in a ligand-dependent manner. Wildfire smoke-exposed monkeys displayed significantly reduced inspiratory capacity, residual volume, vital capacity, functional residual capacity, and total lung capacity per unit of body weight relative to control animals. Our findings suggest that ambient wildfire smoke exposure during infancy results in sex-dependent attenuation of systemic TLR responses and reduced lung volume in adolescence.

  15. Potentiality of early chest roentgen examination in ventilator treated newborn infants to predict future lung function and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensson, W. (St. Goeran' s Children' s Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Andreasson, B.; Lindroth, M.; Svenningsen, N. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Pediatrics); Jonson, B. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Clinical Physiology)

    1989-11-01

    The potentiality of early chest X-ray to predict the risk of lung function abnormalities was studied prospectively in 40 preterm ventilator treated infants in a 8-10-year follow-up investigation. According to the findings at chest X-ray 3 to 10 days after completed ventilator treatment the infants were divided into 3 groups considered to respresent increasing risk and severity of lung damage: (1) normal findings, (2) interstitial parenchymal abnormalities exclusively or (3) in combination with local or general hyperinflation. Lung function tests and chest X-ray were performed at the age of 8 to 10 years. A correlation was found between the findings at the early chest roentgen examination and the risk of abnormal lung function at the follow-up. Occurrence of focal or general hyperinflation or both were associated with a greater risk of airway obstruction. Infants with only interstitial abnormalities were, however, at a higher risk than those with normal chest examination to develop general hyperinflation and increased air way obstruction. (orig.).

  16. Preclinical lung disease in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Perez, Alejandro; Luburich, Patricio; Rodriguez-Sanchon, Benigno; Dorca, Jordi; Nolla, Joan Miquel; Molina-Molina, Maria; Narvaez-Garcia, Javier

    2016-02-01

    Early detection and treatment of lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may ameliorate disease progression. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of asymptomatic lung abnormalities in early RA patients and the potential association of positive RA blood reactive biomolecules with lung involvement. A prospective observational study was performed in a cohort of patients with early RA (joint symptoms disease with a baseline chest radiograph (CR) and complete pulmonary function tests (PFTs). In those patients with lung abnormalities on the CR or PFTs, a high-resolution chest computed tomography scan (HRCT) was performed. We included 40 patients (30 women). Altered PFTs were detected in 18 (45%) of these patients. These cases had a diffusion lung transfer capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) of disease is present in up to 45% of early RA patients and can be determined by PFTs and ACPA levels.

  17. Early diagnosis of early stage lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Debeljak

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the detection of premalignant changes of bronchial mucosa and early stages of lung cancer frequent chest X-ray, spiral low dose computed tomography, fluorescence bronchoscopy, sputum cytology (also with automated systems with genetic and molecular changes in the sputum cells and bronchial mucosa were used. These screening methods of the high-risk groups for lung cancer achieved: earlier diagnosis of lung cancer in lower stage, higher operability, longer 5-year survival, but without mortality reduction.Conclusions: In the clinical practice we can examine higher risk groups for lung cancer in randomised control trials with multimodality approach: frequent chest low-dose fast spiral computed tomography, sputum cytology with genetic and molecular examinations and fluorescence bronchoscopy. Smoking cessation remains the best means to achieve mortality reduction from lung cancer.

  18. Early laparotomy after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Pia; Zemtsovski, Mikhail; Perch, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal complications after lung transplantation have been reported with incidence rates ranging from 3% to 51%, but the reasons are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the correlations between pulmonary diseases leading to lung transplantation and early gastrointestinal...... complications requiring laparotomy after transplantation with outcomes for patients at increased risk. METHODS: In this study we performed a retrospective analysis of data of patients who underwent lung transplantation at our institution from 2004 to 2012. The study period was limited to the first 90 days after...... for time on mechanical ventilation. Among pulmonary diseases and demographics of the patients, no other risk factors were identified for laparotomy. CONCLUSIONS: A1AD was the only significant risk factor identified for gastrointestinal complications that required laparotomy within 3 months after lung...

  19. Functional vascularized lung grafts for lung bioengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrello, N. Valerio; Guenthart, Brandon A.; O’Neill, John D.; Kim, Jinho; Cunningham, Katherine; Chen, Ya-Wen; Biscotti, Mauer; Swayne, Theresa; Wobma, Holly M.; Huang, Sarah X. L.; Snoeck, Hans-Willem; Bacchetta, Matthew; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2017-01-01

    End-stage lung disease is the third leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 400,000 deaths per year in the United States alone. To reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with lung disease, new therapeutic strategies aimed at promoting lung repair and increasing the number of donor lungs available for transplantation are being explored. Because of the extreme complexity of this organ, previous attempts at bioengineering functional lungs from fully decellularized or synthetic scaffolds lacking functional vasculature have been largely unsuccessful. An intact vascular network is critical not only for maintaining the blood-gas barrier and allowing for proper graft function but also for supporting the regenerative cells. We therefore developed an airway-specific approach to removing the pulmonary epithelium, while maintaining the viability and function of the vascular endothelium, using a rat model. The resulting vascularized lung grafts supported the attachment and growth of human adult pulmonary cells and stem cell–derived lung-specified epithelial cells. We propose that de-epithelialization of the lung with preservation of intact vasculature could facilitate cell therapy of pulmonary epithelium and enable bioengineering of functional lungs for transplantation. PMID:28875163

  20. Association of a PAI-1 Gene Polymorphism and Early Life Infections with Asthma Risk, Exacerbations, and Reduced Lung Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Young; Oh, Sam S.; Torgerson, Dara R.; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Hu, Donglei; Sen, Saunak; Huntsman, Scott; Eng, Celeste; Farber, Harold J.; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Serebrisky, Denise; Thyne, Shannon M.; Borrell, Luisa N.; Williams, L. Keoki; DuPont, William; Seibold, Max A.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Avila, Pedro C.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is induced in airways by virus and may mediate asthmatic airway remodeling. We sought to evaluate if genetic variants and early life lower respiratory infections jointly affect asthma risk. Methods We included Latino children, adolescents, and young adults aged 8–21 years (1736 subjects with physician-diagnosed asthma and 1747 healthy controls) from five U.S. centers and Puerto Rico after excluding subjects with incomplete clinical or genetic data. We evaluated the independent and joint effects of a PAI-1 gain of function polymorphism and bronchiolitis / Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) or other lower respiratory infections (LRI) within the first 2 years of life on asthma risk, asthma exacerbations and lung function. Results RSV infection (OR 9.9, 95%CI 4.9–20.2) and other LRI (OR 9.1, 95%CI 7.2–11.5) were independently associated with asthma, but PAI-1 genotype was not. There were joint effects on asthma risk for both genotype-RSV (OR 17.7, 95% CI 6.3–50.2) and genotype-LRI (OR 11.7, 95% CI 8.8–16.4). A joint effect of genotype-RSV resulted in a 3.1-fold increased risk for recurrent asthma hospitalizations. In genotype-respiratory infection joint effect analysis, FEV1% predicted and FEV1/FVC % predicted were further reduced in the genotype-LRI group (β -2.1, 95% CI -4.0 to -0.2; β -2.0, 95% CI -3.1 to -0.8 respectively). Similarly, lower FEV1% predicted was noted in genotype-RSV group (β -3.1, 95% CI -6.1 to -0.2) with a trend for lower FEV1/FVC % predicted. Conclusions A genetic variant of PAI-1 together with early life LRI such as RSV bronchiolitis is associated with an increased risk of asthma, morbidity, and reduced lung function in this Latino population. PMID:27556405

  1. Lack of a Dose-Effect Relationship for Pulmonary Function Changes After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guckenberger, Matthias, E-mail: Guckenberger_M@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Klement, Rainer J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Kestin, Larry L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Hope, Andrew J. [Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Belderbos, Jose [The Netherlands Cancer Institute–Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Yan, Di [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Sonke, Jan-Jakob [The Netherlands Cancer Institute–Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre [Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Xiao, Ying [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Grills, Inga S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of tumor size, prescription dose, and dose to the lungs on posttreatment pulmonary function test (PFT) changes after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: The analysis is based on 191 patients treated at 5 international institutions: inclusion criteria were availability of pre- and post-SBRT PFTs and dose-volume histograms of the lung and planning target volume (PTV); patients treated with more than 1 SBRT course were excluded. Correlation between early (1-6 months, median 3 months) and late (7-24 months, median 12 months) PFT changes and tumor size, planning target volume (PTV) dose, and lung doses was assessed using linear regression analysis, receiver operating characteristics analysis, and Lyman's normal tissue complication probability model. The PTV doses were converted to biologically effective doses and lung doses to 2 Gy equivalent doses before correlation analyses. Results: Up to 6 months after SBRT, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity changed by −1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], −3.4% to 0) and −7.6% (95% CI, −10.2% to −3.4%) compared with pretreatment values, respectively. A modest decrease in PFTs was observed 7-24 months after SBRT, with changes of −8.1% (95% CI, −13.3% to −5.3%) and −12.4% (95% CI, −15.5% to −6.9%), respectively. Using linear regression analysis, receiver operating characteristic analysis, and normal tissue complication probability modeling, all evaluated parameters of tumor size, PTV dose, mean lung dose, and absolute and relative volumes of the lung exposed to minimum doses of 5-70 Gy were not correlated with early and late PFT changes. Subgroup analysis based on pre-SBRT PFTs (greater or equal and less than median) did not identify any dose-effect relationship. Conclusions: This study failed to demonstrate a significant dose-effect relationship for

  2. Lung function; Lungenfunktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorichter, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Abteilung Pneumologie, Freiburg (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The term lung function is often restricted to the assessment of volume time curves measured at the mouth. Spirometry includes the assessment of lung volumes which can be mobilised with the corresponding flow-volume curves. In addition, lung volumes that can not be mobilised, such as the residual volume, or only partially as FRC and TLC can be measured by body plethysmography combined with the determination of the airway resistance. Body plethysmography allows the correct positioning of forced breathing manoeuvres on the volume-axis, e.g. before and after pharmacotherapy. Adding the CO single breath transfer factor (T{sub LCO}), which includes the measurement of the ventilated lung volume using He, enables a clear diagnosis of different obstructive, restrictive or mixed ventilatory defects with and without trapped air. Tests of reversibility and provocation, as well as the assessment of inspiratory mouth pressures (PI{sub max}, P{sub 0.1}) help to classify the underlying disorder and to clarify treatment strategies. For further information and to complete the diagnostic of disturbances of the ventilation, diffusion and/or perfusion (capillar-)arterial bloodgases at rest and under physical strain sometimes amended by ergospirometry are recommended. Ideally, lung function measurements are amended by radiological and nuclear medicine techniques. (orig.) [German] Unter dem Begriff Lungenfunktion wird die Bestimmung der Lungenvolumina am Mund verstanden. Dabei werden die mobilisierbaren Lungenvolumina mit den zugehoerigen Fluss-Volumen-Kurven mittels Spirometrie und Ganzkoerperplethysmographie (GKP) und die nicht (RV) und teilweise mobilisierbaren Lungenvolumina (FRC, TLC) einschliesslich der Atemwegswiderstaende bestimmt. Die GKP ermoeglicht zusaetzlich die korrekte (Volumenachsen-)Positionierung der forcierten Atemmanoever. Dieses erlaubt eine uebersichtlichere graphische Darstellung z. B. vor und nach der Applikation pharmakologisch wirksamer Substanzen. Wird die GKP

  3. Blood eosinophil counts during bronchiolitis are related to bronchial hyper-responsiveness and lung function in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikalsen, Ingvild Bruun; Halvorsen, Thomas; Øymar, Knut

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether inflammatory markers measured in urine and blood during acute bronchiolitis in infancy were associated with asthma, lung function, bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) and atopy at 11 years of age. We included 105 children hospitalised for bronchiolitis during their first year of life. At hospitalisation, urinary (U-) eosinophil protein X, U-leukotriene E4 , U-prostaglandin 9α, 11β-PGF2 and blood eosinophil counts were measured. Ninety-five children (90%) were available for follow-up at 11 years of age. At follow-up, higher blood eosinophil counts obtained during bronchiolitis were observed in the group with asthma than in the group without asthma (median 0.27 versus 0.09 × 10(9) /L, respectively, p = 0.048). By regression analyses, blood eosinophil counts during the acute bronchiolitis were positively associated with BHR (p = 0.006) and negatively associated with forced expiratory volume in first second (p = 0.025) at 11 years of age. None of the other inflammatory markers were associated with asthma, lung function, BHR or atopy at 11 years of age. Eosinophil inflammation during bronchiolitis may have a long-term impact on lung function and airway responsiveness. The associations could be related to virus-host interactions during bronchiolitis or to predisposed children. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Prenatal and postnatal genetic influence on lung function development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown to what extent adult lung function genes affect lung function development from birth to childhood. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study the association of candidate genetic variants with neonatal lung function and lung function development until age 7 years. METHODS: Lung...... of methacholine causing a 20% decrease in lung function [PD20]) and with development from birth to age 7 years (FEV0.5/1, FEF50, and PD15/20). RESULTS: The genetic risk scores were not associated with lung function measures at age 1 month, but the FEV1/FVC genetic risk score was associated with reduced FEF50...... function genetic variants identified in adults were not associated with neonatal lung function or bronchial responsiveness but with the development of these lung function measures during early childhood, suggesting a window of opportunity for interventions targeting these genetic mechanisms....

  5. No Clinically Significant Changes in Pulmonary Function Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early- Stage Peripheral Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: An Analysis of RTOG 0236

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanic, Sinisa, E-mail: sinisa.stanic@carle.com [Carle Cancer Center and University of Illinois College of Medicine, Urbana, Illinois (United States); Paulus, Rebecca [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Timmerman, Robert D. [University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Barriger, Robert B. [Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Bezjak, Andrea [Princess Margaret Cancer Center, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Videtic, Gregory M.M. [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Bradley, Jeffrey [Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate pulmonary function test (PFT) results and arterial blood gas changes (complete PFT) following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and to see whether baseline PFT correlates with lung toxicity and overall survival in medically inoperable patients receiving SBRT for early stage, peripheral, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: During the 2-year follow-up, PFT data were collected for patients with T1-T2N0M0 peripheral NSCLC who received effectively 18 Gy × 3 in a phase 2 North American multicenter study (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] protocol 0236). Pulmonary toxicity was graded by using the RTOG SBRT pulmonary toxicity scale. Paired Wilcoxon signed rank test, logistic regression model, and Kaplan-Meier method were used for statistical analysis. Results: At 2 years, mean percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in the first second and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide declines were 5.8% and 6.3%, respectively, with minimal changes in arterial blood gases and no significant decline in oxygen saturation. Baseline PFT was not predictive of any pulmonary toxicity following SBRT. Whole-lung V5 (the percentage of normal lung tissue receiving 5 Gy), V10, V20, and mean dose to the whole lung were almost identical between patients who developed pneumonitis and patients who were pneumonitis-free. Poor baseline PFT did not predict decreased overall survival. Patients with poor baseline PFT as the reason for medical inoperability had higher median and overall survival rates than patients with normal baseline PFT values but with cardiac morbidity. Conclusions: Poor baseline PFT did not appear to predict pulmonary toxicity or decreased overall survival after SBRT in this medically inoperable population. Poor baseline PFT alone should not be used to exclude patients with early stage lung cancer from treatment with SBRT.

  6. A lung function information system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.M. Verbraak (Anton); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); J. de Vries (Julius); J.M. Bogaard (Jan); A. Versprille (Adrian)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract A lung function information system (LFIS) was developed for the data analysis of pulmonary function tests at different locations. This system was connected to the hospital information system (HIS) for the retrieval of patient data and the storage of the lung function varia

  7. Early Lung Cancer Diagnosis by Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianhui Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer causes an extreme threat to human health, and the mortality rate due to lung cancer has not decreased during the last decade. Prognosis or early diagnosis could help reduce the mortality rate. If microRNA and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs, as well as the corresponding autoantibodies, can be detected prior to clinical diagnosis, such high sensitivity of biosensors makes the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer realizable. This review provides an overview of tumor-associated biomarker identifying methods and the biosensor technology available today. Laboratorial researches utilizing biosensors for early lung cancer diagnosis will be highlighted.

  8. Early growth characteristics and the risk of reduced lung function and asthma: A meta-analysis of 25,000 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Dekker, Herman T; Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; de Jongste, Johan C; Anessi-Maesano, Isabella; Arshad, S Hasan; Barros, Henrique; Beardsmore, Caroline S; Bisgaard, Hans; Phar, Sofia Correia; Craig, Leone; Devereux, Graham; van der Ent, C Kors; Esplugues, Ana; Fantini, Maria P; Flexeder, Claudia; Frey, Urs; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Gori, Davide; van der Gugten, Anne C; Henderson, A John; Heude, Barbara; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Inskip, Hazel M; Keil, Thomas; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Kuehni, Claudia E; Lau, Susanne; Mélen, Erik; Mommers, Monique; Morales, Eva; Penders, John; Pike, Katy C; Porta, Daniela; Reiss, Irwin K; Roberts, Graham; Schmidt, Anne; Schultz, Erica S; Schulz, Holger; Sunyer, Jordi; Torrent, Matias; Vassilaki, Maria; Wijga, Alet H; Zabaleta, Carlos; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Duijts, Liesbeth

    2016-04-01

    Children born preterm or with a small size for gestational age are at increased risk for childhood asthma. We sought to assess the hypothesis that these associations are explained by reduced airway patency. We used individual participant data of 24,938 children from 24 birth cohorts to examine and meta-analyze the associations of gestational age, size for gestational age, and infant weight gain with childhood lung function and asthma (age range, 3.9-19.1 years). Second, we explored whether these lung function outcomes mediated the associations of early growth characteristics with childhood asthma. Children born with a younger gestational age had a lower FEV1, FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio, and forced expiratory volume after exhaling 75% of vital capacity (FEF75), whereas those born with a smaller size for gestational age at birth had a lower FEV1 but higher FEV1/FVC ratio (P asthma (pooled odds ratio, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.15-1.57], 1.32 [95% CI, 1.07-1.62], and 1.27 [95% CI, 1.21-1.34], respectively). Mediation analyses suggested that FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, and FEF75 might explain 7% (95% CI, 2% to 10%) to 45% (95% CI, 15% to 81%) of the associations between early growth characteristics and asthma. Younger gestational age, smaller size for gestational age, and greater infant weight gain were across the full ranges associated with childhood lung function. These associations explain the risk of childhood asthma to a substantial extent. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Parashar, Bhupesh; Arora, Shruthi; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer is a promising modality. It has been traditionally used in patients not considered candidates for standard surgical resection. However, its role has been changing rapidly since the introduction of new and advanced technology, especially in tumor tracking, image guidance, and radiation delivery. Stereotactic radiation therapy is one such advancement that has shown excellent local control rates and promising survival in early stage lung cancer. In a...

  10. Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Parashar, Bhupesh; Arora, Shruthi; Wernicke, A. Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer is a promising modality. It has been traditionally used in patients not considered candidates for standard surgical resection. However, its role has been changing rapidly since the introduction of new and advanced technology, especially in tumor tracking, image guidance, and radiation delivery. Stereotactic radiation therapy is one such advancement that has shown excellent local control rates and promising survival in early stage lung cancer. In a...

  11. Effects of micronutrient antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid) on skin thickening and lung function in patients with early diffuse systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Predrag; Damjanov, Nemanja

    2011-08-01

    To assess the effects of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on skin thickening and lung function in patients with early diffuse systemic sclerosis (SSc), thirteen patients with early diffuse SSc, with positive anti-topoisomerase-I antibody, high skin thickening progression rate (STPR ≥ 12/year) and decreased lung diffusing capacity (DLCO ≤ 75%) were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two subgroups: Subgroup A-six patients, treated with intravenous cyclophosphamide (CyP) (500 mg/m(2) of body surface monthly) and antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol 400 IU/day and ascorbic acid 1,000 mg/day), and Subgroup B-seven patients, who received CyP without antioxidants. In both subgroups, effects of treatment on skin thickening and lung function were evaluated by comparison of the modified Rodnan skin score (MRSS), STPR, forced vital capacity (FVC), transfer-factor (DLCO) and diffusing coefficient for carbon monoxide (DLCO/VA) at baseline and 1 month after the sixth pulse of CyP. The mean MRSS did not change from baseline to the end of the follow-up in subgroup A (15.7 vs. 16.4, P = 0.50), but it increased significantly in subgroup B (17.9 vs. 23.6, P = 0.03). Although the mean STPR decreased notably in both subgroups of patients (in subgroup A-from 18.9/year to 2.2/year, P = 0.03, and in subgroup B-from 17.5/year to 8.6/year, P = 0.03), the mean STPR at the end of the treatment period was significantly lower in subgroup A (2.2/year vs. 8.6/year, P = 0.04). The mean value of FVC did not change either in subgroup A (91.0-87%, P = 0.2) or in subgroup B (from 101.2 to 99.7%, P = 0.7). Parameters of lung diffusing capacity improved somewhat in subgroup A (DLCO from 55.7 to 62.0% and DLCO/VA from 68.7 to 74.2%) and decreased in subgroup B (DLCO from 66.2 to 60.6% and DLCO/VA from 76.9 to 71.6%), but differences were not statistically significant. After 6 months of therapy, patients treated with CyP and antioxidants had a significantly lower STPR, compared to

  12. Long-term survival despite early loss of graft function after single lung transplantation for pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwens, JP; van den Berg, JWK; van der Bij, W; Koeter, GH

    2002-01-01

    We report a patient who received a single, left lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The effect of the graft on pulmonary improvement was only temporary, because the patient developed obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), resulting in complete destruction of the graft. The patient, how

  13. Early diagnosis of asthma in young children by using non-invasive biomarkers of airway inflammation and early lung function measurements: study protocol of a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jöbsis Quirijn

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood, characterized by chronic airway inflammation. There are problems with the diagnosis of asthma in young children since the majority of the children with recurrent asthma-like symptoms is symptom free at 6 years, and does not have asthma. With the conventional diagnostic tools it is not possible to differentiate between preschool children with transient symptoms and children with asthma. The analysis of biomarkers of airway inflammation in exhaled breath is a non-invasive and promising technique to diagnose asthma and monitor inflammation in young children. Moreover, relatively new lung function tests (airway resistance using the interrupter technique have become available for young children. The primary objective of the ADEM study (Asthma DEtection and Monitoring study, is to develop a non-invasive instrument for an early asthma diagnosis in young children, using exhaled inflammatory markers and early lung function measurements. In addition, aetiological factors, including gene polymorphisms and gene expression profiles, in relation to the development of asthma are studied. Methods/design A prospective case-control study is started in 200 children with recurrent respiratory symptoms and 50 control subjects without respiratory symptoms. At 6 years, a definite diagnosis of asthma is made (primary outcome measure on basis of lung function assessments and current respiratory symptoms ('golden standard'. From inclusion until the definite asthma diagnosis, repeated measurements of lung function tests and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath (condensate, blood and faeces are performed. The study is registered and ethically approved. Discussion This article describes the study protocol of the ADEM study. The new diagnostic techniques applied in this study could make an early diagnosis of asthma possible. An early and reliable asthma diagnosis at 2–3 years will have

  14. Screening and early detection of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Westeinde, Susan C; van Klaveren, Rob J

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer with an estimated 342,000 deaths in 2008 (20% of total) is the most common cause of death from cancer, followed by colorectal cancer (12%), breast cancer (8%), and stomach cancer (7%) in Europe. In former smokers, the absolute lung cancer risk remains higher than in never-smokers; these data therefore call for effective secondary preventive measures for lung cancer in addition to smoking cessation programs. This review presents and discusses the most recent advances in the early detection and screening of lung cancer.An overview of randomized controlled computerized tomography-screening trials is given, and the role of bronchoscopy and new techniques is discussed. Finally, the approach of (noninvasive) biomarker testing in the blood, exhaled breath, sputum, and bronchoscopic specimen is reviewed.

  15. Effect of tiotropium on lung function decline in early-stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: propensity score-matched analysis of real-world data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HY

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ha Youn Lee,1,2 Sun Mi Choi,1,2 Jinwoo Lee,1,2 Young Sik Park,1,2 Chang-Hoon Lee,1,2 Deog Kyeom Kim,2,3 Sang-Min Lee,1,2 Ho Il Yoon,2,4 Jae-Joon Yim,1,2 Young Whan Kim,1,2 Sung Koo Han,1,2 Chul-Gyu Yoo1,2 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Republic of Korea Background: Tiotropium failed to slow the annual rate of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients with <70% predicted FEV1. However, the rate of FEV1 decline is known to be faster at early stages, which suggests that the effects of tiotropium may be more prominent in early-stage of COPD patients. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that tiotropium modifies the rate of FEV1 decline in COPD patients with an FEV1≥70%.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of COPD patients diagnosed between January 1, 2004, and July 31, 2012, at Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, and Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center. The inclusion criteria were as follows: age ≥40 years, postbronchodilator (BD FEV1≥70% of predicted and FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity <0.70, and spirometry more than two times at certain times of the year. Conversely, the exclusion criteria were as follows: asthma, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, pulmonary resection, or long-term use of a short-acting muscarinic antagonist. The annual lung function decline in patients using tiotropium was compared with that in patients not

  16. Volatile signature for the early diagnosis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparri, Roberto; Santonico, Marco; Valentini, Claudia; Sedda, Giulia; Borri, Alessandro; Petrella, Francesco; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Pennazza, Giorgio; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Di Natale, Corrado; Paolesse, Roberto; Spaggiari, Lorenzo

    2016-02-09

    Exhaled breath contains hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Several independent researchers point out that the breath of lung cancer patients shows a characteristic VOC-profile which can be considered as lung cancer signature and, thus, used for diagnosis. In this regard, the analysis of exhaled breath with gas sensor arrays is a potential non-invasive, relatively low-cost and easy technique for the early detection of lung cancer. This clinical study evaluated the gas sensor array response for the identification of the exhaled breath of lung cancer patients. This study involved 146 individuals: 70 with lung cancer confirmed by computerized tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography-(PET) imaging techniques and histology (biopsy) or with clinical suspect of lung cancer and 76 healthy controls. Their exhaled breath was measured with a gas sensor array composed of a matrix of eight quartz microbalances (QMBs), each functionalized with a different metalloporphyrin. The instrument produces, for each analyzed sample, a vector of signals encoding the breath (breathprint). Breathprints were analyzed with multivariate analysis in order to correlate the sensor signals to the disease. Breathprints of the lung cancer patients were differentiated from those of the healthy controls with a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 91%. Similar values were obtained in patients with and without metabolic comorbidities, such as diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia (sensitivity 85%, specificity 88% and sensitivity 76%, specificity 94%, respectively). The device showed a large sensitivity to lung cancer at stage I with respect to stage II/III/IV (92% and 58% respectively). The sensitivity for stage I did not change for patients with or without metabolic comorbidities (90%, 94%, respectively). Results show that this electronic nose can discriminate the exhaled breath of the lung cancer patients from those of the healthy controls. Moreover, the largest sensitivity is observed

  17. The early diagnosis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, T L

    2001-06-01

    Lung cancer is the most common fatal malignancy in both men and women, both in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Today, lung cancer is most often diagnosed on the basis of symptoms of advanced disease or when chest x-rays are taken for a variety of purposes unrelated to lung cancer detection. Unfortunately, in the United States no society or governmental agency recommends screening, even for patients with high risks, such as smokers with airflow obstruction or people with occupational exposures, including asbestos. The origins of this negative attitude toward lung cancer screening are found in 3 studies sponsored by the National Cancer Institute in the mid-1970s and conducted at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, the Mayo Clinic, and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Center. These studies concluded that early identification of lung cancer through chest x-rays and cytologic diagnosis of sputum did not alter disease-specific mortality. However, patients with earlier stage disease were found through screening, which resulted in a higher resectability rate and improved survival in the screening group compared with a control group of patients receiving ordinary care. Patients in the control group often received annual chest x-rays during the course of this study, which was the standard of care at the time. Thus no true nonscreening control group resulted. The patients at highest risk were not enrolled in this study. No specific amount of pack-years of smoking intensity was required. Only men were screened. The studies were inadequately powered to show an improvement in mortality rate of less than 50%. Ninety percent of lung cancer occurs in smokers. The prevalence of lung cancer is 4 to 6 times greater when smokers have airflow obstruction than with normal airflow, when all other background factors, including smoking history, occupational risk, and family history, are the same. Screening heavy smokers (ie, > or = 30 pack-years) with airflow obstruction

  18. What Are Lung Function Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include tests that measure lung size and air flow, such as spirometry and lung volume tests. Other tests measure how well gases such as oxygen get in and out of your blood. These tests include pulse oximetry and arterial blood ...

  19. Early life socioeconomic adversity is associated in adult life with chronic inflammation, carotid atherosclerosis, poorer lung function and decreased cognitive performance: a cross-sectional, population-based study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Packard, Chris J

    2011-01-17

    Abstract Background Socioeconomic gradients in health persist despite public health campaigns and improvements in healthcare. The Psychosocial and Biological Determinants of Ill-health (pSoBid) study was designed to uncover novel biomarkers of chronic disease that may help explain pathways between socioeconomic adversity and poorer physical and mental health. Methods We examined links between indicators of early life adversity, possible intermediary phenotypes, and markers of ill health in adult subjects (n = 666) recruited from affluent and deprived areas. Classical and novel risk factors for chronic disease (lung function and atherosclerosis) and for cognitive performance were assessed, and associations sought with early life variables including conditions in the parental home, family size and leg length. Results Associations were observed between father\\'s occupation, childhood home status (owner-occupier; overcrowding) and biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endothelial activation in adults (C reactive protein, interleukin 6, intercellular adhesion molecule; P < 0.0001) but not number of siblings and leg length. Lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and cognition (Choice Reaction Time, the Stroop test, Auditory Verbal Learning Test) were likewise related to early life conditions (P < 0.001). In multivariate models inclusion of inflammatory variables reduced the impact and independence of early life conditions on lung function and measures of cognitive ability. Including variables of adult socioeconomic status attenuated the early life associations with disease biomarkers. Conclusions Adverse levels of biomarkers of ill health in adults appear to be influenced by father\\'s occupation and childhood home conditions. Chronic inflammation and endothelial activation may in part act as intermediary phenotypes in this complex relationship. Reducing the \\'health divide\\' requires that these life course determinants are taken into account.

  20. Lung surfactant metabolism: early in life, early in disease and target in cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Elena; Gay-Jordi, Gemma; Mucci, Adele; Lachmann, Nico; Serrano-Mollar, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins lining the alveolar epithelium. At the air-liquid interface, surfactant lowers surface tension, avoiding alveolar collapse and reducing the work of breathing. The essential role of lung surfactant in breathing and therefore in life, is highlighted by surfactant deficiency in premature neonates, which causes neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and results in early death after birth. In addition, defects in surfactant metabolism alter lung homeostasis and lead to disease. Special attention should be paid to two important key cells responsible for surfactant metabolism: alveolar epithelial type II cells (AE2C) and alveolar macrophages (AM). On the one hand, surfactant deficiency coming from abnormal AE2C function results in high surface tension, promoting alveolar collapse and mechanical stress in the epithelium. This epithelial injury contributes to tissue remodeling and lung fibrosis. On the other hand, impaired surfactant catabolism by AM leads to accumulation of surfactant in air spaces and the associated altered lung function in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). We review here two recent cell therapies that aim to recover the activity of AE2C or AM, respectively, therefore targeting the restoring of surfactant metabolism and lung homeostasis. Applied therapies successfully show either transplantation of healthy AE2C in fibrotic lungs, to replace injured AE2C cells and surfactant, or transplantation of bone marrow-derived macrophages to counteract accumulation of surfactant lipid and proteinaceous material in the alveolar spaces leading to PAP. These therapies introduce an alternative treatment with great potential for patients suffering from lung diseases.

  1. Exhaled CO, a predictor of lung function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Scharling, Henrik; Løkke, Anders

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is associated with an accelerated loss of lung function and inhalation accelerates the decline further. Exhaled CO reflects the exposure of smoke to the lungs. AIM: To investigate whether self-reported inhalation and type of cigarette influenced the level of exhaled CO and whe...

  2. Canonical Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Early Lung Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Fernandes-Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The canonical hedgehog (HH signaling pathway is of major importance during embryonic development. HH is a key regulatory morphogen of numerous cellular processes, namely, cell growth and survival, differentiation, migration, and tissue polarity. Overall, it is able to trigger tissue-specific responses that, ultimately, contribute to the formation of a fully functional organism. Of all three HH proteins, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH plays an essential role during lung development. In fact, abnormal levels of this secreted protein lead to severe foregut defects and lung hypoplasia. Canonical SHH signal transduction relies on the presence of transmembrane receptors, such as Patched1 and Smoothened, accessory proteins, as Hedgehog-interacting protein 1, and intracellular effector proteins, like GLI transcription factors. Altogether, this complex signaling machinery contributes to conveying SHH response. Pulmonary morphogenesis is deeply dependent on SHH and on its molecular interactions with other signaling pathways. In this review, the role of SHH in early stages of lung development, specifically in lung specification, primary bud formation, and branching morphogenesis is thoroughly reviewed.

  3. Lung function in Pakistani wood workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan A

    2006-06-01

    The lung function impairment is the most common respiratory problem in industrial plants and their vicinity. Therefore, the purpose was to study the affects of wood dust and its duration of exposure on lung function. This was a matched cross-sectional study of Spirometry in 46 non-smoking wood workers with age range 20 - 60 years, who worked without the benefit of wood dust control ventilation or respiratory protective devices. Pulmonary function test was performed by using an electronic Spirometer. Significant reduction was observed in the mean values of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV) in wood workers relative to their matched controls. This impairment was increased with the duration of exposure to wood industries. It is concluded that lung function in wood workers is impaired and stratification of results shows a dose-response effect of years of wood dust exposure on lung function.

  4. Lung function is associated with arterial stiffness in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian G Ayer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In older adults, an independent association exists between impaired lung function and cardiovascular disease. This interaction might be related to the effects of aging and/or smoking. In order to explore possible childhood antecedents to this association, we hypothesized that decreased lung function and vascular stiffness might be related, in early life. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between lung function and carotid augmentation index (AIx, a measure of vascular stiffness, in 8-year old children. METHODS: Data on brachial blood pressure, lung function (FEV(1, FVC, FEV(1/FVC, obtained by spirometry and carotid AIx75 (AIx standardised to an arbitrary heart rate of 75 beats per minute, obtained by applanation tonometry was available in 249 community-based 8-year old children. These healthy children had been subjects in a randomised controlled trial of two interventions (omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and house-dust mite avoidance to prevent asthma. Smoking in pregnancy and childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure was prospectively collected by questionnaire. The association between lung function and carotid AIx75 was assessed in multivariate models that included sex, height, smoking status during pregnancy, ETS exposure and randomisation groups (house dust mite avoidance and dietary intervention as covariates. RESULTS: In the fully adjusted models, Carotid AIx75 was independently associated with FEV1 (standardised β = -0.17,b = -6.72, partial R(2 = .02, p = 0.03, FVC (standardised β = -0.29, b = -9.31, partial R(2 = 0.04, p<0.001 and FEV1/FVC (standardised β = .13, b = 18.4, partial R(2 = 0.02, p = 0.04. CONCLUSION: Lower lung volumes are associated with increased vascular stiffness at an early age. The interaction between lung function and vascular stiffness may thus represent more than just age-related alterations in both the pulmonary and vascular systems.

  5. Children Born Preterm at the Turn of the Millennium Had Better Lung Function Than Children Born Similarly Preterm in the Early 1990s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vollsæter

    Full Text Available Compare respiratory health in children born extremely preterm (EP or with extremely low birthweight (ELBW nearly one decade apart, hypothesizing that better perinatal management has led to better outcome.Fifty-seven (93% of 61 eligible 11-year old children born in Western Norway in 1999-2000 with gestational age (GA <28 weeks or birthweight <1000 gram (EP1999-2000 and matched term-controls were assessed with comprehensive lung function tests and standardized questionnaires. Outcome was compared with data obtained at 10 years of age from all (n = 35 subjects born at GA <29 weeks or birthweight <1001 gram within a part of the same region in 1991-92 (EP1991-1992 and their matched term-controls.EP1999-2000 had significantly reduced forced expiratory flow in 1 second (FEV1, FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC and forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of FVC (FEF25-75, with z-scores respectively -0.34, -0.50 and -0.61 below those of the term-control group, and more bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine (dose-response-slope 13.2 vs. 3.5; p<0.001, whereas other outcomes did not differ. Low birthweight z-scores, but not neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD or low GA, predicted poor outcome. For children with neonatal BPD, important lung-function variables were better in EP1999-2000 compared to EP1991-1992. In regression models, improvements were related to more use of antenatal corticosteroids and surfactant treatment in the EP1999-2000.Small airway obstruction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness were still present in children born preterm in 1999-2000, but outcome was better than for children born similarly preterm in 1991-92, particularly after neonatal BPD. The findings suggest that better neonatal management not only improves survival, but also long-term pulmonary outcome.

  6. Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0161 TITLE: Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Avrum E. Spira...W81XWH-11-2-0161 Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0161 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...bodily fluids, which may be used for the early detection of lung cancer among military personnel and veterans. Over the course of the fifth year of

  7. Stairs climbing test with pulse oximetry as predictor of early postoperative complications in functionally impaired patients with lung cancer and elective lung surgery: prospective trial of consecutive series of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Igor; Majerić-Kogler, Visnja; Plavec, Davor; Maloca, Ivana; Slobodnjak, Zoran

    2008-02-01

    To test the predictive value of stairs climbing test for the development of postoperative complications in lung cancer patients with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)stairs climbing with pulse oximetry before the operation with the number of steps climbed and the time to complete the test recorded. Oxygen saturation and pulse rate were measured every 20 steps. Data on postoperative complications including oxygen use, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and early postoperative mortality were collected. Eighty-seven of 101 patients (86%) had at least one postoperative complication. The type of surgery was significantly associated with postoperative complications (25.5% patients with lobectomy had no early postoperative complications), while age, gender, smoking status, postoperative oxygenation, and artificial ventilation were not. There were more postoperative complications in more extensive and serious types of surgery (Pstairs climbing test produced a significant decrease in oxygen saturation (-1%) and increase in pulse rate (by 10/min) for every 20 steps climbed. The stairs climbing test was predictive for postoperative complications only in lobectomy group, with the best predictive parameter being the quotient of oxygen saturation after 40 steps and test duration (positive likelihood ratio [LR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71-3.38; negative LR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.38-0.76). In patients with other types of surgery the only significant predictive parameter for incident severe postoperative complications was the number of days on artificial ventilation (P=0.006). Stairs climbing test should be done in routine clinical practice as a standard test for risk assessment and prediction of the development of postoperative complications in lung cancer patients selected for elective surgery (lobectomy). Comparative to spirometry, it detects serious disorders in oxygen transport that are a baseline for a later development of cardiopulmonary postoperative

  8. Paediatric lung function testing : determinants and reference values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Marije

    2011-01-01

    Paediatric lung function tests provide objective measures in diagnosis and follow-up of lung diseases, and give insight in the pathophysiology of lung growth and development. In the first part of the thesis, paediatric lung function tests were used to investigate determinants of lung growth and

  9. Paediatric lung function testing : determinants and reference values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Marije

    2011-01-01

    Paediatric lung function tests provide objective measures in diagnosis and follow-up of lung diseases, and give insight in the pathophysiology of lung growth and development. In the first part of the thesis, paediatric lung function tests were used to investigate determinants of lung growth and deve

  10. Surfactant treatment before reperfusion improves the immediate function of lung transplants in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, ME; Petersen, AH; Hofstede, G; Haagsman, HP; Oetomo, SB; Prop, J

    1996-01-01

    An impaired function of alveolar surfactant can cause lung transplant dysfunction early after reperfusion. In this study it was investigated whether treatment with surfactant before reperfusion improves the immediate function of lung transplants and whether an improved transplant function was associ

  11. [Lung and heart-lung transplantation in Rabin medical center: early experience with 70 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Mordechai R; Saute, Milton; Eidelman, Leonid; Aravot, Dan; Fink, Gershon; Shitrit, David; Izbicky, Gabriel; Izvicky, Gavriel; Dayan, Daniel Ben; Bakal, Ilana; Kogan, Alex; Gendel, Boris; Vidne, Bernardo; Sahar, Gideon

    2004-01-01

    Lung transplantation is a relatively new field in solid organ transplantation. We present our early experience with the first 70 cases at the Rabin Medical Center during the years 1997-2003. Forty seven patients underwent single lung, eight double lung and eight heart-lung transplantations. The patients treated included 49 men and 21 women aged 5-66 years. There were 26 cases with emphysema COPD. 30 patients with pulmonary fibrosis. 5 patients with pulmonary hypertension/Eisenmenger and 9 patients with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. Although early results (1997-1999) showed 1 and 3 year survival of only 50%, in the last 3 years (2000-2003), survival reached 84% and 82% at 1 and 3 years respectively. Improvement in the success rate is due to better patient selection, new immunosuppressive regimen and, most importantly, excellent teamwork. We conclude that lung transplantation is a viable option for selected patients with end-stage lung disease.

  12. Genetic variants associated with lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyagarajan, Bharat; Wojczynski, Mary; Minster, Ryan L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) are strong predictors of mortality and lung function is higher among individuals with exceptional longevity. However, genetic factors associated with lung function in individuals...... with exceptional longevity have not been identified. METHOD: We conducted a genome wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel genetic variants associated with lung function in the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) (n = 3,899). Replication was performed using data from the CHARGE/SpiroMeta consortia...... used the residuals of the FEV1 and FEV1/FVC, adjusted for age, sex, height, ancestry principal components (PCs), smoking status, pack-years, and field center. RESULTS: We identified nine SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium in the CYP2U1 gene to be associated with FEV1 and a novel SNP (rs889574...

  13. Lung function and bronchial reactivity in farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, M; Dahl, R; Jensen, E J; Korsgaard, J; Hallas, T

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and type of lung function disorders in Danish farmers. Three samples of farmers were drawn from a group of unselected farmers who had participated in an epidemiological study. Group I (47 persons) was a sample of the 8% of all farmers who had reported that they had asthma; group II (63 persons) was a sample of the 28% of farmers who had had wheezing, shortness of breath, or cough without phlegm; and group III (34 persons) a sample of the farmers (64% of the total) who had no asthma and no respiratory symptoms. The farmers with symptoms (groups I and II) had low mean levels of FEV1 and high values for residual volume, whereas the symptomless farmers had normal lung function and no airways obstruction. The proportion of farmers with an FEV1 below the 95% confidence limit for predicted values was 43% in group I and 23% in group II; there were none in group III. Bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine occurred in 96% of asthmatic farmers, 67% of farmers with wheezing or shortness of breath, and 59% of symptomless farmers. A low level of FEV1 was associated with the number of years in pig farming and bronchial hyperreactivity in group II but not group I or III. Most of the bronchial hyperreactivity was explained in the multiple regression analysis by a low FEV1, though this was significant only for farmers in group II. Thus farmers who reported asthma, wheezing, shortness of breath, or a dry cough in general had airways obstruction with an increased residual volume, whereas symptomless farmers had normal lung function. Severe bronchial hyperreactivity was mostly explained by a diagnosis of asthma and poor lung function, though some farmers with normal lung function and no respiratory symptoms had increased bronchial reactivity. PMID:2799744

  14. Lung findings on high resolution CT in early ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiris, Adem E-mail: ademkiris@hotmail.com; Ozgocmen, Salih; Kocakoc, Ercan; Ardicoglu, Ozge; Ogur, Erkin

    2003-07-01

    Objective: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease mainly affecting the axial skeleton and pulmonary involvement is a well known feature of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the pulmonary high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of patients with early AS. The relationship between pulmonary function tests (PFT) and HRCT findings was also determined. Subjects and methods: Twenty-eight patients with AS (mean age 30.8{+-}7.4 and disease duration 7.0{+-}2.6) were included in the study. Patients with a disease duration of >10 years or had other pulmonary diseases were excluded. All patients underwent plain chest radiography (posteroanterior and lateral views), thoracic HRCT and PFT. Results: All chest radiographs were normal and HRCT revealed abnormalities in 18 patients. The most common abnormalities seen on HRCT were mosaic pattern (ten of 28), subpleural nodule (seven of 28) and parenchymal bands (five of 28). Seven of ten patients with mosaic pattern revealed air trapping areas on end expiratory scans. Twelve patients had abnormal PFT and all had restrictive type of involvement. Ten of these 12 patients had abnormal HRCT and the remaining two patients had normal HRCT. On the other hand, eight patients with normal PFT had abnormalities on HRCT. Conclusion: Patients with early AS frequently have abnormalities on HRCT, even though they have normal PFT and chest X-ray. Small airway involvement was found as frequent as interstitial lung disease in early AS.

  15. Lung function measurement in awake young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Klug, B

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate methods applicable in a clinical setting for monitoring of changes in lung function in awake young children. Impedance measurements by the impulse oscillation technique (ZIOS), respiratory resistance measurements by the interrupter technique (Rint) and transcu......The aim of the study was to evaluate methods applicable in a clinical setting for monitoring of changes in lung function in awake young children. Impedance measurements by the impulse oscillation technique (ZIOS), respiratory resistance measurements by the interrupter technique (Rint......, with suspected asthma. Measurements with each technique were repeated after each challenge step. A special face-mask was developed with an integrated mouthpiece which ensured mouth breathing during the measurements. The order of sensitivity of the techniques to assess methacholine-induced changes in lung...... to methacholine in young children aged 4-6 yrs. This implies that ZIOS, Rint and Ptc,O2 provide convenient indices of changes in lung function. Their combined use will be useful for monitoring airway diseases of young children....

  16. VEGFA variants are associated with pre-school lung function, but not neonatal lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner-Møller, E; Chawes, B L K; Vissing, N H;

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is implicated in airway remodelling and asthma development. We studied VEGFA gene variants and plasma levels and the development of lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma in childhood....

  17. Solcoseryl prevents early postradiation changes in the lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starosławska, E; Chyczewski, L; Peszyński, J; Sobolewski, K; Bańkowski, E; Chyczewska, E; Nikliński, J; Donica, H; Kojtych, A

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the influence of Solcoseryl on early postradiation changes in the lungs of rats. The chests of the rats were irradiated with Co-60, fractional dose 250 cGy/DT, total dose 2500 cGy/DT. Solcoseryl was given intraperitoneally in quantities of 0,1ml daily, during 60 days of the experiment. Morphological examinations of the lungs revealed that Solcoseryl decreased significantly the effects of early postradiation damage of the respiratory organ in rats.

  18. Lung function changes in wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Hall, Daniel, B.; Naeher, L,P.

    2011-10-01

    Although decline in lung function across workshift has been observed in wildland firefighters, measurements have been restricted to days when they worked at fires. Consequently, such results could have been confounded by normal circadian variation associated with lung function. We investigated the across-shift changes in lung function of wildland firefighters, and the effect of cumulative exposure on lung function during the burn season.

  19. Lung inflammation biomarkers and lung function in children chronically exposed to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivas-Calderón, Edgar, E-mail: edgar_olivascalderon@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); School of Medicine, University Juarez of Durango, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico); Recio-Vega, Rogelio, E-mail: rrecio@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Gandolfi, A. Jay, E-mail: gandolfi@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Southwest Environmental Health Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Lantz, R. Clark, E-mail: lantz@email.arizona.edu [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); González-Cortes, Tania, E-mail: taniagc2201@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Gonzalez-De Alba, Cesar, E-mail: cesargonzalezalba@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Froines, John R., E-mail: jfroines@ucla.edu [Center for Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Espinosa-Fematt, Jorge A., E-mail: dr.jorge.espinosa@gmail.com [School of Medicine, University Juarez of Durango, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico)

    2015-09-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to arsenic in drinking water during early childhood or in utero has been associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms or diseases in the adulthood, however only a few studies have been carried out during those sensitive windows of exposure. Recently our group demonstrated that the exposure to arsenic during early childhood or in utero in children was associated with impairment in the lung function and suggested that this adverse effect could be due to a chronic inflammation response to the metalloid. Therefore, we designed this cross-sectional study in a cohort of children associating lung inflammatory biomarkers and lung function with urinary As levels. A total of 275 healthy children were partitioned into four study groups according with their arsenic urinary levels. Inflammation biomarkers were measured in sputum by ELISA and the lung function was evaluated by spirometry. Fifty eight percent of the studied children were found to have a restrictive spirometric pattern. In the two highest exposed groups, the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products' (sRAGE) sputum level was significantly lower and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) concentration was higher. When the biomarkers were correlated to the urinary arsenic species, negative associations were found between dimethylarsinic (DMA), monomethylarsonic percentage (%MMA) and dimethylarsinic percentage (%DMA) with sRAGE and positive associations between %DMA with MMP-9 and with the MMP-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) ratio. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure of children negatively correlates with sRAGE, and positively correlated with MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 levels, and increases the frequency of an abnormal spirometric pattern. Arsenic-induced alterations in inflammatory biomarkers may contribute to the development of restrictive lung diseases. - Highlights: • First study in children evaluating lung inflammatory biomarkers and As levels

  20. Lung function abnormalities in children with type I diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R; Brackel, HJL; de Vroede, M; van der Ent, CK

    2002-01-01

    Recent developments in intrabronchial administration of insulin raise lung function in patients with type I diabetes as important issue. Several studies in adults report abnormalities of lung function of these patients, The aim of this study was to investigate lung function in children with type I d

  1. Lung function: occupational exposure to wood dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Occupational exposure to wood dust has been shown to cause several respiratory disorders, such as allergic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, asthma, sino-nasal adenocarcinoma, and impairment of lung function. The aim of the study was to estimate lung function (in the woodworking industry among workers employed by wood processing, who run the risk of being expose to wood dust. Methods The study concerns a group of 70 workers aged 24-55. All the workers underwent general and laryngological examination. A group of 20 workers, working at the positions where dustiness exceeded TLV (threshold limit value took X-ray of the chest and spirometry. The following parameters were measured: VC, IC, ERV, TV, BF, FEV1, FVC, PEF, MEF25-75, FEV1%FVC, FEV1%VC. The data are presented as means ± SD and the authors applied references values according to ERS guidelines. Results The results show that there was no decline in FEV1 (3.7 ± 0.7 and FVC (4.5 ± 0.8. Normal lung function was defined as FEV1/VC ratio ≥0.7. None of the tested workers had obstructive pattern in spirometry. The mean FEV1%VC was 77.1 ± 10.2. These results suggest that wood dust exposure might not lead to significant pulmonary damage. Conclusions These data do not corroborate that wood dust plays significant role in lung function impairment. Future studies of respiratory health among workers exposed to wood dust are needed.

  2. Lung inflammation biomarkers and lung function in children chronically exposed to arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivas-Calderón, Edgar; Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Lantz, R. Clark; González-Cortes, Tania; Alba, Cesar Gonzalez-De; Froines, John R.; Espinosa-Fematt, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to arsenic in drinking water during early childhood or in utero is associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms and diseases in adulthood, however only a few studies have been carried out during those sensitive windows of exposure. Recently our group demonstrated that exposure to arsenic during early childhood or in utero was associated with impairment in the lung function in children and suggested that this adverse effect could be due to a chronic inflammatory response to the metalloid. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was designed in a cohort of children associating lung inflammatory biomarkers and lung function with urinary As levels. A total of 275 healthy children were partitioned into four study groups according with their As levels. Inflammation biomarkers were measured in sputum by ELISA and the lung function was evaluated by spirometry. Fifty eight percent of the studied children were found to have a restrictive spirometric pattern. In the two highest exposed groups, the Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (sRAGE) sputum level was significantly lower and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) concentration was higher. When the biomarkers were correlated to the urinary arsenic species, negative associations were found between dimethylarsinic (DMA), monomethylarsenic percentage (%MMA) and dimethylarsinic percentage (%DMA) with sRAGE and positive associations between %DMA with MMP-9 and with the MMP-9/Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) ratio. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure of children negatively correlates with sRAGE, and positively correlated with MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 levels, and increases the frequency of an abnormal spirometric pattern. PMID:26048584

  3. Early Identification of Small Airways Disease on Lung Cancer Screening CT: Comparison of Current Air Trapping Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mets, O.M.; Zanen, P.; Lammers, J.-W.J.; Isgum, I.; Gietema, H.A.; Ginneken, B. van; Prokop, M.; Jong, P. A. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Lung cancer screening CT scans might provide valuable information about air trapping as an early indicator of smoking-related lung disease. We studied which of the currently suggested measures is most suitable for detecting functionally relevant air trapping on low-dose computed tomogra

  4. Early life socioeconomic adversity is associated in adult life with chronic inflammation, carotid atherosclerosis, poorer lung function and decreased cognitive performance: a cross-sectional, population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattar Naveed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic gradients in health persist despite public health campaigns and improvements in healthcare. The Psychosocial and Biological Determinants of Ill-health (pSoBid study was designed to uncover novel biomarkers of chronic disease that may help explain pathways between socioeconomic adversity and poorer physical and mental health. Methods We examined links between indicators of early life adversity, possible intermediary phenotypes, and markers of ill health in adult subjects (n = 666 recruited from affluent and deprived areas. Classical and novel risk factors for chronic disease (lung function and atherosclerosis and for cognitive performance were assessed, and associations sought with early life variables including conditions in the parental home, family size and leg length. Results Associations were observed between father's occupation, childhood home status (owner-occupier; overcrowding and biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endothelial activation in adults (C reactive protein, interleukin 6, intercellular adhesion molecule; P P Conclusions Adverse levels of biomarkers of ill health in adults appear to be influenced by father's occupation and childhood home conditions. Chronic inflammation and endothelial activation may in part act as intermediary phenotypes in this complex relationship. Reducing the 'health divide' requires that these life course determinants are taken into account.

  5. Magnetic resonance lung function – a breakthrough for lung imaging and functional assessment? A phantom study and clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauh Manfred

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lung diseases are a major issue in public health. A serial pulmonary assessment using imaging techniques free of ionizing radiation and which provides early information on local function impairment would therefore be a considerably important development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a powerful tool for the static and dynamic imaging of many organs. Its application in lung imaging however, has been limited due to the low water content of the lung and the artefacts evident at air-tissue interfaces. Many attempts have been made to visualize local ventilation using the inhalation of hyperpolarized gases or gadolinium aerosol responding to MRI. None of these methods are applicable for broad clinical use as they require specific equipment. Methods We have shown previously that low-field MRI can be used for static imaging of the lung. Here we show that mathematical processing of data derived from serial MRI scans during the respiratory cycle produces good quality images of local ventilation without any contrast agent. A phantom study and investigations in 85 patients were performed. Results The phantom study proved our theoretical considerations. In 99 patient investigations good correlation (r = 0.8; p ≤ 0.001 was seen for pulmonary function tests and MR ventilation measurements. Small ventilation defects were visualized. Conclusion With this method, ventilation defects can be diagnosed long before any imaging or pulmonary function test will indicate disease. This surprisingly simple approach could easily be incorporated in clinical routine and may be a breakthrough for lung imaging and functional assessment.

  6. Lung clearance index for monitoring early lung disease in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Susanne I; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Pittschieler, Klaus; Ahrens, Frank; Baden, Winfried; Bals, Robert; Fähndrich, Sebastian; Gleiber, Wolfgang; Griese, Matthias; Hülskamp, Georg; Köhnlein, Thomas; Reckling, Ludmilla; Rietschel, Ernst; Staab, Doris; Gappa, Monika

    2016-07-01

    Patients with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and a PI-ZZ genotype are at high risk to develop severe emphysema during adulthood. However, little is known about early stages of emphysema and disease manifestation in other PI-types. Spirometry is commonly used for monitoring although early manifestation of emphysema is suspected within the peripheral airways that are not accessible by forced expiratory manoeuvres. We hypothesized that the Lung Clearance Index (LCI) derived from multiple breath nitrogen-washout (N2-washout) is useful to bridge this diagnostic gap. Patients from age 4 years onward and different PI-types performed N2-washout and spirometry. Results were compared to controls. 193 patients (4-79 years, 75% PI-ZZ) and 33 controls (8-60 years) were included. Mean (SD) LCI in patients was 9.1 (3.1) and 6.3 (0.6) in controls (p ≤ 0.001). 47% of adult patients with other than PI-ZZ genotypes and 39% of all patients with normal spirometry had abnormal LCIs. The LCI measured by N2-washout discriminates between patients with AATD and controls, reflects AATD related lung disease in all stages and appears to identify early peripheral lung changes in younger age than spirometry. We conclude that a normal spirometry does not exclude presence of AATD related lung disease even in genotypes other than PI-ZZ.

  7. Early Detection of Lung Cancer Using Neural Network Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Naresh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Effective identification of lung cancer at an initial stage is an important and crucial aspect of image processing. Several data mining methods have been used to detect lung cancer at early stage. In this paper, an approach has been presented which will diagnose lung cancer at an initial stage using CT scan images which are in Dicom (DCM format. One of the key challenges is to remove white Gaussian noise from the CT scan image, which is done using non local mean filter and to segment the lung Otsu’s thresholding is used. The textural and structural features are extracted from the processed image to form feature vector. In this paper, three classifiers namely SVM, ANN, and k-NN are applied for the detection of lung cancer to find the severity of disease (stage I or stage II and comparison is made with ANN, and k-NN classifier with respect to different quality attributes such as accuracy, sensitivity(recall, precision and specificity. It has been found from results that SVM achieves higher accuracy of 95.12% while ANN achieves 92.68% accuracy on the given data set and k-NN shows least accuracy of 85.37%. SVM algorithm which achieves 95.12% accuracy helps patients to take remedial action on time and reduces mortality rate from this deadly disease.

  8. The airway microbiota in early cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayman, Katherine B; Armstrong, David S; Grimwood, Keith; Ranganathan, Sarath C

    2017-08-16

    Infection plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Over the past two decades, the application of molecular and extended culture-based techniques to microbial analysis has changed our understanding of the lungs in both health and disease. CF lung disease is a polymicrobial disorder, with obligate and facultative anaerobes recovered alongside traditional pathogens in varying proportions, with some differences observed to correlate with disease stage. While healthy lungs are not sterile, differences between the lower airway microbiota of individuals with CF and disease-controls are already apparent in childhood. Understanding the evolution of the CF airway microbiota, and its relationship with clinical treatments and outcome at each disease stage, will improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of CF lung disease and potentially inform clinical management. This review summarizes current knowledge of the early development of the respiratory microbiota in healthy children and then discusses what is known about the airway microbiota in individuals with CF, including how it evolves over time and where future research priorities lie. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Epidemiology of Lung Function and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W. Loth (Daan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractSpirometry is a technique to evaluate the pulmonary ventilatory function and is a reflection of several forces implied in lung volumes. The lung volume is dependent on the elastic recoil of the lungs and chest wall and the muscular efforts of the chest wall, diaphragm, and abdomen.

  10. Effects of early bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected from dogs with smoke inhalation injury on the lungs of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Fa-chuan; SU Dong; YANG Zong-cheng; BI Min; HUANG Yue-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Whether early massive bronchoalveolar lavage can remove the harmful substances from the lungs injured with smoke inhalation remains uncertain. This study was designed to observe the effects of early massive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) on the healthy lungs in rats. Methods: Mongrel dogs were inflicted with severe smoke inhalation injury. The injured lungs were lavaged with large amount of normal saline in the first hour after injury and the BALF was collected. The BALF was injected into the healthy lungs of 30 rats (group C) in the dosage of 5 ml/kg. The functions and pathological changes of the lungs were observed 24 h after perfusion with the BALF. The data were compared with those of 23 rats (group B) whose lungs were perfused with the BALF collected from normal dogs and those of 21 rats (group A)whose lungs were perfused with normal saline. Results: The mortality rate 24 h after lung perfusion was higher in group C than in groups A and B. The survivors of group C exhibited fluctuation of respiratory rate (RR), remarkable decrease of PaO2, significantly higher content of lung water, decrease of total static pulmonary compliance and pulmonary expansion index, and increasse of inflammatory cytokines in the tissues of lungs. Only slight mechanic obstructive effect on the airway was observed in rats of group A and B. The pathological changes of the lungs of the rats in group C were similar to those of the dogs with actual smoke inhalation injury. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the BALF collected from dogs with acute severe smoke inhalation injury in the early stage after injury injured the normal lungs of rats with the bioactive substances in the BALF. These findings show us that it is a valuable therapeutic procedure to apply massive bronchoalveolar fluid lavage in the early stage after inhalation injury.

  11. Lymphatic function is required prenatally for lung inflation at birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakus, Zoltán; Gleghorn, Jason P.; Enis, David R.; Sen, Aslihan; Chia, Stephanie; Liu, Xi; Rawnsley, David R.; Yang, Yiqing; Hess, Paul R.; Zou, Zhiying; Yang, Jisheng; Guttentag, Susan H.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2014-01-01

    Mammals must inflate their lungs and breathe within minutes of birth to survive. A key regulator of neonatal lung inflation is pulmonary surfactant, a lipoprotein complex which increases lung compliance by reducing alveolar surface tension (Morgan, 1971). Whether other developmental processes also alter lung mechanics in preparation for birth is unknown. We identify prenatal lymphatic function as an unexpected requirement for neonatal lung inflation and respiration. Mice lacking lymphatic vessels, due either to loss of the lymphangiogenic factor CCBE1 or VEGFR3 function, appear cyanotic and die shortly after birth due to failure of lung inflation. Failure of lung inflation is not due to reduced surfactant levels or altered development of the lung but is associated with an elevated wet/dry ratio consistent with edema. Embryonic studies reveal active lymphatic function in the late gestation lung, and significantly reduced total lung compliance in late gestation embryos that lack lymphatics. These findings reveal that lymphatic vascular function plays a previously unrecognized mechanical role in the developing lung that prepares it for inflation at birth. They explain respiratory failure in infants with congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia, and suggest that inadequate late gestation lymphatic function may also contribute to respiratory failure in premature infants. PMID:24733830

  12. Two novel mutations in surfactant protein-C, lung function and obstructive lung disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baekvad-Hansen, Marie; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Dominant mutations in the surfactant protein-C(SFTPC) gene have been linked with interstitial lung disease. The frequency of lung disease due to SFTPC mutations in the general population is unknown. The aim of this study was to identify novel SFTPC mutations that are associated with lung function...... pulmonary disease or interstitial lung disease. No Y106X heterozygotes suffered from asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or interstitial lung disease. We identified two novel mutations in highly conserved areas of the SFTPC gene, and show that heterozygotes for the mutations have normal...... lung function and are unaffected by COPD and interstitial lung disease. A53T heterozygotes had increased asthma risk, but further research is required to conclusively determine whether this mutation is associated with asthma....

  13. Pulmonary physiology: future directions for lung function testing in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusasco, Vito; Barisione, Giovanni; Crimi, Emanuele

    2015-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a term that encompasses different pathological conditions having excessive airflow limitation in common. A wide body of knowledge has been accumulated over the last century explaining the mechanisms by which airway (chronic bronchitis) and parenchymal (emphysema) diseases lead to an indistinguishable spirometric abnormality. Although the definition of emphysema is anatomical, early studies showed that its presence can be inferred with good approximation from measurements of lung mechanics and gas exchange, in addition to simple spirometry. Studies using tests of ventilation distribution showed that abnormalities are present in smokers with normal spirometry, although these tests were not predictive of development of COPD. At the beginning of the third millennium, new documents and guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of COPD were developed, in which the functional diagnosis of COPD was restricted, for the sake of simplicity, to simple spirometry. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in separating bronchitic from emphysematous phenotype of COPD. For this purpose, high-resolution computed tomography scanning has been added to diagnostic work-up. At the same time, methods for lung function testing have been refined and seem promising for detection of early small airways abnormalities. Among them are the forced oscillation technique and the nitrogen phase III slope analysis of the multiple-breath washout test, which may provide information on ventilation inhomogeneity. Moreover, the combined assessment of diffusing capacity for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide may be more sensitive than the latter alone for partitioning diffusive components at parenchymal level.

  14. Protection of lung function by introducing single photon emission computed tomography lung perfusion image into radiotherapy plan of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yong; CHEN Jin-hu; LI Bao-sheng; LIU Tong-hai; LU jie; BAI Tong; DONG Xiao-ling; YU Jin-ming

    2009-01-01

    Background The lung functional status could be displayed on lung perfusion images. With the images, the radiotherapy plans of lung cancer could be guided to more optimized. This study aimed to assess quantitatively the impact of incorporating functional lung imaging into 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Methods Ten patients with NSCLC who had undergone radiotherapy were included in this study. Before radiotherapy,each patient underwent CT simulation and lung perfusion imaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The SPECT images were registered with simulation planning CT and used to contour functional lung (lung-F) and non-functional lung (lung-NF). Two 3DCRT plans and two IMRT plans were designed and compared in each patient:two anatomic plans using simulation CT alone and two functional plans using SPECT-CT in addition to the simulation CT.Dosimetric parameters of the four types of plans were compared in terms of tumor coverage and avoidance of normal tissues. Total radiation dose was set at 66 Gy (2 Gy×33 fractions).Results In incorporating perfusion information in 3DCRT and IMRT planning, the reductions on average in the mean doses to the functional lung in the functional plan were 168 cGy and 89 cGy, respectively, compared with those in the anatomic plans. The median reductions in the percentage of volume irradiated with >5 Gy, >10 Gy, >20 Gy, >30 Gy and >40 Gy for functional lung in the functional plans were 6.50%, 10.21%, 14.02%, 22.30% and 23.46% in 3DCRT planning,respectively, and 3.05%, 15.52%, 14.16%, 4.87%, and 3.33% in IMRT planning, respectively. No greater degree of sparing of the functional lung was achieved in functional IMRT than in 3DCRT.Conclusion Function-guided 3DCRT and IMRT plannings both appear to be effective in preserving functional lung in NSCLC patients.

  15. Optical and Functional Imaging in Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. van der Leest (Cor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the second most common cancer in men and women, and is the leading cause of cancer related death. In industrialized countries the mortality rate of lung cancer is higher than the mortality rate of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer combined 1. When lung cancer is diagn

  16. Optical and Functional Imaging in Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. van der Leest (Cor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the second most common cancer in men and women, and is the leading cause of cancer related death. In industrialized countries the mortality rate of lung cancer is higher than the mortality rate of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer combined 1. When lung cancer is diagn

  17. Pulmonary Function Testing After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy to the Lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishawi, Muath [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kim, Bong [Division of Radiology, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Moore, William H. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Bilfinger, Thomas V., E-mail: Thomas.bilfinger@stonybrook.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical resection remains the standard of care for operable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some patients are not fit for surgery because of comorbidites such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate pulmonary function and tumor volume before and after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with and without COPD in early-stage lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A review of prospectively collected data of Stage I and II lung cancers, all treated with SBRT, was performed. The total SBRT treatment was 60 Gy administered in three 20 Gy fractions. The patients were analyzed based on their COPD status, using their pretreatment pulmonary function test cutoffs as established by the American Thoracic Society guidelines (forced expiratory volume [FEV]% {<=}50% predicted, FEV%/forced vital capacity [FVC]% {<=}70%). Changes in tumor volume were also assessed by computed tomography. Results: Of a total of 30 patients with Stage I and II lung cancer, there were 7 patients in the COPD group (4 men, 3 women), and 23 in t he No-COPD group (9 men, 14 women). At a mean follow-up time of 4 months, for the COPD and No-COPD patients, pretreatment and posttreatment FEV% was similar: 39 {+-} 5 vs. 40 {+-} 9 (p = 0.4) and 77 {+-} 0.5 vs. 73 {+-} 24 (p = 0.9), respectively. The diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) did significantly increase for the No-COPD group after SBRT treatment: 60 {+-} 24 vs. 69 {+-} 22 (p = 0.022); however, DL{sub CO} was unchanged for the COPD group: 49 {+-} 13 vs. 50 {+-} 14 (p = 0.8). Although pretreatment tumor volume was comparable for both groups, tumor volume significantly shrank in the No-COPD group from 19 {+-} 24 to 9 {+-} 16 (p < 0.001), and there was a trend in the COPD patients from 12 {+-} 9 to 6 {+-} 5 (p = 0.06). Conclusion: SBRT did not seem to have an effect on FEV{sub 1} and FVC, but it shrank tumor volume and

  18. [Early lung disease in infants with cystic fibrosis. Diagnostic tools and possible therapeutic pathways].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reix, P; Matecki, S; Fayon, M

    2016-02-01

    The lungs of infants with cystic fibrosis (CF) have been considered to be normal at birth. However, recent data indicates that this is unlikely to be true in most cases. Animal CF-models developed in the early 2000s have shown that constitutional airway narrowing may be present at birth, and is associated with both functional and structural abnormalities. Longitudinal birth cohort studies have shown that 25 % of CF infants followed in specialized centers, while being asymptomatic, showed decreased lung function at 3months of age. Air trapping was present in 68 % and bronchiectasis in 28 % of patients at the same age. The presence of neutrophil elastase in the bronchoalveolar lavage at 3months of age tripled the risk of bronchiectasis at the age of 3years. Currently available tools such as infant pulmonary function tests (both the jacket and multiple breath washout) as well as high-resolution volume controlled chest-computed tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging will facilitate early intervention trials in the very near future. The role of such tools for the routine follow-up of patients, and the ability of early therapeutic interventions to alter the natural history of CF-lung disease should soon be established. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Lung structure and function relation in systemic sclerosis: Application of lung densitometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninaber, Maarten K., E-mail: m.k.ninaber@lumc.nl [Department of Pulmonology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Stolk, Jan; Smit, Jasper; Le Roy, Ernest J. [Department of Pulmonology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Kroft, Lucia J.M. [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Els Bakker, M. [Division of Image Processing, Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Vries Bouwstra, Jeska K. de; Schouffoer, Anne A. [Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Staring, Marius; Stoel, Berend C. [Division of Image Processing, Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • A quantitative CT parameter of lung parenchyma in systemic sclerosis is presented. • We examine the optimal percentage threshold for the percentile density. • The 85th percentile density threshold correlated significantly with lung function. • A lung structure–function relation is confirmed. • We report applicability of Perc85 in progression mapping of interstitial lung disease. - Abstract: Introduction: Interstitial lung disease occurs frequently in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Quantitative computed tomography (CT) densitometry using the percentile density method may provide a sensitive assessment of lung structure for monitoring parenchymal damage. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the optimal percentile density score in SSc by quantitative CT densitometry, against pulmonary function. Material and methods: We investigated 41 SSc patients by chest CT scan, spirometry and gas transfer tests. Lung volumes and the nth percentile density (between 1 and 99%) of the entire lungs were calculated from CT histograms. The nth percentile density is defined as the threshold value of densities expressed in Hounsfield units. A prerequisite for an optimal percentage was its correlation with baseline DLCO %predicted. Two patients showed distinct changes in lung function 2 years after baseline. We obtained CT scans from these patients and performed progression analysis. Results: Regression analysis for the relation between DLCO %predicted and the nth percentile density was optimal at 85% (Perc85). There was significant agreement between Perc85 and DLCO %predicted (R = −0.49, P = 0.001) and FVC %predicted (R = −0.64, P < 0.001). Two patients showed a marked change in Perc85 over a 2 year period, but the localization of change differed clearly. Conclusions: We identified Perc85 as optimal lung density parameter, which correlated significantly with DLCO and FVC, confirming a lung parenchymal structure–function relation in SSc. This provides

  20. Lung Function in African Infants in the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Impact of Lower Respiratory Tract Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Diane M; Turkovic, Lidija; Willemse, Lauren; Visagie, Ane; Vanker, Aneesa; Stein, Dan J; Sly, Peter D; Hall, Graham L; Zar, Heather J

    2017-01-15

    Lower respiratory tract illness is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. It is unknown whether infants are predisposed to illness because of impaired lung function or whether respiratory illness reduces lung function. To investigate the impact of early life exposures, including lower respiratory tract illness, on lung function during infancy. Infants enrolled in the Drakenstein child health study had lung function at 6 weeks and 1 year. Testing during quiet natural sleep included tidal breathing, exhaled nitric oxide, and multiple breath washout measures. Risk factors for impaired lung health were collected longitudinally. Lower respiratory tract illness surveillance was performed and any episode investigated. Lung function was tested in 648 children at 1 year. One hundred and fifty (29%) infants had a lower respiratory tract illness during the first year of life. Lower respiratory tract illness was independently associated with increased respiratory rate (4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.08; P = 0.02). Repeat episodes further increased respiratory rate (3%; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05; P = 0.004), decreased tidal volume (-1.7 ml; 95% CI, -3.3 to -0.2; P = 0.03), and increased the lung clearance index (0.13 turnovers; 95% CI, 0.04-0.22; P = 0.006) compared with infants without illness. Tobacco smoke exposure, lung function at 6 weeks, infant growth, and prematurity were other independent predictors of lung function at 1 year. Early life lower respiratory tract illness impairs lung function at 1 year, independent of baseline lung function. Preventing early life lower respiratory tract illness is important to optimize lung function and promote respiratory health in childhood.

  1. Lung functions at school age and chronic exposure to outdoor and indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, M.; Kundi, M.; Wiesenberger, W. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    Early signs of lung function impairment have been found correlated with annual concentrations of outdoor air pollutants and with passive smoking. To investigate the combined effects of both indicators of chronic exposure to air pollution pulmonary functions in all elementary and high school children of an Austrian town was examined for 5 years. (author)

  2. Lung Cancer: Early Detection is the Key | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Early Detection is the Key Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Lung cancer survivor Dusty Donaldson helps to spread the word ...

  3. [Portable lung function parameters testing system based on DSP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhanshe; Yuan, Minzhong; Zhou, Hui

    2012-11-01

    Lung function monitoring is a critical technique for clinical medicine. Currently, the lung function testing devices used in our domestic hospitals are both expensive and bulky. A portable and accurate lung function parameters testing system is highly desired and is proposed in this paper. The hardware of the system is based on DSP technology. The breathing passage is designed with an aim suitable for the breathe and signal detection. We use the direct detection method to detect the gas flow, the breathing passage pressure and the breathing time. Thanks to the powerful data processing ability and the high operation speed of the DSP, breathing signals can be easily analyzed. Thus, several lung function parameters of clinical significance can be obtained. Experiments show that the accuracy of the system is better than 3%, and could meet the demand of the lung function testing.

  4. Fibronectin Matrix Remodeling in the Regulation of the Inflammatory Response within the Lung: An Early Step in Lung Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    the Inflammatory Response within the Lung: An Early Step in Lung Cancer Progression PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paula J. McKeown-Longo, Ph.D...2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fibronectin Matrix Remodeling in the Regulation of the 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0755 Inflammatory Response within...hypothesis that force dependent unfolding of fibronectin in the tumor stroma drives an inflammatory response within the lung tumor microenvironment

  5. Socioeconomic status, lung function and admission to hospital for COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1999-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of education and income on development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessing lung function and hospital admission. The study population consisted of 14,223 subjects, aged 20-90 yrs, randomly sampled from the population of Copenhagen in 1976...... and duration of smoking and inhalation, the difference was 220+/-31 mL and 363+/-39 mL in females and males, respectively. Results for FVC were of the same magnitude. Using a socioeconomic index which combined information on education and household income the association with lung function did not differ...... index in females were 0.74 (0.55-1.02) and 0.27 (0.10-0.73), respectively. Corresponding relative risks in males were 0.47 (0.36-0.63) and 0.35 (0.17-0.70). The results indicate that socioeconomic factors operating from early in life affect the adult risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary...

  6. Metabolic Functions of the Lung, Disorders and Associated Pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Alcibey; Arce, Isabel

    2016-10-01

    The primary function of the lungs is gas exchange. Approximately 400 million years ago, the Earth's atmosphere gained enough oxygen in the gas phase for the animals that emerged from the sea to breathe air. The first lungs were merely primitive air sacs with a few vessels in the walls that served as accessory organs of gas exchange to supplement the gills. Eons later, as animals grew accustomed to a solely terrestrial life, the lungs became highly compartmentalized to provide the vast air-blood surface necessary for O2 uptake and CO2 elimination, and a respiratory control system was developed to regulate breathing in accordance with metabolic demands and other needs. With the evolution and phylogenetic development, lungs were taking a variety of other specialized functions to maintain homeostasis, which we will call the non-respiratory functions of the lung and that often, and by mistake, are believed to have little or no connection with the replacement gas. In this review, we focus on the metabolic functions of the lung, perhaps the least known, and mainly, in the lipid metabolism and blood-adult lung vascular endothelium interaction. When these functions are altered, respiratory disorders or diseases appear, which are discussed concisely, emphasizing how they impact the most important function of the lungs: external respiration.

  7. Early and continuing effects of combined alpha and beta irradiation of the lung:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.; Snipes, M.B.; Newton, G.J.; Eidson, A.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.

    1988-03-01

    This report summarizes an inhalation exposure experiment that concerns early and continuing effects of combined alpha and beta irradiation of the lung of rats. Both morbidity at 18 months and mortality within 18 months after exposure were examined for rats exposed to the beta-emitter /sup 147/Pm, the alpha-emitter /sup 238/Pu, or both combined. The results were used to validate hazard-function models that were developed (1)for pulmonary functional morbidity at 18 months and (2) for lethality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis within 18 months. Both models were found to adequately predict the experimental observations after combined chronic alpha and beta irradiation of the lung. A relative biological effectiveness of approximately 7 was obtained for /sup 238/Pu alpha radiation compared to /sup 147/Pm beta radiation for both pulmonary functional morbidity and lethality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. 12 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. 早期营养护理干预在肺癌患者术后的应用及对其免疫功能的影响%The Application of Early Nutrition Nursing Intervention in Patients with Lung Cancer and its Effect on the Immune Function of Patients with Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁豪果; 朱伟伟; 董希会

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of early nutrition nursing intervention on postoperative patients with lung cancer and its effect on immune function. Methods 74 cases of lung cancer patients in our hospital were randomly divided into two groups, and each group had 37 cases. The study group in the 48 hours after was given the implementation of early nutrition nursing intervention, and the control group was given the implementation of nutritional care intervention for 48 h. The immune function and nutritional index of the two groups were analyzed. Results Study group IgG (1.8±0.4) g/L, IgA (12.8±1.8) g/L was higher than the control group IgG (1.3±0.5) g/L, IgA (10.2±1.5) g/L, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05).The pre albumin and serum protein in the study group were all higher than those in the control group, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion For lung cancer patients after the implementation of early nutrition nursing intervention can promote the recovery of immune function, to improve the nutritional status, has important significance in clinical treatment.%目的探究早期营养护理干预在肺癌患者术后的应用效果及对其免疫功能的影响。方法选取我院收治的74例肺癌患者,随机分组,各37例。研究组于术后48 h 内实施早期营养护理干预,对照组于48 h 后实施营养护理干预。统计两组患者免疫功能指标、营养指标。结果研究组 IgG(1.8±0.4)g/L、IgA(12.8±1.8)g/L 高于对照组 IgG(1.3±0.5)g/L、IgA(10.2±1.5)g/L,两组差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。研究组前白蛋白、血清蛋白均高于对照组,两组差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论对肺癌患者术后实施早期营养护理干预可促进患者免疫功能恢复,改善营养状况,在临床治疗中具有重要意义。

  9. Partial liquid ventilation improves lung function in ventilation-induced lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Vazquez de Anda; R.A. Lachmann; S.J.C. Verbrugge (Serge); D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); J.J. Haitsma (Jack); B.F. Lachmann (Burkhard)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractDisturbances in lung function and lung mechanics are present after ventilation with high peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) and low levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Therefore, the authors investigated whether partial liquid ventilation can re-establish l

  10. Lung-function trajectories leading to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Celli, B.; Agustí, A.;

    2015-01-01

    population norms. METHODS: We stratified participants in three independent cohorts (the Framingham Offspring Cohort, the Copenhagen City Heart Study, and the Lovelace Smokers Cohort) according to lung function (FEV1 ≥80% or age of patients, approximately...... at the end of the observation period had had a normal FEV1 before 40 years of age and had a rapid decline in FEV1 thereafter, with a mean (±SD) decline of 53±21 ml per year. The remaining half had had a low FEV1 in early adulthood and a subsequent mean decline in FEV1 of 27±18 ml per year (P...BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is thought to result from an accelerated decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over time. Yet it is possible that a normal decline in FEV1 could also lead to COPD in persons whose maximally attained FEV1 is less than...

  11. Use of quantitative lung scintigraphy to predict postoperative pulmonary function in lung cancer patients undergoing lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Thida; Laroche, Clare M; Groves, Ashley M; White, Carol; Wells, Francis C; Ritchie, Andrew J; Tasker, Angela D

    2004-10-01

    In patients with non-small cell lung cancer, the only realistic chance of cure is surgical resection. However, in some of these patients there is such poor respiratory reserve that surgery can result in an unacceptable quality of life. In order to identify these patients, various pulmonary function tests and scintigraphic techniques have been used. The current American College of Physicians and British Thoracic Society guidelines do not recommend the use of quantitative ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy to predict postoperative function in lung cancer patients undergoing lobectomy. These guidelines may have been influenced by previous scintigraphic studies performed over a decade ago. Since then there have been advances in both surgical techniques and scintigraphic techniques, and the surgical population has become older and more female represented. We prospectively performed spirometry and quantitative ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy on 61 consecutive patients undergoing lobectomy for lung cancer. Spirometry was repeated one-month postsurgery. Both a simple segment counting technique alone and scintigraphy were used to predict the postoperative lung function. There was statistically significant correlation (p lung function using both the simple segment counting technique and the scintigraphic techniques. However, the correlation using simple segment counting was of negligible difference compared to scintigraphy. In keeping with current American Chest Physician and British Thoracic Society guidelines, our results suggest that quantitative ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy is not necessary in the preoperative assessment of lung cancer patients undergoing lobectomy. The simple segmenting technique can be used to predict postoperative lung function in lobectomy patients.

  12. Correlation of apical fluid-regulating channel proteins with lung function in human COPD lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runzhen Zhao

    Full Text Available Links between epithelial ion channels and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD are emerging through animal model and in vitro studies. However, clinical correlations between fluid-regulating channel proteins and lung function in COPD remain to be elucidated. To quantitatively measure epithelial sodium channels (ENaC, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, and aquaporin 5 (AQP5 proteins in human COPD lungs and to analyze the correlation with declining lung function, quantitative western blots were used. Spearman tests were performed to identify correlations between channel proteins and lung function. The expression of α and β ENaC subunits was augmented and inversely associated with lung function. In contrast, both total and alveolar type I (ATI and II (ATII-specific CFTR proteins were reduced. The expression level of CFTR proteins was associated with FEV1 positively. Abundance of AQP5 proteins and extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3 was decreased and correlated with spirometry test results and gas exchange positively. Furthermore, these channel proteins were significantly associated with severity of disease. Our study demonstrates that expression of ENaC, AQP5, and CFTR proteins in human COPD lungs is quantitatively associated with lung function and severity of COPD. These apically located fluid-regulating channels may thereby serve as biomarkers and potent druggable targets of COPD.

  13. Dicer function is essential for lung epithelium morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kelley S; Zhang, Zhen; McManus, Michael T; Harfe, Brian D; Sun, Xin

    2006-02-14

    DICER is a key enzyme that processes microRNA and small interfering RNA precursors into their short mature forms, enabling them to regulate gene expression. Only a single Dicer gene exists in the mouse genome, and it is broadly expressed in developing tissues. Dicer-null mutants die before gastrulation. Therefore, to study Dicer function in the later event of lung formation, we inactivated it in the mouse lung epithelium using a Dicer conditional allele and the Sonic Hedgehogcre (Shhcre) allele. Branching arrests in these mutant lungs, although epithelial growth continues in distal domains that are expanded compared with normal samples. These defects result in a few large epithelial pouches in the mutant lung instead of numerous fine branches present in a normal lung. Significantly, the initial phenotypes are apparent before an increase in epithelial cell death is observed, leading us to propose that Dicer plays a specific role in regulating lung epithelial morphogenesis independent of its requirement in cell survival. In addition, we found that the expression of Fgf10, a key gene involved in lung development, is up-regulated and expanded in the mesenchyme of Dicer mutant lungs. Previous studies support the hypothesis that precise localization of FGF10 in discrete sites of the lung mesenchyme serves as a chemoattractant for the outgrowth of epithelial branches. The aberrant Fgf10 expression may contribute to the Dicer morphological defects. However, the mechanism by which DICER functions in the epithelium to influence Fgf10 expression in the mesenchyme remains unknown.

  14. Severity of lung fibrosis affects early surgical outcomes of lung cancer among patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimae, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kenji; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Ikeda, Norihiko; Takamochi, Kazuya; Aokage, Keiju; Shimada, Yoshihisa; Miyata, Yoshihiro; Okada, Morihito

    2016-07-01

    Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is defined as upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis, which are representative lung disorders that increase the prevalence of lung cancer. This unique disorder may affect the morbidity and mortality during the early period after surgery. The present study aimed to identify which clinicopathological features significantly affect early surgical outcomes after lung resection in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and in those with CPFE.We retrospectively assessed 2295 patients with NSCLC and found that 151 (6.6%) had CPFE. All were surgically treated between January 2008 and December 2010 at 4 institutions.The postoperative complication rates for patients with and without CPFE were 39% and 17%, respectively. The 90-day mortality rates were higher among patients with than without CPFE (7.9% vs 1%). Acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia was the main cause of death among 12 patients with CPFE who died within 90 days after surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis selected CPFE, gender, age, and clinical stage as independent predictive factors for postoperative complications, and CPFE, clinical stage, and sex for 90-day mortality. The severity of lung fibrosis on preoperative CT images was an independent predictive factor for 90-day mortality among patients with CPFE.The key predictive factor for postoperative mortality and complications of lung resection for NSCLC was CPFE. The severity of lung fibrosis was the principal predictor of early outcomes after lung surgery among patients with CPFE and NSCLC.

  15. PREOPERATIVE PREDICTION OF LUNG FUNCTION IN PNEUMONECTOMY BY SPIROMETRY AND LUNG PERFUSION SCINTIGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukic, Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays an increasing number of lung resections are being done because of the rising prevalence of lung cancer that occurs mainly in patients with limited lung function, what is caused by common etiologic factor - smoking cigarettes. Loss of lung tissue in such patients can worsen much the postoperative pulmonary function. So it is necessary to asses the postoperative pulmonary function especially after maximal resection, i.e. pneumonectomy. Objective: To check over the accuracy of preoperative prognosis of postoperative lung function after pneumonectomy using spirometry and lung perfusion scinigraphy. Material and methods: The study was done on 17 patients operated at the Clinic for thoracic surgery, who were treated previously at the Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases “Podhrastovi” in the period from 01. 12. 2008. to 01. 06. 2011. Postoperative pulmonary function expressed as ppoFEV1 (predicted postoperative forced expiratory volume in one second) was prognosticated preoperatively using spirometry, i.e.. simple calculation according to the number of the pulmonary segments to be removed and perfusion lung scintigraphy. Results: There is no significant deviation of postoperative achieved values of FEV1 from predicted ones obtained by both methods, and there is no significant differences between predicted values (ppoFEV1) obtained by spirometry and perfusion scintigraphy. Conclusion: It is necessary to asses the postoperative pulmonary function before lung resection to avoid postoperative respiratory failure and other cardiopulmonary complications. It is absolutely necessary for pneumonectomy, i.e.. maximal pulmonary resection. It can be done with great possibility using spirometry or perfusion lung scintigraphy. PMID:23378687

  16. Sox9 Activation is Essential for the Recovery of Lung Function after Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Acute lung injury (ALI often predisposes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in humans, and is featured with neutrophilic alveolitis, injury of the alveolar epithelium and endothelium, hyaline membrane formation, and microvascular thrombi. Although the pathogenesis of ALI is relatively well studied, the knowledge on the molecular regulation of the post-ALI lung recovery are poorly understood. Methods: Here, we used a widely applied bleomycin-induced ALI model to study the molecular mechanisms that underlie the post-ALI lung recovery in mice. We analyzed Sox9 expression in mouse lung by RT-qPCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. We analyzed miR-101 levels in mouse lung by RT-qPCR. We inhibited Sox9 in mouse lung by expressing either shRNA for Sox9 or miR-101, and analyzed the effects of Sox9 suppression on lung recovery. Results: We detected a significant increase in Sox9 protein but not mRNA, and a signifcant decrease in miR-101 levels in the mouse lung after ALI. MiR-101 was found to target 3'-UTR of Sox9 mRNA to inhibit its expression. Sox9 inhibition by either shRNA for Sox9 or by miR-101 further impaired the functional recovery of the lung after ALI. Conclusion: Our data suggest that Sox9 activation is essential for the recovery of lung function after ALI, which highlights a previously unappreciated mechanism that controls the post-ALI lung recovery.

  17. Computed Tomography Measure of Lung at Risk and Lung Function Decline in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Surya P; Bodduluri, Sandeep; Hoffman, Eric A; Newell, John D; Sieren, Jessica C; Dransfield, Mark T; Reinhardt, Joseph M

    2017-09-01

    The rate of decline of lung function is greater than age-related change in a substantial proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, even after smoking cessation. Regions of the lung adjacent to emphysematous areas are subject to abnormal stretch during respiration, and this biomechanical stress likely influences emphysema initiation and progression. To assess whether quantifying this penumbra of lung at risk would predict FEV1 decline. We analyzed paired inspiratory-expiratory computed tomography images at baseline of 680 subjects participating in a large multicenter study (COPDGene) over approximately 5 years. By matching inspiratory and expiratory images voxel by voxel using image registration, we calculated the Jacobian determinant, a measure of local lung expansion and contraction with respiration. We measured the distance between each normal voxel to the nearest emphysematous voxel, and quantified the percentage of normal voxels within each millimeter distance from emphysematous voxels as mechanically affected lung (MAL). Multivariable regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between the Jacobian determinant, MAL, and FEV1 decline. The mean (SD) rate of decline in FEV1 was 39.0 (58.6) ml/yr. There was a progressive decrease in the mean Jacobian determinant of both emphysematous and normal voxels with increasing disease stage (P lung are mechanically influenced by emphysematous areas and this lung at risk is associated with lung function decline. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00608764).

  18. Lung Function Profiles among Individuals with Nonmalignant Asbestos-related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Kee Park

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Lung function measurement differs in individuals with different ARDs. Monitoring of lung function among asbestos-exposed populations is a simple means of facilitating earlier interventions.

  19. Effect of low- intensity continuous training on lung function and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sci

    training (20-30 minutes of running at 40% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). Lung function and .... index and the correlation index. Recovery index = Regression index x correlation Index ..... Fitness Parameters in Athletes. World Applied ...

  20. Longitudinal Decline in Lung Function Measurements among Saskatchewan Grain Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punam Pahwa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between the long term effects of grain dust and decline in lung function among grain elevator workers in Saskatchewan, studied over a 15-year period.

  1. SBRT in operable early stage lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Johannes; Andratschke, Nicolaus; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Since decades the gold standard for treatment of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is surgical lobectomy plus mediastinal lymph node dissection. Patients in worse health status are treated with sublobar resection or radiation treatment. With development of stereotactic-body-radiotherapy (SBRT), outcome of patients treated with radiation was substantially improved. Comparison of SBRT and surgical techniques is difficult due to the lack of randomized trials. However, all available evidence in form of case control studies of population based studies show equivalence between sublobar resection and SBRT indicating that SBRT-when performed by a trained and experienced team-should be offered to all high-risk surgical patients. For patients not willing to take the risk of lobectomy and therefore refusing surgery, SBRT is an excellent treatment option.

  2. The effects of electronic cigarette aerosol exposure on inflammation and lung function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, Alexander N; Janka, Maxine A; Mullins, Benjamin J; Berry, Luke J; Bredin, Arne; Franklin, Peter J

    2017-07-01

    Electronic cigarette usage is increasing worldwide, yet there is a paucity of information on the respiratory health effects of electronic cigarette aerosol exposure. This study aimed to assess whether exposure to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) aerosol would alter lung function and pulmonary inflammation in mice and to compare the severity of any alterations with mice exposed to mainstream tobacco smoke. Female BALB/c mice were exposed for 8 wk to tobacco smoke, medical air (control), or one of four different types of e-cigarette aerosol. E-cigarette aerosols varied depending on nicotine content (0 or 12 mg/ml) and the main excipient (propylene glycol or glycerin). Twenty-four hours after the final exposure, we measured pulmonary inflammation, lung volume, lung mechanics, and responsiveness to methacholine. Mice exposed to tobacco cigarette smoke had increased pulmonary inflammation and responsiveness to methacholine compared with air controls. Mice exposed to e-cigarette aerosol did not have increased inflammation but did display decrements in parenchymal lung function at both functional residual capacity and high transrespiratory pressures. Mice exposed to glycerin-based e-cigarette aerosols were also hyperresponsive to methacholine regardless of the presence or absence of nicotine. This study shows, for the first time, that exposure to e-cigarette aerosol during adolescence and early adulthood is not harmless to the lungs and can result in significant impairments in lung function. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Lung function tests in neonates and infants with chronic lung disease: lung and chest-wall mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gappa, Monika; Pillow, J Jane; Allen, Julian; Mayer, Oscar; Stocks, Janet

    2006-04-01

    This is the fifth paper in a review series that summarizes available data and critically discusses the potential role of lung function testing in infants and young children with acute neonatal respiratory disorders and chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI). This review focuses on respiratory mechanics, including chest-wall and tissue mechanics, obtained in the intensive care setting and in infants during unassisted breathing. Following orientation of the reader to the subject area, we focused comments on areas of enquiry proposed in the introductory paper to this series. The quality of the published literature is reviewed critically with respect to relevant methods, equipment and study design, limitations and strengths of different techniques, and availability and appropriateness of reference data. Recommendations to guide future investigations in this field are provided. Numerous different methods have been used to assess respiratory mechanics with the aims of describing pulmonary status in preterm infants and assessing the effect of therapeutic interventions such as surfactant treatment, antenatal or postnatal steroids, or bronchodilator treatment. Interpretation of many of these studies is limited because lung volume was not measured simultaneously. In addition, populations are not comparable, and the number of infants studied has generally been small. Nevertheless, results appear to support the pathophysiological concept that immaturity of the lung leads to impaired lung function, which may improve with growth and development, irrespective of the diagnosis of chronic lung disease. To fully understand the impact of immaturity on the developing lung, it is unlikely that a single parameter such as respiratory compliance or resistance will accurately describe underlying changes. Assessment of respiratory mechanics will have to be supplemented by assessment of lung volume and airway function. New methods such as the low-frequency forced oscillation technique, which

  4. Hyperinsulinemia Adversely Affects Lung Structure and Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen Kumar; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Kolumam Parameswaran, Praveen; Thompson, Michael A; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina M; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y S; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-01-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna; more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that insuli

  5. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K

    2016-01-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that in...

  6. Hyperinsulinemia Adversely Affects Lung Structure and Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen Kumar; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Kolumam Parameswaran, Praveen; Thompson, Michael A; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina M; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y S; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-01-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna; more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that

  7. Altered lung structure and function in mid-childhood survivors of very preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Shannon J; Logie, Karla M; O'Dea, Christopher A; Banton, Georgia L; Murray, Conor; Wilson, Andrew C; Pillow, J Jane; Hall, Graham L

    2017-08-01

    Survivors of preterm birth are at risk of chronic and lifelong pulmonary disease. Follow-up data describing lung structure and function are scarce in children born preterm during the surfactant era. To obtain comprehensive data on lung structure and function in mid-childhood from survivors of preterm birth. We aimed to explore relationships between lung structure, lung function and respiratory morbidity as well as early life contributors to poorer childhood respiratory outcomes. Lung function was tested at 9-11 years in children born at term (controls) and at ≤32 weeks gestation. Tests included spirometry, oscillatory mechanics, multiple breath nitrogen washout and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. Preterm children had CT of the chest and completed a respiratory symptoms questionnaire. 58 controls and 163 preterm children (99 with bronchopulmonary dysplasia) participated. Preterm children exhibited pulmonary obstruction and hyperinflation as well as abnormal peripheral lung mechanics compared with term controls. FEV1 was improved by 0.10 z-scores for every additional week of gestation (95% CI 0.028 to 0.182; p=0.008) and by 0.34 z-scores per z-score increase in birth weight (0.124 to 0.548; p=0.002). Structural lung changes were present in 92% of preterm children, with total CT score decreased by 0.64 (-0.99 to -0.29; plung areas on inspiratory chest CT scans (plung structure in mid-childhood resulting from preterm birth in the contemporary era has important functional consequences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. AUTOFLUORESCENCE BRONCHOSCOPY AS A MODALITY FOR EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAW Nugraha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer has become a complicated health problem in the world. In 2005, approximately 172,500 people diagnosed with lung cancer in the United States. In Indonesia, lung cancer ranks fourth highest. Lung cancer is also the most common cause of death from cancer, so we need appropriate early detection modality to reduce the number of deaths from lung cancer. Compared with other modalities that currently available, Autofluorescence Bronchoscopy (AFB seems to have better accuracy in early diagnosis of lung cancer. AFB can be used to evaluate patients with high-grade sputum atypia, evaluating patients with suspected or had suffered from lung cancer, and have a role in follow-up of bronchial high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia.

  9. Using quantitative CT to predict postoperative pulmonary function in patients with lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fang; HAN Ping; FENG Gan-sheng; LIANG Bo; XIAO Jie; TIAN Zhi-liang; LEI Zi-qiao

    2005-01-01

    Background At present, the therapy for patients with lung cancer that achieves a high rate of cure is surgical resection at an early stage of the disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate quantitative computed tomography (QCT) for predicting postoperative pulmonary function in patients with lung cancer. Methods The data of thirty-one patients with lung cancer who underwent both pulmonary functional tests and QCT scan before operations were collected. A CT program was used to quantify the volume of whole lung parenchyma with attenuation of -910 HU to -600 HU, which was defined as total functional lung volume (TFLV). Similarly, the volume of lung (lobes or segments) with attenuation of -910 HU to -600 HU was defined as regional functional lung volume (RFLV). Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), FVC% and FEV1% (ratio to reference values of the matched population) were obtained from preoperational pulmonary functional tests. According to the formula: predicted FVC (pre-FVC)=preoperative FVC×[1-(RFLV/TFLV)]; predicted FEV1 (pre-FEV1)=preoperative FEV1×[1-(RFLV/TFLV)], we obtained values of predicted FVC, predicted FEV1, predicted FVC% (pre-FVC/reference values of the matched population), and predicted FEV1% (pre-FEV1/reference values of the matched population). The paired t test and Pearson correlation test were used to assess significance of differences and correlations between CT predicted values and postoperative measured results of FVC, FEV1, FVC% and FEV1%. Results QCT predicted values correlated well with postoperative FVC, FEV1, FVC% and FEV1% (r=0.873, 0.809, 0.849 and 0.801 respectively, all P<0.01).Conclusions QCT is an effective and accurate way to predict postoperative pulmonary function in patients undergoing pulmonary resection, regardless of the patients' preoperative pulmonary functional status.

  10. Cannabidiol improves lung function and inflammation in mice submitted to LPS-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A; Almeida, V I; Costola-de-Souza, C; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Vitoretti, L B; Gimenes-Junior, J A; Akamine, A T; Crippa, J A; Tavares-de-Lima, W; Palermo-Neto, J

    2015-02-01

    We have previously shown that the prophylactic treatment with cannabidiol (CBD) reduces inflammation in a model of acute lung injury (ALI). In this work we analyzed the effects of the therapeutic treatment with CBD in mice subjected to the model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI on pulmonary mechanics and inflammation. CBD (20 and 80 mg/kg) was administered (i.p.) to mice 6 h after LPS-induced lung inflammation. One day (24 h) after the induction of inflammation the assessment of pulmonary mechanics and inflammation were analyzed. The results show that CBD decreased total lung resistance and elastance, leukocyte migration into the lungs, myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue, protein concentration and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF and IL-6) and chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2) in the bronchoalveolar lavage supernatant. Thus, we conclude that CBD administered therapeutically, i.e. during an ongoing inflammatory process, has a potent anti-inflammatory effect and also improves the lung function in mice submitted to LPS-induced ALI. Therefore the present and previous data suggest that in the future cannabidiol might become a useful therapeutic tool for the attenuation and treatment of inflammatory lung diseases.

  11. Lung morphometry: the link between structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Ewald R

    2017-03-01

    The study of the structural basis of gas exchange function in the lung depends on the availability of quantitative information that concerns the structures establishing contact between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the alveolar capillaries, which can be entered into physiological equations for predicting oxygen uptake. This information is provided by morphometric studies involving stereological methods and allows estimates of the pulmonary diffusing capacity of the human lung that agree, in experimental studies, with the maximal oxygen consumption. The basis for this "machine lung" structure lies in the complex design of the cells building an extensive air-blood barrier with minimal cell mass.

  12. Regional differences in prediction models of lung function in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäper Christoph

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the influencing potential of specific characteristics on lung function in different populations. The aim of this analysis was to determine whether lung function determinants differ between subpopulations within Germany and whether prediction equations developed for one subpopulation are also adequate for another subpopulation. Methods Within three studies (KORA C, SHIP-I, ECRHS-I in different areas of Germany 4059 adults performed lung function tests. The available data consisted of forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity and peak expiratory flow rate. For each study multivariate regression models were developed to predict lung function and Bland-Altman plots were established to evaluate the agreement between predicted and measured values. Results The final regression equations for FEV1 and FVC showed adjusted r-square values between 0.65 and 0.75, and for PEF they were between 0.46 and 0.61. In all studies gender, age, height and pack-years were significant determinants, each with a similar effect size. Regarding other predictors there were some, although not statistically significant, differences between the studies. Bland-Altman plots indicated that the regression models for each individual study adequately predict medium (i.e. normal but not extremely high or low lung function values in the whole study population. Conclusions Simple models with gender, age and height explain a substantial part of lung function variance whereas further determinants add less than 5% to the total explained r-squared, at least for FEV1 and FVC. Thus, for different adult subpopulations of Germany one simple model for each lung function measures is still sufficient.

  13. Adsorption Properties of Typical Lung Cancer Breath Gases on Ni-SWCNTs through Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of useful information is contained in the human breath gases, which makes it an effective way to diagnose diseases by detecting the typical breath gases. This work investigated the adsorption of typical lung cancer breath gases: benzene, styrene, isoprene, and 1-hexene onto the surface of intrinsic and Ni-doped single wall carbon nanotubes through density functional theory. Calculation results show that the typical lung cancer breath gases adsorb on intrinsic single wall carbon nanotubes surface by weak physisorption. Besides, the density of states changes little before and after typical lung cancer breath gases adsorption. Compared with single wall carbon nanotubes adsorption, single Ni atom doping significantly improves its adsorption properties to typical lung cancer breath gases by decreasing adsorption distance and increasing adsorption energy and charge transfer. The density of states presents different degrees of variation during the typical lung cancer breath gases adsorption, resulting in the specific change of conductivity of gas sensing material. Based on the different adsorption properties of Ni-SWCNTs to typical lung cancer breath gases, it provides an effective way to build a portable noninvasive portable device used to evaluate and diagnose lung cancer at early stage in time.

  14. [Guidelines for the early diagnosis of lung cancer for primary care physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious/medical and social problem. It belongs to the most common cancers. In the past decades, lung cancer has steadily held a leading place in the structure of cancer morbidity and mortality in our country and in the majority of European countries. Cigarette smoking remains to be the major if not only risk factor for lung cancer. Many attempts were previously made to set up systems for the early (timely) lung cancerdetection in risk groups through cytological and radiological examinations. Prophylactic fluorography and X-ray study have long been an important screening procedure in Russia and foreign countries. Recently this procedure has transformed into digital lung radiography. However, there have been no conclusive proofs for its efficiency in the early detection of lung cancer for a few decades. In the past decade, large-scale prospective randomized trials of low-dose computed tomography (CT) have been performed to screen lung cancer. These have shown that this technology can potentially reduce mortality from this disease. This encouraging result has caused a substantial change in the tactics of examining people at high risk for lung cancer. CT has fully replaced linear tomography and all others special X-ray procedures in the verified diagnosis of lung cancer. The indications for pre-examination CT have been considerably expanded in patients with X-ray detected pathology. The tactics for estimating the small lung tissue foci found at CT has been changed. Availability of CT, clear clinical indications for the study, and observance of the standard procedure have become important elements of the entire system for the early identification of lung cancer. These clinical recommendations largely deal just with organizational and methodological issues. The authors hope that the recommendations will serve as a guide for primary care physicians (therapists, pulmonologists,and radiologists) in the early diagnosis of lung cancer and in the optimization

  15. Amiodarone lung toxicity: role of pulmonary function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, V; Carini, L; Lovagnini-Scher, C A; Parisio, E; Scolari, N; Pozzi, G; Clini, V

    1987-01-01

    Forty-three patients treated with amiodarone hydrochloride with an average daily dose of 204.7 +/- 79.4 mg/day for a mean period of 37.1 +/- 25.3 months, were studied by clinical examination, chest roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests and blood gas analyses. The habits of cigarette smoking were also recorded and expressed as cigarette pack/years. Pulmonary function tests did not show any differences from control subjects and no correlation was found between exposure to drug and lung function. However, one patient developed abnormalities in the chest X-ray (interstitial type) and a reduction of carbon monoxide diffusion capacity as a possible manifestation of amiodarone lung toxicity. Nine patients (22%) had a 20% decrease from normal in carbon monoxide diffusion capacity and three (7%) had a 15% decrease in total lung capacity. More treated patients had interstitial abnormalities in the chest X-ray (14%) than controls (5.5%). Although pulmonary function test abnormalities could be detected in patients taking amiodarone, they were not usually severe enough to interfere with gas exchange. Our results confirm the rarity of amiodarone lung toxicity when a low dosage is used, and suggest the advisability of periodical monitoring, including clinical examination, chest X-ray and pulmonary function tests in order to detect the earliest signs of amiodarone lung toxicity.

  16. Four-arm robotic lobectomy for the treatment of early-stage lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Giulia; Galetta, Domenico; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Melfi, Franca; Schmid, Ralph Alexander; Borri, Alessandro; Vannucci, Fernando; Spaggiari, Lorenzo

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the feasibility and safety of four-arm robotic lung lobectomy in patients with lung cancer and described the robotic lobectomy technique with mediastinal lymph node dissection. Over 21 months, 54 patients underwent robotic lobectomy for early-stage lung cancer at our institute. We used a da Vinci Robotic System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc, Mountain View, Calif) with three ports plus one utility incision to isolate hilum elements and perform vascular and bronchial resection using standard endoscopic staplers. Standard mediastinal lymph node dissection was performed subsequently. Surgical outcomes were compared with those in 54 patients who underwent open surgery over the same period and were matched to the robotic group using propensity scores for a series of preoperative variables. Conversion to open surgery was necessary in 7 (13%) cases. Postoperative complications (11/54, 20%, in each group) and median number of lymph nodes removed (17.5 robotic vs 17 open) were similar in the 2 groups. Median robotic operating time decreased by 43 minutes (P = .02) from first tertile (18 patients) to the second-plus-third tertile (36 patients). Median postoperative hospitalization was significantly shorter after robotic (excluding first tertile) than after open operations (4.5 days vs 6 days; P = .002). Robotic lobectomy with lymph node dissection is practicable, safe, and associated with shorter postoperative hospitalization than open surgery. From the number of lymph nodes removed it also appears oncologically acceptable for early lung cancer. Benefits in terms of postoperative pain, respiratory function, and quality of life still require evaluation. We expect that technologic developments will further simplify the robotic procedure. 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Scintigraphy at 3 months after single lung transplantation and observations of primary graft dysfunction and lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmaati, Esther Okeke; Iversen, Martin; Kofoed, Klaus F;

    2012-01-01

    procedure 3 months after single lung transplantation (SLTX). A total of 41 patients were included in the study: 20 women and 21 men with the age span of patients at transplantation being 38-66 years (mean ± SD: 54.2 ± 6.0). Patient records also included lung function tests and chest X-ray images. We found......, and to investigate whether scintigraphic findings at 3 months were predictive for the outcome at 12 months in relation to primary graft dysfunction (PGD) and lung function. A retrospective study was carried out on all patients who prospectively and consecutively were referred for a routine lung scintigraphy...... no significant correlation between lung function distribution at 3 months and PGD at 72 h. There was also no significant correlation between PGD scores at 72 h and lung function at 6 and 12 months. The same applied to scintigraphic scores for heterogeneity at 3 months compared with lung function at 6 and 12...

  18. Early stage lung cancer detection in systemic sclerosis does not portend survival benefit: a cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy B Katzen

    Full Text Available Systemic Sclerosis (SSc is a rare connective tissue disorder associated with an increased risk of malignancy including lung cancer.A single center review of all cases of lung cancer in patients with SSc was conducted. Clinical, radiographic, and detailed pathologic data was collected. Risk factors were compared with our center's SSc Registry. Cancer characteristics were compared with the National Cancer Institute SEER Cancer Statistics (NCI SEER data.17 cases were identified; the majority were females (82% with the lung cancers diagnosed after the onset of SSc (88%. Tobacco use was identified in 65% of cases. Serologic testing showed 50% of cases were Scl-70 positive. Twelve cases had radiographic evidence of SSc lung involvement, however only 6 had restrictive physiology on pulmonary function testing. Thirteen cases had pulmonary nodules preceding lung cancer. Thirteen of the cancers were adenocarcinoma. Ten underwent molecular mutational profiling: 2/8 had KRAS mutation and 1/10 had EGFR mutation. More of the non-small cell lung cancers were diagnosed at localized disease (56% than in the NCI SEER database. However, 5 years survival among the stage I cases was 25% versus an expected survival of 54%.The high proportion of adenocarcinomas seen in our study is different from that reported in the literature. Lung cancers were diagnosed at an early stage, likely due to our center's practice of radiographic screening for SSc associated lung involvement, however this did not confer a survival advantage. A high proportion of patients who developed lung cancer had interstitial lung disease.

  19. Lung function after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhlving, Hilde Hylland; Larsen Bang, Cæcilie; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2013-01-01

    Reduction in pulmonary function (PF) has been reported in up to 85% of pediatric patients during the first year after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Our understanding of the etiology for this decrease in lung function is, however, sparse. The aim of this study was to describe PF...

  20. Chinese consensus on early diagnosis of primary lung cancer (2014 version).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Qian, Gui-Sheng; Bai, Chun-Xue

    2015-09-01

    The incidence and mortality of lung cancer in China have rapidly increased. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in China, possibly because of the inadequate early diagnosis of lung cancer. Reaching a consensus on early diagnostic strategies for lung cancer in China is an unmet needed. Recently, much progress has been made in lung cancer diagnosis, such as screening in high-risk populations, the application of novel imaging technologies, and the use of minimally invasive techniques for diagnosis. However, systemic reviews of disease history, risk assessment, and patients' willingness to undergo invasive diagnostic procedures also need to be considered. A diagnostic strategy for lung cancer should be proposed and developed by a multidisciplinary group. A comprehensive evaluation of patient factors and clinical findings should be completed before treatment.

  1. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, lung function and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Lange, Peter; Bojesen, Stig Egil

    2014-01-01

    25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) may be associated with lung function through modulation of pulmonary protease-antiprotease imbalance, airway inflammation, lung remodelling and oxidative stress. We examined the association of plasma 25(OH)D levels with lung function, lung function decline and risk o...

  2. IMPACT OF SMOKING ON ADULTS LUNG AGE AND VENTILATORY FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Farouk Helal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although a large body of evidence exists on the effect of smoking on lung age and pulmonary function, much less attention has been dedicated to using these effects as an effective strategy in smoking cessation. Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the impact of smoking on lung age and ventilatory function in adult Saudi in order to use these effects in a future strategy for smoking cessation. Methods: Eighty one smoker students with their mean age 23.88 ± 2.7 years were enrolled in this study. Every student performed a ventilatory function tests in order to measure lung age, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume at the end of the first second (FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and peak expiratory flow rate PEFR. Results: The result showed significant deterioration in the mean value of FEV1, PEFR and the estimated lung age and a non-significant difference in the mean values of FVC. Conclusion: Smoking has a significant effect on ventilaroty function and deteriorating estimated lung age.

  3. Determinants of lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S; Anhøj, J;

    2007-01-01

    Genetic Study (SAGA). RESULTS: The primary analysis studied the association between the lung function and delay of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) after asthma diagnosis among asthmatic children and young adults with a history of regular ICS treatment (N=919). FEV(1) percent predicted (FEV(1)% pred) was 0......BACKGROUND: Asthma patients exhibit an increased rate of loss of lung function. Determinants to such decline are largely unknown and the modifying effect of steroid therapy is disputed. This cross-sectional study aimed to elucidate factors contributing to such decline and the possible modifying...... effect of steroid treatment. METHODS: We analyzed determinants of lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a Scandinavian study of 2390 subjects from 550 families. Families were selected for the presence of two or more asthmatic children as part of a genetic study, Scandinavian Asthma...

  4. Rubberwood dust and lung function among Thai furniture factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Yingratanasuk, Tanongsak; Demers, Paul A; Thepaksorn, Phayong; Saowakhontha, Sastri; Keifer, Matthew C

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess factors affecting lung function among 685 workers in the rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) furniture industry in the Chonburi and Rayung provinces of eastern Thailand. Study data were gathered using questionnaires, by sampling wood dust, and by spirometry. The mean wood dust exposure level in the factories was 4.08 mg/m3 (SD = 1.42, range: 1.15-11.17 mg/m3). The mean overall percent of predicted forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC values were 84 % (SD = 13.41), 86 % (SD = 14.40), and 99% (SD = 10.42), respectively. Significant negative correlations were found between mean dust exposure levels and FVC (p = 0.0008), and FEV1/FVC% (p lung function and wood dust levels among wood workers suggests that rubberwood dust exposure negatively affects lung function.

  5. Menopause Is Associated with Accelerated Lung Function Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebner, Kai; Matulonga, Bobette; Johannessen, Ane; Suske, Sandra; Benediktsdóttir, Bryndís; Demoly, Pascal; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Franklin, Karl A; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Gullón Blanco, José Antonio; Heinrich, Joachim; Holm, Mathias; Jarvis, Debbie; Jõgi, Rain; Lindberg, Eva; Moratalla Rovira, Jesús Martínez; Muniozguren Agirre, Nerea; Pin, Isabelle; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Puggini, Luca; Raherison, Chantal; Sánchez-Ramos, José Luis; Schlünssen, Vivi; Sunyer, Jordi; Svanes, Cecilie; Hustad, Steinar; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Gómez Real, Francisco

    2017-04-15

    Menopause is associated with changes in sex hormones, which affect immunity, inflammation, and osteoporosis and may impair lung function. Lung function decline has not previously been investigated in relation to menopause. To study whether lung function decline, assessed by FVC and FEV1, is accelerated in women who undergo menopause. The population-based longitudinal European Community Respiratory Health Survey provided serum samples, spirometry, and questionnaire data about respiratory and reproductive health from three study waves (n = 1,438). We measured follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and added information on menstrual patterns to determine menopausal status using latent class analysis. Associations with lung function decline were investigated using linear mixed effects models, adjusting for age, height, weight, pack-years, current smoking, age at completed full-time education, spirometer, and including study center as random effect. Menopausal status was associated with accelerated lung function decline. The adjusted mean FVC decline was increased by -10.2 ml/yr (95% confidence interval [CI], -13.1 to -7.2) in transitional women and -12.5 ml/yr (95% CI, -16.2 to -8.9) in post-menopausal women, compared with women menstruating regularly. The adjusted mean FEV1 decline increased by -3.8 ml/yr (95% CI, -6.3 to -2.9) in transitional women and -5.2 ml/yr (95% CI, -8.3 to -2.0) in post-menopausal women. Lung function declined more rapidly among transitional and post-menopausal women, in particular for FVC, beyond the expected age change. Clinicians should be aware that respiratory health often deteriorates during reproductive aging.

  6. Alveolar flows of the developing lungs:from embryonic to early childhood airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum-Katan, Janna; Hofemeier, Philipp; Fishler, Rami; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Sznitman, Josue

    2014-11-01

    At the onset of life in utero the respiratory system is simply a liquid-filled duct. With our first breath, alveoli are filled with air and become a significant port of entry for airborne particles. As such, alveolar lining is nearly fully functional at birth, though lung development continues during childhood as structural changes increase alveolar surface area to optimize ventilation. We hypothesize that such fluid dynamical changes potentially affect two phenomena occurring within alveoli: (i) flow patterns in airspaces at distinct stages of both in- and ex-utero life and (ii) fate of inhaled particles ex-utero. To investigate these phenomena, we combine experimental and numerical approaches where (i) microfluidic in vitro devices mimic liquid flows across the epithelium of fetal airspaces, and (ii) computational simulations are employed to examine particle transport and deposition in the deep alveolated regions of infants' lungs. Our approaches capture anatomically-inspired geometries based on morphometrical data, as well as physiological flows, including the convective-diffusive nature of submicron particle transport in alveolar regions.Overall, we investigate respiratory flows in alveolar regions of developing lungs, from early embryonic stages to late childhood

  7. [INFLUENCE OF LIPOSUCTION OF LARGE VOLUME ON SYSTEMIC AND LUNG CIRCULATION, OXIGENATED LUNG FUNCTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, I P; Kapranova, A S; Popova, V B; Lodyagin, A N; Frolova, T A

    2015-01-01

    The authors measured the changes of hemodynamics in 72 patients. It was also estimated a blood oxygenation and volume of liquid sectors of the organism in different degree of obesity before and after liposuction of the large volume. It was shown, that this operation facilitated to an improvement of respiratory lung function due to changes of pulmonary circulation.

  8. Residential ozone and lung function in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braeuner, Elvira V.; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Frederiksen, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Ground level ozone arises primarily from traffic, it is a powerful oxidant and its primary target organ is the lung. Most epidemiological studies reporting the health effects of ozone have estimated individual exposure from measurements obtained from outdoor monitors but surrogates of personal...... exposure may not adequately reflect personal exposures. Also, the main focus has been on infants and children. Our purpose was to assess associations between urban background ozone and indoor residential ozone levels as well as to investigate the effects of indoor residential ozone on lung function in 51...... elderly non-smokers. Indoor ozone was measured passively in homes, while urban background outdoor ozone was monitored continuously at a fixed monitoring station located on the roof of the 20-m high university H.C. Ørsteds campus building in a park area. Lung function was measured at baseline as well...

  9. Effect of breastfeeding on lung function in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwan Soo; Kim, Yoon Hee; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Hee Seon; Han, Yoon Ki; Kim, Kyung Won; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2015-01-01

    Effect of breastfeeding on the protective effect on asthma has been studied extensively but remains controversial. Studies regarding the effect of breastfeeding on lung function have also been conflicting. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of breastfeeding on lung function in asthmatic children. We included 555 patients who visited Severance Children's Hospital Allergy Clinic with asthma. Pulmonary function, its bronchodilator response (BDR), fractional nitric oxide, and sputum eosinophils were measured. Parents completed questionnaires with information on feeding practices, family history of allergic disease, exposure to tobacco smoke, and presence of pets. Breastfeeding duration was categorized as not breastfed, breastfed asthma group, we stratified by atopic sensitization. We also investigated whether exclusivity of breastfeeding had any modifying effect on lung function. In the asthma group, ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) significantly increased according to breastfeeding duration: 86.6 ± 8.7 for not breastfed group, 87.2 ± 8.6 for asthma group, only the nonatopic subjects showed a significant increase of FEV1/FVC, maximal midexpiratory flow, and decrease of maximal response to BD according to breastfeeding duration. Increase in FEV1/FVC was seen in the exclusive breastfeeding for ≥6 months group compared with those partially breastfed but FVC was significantly lower in those exclusively breastfed breastfeeding duration in the nonatopic asthma group. In conclusion, longer duration of breastfeeding appears to have a favorable effect on lung function in asthmatic children, especially in nonatopic subjects.

  10. Metabotyping Patients’ Journeys Reveals Early Predisposition to Lung Injury after Cardiac Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maltesen, Raluca; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen; Pedersen, Shona

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and patients with severe symptoms undergo cardiac surgery. Even after uncomplicated surgeries, some patients experience postoperative complications such as lung injury. We hypothesized that the procedure elicits metabolic activity...... early, during or just after the end of surgery, may have potential impact in hospitals for the early diagnosis of postoperative lung injury, and for the monitoring of therapeutics targeting disease progression....

  11. Carbon Ion Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Demizu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon ion therapy is a type of radiotherapies that can deliver high-dose radiation to a tumor while minimizing the dose delivered to the organs at risk; this profile differs from that of photon radiotherapy. Moreover, carbon ions are classified as high-linear energy transfer radiation and are expected to be effective for even photon-resistant tumors. Recently, high-precision radiotherapy modalities such as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT, proton therapy, and carbon ion therapy have been used for patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer, and the results are promising, as, for carbon ion therapy, local control and overall survival rates at 5 years are 80–90% and 40–50%, respectively. Carbon ion therapy may be theoretically superior to SBRT and proton therapy, but the literature that is currently available does not show a statistically significant difference among these treatments. Carbon ion therapy demonstrates a better dose distribution than both SBRT and proton therapy in most cases of early-stage lung cancer. Therefore, carbon ion therapy may be safer for treating patients with adverse conditions such as large tumors, central tumors, and poor pulmonary function. Furthermore, carbon ion therapy may also be suitable for dose escalation and hypofractionation.

  12. [Organisational aspects and existing problems in prevention and early diagnostics of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhorbenadze, R A

    2005-10-01

    Thorough study of advanced stages of lung cancer has been held. Delayed detection of most of the malignant tumours (IV stages) points to a number of problems existing in Georgia in terms of primary prevention and early detection of oncologic diseases. Hence, elaboration of strategy for prevention and early detection of oncologic diseases is of great importance for our country. Activities aimed at early detection of lung cancer under the conditions of low-level resources primarily imply education of population and professionals, as well as implementation of screening procedures. Cheap and effective methods should be applied for early diagnosis of one or two most widespread malignant tumours.

  13. Genetics and Genomics of Longitudinal Lung Function Patterns in Asthmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGeachie, Michael J; Yates, Katherine P; Zhou, Xiaobo; Guo, Feng; Sternberg, Alice L; Van Natta, Mark L; Wise, Robert A; Szefler, Stanley J; Sharma, Sunita; Kho, Alvin T; Cho, Michael H; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Castaldi, Peter J; Jain, Gaurav; Sanyal, Amartya; Zhan, Ye; Lajoie, Bryan R; Dekker, Job; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Covar, Ronina A; Zeiger, Robert S; Adkinson, N Franklin; Williams, Paul V; Kelly, H William; Grasemann, Hartmut; Vonk, Judith M; Koppelman, Gerard H; Postma, Dirkje S; Raby, Benjamin A; Houston, Isaac; Lu, Quan; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L; Tantisira, Kelan G; Silverman, Edwin K; Tonascia, James; Strunk, Robert C; Weiss, Scott T

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Patterns of longitudinal lung function growth and decline in childhood asthma have been shown to be important in determining risk for future respiratory ailments including chronic airway obstruction and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: To determine the genetic und

  14. Integrative pathway genomics of lung function and airflow obstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gharib, Sina A.; Loth, Daan W.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Birkland, Timothy P.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Wain, Louise V.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Obeidat, Ma'en; Hancock, Dana B.; Tang, Wenbo; Rawal, Rajesh; Boezen, H. Marike; Imboden, Medea; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Lahousse, Lies; Alves, Alexessander C.; Manichaikul, Ani; Hui, Jennie; Morrison, Alanna C.; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Smith, Albert Vernon; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Surakka, Ida; Vitart, Veronique; Evans, David M.; Strachan, David P.; Deary, Ian J.; Hofman, Albert; Glaeser, Sven; Wilson, James F.; North, Kari E.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Heckbert, Susan R.; Jarvis, Deborah L.; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Schulz, Holger; Barr, R. Graham; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; O'Connor, George T.; Kahonen, Mika; Cassano, Patricia A.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Dupuis, Josee; Hayward, Caroline; Psaty, Bruce M.; Hall, Ian P.; Parks, William C.; Tobin, Martin D.; London, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic respiratory disorders are important contributors to the global burden of disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of lung function measures have identified several trait-associated loci, but explain only a modest portion of the phenotypic variability. We postulated that integrating p

  15. Socioeconomic Status and Longitudinal Lung Function of Healthy Mexican Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martínez-Briseño

    Full Text Available Our aim was to estimate the longitudinal effect of Socioeconomic status (SES on lung function growth of Mexican children and adolescents.A cohort of Mexican children in third grade of primary school was followed with spirometry twice a year for 6 years through secondary school. Multilevel mixed-effects lineal models were fitted for the spirometric variables of 2,641 respiratory-healthy Mexican children. Monthly family income (in 2002 U.S. dollars [USD] and parents' years completed at school were used as proxies of SES.Individuals with higher SES tended to have greater height for age, and smaller sitting height/standing height and crude lung function. For each 1-year increase of parents' schooling, Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 and Forced vital capacity (FVC increased 8.5 (0.4% and 10.6 mL (0.4%, respectively (p <0.05 when models were adjusted for gender. Impact of education on lung function was reduced drastically or abolished on adjusting by anthropometric variables and ozone.Higher parental schooling and higher monthly family income were associated with higher lung function in healthy Mexican children, with the majority of the effect likely due to the increase in height-for-age.

  16. Lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and atopy among firefighters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, Frans; Krop, Esmeralda; Spithoven, Jack; Rooyackers, Jos; Kerstjens, Huib; Heederik, Dick

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine associations between lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and atopy with exposure to fire smoke among firefighters. Methods The study was comprised of 402 firefighters, a randomly chosen subset of a previous survey among firefighters i

  17. Phylogenetic ctDNA analysis depicts early stage lung cancer evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Gareth A.; Constantin, Tudor; Quesne, John Le; Moore, David A.; Kirkizlar, Eser; Fraioli, Francesco; Bakir, Maise Al; Zambrana, Francisco; Endozo, Raymondo; Bi, Wenya Linda; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Forster, Martin D.; Hafez, Dina; Ganguly, Apratim; Kareht, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    The early detection of relapse following primary surgery for non-small cell lung cancer and the characterization of emerging subclones seeding metastatic sites might offer new therapeutic approaches to limit tumor recurrence. The potential to non-invasively track tumor evolutionary dynamics in ctDNA of early-stage lung cancer is not established. Here we conduct a tumour-specific phylogenetic approach to ctDNA profiling in the first 100 TRACERx (TRAcking non-small cell lung Cancer Evolution th...

  18. Quantification of atopy, lung function and airway hypersensitivity in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinho Susana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in children have shown that concentration of specific serum IgE (sIgE and size of skin tests to inhalant allergens better predict wheezing and reduced lung function than the information on presence or absence of atopy. However, very few studies in adults have investigated the relationship of quantitative atopy with lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR. Objective To determine the association between lung function and AHR and quantitative atopy in a large sample of adults from the UK. Methods FEV1 and FVC (% predicted were measured using spirometry and airway responsiveness by methacholine challenge (5-breath dosimeter protocol in 983 subjects (random sample of 800 parents of children enrolled in a population-based birth cohort enriched with 183 patients with physician-diagnosed asthma. Atopic status was assessed by skin prick tests (SPT and measurement of sIgE (common inhalant allergens. We also measured indoor allergen exposure in subjects' homes. Results Spirometry was completed by 792 subjects and 626 underwent methacholine challenge, with 100 (16.0% having AHR (dose-response slope>25. Using sIgE as a continuous variable in a multiple linear regression analysis, we found that increasing levels of sIgE to mite, cat and dog were significantly associated with lower FEV1 (mite p = 0.001, cat p = 0.0001, dog p = 2.95 × 10-8. Similar findings were observed when using the size of wheal on skin testing as a continuous variable, with significantly poorer lung function with increasing skin test size (mite p = 8.23 × 10-8, cat p = 3.93 × 10-10, dog p = 3.03 × 10-15, grass p = 2.95 × 10-9. The association between quantitative atopy with lung function and AHR remained unchanged when we repeated the analyses amongst subjects defined as sensitised using standard definitions (sIgE>0.35 kUa/l, SPT-3 mm>negative control. Conclusions In the studied population, lung function decreased and AHR increased with increasing

  19. Translating Lung Function Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) Findings: New Insights for Lung Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirallah, A K; Miller, S; Hall, I P; Sayers, I

    2016-01-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases are a major cause of worldwide mortality and morbidity. Although hereditary severe deficiency of α1 antitrypsin (A1AD) has been established to cause emphysema, A1AD accounts for only ∼ 1% of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) cases. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful at detecting multiple loci harboring variants predicting the variation in lung function measures and risk of COPD. However, GWAS are incapable of distinguishing causal from noncausal variants. Several approaches can be used for functional translation of genetic findings. These approaches have the scope to identify underlying alleles and pathways that are important in lung function and COPD. Computational methods aim at effective functional variant prediction by combining experimentally generated regulatory information with associated region of the human genome. Classically, GWAS association follow-up concentrated on manipulation of a single gene. However association data has identified genetic variants in >50 loci predicting disease risk or lung function. Therefore there is a clear precedent for experiments that interrogate multiple candidate genes in parallel, which is now possible with genome editing technology. Gene expression profiling can be used for effective discovery of biological pathways underpinning gene function. This information may be used for informed decisions about cellular assays post genetic manipulation. Investigating respiratory phenotypes in human lung tissue and specific gene knockout mice is a valuable in vivo approach that can complement in vitro work. Herein, we review state-of-the-art in silico, in vivo, and in vitro approaches that may be used to accelerate functional translation of genetic findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Circumventing Y. pestis Virulence by Early Recruitment of Neutrophils to the Lungs during Pneumonic Plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaron Vagima

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonic plague is a fatal disease caused by Yersinia pestis that is associated with a delayed immune response in the lungs. Because neutrophils are the first immune cells recruited to sites of infection, we investigated the mechanisms responsible for their delayed homing to the lung. During the first 24 hr after pulmonary infection with a fully virulent Y. pestis strain, no significant changes were observed in the lungs in the levels of neutrophils infiltrate, expression of adhesion molecules, or the expression of the major neutrophil chemoattractants keratinocyte cell-derived chemokine (KC, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2 and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF. In contrast, early induction of chemokines, rapid neutrophil infiltration and a reduced bacterial burden were observed in the lungs of mice infected with an avirulent Y. pestis strain. In vitro infection of lung-derived cell-lines with a YopJ mutant revealed the involvement of YopJ in the inhibition of chemoattractants expression. However, the recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs of mice infected with the mutant was still delayed and associated with rapid bacterial propagation and mortality. Interestingly, whereas KC, MIP-2 and G-CSF mRNA levels in the lungs were up-regulated early after infection with the mutant, their protein levels remained constant, suggesting that Y. pestis may employ additional mechanisms to suppress early chemoattractants induction in the lung. It therefore seems that prevention of the early influx of neutrophils to the lungs is of major importance for Y. pestis virulence. Indeed, pulmonary instillation of KC and MIP-2 to G-CSF-treated mice infected with Y. pestis led to rapid homing of neutrophils to the lung followed by a reduction in bacterial counts at 24 hr post-infection and improved survival rates. These observations shed new light on the virulence mechanisms of Y. pestis during pneumonic plague, and have implications for the

  1. Early detection of changes in lung mechanics with oscillometry following bariatric surgery in severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ubong; Hernandez, Paul; Dechman, Gail; Ellsmere, James; Maksym, Geoffrey

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is associated with respiratory symptoms that are reported to improve with weight loss, but this is poorly reflected in spirometry, and few studies have measured respiratory mechanics with oscillometry. We investigated whether early changes in lung mechanics following weight loss are detectable with oscillometry. Furthermore, we investigated whether the changes in lung mechanics measured in the supine position following weight loss are associated with changes in sleep quality. Nineteen severely obese female subjects (mean body mass index, 47.2 ± 6.6 kg/m(2)) were evaluated using spirometry, oscillometry, plethysmography, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index before and 5 weeks after bariatric surgery. These tests were conducted in both the upright and the supine position, and pre- and postbronchodilation with 200 μg of salbutamol. Five weeks after surgery, weight loss of 11.5 ± 2.5 kg was not associated with changes in spirometry and plethysmography, with the exception of functional residual capacity. There were also no changes in upright respiratory system resistance (Rrs) or reactance following weight loss. Importantly, however, in the supine position, weight loss caused a substantial reduction in Rrs. In addition, sleep quality improved significantly and was highly correlated with the reduction in supine Rrs. Prior to weight loss, subjects did not respond to the bronchodilator when assessed in the upright position with either spirometry or oscillometry; however, with modest weight loss, bronchodilator responsiveness returned to the normal range. Improvements in lung mechanics occur very early after weight loss, mostly in the supine position, resulting in improved sleep quality. These improvements are detectable with oscillometry but not with spirometry.

  2. Aberrant p16 promoter hypermethylation in bronchial mucosae as a biomarker for the early detection of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Guang-shun; HOU Ai-rong; LI Long-yun; GAO Yan-ning; CHENG Shu-jun

    2006-01-01

    @@ Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death in the world and its mortality could be greatly reduced by diagnosis and treatment in its early stages. Effective tools for the early detection of lung cancer and its high risk factors remain a major challenge. Biomarkers that detect lung cancer in its early stages or identify its pretumour lesions,enabling early therapeutic intervention, would be invaluable to improve its dismal prognosis.

  3. Supine changes in lung function correlate with chronic respiratory failure in myotonic dystrophy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussel, Mathias; Kaminsky, Pierre; Renaud, Pierre; Laroppe, Julien; Pruna, Lelia; Chenuel, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    Quality of life and prognosis of patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1) often depend on the degree of lung function impairment. This study was designed to assess the respective prevalence of ventilatory restriction, hypoxaemia and hypercapnia in MD1 patients and to determine whether postural changes in lung function could contribute to the early diagnosis of poor respiratory outcome. Fifty-eight patients (42.6±12.9 years) with MD1 were prospectively evaluated from April 2008 to June 2010 to determine their supine and upright lung function and arterial blood gases. The prevalence of ventilatory restriction was 36% and increased with the severity of muscular disability (from 7.7% to 70.6%). The prevalence of hypoxaemia and hypercapnia was 37.9% and 25.9%, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that the supine fall in FEV1 was the only variable associated with ventilatory restriction, hypoxaemia and hypercapnia. Our data indicate that supine evaluation of lung function could be helpful to predict poor respiratory outcome, which is closely correlated with hypoxaemia and/or hypercapnia.

  4. Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulshine, James L; Avila, Rick; Yankelevitz, David; Baer, Thomas M; Estépar, Raul San Jose; Ambrose, Laurie Fenton; Aldigé, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    The Prevent Cancer Foundation Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management was held in New York, NY on May 16 and 17, 2014. The two goals of the Workshop were to define strategies to drive innovation in precompetitive quantitative research on the use of imaging to assess new therapies for management of early lung cancer and to discuss a process to implement a national program to provide high quality computed tomography imaging for lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease. With the central importance of computed tomography imaging for both early detection and volumetric lung cancer assessment, strategic issues around the development of imaging and ensuring its quality are critical to ensure continued progress against this most lethal cancer.

  5. A multivariate analysis of serum nutrient levels and lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Henriette A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting evidence that estimates of intakes of a range of dietary nutrients are related to both lung function level and rate of decline, but far less evidence on the relation between lung function and objective measures of serum levels of individual nutrients. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive examination of the independent associations of a wide range of serum markers of nutritional status with lung function, measured as the one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1. Methods Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a US population-based cross-sectional study, we investigated the relation between 21 serum markers of potentially relevant nutrients and FEV1, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Systematic approaches were used to guide the analysis. Results In a mutually adjusted model, higher serum levels of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin A, beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, normalized calcium, chloride, and iron were independently associated with higher levels of FEV1. Higher concentrations of potassium and sodium were associated with lower FEV1. Conclusion Maintaining higher serum concentrations of dietary antioxidant vitamins and selenium is potentially beneficial to lung health. In addition other novel associations found in this study merit further investigation.

  6. Regulation of immunoproteasome function in the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, I.E.; Vosyka, O.; Takenaka, S.; Kloss, A.; Dahlmann, B.; Willems, L.I.; Verdoes, M.; Overkleeft, H.S.; Marcos, E.; Adnot, S.; Hauck, S.M.; Ruppert, C.; Gunther, A.; Herold, S.; Ohno, S.; Adler, H.; Eickelberg, O.; Meiners, S.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired immune function contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Disease progression is further exacerbated by pathogen infections due to impaired immune responses. Elimination of infected cells is achieved by cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells that are activated by MHC

  7. Survival benefit associated with early cyclosporine treatment for dermatomyositis-associated interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Dong Jin; Park, Jin Kyun; Kang, Eun Ha; Kwon, Hyun Mi; Lee, Yun Jong; Song, Yeong Wook; Lee, Eun Bong

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most common cause of death in dermatomyositis (DM). Cyclosporine A (CsA) has shown to be effective in DM-associated ILD (DM-ILD). This study aimed to define the optimal time of CsA administration. A total of 47 patients with DM-ILD, who were treated with CsA at Seoul National University Hospital between January 1998 and June 2013, were enrolled. ILD was diagnosed based on typical chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings. Patients with early and delayed CsA treatment were compared in regard to the mortality and ILD progression on HRCT. The early (n = 16) and the delayed treatment group (n = 31) did not differ in regard to baseline clinical characteristics including HRCT scores and pulmonary function. Patients with clinically amyopathic DM (CADM) were more common in the early treatment group. The mortality rate was significantly lower in the early treatment group than in the delayed treatment group (p = 0.009). The survival benefit of early CsA treatment remained significant even after adjusting for age, degree of dyspnea, CADM status, and the year of CsA treatment (hazard ratio 0.057, 95 % confidence interval 0.007-0.472). CsA stabilized disease progression on HRCT in the early treatment group (p = 0.738). Delay in CsA treatment is associated with a worse survival in patients with DM-ILD. Early CsA treatment should be considered at DM-ILD diagnosis especially in patients at a higher risk of developing a rapidly progressive ILD.

  8. Reduction of Pulmonary Function After Surgical Lung Resections of Different Volume

    OpenAIRE

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years an increasing number of lung resections are being done because of the rising prevalence of lung cancer that occurs mainly in patients with limited lung function, what is caused with common etiologic factor - smoking cigarettes. Objective: To determine how big the loss of lung function is after surgical resection of lung of different range. Methods: The study was done on 58 patients operated at the Clinic for thoracic surgery KCU Sarajevo, previously treated at th...

  9. Early Impairment of Lung Mechanics in a Murine Model of Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, Juan J.; Meirelles, Thayna; Gorbenko del Blanco, Darya; Nonaka, Paula N.; Campillo, Noelia; Sarri, Elisabet; Navajas, Daniel; Egea, Gustavo; Farré, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Early morbidity and mortality in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) -a connective tissue disease caused by mutations in fibrillin-1 gene- are mainly caused by aorta aneurysm and rupture. However, the increase in the life expectancy of MFS patients recently achieved by reparatory surgery promotes clinical manifestations in other organs. Although some studies have reported respiratory alterations in MFS, our knowledge of how this connective tissue disease modifies lung mechanics is scarce. Hence, we assessed whether the stiffness of the whole lung and of its extracellular matrix (ECM) is affected in a well-characterized MFS mouse model (FBN1C1039G/+). The stiffness of the whole lung and of its ECM were measured by conventional mechanical ventilation and atomic force microscopy, respectively. We studied 5-week and 9-month old mice, whose ages are representative of early and late stages of the disease. At both ages, the lungs of MFS mice were significantly more compliant than in wild type (WT) mice. By contrast, no significant differences were found in local lung ECM stiffness. Moreover, histopathological lung evaluation showed a clear emphysematous-like pattern in MFS mice since alveolar space enlargement was significantly increased compared with WT mice. These data suggest that the mechanism explaining the increased lung compliance in MFS is not a direct consequence of reduced ECM stiffness, but an emphysema-like alteration in the 3D structural organization of the lung. Since lung alterations in MFS are almost fully manifested at an early age, it is suggested that respiratory monitoring could provide early biomarkers for diagnosis and/or follow-up of patients with the Marfan syndrome. PMID:27003297

  10. Evaluation of total and regional lung function using {sup 133}Xe dynamic ventilation SPECT and a comparison with the lung function test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Yongjin; Shinozuka, Akira; Takenaka, Hiroki; Munechika, Hirotsugu [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-08-01

    A lung dynamic SPECT study using {sup 133}Xe gas was performed a functional map created be region. The time activity curve (TAC) of each voxel was obtained from subsequent SPECT data. Washout rate (K) was calculated from TAC. The product of K and counter weighted voxel volume was defined as the lung function index (LFI). Using these 3 parameters (functional volume, K, and LFI) a function map was created. The sum of LFI was defined as total lung functional index (TLFI). Five healthy volunteers and 20 patients with various lung diseases were investigated. TLFI correlated well with FEV{sub 1.0} and MMF, and mean K with FEV{sub 1.0}%. The results indicate that a functional map obtained from lung dynamic SPECT is useful in estimating both resional and whole lung function. (author)

  11. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.H. Bakkal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg. Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage.

  12. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakkal, B.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Gultekin, F.A. [Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Guven, B. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Turkcu, U.O. [Mugla School of Health Sciences, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Mugla (Turkey); Bektas, S. [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Can, M. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2013-09-27

    Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage.

  13. An actuarial approach to comparing early stage and late stage lung cancer mortality and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Sara W; Mulshine, James L; Hagstrom, Dale; Pyenson, Bruce S

    2010-02-01

    Comparing the mortality characteristics of different cohorts is an essential process in the life insurance industry. Pseudodisease, lead-time bias, and length bias, which are critical to determining the value of cancer screening, have close analogues in life insurance company management, including the temporal impact of underwriting. Ratios of all-cause mortality rates for cancer cohorts relative to standard population mortality rates can provide insights into early stage and late stage mortality differences, differences by age, sex, race, and histology, and allow modeling of biases associated with early stage detection or screening protocols. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data set has characteristics that allow efficient application of actuarial techniques. We show the mortality burden associated with treated early stage lung cancer and that identifying all lung cancers at early stage could reduce US lung cancer deaths by over 70,000 per year.

  14. High-sensitive C-reactive protein is associated with reduced lung function in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F; Mikkelsen, D; Hancox, R J;

    2009-01-01

    Systemic inflammation has been associated with reduced lung function. However, data on the interrelationships between lung function and inflammation are sparse, and it is not clear if low-grade inflammation leads to reduced lung function. Associations between high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CR...

  15. Prospective longitudinal evaluation of lung function during the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, W.; Hanekamp, M.N.; Ijsselstijn, H.; Nieuwhof, E.M.; Hop, W.C.J.; Tibboel, D.; Jongste, J.C. de; Merkus, P.J.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To collect longitudinal data on lung function in the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and to evaluate relationships between lung function and perinatal factors. Longitudinal data on lung function in the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenati

  16. Serum p53 antibody detection in patients with impaired lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattioni Manlio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TP53 gene mutations can lead to the expression of a dysfunctional protein that in turn may enable genetically unstable cells to survive and change into malignant cells. Mutant p53 accumulates early in cells and can precociously induce circulating anti-p53 antibodies (p53Abs; in fact, p53 overexpression has been observed in pre-neoplastic lesions, such as bronchial dysplasia, and p53Abs have been found in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, before the diagnosis of lung and other tobacco-related tumors. Methods A large prospective study was carried out, enrolling non-smokers, ex-smokers and smokers with or without the impairment of lung function, to analyze the incidence of serum p53Abs and the correlation with clinicopathologic features, in particular smoking habits and impairment of lung function, in order to investigate their possible role as early markers of the onset of lung cancer or other cancers. The p53Ab levels were evaluated by a specific ELISA in 675 subjects. Results Data showed that significant levels of serum p53Abs were present in 35 subjects (5.2%; no difference was observed in the presence of p53Abs with regard to age and gender, while p53Abs correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day and packs-year. Furthermore, serum p53Abs were associated with the worst lung function impairment. The median p53Ab level in positive subjects was 3.5 units/ml (range 1.2 to 65.3 units/ml. Only fifteen positive subjects participated in the follow-up, again resulting positive for serum p53Abs, and no evidence of cancer was found in these patients. Conclusion The presence of serum p53Abs was found to be associated with smoking level and lung function impairment, both risk factors of cancer development. However, in our study we have not observed the occurrence of lung cancer or other cancers in the follow-up of positive subjects, therefore we cannot directly correlate the presence of serum p53Abs with

  17. Pyrosequencing Unveils Cystic Fibrosis Lung Microbiome Differences Associated with a Severe Lung Function Decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bacci

    Full Text Available Chronic airway infection is a hallmark feature of cystic fibrosis (CF disease. In the present study, sputum samples from CF patients were collected and characterized by 16S rRNA gene-targeted approach, to assess how lung microbiota composition changes following a severe decline in lung function. In particular, we compared the airway microbiota of two groups of patients with CF, i.e. patients with a substantial decline in their lung function (SD and patients with a stable lung function (S. The two groups showed a different bacterial composition, with SD patients reporting a more heterogeneous community than the S ones. Pseudomonas was the dominant genus in both S and SD patients followed by Staphylococcus and Prevotella. Other than the classical CF pathogens and the most commonly identified non-classical genera in CF, we found the presence of the unusual anaerobic genus Sneathia. Moreover, the oligotyping analysis revealed the presence of other minor genera described in CF, highlighting the polymicrobial nature of CF infection. Finally, the analysis of correlation and anti-correlation networks showed the presence of antagonism and ecological independence between members of Pseudomonas genus and the rest of CF airways microbiota, with S patients showing a more interconnected community in S patients than in SD ones. This population structure suggests a higher resilience of S microbiota with respect to SD, which in turn may hinder the potential adverse impact of aggressive pathogens (e.g. Pseudomonas. In conclusion, our findings shed a new light on CF airway microbiota ecology, improving current knowledge about its composition and polymicrobial interactions in patients with CF.

  18. Lung function and long-term exposure to cement dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F V; Borchsenius, L; Holstein, B

    1977-01-01

    and one men were grouped as cement factory workers, 649 were grouped as blue collar workers, 218 as white collar workers and 102 men had predominantly been occupied in farming, forestry and fishing. On the average the investigated men had spent more than 75% of their total occupational life in their main......In a cross-sectional epidemiological survey a selected group of former and present cement factory workers and a random sample of the corresponding urban population underwent dynamic spirometry. Based upon life experience the subjects were grouped into four occupational categories. Three hundred...... throughout life had better ventilatory lung function than any of the other three occupational categories. No significant differences in lung function between cement factory workers and other blue collar workers with comparable smoking habits could be demonstrated by use of the maximal midexpiratory flow...

  19. Leukocyte depletion during CPB: effects on inflammation and lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Amorim, Célio Gomes; Malbouisson, Luiz Marcelo Sá; da Silva, Francisco Costa; Fiorelli, Alfredo Inácio; Murakami, Caroline Kameio Fernandes; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho

    2014-02-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is related to inflammatory response and pulmonary dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CPB leukocyte filtration on inflammation and lung function after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A prospective randomized study was performed to compare CABG patients undergoing CPB leukocyte filtration (n = 9) or standard CPB (n = 11). Computed tomography, oxygenation, leukocyte count, hemodynamic data, PaO2/FiO2, shunt fraction, interleukins, elastase, and myeloperoxidase were evaluated. Data were analyzed using two-factor ANOVA for repeated measurements. The filtered group showed lower neutrophil counts up to 50 min of CPB, lower shunt fraction up to 6 h after surgery, and lower levels of IL-10 at the end of surgery (p CPB results in neutrophil sequestration by a short time, decreased IL-10 serum levels, and lower worsening of lung function only temporarily.

  20. Surgical treatment of patients with lung cancer and limited lung function: Preoperative assessment, operative mortality and morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lung resection in patients with limited lung function is one of the greatest challenges in general thoracic surgery. Objective. The aim of the study was to analyze the pattern of lung function changes after operation, operative morbidity and mortality and to compare them with control group of patients. Method. The study included 34 patients with limited lung function, operated for primary lung cancer in one-year period. All patients underwent preoperative desobstructive treatment. The type of ventilatory disorder was analyzed depending on preoperative radiographic and bronchoscopic aspect. Statistics: chisquare test, t-test. Results. In patients with lobectomy, the mean difference in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 between preoperative and postoperative values was 16.81%, whilst in the pneumonectomy group this difference was 39.51%. The mean change in forced vital capacity (FVC in the lobectomy and pneumonectomy group was 15.83% and 42.73% respectively. In the control group of 28 patients with lobectomy, the decrease in FVC and FEV1 was 19.9% and 24.18% respectively. In the control group of 28 patients with pneumonectomy, the decrease in FVC and FEV1 was 43.52% and 41.36% respectively. In patients with limited lung function and lobectomy, changes in FEV1 and VC after resection were significantly lower compared to the control group of patients with lobectomy and normal lung function. None of 34 operated patients with borderline lung function died inside 30 postoperative days. In the same period, of a total number of 344 patients without respiratory function impairment, operative mortality was 3.1%. In the analyzed group, operative morbidity was 32.35%. Cardiovascular and respiratory complications in the analyzed and control groups occurred in 14.7% and 6.1% of patients respectively (p>0.05. Conclusion. Surgery should not be excluded in patients with borderline lung function prior to preoperative treatment and

  1. Low-dose budesonide treatment improves lung function in patients with infrequent asthma symptoms at baseline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddel, H. K.; Busse, W. W.; Pedersen, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    in patients with less frequent symptoms at presentation. This was investigated in a post-hoc analysis of the multinational inhaled Steroid Treatment As Regular Therapy in early asthma (START) study.2 METHODS: Patients aged 4-66 years (median 21 years) with a history of recent-onset mild asthma (11 years......RATIONALE: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are highly effective in low doses for improving asthma outcomes, including lung function. In the past, ICS treatment was recommended for patients with 'persistent' asthma, defined by symptoms >2 days/week.1 However, evidence is lacking for the benefit of ICS...... symptom frequency groups (Figure). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term, once-daily, low-dose budesonide treatment plus usual asthma medication improves lung function in patients with mild, recent-onset asthma. These beneficial effects were seen even in patients with the lowest baseline asthma symptom frequency (0...

  2. Changes in Functional Lung Regions During the Course of Radiation Therapy and Their Potential Impact on Lung Dosimetry for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xue [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Frey, Kirk [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Matuszak, Martha; Paul, Stanton; Ten Haken, Randall [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Yu, Jinming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Kong, Feng-Ming, E-mail: fkong@gru.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To study changes in functional activity on ventilation (V)/perfusion (Q) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during radiation therapy (RT) and explore the impact of such changes on lung dosimetry in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Fifteen NSCLC patients with centrally located tumors were enrolled. All patients were treated with definitive RT dose of ≥60 Gy. V/Q SPECT-CT scans were performed prior to and after delivery of 45 Gy of fractionated RT. SPECT images were used to define temporarily dysfunctional regions of lung caused by tumor or other potentially reversible conditions as B3. The functional lung (FL) was defined on SPECT by 2 separate approaches: FL1, a threshold of 30% of the maximum uptake of the patient's lung; and FL2, FL1 plus B3 region. The impact of changes in FL between initiation of RT and delivery of 45 Gy on lung dosimetry were analyzed. Results: Fourteen patients (93%) had larger FL2 volumes than FL1 pre-RT (P<.001). Dysfunctional lung became functional in 11 patients (73%) on V SPECT and in 10 patients (67%) on Q SPECT. The dosimetric parameters generated from CT-based anatomical lung had significantly lower values in FL1 than FL2, with a median reduction in the volume of lung receiving a dose of at least 20 Gy (V{sub 20}) of 3%, 5.6%, and mean lung dose of 0.95 and 1.55 on V and Q SPECT respectively. Conclusions: Regional ventilation and perfusion function improve significantly during RT in centrally located NSCLC. Lung dosimetry values vary notably between different definitions of functional lung.

  3. CYP450 polymorphisms as risk factors for early-onset lung cancer: gender-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, Maria N; Kropp, Silke; Sauter, Wiebke; Beckmann, Lars; Rosenberger, Albert; Illig, Thomas; Jäger, Birgit; Mittelstrass, Kirstin; Dienemann, Hendrik; Bartsch, Helmut; Bickeböller, Heike; Chang-Claude, Jenny C; Risch, Angela; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich

    2009-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, involved in metabolism of tobacco carcinogens, are also involved in estrogen metabolism and many are regulated by estrogens. These genes may thus be of relevance to gender-specific differences in lung cancer risk, particularly in early-onset lung cancer, where a high proportion of women is observed. We conducted a case-control study to investigate genetic polymorphisms in cytochromes that might modify the risk of developing early-onset lung cancer. In total, 638 Caucasian patients under the age of 51 with primary lung cancer and 1300 cancer-free control individuals, matched by age and sex, were included in this analysis. Thirteen polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A13, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes were analyzed. No significant association was found for any of the analyzed polymorphisms and lung cancer risk overall. However, among women, a significantly increased risk of early-onset lung cancer was observed for carriers of the minor allele of CYP1B1 SNP rs1056836 [odds ratio (OR) 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-2.94; P lung cancer risk was observed in the group of women carriers of the minor allele of CYP2A13 SNP rs1709084 (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.00-2.70; P = 0.05). The effect of these two polymorphisms was shown to be modified by smoking. Haplotype analysis was performed for CYP1B1 and CYP2A13. No differences between cases and controls were observed for both genes (P = 0.63 and P = 0.42 for CYP1B1 and CYP2A13, respectively). Our results suggest that the CYP1B1 and the CYP2A13 genotypes may contribute to individual susceptibility to early-onset lung cancer in women.

  4. Rapid decline in 51Cr-EDTA measured renal function during the first weeks following lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, M.; Iversen, M.; Steffensen, I.;

    2009-01-01

    We previously described a 54% decline in renal function at 6 months after lung transplantation (LTx). We hypothesized that this decline is a very early event following LTx. Thirty-one consecutive patients (16 females/15 males), mean age 49 (+/-13) years, with emphysema, cystic fibrosis/bronchiect...

  5. Functional genomics highlights differential induction of antiviral pathways in the lungs of SARS-CoV-infected macaques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Lang (Anna); T. Baas (Tracey); T.H. Teal (Thomas); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); B. Rain (Brandon); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); M.G. Katze (Michael)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is likely mediated by disproportional immune responses and the ability of the virus to circumvent innate immunity. Using functional genomics, we analyzed early host responses to SARS-CoV infection in the lungs o

  6. Early administration of IL-6RA does not prevent radiation-induced lung injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue Takehiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation pneumonia and subsequent radiation lung fibrosis are major dose-limiting complications for patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays important roles in the regulation of immune response and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether anti-IL-6 monoclonal receptor antibody (IL-6RA could ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury in mice. Methods BALB/cAnNCrj mice having received thoracic irradiation of 21 Gy were injected intraperitoneally with IL-6RA (MR16-1 or control rat IgG twice, immediately and seven days after irradiation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to examine the plasma level of IL-6 and serum amyloid A (SAA. Lung injury was assessed by histological staining with haematoxylin and eosin or Azan, measuring lung weight, and hydroxyproline. Results The mice treated with IL-6RA did not survive significantly longer than the rat IgG control. We observed marked up-regulation of IL-6 in mice treated with IL-6RA 150 days after irradiation, whereas IL-6RA temporarily suppressed early radiation-induced increase in the IL-6 release level. Histopathologic assessment showed no differences in lung section or lung weight between mice treated with IL-6RA and control. Conclusions Our findings suggest that early treatment with IL-6RA after irradiation alone does not protect against radiation-induced lung injury.

  7. Early administration of IL-6RA does not prevent radiation-induced lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Toshiyuki; Yamazaki, Hideya; Teshima, Teruki; Kihara, Ayaka; Suzumoto, Yuko; Inoue, Takehiro; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Matsuura, Nariaki

    2010-04-07

    Radiation pneumonia and subsequent radiation lung fibrosis are major dose-limiting complications for patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays important roles in the regulation of immune response and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether anti-IL-6 monoclonal receptor antibody (IL-6RA) could ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury in mice. BALB/cAnNCrj mice having received thoracic irradiation of 21 Gy were injected intraperitoneally with IL-6RA (MR16-1) or control rat IgG twice, immediately and seven days after irradiation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to examine the plasma level of IL-6 and serum amyloid A (SAA). Lung injury was assessed by histological staining with haematoxylin and eosin or Azan, measuring lung weight, and hydroxyproline. The mice treated with IL-6RA did not survive significantly longer than the rat IgG control. We observed marked up-regulation of IL-6 in mice treated with IL-6RA 150 days after irradiation, whereas IL-6RA temporarily suppressed early radiation-induced increase in the IL-6 release level. Histopathologic assessment showed no differences in lung section or lung weight between mice treated with IL-6RA and control. Our findings suggest that early treatment with IL-6RA after irradiation alone does not protect against radiation-induced lung injury.

  8. PLAUR polymorphisms and lung function in UK smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connolly Martin J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously identified Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (PLAUR as an asthma susceptibility gene. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that PLAUR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs determine baseline lung function and contribute to the development of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD in smokers. Methods 25 PLAUR SNPs were genotyped in COPD subjects and individuals with smoking history (n = 992. Linear regression was used to determine the effects of polymorphism on baseline lung function (FEV1, FEV1/FVC in all smokers. Genotype frequencies were compared in spirometry defined smoking controls (n = 176 versus COPD cases (n = 599 and COPD severity (GOLD stratification using logistic regression. Results Five SNPs showed a significant association (p 1 respectively. rs740587(-22346, rs11668247(-20040 and rs344779(-3666 in the 5'region were associated with increased FEV1/FVC ratio. rs740587 was also protective for COPD susceptibility and rs11668247 was protective for COPD severity although no allele dose relationship was apparent. Interestingly, several of these associations were driven by male smokers not females. Conclusion This study provides tentative evidence that the asthma associated gene PLAUR also influences baseline lung function in smokers. However the case-control analyses do not support the conclusion that PLAUR is a major COPD susceptibility gene in smokers. PLAUR is a key serine protease receptor involved in the generation of plasmin and has been implicated in airway remodelling.

  9. Executive Function and Early Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Judith G.; Mann, Virginia A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how executive function skills in verbal and nonverbal auditory tasks are related to early reading skills in beginning readers. Kindergarteners (N = 41, aged 5 years) completed verbal (phonemes) and nonverbal (environmental sounds) Continuous Performance tasks yielding measures of executive function (misses,…

  10. Neutrophils as early immunologic effectors in hemorrhage- or endotoxemia-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, E; Carmody, A; Shenkar, R; Arcaroli, J

    2000-12-01

    Acute lung injury is characterized by accumulation of neutrophils in the lungs, accompanied by the development of interstitial edema and an intense inflammatory response. To assess the role of neutrophils as early immune effectors in hemorrhage- or endotoxemia-induced lung injury, mice were made neutropenic with cyclophosphamide or anti-neutrophil antibodies. Endotoxemia- or hemorrhage-induced lung edema was significantly reduced in neutropenic animals. Activation of the transcriptional regulatory factor nuclear factor-kappaB after hemorrhage or endotoxemia was diminished in the lungs of neutropenic mice compared with nonneutropenic controls. Hemorrhage or endotoxemia was followed by increases in pulmonary mRNA and protein levels for interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Endotoxin-induced increases in proinflammatory cytokine expression were greater than those found after hemorrhage. The amounts of mRNA or protein for IL-1beta, MIP-2, and TNF-alpha were significantly lower after hemorrhage in the lungs of neutropenic versus nonneutropenic mice. Neutropenia was associated with significant reductions in IL-1beta and MIP-2 but not in TNF-alpha expression in the lungs after endotoxemia. These experiments show that neutrophils play a central role in initiating acute inflammatory responses and causing injury in the lungs after hemorrhage or endotoxemia.

  11. Donor age and early graft failure after lung transplantation: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Matthew R; Peterson, Eric R; Easthausen, Imaani; Quintanilla, Isaac; Colago, Eric; Sonett, Joshua R.; D’Ovidio, Frank; Costa, Joseph; Diamond, Joshua M; Christie, Jason D; Arcasoy, Selim M; Lederer, David J

    2014-01-01

    Lungs from older adult organ donors are often unused because of concerns for increased mortality. We examined associations between donor age and transplant outcomes among 8,860 adult lung transplant recipients using Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and Lung Transplant Outcomes Group data. We used stratified Cox proportional hazard models and generalized linear mixed models to examine associations between donor age and both 1-year graft failure and primary graft dysfunction. The rate of 1-year graft failure was similar among recipients of lungs from donors age 18–64 years, but severely ill recipients (LAS > 47.7 or use of mechanical ventilation) of lungs from donors age 56–64 years had increased rates of 1-year graft failure (p-values for interaction = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Recipients of lungs from donors <18 and ≥65 years had increased rates of 1-year graft failure (adjusted hazard ratio 1.23, 95% CI 1.01–1.50 and adjusted hazard ratio 2.15, 95% CI 1.47–3.15, respectively). Donor age was not associated with the risk of primary graft dysfunction. In summary, the use of lungs from donors age 56–64 years may be safe for adult candidates without a high LAS, and the use of lungs from pediatric donors is associated with a small increase in early graft failure. PMID:24034167

  12. Mechanisms for split localization of Fgf10 expression in early lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Tsuyoshi; Iwasa, Yoh; Morishita, Yoshihiro

    2009-11-01

    In early lung development, epithelial tubes (lung buds) intrude into mesenchyme covered with pleural cells (lung border), and form tree-like networks, by means of repeated use of morphogenetic processes: "elongation," "terminal bifurcation," and "lateral budding." When a bud is elongating, a peak of Fgf10 expression is formed in the mesenchyme near the tip; whereas when terminal bifurcation and lateral budding occur, two separate peaks are formed instead. To explain the spatial pattern of Fgf10 expression, we developed a mathematical model for the regulation of Fgf10 expression with geometrical conditions including shapes of the lung buds and the lung border. Different localization patterns of Fgf10 expression can be explained by the geometrical conditions. Fgf10 expression has a single peak when a length between the tip of lung bud and the lung border is large. When the length is small, Fgf10 expression has two peaks, whose location depends on the curvature of lung border. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Apolipoprotein E Genotype Modifies the Association between Midlife Lung Function and Cognitive Function in Old Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Nissinen, A.; Giampaoli, S.; Kromhout, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Because poor lung function may be a risk factor for cognitive decline, we aimed to test the association of respiratory function with cognitive function and dementia later in life, as well as potential effect modification by APOE 4 carrier status. Methods: In a prospective

  14. Detection of early subclinical lung disease in children with cystic fibrosis by lung ventilation imaging with hyperpolarised gas MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Helen; Horsley, Alex; Taylor, Chris J; Smith, Laurie; Hughes, David; Horn, Felix C; Swift, Andrew J; Parra-Robles, Juan; Hughes, Paul J; Norquay, Graham; Stewart, Neil J; Collier, Guilhem J; Teare, Dawn; Cunningham, Steve; Aldag, Ina; Wild, Jim M

    2017-08-01

    Hyperpolarised (3)He ventilation-MRI, anatomical lung MRI, lung clearance index (LCI), low-dose CT and spirometry were performed on 19 children (6-16 years) with clinically stable mild cystic fibrosis (CF) (FEV1>-1.96), and 10 controls. All controls had normal spirometry, MRI and LCI. Ventilation-MRI was the most sensitive method of detecting abnormalities, present in 89% of patients with CF, compared with CT abnormalities in 68%, LCI 47% and conventional MRI 22%. Ventilation defects were present in the absence of CT abnormalities and in patients with normal physiology, including LCI. Ventilation-MRI is thus feasible in young children, highly sensitive and provides additional information about lung structure-function relationships. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Shape self-regulation in early lung morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Clément

    Full Text Available The arborescent architecture of mammalian conductive airways results from the repeated branching of lung endoderm into surrounding mesoderm. Subsequent lung's striking geometrical features have long raised the question of developmental mechanisms involved in morphogenesis. Many molecular actors have been identified, and several studies demonstrated the central role of Fgf10 and Shh in growth and branching. However, the actual branching mechanism and the way branching events are organized at the organ scale to achieve a self-avoiding tree remain to be understood through a model compatible with evidenced signaling. In this paper we show that the mere diffusion of FGF10 from distal mesenchyme involves differential epithelial proliferation that spontaneously leads to branching. Modeling FGF10 diffusion from sub-mesothelial mesenchyme where Fgf10 is known to be expressed and computing epithelial and mesenchymal growth in a coupled manner, we found that the resulting laplacian dynamics precisely accounts for the patterning of FGF10-induced genes, and that it spontaneously involves differential proliferation leading to a self-avoiding and space-filling tree, through mechanisms that we detail. The tree's fine morphological features depend on the epithelial growth response to FGF10, underlain by the lung's complex regulatory network. Notably, our results suggest that no branching information has to be encoded and that no master routine is required to organize branching events at the organ scale. Despite its simplicity, this model identifies key mechanisms of lung development, from branching to organ-scale organization, and could prove relevant to the development of other branched organs relying on similar pathways.

  16. Smoking history and lung carcinoma: KRAS mutation is an early hit in lung adenocarcinoma development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thunnissen, F.B.J.M.; Prinsen, C.; Hol, B.; Drift, M.A. van der; Vesin, A.; Brambilla, C.; Montuenga, L.; Field, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a European multicenter prospective study patients with lung cancer were interviewed for smoking history and biological samples centrally collected. The aim of this study was to compare KRAS mutation analysis with smoking status at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: A nested case-study wa

  17. Effects of cigarette smoking on hemorheologic parameters, plasma osmolality and lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Dilek Duzgun; Karis, Denizhan; Alkan, Fatma Ates; Cakmak, Gulfidan; Yenigun, Mustafa; Ercan, Meltem

    2016-10-05

    Cigarette smoking deteriorates human health via vascular disorders, cancer and especially respiratory diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate effects of cigarette smoking on hemorheologic parameters, plasma osmolality and lung function in individuals without diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients diagnosed without COPD utilizing respiratory function test were enrolled in the study with three groups, ex-smokers (n = 21), current-smokers (n = 35) and never-smokers (n = 43). Hemorheologic parameters and plasma osmolality were measured in hemorheology laboratory. SPSS 17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Blood and plasma viscosity, fibrinogen and hematocrit levels, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were significantly elevated in ex-smokers and current-smokers compared to never-smokers. The standardized red blood cell deformability and oxygen delivery index and lung function were statistically lower in current-smokers than never-smokers. Pulmonary blood flow rate was statistically lower in current-smokers and ex-smokers than never-smokers. Plasma osmolality was statistically significantly higher in ex-smokers and current-smokers than never-smokers. Our findings clearly show that cigarette smoking has severe effects on hemorheologic parameters, plasma osmolality and lung function even in individuals without COPD. Blood and plasma viscosity with plasma osmolality might be useful markers to detect early hemorheologic-hemodynamic alterations in cigarette smokers.

  18. Undifferentiated connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease: changes in lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, Brent W; Shariat, Cyrus; Collard, Harold R; Koth, Laura L; Wolters, Paul J; Golden, Jeffrey A; Panos, Ralph J; King, Talmadge E

    2010-04-01

    Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a distinct clinical entity that may be accompanied by interstitial lung disease (ILD). The natural history of UCTD-ILD is unknown. We hypothesized that patients with UCTD-ILD would be more likely to have improvement in lung function than those with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) during longitudinal follow-up. We identified subjects enrolled in the UCSF ILD cohort study with a diagnosis of IPF or UCTD. The primary outcome compared the presence or absence of a > or = 5% increase in percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) in IPF and UCTD. Regression models were used to account for potential confounding variables. Ninety subjects were identified; 59 subjects (30 IPF, 29 UCTD) had longitudinal pulmonary function data for inclusion in the analysis. After accounting for baseline pulmonary function tests, treatment, and duration between studies, UCTD was associated with substantial improvement in FVC (odds ratio = 8.23, 95% confidence interval, 1.27-53.2; p = 0.03) during follow-up (median, 8 months) compared with IPF. Patients with UCTD-ILD are more likely to have improved pulmonary function during follow-up than those with IPF. These findings demonstrate the clinical importance of identifying UCTD in patients presenting with an "idiopathic" interstitial pneumonia.

  19. Lung function in 6 years old children born very preterm and fed different diets post discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne

    Background: Research has shown that being born preterm may affect lung capacity later in childhood. It is though unknown if type of early nutrition influences lung capacity and the risk of developing asthma in childhood. Aim: The aim was to investigate if type of early nutrition has an impact on ...

  20. Patterns of Growth and Decline in Lung Function in Persistent Childhood Asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGeachie, Michael J; Yates, Katherine P; Zhou, Xiaobo; Guo, Feng; Sternberg, Alice L; Van Natta, Mark L; Wise, Robert A; Szefler, Stanley J; Sharma, Sunita; Kho, Alvin T; Cho, Michael H; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Castaldi, Peter J; Jain, Gaurav; Sanyal, Amartya; Zhan, Ye; Lajoie, Bryan R; Dekker, Job; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Covar, Ronina A; Zeiger, Robert S; Adkinson, N Franklin; Williams, Paul V; Kelly, H William; Grasemann, Hartmut; Vonk, Judith M; Koppelman, Gerard H; Postma, Dirkje S; Raby, Benjamin A; Houston, Isaac; Lu, Quan; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L; Tantisira, Kelan G; Silverman, Edwin K; Tonascia, James; Weiss, Scott T; Strunk, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tracking longitudinal measurements of growth and decline in lung function in patients with persistent childhood asthma may reveal links between asthma and subsequent chronic airflow obstruction. METHODS: We classified children with asthma according to four characteristic patterns of lung

  1. Unraveling the relationship between aeroallergen sensitization, gender, second-hand smoke exposure, and impaired lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunst, Kelly J; Ryan, Patrick H; Lockey, James E; Bernstein, David I; McKay, Roy T; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K; Villareal, Manuel; Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M; Levin, Linda; Burkle, Jeff; Evans, Sherry; Lemasters, Grace K

    2012-08-01

    Contradictory findings on the differential effects of second-hand smoke (SHS) on lung function in girls and boys may result from masked relationships between host and environmental factors. Allergic sensitization may augment the relationship between SHS and decreased lung function, although its role in relation to the inconsistent gender differences in children has not been elucidated. We hypothesize that there will be differences between boys and girls related to early-life allergic sensitization and exposure to SHS on pulmonary function later in childhood. Participants in this study (n = 486) were drawn from the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution (CCAAPS) birth cohort study consisting of 46% girls. Allergic sensitization was assessed by skin prick test (SPT) to 15 aeroallergens at ages 2, 4, and 7, while pulmonary function and asthma diagnosis occurred at age 7. SHS exposure was measured by hair cotinine at ages 2 and/or 4. Gender differences of SHS exposure on pulmonary function among children with positive SPTs at ages 2, 4, and 7 as well as first- and higher-order interactions were examined by multiple linear regression. Interactions significant in the multivariate models were also examined via stratification. Comparisons within and between stratified groups were assessed by examining the slope of the parameter estimates/beta coefficients and associated p-values and confidence intervals. Increased cotinine levels were significantly associated with decreases in FEV(1) (-0.03 l, p effect according to the number of positive SPTs at age 2; zero (-0.06 l/s, p children exposed to SHS, and the number of aeroallergen-positive SPTs at age 2 modifies this relationship. Girls experiencing early childhood allergic sensitization and high SHS exposure are at greater risk of decreased lung function later in childhood compared to non-sensitized girls and boys and demonstrate greater deficits compared to boys with similar degrees of sensitization.

  2. Early experience with lung transplantation using donors after cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, David P; Murthy, Sudish C; Gonzalez-Stawinski, Gonzalo V; Budev, Marie M; Mehta, Atul C; McNeill, Ann M; Pettersson, Gösta B

    2008-05-01

    Lung transplantations that utilize donor organs after cardiac death (DCD) can substantially increase the number of available allografts for waiting recipients. Unfortunately, reported clinical outcomes are limited and widespread acceptance is slow. To further examine the potential of this modality, the results of 4 patients transplanted with DCD organs, implementing a protocol of controlled organ retrieval (Maastricht Classification III), were reviewed. There were no operative deaths; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was required in 1 patient secondary to severe primary graft dysfunction. Three patients are alive and well at 4, 15 and 21 months; 1 patient died at 34 months with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, in part attributable to medication non-compliance.

  3. What is the Optimum Screening Strategy for the Early Detection of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, D R; Callister, M E J

    2016-11-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer is currently the most effective way of reducing lung cancer mortality other than quitting smoking because the treatment of late stage disease has little impact. Improving the awareness of the risk of lung cancer and warning symptoms, recognition and prompt referral, and screening with low dose computed tomography (LDCT) are potential ways to improve early diagnosis. Currently the evidence is strongest for LDCT, where one large trial, the US National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), showed a 20% relative reduction in lung cancer-related mortality and a 6.7% reduction in all-cause mortality in patients who had LDCT compared with chest X-ray. Although many questions remain about optimal methodology and cost-effectiveness, lung cancer screening is now being implemented in the USA using the NLST screening criteria. Many of these questions are being answered by on-going European trials that are reporting their findings. Here we review the research evidence for LDCT screening and explore the important issues that need to be addressed to optimise effectiveness.

  4. Perfusion lung scintigraphy for the prediction of postoperative residual pulmonary function in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacević-Kuśmierek, Katarzyna; Kozak, Józef; Pryt, Łukasz; Bieńkiewicz, Małgorzata; Cichocki, Paweł; Kuśmierek, Jacek; Płachcińska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Accurate prediction of postoperative pulmonary function in patients with non-small cell lung cancer is crucial for proper qualification for surgery, the only effective therapeutic method. The aim of the study was to select the most accurate method for acquisition and processing of lung perfusion scintigraphy (LPS) combined with spirometry for prediction of postoperative pulmonary function in patients qualified for surgery. LPS was performed in 70 patients (40 males, 30 females), with preoperative spirometry (mean FEV1preop = 2.26 ± 0.72 L), after administration of 185 MBq of 99mTc-microalbumin/macroaggregate, using planar (appa) and SPECT/CT methods. Predicted postoperative lung function (FEV1pred) was calculated as a part of active lung parenchyma to remain after surgery. A non-imaging segment counting method was also applied. FEV1pred(appa, SPECT, SPECT/CT, segm.) were further compared with actual FEV1postop values obtained from postoperative spirometry. In the whole studied group (47 lobectomies, 23 pneumonectomies) mean value of FEV1postop was equal to 1.76 (± 0.56) L. FEV1pred(appa, SPECT, SPECT/CT, segm.) were equal to 1.75 (± 0.58) L, 1.71 (± 0.57) L, 1.72 (± 0.57) L and 1.57 (± 0.58) L, respectively. A segment counting method systematically lowered predicted FEV1 values (p < 10-5). Moreover, in 31 patients with FEV1preop < 2 L error of predicted values was assessed with Bland-Altman method. Mean absolute differences FEV1postop - FEV1pred amounted to: appa - (0.04 ± 0.13) L, SPECT - (0.07 ± 0.14) L, SPECT/CT - (0.06 ± 0.14) L and segm. - (0.21 ± 0.19) L, respectively. Lower limit of 95% confidence interval calculated for planar - optimal method, was equal to -220 mL (also determined separately in subgroups after lobectomy and pneumonectomy). This study shows that planar LPS may be applied for prediction of postoperative pulmonary function in patients qualified for pneumonectomy and lobectomy. If actual FEV1postop value is to be ≥ 800 m

  5. Effect of body mass index on the survival of patients with early-stage small cell lung cancer after surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnik, A. P.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is an important medico-social problem. It is connected with high level of incidence and mortality of lung cancer. Nowadays we know that obesity has significant influence on cancer development, including lung cancer. Multivariate analysis confirmed that histological type of tumour, kind of operation and body mass index (BMI) influence on prognosis in patients with early stages of mall cell lung cancer. So, now we can use BMI along with other significant prognostic criteria for dete...

  6. Silica Induced Early Fibrogenic Reaction in Lung of Mice Ameliorated by Nyctanthes arbortristis Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pharmacological effect of Nyctanthes arbortristis (NAT) leaf extract in the prevention of lung injury induced by silica particles. Method Lung injury was induced in Swiss mice through inhalation exposure to silica particles (<5μ) using a Flow Past Nose Only Inhalation Chamber at the rate of -10 mg/m3 respirable mass for 5 h. Lung bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid collected between 48 and 72 h was subjected to protein profiling by electrophoresis and cytokine evaluation by solid phase sandwich ELISA. Lung histopathology was performed to evaluate lung injury. Results Inhalation of silica increased the level of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and of the 66 and 63 kDa peptides in the BAL fluid in comparison to sham-treated control. Pre-treatment of silica exposed mice with NAT leaf extract significantly prevented the accumulation of TNF-α in the BAL fluid, but the 66 and 63 kDa peptides remained unchanged. The extract was also effective in the prevention of silica-induced early fibrogenic reactions like congestion, edema and infiltration of nucleated cells in the interstitial alveolar spaces, and thickening of alveolar septa in mouse lung. Conclusion NAT leaf extract helps in bypassing silica induced initial lung injury in mice.

  7. Prediction of residual lung function after lung surgery, and examination of blood perfusion in the pre- and postoperative lung using three-dimensional SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimatani, Shinji [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-01-01

    In order to predict postoperative pulmonary function after lung surgery, preoperative {sup 99m}Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) lung perfusion scans with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed. Spirometry was also performed before and 4-6 months after surgery in 40 patients. In addition, changes in blood perfusion in the pre- and postoperative lung were examined by postoperative lung perfusion scans in 18 of the 40 patients. We measured the three-dimensional (3-D) imaging volume of the operative and contralateral lungs using the volumes rendering method at blood perfusion thresholds of 20, 50 and 75%, utilizing {sup 99m}Tc-MAA lung perfusion, and predicted pulmonary function by means of the measured volumes. We examined the correlation between predicted and the measured values of postoperative pulmonary function, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV{sub 1.0}). The correlation between FEV{sub 1.0} predicted by SPECT (threshold 50%) and measured postoperative lung function resembled that between lung function predicted by the standard planar method and measured FEV{sub 1.0} in the lobectomy group. We then examined the ratios of both pre- and postoperative blood perfusion volumes obtained using 3-D imaging at lung perfusion threshold ranges of 10% each (PV20-29, PV30-39) to pre- and postoperative total perfusion (PV20-100). In the lobectomy group, the postoperative PV20-29/PV20-100 value was significantly higher for the operative side lung than the preoperative PV20-29/PV20-100 value, and the postoperative PV50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89 and 90-100/PV20-100 values were significantly lower than the respective preoperative values. However, in the contralateral lung, the respective pre- and postoperative PV/PV20-100 values were almost identical. These findings suggest that the rate of low blood perfusion increased while the rate of middle to high perfusion decreased in the lobectomy group in the operative

  8. Long-term effects of severe acute malnutrition on lung function in Malawian children: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelijveld, Natasha; Kerac, Marko; Seal, Andrew; Chimwezi, Emmanuel; Wells, Jonathan C; Heyderman, Robert S; Nyirenda, Moffat J; Stocks, Janet; Kirkby, Jane

    2017-04-01

    Early nutritional insults may increase risk of adult lung disease. We aimed to quantify the impact of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) on spirometric outcomes 7 years post-treatment and explore predictors of impaired lung function.Spirometry and pulse oximetry were assessed in 237 Malawian children (median age: 9.3 years) who had been treated for SAM and compared with sibling and age/sex-matched community controls. Spirometry results were expressed as z-scores based on Global Lung Function Initiative reference data for the African-American population.Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were low in all groups (mean FEV1 z-score: -0.47 for cases, -0.48 for siblings, -0.34 for community controls; mean FVC z-score: -0.32, -0.38, and -0.15 respectively). There were no differences in spirometric or oximetry outcomes between SAM survivors and controls. Leg length was shorter in SAM survivors but inter-group sitting heights were similar. HIV positive status or female sex was associated with poorer FEV1, by 0.55 and 0.31 z-scores, respectively.SAM in early childhood was not associated with subsequent reduced lung function compared to local controls. Preservation of sitting height and compromised leg length suggest "thrifty" or "lung-sparing" growth. Female sex and HIV positive status were identified as potentially high-risk groups.

  9. Lung function and cytokine levels in professional athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Cui; Bei, He; Yun, Ma; Yuzhu, Wang; Mingwu, Zhao

    2008-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exercise-induced asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness commonly occur in athletes. The present study investigates pulmonary function and cytokine levels in professional athletes to explore the impact of various sports on respiratory system function and to evaluate the possible role of systemic anaphylaxis. Lung function was measured at rest in professional athletes without a history of smoking. Athletes were recruited from 10 different sports including swimming, water ballet, shooting, volleyball, softball, football, kickboxing, fencing, judo, and track and field. Measurements included forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)), vital capacity (VC), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal mid-expiratory flow curve (MMEF), and forced expiratory flow rate (FEF(25-75)%). In addition, the medical history of all athletes was recorded. Correlations between lung function measurements and the different sports, age, gender, height and weight were analyzed. In some athletes, serum was sampled to detect IL-4 and IL-10 concentrations. In these subjects, the correlation between pulmonary function and cytokine levels was analyzed. A total of 147 professional athletes and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Allergic rhinitis and asthma were detected only in swimmers with an incidence of 56.52% (13/23) and 8.70% (2/23), respectively. Lung function measures were significantly correlated with sport, age, gender, height, and weight. Ventilation functions (including FVC, FEV(1), FEV(1)/FVC, and MMV) in male athletes were superior to those in females, and the ventilation functions in swimmers were superior to those in others. However, the small airway functions (MMEF, FEF(50), FEF(75)) in swimmers and in track and field athletes were lower than predicted (swimmers: 72%, 70%, and 78%, respectively; track and field athletes: 79%, 75%, and 99%, respectively). Serum analyses for IL-4 and IL-10 revealed

  10. Early death during chemotherapy in patients with small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, U N; Osterlind, K; Hirsch, F R

    1999-01-01

    Based on an increased frequency of early death (death within the first treatment cycle) in our two latest randomized trials of combination chemotherapy in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), we wanted to identify patients at risk of early non-toxic death (ENTD) and early toxic death (ETD). Data were...... stored in a database and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for early death. During the first cycle, 118 out of 937 patients (12.6%) died. In 38 patients (4%), the cause of death was sepsis. Significant risk factors were age, performance status (PS), lactate...

  11. Early executive function predicts reasoning development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E; Burchinal, Margaret R

    2013-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is a core cognitive skill that distinguishes humans from all other species and contributes to general fluid intelligence, creativity, and adaptive learning capacities. Yet its origins are not well understood. In the study reported here, we analyzed large-scale longitudinal data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test predictors of growth in analogical-reasoning skill from third grade to adolescence. Our results suggest an integrative resolution to the theoretical debate regarding contributory factors arising from smaller-scale, cross-sectional experiments on analogy development. Children with greater executive-function skills (both composite and inhibitory control) and vocabulary knowledge in early elementary school displayed higher scores on a verbal analogies task at age 15 years, even after adjusting for key covariates. We posit that knowledge is a prerequisite to analogy performance, but strong executive-functioning resources during early childhood are related to long-term gains in fundamental reasoning skills.

  12. What has the ECRHS told us about the childhood risks of asthma, allergy and lung function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanes, C

    2008-10-01

    Few studies investigate how environmental factors in childhood may influence adult respiratory health. The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) is a longitudinal multi-centre study of Western world adults, including retrospective assessment of early life factors. Analyses of the ECRHS showed both beneficial and harmful long-term effects of childhood factors on adult asthma, allergy and lung function. Childhood pets were associated with less adult atopy and hay fever; beneficial effects were also indicated for growing up on a farm and for early exposure to other children. The findings have contributed to further development of the hygiene hypothesis and further understanding of the mechanisms relating microbial stimulation to allergy; however, the public health consequences may be limited. Harmful effects of early life factors on adult asthma and lung function were indicated for severe respiratory infections early in life, parental smoking and long-term dog keeping. Intervention with regard to parental smoking and vaccination against common lower airways infections may improve respiratory health in the population. Thus, early life environment had permanent beneficial and adverse effects on adult respiratory health. The multi-centre structure of the ECRHS, the large sample size, the extensive information about each participant and follow-up until the age of 56 years, have given the basis for convincing conclusions, and made possible publication of unsuspected findings in spite of the problems related to adult recall of childhood events. The ECRHS have contributed substantially to increased knowledge about the early life origins of allergy and obstructive pulmonary disease, providing a basis for prevention.

  13. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Bronchoscopy for Detection and Localization of Early Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shusen; LI Buhong; LI Hui; ZHENG Wei; LU Zukang

    2001-01-01

    Experimenatal results on the development of a Laser-Induced Fluorescence Bronchoscopy(LIFB) for the detection and localization of early lung cancer are reported in this paper. The system utilizes fluorescence of photosensitizer drug to provide real time video imaging for the examined lung tissue. Color filters are used to differentiate signal from background and a computer image processing technique is also applied to subtract the background. Moreover, a pseudocolor contrast enhancement method was developed to enhance the fluorescence image displayed on the vidio monitor. Suspicious areas are identified by pseudocolor image to guide biopsy, and several clinical trials show that sensitivity and contrast capability of the system should permit the detection and localization of early lung cancer.

  14. A robust prognostic gene expression signature for early stage lung adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krzystanek, Marcin; Moldvay, Judit; Szüts, David;

    2016-01-01

    Stage I lung adenocarcinoma is usually not treated with adjuvant chemotherapy; however, around half of these patients do not survive 5 years. Therefore, a reliable prognostic biomarker for early stage patients would be critical to identify those most likely to benefit from early additional treatm...... not given adjuvant therapy. Seven genes consistently obtained statistical significance in Cox regression for overall survival. The combined signature has a weighted mean hazard ratio of 3.2 in all cohorts and 3.0 (C.I. 1.3-7.4, p ...... treatments. Several studies have searched for gene expression prognostic biomarkers for lung adenocarcinoma, but these have not yielded a widely accepted prognosticator. We analyzed gene expression from seven published lung adenocarcinoma cohorts for which we included only stage I and II patients who were...

  15. Phylogenetic ctDNA analysis depicts early stage lung cancer evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbosh, Christopher; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Wilson, Gareth A.

    2017-01-01

    of early-stage lung cancer is not established. Here we conduct a tumour-specific phylogenetic approach to ctDNA profiling in the first 100 TRACERx (TRAcking non-small cell lung Cancer Evolution through therapy (Rx)) study participants, including one patient co-recruited to the PEACE (Posthumous Evaluation......The early detection of relapse following primary surgery for non-small cell lung cancer and the characterization of emerging subclones seeding metastatic sites might offer new therapeutic approaches to limit tumor recurrence. The potential to non-invasively track tumor evolutionary dynamics in ctDNA...... of Advanced Cancer Environment) post-mortem study. We identify independent predictors of ctDNA release and perform tumor volume limit of detection analyses. Through blinded profiling of post-operative plasma, we observe evidence of adjuvant chemotherapy resistance and identify patients destined to experience...

  16. Socioeconomic position and surgery for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard Starr, Laila; Osler, Merete; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To examine possible associations between socioeconomic position and surgical treatment of patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: In a register-based clinical cohort study, patients with early-stage (stages I-IIIa) NSCLC were identified in the Danish Lung Cancer...... in a health care system with free, equal access to health services, disadvantaged groups are less likely to receive surgery for lung cancer....... was associated with greater odds for no surgery in stage I and stage II patients as was living alone for stage I patients. Comorbidity, a short diagnostic interval and small diagnostic volume were all associated with higher odds for not undergoing surgery; but these factors did not appear to explain...

  17. Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…

  18. Respiratory health and lung function in Chinese restaurant kitchen workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tze Wai; Wong, Andromeda H S; Lee, Frank S C; Qiu, Hong

    2011-10-01

    To measure air pollutant concentrations in Chinese restaurant kitchens using different stove types and assess their influence on workers' respiratory health. 393 kitchen workers from 53 Chinese restaurants were surveyed over 16 months: 115 workers from 21 restaurants using only electric stoves and 278 workers from 32 restaurants using only gas stoves. Workers were interviewed about their respiratory symptoms and had their lung function tested. Concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) were measured using portable monitors and air-bag sampling. Temperature and noise levels were assessed. Median concentrations of NO, NO(2) and CO were 7.4, 1.5 and 1.6 times higher in gas-fuelled kitchens than in electric ones and average concentrations of PM(2.5) and TVOC were 81% and 78% higher, respectively. Differences were smaller for CH(4) and NMHC. Electricity-run kitchens were 4.5°C cooler and 9 dBA less noisy than gas-fuelled ones. Workers using electric cookers had significantly better lung function than their gas-using counterparts and their mean FEV(1) and FVC values were 5.4% and 3.8% higher, respectively, after adjustment for confounders. Wheeze, phlegm, cough and sore throat were more prevalent in workers using gas. The adjusted OR for having phlegm regularly was significantly higher. The poorer lung function and higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms among workers in gas-fuelled kitchens compared to those in electricity-powered kitchens may be associated with exposure to higher concentrations of toxic air pollutants generated during gas cooking.

  19. Impact on disease development, genomic location and biological function of copy number alterations in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Tsung Huang

    Full Text Available Lung cancer, of which more than 80% is non-small cell, is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Copy number alterations (CNAs in lung cancer have been shown to be positionally clustered in certain genomic regions. However, it remains unclear whether genes with copy number changes are functionally clustered. Using a dense single nucleotide polymorphism array, we performed genome-wide copy number analyses of a large collection of non-small cell lung tumors (n = 301. We proposed a formal statistical test for CNAs between different groups (e.g., non-involved lung vs. tumors, early vs. late stage tumors. We also customized the gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA algorithm to investigate the overrepresentation of genes with CNAs in predefined biological pathways and gene sets (i.e., functional clustering. We found that CNAs events increase substantially from germline, early stage to late stage tumor. In addition to genomic position, CNAs tend to occur away from the gene locations, especially in germline, non-involved tissue and early stage tumors. Such tendency decreases from germline to early stage and then to late stage tumors, suggesting a relaxation of selection during tumor progression. Furthermore, genes with CNAs in non-small cell lung tumors were enriched in certain gene sets and biological pathways that play crucial roles in oncogenesis and cancer progression, demonstrating the functional aspect of CNAs in the context of biological pathways that were overlooked previously. We conclude that CNAs increase with disease progression and CNAs are both positionally and functionally clustered. The potential functional capabilities acquired via CNAs may be sufficient for normal cells to transform into malignant cells.

  20. The effects of second-hand and direct exposure to tobacco smoke on asthma and lung function in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tager, Ira B

    2008-03-01

    Cigarette smoking still is quite common in many parts of the world. In parallel, exposure to second-hand smoke continues to be common despite declines in smoking in developed countries and despite evidence of serious health effects in infants and children. This paper focuses on the effects of second-hand and direct exposure (personal smoking) on the respiratory health of adolescents, in particular effects on the occurrence of asthma and on lung function. Published data indicate that, in addition to whatever effects direct and postnatal second-hand tobacco smoke exposure have on the occurrence of asthma and impaired levels and growth of lung function in adolescents, there is an underlying alteration in the prenatal and early postnatal development of the structural and mechanical characteristics of the lung that contribute substantially to these deficits. These developmental effects may be important contributors to the future risks for impaired pulmonary function.

  1. [Perioperative Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Lung Cancer Surgeries in Patients with Poor Pulmonary Function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    To properly perform preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation is important for lung cancer surgeries in patients with poor pulmonary function such as severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease( COPD) to prevent postoperative complications. Those programs include exercise training, pursed-lip breathing technique, activities of dairy living training and facilitating physical activities, all which are almost same as those for patients with stable COPD. Pedometer is a useful tool to lead patient's physical activities. Postoperative therapeutic programs are also important, which includes early mobilization, nutritional support, and so on.

  2. Genetic Circuit for the Early Warning of Lung Cancer using iBioSim

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    With the development of molecular biology and gene-engineering technology, gene diagnosis has been an emerging approach for modern life sciences. Biological marker, recognized as the hot topic in the molecular and gene fields, has important values in early diagnosis, malignant tumour stage, treatment and therapeutic efficacy evaluation. The design of markers detection genetic circuit system for lung cancer is presented as a new method to provide basis for early warning and therapy. The system...

  3. Early Detection of Lung Cancer : “A Role for Serum Biomarkers?”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Broodman (Ingrid)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractLung cancer has the highest mortality rate among cancer patients in the world, in particular because most patients are only diagnosed at an advanced and non-curable stage. Computed tomography (CT) screening on high-risk individuals has shown that early detection could reduce the mort

  4. Early preventive treatment for severe acute pancreatitis combined with lung injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学民; 刘青光; 潘承恩

    2002-01-01

    @@ Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) can cause systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS),which leads to injury or failure of the internal organs and systems.1 Among them,acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS)is a severe or fatal complication.In this article,the early preventive treatment for SAP combined with lung injure is studied.

  5. The lower airway microbiota in early cystic fibrosis lung disease: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayman, Katherine B; Armstrong, David S; Carzino, Rosemary; Ferkol, Thomas W; Grimwood, Keith; Storch, Gregory A; Teo, Shu Mei; Wylie, Kristine M; Ranganathan, Sarath C

    2017-03-09

    In infants and young children with cystic fibrosis, lower airway infection and inflammation are associated with adverse respiratory outcomes. However, the role of lower airway microbiota in the pathogenesis of early cystic fibrosis lung disease remains uncertain. To assess the development of the lower airway microbiota over time in infants and young children with cystic fibrosis, and to explore its association with airway inflammation and pulmonary function at age 6 years. Serial, semi-annual bronchoscopies and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) procedures were performed in infants newly diagnosed with cystic fibrosis following newborn screening. Quantitative microbiological cultures and inflammatory marker (interleukin 8 and neutrophil elastase) measurements were undertaken contemporaneously. 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was conducted on stored BAL samples. Spirometry results recorded at 6 years of age were extracted from medical records. Ninety-five BAL samples provided 16S ribosomal RNA gene data. These were collected from 48 subjects aged 1.2-78.3 months, including longitudinal samples from 27 subjects and 13 before age 6 months. The lower airway microbiota varied, but diversity decreased with advancing age. Detection of recognised cystic fibrosis bacterial pathogens was associated with reduced microbial diversity and greater lower airway inflammation. There was no association between the lower airway microbiota and pulmonary function at age 6 years. In infants with cystic fibrosis, the lower airway microbiota is dynamic. Dominance of the microbiota by recognised cystic fibrosis bacterial pathogens is associated with increased lower airway inflammation, however early microbial diversity is not associated with pulmonary function at 6 years of age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Of flies, mice and men: a systematic approach to understanding the early life origins of chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss-Etschmann, Susanne; Bush, Andrew; Bellusci, Saverio; Brusselle, Guy G; Dahlén, Sven Erik K; Dehmel, Stefan; Eickelberg, Oliver; Gibson, Greg; Hylkema, Machteld N; Knaus, Petra; Königshoff, Melanie; Lloyd, Clare M; Macciarini, Paolo; Mailleux, Arnaud; Marsland, Benjamin J; Postma, Dirkje S; Roberts, Graham; Samakovlis, Christos; Stocks, Janet; Vandesompele, Joke; Wjst, Matthias; Holloway, John

    2013-04-01

    Despite intensive research efforts, the aetiology of the majority of chronic lung diseases (CLD) in both, children and adults, remains elusive. Current therapeutic options are limited, providing only symptomatic relief, rather than treating the underlying condition, or preventing its development in the first place. Thus, there is a strong and unmet clinical need for the development of both, novel effective therapies and preventative strategies for CLD. Many studies suggest that modifications of prenatal and/or early postnatal lung development will have important implications for future lung function and risk of CLD throughout life. This view represents a fundamental change of current pathophysiological concepts and treatment paradigms, and holds the potential to develop novel preventative and/or therapeutic strategies. However, for the successful development of such approaches, key questions, such as a clear understanding of underlying mechanisms of impaired lung development, the identification and validation of relevant preclinical models to facilitate translational research, and the development of concepts for correction of aberrant development, all need to be solved. Accordingly, a European Science Foundation Exploratory Workshop was held where clinical, translational and basic research scientists from different disciplines met to discuss potential mechanisms of developmental origins of CLD, and to identify major knowledge gaps in order to delineate a roadmap for future integrative research.

  7. Preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation for marginal-function lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Asra; Baciewicz, Frank A; Soubani, Ayman O; Gadgeel, Shirish M

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the impact of preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation in lung cancer patients undergoing pulmonary resection surgery with marginal lung function. Methods Short-term outcomes of 42 patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 s pulmonary rehabilitation) and group B (receiving pulmonary rehabilitation). In group B, a second set of pulmonary function tests was obtained. Results There were no significant differences in terms of sex, age, race, pathologic stage, operative procedure, or smoking years. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide in group A was 1.40 ± 0.22 L and 10.28 ± 2.64 g∙dL(-1) vs. 1.39 ± 0.13 L and 10.75 ± 2.08 g∙dL(-1) in group B. Group B showed significant improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s from 1.39 ± 0.13 to 1.55 ± 0.06 L ( p = 0.02). Mean intensive care unit stay was 6 ± 5 days in group A vs. 9 ± 9 days in group B ( p = 0.22). Mean hospital stay was 10 ± 4 days in group A vs. 14 ± 9 days in group B ( p = 0.31). There was no significant difference in morbidity or mortality between groups. Conclusion Preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation can significantly improve forced expiratory volume in 1 s in some marginal patients undergoing lung cancer resection. However, it does not improve length of stay, morbidity, or mortality.

  8. The use of lung biopsy to determine early lung pathology and its association with health and production outcomes in feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Brandy A; Hendrick, Steve H; Pollock, Colleen M; Hannon, Sherry J; Abutarbush, Sameeh M; Vogstad, Amanda; Jim, G Kee; Booker, Calvin W

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if percutaneous lung biopsy can be used to characterize early pathologic changes in bovine lung associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD), to determine if specific infectious respiratory pathogens can be identified in association with these changes, and to determine whether pulmonary pathology at arrival and at the time of initial diagnosis are associated with health and production outcomes. One hundred auction-market derived crossbred steer calves from a commercial feedlot in southern Alberta were included in this study. A percutaneous lung biopsy technique was used to obtain lung samples from the right middle lung. Steers were sampled 295 times yielding 283 samples with 210 (74%) containing lung tissue. Overall, histopathological changes were observed in 20 (9.5%) of lung biopsy samples. There were too few samples with pathology to reveal an association between lung pathology and subsequent health events. In general, percutaneous lung biopsy can be done safely on feedlot steers in a commercial feedlot setting with few clinical side effects. This technique did not prove useful as a diagnostic tool or prognostic indicator for early BRD. However, it may be useful for the diagnosis of BRD in targeted populations of commercial feedlot steers.

  9. Serum-surfactant SP-D correlates inversely to lung function in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Hanne Vebert; Holmskov, Uffe; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects the lungs causing infections and inflammation. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate defense lectin primarily secreted in the lungs. We investigated the influence of the SP-D Met11Thr polymorphism on CF lung function; and serum SP-D as a marker for CF...

  10. Modeling Mycobacterium tuberculosis early granuloma formation in experimental human lung tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Ramanarao Parasa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The widely used animal models for tuberculosis (TB display fundamental differences from human TB. Therefore, a validated model that recapitulates human lung TB is attractive for TB research. Here, we describe a unique method for establishment of TB infection in an experimental human lung tissue model. The model is based on cell lines derived from human lungs and primary macrophages from peripheral blood, and displays characteristics of human lung tissue, including evenly integrated macrophages throughout the epithelium, production of extracellular matrix, stratified epithelia and mucus secretion. Establishment of experimental infection in the model tissue with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes TB, resulted in clustering of macrophages at the site of infection, reminiscent of early TB granuloma formation. We quantitated the extent of granuloma formation induced by different strains of mycobacteria and validated our model against findings in other TB models. We found that early granuloma formation is dependent on ESAT-6, which is secreted via the type VII secretion machinery of virulent mycobacteria. Our model, which can facilitate the discovery of the interactions between mycobacteria and host cells in a physiological environment, is the first lung tissue model described for TB.

  11. [Early recognition of lung cancer in workers occupationally exposed to asbestos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Preiß, K; Rehbock, B

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that working with asbestos and placing it on the market have been banned in Germany since 1993 according to the Ordinance on Hazardous Substances, asbestos-related diseases of the lungs and pleura are still the leading cause of death in occupational diseases. The maximum industrial usage of asbestos was reached in former West Germany in the late 1970s and in former East Germany the late 1980s. Occupational diseases, mainly mesotheliomas and lung cancer emerging now are thus caused by asbestos exposure which occurred 30-40 years earlier. It is known that the combination of smoking and asbestos exposure results in a superadditive increase in the risk to develop lung cancer. No suitable screening methods for early detection of malignant mesothelioma are currently available and the therapeutic options are still very limited; however, the national lung screening trial (NLST) has shown for the first time that by employing low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in heavy smokers, lung cancer mortality can be significantly reduced. According to current knowledge the resulting survival benefits far outweigh the potential risks involved in the diagnostic work-up of suspicious lesions. These results in association with the recommendations of international medical societies and organizations were pivotal as the German statutory accident insurance (DGUV) decided to provide LDCT as a special occupational medical examination for workers previously exposed to asbestos and with a particularly high risk for developing lung cancer.

  12. Fifty years of tobacco carcinogenesis research: from mechanisms to early detection and prevention of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S; Szabo, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of the link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer in the 1964 Surgeon General's Report initiated definitive and comprehensive research on the identification of carcinogens in tobacco products and the relevant mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The resultant comprehensive data clearly illustrate established pathways of cancer induction involving carcinogen exposure, metabolic activation, DNA adduct formation, and consequent mutation of critical genes along with the exacerbating influences of inflammation, cocarcinogenesis, and tumor promotion. This mechanistic understanding has provided a framework for the regulation of tobacco products and for the development of relevant tobacco carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers that can be applied in cancer prevention. Simultaneously, the recognition of the link between smoking and lung cancer paved the way for two additional critical approaches to cancer prevention that are discussed here: detection of lung cancer at an early, curable stage, and chemoprevention of lung cancer. Recent successes in more precisely identifying at-risk populations and in decreasing lung cancer mortality with helical computed tomography screening are notable, and progress in chemoprevention continues, although challenges with respect to bringing these approaches to the general population exist. Collectively, research performed since the 1964 Report demonstrates unequivocally that the majority of deaths from lung cancer are preventable.

  13. MMP-13 In-Vivo Molecular Imaging Reveals Early Expression in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Salaün

    Full Text Available Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are overexpressed in lung cancer and may serve as potential targets for the development of bioactivable probes for molecular imaging.To characterize and monitor the activity of MMPs during the progression of lung adenocarcinoma.K-rasLSL-G12D mice were imaged serially during the development of adenocarcinomas using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT and a probe specific for MMP-2, -3, -9 and -13. Lung tumors were identified using FMT and MRI co-registration, and the probe concentration in each tumor was assessed at each time-point. The expression of Mmp2, -3, -9, -13 was quantified by qRT-PCR using RNA isolated from microdissected tumor cells. Immunohistochemical staining of overexpressed MMPs in animals was assessed on human lung tumors.In mice, 7 adenomas and 5 adenocarcinomas showed an increase in fluorescent signal on successive FMT scans, starting between weeks 4 and 8. qRT-PCR assays revealed significant overexpression of only Mmp-13 in mice lung tumors. In human tumors, a high MMP-13 immunostaining index was found in tumor cells from invasive lesions (24/27, but in none of the non-invasive (0/4 (p=0.001.MMP-13 is detected in early pulmonary invasive adenocarcinomas and may be a potential target for molecular imaging of lung cancer.

  14. Monitoring asthma in childhood: lung function, bronchial responsiveness and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Moeller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the methods available for measuring reversible airways obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR and inflammation as hallmarks of asthma, and their role in monitoring children with asthma. Persistent bronchial obstruction may occur in asymptomatic children and is considered a risk factor for severe asthma episodes and is associated with poor asthma outcome. Annual measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s using office based spirometry is considered useful. Other lung function measurements including the assessment of BHR may be reserved for children with possible exercise limitations, poor symptom perception and those not responding to their current treatment or with atypical asthma symptoms, and performed on a higher specialty level. To date, for most methods of measuring lung function there are no proper randomised controlled or large longitudinal studies available to establish their role in asthma management in children. Noninvasive biomarkers for monitoring inflammation in children are available, for example the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide fraction, and the assessment of induced sputum cytology or inflammatory mediators in the exhaled breath condensate. However, their role and usefulness in routine clinical practice to monitor and guide therapy remains unclear, and therefore, their use should be reserved for selected cases.

  15. Choline Transporters in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma: Expression and Functional Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for cell survival and proliferation, however, the expression and function of choline transporters have not been well identified in cancer. In this study, we detected the mRNA and protein expression of organic cation transporter OCT3, carnitine/cation transporters OCTN 1 and OCTN2,and choline transporter-like protein CTL1 in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549, H1299 and SPC-A-1.Their expression pattern was further confirmed in 25 human primary adenocarcinoma tissues. The choline uptake in these cell lines was significantly blocked by CTL1 inhibitor, but only partially inhibited by OCT or OCTN inhibitors. The efficacy of these inhibitors on cell proliferation is closely correlated with their abilities to block choline transport. Under the native expression of these transporters, the total choline uptake was notably blocked by specific PI3K/AKT inhibitors. These results describe the expression of choline transporters and their relevant function in cell proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma, thus providing a potential"choline-starvation" strategy of cancer interference through targeting choline transporters, especially CTL1.

  16. Prolonged Administration of Twice-Daily Bolus Intravenous Tacrolimus in the Early Phase After Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yutaka; Sugimoto, Seiichiro; Mano, Toshifumi; Kurosaki, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Kentaroh; Otani, Shinji; Yamane, Masaomi; Kobayashi, Motomu; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Oto, Takahiro

    2017-08-11

    BACKGROUND Although administration of tacrolimus, whether by the enteric, sublingual, or continuous intravenous routes, has some limitations, twice-daily bolus intravenous tacrolimus administration has been shown to be beneficial in optimizing efficacy and safety after lung transplantation. However, at present, the duration of bolus intravenous tacrolimus administration is limited, and the effects of prolonged bolus intravenous tacrolimus administration remain unknown. Our study was aimed at assessing the safety and efficacy of prolonged twice-daily bolus intravenous tacrolimus administration in the early phase after lung transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively investigated the data of 62 recipients of lung transplantation who had received twice-daily bolus intravenous administration of tacrolimus, followed by oral tacrolimus, after lung transplantation at our institution between January 2011 and October 2015. RESULTS The median duration of bolus intravenous tacrolimus administration was 19 days (4-72 days). The target trough level was achieved in 89% of the patients by day 3. Acute kidney injury occurred in 27% of the patients during bolus intravenous tacrolimus. Two patients (3%) had neurotoxicity, necessitating discontinuation of tacrolimus. Suspected acute rejection requiring steroid pulse therapy occurred in 21% of patients during the follow-up period. Eight patients (13%) developed chronic lung allograft dysfunction during the follow-up period. The 1-year and 5-year survival rates after lung transplantation were 95% and 76%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that prolonged bolus intravenous tacrolimus administration in the early phase after lung transplantation is a safe and effective alternative to enteric, sublingual, or continuous intravenous administration.

  17. Relationship of lung function to radiographic reading (ILO) in patients with asbestos related lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotes, J E; King, B

    1988-10-01

    The 1980 International Labour Office (ILO) classification of posteroanterior chest radiographs was used to obtain the scores for profusion of small opacities and pleural abnormalities of 172 men with confirmed or suspected disease of the lungs due to asbestos. After allowance had been made for age, stature, and smoking habit the quantitative score for area of diffuse pleural thickening seen in profile on both lateral chest walls contributed to reductions in inspiratory capacity, expiratory reserve volume, and forced expiratory flow rates. Occlusion of one or both costophrenic angles in the presence of diffuse thickening was associated with further reduction in inspiratory capacity. Profusion of small opacities was associated with a reduction in transfer factor. Diffuse pleural thickening and occlusion of costophrenic angles were associated with relatively low values for the forced expiratory flow rates (MEF50FVC) and FEV1/FVC, whereas small opacities were associated with relatively high values. Thus overall increased, normal, or reduced values of MEF50FVC and FEV1/FVC might occur, depending on the distribution of the radiographic abnormalities. The findings contribute to the validation of the ILO pleural scores; those for diffuse pleural thickening and occlusion of costophrenic angles should be used jointly with the scores for profusion of parenchymal small opacities in interpreting the lung function of persons exposed to asbestos.

  18. Structural and functional changes in the minipig lung following irradiation of different lung volumes at a constant mean lung dose; Strukturelle und funktionelle Veraenderungen an der Lunge von Minischweinen nach Bestrahlung unterschiedlich grosser Lungenvolumina mit gleicher mittlerer Lungendosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusche, S.; Herrmann, T.; Appold, S.; Hoelscher, T.; Bruechner, K.; Geyer, P.; Baumann, M.; Kumpf, R.

    2004-07-01

    Minipigs were subjected to irradiation of different lung volumes at approximately the same mean lung dose (D{sub m}ean) and examined for structural and morphological changes of the lung. The outcome confirmed earlier findings on the pig lung. While no significant differences between irradiation groups was found in terms of functional lung changes, there was a clear correlation between functional changes observed and the mean lung dose. This is in good agreement with data from clinical studies. It follows that the mean lung dose is of predictive value in considering functional lung damage in the assessment of different irradiation regimes. By contrast structural damage was found to correlate with applied dose. [German] Es wurden an Minischweinen unterschiedliche grosse Lungenvolumina mit vergleichbaren mittleren Lungendosen (mean lung dose, D{sub mean}) bestrahlt und die funktionellen und morphologischen Veraenderungen bestimmt. Die Untersuchungen zu funktionellen und morphologischen Veaenderungen bestaetigen fruehere Untersuchungen an der Schweinelunge. Hinsichtlich funktioneller Lungenveraenderungen fand sich kein signifikanter Unterschied zwischen den Bestrahlungsarmen, aber es konnte eine eindeutige Korrelation dieser Veraenderungen mit der mittleren Lungendosis D{sub mean} nachgewiesen werden. Dies steht in gutem Einklang mit Daten aus klinischen Untersuchungen. Somit bestaetigt sich, dass die mean lung dose eine praediktive Bedeutung zur Abschaetzung funktionaler Schaeden der Lunge bei der Beurteilung unterschiedlicher Bestrahlungsplaene hat. Die strukturellen Schaeden korrelieren hingegen mit der applizierten Dosis. (orig.)

  19. [Treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma in early stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, José Carlos; Avila Martínez, Régulo J; Ponce, Santiago; Zuluaga, Mauricio; Bartolomé, Adela; Gámez, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of lung carcinoma is multidisciplinary. There are different therapeutic strategies available, although surgery shows the best results in those patients with lung carcinoma in early stages. Other options such as stereotactic radiation therapy are relegated to patients with small tumors and poor cardiopulmonary reserve or to those who reject surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not justified in patients with stage i of the disease and so double adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered. This adjuvant chemotherapy should be based on cisplatin after surgery in those patients with stages ii and IIIA.

  20. John Dewey and early Chicago functionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, A

    2001-11-01

    John Dewey and James Angell are regarded respectively as the founder and systematizer of the Chicago school of functional psychology. The early Chicago school traditionally has been portrayed as a unified theoretical approach based primarily on William James's naturalist theory of mental processes. It is argued in this article that although the psychology systematized by Angell bore a close affinity to James's naturalism, Dewey's own psychology was based primarily on the neo-Hegelian philosophy of Thomas Hill Green. Through a review of a number of Dewey's major writings, Green's neo-Hegelian philosophy is shown to have influenced Dewey's views on psychological concepts such as reaction, emotion, and perception during the formative period of the Chicago school. The interpretation of Dewey's psychology developed in this article leads to the conclusion that early Chicago functionalism should not be regarded as a unified theoretical approach.

  1. Sinus surgery can improve quality of life, lung infections, and lung function in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanin, Mikkel Christian; Aanaes, Kasper; Høiby, Niels;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and bacterial sinusitis are ubiquitous in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). From the sinuses, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can infect the lungs. METHODS: We studied the effect of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) on symptoms of CRS and lower airway...... patients (62%). Four patients with preoperative P. aeruginosa lung colonization (25%) had no regrowth during follow-up; 2 of these had P. aeruginosa sinusitis. Sinonasal symptoms were improved 12 months after ESS and we observed a trend toward better lung function after ESS. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated...

  2. Neonates with reduced neonatal lung function have systemic low-grade inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Chawes, Bo L.K.; Stokholm, Jakob; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Bisgaard, Hans Flinker

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children and adults with asthma and impaired lung function have been reported to have low-grade systemic inflammation, but it is unknown whether this inflammation starts before symptoms and in particular whether low-grade inflammation is present in asymptomatic neonates with reduced lung function. ObjectiveWe sought to investigate the possible association between neonatal lung function and biomarkers of systemic inflammation. Methods: Plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive p...

  3. Prediction of postoperative loss of lung function in patients with malignant lung mass. Quantitative regional ventilation-perfusion scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryo, U.Y. (Univ. of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The quantitative measurement of regional ventilation and perfusion distribution is simply and reliably accomplished by using routinely available radioactive gas and perfusion lung scanning agents, and a large field-of-view gamma camera with an on-line computer. The preoperative prediction of postsurgical loss in lung function can be made accurately by using the quantitative ventilation-perfusion lung scan technique. Either a regional ventilation study or perfusion study may be used for the prediction, but analysis of regional ventilation distribution appears to be a better parameter than that of perfusion distribution for the prediction of postoperative loss of FEV1. In the rare case of a patient with a marked ventilation-perfusion deficit, quantitative distribution of both ventilation and perfusion may be needed for an accurate assessment of postsurgical lung function. 18 references.

  4. Airway hyperresponsiveness and development of lung function in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Lotte; Ulrik, Charlotte S; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term longitudinal studies of lung function from childhood to adulthood are important in linking our understanding of childhood risk factors to adult disease. Airway hyperresponsiveness has been shown to independently affect lung function growth in studies of adolescence....... The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that airway hyperresponsiveness has an independent deleterious effect on lung function in adolescence that extends into adulthood. METHODS: A random population sample (n = 983) aged 7-17 from Copenhagen was followed longitudinally for 20 years with four...... and persistent deficits in lung function in adulthood....

  5. Gravity effects on regional lung ventilation determined by functional EIT during parabolic flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, I; Dudykevych, T; Hinz, J; Bodenstein, M; Hahn, G; Hellige, G

    2001-07-01

    Gravity-dependent changes of regional lung function were studied during normogravity, hypergravity, and microgravity induced by parabolic flights. Seven healthy subjects were followed in the right lateral and supine postures during tidal breathing, forced vital capacity, and slow expiratory vital capacity maneuvers. Regional 1) lung ventilation, 2) lung volumes, and 3) lung emptying behavior were studied in a transverse thoracic plane by functional electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The results showed gravity-dependent changes of regional lung ventilation parameters. A significant effect of gravity on regional functional residual capacity with a rapid lung volume redistribution during the gravity transition phases was established. The most homogeneous functional residual capacity distribution was found at microgravity. During vital capacity and forced vital capacity in the right lateral posture, the decrease in lung volume on expiration was larger in the right lung region at all gravity phases. During tidal breathing, the differences in ventilation magnitudes between the right and left lung regions were not significant in either posture or gravity phase. A significant nonlinearity of lung emptying was determined at normogravity and hypergravity. The pattern of lung emptying was homogeneous during microgravity.

  6. Forced expiratory flows' contribution to lung function interpretation in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Bernard; Koskas, Marc; Guillo, Houda; Maingot, Lucia; La Rocca, Marie-Claude; Boulé, Michèle; Just, Jocelyne; Momas, Isabelle; Corinne, Alberti; Beydon, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Forced expiratory flow (FEF) at low lung volumes are supposed to be better at detecting lung-function impairment in asthmatic children than a forced volume. The aim of this study was to examine whether FEF results could modify the interpretation of baseline and post-bronchodilator spirometry in asthmatic schoolchildren in whom forced expiratory volumes are within the normal range. Spirometry, with post-bronchodilator vital capacity within 10% of that of baseline in healthy and asthmatic children, was recorded prospectively. We defined abnormal baseline values expressed as z-scores 12%, FEF reversibility as an increase larger than the 2.5th percentile of post-bronchodilator changes in healthy children. Among 66 healthy and 50 asthmatic schoolchildren, only two (1.7%) children with normal vital capacity and no airways obstruction had abnormal baseline forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of forced vital capacity (FEF25-75%). After bronchodilation, among the 45 asthmatic children without FEV1 reversibility, 5 (11.1%) had an FEF25-75% increase that exceeded the reference interval. Isolated abnormal baseline values or significant post-bronchodilator changes in FEF are rare situations in asthmatic schoolchildren with good spirometry quality.

  7. Plasma and EBC microRNAs as early biomarkers of non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzoni, Paola; Banda, Iris; Goldoni, Matteo; Corradi, Massimo; Tiseo, Marcello; Acampa, Olga; Balestra, Valeria; Ampollini, Luca; Casalini, Angelo; Carbognani, Paolo; Mutti, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Lung cancer is a major cause of death in Western countries. Current screening methods are invasive and still lead to a high percentage of false positives. There is, therefore, a need to find biomarkers that increase the probability of detecting lung cancer early. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are stable molecules in blood plasma and exhaled breath condensate (EBC). We quantified miRNA-21 and miRNA-486 expression from plasma and EBC samples from patients with a diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and controls. miRNA-21 was significantly higher in plasma and in EBC of the NSCLC patients and miRNA-486 was significantly lower. This difference indicates a significantly improved diagnostic value, and suggests that these miRNAs could be clinically used as a first-line screening test in high-risk subjects.

  8. Early Lung Cancer Detection in Uranium Miners with Abnormal Sputum Cytology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saccomanno, G.

    2000-06-30

    ''Early Lung Cancer Detection in Uranium Miners with Abnormal Sputum Cytology'' was funded by the Department of Energy to monitor the health effects of radon exposure and/or cigarette smoke on uranium workers from the Colorado Plateau. The resulting Saccomanno Uranium Workers Archive and data base has been used as a source of information to prove eligibility for compensation under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act and as the source of primary data tissue for a subcontract and other collaborations with outside investigators. The latter includes a study of radon exposure and lung cancer risk in a non-smoking cohort of uranium miners (subcontract); a study of genetic markers for lung cancer susceptibility; and a study of {sup 210}Pb accumulation in the skull as a biomarker of radon exposure.

  9. Stereotactic radiotherapy for early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardi, Umberto; Badellino, Serena; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo [Dept. of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) represents a consolidated treatment option for patients with medically inoperable early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The clinical evidence accumulated in the past decade supports its use as an alternative to surgery with comparable survival outcomes. Due to its limited toxicity, SBRT is also applicable to elderly patients with very poor baseline pulmonary function or other severe comorbidities. Recent comparative studies in operable patients raised the issue of the possible use of SBRT also for this subgroup, with quite promising results that still should be fully confirmed by prospective trials with long-term follow-up. Aim of this review is to summarize and discuss the major studies conducted over the years on SBRT and to provide data on the efficacy and toxicity of this radiotherapy technique for stage I NSCLC. Technical aspects and quality of life related issues are also discussed, with the goal to provide information on the current role and limitations of SBRT in clinical practice.

  10. Pilates Method for Lung Function and Functional Capacity in Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehues, Janaina Rocha; Gonzáles, Inês; Lemos, Robson Rodrigues; Haas, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is defined as the condition in which the body mass index (BMI) is ≥ 30 kg/m2 and is responsible for decreased quality of life and functional limitations. The harmful effects on ventilatory function include reduced lung capacity and volume; diaphragmatic muscle weakness; decreased lung compliance and stiffness; and weakness of the abdominal muscles, among others. Pilates is a method of resistance training that works with low-impact muscle exercises and is based on isometric exercises. The current article is a review of the literature that aims to investigate the hypothesis that the Pilates method, as a complementary method of training, might be beneficial to pulmonary function and functional capacity in obese adults. The intent of the review was to evaluate the use of Pilates as an innovative intervention in the respiratory dysfunctions of obese adults. In studies with other populations, it has been observed that Pilates can be effective in improving chest capacity and expansion and lung volume. That finding is due to the fact that Pilates works through the center of force, made ​​up of the abdominal muscles and gluteus muscles lumbar, which are responsible for the stabilization of the static and dynamic body that is associated with breath control. It has been observed that different Pilates exercises increase the activation and recruitment of the abdominal muscles. Those muscles are important in respiration, both in expiration and inspiration, through the facilitation of diaphragmatic action. In that way, strengthening the abdominal muscles can help improve respiratory function, leading to improvements in lung volume and capacity. The results found in the current literature review support the authors' observations that Pilates promotes the strengthening of the abdominal muscles and that improvements in diaphragmatic function may result in positive outcomes in respiratory function, thereby improving functional capacity. However, the authors did not

  11. Expression analysis of Shh signaling members in early stages of chick lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Rute Silva; Silva-Gonçalves, Carla; Vaz-Cunha, Patrícia; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    Lung organogenesis is guided by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that coordinate cellular events responsible for the formation of the respiratory system. Several signaling pathways have been implicated in this process; among them, sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling has emerged as a crucial regulator of branching morphogenesis in the mammalian lung. Canonical Shh signaling requires the presence of patched (Ptch) and smoothened (Smo) transmembrane receptors in order to induce the activation of glioblastoma (Gli) zinc finger transcription factors that are the true effectors of the pathway. Signal transduction is finely regulated by Ptch1, Gli, and Hhip (hedgehog-interacting protein). The present work characterizes, for the first time, the expression pattern of shh, ptch1, smo, gli1, and hhip in early stages of the embryonic chick lung. In situ hybridization studies revealed that these genes are expressed in the same cellular compartments as their mammalian counterparts, although their proximo-distal distribution is slightly changed. Moreover, the molecular interactions between fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Shh signaling pathway were assessed, in vitro, by grafting beads soaked in SU5402 (an FGF receptor inhibitor). In the chick lung, Shh signaling seems to have some features that are species specific since shh is not a downstream target of FGF signaling. Nonetheless and despite the observed differences, these findings suggest a role for Shh signaling in the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that control chick lung morphogenesis.

  12. Suppression of centrineurogenic shock lung by Dilantin (DPH) administered early in established hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy, B; LeGrand, P; Levitzky, M; Welsh, R A; Schechter, F G

    1981-09-01

    Centrineurogenic shock lung following acute hemorrhage was prevented by Dilantin (DPH) given preshock. Nineteen anemia (Hct = 30 +/- 5%) dogs were divided into five groups: one control (no anesthesia, no shock); one of three with 4 hours of anesthesia alone; and of 15 dogs with hemorrhagic shock, eight were without DPH, two with preshock DPH, and five received DPH 15 min after shock was established. Shock animals were rapidly bled to 40 mm Hg which was maintained for 2 hours, and all shed blood was reinfused. One hour later, all animals were sacrificed, the lungs fixed with formalin instilled at 15 cm H2O intratracheal pressure, the trachea cross-clamped, the lungs excised, photographed, and sent for gross and histopathologic study. Shock animals without DPH had grossly hemorrhagic lungs with diffuse interstitial and alveolar congestion, hemorrhage, and edema. Neither of the DPH-treated groups developed gross changes and showed minimal to no histopathology. Dilantin given early in established hemorrhagic shock prevents shock lung.

  13. A genetic approach to understanding asthma and lung function development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a common heritable disease of the airways with recurrent episodes of symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction that has increased dramatically in prevalence. The disease is highly heterogeneous with varying age at onset and clinical presentation and most likely represents several...... different subtypes of disease associated with distinct clinical features, divergent underlying molecular mechanisms, and individual treatment responses. Information obtained from genetic studies may be an important way of understanding underlying disease subtypes. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have......, related traits and objective measures in order to disentangle the underlying pathophysiological disease mechanisms for the subtypes of disease. Several genes and loci have been found to be associated with adult lung function in GWAS, but it is currently unknown at what time in life these genes exert...

  14. Respiratory symptoms and lung function among Danish woodworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Schaumburg, Inger; Taudorf, Ebbe; Mikkelsen, Anders B; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2002-01-01

    A cross-sectional study including 54 furniture factories and three control factories was conducted to survey lung function and prevalence of respiratory symptoms among woodworkers. Spirometry was performed on 2423 persons. Questionnaires regarding respiratory symptoms and wood dust exposure were completed by 2033 woodworkers and 474 controls. Personal passive dust measurements were performed on 1579 persons. The arithmetic mean +/- SD for equivalent inhalable dust was relatively low (1.19 +/- 0.86 mg/m3). Woodworkers had increased frequency of coughing with negative interaction between dust exposure and smoking. A dose-response relationship was seen between dust exposure and asthma symptoms, and a positive interaction for asthma was seen between female gender and dust exposure. Increased frequency of wheezing and a cross-shift decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second among workers using pinewood was seen. In conclusion, wood dust exposure might cause respiratory symptoms, despite a relatively low exposure level.

  15. Viral bronchiolitis in young rats causes small airway lesions that correlate with reduced lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkness, Ronald L; Szakaly, Renee J; Rosenthal, Louis A; Sullivan, Ruth; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F; Sun, Xin

    2013-11-01

    Viral illness with wheezing during infancy is associated with the inception of childhood asthma. Small airway dysfunction is a component of childhood asthma, but little is known about how viral illness at an early age may affect the structure and function of small airways. We used a well-characterized rat model of postbronchiolitis chronic airway dysfunction to address how postinfectious small airway lesions affect airway physiological function and if the structure/function correlates persist into maturity. Brown Norway rats were sham- or virus inoculated at 3 to 4 weeks of age and allowed to recover from the acute illness. At 3 to 14 months of age, physiology (respiratory system resistance, Newtonian resistance, tissue damping, and static lung volumes) was assessed in anesthetized, intubated rats. Serial lung sections revealed lesions in the terminal bronchioles that reduced luminal area and interrupted further branching, affecting 26% (range, 13-39%) of the small airways at 3 months of age and 22% (range, 6-40%) at 12 to 14 months of age. At 3 months of age (n = 29 virus; n = 7 sham), small airway lesions correlated with tissue damping (rs = 0.69) but not with Newtonian resistance (rs = 0.23), and Newtonian resistance was not elevated compared with control rats, indicating that distal airways were primarily responsible for the airflow obstruction. Older rats (n = 7 virus; n = 6 sham) had persistent small airway dysfunction and significantly increased Newtonian resistance in the postbronchiolitis group. We conclude that viral airway injury at an early age may induce small airway lesions that are associated quantitatively with small airway physiological dysfunction early on and that these defects persist into maturity.

  16. A study to assess the feasibility of introducing early palliative care in ambulatory patients with advanced lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayita Kedar Deodhar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Early palliative care is beneficial in advanced lung cancer patients. We aimed to assess the feasibility of introducing early palliative care in ambulatory advanced lung cancer patients in an Indian tertiary cancer center. Methodology: In a longitudinal, single–arm, and single-center study, fifty patients were recruited and followed up every 3–4 weeks for 6 months, measuring the symptom burden using Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS and quality of life (QoL with European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-QoL tools. The primary end point of feasibility was that at least 60% of the patients should complete 50% of the planned palliative care visits and over 50% of the patients should complete QoL questionnaires. Analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20. Results: Twenty-four of fifty patients (48% completed the planned follow-up visits. All patients completed the questionnaires at baseline and 31 (62% at their follow-up visits. The patients' main reasons for not following up in the hospital palliative care clinic were logistics and fatigue. Tiredness, pain, and appetite loss were the highest rated symptoms at baseline (ESAS scores 3, 2.2, and 2.1, respectively. Improvement in pain and anxiety scores at follow-up visits 1 and 2 was significant (P < 0.05. Scores on QoL functioning scales improved during the follow-up period. Conclusions: We did not meet the feasibility criteria for the introduction of early palliative care in our advanced lung cancer patients in a resource-limited country.

  17. CHANGES IN LUNG FUNCTION IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH EXOGENOUS ALLERGIC ALVEOLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Nefedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Total lung capacity (TLC, lung capacity (LC, forced LC (FLC, intrathoracic volume (ITV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 , (FEV1 /LC%, peak expiratory flow (PEF, maximum expiratory flow rate (MEFR25, MEFR50, MEFR75, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SB/VА, РаО2 , and РаСО2 were determined in 43 patients with exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA before, during, and after treatment with glucocorticosteroids, hemapheresis, ambroxol, and fluimucil. Lung function became better in more than half (53.5% of the patients and worse in one fourth (25.6%; a combination of positive and negative functional changes was detected in 14.0%. Improved lung function was noted in 75.0, 50.0, and 38.5% of the patients with acute, subacute, and chronic EAA, respectively. Deterioration of lung function was determined in 46.2, 22.2, and 8.3% of the patients with chronic, subacute, and acute alveolitis, respectively. Better lung function manifested itself mainly as positive changes in lung volumes and capacities and pulmonary gas exchange function, less frequently as improved bronchial patency in the patients with acute and subacute EAA whereas the rate of positive functional changes in lung volumes and capacities, bronchial patency, and pulmonary gas exchange function was equal in those with chronic EAA. Poorer lung function appeared as negative changes in lung volumes and capacities in the patients with acute EAA, as worse pulmonary gas exchange function and negative changes in lung volumes and capacities and deteriorated bronchial patency in those with subacute and chronic EAA.

  18. Proteasome function is not impaired in healthy aging of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniard, Anne; Ballweg, Korbinian; Lukas, Christina; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2015-10-01

    Aging is the progressive loss of cellular function which inevitably leads to death. Failure of proteostasis including the decrease in proteasome function is one hallmark of aging. In the lung, proteasome activity was shown to be impaired in age-related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known on proteasome function during healthy aging. Here, we comprehensively analyzed healthy lung aging and proteasome function in wildtype, proteasome reporter and immunoproteasome knockout mice. Wildtype mice spontaneously developed senile lung emphysema while expression and activity of proteasome complexes and turnover of ubiquitinated substrates was not grossly altered in lungs of aged mice. Immunoproteasome subunits were specifically upregulated in the aged lung and the caspase-like proteasome activity concomitantly decreased. Aged knockout mice for the LMP2 or LMP7 immunoproteasome subunits showed no alteration in proteasome activities but exhibited typical lung aging phenotypes suggesting that immunoproteasome function is dispensable for physiological lung aging in mice. Our results indicate that healthy aging of the lung does not involve impairment of proteasome function. Apparently, the reserve capacity of the proteostasis systems in the lung is sufficient to avoid severe proteostasis imbalance during healthy aging.

  19. Assessment of lung function in a large cohort of patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmann, Sylvère; Gutt, Bodo; Roemmler-Zehrer, Josefine; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Huber, Rudolf M; Schopohl, Jochen; Angstwurm, Matthias W

    2017-07-01

    Acromegaly is associated with increased mortality due to respiratory disease. To date, lung function in patients with acromegaly has only been assessed in small studies, with contradicting results. We assessed lung function parameters in a large cohort of patients with acromegaly. Lung function of acromegaly patients was prospectively assessed using spirometry, blood gas analysis and body plethysmography. Biochemical indicators of acromegaly were assessed through measurement of growth hormone and IGF-I levels. This study was performed at the endocrinology outpatient clinic of a tertiary referral center in Germany. We prospectively tested lung function of 109 acromegaly patients (53 male, 56 female; aged 24-82 years; 80 with active acromegaly) without severe acute or chronic pulmonary disease. We compared lung volume, air flow, airway resistance and blood gases to normative data. Acromegaly patients had greater lung volumes (maximal vital capacity, intra-thoracic gas volume and residual volume: P acromegaly. Female patients had significantly altered lung function in terms of subclinical airway obstruction. In our cross-sectional analysis of lung function in 109 patients with acromegaly, lung volumes were increased compared to healthy controls. Additionally, female patients showed signs of subclinical airway obstruction. There was no difference between patients with active acromegaly compared with patients biochemically in remission. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  20. Patterns of recurrence and second primary lung cancer in early-stage lung cancer survivors followed with routine computed tomography surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Feiran; Huang, James; Sima, Camelia S; Dycoco, Joseph; Rusch, Valerie; Bach, Peter B

    2013-01-01

    At present, there is no consensus on the optimal strategy for follow-up care after curative resection for lung cancer. We sought to understand the patterns of recurrence and second primary lung cancer, and their mode of detection, after resection for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer in patients who were followed by routine surveillance computed tomography scan. We reviewed the outcomes of consecutive patients who underwent resection for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 2004 and 2009. A total of 1294 consecutive patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer underwent resection. The median length of follow-up was 35 months. Recurrence was diagnosed in 257 patients (20%), and second primary lung cancer was diagnosed in 91 patients (7%). The majority of new primary cancers (85 [93%]) were identified by scheduled routine computed tomography scan, as were a smaller majority of recurrences (157 [61%]). During the first 4 years after surgery, the risk of recurrence ranged from 6% to 10% per person-year but decreased thereafter to 2%. Conversely, the risk of second primary lung cancer ranged from 3% to 6% per person-year and did not diminish over time. Additional testing after false-positive surveillance computed tomography scan results was performed for 329 patients (25%), but only 4 of these patients (0.3%) experienced complications as a result of subsequent invasive diagnostic procedures. Almost all second primary cancers and the majority of recurrences were detected by post-therapeutic surveillance computed tomography scan. The risk of recurrence for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer survivors persisted during the first 4 years after resection, and vigilance in surveillance should be maintained. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. In Vivo Tagging of Lung Epithelial Cells To Define the Early Steps of Tumor Cell Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    determine the tumor cell of origin [KrasG12D L/-/ /Sftpc- creER or KrasG12D L/-/ / p53 L/L /Sftpc-creER], or the contribution of alveolar type II cells in...cancer have advanced disease at the time of presentation, a finding that may be consistent with early spread. Even when lung cancer is diagnosed and...identify early stage patients at high risk of recurrence or metastatic disease as well as to develop more effective therapies for NSCLC. 7 The studies

  2. Superoxide Dismutase 3 Polymorphism Associated with Reduced Lung Function in Two Large Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Bowler, Russell P; Juul, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Superoxide dismutase (SOD) 3 inhibits oxidative fragmentation of lung matrix components Collagen 1, hyaluronan, and heparan sulfate. Inherited change in SOD3 expression or function could affect lung matrix homeostasis and influence pulmonary function. Objectives: To identify novel SOD3...

  3. Gas cooking is associated with small reductions in lung function in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshammer, H.; Fletcher, T.; Heinrich, J.; Hoek, G.; Hruba, F.; Pattenden, S.; Rudnai, P.; Slachtova, H.; Speizer, F.E.; Zlotkowska, R.; Neuberger, M.

    2010-01-01

    Inconsistent effects of gas cooking on lung function have been reported. In a previous study from Austria, we demonstrated a significant, though small, reduction of lung function parameters in children living in homes with gas stoves. We used a larger international database to check if this finding

  4. CT-quantified emphysema in male heavy smokers: association with lung function decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed Hoesein, F.A.; Hoop, B. de; Zanen, P.; Gietema, H.; Kruitwagen, C.L.J.J.; Ginneken, B. van; Isgum, I.; Mol, C.; Klaveren, R.J. van; Dijkstra, A.E.; Groen, H.J.; Boezen, H.M.; Postma, D.S.; Prokop, M.; Lammers, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emphysema and small airway disease both contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease characterised by accelerated decline in lung function. The association between the extent of emphysema in male current and former smokers and lung function decline was

  5. CT-quantified emphysema in male heavy smokers : association with lung function decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A; de Hoop, Bartjan; Zanen, Pieter; Gietema, Hester; Kruitwagen, Cas L J J; van Ginneken, Bram; Isgum, Ivana; Mol, Christian; van Klaveren, Rob J; Dijkstra, Akkelies E; Groen, Hendricus; Boezen, Hendrika; Postma, Dirkje S; Prokop, Mathias; Lammers, Jan-Willem J

    BACKGROUND: Emphysema and small airway disease both contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease characterised by accelerated decline in lung function. The association between the extent of emphysema in male current and former smokers and lung function decline was

  6. Computer-controlled mechanical lung model for application in pulmonary function studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.M. Verbraak (Anton); J.E.W. Beneken; J.M. Bogaard (Jan); A. Versprille (Adrian)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA computer controlled mechanical lung model has been developed for testing lung function equipment, validation of computer programs and simulation of impaired pulmonary mechanics. The construction, function and some applications are described. The physical model is constructed from two

  7. Gas cooking is associated with small reductions in lung function in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshammer, H.; Fletcher, T.; Heinrich, J.; Hoek, G.; Hruba, F.; Pattenden, S.; Rudnai, P.; Slachtova, H.; Speizer, F.E.; Zlotkowska, R.; Neuberger, M.

    2010-01-01

    Inconsistent effects of gas cooking on lung function have been reported. In a previous study from Austria, we demonstrated a significant, though small, reduction of lung function parameters in children living in homes with gas stoves. We used a larger international database to check if this finding

  8. Reduction of Pulmonary Function After Surgical Lung Resections of Different Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years an increasing number of lung resections are being done because of the rising prevalence of lung cancer that occurs mainly in patients with limited lung function, what is caused with common etiologic factor - smoking cigarettes. Objective: To determine how big the loss of lung function is after surgical resection of lung of different range. Methods: The study was done on 58 patients operated at the Clinic for thoracic surgery KCU Sarajevo, previously treated at the Clinic for pulmonary diseases “Podhrastovi” in the period from 01.06.2012. to 01.06.2014. The following resections were done: pulmectomy (left, right), lobectomy (upper, lower: left and right). The values of postoperative pulmonary function were compared with preoperative ones. As a parameter of lung function we used FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second), and changes in FEV1 are expressed in liters and in percentage of the recorded preoperative and normal values of FEV1. Measurements of lung function were performed seven days before and 2 months after surgery. Results: Postoperative FEV1 was decreased compared to preoperative values. After pulmectomy the maximum reduction of FEV1 was 44%, and after lobectomy it was 22% of the preoperative values. Conclusion: Patients with airway obstruction are limited in their daily life before the surgery, and an additional loss of lung tissue after resection contributes to their inability. Potential benefits of lung resection surgery should be balanced in relation to postoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:25568542

  9. Detected troponin elevation is associated with high early mortality after lung resection for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tornout Fillip

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial infarction can be difficult to diagnose after lung surgery. As recent diagnostic criteria emphasize serum cardiac markers (in particular serum troponin we set out to evaluate its clinical utility and to establish the long term prognostic impact of detected abnormal postoperative troponin levels after lung resection. Methods We studied a historic cohort of patients with primary lung cancer who underwent intended surgical resection. Patients were grouped according to known postoperative troponin status and survival calculated by Kaplan Meier method and compared using log rank. Parametric survival analysis was used to ascertain independent predictors of mortality. Results From 2001 to 2004, a total of 207 patients underwent lung resection for primary lung cancer of which 14 (7% were identified with elevated serum troponin levels within 30 days of surgery, with 9 (64% having classical features of myocardial infarction. The median time to follow up (interquartile range was 22 (1 to 52 months, and the one and five year survival probabilities (95% CI for patients without and with postoperative troponin elevation were 92% (85 to 96 versus 60% (31 to 80 and 61% (51 to 71 versus 18% (3 to 43 respectively (p T stage and postoperative troponin elevation remained independent predictors of mortality in the final multivariable model. The acceleration factor for death of elevated serum troponin after adjusting for tumour stage was 9.19 (95% CI 3.75 to 22.54. Conclusion Patients with detected serum troponin elevation are at high risk of early mortality with or without symptoms of myocardial infarction after lung resection.

  10. Expression Changes of Early Response Genes in Lung Due to High Volume Ventilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuelan; YAO Shanglong; XIONG Ping

    2005-01-01

    Summary: The expression changes of early response genes due to ventilation with high volume in adult rats in vivo were observed. Forty SD male rats were randomly divided into control and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min ventilation groups, respectively (n=8 in each group). The animals were ventilated with tidal volume of 42 ml/kg and a PEEP level of 0 cmH2O at a rate of 40 breaths per minute in room air with a ventilator was given to the small animals. The expression of Egr-1, C-jun and IL-1β mRNA and proteins was detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical technique, respectively. The pathological changes in lung tissues were examined by HE staining. The results indicated that the expression of Egr-1, C-jun and IL-1β mRNA was detectable at 30th min after overventilation, but there was no significant difference in comparison with that in control group until overventilation for 60 min. However, at 90 and 120 min there was a significent increase as compared with 30 min or control group (P<0.05). The expression of Egr-1, C-jun and IL-1β deteced by immunohistochemical assay also showed a similar tendency of the gradual increase. In the 120 min ventilation group, the expression intensity of Egr-1, C-jun and IL-1β proteins in lung cells was the strongest and the nuclear translocation was increased markedly in comparison with any other groups (P<0.05). HE staining suggested that the degree of lung injury was aggravated gradually with the ventialtion going on and had a similar tendency to the expression of these early response genes and proteins. The current data suggested that overventilation activated and upregulated the expression of early response genes and the expression of these genes may be taken as the early signal to predict the onset and degree of lung injury. These results may demonstrated partially that the expression of early response genes induced by the mechanical stretch is associated with biochamic lung injury.

  11. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and offspring allergic sensitization and lung function at 20 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S; Strøm, M; Olsen, S F; Dahl, R; Hoffmann, H J; Granström, C; Rytter, D; Bech, B H; Linneberg, A; Maslova, E; Kiviranta, H; Rantakokko, P; Halldorsson, T I

    2016-02-01

    Prenatal exposures to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with asthma medication use and self-reported symptoms, but associations with lung function and allergic sensitization have been minimally explored. The aim of the study was to examine the associations between prenatal exposures to POPs and allergic sensitization and lung function in 20-year-old offspring. In a Danish cohort of 965 pregnant women established in 1988-1989, six polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) were quantified in archived maternal serum drawn in gestational week 30 (n = 872). Among those with available maternal exposure information, at age 20, 421 offspring attended attended a clinical examination including measurements of allergic sensitization (serum-specific IgE ≥ 0.35 kUA /L) (n = 418) and lung function [forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] (n = 414). There were no associations between maternal concentrations of POPs and offspring allergic sensitization at 20 years of age. Maternal concentrations of POPs were, however, positively associated with offspring airway obstruction (FEV1 /FVC function (FEV1 % of predicted value sensitization at 20 years of age. The findings support that chronic obstructive lung diseases may have at least part of their origins in early life. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. IL-10 Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Post-Bronchiolitis Lung Function Abnormalities at Six Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauhkonen, Eero; Koponen, Petri; Teräsjärvi, Johanna; Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksela, Kirsi; Vuononvirta, Juho; Nuolivirta, Kirsi; Toikka, Jyri O; Helminen, Merja; He, Qiushui; Korppi, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been associated with wheezing and asthma in children and the genetic variation of the IL-10 cytokine production may be linked to post-bronchiolitis lung function. We used impulse oscillometry (IOS) to evaluate the associations of IL10 polymorphisms with lung function at a median age of 6.3 years in children hospitalised for bronchiolitis before six months of age. We performed baseline and post-exercise IOS on 103 former bronchiolitis patients. Data on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of IL10 rs1800896 (-1082G/A), rs1800871 (-819C/T), rs1800872 (-592C/A) were available for 99 children and of IL10 rs1800890 (-3575T/A) for 98 children. IL10 rs1800896, rs1800871 and rs1800872 combined genotype AA+CT+CA and carriage of haplotype ATA, respectively, were associated with higher resistance and lower reactance in baseline IOS in adjusted analyses. At IL10 rs1800890, the A/A-genotype and carriers of A-allele were associated with lower reactance in baseline IOS. There were no significant associations between the studied SNPs and airway hyper-reactivity to exercise. Low-IL-10-producing polymorphisms in the IL-10 encoding gene were associated with obstructive lung function parameters, suggesting an important role for IL-10 in development of lung function deficit in early bronchiolitis patients.

  13. Rapid decline in lung function is temporally associated with greater metabolically active adiposity in a longitudinal study of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moualla, Maan; Qualls, Clifford; Arynchyn, Alexander; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Kalhan, Ravi; Smith, Lewis J; Carr, John J; Jacobs, David R; Sood, Akshay

    2017-07-20

    Adiposity is associated with low lung function, but the longitudinal relationship between lung function and adiposity is inadequately studied. To examine the bidirectional longitudinal associations between rapid decline in lung function and adiposity phenotypes in healthy adults. This secondary analysis used a 25-year longitudinal dataset from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study that enrolled 5115 participants. In the first analysis, metabolic syndrome at or before CARDIA year (Y) 10 (Y10) was the predictor, and subsequent rapid decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) or forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) between Y10 and Y20 was the outcome. In the second analysis, rapid decline was the predictor, and incident metabolic syndrome at Y20 and/or Y25 was the outcome. In the third analysis, rapid decline was the predictor, and subsequent CT-assessed regional fat depots at Y25 were the outcome. Metabolic syndrome at or before Y10 is temporally associated with rapid decline in FVC between Y10 and Y20 (adjusted p=0.04), but this association was explained by body mass index (BMI) at Y10. Rapid decline in FVC or FEV1 is temporally associated with greater incident metabolic syndrome at Y20 and/or Y25 (adjusted OR 2.10 (1.69, 2.61); prapid decline in lung function are at risk for developing metabolic syndrome and for disproportionate accumulation of intrathoracic visceral fat. Metabolic abnormalities may be an early extrapulmonary manifestation of lung impairment that may be preventable by improving lung health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. [Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE)--limitation of usual lung function test and challenge at practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Daiya

    2014-12-01

    Spirometry and the flow-volume curve test are commonly performed lung function tests. However, a unique clinical entity occasionally shows almost normal data in these tests, and is therefore missed on screening tests. The clinical entity of combined pulmonary emphysema and pulmdoary fibrosis was recognized and documented in the 90's in Japan, the USA, and Europe. Typical emphysema shows obstructive disorders, and pulmonary fibrosis shows restrictive disorders. Thus, the combination of both should lead to a combined disorder pattern in lung function tests, but this is not the case. In 2005, Cottin reported and redefined this combination of emphysema and fibrosis of the lung as "Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema" (CPFE). The patients are typically heavily smoking males who show an almost normal lung function. The upper lobe of these patients usually shows severe emphysema, which contributes to a static volume and a late phase in the forced volume test. On the other hand their lower lobe shows fibrotic change. The fibrotic portion contributes to early phase flow in the flow-volume curve. These mechanisms are a reason for the normal pattern appearance in lung function tests in CPFE patients. As a matter of course, these patients have damaged upper and lower lobes: their diffusing capacity of the lung shows a low performance, their saturation of blood hemoglobin decreases soon after light exercise, and their KL-6 (a blood marker of pulmonary fibrosis) usually shows a high value. They are considered a high risk group regarding complications of post-surgical treatment. Thus, when medical technologists identify suspicious cases, they should advise doctors to add diffusing capacity and KL-6 tests. (Review).

  15. Effect of body mass index on the survival of patients with early-stage small cell lung cancer after surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Kolesnik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is an important medico-social problem. It is connected with high level of incidence and mortality of lung cancer. Nowadays we know that obesity has significant influence on cancer development, including lung cancer. Multivariate analysis confirmed that histological type of tumour, kind of operation and body mass index (BMI influence on prognosis in patients with early stages of mall cell lung cancer. So, now we can use BMI along with other significant prognostic criteria for detection of unfavorable prognostic group of patients.

  16. LINKING LUNG AIRWAY STRUCTURE TO PULMONARY FUNCTION VIA COMPOSITE BRIDGE REGRESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Hoffman, Eric A.; Seetharaman, Indu; Jiao, Feiran; Lin, Ching-Long; Chan, Kung-Sik

    2017-01-01

    The human lung airway is a complex inverted tree-like structure. Detailed airway measurements can be extracted from MDCT-scanned lung images, such as segmental wall thickness, airway diameter, parent-child branch angles, etc. The wealth of lung airway data provides a unique opportunity for advancing our understanding of the fundamental structure-function relationships within the lung. An important problem is to construct and identify important lung airway features in normal subjects and connect these to standardized pulmonary function test results such as FEV1%. Among other things, the problem is complicated by the fact that a particular airway feature may be an important (relevant) predictor only when it pertains to segments of certain generations. Thus, the key is an efficient, consistent method for simultaneously conducting group selection (lung airway feature types) and within-group variable selection (airway generations), i.e., bi-level selection. Here we streamline a comprehensive procedure to process the lung airway data via imputation, normalization, transformation and groupwise principal component analysis, and then adopt a new composite penalized regression approach for conducting bi-level feature selection. As a prototype of composite penalization, the proposed composite bridge regression method is shown to admit an efficient algorithm, enjoy bi-level oracle properties, and outperform several existing methods. We analyze the MDCT lung image data from a cohort of 132 subjects with normal lung function. Our results show that, lung function in terms of FEV1% is promoted by having a less dense and more homogeneous lung comprising an airway whose segments enjoy more heterogeneity in wall thicknesses, larger mean diameters, lumen areas and branch angles. These data hold the potential of defining more accurately the “normal” subject population with borderline atypical lung functions that are clearly influenced by many genetic and environmental factors.

  17. Application of a high throughput method of biomarker discovery to improvement of the EarlyCDT(®-Lung Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel K Macdonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The National Lung Screening Trial showed that CT screening for lung cancer led to a 20% reduction in mortality. However, CT screening has a number of disadvantages including low specificity. A validated autoantibody assay is available commercially (EarlyCDT®-Lung to aid in the early detection of lung cancer and risk stratification in patients with pulmonary nodules detected by CT. Recent advances in high throughput (HTP cloning and expression methods have been developed into a discovery pipeline to identify biomarkers that detect autoantibodies. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the successful clinical application of this strategy to add to the EarlyCDT-Lung panel in order to improve its sensitivity and specificity (and hence positive predictive value, (PPV. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Serum from two matched independent cohorts of lung cancer patients were used (n = 100 and n = 165. Sixty nine proteins were initially screened on an abridged HTP version of the autoantibody ELISA using protein prepared on small scale by a HTP expression and purification screen. Promising leads were produced in shake flask culture and tested on the full assay. These results were analyzed in combination with those from the EarlyCDT-Lung panel in order to provide a set of re-optimized cut-offs. Five proteins that still displayed cancer/normal differentiation were tested for reproducibility and validation on a second batch of protein and a separate patient cohort. Addition of these proteins resulted in an improvement in the sensitivity and specificity of the test from 38% and 86% to 49% and 93% respectively (PPV improvement from 1 in 16 to 1 in 7. CONCLUSION: This is a practical example of the value of investing resources to develop a HTP technology. Such technology may lead to improvement in the clinical utility of the EarlyCDT--Lung test, and so further aid the early detection of lung cancer.

  18. Application of a high throughput method of biomarker discovery to improvement of the EarlyCDT(®)-Lung Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Isabel K; Murray, Andrea; Healey, Graham F; Parsy-Kowalska, Celine B; Allen, Jared; McElveen, Jane; Robertson, Chris; Sewell, Herbert F; Chapman, Caroline J; Robertson, John F R

    2012-01-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial showed that CT screening for lung cancer led to a 20% reduction in mortality. However, CT screening has a number of disadvantages including low specificity. A validated autoantibody assay is available commercially (EarlyCDT®-Lung) to aid in the early detection of lung cancer and risk stratification in patients with pulmonary nodules detected by CT. Recent advances in high throughput (HTP) cloning and expression methods have been developed into a discovery pipeline to identify biomarkers that detect autoantibodies. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the successful clinical application of this strategy to add to the EarlyCDT-Lung panel in order to improve its sensitivity and specificity (and hence positive predictive value, (PPV)). Serum from two matched independent cohorts of lung cancer patients were used (n = 100 and n = 165). Sixty nine proteins were initially screened on an abridged HTP version of the autoantibody ELISA using protein prepared on small scale by a HTP expression and purification screen. Promising leads were produced in shake flask culture and tested on the full assay. These results were analyzed in combination with those from the EarlyCDT-Lung panel in order to provide a set of re-optimized cut-offs. Five proteins that still displayed cancer/normal differentiation were tested for reproducibility and validation on a second batch of protein and a separate patient cohort. Addition of these proteins resulted in an improvement in the sensitivity and specificity of the test from 38% and 86% to 49% and 93% respectively (PPV improvement from 1 in 16 to 1 in 7). This is a practical example of the value of investing resources to develop a HTP technology. Such technology may lead to improvement in the clinical utility of the EarlyCDT--Lung test, and so further aid the early detection of lung cancer.

  19. The association of systemic microvascular changes with lung function and lung density: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Harris

    Full Text Available Smoking causes endothelial dysfunction and systemic microvascular disease with resultant end-organ damage in the kidneys, eyes and heart. Little is known about microvascular changes in smoking-related lung disease. We tested if microvascular changes in the retina, kidneys and heart were associated with obstructive spirometry and low lung density on computed tomography. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis recruited participants age 45-84 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. Measures of microvascular function included retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and, in a subset, myocardial blood flow on magnetic resonance imaging. Spirometry was measured following ATS/ERS guidelines. Low attenuation areas (LAA were measured on lung fields of cardiac computed tomograms. Regression models adjusted for pulmonary and cardiac risk factors, medications and body size. Among 3,397 participants, retinal venular caliber was inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1 (P<0.001 and FEV(1/forced vital capacity (FVC ratio (P = 0.04. Albumin-to-creatinine ratio was inversely associated with FEV(1 (P = 0.002 but not FEV(1/FVC. Myocardial blood flow (n = 126 was associated with lower FEV(1 (P = 0.02, lower FEV(1/FVC (P = 0.001 and greater percentage LAA (P = 0.04. Associations were of greater magnitude among smokers. Low lung function was associated with microvascular changes in the retina, kidneys and heart, and low lung density was associated with impaired myocardial microvascular perfusion. These cross-sectional results suggest that microvascular damage with end-organ dysfunction in all circulations may pertain to the lung, that lung dysfunction may contribute to systemic microvascular disease, or that there may be a shared predisposition.

  20. Unlocking biomarker discovery: large scale application of aptamer proteomic technology for early detection of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Ostroff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. New diagnostics are needed to detect early stage lung cancer because it may be cured with surgery. However, most cases are diagnosed too late for curative surgery. Here we present a comprehensive clinical biomarker study of lung cancer and the first large-scale clinical application of a new aptamer-based proteomic technology to discover blood protein biomarkers in disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a multi-center case-control study in archived serum samples from 1,326 subjects from four independent studies of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC in long-term tobacco-exposed populations. Sera were collected and processed under uniform protocols. Case sera were collected from 291 patients within 8 weeks of the first biopsy-proven lung cancer and prior to tumor removal by surgery. Control sera were collected from 1,035 asymptomatic study participants with ≥ 10 pack-years of cigarette smoking. We measured 813 proteins in each sample with a new aptamer-based proteomic technology, identified 44 candidate biomarkers, and developed a 12-protein panel (cadherin-1, CD30 ligand, endostatin, HSP90α, LRIG3, MIP-4, pleiotrophin, PRKCI, RGM-C, SCF-sR, sL-selectin, and YES that discriminates NSCLC from controls with 91% sensitivity and 84% specificity in cross-validated training and 89% sensitivity and 83% specificity in a separate verification set, with similar performance for early and late stage NSCLC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is a significant advance in clinical proteomics in an area of high unmet clinical need. Our analysis exceeds the breadth and dynamic range of proteome interrogated of previously published clinical studies of broad serum proteome profiling platforms including mass spectrometry, antibody arrays, and autoantibody arrays. The sensitivity and specificity of our 12-biomarker panel improves upon published protein and gene expression panels

  1. Structural and functional lung disease in primary ciliary dyskinesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Santamaria (Francesca); S. Montella (Silvia); H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm); G. Guidi (Guido); V. Casotti (Valeria); M. Maglione (Marco); P.A. de Jong (Pim)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High-resolution CT (HRCT) scan data on primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) related lung disease are scarce. Study objectives: We evaluated the lung disease in children and adults with PCD by a modified Brody composite HRCT scan score to assess the prevalence of the structural ab

  2. Lung MRI and impairment of diaphragmatic function in Pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wens, Stephan C A; Ciet, Pierluigi; Perez-Rovira, Adria;

    2015-01-01

    manually segmented. After normalization for lung size, changes in lung dimensions between inspiration and expiration were used for analysis; normalization was based on the cranial-caudal length ratio (representing vertical diaphragmatic displacement), and the anterior-posterior and left-right length ratios...

  3. Rapid decline in 51Cr-EDTA measured renal function during the first weeks following lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Iversen, Martin; Steffensen, Ida

    2009-01-01

    We previously described a 54% decline in renal function at 6 months after lung transplantation (LTx). We hypothesized that this decline is a very early event following LTx. Thirty-one consecutive patients (16 females/15 males), mean age 49 (+/-13) years, with emphysema, cystic fibrosis/bronchiect......We previously described a 54% decline in renal function at 6 months after lung transplantation (LTx). We hypothesized that this decline is a very early event following LTx. Thirty-one consecutive patients (16 females/15 males), mean age 49 (+/-13) years, with emphysema, cystic fibrosis....../bronchiectasis or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were included in an analysis of renal function before and after LTx. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured using the (51)Cr-ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid plasma clearance single injection technique (mGFR) at baseline before transplantation and at 1, 2, 3 and 12...... renal failure within 2 weeks post-LTx (p = 0.0003), use of heart and lung machine (p = 0.04), and the use of ephedrine (p = 0.048), as well as increasing age, older than 18 years at LTx (p = 0.006). These data demonstrate that renal function, measured with an isotope method, decreases dramatically...

  4. Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Tan, Jun; Wang, Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K.; Kim, Soo Hyung; Zheng, Bin

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 ± 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations.

  5. The role of bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of early lung cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Marco; Potenza, Rossella; Capozzi, Rosanna; Liparulo, Valeria; Puma, Francesco; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-11-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide with an overall 5-year survival rate of 17% after diagnoses. Indeed many patients tend to have a very poor prognosis, due to being diagnosed at an advanced stage. Conversely patients who are diagnosed at an early stage have a 5-year survival >70%, indicating that early detection of lung cancer is crucial to improve survival. Although flexible bronchoscopy is a relatively non-invasive procedure for patients suspected of having lung cancer, only 29% of carcinoma in situ (CIS) and 69% of microinvasive tumors were detectable using white light bronchoscopy (WLB) alone. As a result, in the past two decades, new bronchoscopic techniques have been developed to increase the yield and diagnostic accuracy, such as autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB), narrow band imaging (NBI) and high magnification bronchovideoscopy (HMB). However, due to the low specificity and the limitation to detect only proximal bronchial tree, new probe-based technologies have been introduced: radial endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS), optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) and laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS). To date, although tissue biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosing malignant/premalignant airway disease and some techniques are still investigational, bronchoscopic technologies can be considered the safest and most accurate tools to evaluate both central and distal airway mucosa.

  6. Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Kim, Soo Hyung [School of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Tan, Jun; Wang Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K; Zheng Bin, E-mail: zhengb@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-02-21

    This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 {+-} 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations.

  7. Breastfeeding and lung function at school age: does maternal asthma modify the effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Cristian M; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Spycher, Ben D; Frey, Urs; Beardsmore, Caroline S; Silverman, Michael; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2012-04-15

    The evidence for an effect of breastfeeding on lung function is conflicting, in particular whether the effect is modified by maternal asthma. To explore the association between breastfeeding and school-age lung function. In the Leicestershire Cohort Studies we assessed duration of breastfeeding (not breastfed, ≤3 months, 4-6 months, and >6 months), other exposures, and respiratory symptoms by repeated questionnaires. Post-bronchodilator FVC, FEV(1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced midexpiratory flow (FEF(50)), and skin prick tests were measured at age 12 years. We performed multivariable linear regression and tested potential causal pathways (N = 1,458). In the entire sample, FEF(50) was higher by 130 and 164 ml in children breastfed for 4 to 6 months and longer than 6 months, respectively, compared with those not breastfed (P = 0.048 and 0.041), with larger effects if the mother had asthma. FVC and FEV(1) were associated with breastfeeding only in children of mothers with asthma (P for interaction, 0.018 and 0.008): FVC was increased by 123 and 164 ml for those breastfed 4 to 6 months or longer than 6 months, respectively (P = 0.177 and 0.040) and FEV(1) was increased by 148 and 167 ml, respectively (P = 0.050 and 0.016). Results were unchanged after adjustment for respiratory infections in infancy and asthma and atopy in the child. In this cohort, breastfeeding for more than 4 months was associated with increased FEF(50) and, in children of mothers with asthma, with increased FEV(1) and FVC. It seems that the effect is not mediated via avoidance of early infections or atopy but rather through a direct effect on lung growth.

  8. The cholesterol-binding protein NPC2 restrains recruitment of stromal macrophage-lineage cells to early-stage lung tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Tamihiro; Jin, Hong; Giblett, Susan; Patel, Bipin; Patel, Falguni; Foster, Charles; Pritchard, Catrin

    2015-07-16

    The tumour microenvironment is known to play an integral role in facilitating cancer progression at advanced stages, but its function in some pre-cancerous lesions remains elusive. We have used the (V600) (E)BRAF-driven mouse lung model that develop premalignant lesions to understand stroma-tumour interactions during pre-cancerous development. In this model, we have found that immature macrophage-lineage cells (IMCs) producing PDGFA, TGFβ and CC chemokines are recruited to the stroma of premalignant lung adenomas through CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1)-dependent mechanisms. Stromal IMCs promote proliferation and transcriptional alterations suggestive of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in isolated premalignant lung tumour cells ex vivo, and are required for the maintenance of early-stage lung tumours in vivo. Furthermore, we have found that IMC recruitment to the microenvironment is restrained by the cholesterol-binding protein, Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2). Studies on isolated cells ex vivo confirm that NPC2 is secreted from tumour cells and is taken up by IMCs wherein it suppresses secretion of the CCR1 ligand CC chemokine 6 (CCL6), at least in part by facilitating its lysosomal degradation. Together, these findings show that NPC2 secreted by premalignant lung tumours suppresses IMC recruitment to the microenvironment in a paracrine manner, thus identifying a novel target for the development of chemopreventive strategies in lung cancer.

  9. Clinical characteristics of Japanese candidates for lung transplant for interstitial lung disease and risk factors for early death while on the waiting list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Hisao; Kurosaki, Takeshi; Ichihara, Eiki; Kubo, Toshio; Miyoshi, Kentaroh; Otani, Shinji; Sugimoto, Seiichiro; Yamane, Masaomi; Miyahara, Nobuaki; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Oto, Takahiro

    2017-07-01

    Lung transplants have produced very favorable outcomes for patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) in Japan. However, because of the severe donor lung shortage, patients must wait approximately 2.5 years before they can undergo transplantation and many candidates die before allocation. We reveal the clinical characteristics of Japanese patients with ILD who are candidates for lung transplants and the risk factors for early death while on the waiting list. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of patients registered in the Japan Organ Transplant Network from Okayama University Hospital who are candidates for cadaveric lung transplants for ILD between 1999 and 2015. Fifty-three patients with ILD were included (24 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 29 others). They had severe pulmonary dysfunction and low exercise tolerability. The median waiting time for transplantation was 462 days, and 22 patients died before allocation. Patients who died before 462 days without undergoing transplantation had more severe dyspnea, shorter 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), and lower performance status than those who waited ≥462 days. Japanese candidates for cadaveric lung transplants for ILD have severe pulmonary dysfunction. Severe dyspnea, short 6MWD, and low performance status are risk factors for early death while on the waiting list. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE CELL ANALYSIS AND LUNG-FUNCTION IMPAIRMENT IN PATIENTS WITH SYSTEMIC LUPUS-ERYTHEMATOSUS (SLE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GROEN, H; ASLANDER, M; BOOTSMA, H; VANDERMARK, TW; KALLENBERG, CGM; POSTMA, DS

    1993-01-01

    We examined the relationship between peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) lymphocyte phenotypes and lung function in 19 patients with SLE, and evaluated their association with disease activity. Lung function assessment showed a mildly restrictive pattern with frequent impairment of

  11. Application of ThinPrep Bronchial Brushing Cytology in the Early Diagnosis of Lung Cancer: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoying; Wen, Zhongmei; Li, Yang; Peng, Liping

    2014-01-01

    The majority of lung cancer patients are diagnosed at advanced stages of disease. This study evaluated the diagnostic value of ThinPrep (TP) bronchial brushing cytology in lung cancer. A total of 595 patients with suspicious lung cancer were enrolled in this study. The bronchial brushing samples were prepared by TP. The data were then compared to histology of lung tissue samples. Histologically, 479 of these 595 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer, including 223 cases of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 77 cases of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC), and 152 cases of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). The TP cytology revealed a total of 460 cases of lung cancer (including 232 SCCs, 91 ADCs, and 108 SCLCs). The TP cytological technique had 87.06% sensitivity and 62.93% specificity in the diagnosis of lung cancer. Specifically, TP cytology confirmed 195 of 223 SCCs, 47 of 77 ADCs, and 94 of 152 SCLCs. The TP cytology showed 87.44% sensitivity and 90.05% specificity for the diagnosis of SCC, with a Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.820; while the sensitivity was reduced to 61.04% and the specificity was 90.93% for the diagnosis of ADC, with a MCC of 0.464. For the diagnosis of SCLC, the sensitivity was 61.84% and the specificity was 96.84%, with a MCC of 0.648. Thus, this study demonstrated the usefulness of TP bronchial brushing cytology in the early diagnosis of lung cancer, especially the early stage of lung SCC. A prospective clinical trial will verify these data before being translated into the clinic. PMID:24759600

  12. Lung Function Measurement with Multiple-Breath-Helium Washout System

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jau-Yi; Owers-Bradley, John; Mellor, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multi-breath-nitrogen (MBNW) washout tests. In this work, instead of using nitrogen, helium is used as the tracer gas and a multiple-helium-breath-washout (MBHW) system has been developed for the lung function study. A commercial quartz tuning fork with a resonance frequency of 32768 Hz has been used for detecting the change of the respiratory gas density. The resonance frequency of the tuning fork decreases linearly with increasing density of the surrounding gas. Knowing the CO2 concentration from the infrared carbon dioxide detector, the helium concentration can be determined. Results from 12 volunteers (3 mild asthmatics, 2 smokers, 1 with asthma history, 1 with COPD history, 5 normal) have shown that mild asthmatics have higher ventilation inhomogeneity in either conducting o...

  13. Lung function changes in mice sensitized to ammonium hexachloroplatinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W C; Lehmann, J R; Boykin, E; Selgrade, M K; Lehmann, D M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to halogenated platinum salts can trigger the development of asthma. The risk to the general population that may result from the use of platinum in catalytic converters and its emerging use as a diesel fuel additive is unclear. To investigate pulmonary responses to platinum, we developed a mouse model of platinum hypersensitivity. Mice were sensitized through application of ammonium hexachloroplatinate (AHCP) to the shaved back on days 0, 5 and 19, and to each ear on days 10, 11 and 12. On days 24 and 29, mice were challenged by oropharyngeal aspiration with AHCP in saline. Before and immediately after challenge, pulmonary responses were assessed using whole body plethysmography (WBP). A dose-dependent increase in immediate responses was observed in AHCP-sensitized and challenged mice. On days 26 and 31, changes in ventilatory responses to methacholine (Mch) aerosol were assessed by WBP; dose-dependent increases in Mch responsiveness occurred in sensitized mice. Lymph node cell counts indicate a proliferative response in lymph nodes draining the sites of application. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid harvested from sensitized mice contained an average of 5% eosinophils compared to less than 0.5% in non-sensitized mice (p sensitized mice. Although a second airway challenge on day 29 affected some results, only one airway challenge was needed to observe changes in lung function.

  14. Association of lung function genes with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo Jin; Lim, Myoung Nam; Hong, Yoonki; Silverman, Edwin K; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jung, Bock Hyun; Ra, Seung Won; Choi, Hye Sook; Jung, Young Ju; Park, Yong Bum; Park, Myung Jae; Lee, Sei Won; Lee, Jae Seung; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang Do

    2014-08-01

    Spirometric measurements of pulmonary function are important in diagnosing and determining the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We performed this study to determine whether candidate genes identified in genome-wide association studies of spirometric measurements were associated with COPD and if they interacted with smoking intensity. The current analysis included 1,000 COPD subjects and 1,000 controls recruited from 24 hospital-based pulmonary clinics. Thirteen SNPs, chosen based on genome-wide association studies of spirometric measurements in the Korean population cohorts, were genotyped. Genetic association tests were performed, adjusting for age, sex, and smoking intensity, using models including a SNP-by-smoking interaction term. PID1 and FAM13A were significantly associated with COPD susceptibility. There were also significant interactions between SNPs in ACN9 and FAM13A and smoking pack-years, and an association of ACN9 with COPD in the lowest smoking tertile. The risk allele of FAM13A was associated with increased expression of FAM13A in the lung. We have validated associations of FAM13A and PID1 with COPD. ACN9 showed significant interaction with smoking and is a potential candidate gene for COPD. Significant associations of genetic variants of FAM13A with gene expression levels suggest that the associated loci may act as genetic regulatory elements for FAM13A gene expression.

  15. Functional characterization of CLPTM1L as a lung cancer risk candidate gene in the 5p15.33 locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A James

    Full Text Available Cleft Lip and Palate Transmembrane Protein 1-Like (CLPTM1L, resides in a region of chromosome 5 for which copy number gain has been found to be the most frequent genetic event in the early stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. This locus has been found by multiple genome wide association studies to be associated with lung cancer in both smokers and non-smokers. CLPTM1L has been identified as an overexpressed protein in human ovarian tumor cell lines that are resistant to cisplatin, which is the only insight thus far into the function of CLPTM1L. Here we find CLPTM1L expression to be increased in lung adenocarcinomas compared to matched normal lung tissues and in lung tumor cell lines by mechanisms not exclusive to copy number gain. Upon loss of CLPTM1L accumulation in lung tumor cells, cisplatin and camptothecin induced apoptosis were increased in direct proportion to the level of CLPTM1L knockdown. Bcl-xL accumulation was significantly decreased upon loss of CLPTM1L. Expression of exogenous Bcl-xL abolished sensitization to apoptotic killing with CLPTM1L knockdown. These results demonstrate that CLPTM1L, an overexpressed protein in lung tumor cells, protects from genotoxic stress induced apoptosis through regulation of Bcl-xL. Thus, this study implicates anti-apoptotic CLPTM1L function as a potential mechanism of susceptibility to lung tumorigenesis and resistance to chemotherapy.

  16. Impact of endoscopic lung volume reduction on right ventricular myocardial function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pizarro

    Full Text Available Endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR provides a minimally invasive therapy for patients with severe lung emphysema. As its impact on right ventricular (RtV function is undefined, we examined the extent of RtV functional changes following ELVR, as assessed by use of speckle tracking-based RtV deformation analysis.We enrolled 32 patients with severe emphysematous COPD scheduled for bronchoscopic LVR using endobronchial valves (Zephyr, PulmonX, Inc., comprising 16 matched clinical responders and 16 non-responders. Echocardiography was conducted one day prior to ELVR and at an eight-week postprocedural interval.Patients were predominantly of late middle-age (65.8 ± 8.7 yrs, male (62.5% and presented advanced COPD emphysema (means FEV1 and RV: 32.6% and 239.1% of predicted, respectively. After ELVR, RtV apical longitudinal strain improved significantly in the total study cohort (-7.96 ± 7.02% vs. -13.35 ± 11.48%, p = 0.04, whereas there were no significant changes in other parameters of RtV function such as RtV global longitudinal strain, TAPSE or pulmonary arterial systolic pressure. In responding patients, 6MWT-improvement correlated with a decrease in NT-proBNP (Pearson´s r: -0.53, p = 0.03. However, clinical non-responders did not exhibit any RtV functional improvement.ELVR beneficially impacts RtV functional parameters. Speckle tracking-based RtV apical longitudinal strain analysis allows early determination of RtV contractile gain and identification of clinical responsiveness.

  17. Recurrence and Survival After Segmentectomy in Patients With Prior Lung Resection for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lisa M; Louie, Brian E; Jackson, Nicole; Farivar, Alexander S; Aye, Ralph W; Vallières, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Lobectomy is the standard of care for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the treatment of choice for patients with prior lung resection and a second primary NSCLC has not been established. We compared rates and patterns of recurrence and survival in patients with and without prior lung resection treated by segmentectomy and determined predictors of recurrence. This was a retrospective cohort study of 90 patients who underwent 91 consecutive segmentectomies for early-stage NSCLC between April 2004 and December 2014. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of recurrence, and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to determine survival. Of the 91 segmentectomies, 21 (23%) had a prior lung cancer resection and 70 (77%) were primary resections. There were 18 recurrences (20%): 9 of 21 (43%) in those with prior lung resection and 9 of 70 (13%) in those without. The 90-day mortality was 0%. The recurrence-free survival and 5-year survival were 61% and 55% in those with prior lung resection (p = 0.09) and 84% and 65% in those without (p = 0.4). Close parenchymal margin and number of lymph nodes examined were significant modifiable predictors of recurrence. Segmentectomy is a reasonable option for patients with early-stage NSCLC who have had a prior lung resection. It results in similar survival but trends toward lower recurrence-free survival compared with patients undergoing primary resection. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Childhood Lung Function Predicts Adult Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Asthma-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overlap Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Dinh S; Burgess, John A; Lowe, Adrian J; Perret, Jennifer L; Lodge, Caroline J; Bui, Minh; Morrison, Stephen; Thompson, Bruce R; Thomas, Paul S; Giles, Graham G; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Jarvis, Debbie; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Matheson, Melanie C; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2017-07-01

    The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing, yet there are limited data on early life risk factors. To investigate the role of childhood lung function in adult COPD phenotypes. Prebronchodilator spirometry was performed for a cohort of 7-year-old Tasmanian children (n = 8,583) in 1968 who were resurveyed at 45 years, and a selected subsample (n = 1,389) underwent prebronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry. For this analysis, COPD was spirometrically defined as a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC less than the lower limit of normal. Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) was defined as the coexistence of both COPD and current asthma. Associations between childhood lung function and asthma/COPD/ACOS were examined using multinomial regression. At 45 years, 959 participants had neither current asthma nor COPD (unaffected), 269 had current asthma alone, 59 had COPD alone, and 68 had ACOS. The reweighted prevalence of asthma alone was 13.5%, COPD alone 4.1%, and ACOS 2.9%. The lowest quartile of FEV1 at 7 years was associated with ACOS (odds ratio, 2.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-6.52), but not COPD or asthma alone. The lowest quartile of FEV1/FVC ratio at 7 years was associated with ACOS (odds ratio, 16.3; 95% confidence interval, 4.7-55.9) and COPD (odds ratio, 5.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-17.4), but not asthma alone. Being in the lowest quartile for lung function at age 7 may have long-term consequences for the development of COPD and ACOS by middle age. Screening of lung function in school age children may identify a high-risk group that could be targeted for intervention. Further research is needed to understand possible modifiers of these associations and develop interventions for children with impaired lung function.

  19. Ex vivo lung perfusion to improve donor lung function and increase the number of organs available for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Franco; Rosso, Lorenzo; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Palleschi, Alessandro; Tosi, Davide; Mendogni, Paolo; Salice, Valentina; Ruggeri, Giulia M; Fumagalli, Jacopo; Villa, Alessandro; Nosotti, Mario; Santambrogio, Luigi; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the initial clinical experience of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) at the Fondazione Ca' Granda in Milan between January 2011 and May 2013. EVLP was considered if donor PaO2 /FiO2 was below 300 mmHg or if lung function was doubtful. Donors with massive lung contusion, aspiration, purulent secretions, pneumonia, or sepsis were excluded. EVLP was run with a low-flow, open atrium and low hematocrit technique. Thirty-five lung transplants from brain death donors were performed, seven of which after EVLP. EVLP donors were older (54 ± 9 years vs. 40 ± 15 years, EVLP versus Standard, P transplantation was higher (79 [40-84] vs. 39 [36-46], P transplantation, primary graft dysfunction (PGD72 grade 3, 32% vs. 28%, EVLP versus Standard, P = 1), mortality at 30 days (0% vs. 0%, P = 1), and overall survival (71% vs. 86%, EVLP versus Standard P = 0.27) were not different between groups. EVLP enabled a 20% increase in available donor organs and resulted in successful transplants with lungs that would have otherwise been rejected (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01967953).

  20. Molecular mechanisms underlying variations in lung function : a systems genetics analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obeidat, Ma'en; Hao, Ke; Bosse, Yohan; Nickle, David C.; Nie, Yunlong; Postma, Dirkje S.; Laviolette, Michel; Sandford, Andrew J.; Daley, Denise D.; Hogg, James C.; Elliott, W. Mark; Fishbane, Nick; Timens, Wim; Hysi, Pirro G.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wilson, James F.; Hui, Jennie; Rawal, Rajesh; Schulz, Holger; Stubbe, Beate; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Zhao, Jing Hua; Jarvis, Deborah; Kahonen, Mika; Franceschini, Nora; North, Kari E.; Loth, Daan W.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Bartz, Traci M.; Wilk, Jemma B.; O'Connor, George T.; Cassano, Patricia A.; Tang, Wenbo; Wain, Louise V.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Gharib, Sina A.; Strachan, David P.; Sin, Don D.; Tobin, Martin D.; London, Stephanie J.; Hall, Ian P.; Pare, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung function measures reflect the physiological state of the lung, and are essential to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The SpiroMeta-CHARGE consortium undertook the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) so far (n=48 201) for forced expiratory volume

  1. No relationship between lung function and high-sensitive C-reactive protein in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Hansen, Henrik Steen; Siersted, Hans Christian

    2010-01-01

      Several studies on adults have indicated that lower spirometric lung function may be associated with increased systemic inflammation, but no studies have investigated if this association is already present in adolescence. Objective:  We explored the temporal relationship between changes in lung...

  2. GST-omega genes interact with environmental tobacco smoke on adult level of lung function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Kim; Boezen, Hendrika; ten Hacken, Nicolaas; Postma, Dirkje S; Vonk, Judith M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lung growth in utero and lung function loss during adulthood can be affected by exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Both ETS exposure and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Omega g

  3. Dietary factors and lung function in the general population : wine and resveratrol intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlinski, M; Boer, J M A; Smit, H A; Postma, D S; Boezen, H M

    2012-01-01

    Wine intake is associated with a better lung function in the general population, yet the source of this effect is unknown. Resveratrol, a polyphenol in wine, has anti-inflammatory properties in the lung, its effects being partially mediated via induction of Sirtuin (SIRT) 1 activity. We assessed the

  4. Proton magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of lung function and respiratory dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichinger, Monika [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Department of Radiology (E010), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: m.eichinger@dkfz.de; Tetzlaff, Ralf; Puderbach, Michael [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Department of Radiology (E010), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Woodhouse, Neil [Unit of Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Kauczor, H.-U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Department of Radiology (E010), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Since many pulmonary diseases present with a variable regional involvement, modalities for assessment of regional lung function gained increasing attention over the last years. Together with lung perfusion and gas exchange, ventilation, as a result of the interaction of the respiratory pump and the lungs, is an indispensable component of lung function. So far, this complex mechanism is still mainly assessed indirectly and globally. A differentiation between the individual determining factors of ventilation would be crucial for precise diagnostics and adequate treatment. By dynamic imaging of the respiratory pump, the mechanical components of ventilation can be assessed regionally. Amongst imaging modalities applicable to this topic, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as a tool not relying on ionising radiation, is the most attractive. Recent advances in MRI technology have made it possible to assess diaphragmatic and chest wall motion, static and dynamic lung volumes, as well as regional lung function. Even though existing studies show large heterogeneity in design and applied methods, it becomes evident that MRI is capable to visualise pulmonary function as well as diaphragmatic and thoracic wall movement, providing new insights into lung physiology. Partly contradictory results and conclusions are most likely caused by technical limitations, limited number of studies and small sample size. Existing studies mainly evaluate possible imaging techniques and concentrate on normal physiology. The few studies in patients with lung cancer and emphysema already give a promising outlook for these techniques from which an increasing impact on improved and quantitative disease characterization as well as better patient management can be expected.

  5. The effect of pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass on lung function in elderly patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, Gerwin E.; Dodonov, Mikhail; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van Oeveren, Willem; Milano, Aldo D.; Gu, Y. John; Faggian, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Cardiopulmonary bypass is still a major cause of lung injury and delay in pulmonary recovery after cardiac surgery. Although it has been shown that pulsatile flow induced by intra-aortic balloon pumping is beneficial for preserving lung function, it is not clear if the same beneficial effec

  6. Dietary factors and lung function in the general population : wine and resveratrol intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlinski, M; Boer, J M A; Smit, H A; Postma, D S; Boezen, H M

    Wine intake is associated with a better lung function in the general population, yet the source of this effect is unknown. Resveratrol, a polyphenol in wine, has anti-inflammatory properties in the lung, its effects being partially mediated via induction of Sirtuin (SIRT) 1 activity. We assessed the

  7. Dietary factors and lung function in the general population : wine and resveratrol intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlinski, M; Boer, J M A; Smit, H A; Postma, D S; Boezen, H M

    2012-01-01

    Wine intake is associated with a better lung function in the general population, yet the source of this effect is unknown. Resveratrol, a polyphenol in wine, has anti-inflammatory properties in the lung, its effects being partially mediated via induction of Sirtuin (SIRT) 1 activity. We assessed the

  8. Forward lunge as a functional performance test in ACL deficient subjects: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, Tine; Henriksen, Marius; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    The forward lunge movement may be used as a functional performance test of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient and reconstructed subjects. The purposes were 1) to determine the test-retest reliability of a forward lunge in healthy subjects and 2) to determine the required numbers of repeti...

  9. High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisinger Christa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65 and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65, while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73. In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01 and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03 values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a

  10. Changes in the Staphylococcus aureus transcriptome during early adaptation to the lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald O Chaffin

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a common inhabitant of the human nasopharynx. It is also a cause of life-threatening illness, producing a potent array of virulence factors that enable survival in normally sterile sites. The transformation of S. aureus from commensal to pathogen is poorly understood. We analyzed S. aureus gene expression during adaptation to the lung using a mouse model of S. aureus pneumonia. Bacteria were isolated by bronchoalveolar lavage after residence in vivo for up to 6 hours. S. aureus in vivo RNA transcription was compared by microarray to that of shake flask grown stationary phase and early exponential phase cells. Compared to in vitro conditions, the in vivo transcriptome was dramatically altered within 30 minutes. Expression of central metabolic pathways changed significantly in response to the lung environment. Gluconeogenesis (fbs, pckA was down regulated, as was TCA cycle and fermentation pathway gene expression. Genes associated with amino acid synthesis, RNA translation and nitrate respiration were upregulated, indicative of a highly active metabolic state during the first 6 hours in the lung. Virulence factors regulated by agr were down regulated in vivo and in early exponential phase compared to stationary phase cells. Over time in vivo, expression of ahpCF, involved in H(2O(2 scavenging, and uspA, which encodes a universal stress regulator, increased. Transcription of leukotoxic α and β-type phenol-soluble modulins psmα1-4 and psmβ1-2 increased 13 and 8-fold respectively; hld mRNA, encoding δ-hemolysin, was increased 9-fold. These were the only toxins to be significantly upregulated in vivo. These data provide the first complete survey of the S. aureus transcriptome response to the mammalian airway. The results present intriguing contrasts with previous work in other in vitro and in vivo models and provide novel insights into the adaptive and temporal response of S. aureus early in the pathogenesis of pneumonia.

  11. Changes in the Staphylococcus aureus transcriptome during early adaptation to the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Donald O; Taylor, Destry; Skerrett, Shawn J; Rubens, Craig E

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common inhabitant of the human nasopharynx. It is also a cause of life-threatening illness, producing a potent array of virulence factors that enable survival in normally sterile sites. The transformation of S. aureus from commensal to pathogen is poorly understood. We analyzed S. aureus gene expression during adaptation to the lung using a mouse model of S. aureus pneumonia. Bacteria were isolated by bronchoalveolar lavage after residence in vivo for up to 6 hours. S. aureus in vivo RNA transcription was compared by microarray to that of shake flask grown stationary phase and early exponential phase cells. Compared to in vitro conditions, the in vivo transcriptome was dramatically altered within 30 minutes. Expression of central metabolic pathways changed significantly in response to the lung environment. Gluconeogenesis (fbs, pckA) was down regulated, as was TCA cycle and fermentation pathway gene expression. Genes associated with amino acid synthesis, RNA translation and nitrate respiration were upregulated, indicative of a highly active metabolic state during the first 6 hours in the lung. Virulence factors regulated by agr were down regulated in vivo and in early exponential phase compared to stationary phase cells. Over time in vivo, expression of ahpCF, involved in H(2)O(2) scavenging, and uspA, which encodes a universal stress regulator, increased. Transcription of leukotoxic α and β-type phenol-soluble modulins psmα1-4 and psmβ1-2 increased 13 and 8-fold respectively; hld mRNA, encoding δ-hemolysin, was increased 9-fold. These were the only toxins to be significantly upregulated in vivo. These data provide the first complete survey of the S. aureus transcriptome response to the mammalian airway. The results present intriguing contrasts with previous work in other in vitro and in vivo models and provide novel insights into the adaptive and temporal response of S. aureus early in the pathogenesis of pneumonia.

  12. Neonates with reduced neonatal lung function have systemic low-grade inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo L.K.; Stokholm, Jakob; Bønnelykke, Klaus;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children and adults with asthma and impaired lung function have been reported to have low-grade systemic inflammation, but it is unknown whether this inflammation starts before symptoms and in particular whether low-grade inflammation is present in asymptomatic neonates with reduced...... lung function. ObjectiveWe sought to investigate the possible association between neonatal lung function and biomarkers of systemic inflammation.  Methods: Plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and CXCL8 (IL-8) were measured at age 6 months in 300 children...

  13. H-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Metabolomics Analysis Identifies Novel Urinary Biomarkers for Lung Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCClay, Joseph L.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Isern, Nancy G.; O' Connell, Thomas M.; Wooten, Jan B.; Zedler, Barbara K.; Dasika, Madhukar S.; Webb, B. T.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Murrelle, Edward L.; Leppert, Mark F.; van den Oord, Edwin J.

    2010-06-04

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by chronic airflow limitation, is a serious and growing public health concern. The major environmental risk factor for COPD is tobacco smoking, but the biological mechanisms underlying COPD are not well understood. In this study, we used proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy to identify and quantify metabolites associated with lung function in COPD. Plasma and urine were collected from 197 adults with COPD and from 195 adults without COPD. Samples were assayed using a 600 MHz NMR spectrometer, and the resulting spectra were analyzed against quantitative spirometric measures of lung function. After correcting for false discoveries and adjusting for covariates (sex, age, smoking) several spectral regions in urine were found to be significantly associated with baseline lung function. These regions correspond to the metabolites trigonelline, hippurate and formate. Concentrations of each metabolite, standardized to urinary creatinine, were associated with baseline lung function (minimum p-value = 0.0002 for trigonelline). No significant associations were found with plasma metabolites. Two of the three urinary metabolites positively associated with baseline lung function, i.e. hippurate and formate, are often related to gut microflora. This suggests that the microbiome composition is variable between individuals with different lung function. Alternatively, the nature and origins of all three associated metabolites may reflect lifestyle differences affecting overall health. Our results will require replication and validation, but demonstrate the utility of NMR metabolomics as a screening tool for identifying novel biomarkers of lung disease or disease risk.

  14. Influence of sevoflurane and isoflurane anesthesia on early cognitive function after anesthesia in elderly patients with lung cancer%七氟烷与异氟烷麻醉对老年肺肿瘤术后患者早期认知功能影响的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝旭; 赵戈; 陈强

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare different impacts of anesthesia on early cognitive function in elderly patients with lung cancer after surgery. Methods 60 cases of elective lung tumor patients ( ASA 24 points were recruited. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 30 each) : sevoflurane group ( group Ⅰ ) and isoflurane group ( group Ⅱ ) . For each group, on preoperative 1 d, leaving the anesthesia recovery room after surgery, 3 and 7 days after surgery. The Mini - mental State Examination ( MMSE) was used to score cognitive function. The postoperative determine cognitive dysfunction (POCD) was determined by use of Z - scoring method. For the two groups of patients,on the day before surgery and postoperative 1 h and 1 d, venous blood 5 ml was exampled to do enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA) for determining TNF - α and IL - 6 , in accordance with the instructions of the ELISA kit. Results Compared with preoperative 1 d (group Ⅰ : 28.2 ±2.2, group Ⅱ : 27. 9 ±1.7) , MMSE score decreased (group Ⅰ : 22. 7 ±3.0, group Ⅱ : 21.8 ±3.2, P 0. 05 ) . IL - 6 and TNF - α levels 1 h and 1 d after surgery were significantly higher than those 1 d before surgery , with statistically significant differences ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusions In elderly patients after receiving anesthesia and lung cancer surgery, when leaving recovery room, cognitive function declined at postoperative day 1 , and basically recovered three days to seven days after the operation. There was no difference in the anesthesia between the use of sevoflurane and isoflurane on cognitive dysfunction, which provides a variety of options for clinical senile anesthesia. Excessive lung tumors surgical stimulation and inflammatory cytokines may have impact on postoperative cognitive function.%目的 比较七氟烷和异氟烷麻醉对老年肺部肿瘤患者手术后早期认知功能的影响.方法 60例老年肺部肿瘤患者随机分为七氟烷(Ⅰ组)和异氟

  15. Relationship between body balance, lung function, nutritional status and functional capacity in adults with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T. S. Penafortes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF is a hereditary condition in which lung disease affects all patients. In addition to pulmonary involvement, the multisystemic components of CF cause significant physical limitations. However, the impact of lung function on balance control in CF has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To assess body balance in adults with CF and to test its possible associations with lung function, nutritional status, and functional capacity. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study in which 14 adults with CF underwent pulmonary function testing (spirometry, body plethysmography, and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLco, respiratory muscle strength, 6-min walking distance (6MWD, Berg balance scale (BBS, nutritional analysis (body mass index and bioelectrical impedance, and stabilometry. Body balance was quantified using stabilometry; all participants performed the following two trials: opened base, eyes open (OBEO; closed base, eyes closed (CBEC. RESULTS: In stabilometry, the median for the lateral range and anterior-posterior range in the CBEC trial was 0.10 (0.08-0.11 and 0.13 (0.11-0.22, respectively (p<0.05. The maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP correlated inversely with the lateral standard deviation (ρ=–0.61; p<0.05 as the DLco correlated positively with the anterior-posterior range (ρ=0.54; p<0.05. There were significant relationships between body composition indexes and almost all stabilometric variables measured. There were no relationships of the BBS and 6MWD with the stabilometric variables. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with CF, imbalance occurs mainly in the anterior-posterior direction and is especially associated with body composition.

  16. SSX2-4 expression in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, K B V; Pøhl, M; Olsen, K E

    2014-01-01

    The expression of cancer/testis antigens SSX2, SSX3, and SSX4 in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) was examined, since they are considered promising targets for cancer immunotherapy due to their immunogenicity and testis-restricted normal tissue expression. We characterized three SSX antibodies...... was only detected in 5 of 143 early-stage NSCLCs, which is rare compared to other cancer/testis antigens (e.g. MAGE-A and GAGE). However, further studies are needed to determine whether SSX can be used as a prognostic or predictive biomarker in NSCLC....

  17. Early Detection of Lung Cancer : “A Role for Serum Biomarkers?”

    OpenAIRE

    Broodman, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractLung cancer has the highest mortality rate among cancer patients in the world, in particular because most patients are only diagnosed at an advanced and non-curable stage. Computed tomography (CT) screening on high-risk individuals has shown that early detection could reduce the mortality rate. However, the still high false-positive rate of CT may harm healthy individuals because of unnecessary follow-up scans and invasive follow-up procedures. On the other hand, false-negativ...

  18. Biometric monitoring in silicosis to detect early disease and monitor lung injury: not quite there

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Weiler Ravell; Hashem Bishara

    2016-01-01

    Any attempt to prevent the development of silicosis in exposed workers by identifying occult disease undetectable by conventional methodology, is a welcome and worthy cause. The recently published paper by Ophir et al. [1] addresses this issue by using biometric monitoring of functional (spirometry and diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide) and inflammatory parameters (percentage of neutrophils in a sample of induced sputum) in exposed workers. Using novel technology, they also q...

  19. Integration of Anatomic and Pathogenetic Bases for Early Lung Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    cell lung cancer and their correlation to clinical parameters and survival. BMC Cancer (BMC cancer [ electronic resource].) 2004; 4(1): 66. [44...steps: printing and immobilization of capture antibodies on a functionalized surface (usually glass slide covered with poly-L-lysine, aldehyde , epoxy or...associated with cigarette smoking. Int J Epidemil, 1993. 22(4): p.592-9. [46] Pope M, Ashley MJ, Ferrence R. The carcinogenic and toxic effects of tobacco

  20. Clinically relevant determinants of body composition, function and nutritional status as mortality predictors in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Miroslav; Hronek, Miloslav; Zadak, Zdenek

    2014-04-01

    Lung cancer belongs to the type of tumors with a relatively high frequency of malnutrition, sarcopenia and cachexia, severe metabolic syndromes related to impairment of physical function and quality of life, resistance to therapy and short survival. Inexpensive and accessible methods of evaluating changes in body composition, physical function and nutrition status are for this reason of great importance for clinical practice to enable the early identification, monitoring, preventing and treatment of these nutritional deficiencies. This could lead to improved outcomes in the quality of life, physical performance and survival of patients with lung cancer. The aim of this article is to summarize the recent knowledge for the use of such methods, their predictability for patient outcomes and an association with other clinically relevant parameters, specifically with lung cancer patients, because such an article collectively describing their practical application in clinical practice is lacking. The interest of this article is in the use of anthropometry, handgrip dynamometry, bioelectrical impedance analysis derived phase angle and nutritional screening questionnaires in lung cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of and risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications after lung cancer surgery in patients with early-stage COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim ES

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eun Sun Kim,1 Young Tae Kim,2 Chang Hyun Kang,2 In Kyu Park,2 Won Bae,1 Sun Mi Choi,1 Jinwoo Lee,1 Young Sik Park,1 Chang-Hoon Lee,1 Sang-Min Lee,1 Jae-Joon Yim,1 Young Whan Kim,1 Sung Koo Han,1 Chul-Gyu Yoo1 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: This study aimed to investigate whether the prevalence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is even higher in the early stages of COPD than in such patients with normal lung function and to verify the usefulness of symptom- or quality of life (QoL-based scores in predicting risk for PPCs.Patients and methods: Patients undergoing pulmonary resection for NSCLC between July 2012 and October 2014 were prospectively enrolled. Preoperative measurements of lung function, dyspnea, and QoL, operative characteristics, PPCs, duration of postoperative hospitalization, and in-hospital mortality were assessed.Results: Among 351 consecutive patients with NSCLC, 343 patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ≥70% of predicted value were enrolled. At least one PPC occurred in 57 (16.6% patients. Prevalence of PPC was higher in patients with COPD (30.1% than in those with normal spirometry (10.0%; P<0.001. However, in patients with COPD, the prevalence of PPC was not different in patients with FEV1 ≥70% compared to those with FEV1 <70% and between group A (low risk and less symptoms and group B (low risk and more symptoms patients with COPD, based on the new Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2011 guidelines. In patients with COPD, body mass index (odds ratio [OR]: 0.80, P=0.007, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung (DLCO, % predicted value (OR: 0.97, P=0.024, and operation time (OR: 1.01, P=0.003, but not COPD assessment test or St

  2. Lung function and risk of fatal and non-fatal stroke. The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, T; Prescott, E; Lange, P;

    2001-01-01

    adjustment for potential confounders: sex, age, smoking, inhalation, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, physical activity in leisure time, education, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment. RESULTS: We found an inverse association between FEV1 and risk of first-time stroke....... For each 10% decrease in FEV1 in percentage of expected, the relative risk (RR) increased 1.05 (95% CI : 1.00-1.09, P = 0.03). This represents an approximately 30% higher risk of stroke in the group of people with the lowest lung function as compared to the group with the highest lung function...... function groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that reduced lung function measured in percentage of predicted FEV1 is a predictor of first-time stroke and fatal stroke independent of smoking and inhalation. The high risk of fatal first-ever stroke in the group of people with low lung function may...

  3. Lung function status of workers exposed to wood dust in timber markets in Calabar, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwari, O O; Antai, A B; Owu, D U; Peters, E J; Osim, E E

    2005-06-01

    The effect of chronic exposure to dust from local woods such as ebony, achi, and iroko on lung function of timber market workers in Calabar - Nigeria, was studied. Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second, (FEV1), Forced Expiratory Volume as a percentage of forced vital capacity (FEV1 %), and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were measured in 221 workers (aged 20-25 years) exposed to wood dust to assess their lung function and compared with 200 age- and sex- matched control subjects who were not exposed to any known air pollutant. The concentration of respirable dust was significantly higher in the test (Pwood dust had restrictive pattern of ventilatory function impairment. The lung function indices of the timber workers decreased with their length of service. Chronic exposure to wood dust impairs lung function.

  4. Molecular mechanisms underlying variations in lung function: a systems genetics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Ma’en; Hao, Ke; Bossé, Yohan; Nickle, David C; Nie, Yunlong; Postma, Dirkje S; Laviolette, Michel; Sandford, Andrew J; Daley, Denise D; Hogg, James C; Elliott, W Mark; Fishbane, Nick; Timens, Wim; Hysi, Pirro G; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wilson, James F; Hui, Jennie; Rawal, Rajesh; Schulz, Holger; Stubbe, Beate; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Zhao, Jing Hua; Jarvis, Deborah; Kähönen, Mika; Franceschini, Nora; North, Kari E; Loth, Daan W; Brusselle, Guy G; Smith, Albert Vernon; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Bartz, Traci M; Wilk, Jemma B; O’Connor, George T; Cassano, Patricia A; Tang, Wenbo; Wain, Louise V; Artigas, María Soler; Gharib, Sina A; Strachan, David P; Sin, Don D; Tobin, Martin D; London, Stephanie J; Hall, Ian P; Paré, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Lung function measures reflect the physiological state of the lung, and are essential to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The SpiroMeta-CHARGE consortium undertook the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) so far (n=48 201) for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) in the general population. The lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) study mapped the genetic architecture of gene expression in lung tissue from 1111 individuals. We used a systems genetics approach to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with lung function that act as eQTLs and change the level of expression of their target genes in lung tissue; termed eSNPs. Methods The SpiroMeta-CHARGE GWAS results were integrated with lung eQTLs to map eSNPs and the genes and pathways underlying the associations in lung tissue. For comparison, a similar analysis was done in peripheral blood. The lung mRNA expression levels of the eSNP-regulated genes were tested for associations with lung function measures in 727 individuals. Additional analyses identified the pleiotropic effects of eSNPs from the published GWAS catalogue, and mapped enrichment in regulatory regions from the ENCODE project. Finally, the Connectivity Map database was used to identify potential therapeutics in silico that could reverse the COPD lung tissue gene signature. Findings SNPs associated with lung function measures were more likely to be eQTLs and vice versa. The integration mapped the specific genes underlying the GWAS signals in lung tissue. The eSNP-regulated genes were enriched for developmental and inflammatory pathways; by comparison, SNPs associated with lung function that were eQTLs in blood, but not in lung, were only involved in inflammatory pathways. Lung function eSNPs were enriched for regulatory elements and were over-represented among genes showing differential expression during

  5. The correlation between lung sound distribution and pulmonary function in COPD patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi Mineshita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regional lung sound intensity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients is influenced by the severity and distribution of emphysema, obstructed peripheral airways, and altered ribcage and diaphragm configurations and movements due to hyperinflation. Changes in the lung sound distribution accompanied by pulmonary function improvements in COPD patients were observed after bronchodilator inhalation. We investigated the association of lung sound distribution with pulmonary functions, and the effects of emphysematous lesions on this association. These studies were designed to acquire the basic knowledge necessary for the application of lung sound analysis in the physiological evaluation of COPD patients. METHODS: Pulmonary function tests and the percentage of upper- and lower-lung sound intensity (quantitative lung data [QLD] were evaluated in 47 stable male COPD patients (54 - 82 years of age. In 39 patients, computed tomography taken within 6 months of the study was available and analyzed. RESULTS: The ratio of lower QLD to upper QLD showed significant positive correlations with FEV1 %predicted (%FEV1; ρ=0.45, p40%, n=20 and were stronger in less emphysematous patients (n=19, %FEV1; ρ=0.64, p<0.005, %MEF50; ρ=0.71, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: In COPD patients, the ratio of lower- to upper-lung sound intensities decreased according to the severity of obstructive changes, although emphysematous lesions considerably affected lung sound distribution.

  6. Functional anatomy of the lung of the snake Pituophis melanoleucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, J N

    1982-09-01

    The respiratory system in Pituophis melanoleucus is composed of a trachea, a single bronchial lung containing the pulmonary vasculature, and a large membranous caudal air sac. Total air volume (VL) in a 1-kg snake is 97.5 ml and varies with size (M) according to the equation VL = 0.388 M0.80 where VL is in milliliters and M is in grams. These air volumes are similar to those measured in many lizards and turtles. Relative volumes of the trachea, vascular lung, and air sac in Pituophis are about 4, 20, and 76%, respectively. The respiratory tissue is composed of a honeycomb network of capillary-bearing partitions, which collectively forms the gas exchange surface. This respiratory tissue is confined to the proximal 20% of the lung. Total respiratory surface area (SA) in a 1-kg snake is 2.00 x 10(3) cm2 and varies with size according to the equation SA = 3.03 M0.94 where SA is in square centimeters. Total SA/VL within the bronchial lung is large, being approximately 101 cm2/ml. Gradients in respiratory surface area and lung air volume are reversed so that SA/VL is highest near the cranial tip of the lung and decreases towards the air sac. Harmonic mean thickness of the air-blood barrier was found to be 0.46 +/- 10(-4) cm with the result that the anatomic diffusion factor, or ratio of respiratory surface area to mean diffusion distance, for a 1-kg snake is 0.44 x 10(8) cm. This index of diffusion capacity is very close to that reported for two lungs of a turtle.

  7. Robotic-Assisted Thoracic Surgery for Early-Stage Lung Cancer: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Paula

    2015-07-01

    This review evaluates the benefits and disadvantages associated with the use of robotic-assisted technology in performing lobectomies in patients with early-stage lung cancer. The author conducted a literature search of Ovid®, MEDLINE®, PubMed®, and CINAHL® for articles published from 2005 to 2013. Search criteria included key terms such as robot, robotic, robotic-assisted lobectomy, and lung cancer. Of 922 articles, the author included a total of 12 research-based published studies in the analysis and incorporated the findings into an evidence table. Results showed that robotic-assisted lobectomies are feasible safe procedures for patients with stage 1A or 1B lung cancer; however, there is a steep learning curve and long-term randomized studies evaluating robotic-assisted lobectomy and conventional posterolateral thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracic lobectomy are needed. For patient safety, perioperative nurses should be aware of the length of time and experience required to perform these procedures, the costs, techniques, benefits, and disadvantages.

  8. Functional genomics highlights differential induction of antiviral pathways in the lungs of SARS-CoV-infected macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna de Lang

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV is likely mediated by disproportional immune responses and the ability of the virus to circumvent innate immunity. Using functional genomics, we analyzed early host responses to SARS-CoV infection in the lungs of adolescent cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis that show lung pathology similar to that observed in human adults with SARS. Analysis of gene signatures revealed induction of a strong innate immune response characterized by the stimulation of various cytokine and chemokine genes, including interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, and IP-10, which corresponds to the host response seen in acute respiratory distress syndrome. As opposed to many in vitro experiments, SARS-CoV induced a wide range of type I interferons (IFNs and nuclear translocation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 in the lungs of macaques. Using immunohistochemistry, we revealed that these antiviral signaling pathways were differentially regulated in distinctive subsets of cells. Our studies emphasize that the induction of early IFN signaling may be critical to confer protection against SARS-CoV infection and highlight the strength of combining functional genomics with immunohistochemistry to further unravel the pathogenesis of SARS.

  9. Surfactant nebulisation : lung function, surfactant distribution and pulmonary blood flow distribution in lung lavaged rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Surfactant nebulisation is a promising alternative to surfactant instillation in newborns with the respiratory distress syndrome. Although less surfactant is deposited in the lung, it improves gas exchange, probably due to a superior distribution. We hypothesize that a more uniform distri

  10. Surfactant nebulisation : lung function, surfactant distribution and pulmonary blood flow distribution in lung lavaged rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Surfactant nebulisation is a promising alternative to surfactant instillation in newborns with the respiratory distress syndrome. Although less surfactant is deposited in the lung, it improves gas exchange, probably due to a superior distribution. We hypothesize that a more uniform distri

  11. Perlite exposure and 4-year change in lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polatli, M; Erdinç, M; Erdinç, E; Okyay, E

    2001-07-01

    Perlite is a volcanic glass or amorphous aluminium silicate composed of 71-75% SiO(2). When heated to 800-1100 degrees C, it expands to form processed perlite, which has a low density, high surface area, and a low thermal conductivity. The objective was to determine the effect of perlite exposure on pulmonary function tests. Pulmonary function tests in conjunction with chest radiogram were carried out in 36 perlite-exposed workers and 22 unexposed office workers in 1992 and 1996. Respirable dust level exceeded permissible dust levels in work places in the 4 years under study. Transfer coefficient (K(CO)) decline was significant in nonsmoker perlite-exposed workers (n=9), and found to be 5.28+/-0.71 (predicted 4.32+/-0.11) and 3.84+/-0.96 (predicted 4.18+/-0.18) 1/min/mmHg, in 1992 and 1996, respectively (Pperlite workers and office workers showed significant obstruction to airflow in small airways with respect to predicted values and 4-year change in transfer factor (T(L), CO) was significant. Although predicted, 12-year perlite exposure did not lead to a decrease in mean pulmonary function test parameters, there was a tendency to a decline in T(L), CO in the 4-year study period, which may be due to high perlite dust levels. As early effects of perlite dust exposure may not be detected by spirometric measurements alone, the transfer coefficient should be added to spirometry.

  12. Lunge feeding in early marine reptiles and fast evolution of marine tetrapod feeding guilds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motani, Ryosuke; Chen, Xiao-hong; Jiang, Da-yong; Cheng, Long; Tintori, Andrea; Rieppel, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Traditional wisdom holds that biotic recovery from the end-Permian extinction was slow and gradual, and was not complete until the Middle Triassic. Here, we report that the evolution of marine predator feeding guilds, and their trophic structure, proceeded faster. Marine reptile lineages with unique feeding adaptations emerged during the Early Triassic (about 248 million years ago), including the enigmatic Hupehsuchus that possessed an unusually slender mandible. A new specimen of this genus reveals a well-preserved palate and mandible, which suggest that it was a rare lunge feeder as also occurs in rorqual whales and pelicans. The diversity of feeding strategies among Triassic marine tetrapods reached their peak in the Early Triassic, soon after their first appearance in the fossil record. The diet of these early marine tetrapods most likely included soft-bodied animals that are not preserved as fossils. Early marine tetrapods most likely introduced a new trophic mechanism to redistribute nutrients to the top 10 m of the sea, where the primary productivity is highest. Therefore, a simple recovery to a Permian-like trophic structure does not explain the biotic changes seen after the Early Triassic.

  13. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, M.J.; Putney, L.F.; St George, J.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Avdalovic, M.V. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Schelegle, E.S.; Miller, L.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Hyde, D.M., E-mail: dmhyde@ucdavis.edu [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-02-15

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergen (HDMA), ozone (O{sub 3}) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA + O{sub 3}) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA + O{sub 3} alters the development process in the lung alveoli. - Highlights: • Abnormal lung development after postnatal exposure to ozone and allergen • This remodeling is shown as smaller, more numerous alveoli and narrower airways. • Allergen appears to have more of an effect than ozone during recovery. • These animals also have continued airway hyperresponsiveness (Moore et al. 2014)

  14. Complement inhibition decreases early fibrogenic events in the lung of septic baboons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Zhu, Hua; Georgescu, Constantin; Popescu, Narcis; Keshari, Ravi S; Peer, Glenn; Lupu, Cristina; Taylor, Fletcher B; Pereira, Heloise Anne; Kinasewitz, Gary; Lambris, John D; Lupu, Florea

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by severe sepsis can trigger persistent inflammation and fibrosis. We have shown that experimental sepsis in baboons recapitulates ARDS progression in humans, including chronic inflammation and long-lasting fibrosis in the lung. Complement activation products may contribute to the fibroproliferative response, suggesting that complement inhibitors are potential therapeutic agents. We have been suggested that treatment of septic baboons with compstatin, a C3 convertase inhibitor protects against ARDS-induced fibroproliferation. Baboons challenged with 109 cfu/kg (LD50) live E. coli by intravenous infusion were treated or not with compstatin at the time of challenge or 5 hrs thereafter. Changes in the fibroproliferative response at 24 hrs post-challenge were analysed at both transcript and protein levels. Gene expression analysis showed that sepsis induced fibrotic responses in the lung as early as 24 hrs post-bacterial challenge. Immunochemical and biochemical analysis revealed enhanced collagen synthesis, induction of profibrotic factors and increased cell recruitment and proliferation. Specific inhibition of complement with compstatin down-regulated sepsis-induced fibrosis genes, including transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), various collagens and chemokines responsible for fibrocyte recruitment (e.g. chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and 12 (CCL12)). Compstatin decreased the accumulation of myofibroblasts and proliferating cells, reduced the production of fibrosis mediators (TGF-β, phospho-Smad-2 and CTGF) and inhibited collagen deposition. Our data demonstrate that complement inhibition effectively attenuates collagen deposition and fibrotic responses in the lung after severe sepsis. Inhibiting complement could prove an attractive strategy for preventing sepsis-induced fibrosis of the lung. PMID:26337158

  15. Strategies of Individual Surgical Treatment for Early Stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and the Guidance of Intraoperative Frozen Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin HU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients, especially those who presented small GGO on image, are increasing in Asia population. Retrospective clinical data indicated that the efficacy of sub-lobectomy for these patients may be non-inferior to that of lobectomy. Meanwhile, sub-lobectomy could preserve more pulmonary function for the patients. Researches have demonstrated that careful evaluation for the image manifestation is essential before sub-lobectomy and those who diagnosed as adenocarcinoma in situ or minimally invasive adenocarcinoma may be more appropriate for this procedure. Precise diagnosis of Intraoperative frozen section is an effective method toward personalization of surgical care for early-stage non-smallcell lung cancer.

  16. 48. The value of CT scan and detection of telomerase activity in biopsy specimens for early diagnosis of lung carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of telomerase activity in the specimens of biopsy with bronchoscopy or cutting needle. Methods: Telomerase activity was measured in the biopsy apecimens taken from 52 patients suspected of having early lung cancer by CT scan. The PCR based silver staining telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) was used for detection of telomerase activity in 22 patients with early lung cancer (T1N0M0). Control study was made on the specimens taken from 24 patients with benign disease (cyst 3, TB 6, pseudtumor 5, pneumonjia 10). Results: The positive rates of telomerase activity were 86.45% (19/22) and 4.2% (1/24) in early lung cancers and benign lesions respectively (P<0.01). It was significantly higher in early lung cancers than in benign disease. All cases were diagnosed with surgical pathology and following for 2 years. Conclusion: Detecting telomerase activity in preoperative bronchoscope and cutting needle biopsy specimens may contribute to diagnosis of early lung cancer.

  17. Health outcomes associated with lung function decline and respiratory symptoms and disease in a community cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baughman, Penelope; Marott, Jacob L; Lange, Peter

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In workplace respiratory disease prevention, a thorough understanding is needed of the relative contributions of lung function loss and respiratory symptoms in predicting adverse health outcomes. METHODS: Copenhagen City Heart Study respiratory data collected at 4 examinations (1976...

  18. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Poultry Confinement Workers in Western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley P Kirychuk

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether poultry production methods impact respiratory health, and whether poultry farmers have more respiratory symptoms and lower lung function than comparison control groups.

  19. Characteristics of lung function in pretermin fants with varying degress of bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫敏超

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristics of lung function in preterm infants with varying degrees of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) .Methods There were407 infants (278 males and 129 females) were recruited from Shenzhen Children’Hospital between January 2011

  20. Asthma phenotypes modify the impact of environmetnal factors on lung function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have examined the role of childhood asthma phenotypes based on clinical history on asthma severity and symptom aggravation by environmental risk factors. The current study focuses on the associations between lung function in childhood and environmental factors an...

  1. Genetics and Genomics of Longitudinal Lung Function Patterns in Individuals with Asthmag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGeachie, Michael J.; Yates, Katherine P.; Zhou, Xiaobo; Guo, Feng; Sternberg, Alice L.; Van Natta, Mark L.; Wise, Robert A.; Szefler, Stanley J.; Sharma, Sunita; Kho, Alvin T.; Cho, Michael H.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Castaldi, Peter J.; Jain, Gaurav; Sanyal, Amartya; Zhan, Ye; Lajoie, Bryan R.; Dekker, Job; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Covar, Ronina A.; Zeiger, Robert S.; Adkinson, N. Franklin; Williams, Paul V.; Kelly, H. William; Grasemann, Hartmut; Vonk, Judith M.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Raby, Benjamin A.; Houston, Isaac; Lu, Quan; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L.; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Tonascia, James; Strunk, Robert C.; Weiss, Scott T.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Patterns of longitudinal lung function growth and decline in childhood asthma have been shown to be important in determining risk for future respiratory ailments including chronic airway obstruction and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Objectives: To determine the genetic underpinni

  2. Respiratory symptoms, exhaled nitric oxide, and lung function among workers in Tanzanian coffee factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakwari, Gloria; Mamuya, Simon H D; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E

    2013-05-01

    To compare chronic respiratory symptoms, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), and lung function between Robusta and Arabica coffee workers and a control group. Chronic respiratory symptoms were assessed by a questionnaire (n = 138 coffee workers and n = 120 controls). The FENO was measured by NIOX MINO device (Aerocrine AB, Solna, Sweden). Lung function was examined by a portable spirometer. Coffee workers had higher prevalence of chronic respiratory and asthma symptoms than controls. Robusta coffee workers were exposed to higher levels of endotoxin and had more asthma symptoms than Arabica coffee workers (38% vs. 18%). Coffee workers had reduced lung function associated with cumulative exposure to total dust and endotoxin. Work in coffee factories is associated with small but significant lung function impairment. These changes were not associated with the level of FENO.

  3. Conditional deletion of epithelial IKKβ impairs alveolar formation through apoptosis and decreased VEGF expression during early mouse lung morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Changgong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alveolar septation marks the beginning of the transition from the saccular to alveolar stage of lung development. Inflammation can disrupt this process and permanently impair alveolar formation resulting in alveolar hypoplasia as seen in bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm newborns. NF-κB is a transcription factor central to multiple inflammatory and developmental pathways including dorsal-ventral patterning in fruit flies; limb, mammary and submandibular gland development in mice; and branching morphogenesis in chick lungs. We have previously shown that epithelial overexpression of NF-κB accelerates lung maturity using transgenic mice. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that targeted deletion of NF-κB signaling in lung epithelium would impair alveolar formation. Methods We generated double transgenic mice with lung epithelium-specific deletion of IKKβ, a known activating kinase upstream of NF-κB, using a cre-loxP transgenic recombination strategy. Lungs of resulting progeny were analyzed at embryonic and early postnatal stages to determine specific effects on lung histology, and mRNA and protein expression of relevant lung morphoreulatory genes. Lastly, results measuring expression of the angiogenic factor, VEGF, were confirmed in vitro using a siRNA-knockdown strategy in cultured mouse lung epithelial cells. Results Our results showed that IKKβ deletion in the lung epithelium transiently decreased alveolar type I and type II cells and myofibroblasts and delayed alveolar formation. These effects were mediated through increased alveolar type II cell apoptosis and decreased epithelial VEGF expression. Conclusions These results suggest that epithelial NF-κB plays a critical role in early alveolar development possibly through regulation of VEGF.

  4. Genetic Circuit for the Early Warning of Lung Cancer using iBioSim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of molecular biology and gene-engineering technology, gene diagnosis has been an emerging approach for modern life sciences. Biological marker, recognized as the hot topic in the molecular and gene fields, has important values in early diagnosis, malignant tumour stage, treatment and therapeutic efficacy evaluation. The design of markers detection genetic circuit system for lung cancer is presented as a new method to provide basis for early warning and therapy. The system consists of three single-marker detection circuits and an integration circuit. The single-marker detection circuit provides an instantaneous low level when target marker’s concentration reaches the threshold. The integration circuit uses gene and gate to complete the output data fusion from single-marker detection circuit through logic operations to finish the combined detection. All the structure is modelled and analyzed by iBioSim through the biochemical reactions of different gene circuits. The experimental result indicates that the whole lung cancer detection system can realize joint detection of tumor markers with good stability and sensitivity.

  5. The prognostic importance of lung function in patients admitted with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kasper Karmark; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Akkan, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the prognostic importance for all-cause mortality of lung function variables obtained by spirometry in an unselected group of patients admitted with heart failure (HF).......The purpose of the present study was to determine the prognostic importance for all-cause mortality of lung function variables obtained by spirometry in an unselected group of patients admitted with heart failure (HF)....

  6. Influence of low molecular heparin on blood coagulation function and lung function in AECOPD patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Deng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the influence of low molecular heparin on the blood coagulation function and lung function in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) patients.Methods:A total of 100 cases AECOPD patients were divided into observation group and control group according to the present order and odd number by half. They were all given AECOPD conventional symptomatic treatment, on this basis, patients in the observation group were treated with low molecular heparin, 10 d after treatment, arterial blood gas index such as oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), oxygen saturation (SaO2), carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2), pulmonary function index such as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, blood coagulation function index such as fibrinogen (Fib), D-dimer (D-D), activated partial blood coagulation time (APTT) live enzymes, plasma prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) between two groups before and after treatment were compared.Results:Compared with before treatment, the levels of PaO2, SaO2, FEV1 and FVC, FEV1/FVC in control group after treatment were significantly elevated, PaCO2, D-D were significantly reduced, the difference were statistically significant (P<0.05); The levels of PaO2, SaO2, FEV1 and FVC, FEV1/FVC, PT, TT and APTT in observation group after treatment were significantly increased, and were significantly higher than the control group after treatment, PaCO2, D-D, Fib were significantly lower, and were lower than the control group after treatment, the differences were statistically significant (allP<0.05).Conclusions:AECOPD patients treated with low molecular heparin can help to improve the arterial blood gas, lung function and blood coagulation function.

  7. Effect of partial liquid ventilation on lung function in oleic acid-induced lung injury model of piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-zhuo; LI Ling-ke; ZHANG Yan-bo; LI Gang; XU Yu-lin; ZHU Yao-bin

    2013-01-01

    Background Pediatric patients are susceptible to lung injury that does not respond to traditional therapies.Partial liquid ventilation (PLV) has been developed as an alternative ventilatory strategy for treating severe lung injury.The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of PLV on lung function in immature piglets.Methods Acute lung injury was induced in 12 Chinese immature piglets by oleic acid (OA).The animals were randomly assigned to two groups (n=6 each group):(1) conventional mechanical ventilation (MV) group and (2) PLV with FC-77 (10 ml/kg) group.Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP),mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP),central venous pressure (CVP),left atrial pressure (LAP),systemic vascular resistance (SVR),pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR),cardiac output (CO),mean pressure of airway (Paw),dynamic lung compliance (Cydn),and arterial blood gases were measured during the observation period.Results No piglet died in either group with severe lung injury.After four hours of ventilation,pH in the MV group gradually decreased to lower than 7.20,while in the PLV group,pH also gradually decreased but remained higher than 7.20 (P <0.05).Partial pressure of oxygen in artery (PaO2) decreased in both groups,but with a significant difference between the PLV group and MV group (P <0.05).Partial pressure of carbon dioxide in artery (PaCO2) increased in both groups,but with a significant difference between the PLV group and MV group (P <0.05).Paw increased in both groups,but was not significantly different (P >0.05).Cydn decreased in both groups,but without a significant difference (P >0.05).At four hours,heart rate (HR) and MAP in both groups decreased.MPAP in both groups increased,and there was a significant difference between the two groups (P <0.05).CVP was stable in both groups.At four hours,PVR and LAP were increased in both groups.CO was decreased in both groups (P <0.05).SVR was stable during the observation time.Conclusion PLV did not

  8. Functional lung avoidance for individualized radiotherapy (FLAIR): study protocol for a randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoover, Douglas A; Capaldi, Dante Pi; Sheikh, Khadija; Palma, David A; Rodrigues, George B; Dar, A Rashid; Yu, Edward; Dingle, Brian; Landis, Mark; Kocha, Walter; Sanatani, Michael; Vincent, Mark; Younus, Jawaid; Kuruvilla, Sara; Gaede, Stewart; Parraga, Grace; Yaremko, Brian P

    2014-01-01

    ...), it can be associated with substantial pulmonary toxicity in some patients. Current radiotherapy planning techniques aim to minimize the radiation dose to the lungs, without accounting for regional variations in lung function...

  9. Functional and postoperative outcomes after preoperative exercise training in patients with lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebio Garcia, Raquel; Yáñez Brage, Maria Isabel; Giménez Moolhuyzen, Esther; Granger, Catherine L; Denehy, Linda

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. For early stages of the disease, lung resection surgery remains the best treatment with curative intent, but significant morbidity is associated, especially among patients with poor pulmonary function and cardiorespiratory fitness. In those cases, the implementation of a preoperative exercise-based intervention could optimize patient's functional status before surgery and improve postoperative outcomes and enhance recovery. The aim of this systematic review is to provide the current body of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of a preoperative exercise-based intervention on postoperative and functional outcomes in patients with lung cancer submitted to lung resection surgery. A systematic review of the literature using CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Pubmed, PEDro and SCOPUS was undertaken in September 2015 yielding a total of 1656 references. Two independent reviewers performed the assessment of the potentially eligible records against the inclusion criteria and finally, 21 articles were included in the review. Articles were included if they examined the effects of an exercise-based intervention on at least one of the selected outcomes: pulmonary function, (functional) exercise capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and postoperative outcomes (length of stay and postoperative complications). Fourteen studies were further selected for a meta-analysis to quantify the mean effect of the intervention and generate 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the Cochrane Review Manager 5.0.25. For two of the outcomes included (exercise capacity and HRQoL), studies showed large heterogeneity and thus, a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s) was significantly enhanced after the intervention [standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.38; 95% CI 0.14, 0.63 and SMD = 0.27, 95% CI 0.11, 0.42, respectively]. In comparison with the

  10. Visual assessment of early emphysema and interstitial abnormalities on CT is useful in lung cancer risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wille, Mathilde M.W.; Dirksen, Asger; Shaker, Saher B. [Gentofte Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hellerup (Denmark); Thomsen, Laura H. [Hvidovre Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hvidovre (Denmark); Petersen, Jens [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, DIKU, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark); Bruijne, Marleen de [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, DIKU, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark); Erasmus MC -University Medical Center Rotterdam, Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pedersen, Jesper H. [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark)

    2016-02-15

    Screening for lung cancer should be limited to a high-risk-population, and abnormalities in low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening images may be relevant for predicting the risk of lung cancer. Our aims were to compare the occurrence of visually detected emphysema and interstitial abnormalities in subjects with and without lung cancer in a screening population of smokers. Low-dose chest CT examinations (baseline and latest possible) of 1990 participants from The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial were independently evaluated by two observers who scored emphysema and interstitial abnormalities. Emphysema (lung density) was also measured quantitatively. Emphysema was seen more frequently and its extent was greater among participants with lung cancer on baseline (odds ratio (OR), 1.8, p = 0.017 and p = 0.002) and late examinations (OR 2.6, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). No significant difference was found using quantitative measurements. Interstitial abnormalities were more common findings among participants with lung cancer (OR 5.1, p < 0.001 and OR 4.5, p < 0.001).There was no association between presence of emphysema and presence of interstitial abnormalities (OR 0.75, p = 0.499). Even early signs of emphysema and interstitial abnormalities are associated with lung cancer. Quantitative measurements of emphysema - regardless of type - do not show the same association. (orig.)

  11. Mouse allergen, lung function, and atopy in Puerto Rican children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Forno

    Full Text Available To examine the relation between mouse allergen exposure and asthma in Puerto Rican children.Mus m 1, Der p 1, Bla g 2, and Fel d 1 allergens were measured in dust samples from homes of Puerto Rican children with (cases and without (controls asthma in Hartford, CT (n = 449 and San Juan (SJ, Puerto Rico (n = 678. Linear or logistic regression was used for the multivariate analysis of mouse allergen (Mus m 1 and lung function (FEV(1 and FEV(1/FVC and allergy (total IgE and skin test reactivity (STR to ≥1 allergen measures.Homes in SJ had lower mouse allergen levels than those in Hartford. In multivariate analyses, mouse allergen was associated with higher FEV(1 in cases in Hartford (+70.6 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI = 8.6-132.7 ml, P = 0.03 and SJ (+45.1 ml, 95% CI =  -0.5 to 90.6 ml, P = 0.05. In multivariate analyses of controls, mouse allergen was inversely associated with STR to ≥1 allergen in non-sensitized children (odds ratio [OR] for each log-unit increment in Mus m 1 = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5-0.9, P<0.01. In a multivariate analysis including all children at both study sites, each log-increment in mouse allergen was positively associated with FEV(1 (+28.3 ml, 95% CI = 1.4-55.2 ml, P = 0.04 and inversely associated with STR to ≥1 allergen (OR for each log-unit increment in Mus m 1 = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.6-0.9, P<0.01.Mouse allergen is associated with a higher FEV(1 and lower odds of STR to ≥1 allergen in Puerto Rican children. This may be explained by the allergen itself or correlated microbial exposures.

  12. Early Open-Lung Ventilation Improves Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Left Cardiac Dysfunction Undergoing Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Douglas W.; Gomes, Walter José; Rocco, Isadora S.; Viceconte, Marcela; Nasrala, Mara L. S.; Pauletti, Hayanne O.; Moreira, Rita Simone L.; Hossne Jr, Nelson A.; Arena, Ross; Guizilini, Solange

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare pulmonary function, functional capacity and clinical outcomes amongst three groups of patients with left ventricular dysfunction following off-pump coronary artery bypass, namely: 1) conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV); 2) late open lung strategy (L-OLS); and 3) early open lung strategy (E-OLS). Methods Sixty-one patients were randomized into 3 groups: 1) CMV (n=21); 2) L-OLS (n=20) initiated after intensive care unit arrival; and 3) E-OLS (n=20) initiated after intubation. Spirometry was performed at bedside on preoperative and postoperative days (PODs) 1, 3, and 5. Partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) and pulmonary shunt fraction were evaluated preoperatively and on POD1. The 6-minute walk test was applied on the day before the operation and on POD5. Results Both the open lung groups demonstrated higher forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second on PODs 1, 3 and 5 when compared to the CMV group (P<0.05). The 6-minute walk test distance was more preserved, shunt fraction was lower, and PaO2 was higher in both open-lung groups (P<0.05). Open-lung groups had shorter intubation time and hospital stay and also fewer respiratory events (P<0.05). Key measures were significantly more favorable in the E-OLS group compared to the L-OLS group. Conclusion Both OLSs (L-OLS and E-OLS) were able to promote higher preservation of pulmonary function, greater recovery of functional capacity and better clinical outcomes following off-pump coronary artery bypass when compared to conventional mechanical ventilation. However, in this group of patients with reduced left ventricular function, initiation of the OLS intra-operatively was found to be more beneficial and optimal when compared to OLS initiation after intensive care unit arrival. PMID:27982344

  13. Hmga2 functions as a competing endogenous RNA to promote lung cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Madhu S.; Armenteros-Monterroso, Elena; East, Philip; Chakravorty, Probir; Matthews, Nik; Winslow, Monte M.; Downward, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most prevalent histological cancer subtype worldwide1. As the majority of patients present with invasive, metastatic disease2, it is vital to understand the basis for lung cancer progression. Hmga2 is highly expressed in metastatic lung adenocarcinoma where it contributes to cancer progression and metastasis3-6. Here we show that Hmga2 promotes lung cancer progression by operating as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA)7-11 for the let-7 microRNA (miRNA) family. Hmga2 can promote the transformation of lung cancer cells independent of protein-coding function but dependent upon the presence of let-7 sites; this occurs without changes in the levels of let-7 isoforms, suggesting that Hmga2 affects let-7 activity by altering miRNA targeting. These effects are further observed in vivo, where Hmga2 ceRNA activity drives lung cancer growth, invasion and dissemination. Integrated analysis of miRNA target prediction algorithms and metastatic lung cancer gene expression data reveals the TGF-β co-receptor Tgfbr312 as a putative target of Hmga2 ceRNA function. Tgfbr3 expression is regulated by the Hmga2 ceRNA via differential recruitment to Argonaute-2 (Ago2), and TGF-β signalling driven by Tgfbr3 is largely necessary for Hmga2 to promote lung cancer progression. Finally, analysis of NSCLC patient gene expression data reveals that HMGA2 and TGFBR3 are co-ordinately regulated in NSCLC patient material, a vital corollary to ceRNA function. Taken together, these results suggest that Hmga2 promotes lung carcinogenesis as both a protein-coding gene and a non-coding RNA; such dual-function regulation of gene expression networks reflects a novel means by which oncogenes promote disease progression. PMID:24305048

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of respiratory movement and lung function; Magnetresonanztomographie der Atembewegung und Lungenfunktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetzlaff, R. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Medizinische und Biologische Informatik, Heidelberg (Germany); Eichinger, M. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie (E010), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Lung function measurements are the domain of spirometry or plethysmography. These methods have proven their value in clinical practice, nevertheless, being global measurements the functional indices only describe the sum of all functional units of the lung. Impairment of only a single component of the respiratory pump or of a small part of lung parenchyma can be compensated by unaffected lung tissue. Dynamic imaging can help to detect such local changes and lead to earlier adapted therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seems to be perfect for this application as it is not hampered by image distortion as is projection radiography and it does not expose the patient to potentially harmful radiation like computed tomography. Unfortunately, lung parenchyma is not easy to image using MRI due to its low signal intensity. For this reason first applications of MRI in lung function measurements concentrated on the movement of the thoracic wall and the diaphragm. Recent technical advances in MRI however might allow measurements of regional dynamics of the lungs. (orig.) [German] Die Lungenfunktion wird bislang hauptsaechlich durch die Spirometrie oder Plethysmographie untersucht. Diese Methoden sind zwar sehr leistungsfaehig zur Diagnostik von Lungenerkrankungen, sind jedoch globale Messmethoden, deren Messparameter immer die Summe aller funktionellen Einheiten der Lunge beschreiben. Veraenderungen, die auf eine Teilkomponente der Atempumpe beschraenkt sind oder kleine Teile des Lungengewebes betreffen, koennen durch gesunde Lungenanteile kompensiert werden. Mit dynamischen bildgebenden Verfahren koennten solche regionalen Veraenderungen erfasst und so eine fruehere Therapie ermoeglicht werden. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) bietet sich hier ideal an, da sie als Schnittbildverfahren weder die Probleme der Bildverzerrung, der Projektionsverfahren noch die Strahlenbelastung der Computertomographie hat. Allerdings wird die MRT der Lunge durch das geringe Signal des

  15. CT screening for lung cancer brings forward early disease. The Randomised Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saghir, Zaigham; Dirksen, Asger; Ashraf, Haseem

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundThe effects of low-dose CT screening on disease stage shift, mortality and overdiagnosis are unclear. Lung cancer findings and mortality rates are reported at the end of screening in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial.Methods4104 men and women, healthy heavy smokers/former smokers...... increase and/or volume doubling time15 mm were referred for diagnostic workup. In the control group, lung cancers were diagnosed and treated outside the study by the usual clinical practice.ResultsParticipation rates were high in both groups (screening: 95.5%; control: 93.0%; p...

  16. Lung function and breathing pattern in subjects developing high altitude pulmonary edema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian F Clarenbach

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to comprehensively evaluate physiologic changes associated with development of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. We tested whether changes in pulmonary function and breathing pattern would herald clinically overt HAPE at an early stage. METHODS: In 18 mountaineers, spirometry, diffusing capacity, nitrogen washout, nocturnal ventilation and pulse oximetry were recorded at 490 m and during 3 days after rapid ascent to 4559 m. Findings were compared among subjects developing HAPE and those remaining well (controls. RESULTS: In 8 subjects subsequently developing radiographically documented HAPE at 4559 m, median FVC declined to 82% of low altitude baseline while closing volume increased to 164% of baseline (P<0.05, both instances. In 10 controls, FVC decreased slightly (to 93% baseline, P<0.05 but significantly less than in subjects with HAPE and closing volume remained unchanged. Sniff nasal pressure was reduced in both subjects with and without subsequent HAPE. During nights at 4559 m, mean nocturnal oxygen saturation dropped to lower values while minute ventilation, the number of periodic breathing cycles and heart rate were higher (60%; 8.6 L/min; 97 cycles/h; 94 beats/min, respectively in subjects subsequently developing HAPE than in controls (73%; 5.1 L/min; 48 cycles/h; 79 beats/min; P<0.05 vs. HAPE, all instances. CONCLUSION: The results comprehensively represent the pattern of physiologic alterations that precede overt HAPE. The changes in lung function are consistent with reduced lung compliance and impaired gas exchange. Pronounced nocturnal hypoxemia, ventilatory control instability and sympathetic stimulation are further signs of subsequent overt HAPE.

  17. Duration and exclusiveness of breastfeeding and school-age lung function and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meel, Evelien R; de Jong, Mandy; Elbert, Niels J; den Dekker, Herman T; Reiss, Irwin K; de Jongste, Johan C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Duijts, Liesbeth

    2017-07-01

    Breastfeeding reduces the risk of asthma in early childhood, but it is not clear whether its effect on respiratory morbidity is still present in later childhood. To examine the associations of any breastfeeding, breastfeeding duration, and breastfeeding exclusiveness with lung function and asthma in school-aged children and whether associations were influenced by respiratory tract infections and maternal or child's atopic status. This study of 4,464 children was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study. Information on breastfeeding was obtained by multiple questionnaires from birth until 1 year of age. At 10 years of age, lung function was measured by spirometry, and information on asthma was obtained by questionnaire. Adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used to examine the associations. Shorter duration of breastfeeding was associated with a lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) only (z score change, -0.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.02 to -0.00) per month shorter breastfeeding, but not asthma. When categorized, breastfeeding for 2 to 4 months was associated with a lower forced vital capacity (FVC) (z score change, -0.11; 95% CI, -0.20 to -0.03) compared with breastfeeding for 6 months or longer. Nonexclusive breastfeeding for 4 months was associated with a lower FVC (z score change, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.01) compared with exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months. Results did not materially change after additional adjustment for lower respiratory tract infections and were not modified by maternal history of asthma or atopy, child's eczema, or inhalant allergic sensitization. Shorter duration and nonexclusivity of breastfeeding were associated with a lower FEV1 and FVC but not asthma at school-age. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Single-port video-assisted thoracic surgery for early lung cancer: initial experience in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Shingo; Usuda, Jitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Single-port video-assisted thoracic surgery (SPVATS) emerged several years ago as a new, minimally invasive surgery for diseases in the field of respiratory surgery, and is increasingly becoming a subject of interest for some thoracic surgeons in Europe and Asia. However, the adoption rate of this procedure in the United States and Japan remains low. We herein reviewed our experience of SPVATS for early lung cancer in our center, and evaluated the safety and minimal invasiveness of this technique. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patients who had undergone SPVATS for pathological stage I lung cancer in Nippon Medical School Chiba Hokusoh Hospital between September 2012 and October 2015. In SPVATS, an approximately 4-cm incision was made at the 4th or 5th intercostal space between the anterior and posterior axillary lines. A rib spreader was not used at the incision site, and surgical manipulation was performed very carefully in order to avoid contact between surgical instruments and the intercostal nerves. The same surgeon performed surgery on all patients, and analyzed laboratory data before and after surgery. Results Eighty-four patients underwent anatomical lung resection for postoperative pathological stage I lung cancer. The mean wound length was 4.2 cm. Eighty-four patients underwent lobectomy and segmentectomy, respectively. The mean preoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) was 1.85%±0.36%. Our patients consisted of 49 men (58.3%) and 35 women (41.7%), with 64, 18, 1, and 1 having adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, and small-cell lung cancer, respectively. The mean operative time was 175±21 min, operative blood loss 92±18 mL, and duration of drain placement 1.9±0.6 days. The duration of the postoperative hospital stay was 7.1±1.7 days, numeric rating scale (NRS) 1 week after surgery 2.8±0.6, and occurrence rate of allodynia 1 month after surgery 10.7%. No patient developed serious

  19. Changes in cystic fibrosis airway microbial community associated with a severe decline in lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganin, Patrizia; Fiscarelli, Ersilia Vita; Tuccio, Vanessa; Chiancianesi, Manuela; Bacci, Giovanni; Morelli, Patrizia; Dolce, Daniela; Dalmastri, Claudia; De Alessandri, Alessandra; Lucidi, Vincenzina; Taccetti, Giovanni; Mengoni, Alessio; Bevivino, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease resulting in chronic polymicrobial infections of the airways and progressive decline in lung function. To gain insight into the underlying causes of severe lung diseases, we aimed at comparing the airway microbiota detected in sputum of CF patients with stable lung function (S) versus those with a substantial decline in lung function (SD). Microbiota composition was investigated by using culture-based and culture-independent methods, and by performing multivariate and statistical analyses. Culture-based methods identified some microbial species associated with a worse lung function, i.e. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Rothia mucilaginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Candida albicans, but only the presence of S. pneumoniae and R. mucilaginosa was found to be associated with increased severe decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis revealed a higher bacterial diversity than that detected by culture-based methods. Molecular signatures with a statistically significant odds ratio for SD status were detected, and classified as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Shewanella, while for other Terminal Restriction Fragments (T-RFs) no species assignation was achieved. The analysis of T-RFLP data using ecological biodiversity indices showed reduced Evenness in SD patients compared to S ones, suggesting an impaired ecology of the bacterial community in SD patients. Statistically significant differences of the ecological biodiversity indices among the three sub-groups of FEV1 (normal/mild vs moderate vs severe) were also found, suggesting that the patients with moderate lung disease experienced changes in the airway assembly of taxa. Overall, changes in CF airway microbial community associated with a severe lung function decline were detected, allowing us to define some discriminatory species as well as some discriminatory T-RFs that represent good candidates for the

  20. Changes in cystic fibrosis airway microbial community associated with a severe decline in lung function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Paganin

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is a genetic disease resulting in chronic polymicrobial infections of the airways and progressive decline in lung function. To gain insight into the underlying causes of severe lung diseases, we aimed at comparing the airway microbiota detected in sputum of CF patients with stable lung function (S versus those with a substantial decline in lung function (SD. Microbiota composition was investigated by using culture-based and culture-independent methods, and by performing multivariate and statistical analyses. Culture-based methods identified some microbial species associated with a worse lung function, i.e. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Rothia mucilaginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Candida albicans, but only the presence of S. pneumoniae and R. mucilaginosa was found to be associated with increased severe decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1. Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis revealed a higher bacterial diversity than that detected by culture-based methods. Molecular signatures with a statistically significant odds ratio for SD status were detected, and classified as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Shewanella, while for other Terminal Restriction Fragments (T-RFs no species assignation was achieved. The analysis of T-RFLP data using ecological biodiversity indices showed reduced Evenness in SD patients compared to S ones, suggesting an impaired ecology of the bacterial community in SD patients. Statistically significant differences of the ecological biodiversity indices among the three sub-groups of FEV1 (normal/mild vs moderate vs severe were also found, suggesting that the patients with moderate lung disease experienced changes in the airway assembly of taxa. Overall, changes in CF airway microbial community associated with a severe lung function decline were detected, allowing us to define some discriminatory species as well as some discriminatory T-RFs that represent good

  1. Gene network analysis in a pediatric cohort identifies novel lung function genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Ong

    Full Text Available Lung function is a heritable trait and serves as an important clinical predictor of morbidity and mortality for pulmonary conditions in adults, however, despite its importance, no studies have focused on uncovering pediatric-specific loci influencing lung function. To identify novel genetic determinants of pediatric lung function, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS of four pulmonary function traits, including FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75% in 1556 children. Further, we carried out gene network analyses for each trait including all SNPs with a P-value of <1.0 × 10(-3 from the individual GWAS. The GWAS identified SNPs with notable trends towards association with the pulmonary function measures, including the previously described INTS12 locus association with FEV1 (pmeta=1.41 × 10(-7. The gene network analyses identified 34 networks of genes associated with pulmonary function variables in Caucasians. Of those, the glycoprotein gene network reached genome-wide significance for all four variables. P-value range pmeta=6.29 × 10(-4 - 2.80 × 10(-8 on meta-analysis. In this study, we report on specific pathways that are significantly associated with pediatric lung function at genome-wide significance. In addition, we report the first loci associated with lung function in both pediatric Caucasian and African American populations.

  2. Decline in lung function rather than baseline lung function is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome: A six-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jong-Ha; Jee, Jae Hwan; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether baseline lung function or change in lung function is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Koreans. We analyzed clinical and laboratory data from 3,768 Koreans aged 40–60 years who underwent medical check-ups over a six-year period between 2006 and 2012. We calculated the percent change in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) over the study period. We tested for an association between baseline lung function or lung function change during the follow-up period and the development of MS. The 533 subjects (14.1%) developed MS after the six-year follow-up. The baseline FVC and FEV1 were not different between the subjects who developed MS after six years and the subject without MS after six years. The percent change in FVC over six years in subjects who developed MS after six years was higher than that in subjects who did not develop MS (-5.75 [-10.19 –-1.17], -3.29 [-7.69–1.09], respectively, P = 0.001). The percent change in FVC over six years was associated with MS development after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), glucose, HDL, triglyceride, waist circumferences (WC), and systolic blood pressure. However, these association was not significant after adjusting for change of BMI and change of WC over six years (P = 0.306). The greater change in vital capacity over six years of follow-up was associated with MS development, predominantly due to obesity and abdominal obesity. The prospective study is needed to determine the relationship between lung function decline and MS. PMID:28346522

  3. Advances in functional and structural imaging of the human lung using proton MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G Wilson; Mugler, John P; Sá, Rui C; Altes, Talissa A; Prisk, G Kim; Hopkins, Susan R

    2014-12-01

    The field of proton lung MRI is advancing on a variety of fronts. In the realm of functional imaging, it is now possible to use arterial spin labeling (ASL) and oxygen-enhanced imaging techniques to quantify regional perfusion and ventilation, respectively, in standard units of measurement. By combining these techniques into a single scan, it is also possible to quantify the local ventilation-perfusion ratio, which is the most important determinant of gas-exchange efficiency in the lung. To demonstrate potential for accurate and meaningful measurements of lung function, this technique was used to study gravitational gradients of ventilation, perfusion, and ventilation-perfusion ratio in healthy subjects, yielding quantitative results consistent with expected regional variations. Such techniques can also be applied in the time domain, providing new tools for studying temporal dynamics of lung function. Temporal ASL measurements showed increased spatial-temporal heterogeneity of pulmonary blood flow in healthy subjects exposed to hypoxia, suggesting sensitivity to active control mechanisms such as hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, and illustrating that to fully examine the factors that govern lung function it is necessary to consider temporal as well as spatial variability. Further development to increase spatial coverage and improve robustness would enhance the clinical applicability of these new functional imaging tools. In the realm of structural imaging, pulse sequence techniques such as ultrashort echo-time radial k-space acquisition, ultrafast steady-state free precession, and imaging-based diaphragm triggering can be combined to overcome the significant challenges associated with proton MRI in the lung, enabling high-quality three-dimensional imaging of the whole lung in a clinically reasonable scan time. Images of healthy and cystic fibrosis subjects using these techniques demonstrate substantial promise for non-contrast pulmonary angiography and detailed

  4. Using quantitative breath sound measurements to predict lung function following resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, Rodolfo C; Jimenez, Carlos A; Eapen, Georgie A; Mehran, Reza J; Keus, Leendert; Ost, David

    2010-10-12

    Predicting postoperative lung function is important for estimating the risk of complications and long-term disability after pulmonary resection. We investigated the capability of vibration response imaging (VRI) as an alternative to lung scintigraphy for prediction of postoperative lung function in patients with intrathoracic malignancies. Eighty-five patients with intrathoracic malignancies, considered candidates for lung resection, were prospectively studied. The projected postoperative (ppo) lung function was calculated using: perfusion scintigraphy, ventilation scintigraphy, and VRI. Two sets of assessments made: one for lobectomy and one for pneumonectomy. Clinical concordance was defined as both methods agreeing that either a patient was or was not a surgical candidate based on a ppoFEV1% and ppoDLCO% > 40%. Limits of agreement between scintigraphy and VRI for ppo following lobectomy were -16.47% to 15.08% (mean difference = -0.70%;95%CI = -2.51% to 1.12%) and for pneumonectomy were -23.79% to 19.04% (mean difference = -2.38%;95%CI = -4.69% to -0.07%). Clinical concordance between VRI and scintigraphy was 73% for pneumonectomy and 98% for lobectomy. For patients who had surgery and postoperative lung function testing (n = 31), ppoFEV1% using scintigraphic methods correlated with measured postoperative values better than projections using VRI, (adjusted R2 = 0.32 scintigraphy; 0.20 VRI), however the difference between methods failed to reach statistical significance. Limits of agreement between measured FEV1% postoperatively and ppoFEV1% based on perfusion scintigraphy were -16.86% to 23.73% (mean difference = 3.44%;95%CI = -0.29% to 7.16%); based on VRI were -19.56% to 28.99% (mean difference = 4.72%;95%CI = 0.27% to 9.17%). Further investigation of VRI as an alternative to lung scintigraphy for prediction of postoperative lung function is warranted.

  5. Using quantitative breath sound measurements to predict lung function following resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keus Leendert

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting postoperative lung function is important for estimating the risk of complications and long-term disability after pulmonary resection. We investigated the capability of vibration response imaging (VRI as an alternative to lung scintigraphy for prediction of postoperative lung function in patients with intrathoracic malignancies. Methods Eighty-five patients with intrathoracic malignancies, considered candidates for lung resection, were prospectively studied. The projected postoperative (ppo lung function was calculated using: perfusion scintigraphy, ventilation scintigraphy, and VRI. Two sets of assessments made: one for lobectomy and one for pneumonectomy. Clinical concordance was defined as both methods agreeing that either a patient was or was not a surgical candidate based on a ppoFEV1% and ppoDLCO% > 40%. Results Limits of agreement between scintigraphy and VRI for ppo following lobectomy were -16.47% to 15.08% (mean difference = -0.70%;95%CI = -2.51% to 1.12% and for pneumonectomy were -23.79% to 19.04% (mean difference = -2.38%;95%CI = -4.69% to -0.07%. Clinical concordance between VRI and scintigraphy was 73% for pneumonectomy and 98% for lobectomy. For patients who had surgery and postoperative lung function testing (n = 31, ppoFEV1% using scintigraphic methods correlated with measured postoperative values better than projections using VRI, (adjusted R2 = 0.32 scintigraphy; 0.20 VRI, however the difference between methods failed to reach statistical significance. Limits of agreement between measured FEV1% postoperatively and ppoFEV1% based on perfusion scintigraphy were -16.86% to 23.73% (mean difference = 3.44%;95%CI = -0.29% to 7.16%; based on VRI were -19.56% to 28.99% (mean difference = 4.72%;95%CI = 0.27% to 9.17%. Conclusions Further investigation of VRI as an alternative to lung scintigraphy for prediction of postoperative lung function is warranted.

  6. Functional drug-gene interactions in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smida, Michal; Nijman, Sebastian M B

    2012-04-01

    Despite the dawn of the genomic information era, the challenges of cancer treatment remain formidable. Particularly for the most prevalent cancer types, including lung cancer, successful treatment of metastatic disease is rare and escalating costs for modern targeted drugs place an increasing strain on healthcare systems. Although powerful diagnostic tools to characterize individual tumor samples in great molecular detail are becoming rapidly available, the transformation of this information into therapy provides a major challenge. A fundamental difficulty is the molecular complexity of cancer cells that often causes drug resistance, but can also render tumors exquisitely sensitive to targeted agents. By using lung cancer as an example, we outline the principles that govern drug sensitivity and resistance from a genetic perspective and discuss how in vitro chemical-genetic screens can impact on patient stratification in the clinic.

  7. [Liposome phospholipid substitution and lung function in surfactant deprived rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, M

    1985-01-01

    In vivo activity of an artificial surfactant was studied in surfactant depleted rats. After tenfold alveolar lavage, PaO2, tidal volume, and compliance of the respiratory system fell to one third of initial value. Substitution of large unilamellar vesicles containing 90% Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and 10% unsaturated phosphatidylglycerol largely restored oxygenation and lung mechanics in most animals. Complete normalization with weaning from the ventilator, however, was achieved neither with liposomes nor with natural surfactant concentrate.

  8. Associations of Pet Ownership with Wheezing and Lung Function in Childhood: Findings from a UK Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M Collin

    Full Text Available Asthma is a heterogeneous condition and differential effects of pet ownership on non-atopic versus atopic asthma have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pet ownership during pregnancy and early childhood was associated with wheezing from birth to age 7 years and with lung function at age 8 years in a UK population-based birth cohort.Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC were used to investigate associations of pet ownership at six time-points from pregnancy to age 7 years with concurrent episodes of wheezing, wheezing trajectories (phenotypes and lung function at age 8 years using logistic regression models adjusted for child's sex, maternal history of asthma/atopy, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and family adversity.4,706 children had complete data on pet ownership and wheezing. From birth to age 7 years, cat ownership was associated with an overall 6% lower odds of wheezing (OR=0.94 (0.89-0.99. Rabbit and rodent ownership was associated with 21% (OR=1.21 (1.12-1.31 and 11% (OR=1.11 (1.02-1.21 higher odds of wheezing, respectively, with strongest effects evident during infancy. Rabbit and rodent ownership was positively associated with a 'persistent wheeze' phenotype. Pet ownership was not associated with lung function at age 8 years, with the exception of positive associations of rodent and bird ownership with better lung function.Cat ownership was associated with reduced risk, and rabbit and rodent ownership with increased risk, of wheezing during childhood. The mechanisms behind these differential effects warrant further investigation.

  9. Matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) is associated with early-onset lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Wiebke; Rosenberger, Albert; Beckmann, Lars; Kropp, Silke; Mittelstrass, Kirstin; Timofeeva, Maria; Wölke, Gabi; Steinwachs, Angelika; Scheiner, Daniela; Meese, Eckart; Sybrecht, Gerhard; Kronenberg, Florian; Dienemann, Hendrik; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Illig, Thomas; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Bickeböller, Heike; Risch, Angela

    2008-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) play a key role in the breakdown of extracellular matrix and in inflammatory processes. MMP1 is the most highly expressed interstitial collagenase degrading fibrillar collagens. Overexpression of MMP1 has been shown in tumor tissues and has been suggested to be associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. Nine haplotype tagging and additional two intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of MMP1 were genotyped in a case control sample, consisting of 635 lung cancer cases with onset of disease below 51 years of age and 1,300 age- and sex-matched cancer-free controls. Two regions of linkage disequilibrium (LD) of MMP1 could be observed: a region of low LD comprising the 5' region including the promoter and a region of high LD starting from exon 1 to the end of the gene and including the 3' flanking region. Several SNPs were identified to be individually significantly associated with risk of early-onset lung cancer. The most significant effect was seen for rs1938901 (P = 0.0089), rs193008 (P = 0.0108), and rs996999 (P = 0.0459). For rs996999, significance vanished after correction for multiple testing. For each of these SNPs, the major allele was associated with an increase in risk with an odds ratio between 1.2 and 1.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.5). The haplotype analysis supported these findings, especially for subgroups with high smoking intensity. In summary, we identified MMP1 to be associated with an increased risk for lung cancer, which was modified by smoking.

  10. Circulating micro-RNA expression profiles in early stage nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heegaard, Niels H H; Schetter, Aaron J; Welsh, Judith A; Yoneda, Mitsuhiro; Bowman, Elise D; Harris, Curtis C

    2012-03-15

    Circulating micro-RNA (miR) profiles have been proposed as promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for cancer, including lung cancer. We have developed methods to accurately and reproducibly measure micro-RNA levels in serum and plasma. Here, we study paired serum and plasma samples from 220 patients with early stage nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 220 matched controls. We use qRT-PCR to measure the circulating levels of 30 different miRs that have previously been reported to be differently expressed in lung cancer tissue. Duplicate RNA extractions were performed for 10% of all samples, and micro-RNA measurements were highly correlated among those duplicates. This demonstrates high reproducibility of our assay. The expressions of miR-146b, miR-221, let-7a, miR-155, miR-17-5p, miR-27a and miR-106a were significantly reduced in the serum of NSCLC cases, while miR-29c was significantly increased. No significant differences were observed in plasma of patients compared with controls. Overall, expression levels in serum did not correlate well with levels in plasma. In secondary analyses, reduced plasma expression of let-7b was modestly associated with worse cancer-specific mortality in all patients, and reduced serum expression of miR-223 was modestly associated with cancer-specific mortality in stage IA/B patients. MiR profiles also showed considerable differences comparing African American and European Americans. In summary, we found significant differences in miR expression when comparing cases and controls and find evidence that expression of let-7b is associated with prognosis in NSCLC. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  11. Pulmonary function tests in the preoperative evaluation of lung cancer surgery candidates. A review of guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Trzaska-Sobczak, Marzena; Skoczyński, Szymon; Pierzchała, Władysław

    2014-01-01

    Before planned surgical treatment of lung cancer, the patient's respiratory system function should be evaluated. According to the current guidelines, the assessment should start with measurements of FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and DLco (carbon monoxide lung diffusion capacity). Pneumonectomy is possible when FEV1 and DLco are > 80% of the predicted value (p.v.). If either of these parameters is < 80%, an exercise test with VO2 max (oxygen consumption during maximal exercise) m...

  12. [Role of functional imaging in the definition of target volumes for lung cancer radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thureau, S; Hapdey, S; Vera, P

    2016-10-01

    Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) is interesting to optimize lung radiotherapy planning, and probably to deliver a heterogeneous dose or adapt the radiation dose during treatment. Only fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-computed tomography (CT) is validated for staging lung cancer and planning radiotherapy. The optimal segmentation methods remain to be defined as well as the interest of "dose painting" from pre-treatment PET (metabolism: FDG) or hypoxia (fluoromisonidazole: FMISO) and the interest of replanning based on pertherapeutic PET.

  13. Early Lung Disease in Infants and Preschool Children with Cystic Fibrosis. What Have We Learned and What Should We Do about It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Sarath C; Hall, Graham L; Sly, Peter D; Stick, Stephen M; Douglas, Tonia A

    2017-06-15

    The past decade has seen significant advances in understanding of the pathogenesis and progression of lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). Pulmonary inflammation, infection, and structural lung damage manifest very early in life and are prevalent among preschool children and infants, often in the absence of symptoms or signs. Early childhood represents a pivotal period amenable to intervention strategies that could delay or prevent the onset of lung damage and alter the longer-term clinical trajectory for individuals with CF. This review summarizes what we have learned about early lung disease in children with CF and discusses the implications for future clinical practice and research.

  14. Non-invasive toluene sensor for early diagnosis of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Rahul; Srivastava, Sudha, E-mail: sudha.srivastava@jiit.ac.in [Department of Biotechnology, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida-201307,Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-04-13

    Here we present, quantification of volatile organic compounds in human breath for early detection of lung cancer to increase survival probability. Graphene oxide nanosheets synthesized by modified Hummer’s method were employed as a sensing element to detect the presence of toluene in the sample. Optical and morphological characterization of synthesized nanomaterial was performed by UV-Visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. Spectroscopic assay shows a linearly decreasing intensity of GO absorption peak with increasing toluene concentration with a linear range from 0-200 pM. While impedimetric sensor developed on a graphene oxide nanosheetsmodified screen printed electrodes displayed a decreasing electron transfer resistance increasing toluene with much larger linear range of 0-1000 pM. Reported techniques are advantageous as these are simple, sensitive and cost effective, which can easily be extended for primary screening of other VOCs.

  15. Non-invasive toluene sensor for early diagnosis of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Rahul; Srivastava, Sudha

    2016-04-01

    Here we present, quantification of volatile organic compounds in human breath for early detection of lung cancer to increase survival probability. Graphene oxide nanosheets synthesized by modified Hummer's method were employed as a sensing element to detect the presence of toluene in the sample. Optical and morphological characterization of synthesized nanomaterial was performed by UV-Visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. Spectroscopic assay shows a linearly decreasing intensity of GO absorption peak with increasing toluene concentration with a linear range from 0-200 pM. While impedimetric sensor developed on a graphene oxide nanosheetsmodified screen printed electrodes displayed a decreasing electron transfer resistance increasing toluene with much larger linear range of 0-1000 pM. Reported techniques are advantageous as these are simple, sensitive and cost effective, which can easily be extended for primary screening of other VOCs.

  16. Serum methylarginines and spirometry-measured lung function in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A McEvoy

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Methylarginines are endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors that have been implicated in animal models of lung disease but have not previously been examined for their association with spirometric measures of lung function in humans. OBJECTIVES: This study measured serum concentrations of asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine in a representative sample of older community-dwelling adults and determined their association with spirometric lung function measures. METHODS: Data on clinical, lifestyle, and demographic characteristics, methylated arginines, and L-arginine (measured using LC-MS/MS were collected from a population-based sample of older Australian adults from the Hunter Community Study. The five key lung function measures included as outcomes were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, Forced Vital Capacity, Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second to Forced Vital Capacity ratio, Percent Predicted Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, and Percent Predicted Forced Vital Capacity. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In adjusted analyses there were statistically significant independent associations between a higher asymmetric dimethylarginine, lower Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second and lower Forced Vital Capacity; and b lower L-arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine ratio, lower Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second, lower Percent Predicted Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second and lower Percent Predicted Forced Vital Capacity. By contrast, no significant associations were observed between symmetric dimethylarginine and lung function. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for clinical, demographic, biochemical, and pharmacological confounders, higher serum asymmetric dimethylarginine was independently associated with a reduction in key measures of lung function. Further research is needed to determine if methylarginines predict the decline in lung function.

  17. Differences in miRNA expression in early stage lung adenocarcinomas that did and did not relapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mick D Edmonds

    Full Text Available Relapse of adenocarcinoma, the most common non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, is a major clinical challenge to improving survival. To gain insight into the early molecular events that contribute to lung adenocarcinoma relapse, and taking into consideration potential cell type specificity, we used stringent criteria for sample selection. We measured miRNA expression only from flash frozen stage I lung adenocarcinomas, excluding other NSCLC subtypes. We compared miRNA expression in lung adenocarcinomas that relapsed within two years to those that did not relapse within three years after surgical resection prior to adjuvant therapy. The most significant differences in mRNA expression for recurrent tumors compared to non-recurrent tumors were decreases in miR-106b*, -187, -205, -449b, -774* and increases in miR-151-3p, let-7b, miR-215, -520b, and -512-3p. A unique comparison between adjacent normal lung tissue from relapse and non-relapse groups revealed dramatically different miRNA expression, suggesting dysregulation of miRNA in the environment around the tumor. To assess patient-to-patient variability, miRNA levels in the tumors were normalized to levels in matched adjacent normal lung tissue. This analysis revealed a different set of significantly altered miRNA in tumors that recurred compared to tumors that did not. Together our analyses elucidated miRNA not previously linked to lung adenocarcinoma that likely have important roles in its development and progression. Our results also highlight the differences in miRNA expression in normal lung tissue in adenocarcinomas that do and do not recur. Most notably, our data identified those miRNA that distinguish early stage tumors likely to relapse prior to treatment and miRNA that could be further studied for use as biomarkers for prognosis, patient monitoring, and/or treatment decisions.

  18. Radiology and its role in the early detection of lung cancer; La radiologia y la deteccion precoz del cancer de pulmon: evolucion historica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastarrika, G.; Pueyo, J.; Bergaz, F.; Cano, D.; Vivas, I.; Zulueta, J. [Clinical Universitaria de Navarra (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Lung cancer is the neoplasia with the highest worldwide mortality rate. During recent decades, several programs for early detection of lung cancer have been initiated with none having demonstrated a significant reduction in mortality. Recent technological advances (spiral CT) have rekindled an interest in screening programs and results have been encouraging. Nevertheless, the initial question remains: would programs for the early detection of lung cancer be able to significantly decrease mortality rates?. (Author) 41 refs.

  19. Functional validation and comparison framework for EIT lung imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Grychtol

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT is an emerging clinical tool for monitoring ventilation distribution in mechanically ventilated patients, for which many image reconstruction algorithms have been suggested. We propose an experimental framework to assess such algorithms with respect to their ability to correctly represent well-defined physiological changes. We defined a set of clinically relevant ventilation conditions and induced them experimentally in 8 pigs by controlling three ventilator settings (tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure and the fraction of inspired oxygen. In this way, large and discrete shifts in global and regional lung air content were elicited. METHODS: We use the framework to compare twelve 2D EIT reconstruction algorithms, including backprojection (the original and still most frequently used algorithm, GREIT (a more recent consensus algorithm for lung imaging, truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD, several variants of the one-step Gauss-Newton approach and two iterative algorithms. We consider the effects of using a 3D finite element model, assuming non-uniform background conductivity, noise modeling, reconstructing for electrode movement, total variation (TV reconstruction, robust error norms, smoothing priors, and using difference vs. normalized difference data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that, while variation in appearance of images reconstructed from the same data is not negligible, clinically relevant parameters do not vary considerably among the advanced algorithms. Among the analysed algorithms, several advanced algorithms perform well, while some others are significantly worse. Given its vintage and ad-hoc formulation backprojection works surprisingly well, supporting the validity of previous studies in lung EIT.

  20. Targeting of Cancer Stem Cells and Their Microenvironment in Early-Stage Mutant K-ras Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    1 Í AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0338 TITLE: Targeting of Cancer Stem Cells and Their Microenvironment in Early-Stage Mutant K-ras Lung... Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: James Kim, MD. PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS SOUTHWESTERN MEDICAL Dallas, TX 75390 REPORT DATE...15 Sep 2014 - 14 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting of Cancer Stem Cells and Their Microenvironment in Early-Stage Mutant

  1. Oral iodinated activated charcoal improves lung function in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogvall, Staffan; Erjefält, Jonas S; Olin, Anders I; Ankerst, Jaro; Bjermer, Leif

    2014-06-01

    The effect of 8 weeks treatment with oral iodinated activated charcoal (IAC) on lung function of patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was examined in a double blind randomized placebo controlled parallel group study with 40 patients. In the IAC group, patients showed a statistically significant improvement of FEV1 baseline by 130 ml compared to placebo, corresponding to 8.2% improvement (p = 0.031*). Correlation statistics revealed that the improvement of FEV1 baseline was significantly correlated both to FEV1 post-bronchodilator (p = 0.0020**) and FEV1 post-exercise (0.033*) values. This demonstrates that the improved baseline lung function by IAC did not inhibit a further beta2-adrenoceptor relaxation, and thus that patients did not reach a limit for maximal improvement of the lung function after IAC treatment. Eight patients in the IAC group developed abnormal thyroid hormone levels transiently during the treatment. This side effect was not correlated to improvement of lung function (p = 0.82). No serious adverse effects directly related to the treatment were recorded. In summary, this study demonstrates that iodinated activated charcoal surprisingly and significantly improved lung function of patients with moderate COPD. The underlying mechanism of action is unclear, but is likely to be different from the drugs used today. The immediate conclusion is that further studies are now justified in order to determine clinical efficacy of IAC in COPD and explore possible mechanisms of action.

  2. SURVIVAL AND QUALITY OF LIFE AFTER STEREOTACTIC OR 3D-CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY FOR INOPERABLE EARLY-STAGE LUNG CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widder, Joachim; Postmus, Douwe; Ubbels, Jan F.; Wiegman, Erwin M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate survival and local recurrence after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) or threedimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) administered for early-stage primary lung cancer and to investigate longitudinal changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) parameters

  3. SURVIVAL AND QUALITY OF LIFE AFTER STEREOTACTIC OR 3D-CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY FOR INOPERABLE EARLY-STAGE LUNG CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widder, Joachim; Postmus, Douwe; Ubbels, Jan F.; Wiegman, Erwin M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate survival and local recurrence after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) or threedimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) administered for early-stage primary lung cancer and to investigate longitudinal changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) parameters afte

  4. Accelerated decline in lung function in smoking women with airway obstruction: SAPALDIA 2 cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemp Elisabeth

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to determine if effects from smoking on lung function measured over 11 years differ between men and women. Methods In a prospective population based cohort study (Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults current smokers in 1991 (18 – 60 yrs were reassessed in 2002 (n = 1792. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate effects from pack-years of cigarettes smoked to 1991 and mean packs of cigarettes smoked per day between 1991 and 2002 on change in lung volume and flows over the 11 years. Results In both sexes, packs smoked between assessments were related to lung function decline but pack-years smoked before 1991 were not. Mean annual decline in FEV1 was -10.4 mL(95%CI -15.3, -5.5 per pack per day between assessments in men and -13.8 mL(95%CI-19.5,-8.1 in women. Decline per pack per day between 1991 and 2002 was lower in women who smoked in 1991 but quit before 2002 compared to persistent smokers (-6.4 vs -11.6 mL, p = 0.05 but this was not seen in men (-14.3 vs -8.8 mL p = 0.49. Smoking related decline was accelerated in men and women with airway obstruction, particularly in women where decline in FEV1 was three fold higher in participants with FEV1/FVC Conclusion There are differences in effects from smoking on lung function between men and women. Lung function recovers faster in women quitters than in men. Women current smokers with airway obstruction experience a greater smoking related decline in lung function than men.

  5. Influence of lung function, immune function and cytokines on children with asthma treated by Pidotimod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Liu; Bin Zhu; Meng-Hui Wu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the influence of lung function, immune function and cytokines on children with asthma treated by Pidotimod.Methods:108 cases of children with asthma were chosen and divided into the observation group and the control group with stochastic indicator method, 54 cases in each group; children in the two groups were given basic treatment, on the basis of that, children in the observation group were treated by Pidotimod. After two months, compared with the lung function index: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), percentage of FEV1, FEV1 expected value (FEV1%) and FEV1/FVC%, immune function index: CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, cell factor: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α).Results:The levels of FEV1, FEV1%, FEV1/FVC% in the observation group after treatment were respectively (3.93±1.12)L, (80.21±6.69) and (73.71±5.66), they were significantly higher than those before treatment and the control group after treatment, the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05); The levels of CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+in the observation group after treatment were respectively (65.18±7.22)%, (38.20±4.42)% and (1.62±0.56), they were significantly higher than those before treatment and the control group after treatment; the levels of CD8+ was (24.06±4.32)%, which was significantly lower than that before treatment and the control group after treatment; the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). The levels of CRP, TNF-α, IL-8 in the observation group after treatment were respectively (1.87±0.65) mg/L, (4.89±2.28) pg/mL and (12.23±4.35) pg/mL, which were significantly lower than those before treatment and the control group after treatment, the difference had statistical significance.Conclusion:Pidotimod treatment can significantly improve the pulmonary function in children with asthma, enhance immunity, reduce inflammation, and is worthy of clinical recommendations.

  6. Association of perfluoroalkyl substances exposure with impaired lung function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiao-Di; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Perret, Jennifer; Geiger, Sarah Dee; Rigdon, Steven E; Howard, Steven; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Hu, Li-Wen; Yang, Bo-Yi; Zhou, Yang; Li, Meng; Xu, Shu-Li; Bao, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Ya-Zhi; Yuan, Ping; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Chuan; Tian, Yan-Peng; Nian, Min; Xiao, Xiang; Chen, Wen; Lee, Yungling Leo; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-02-04

    Previous studies have demonstrated associations between serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and asthma or asthma related-biomarkers. However, no studies have reported a possible relationship between PFASs exposure and lung function among children. The objective of the present study is to test the association between PFASs exposure and lung function in children from a high exposure area by using a cross-sectional case-control study, which included 132 asthmatic children and 168 non-asthmatic controls recruited from 2009 to 2010 in the Genetic and Biomarkers study for Childhood Asthma. Structured questionnaires were administered face-to-face. Lung function was measured by spirometry. Linear regression models were used to examine the influence of PFASs on lung function. The results showed that asthmatics in our study had significantly higher serum PFAS concentrations than healthy controls. Logistic regression models showed a positive association between PFASs and asthma, with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.80-1.21) to 2.76 (95% CI: 1.82-4.17). Linear regression modeling showed serum PFASs levels were significantly negatively associated with three pulmonary function measurements (forced vital capacity: FVC; forced expiratory volume in 1s: FEV1; forced expiratory flow 25-75%: FEF25-75) among children with asthma, the adjusted coefficients between lung function and PFASs exposure ranged from -0.055 (95%CI: -0.100 to -0.010) for FVC and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to -0.223 (95%CI: -0.400 to -0.045) for FEF25-75 and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). PFASs were not, however, significantly associated with pulmonary function among children without asthma. In conclusion, this study suggests that serum PFASs are associated with decreased lung function among children with asthma.

  7. X-Ray based Lung Function measurement–a sensitive technique to quantify lung function in allergic airway inflammation mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullin, C.; Markus, M. A.; Larsson, E.; Tromba, G.; Hülsmann, S.; Alves, F.

    2016-11-01

    In mice, along with the assessment of eosinophils, lung function measurements, most commonly carried out by plethysmography, are essential to monitor the course of allergic airway inflammation, to examine therapy efficacy and to correlate animal with patient data. To date, plethysmography techniques either use intubation and/or restraining of the mice and are thus invasive, or are limited in their sensitivity. We present a novel unrestrained lung function method based on low-dose planar cinematic x-ray imaging (X-Ray Lung Function, XLF) and demonstrate its performance in monitoring OVA induced experimental allergic airway inflammation in mice and an improved assessment of the efficacy of the common treatment dexamethasone. We further show that XLF is more sensitive than unrestrained whole body plethysmography (UWBP) and that conventional broncho-alveolar lavage and histology provide only limited information of the efficacy of a treatment when compared to XLF. Our results highlight the fact that a multi-parametric imaging approach as delivered by XLF is needed to address the combined cellular, anatomical and functional effects that occur during the course of asthma and in response to therapy.

  8. X-Ray based Lung Function measurement-a sensitive technique to quantify lung function in allergic airway inflammation mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullin, C; Markus, M A; Larsson, E; Tromba, G; Hülsmann, S; Alves, F

    2016-11-02

    In mice, along with the assessment of eosinophils, lung function measurements, most commonly carried out by plethysmography, are essential to monitor the course of allergic airway inflammation, to examine therapy efficacy and to correlate animal with patient data. To date, plethysmography techniques either use intubation and/or restraining of the mice and are thus invasive, or are limited in their sensitivity. We present a novel unrestrained lung function method based on low-dose planar cinematic x-ray imaging (X-Ray Lung Function, XLF) and demonstrate its performance in monitoring OVA induced experimental allergic airway inflammation in mice and an improved assessment of the efficacy of the common treatment dexamethasone. We further show that XLF is more sensitive than unrestrained whole body plethysmography (UWBP) and that conventional broncho-alveolar lavage and histology provide only limited information of the efficacy of a treatment when compared to XLF. Our results highlight the fact that a multi-parametric imaging approach as delivered by XLF is needed to address the combined cellular, anatomical and functional effects that occur during the course of asthma and in response to therapy.

  9. The Potential for Resident Lung Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Promote Functional Tissue Regeneration: Understanding Microenvironmental Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Majka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tissue resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are important regulators of tissue repair or regeneration, fibrosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and tumor formation. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC are currently being considered and tested in clinical trials as a potential therapy in patients with such inflammatory lung diseases including, but not limited to, chronic lung disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, pulmonary fibrosis (PF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD/emphysema and asthma. However, our current understanding of tissue resident lung MSCs remains limited. This review addresses how environmental cues impact on the phenotype and function of this endogenous stem cell pool. In addition, it examines how these local factors influence the efficacy of cell-based treatments for lung diseases.

  10. The potential for resident lung mesenchymal stem cells to promote functional tissue regeneration: understanding microenvironmental cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronjy, Robert F; Majka, Susan M

    2012-12-01

    Tissue resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are important regulators of tissue repair or regeneration, fibrosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and tumor formation. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are currently being considered and tested in clinical trials as a potential therapy in patients with such inflammatory lung diseases including, but not limited to, chronic lung disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), pulmonary fibrosis (PF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/emphysema and asthma. However, our current understanding of tissue resident lung MSCs remains limited. This review addresses how environmental cues impact on the phenotype and function of this endogenous stem cell pool. In addition, it examines how these local factors influence the efficacy of cell-based treatments for lung diseases.

  11. Early smoking-induced lung lesions in asymptomatic subjects. Correlations between high resolution dynamic CT and pulmonary function testing; Danno polmonare precoce da fumo in soggetti asintomatici. Studio correlativo con TC dinamica ad elevata risoluzione e test di funzionalita' respiratoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaggiari, Enrica; Zompadori, Maurizio; Bna' , Claudio; Ormitti, Francesca; Svaerzellati, Nicola; Rabaiotti, Enrico [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Sezione di Diagnostica per Immagini e UO di Scienze Radiologiche Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche; Verduri, Alessia; Chetta, Alfredo [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Sezione Clinica Pneumologica

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and significance of the pathological effects of cigarette smoking on the lung and the sensitivity of high-resolution CT (HRCT) in the recognition of early smoking-induced lesions in asymptomatic former of current smokers. Materials and methods: We performed a prospective and consecutive analysis of 36 volunteers (16 males, 20 females), 10 non-smokers (3 males, 7 females) and 26 smokers (13 males, 13 females / 17 current smokers; 9 former smokers), all asymptomatic and with normal respiratory flows. These subjects underwent lung function testing and HRCT, after providing written informed consent for the study. The HRCT scans were obtained at three pre-selected levels (aortic arch, tracheal carina and venous hilum). The same scans were obtained in post-expiration phase. At the level of the apical segmental bronchus of the right upper lobe, we measured on the monitor wall thickening, and the total and internal diameters using the techniques reported in literature. Each study was independently evaluated by two radiologists that were blinded to all clinical and functional data: they also evaluated the presence, prevalence and type of emphysema, areas of patchy hyperlucency and oligoemia in the inspiration phase and areas of expiratory air trapping. The extension was evaluated with the visual score method. The data obtained were analysed with the Windows SPSS package for statistical analysis. Results: The two groups (non smokers and smokers) showed significant differences in some functional tests such as FEV1 (p<0.005) and Tiffeneau index (p<0.005) which were lower in current-smokers or former-smokers, although still within the normal range. The HRCT study did not show areas of emphysema or air trapping in non smokers. In the smokers' group, air trapping was observed in 30.7% of cases: 33% former-smokers and 29.4% current smokers (mean extension was 21.36% in former smokers and 9.48% in current smokers). Mean extension in the

  12. Respiratory monitoring with electrical impedance tomography for lung protective ventilation and alveolar recruitment maneuver in a patient with a single lung transplant and early graft dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A; Alonso, B; Latorre, I; García, J

    2016-01-01

    A case is presented on a patient who underwent left single lung transplantation for emphysema type COPD. There was early graft dysfunction gradeiii during the immediate postoperative period, which required the implantation of an extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO). Respirator ventilatory parameters were adjusted to avoid lung distension, low tidal volume (Vc) (280ml), high respiratory rates (20rpm), and a positive pressure at end expiration (PEEP) level of 8cmH2O. On monitoring the pulmonary tidal volume distribution by bedside electrical impedance tomography (EIT), it was noted that most of the tidal volume was distributed in the native lung emphysema. An alveolar recruitment manoeuvre was performed, under control of the EIT, that enabled the current volume and distribution and the pressures required to ventilate the transplanted lung to be observed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Extent and computed tomography appearance of early radiation induced lung injury for non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Christiansen, Rasmus Lübeck; Asmussen, Jon Thor

    2017-01-01

    scans acquired up to six months after radiotherapy were evaluated for radiologic injuries in 220 NSCLC patients. Radiologic injuries were divided into three categories: (1) interstitial changes, (2) ground-glass opacity, or (3) consolidation. The relationship between the fraction of injured lung of each...

  14. Benzo(a)pyrene induced structural and functional modifications in lung cystatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Priyadarshini, Medha; Shah, Aaliya; Tabrez, Shams; Jagirdar, Haseeb; Alsenaidy, Abdulrahman M; Bano, Bilqees

    2013-10-01

    Cystatins are thiol proteinase inhibitors ubiquitously present in the mammalian body. They serve a protective function to regulate the activities of endogenous proteinases, which may cause uncontrolled proteolysis and damage. In the present study, the effect of benzo(a)pyrene [BaP] on lung cystatin was studied to explore the hazardous effects of environmental pollutant on structural and functional integrity of the protein. The basic binding interaction was studied by UV-absorption, FT-IR, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The enhancement of total protein fluorescence with a red shift of 5 nm suggests structural scratch of lung cystatin by benzo(a)pyrene. Further, ANS binding studies reaffirm the unfolding of the thiol protease inhibitor (GLC-I) after treating with benzo(a)pyrene. The results of FT-IR spectroscopy reflect perturbation of the secondary conformation (alpha-helix to β-sheet) in goat lung cystatin on interaction with BaP. Finally, functional inactivation of cystatin on association with BaP was checked by its papain inhibitory activity. Benzo(a)pyrene (10 μM) caused complete inactivation of goat lung cystatin. Benzo(a)pyrene-induced loss of structure and function in the thiol protease inhibitor could provide a caution for lung injury caused by the pollutants and smokers.

  15. Functional improvement in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing single lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Sperb Rubin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: To evaluate the changes in lung function in the first year after single lung transplantation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF.Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients with IPF who underwent single lung transplantation between January of 2006 and December of 2012, reviewing the changes in the lung function occurring during the first year after the procedure.Results: Of the 218 patients undergoing lung transplantation during the study period, 79 (36.2% had IPF. Of those 79 patients, 24 (30% died, and 11 (14% did not undergo spirometry at the end of the first year. Of the 44 patients included in the study, 29 (66% were men. The mean age of the patients was 57 years. Before transplantation, mean FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio were 1.78 L (50% of predicted, 1.48 L (52% of predicted, and 83%, respectively. In the first month after transplantation, there was a mean increase of 12% in FVC (400 mL and FEV1 (350 mL. In the third month after transplantation, there were additional increases, of 5% (170 mL in FVC and 1% (50 mL in FEV1. At the end of the first year, the functional improvement persisted, with a mean gain of 19% (620 mL in FVC and 16% (430 mL in FEV1.Conclusions: Single lung transplantation in IPF patients who survive for at least one year provides significant and progressive benefits in lung function during the first year. This procedure is an important therapeutic alternative in the management of IPF.

  16. Significantly enhanced lung metastasis and reduced organ NK cell functions in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, J; Hanke, J; Knauf, D; Ben-Eliyahu, S; Jacobs, R; Stangl, G I; Bähr, I; Kielstein, H

    2017-01-01

    Obesity was identified as a major risk factor for malignant diseases, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Natural killer (NK) cells, a pivotal aspect of innate immunity, are capable of identifying and killing virally infected and tumor cells. Previous studies have shown altered NK cell functions in obesity, and the current study aimed to investigate the relationship between altered NK cell functions and increased cancer risk in obesity. To induce obesity male F344-rats received a high-fat diet (34% fat) or a control diet (4% fat). Thereafter, syngeneic mammary adenocarcinoma cells (MADB106) or a vehicle were intravenously (i.v.) injected. 15 min after injection, half of each group of rats were killed, lungs removed and immunohistochemically stained. Numbers of NK cells, MADB106 cells and NK cell-tumor cell interactions were quantified. Twenty-one days after tumor-cell injection the other half group of rats was killed and lung metastases were counted and relative mRNA concentrations of different NK cell receptors were determined. After short-term MADB106-challenge, DIO fed animals showed significantly decreased NK cell numbers in the blood and NK cell-tumor cell interactions in the lung as compared to their control littermates. Twenty-one days after MADB106 injection, the lungs of the DIO fed rats showed significantly more lung metastases compared to control animals, accompanied by reduced relative mRNA concentrations of the activating NK cell receptor NKG2D. We conclude that induction of obesity in F344-rats leads to reduced lung NK cell function against tumor cells and results in significantly enhanced lung metastasis as compared to lean animals. It can be hypothesized that obesity-induced altered NK cell functions play an important role in cancer growth and metastasis.

  17. Imaging lung function in mice using SPECT/CT and per-voxel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian N Jobse

    Full Text Available Chronic lung disease is a major worldwide health concern but better tools are required to understand the underlying pathologies. Ventilation/perfusion (V/Q single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT with per-voxel analysis allows for non-invasive measurement of regional lung function. A clinically adapted V/Q methodology was used in healthy mice to investigate V/Q relationships. Twelve week-old mice were imaged to describe normal lung function while 36 week-old mice were imaged to determine how age affects V/Q. Mice were ventilated with Technegas™ and injected with (99mTc-macroaggregated albumin to trace ventilation and perfusion, respectively. For both processes, SPECT and CT images were acquired, co-registered, and quantitatively analyzed. On a per-voxel basis, ventilation and perfusion were moderately correlated (R = 0.58±0.03 in 12 week old animals and a mean log(V/Q ratio of -0.07±0.01 and standard deviation of 0.36±0.02 were found, defining the extent of V/Q matching. In contrast, 36 week old animals had significantly increased levels of V/Q mismatching throughout the periphery of the lung. Measures of V/Q were consistent across healthy animals and differences were observed with age demonstrating the capability of this technique in quantifying lung function. Per-voxel analysis and the ability to non-invasively assess lung function will aid in the investigation of chronic lung disease models and drug efficacy studies.

  18. Drug Repositioning Discovery for Early- and Late-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hung Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug repositioning is a popular approach in the pharmaceutical industry for identifying potential new uses for existing drugs and accelerating the development time. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. To reduce the biological heterogeneity effects among different individuals, both normal and cancer tissues were taken from the same patient, hence allowing pairwise testing. By comparing early- and late-stage cancer patients, we can identify stage-specific NSCLC genes. Differentially expressed genes are clustered separately to form up- and downregulated communities that are used as queries to perform enrichment analysis. The results suggest that pathways for early- and late-stage cancers are different. Sets of up- and downregulated genes were submitted to the cMap web resource to identify potential drugs. To achieve high confidence drug prediction, multiple microarray experimental results were merged by performing meta-analysis. The results of a few drug findings are supported by MTT assay or clonogenic assay data. In conclusion, we have been able to assess the potential existing drugs to identify novel anticancer drugs, which may be helpful in drug repositioning discovery for NSCLC.

  19. Best lung function equations for the very elderly selected by survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Martin R; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated which equations best predicted the lung function of a cohort of nonagenarians based on which best accounted for subsequent survival.In 1998, we measured lung function, grip strength and dementia score (Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)) in a population-based sample of 2262 Danes...... proportional hazard regression found lower FEV1SR was a predictor of mortality having controlled for MMSE, grip strength and sex. The US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1999) equations gave a better spread of median survival by FEV1SR quartile: 3.94, 3.65, 3.51 and 2.61 years...... with a hazard ratio for death of 1, 1.16, 1.32 and 1.60 respectively, compared with equations derived with the inclusion of elderly subjects.We conclude that extrapolating from NHANES III equations to predict lung function in nonagenarians gave better survival predictions from spirometry than when employing...

  20. Faster activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in resistant mice during early innate response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, C; Kobayashi, O

    2004-01-01

    challenge with alginate embedded P. aeruginosa. These parameters were correlated with the quantitative bacteriology and histopathology of the lungs. After challenge, the content of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) was increased in the lungs...... was decreased 1 day after bacterial challenge, whereas the expression was increased after 2 days of challenge on PMNs of C3H/HeN mice only. These changes were accompanied by a more severe lung inflammation in BALB/c mice and faster clearance of the bacteria in C3H/HeN mice. In conclusion, the rapid early...... bacterial clearance in the lungs of C3H/HeN mice could be explained by faster activation of the PMNs, as indicated by the higher up-regulation of CD11b. The severe lung inflammation in BALB/c mice may be caused by the early higher content of G-CSF in the sera mobilizing PMNs from the bone marrow...

  1. 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone Induces Circulating MicroRNA Deregulation in Early Lung Carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian Jun; YANG Ti; LI Xun; XIA Yuan; ZHAO Yao; ZOU Fei; JIANG Yi Guo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the alteration of circulating microRNAs in 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced early stage lung carcinogenesis. Methods A lung cancer model of male F344 rats was induced with systemic NNK and levels of 8 lung cancer-associated miRNAs in whole blood and serum of rats were measured by quantitative RT-PCR of each at weeks 1, 5, 10, and 20 following NNK treatment. Results No lung cancer was detected in control group and NNK treatment group at week 20 following NNK treatment. The levels of some circulating miRNAs were significantly higher in NNK treatment group than in control group. The miR-210 was down-regulated and the miR-206 was up-regulated in NNK treatment group. The expression level of circulating miRNAs changed from week 1 to week 20 following NNK treatment. Conclusion The expression level of circulating miRNAs is related to NNK-induced early stage lung carcinogenesis in rats and can therefore serve as its potential indicator.

  2. The influence of sighing respirations on infant lung function measured using multiple breath washout gas mixing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukcevic, Damjan; Carlin, John B; King, Louise; Hall, Graham L; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Sly, Peter D; Vuillermin, Peter; Ranganathan, Sarath

    2015-04-01

    There is substantial interest in studying lung function in infants, to better understand the early life origins of chronic lung diseases such as asthma. Multiple breath washout (MBW) is a technique for measuring lung function that has been adapted for use in infants. Respiratory sighs occur frequently in young infants during natural sleep, and in accordance with current MBW guidelines, result in exclusion of data from a substantial proportion of testing cycles. We assessed how sighs during MBW influenced the measurements obtained using data from 767 tests conducted on 246 infants (50% male; mean age 43 days) as part of a large cohort study. Sighs occurred in 119 (15%) tests. Sighs during the main part of the wash-in phase (before the last 5 breaths) were not associated with differences in standard MBW measurements compared with tests without sighs. In contrast, sighs that occurred during the washout were associated with a small but discernible increase in magnitude and variability. For example, the mean lung clearance index increased by 0.36 (95% CI: 0.11-0.62) and variance increased by a multiplicative factor of 2 (95% CI: 1.6-2.5). The results suggest it is reasonable to include MBW data from testing cycles where a sigh occurs during the wash-in phase, but not during washout, of MBW. By recovering data that would otherwise have been excluded, we estimate a boost of about 10% to the final number of acceptable tests and 6% to the number of individuals successfully tested.

  3. No relationship between lung function and high-sensitive C-reactive protein in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybo, Mads; Hansen, Henrik Steen; Siersted, Hans Christian; Rasmussen, Finn

    2010-10-01

      Several studies on adults have indicated that lower spirometric lung function may be associated with increased systemic inflammation, but no studies have investigated if this association is already present in adolescence.   We explored the temporal relationship between changes in lung function and concentrations of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) in a population-based cohort study at ages 14 and 20 years using a high-sensitivity CRP assay.   CRP measurements were performed in a total of 420 subjects at mean age of 13.9 years. Of these, 262 subjects (62%) participated in the follow-up investigation at mean age of 20.1 years.   Levels of log-CRP at age 14 were not significantly associated with forced expiratory volume (FEV(1) ) or FEV(1) / forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio at age 20, nor with the change in FEV(1) , FVC or FEV(1) /FVC ratio between 14 and 20 years after controlling for body mass index (BMI), airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), asthma, smoking, sex, and height at 14 years, and change in height between 14 and 20 years. Sex, BMI, AHR, ECP and change in height between 14 and 20 years were identified as independent factors associated with the change in FEV(1) , FVC and FEV(1) /FVC ratio in adolescence.   We did not find an association between CRP levels at age 14 and change in lung function by age 20; whereas, sex, change in height, BMI, AHR and ECP were associated with lung function change in adolescence. Our findings indicate that systemic inflammation is of less importance for change in lung function in adolescence. Please cite this paper as: Nybo M, Hansen HS, Siersted HC and Rasmussen F. No relationship between lung function and high-sensitive C-reactive protein in adolescence. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Objectifying Acupuncture Effects by Lung Function and Numeric Rating Scale in Patients Undergoing Heart Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maimer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Poststernotomy pain and impaired breathing are common clinical problems in early postoperative care following heart surgery. Insufficiently treated pain increases the risk of pulmonary complications. High-dose opioids are used for pain management, but they may cause side effects such as respiratory depression. Study Design. We performed a prospective, randomized, controlled, observer-blinded, three-armed clinical trial with 100 patients. Group 1 (n=33 and Group 2 (n=34 received one 20 min session of standardized acupuncture treatment with two different sets of acupoints. Group 3 (n=33 served as standard analgesia control without additional intervention. Results. Primary endpoint analysis revealed a statistically significant analgesic effect for both acupuncture treatments. Group 1 showed a mean percentile pain reduction (PPR of 18% (SD 19, P<0.001. Group 2 yielded a mean PPR of 71% (SD 13, P<0.001. In Group 1, acupuncture resulted in a mean forced vital capacity (FVC increase of 30 cm3 (SD 73 without statistical significance (P=0.303. In Group 2, posttreatment FVC showed a significant increase of 306 cm3 (SD 215, P<0.001. Conclusion. Acupuncture revealed specific analgesic effects after sternotomy. Objective measurement of poststernotomy pain via lung function test was possible.

  5. Early prediction of lung cancer recurrence after stereotactic radiotherapy using second order texture statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattonen, Sarah A.; Palma, David A.; Haasbeek, Cornelis J. A.; Senan, Suresh; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-03-01

    Benign radiation-induced lung injury is a common finding following stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for lung cancer, and is often difficult to differentiate from a recurring tumour due to the ablative doses and highly conformal treatment with SABR. Current approaches to treatment response assessment have shown limited ability to predict recurrence within 6 months of treatment. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the accuracy of second order texture statistics for prediction of eventual recurrence based on computed tomography (CT) images acquired within 6 months of treatment, and compare with the performance of first order appearance and lesion size measures. Consolidative and ground-glass opacity (GGO) regions were manually delineated on post-SABR CT images. Automatic consolidation expansion was also investigated to act as a surrogate for GGO position. The top features for prediction of recurrence were all texture features within the GGO and included energy, entropy, correlation, inertia, and first order texture (standard deviation of density). These predicted recurrence with 2-fold cross validation (CV) accuracies of 70-77% at 2- 5 months post-SABR, with energy, entropy, and first order texture having leave-one-out CV accuracies greater than 80%. Our results also suggest that automatic expansion of the consolidation region could eliminate the need for manual delineation, and produced reproducible results when compared to manually delineated GGO. If validated on a larger data set, this could lead to a clinically useful computer-aided diagnosis system for prediction of recurrence within 6 months of SABR and allow for early salvage therapy for patients with recurrence.

  6. Methylation markers of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaie Lokk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite of intense research in early cancer detection, there is a lack of biomarkers for the reliable detection of malignant tumors, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. DNA methylation changes are common and relatively stable in various types of cancers, and may be used as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. METHODS: We performed DNA methylation profiling of samples from 48 patients with stage I NSCLC and 18 matching cancer-free lung samples using microarrays that cover the promoter regions of more than 14,500 genes. We correlated DNA methylation changes with gene expression levels and performed survival analysis. RESULTS: We observed hypermethylation of 496 CpGs in 379 genes and hypomethylation of 373 CpGs in 335 genes in NSCLC. Compared to adenocarcinoma samples, squamous cell carcinoma samples had 263 CpGs in 223 hypermethylated genes and 513 CpGs in 436 hypomethylated genes. 378 of 869 (43.5% CpG sites discriminating the NSCLC and control samples showed an inverse correlation between CpG site methylation and gene expression levels. As a result of a survival analysis, we found 10 CpGs in 10 genes, in which the methylation level differs in different survival groups. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a set of genes with altered methylation in NSCLC and found that a minority of them showed an inverse correlation with gene expression levels. We also found a set of genes that associated with the survival of the patients. These newly-identified marker candidates for the molecular screening of NSCLC will need further analysis in order to determine their clinical utility.

  7. Lung split function test and pneumonectomy. A lower limit for operability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, K H; Dige-Petersen, H; Lund, J O;

    1978-01-01

    Regional 133Xe ventilation/perfusion studies were used to predict residual lung function after pulmonary resections. The accuracy of the method was good as checked by postoperative spirometry in 11 patients. In 25 patients with impaired lung function and pulmonary cancer, who were consecutively...... selected for surgery, the predicted postoperative maximal breathing capacities (MBC) ranged from 17 to 41 l/min-1 m-2. No patients became permanent pulmonary invalids. One patient died from myocardial infarction, 7 had transient pulmonary insufficiency and 17 patients survived operation without...

  8. Impact of field number and beam angle on functional image-guided lung cancer radiotherapy planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Bilal A.; Bragg, Chris M.; Wild, Jim M.; Swinscoe, James A.; Lawless, Sarah E.; Hart, Kerry A.; Hatton, Matthew Q.; Ireland, Rob H.

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of beam angles and field number on functionally-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) normal lung avoidance treatment plans that incorporate hyperpolarised helium-3 magnetic resonance imaging (3He MRI) ventilation data. Eight non-small cell lung cancer patients had pre-treatment 3He MRI that was registered to inspiration breath-hold radiotherapy planning computed tomography. IMRT plans that minimised the volume of total lung receiving  ⩾20 Gy (V20) were compared with plans that minimised 3He MRI defined functional lung receiving  ⩾20 Gy (fV20). Coplanar IMRT plans using 5-field manually optimised beam angles and 9-field equidistant plans were also evaluated. For each pair of plans, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to compare fV20 and the percentage of planning target volume (PTV) receiving 90% of the prescription dose (PTV90). Incorporation of 3He MRI led to median reductions in fV20 of 1.3% (range: 0.2-9.3% p  =  0.04) and 0.2% (range: 0 to 4.1%; p  =  0.012) for 5- and 9-field arrangements, respectively. There was no clinically significant difference in target coverage. Functionally-guided IMRT plans incorporating hyperpolarised 3He MRI information can reduce the dose received by ventilated lung without comprising PTV coverage. The effect was greater for optimised beam angles rather than uniformly spaced fields.

  9. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  10. Pulmonary CYP2A13 levels are associated with early occurrence of lung cancer-Its implication in mutagenesis of non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Huai-Chih; Lee, Huei; Chao, How-Ran; Chiou, Yu-Hu; Tsou, Tsui-Chun

    2013-10-01

    CYP2A13, a human pulmonary specific cytochrome P450 enzyme, plays an important role in susceptibility to tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs)-induced lung cancer in humans. The pattern of CYP2A13 distribution in respiratory tract affects the susceptibility of the lung to carcinogens. CYP2A13 is expressed in the epithelium of trachea and bronchi; however its pattern of expression in human lung cancer remains largely unknown. This study aimed to determine the CYP2A13 expression in specimens from human non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), i.e., adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma, by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis and to identify the potential linkage between tumor CYP2A13 levels and some clinicopathological characteristics of NSCLC patients in Taiwan. The tumor CYP2A13 IHC staining signal was strong in 76% of the 112 study subjects. Study subjects (especially non-smoking or lung adenocarcinoma patients) with higher tumor CYP2A13 levels were younger. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that in younger subjects (age ≤ 66) and heavy smokers (pack-years ≥ 40), the odds ratio (OR) for positive tumor CYP2A13 staining was significantly higher than that for negative tumor CYP2A13 staining. Moreover, the association of EGFR gene mutations and positive tumor CYP2A13 staining was also revealed. In conclusion, these findings suggest the potential involvement of pulmonary CYP2A13 in the early occurrence of NSCLC as well as in the development of EGFR gene mutations.

  11. Impact of chronic kidney disease on quality of life, lung function, and functional capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Guimarães Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of the chronic kidney disease (CKD on quality of life, from the children's and their parents' perspective, respiratory muscle strength, lung function, and functional capacity in children and adolescents. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of children with CKD aged 8 to 17 years. Those incapable of taking the tests were excluded. After an interview, quality of life by Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQLTM, muscular strength, pulmonary function tests, and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT were applied. Student's t-test, ANOVA (difference in means, and Pearson's coefficient of correlation were used. The level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: Of the 40 patients, the mean distance walked at the 6MWT was 396 meters, and the mean final score at the quality of life test as perceived by the children and parents was 50.9 and 51, respectively. From the children's perspective, the transplanted patients had a higher quality of life score when compared to those undergoing hemodialysis (p < 0.001; those who practiced physical activity had better quality of life when compared to the sedentary children (p < 0.001. From the children's and the parents' perspectives, the male gender had a higher quality of life score (p < 0.05. There was a positive correlation between the distance walked at the 6MWT and age, height, final PedsQLTM, forced vital capacity (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1, as well as a negative correlation between FEV1/FVC and the distance walked. CONCLUSION: A significant reduction in the quality of life and the functional capacity was observed in children with CKD, influenced by the type of treatment, gender, and sedentary life style.

  12. Survival and Quality of Life After Stereotactic or 3D-Conformal Radiotherapy for Inoperable Early-Stage Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Joachim, E-mail: j.widder@rt.umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Postmus, Douwe [Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Ubbels, Jan F.; Wiegman, Erwin M.; Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate survival and local recurrence after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) administered for early-stage primary lung cancer and to investigate longitudinal changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) parameters after either treatment. Methods and Materials: Two prospective cohorts of inoperable patients with T1-2N0M0 primary lung tumors were analyzed. Patients received 70 Gy in 35 fractions with 3D-CRT or 60 Gy in three to eight fractions with SABR. Global quality of life (GQOL), physical functioning (PF), and patient-rated dyspnea were assessed using the respective dimensions of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Questionnaire-C30 and LC13. HRQOL was analyzed using multivariate linear mixed-effects modeling, survival and local control (LC) using the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox proportional hazards analysis, and Fine and Gray multivariate competing risk analysis as appropriate. Results: Overall survival (OS) was better after SABR compared with 3D-CRT with a HR of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-4.8; p < 0.01). 3D-CRT conferred a subhazard ratio for LC of 5.0 (95% CI: 1.7-14.7; p < 0.01) compared with SABR. GQOL and PF were stable after SABR (p = 0.21 and p = 0.62, respectively). Dyspnea increased after SABR by 3.2 out of 100 points (95% CI: 1.0-5.3; p < 0.01), which is clinically insignificant. At 1 year, PF decreased by an excess of 8.7 out of 100 points (95% CI: 2.8-14.7; p < 0.01) after 3D-CRT compared with SABR. Conclusion: In this nonrandomized comparison of two prospective cohorts of medically inoperable patients with Stage I lung cancer, OS and LC were better after SABR. GQOL, PF, and patient-rated dyspnea were stable after SABR, whereas PF decreased after 3D-CRT approaching clinical significance already at 1 year.

  13. Longitudinal association of body mass index with lung function: The CARDIA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barr R Graham

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung function at the end of life depends on its peak and subsequent decline. Because obesity is epidemic in young adulthood, we quantified age-related changes in lung function relative to body mass index (BMI. Methods The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA study in 1985–86 (year 0 recruited 5,115 black and white men and women, aged 18–30. Spirometry testing was conducted at years 0, 2, 5 and 10. We estimated 10 year change in FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC according to baseline BMI and change in BMI within birth cohorts with initial average ages 20, 24, and 28 years, controlling for race, sex, smoking, asthma, physical activity, and alcohol consumption. Measurements and Main Results Participants with baseline BMI 2 experienced 10 year increases of 71 ml in FVC and 60 ml in FEV1 and neither measure declined through age 38. In contrast, participants with baseline BMI ≥ 26.4 kg/m2 experienced 10 year decreases of 185 ml in FVC and 64 ml in FEV1. FEV1/FVC increased with increasing BMI. Weight gain was also associated with lung function. Those who gained the most weight over 10 years had the largest decrease in FVC, but FVC increased with weight gain in those initially thinnest. In contrast, FEV1 decreased with increasing weight gain in all participants, with maximum decline in obese individuals who gained the most weight during the study. Conclusion Among healthy young adults, increasing BMI in the initially thin participants was associated with increasing then stable lung function through age 38, but there were substantial lung function losses with higher and increasing fatness. These results suggest that the obesity epidemic threatens the lung health of the general population.

  14. The relationship between stage 1 and 2 non-small cell lung cancer and lung function in men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man SF Paul

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 has been linked to non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. However, it is unclear whether all or only certain histological subtypes of NSCLC are associated with reduced FEV1. Moreover, there is little information on whether gender modifies this relationship. Using a large tissue registry, we sought to determine the relationship between FEV1 and subtypes of NSCLC and determine whether this relationship is modified by gender. Methods We used data from patients who underwent tumor resection for NSCLC at a teaching hospital in Vancouver and had various pre-operative clinical measurements including FEV1. We divided the cohort into quartiles of predicted FEV1 and using both logistic and linear regression modeling techniques determined whether FEV1 was related to the occurrence of adeno or squamous cell carcinoma in men and women. Results There were 610 patients in the study (36% females. On average, women were more likely to have adenocarcinoma than were men (72% of all cases of NSCLC in women versus 40% in men; p 1 and the risk of any histological subtypes of NSCLC. In men, however, there was an inverse relationship between the risk of adenocarcinoma and FEV1 such that the lowest quartile of FEV1 was 47% less likely to have adenocarcinoma compared with the highest FEV1 quartile (adjusted odds ratio, 0.52; 0.28 to 0.98; p for trend, 0.028. The reverse was observed for squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion In individuals undergoing lung resection for NSCLC, the risk of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung varies as a function of FEV1, independent of smoking intensity in men but not in women. Clinical Implications These data indicate that women are much more susceptible to adenocarcinoma than are men especially when they have normal or near normal lung function. It may thus be useful to conduct periodic surveillance chest radiographs in asymptomatic female smokers (or ex

  15. Pathomorphological changes of lungs and functional biochemical parameters of respiratory function in patients with intracerebral hemorrhages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Tertyishniy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary complications and closely related with them systemic functional-biochemical abnormalities are the most common complications of cerebral stroke. The purpose of the work was to research functional-biochemical parameters of respiratory function and to find it’s association with morphological changes in the lungs because of intracerebral hemorrhage. 37 sectional observations in patients who die of intracerebral hemorrhage were analized. It was conducted analysis of morphological transformations and retrospective analysis of functional-biochemical findings of respiratory functions, in order to detect changes of systemic hemodynamics, oxygen balance and ion-osmotic one and acid-alkaline status. The results of the study. The changes of blood gas composition and acid-alkaline status are registered in the lungs in the background of microcirculation disturbance from the first hours of development of intracerebral hemorrhage. During the first days of the onset of disease the partial oxygen pressure in arterial blood (РаО2 decreased 50,88% in comparison with the calculated normative findings. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (РаСО2 in the arterial blood rosed by 52,17%. Without conducting artificial lung ventilation PO2 in venous blood decreased by 45,9%, and PCO2 increased by 40%. I has been marked a decrease in the oxygen capacity of the blood, due to the reduction of hemoglobin content in the blood to 103,7 minus 2 g/l and the concomitant decline in hematocrit up to 0,24-0,3. Deficit of the foundations has averaged from -6 to -10 mmol/l. These changes have led to a impression of the respiratory and metabolic acidosis, with a significant increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions. In the first day after the development of the disease with a rapid growing marks of swelling of the brain with concomitant dislocation of the brain stem, blood pH was 7,28 minus 0,02. It has been histologically determined interstitial edema, that

  16. An ex vivo model to induce early fibrosis-like changes in human precision-cut lung slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsafadi, Hani N; Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia A; Lehmann, Mareike; Lindner, Michael; Peschel, Britta; Königshoff, Melanie; Wagner, Darcy E

    2017-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating chronic interstitial lung disease (ILD) characterized by lung tissue scarring and high morbidity. Lung epithelial injury, myofibroblast activation, and deranged repair are believed to be key processes involved in disease onset and progression, but the exact molecular mechanisms behind IPF remain unclear. Several drugs have been shown to slow disease progression, but treatments that halt or reverse IPF progression have not been identified. Ex vivo models of human lung have been proposed for drug discovery, one of which is precision-cut lung slices (PCLS). Although PCLS production from IPF explants is possible, IPF explants are rare and typically represent end-stage disease. Here we present a novel model of early fibrosis-like changes in human PCLS derived from patients without ILD/IPF using a combination of profibrotic growth factors and signaling molecules (transforming growth factor-β, tumor necrosis factor-α, platelet-derived growth factor-AB, and lysophosphatidic acid). Fibrotic-like changes of PCLS were qualitatively analyzed by histology and immunofluorescence and quantitatively by water-soluble tetrazolium-1, RT-qPCR, Western blot analysis, and ELISA. PCLS remained viable after 5 days of treatment, and fibrotic gene expression (FN1, SERPINE1, COL1A1, CTGF, MMP7, and ACTA2) increased as early as 24 h of treatment, with increases in protein levels at 48 h and increased deposition of extracellular matrix. Alveolar epithelium reprogramming was evident by decreases in surfactant protein C and loss of HOPX In summary, using human-derived PCLS, we established a novel ex vivo model that displays characteristics of early fibrosis and could be used to evaluate novel therapies and study early-stage IPF pathomechanisms. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Atlas-based functional radiosurgery: Early results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancanello, J.; Romanelli, P.; Pantelis, E.; Sebastiano, F.; Modugno, N. [Politecnico di Milano, Bioengineering Department and NEARlab, Milano, 20133 (Italy) and Siemens AG, Research and Clinical Collaborations, Erlangen, 91052 (Germany); Functional Neurosurgery Deptartment, Neuromed IRCCS, Pozzilli, 86077 (Italy); CyberKnife Center, Iatropolis, Athens, 15231 (Greece); Functional Neurosurgery Deptartment, Neuromed IRCCS, Pozzilli, 86077 (Italy)

    2009-02-15

    Functional disorders of the brain, such as dystonia and neuropathic pain, may respond poorly to medical therapy. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) and the centromedian nucleus of the thalamus (CMN) may alleviate dystonia and neuropathic pain, respectively. A noninvasive alternative to DBS is radiosurgical ablation [internal pallidotomy (IP) and medial thalamotomy (MT)]. The main technical limitation of radiosurgery is that targets are selected only on the basis of MRI anatomy, without electrophysiological confirmation. This means that, to be feasible, image-based targeting must be highly accurate and reproducible. Here, we report on the feasibility of an atlas-based approach to targeting for functional radiosurgery. In this method, masks of the GPi, CMN, and medio-dorsal nucleus were nonrigidly registered to patients' T1-weighted MRI (T1w-MRI) and superimposed on patients' T2-weighted MRI (T2w-MRI). Radiosurgical targets were identified on the T2w-MRI registered to the planning CT by an expert functional neurosurgeon. To assess its feasibility, two patients were treated with the CyberKnife using this method of targeting; a patient with dystonia received an IP (120 Gy prescribed to the 65% isodose) and a patient with neuropathic pain received a MT (120 Gy to the 77% isodose). Six months after treatment, T2w-MRIs and contrast-enhanced T1w-MRIs showed edematous regions around the lesions; target placements were reevaluated by DW-MRIs. At 12 months post-treatment steroids for radiation-induced edema and medications for dystonia and neuropathic pain were suppressed. Both patients experienced significant relief from pain and dystonia-related problems. Fifteen months after treatment edema had disappeared. Thus, this work shows promising feasibility of atlas-based functional radiosurgery to improve patient condition. Further investigations are indicated for optimizing treatment dose.

  18. Early Life Events Predict Adult Testicular Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Roger J; Doherty, Dorota A; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    ; on testicular function in adulthood. DESIGN: Male members of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) were contacted at 20-22 years of age. Of 913 contacted, 423 (56%) agreed to participate; 404 underwent a testicular ultrasound, 365 provided a semen sample, and reproductive hormones were measured (384......). Consistent height above the 50th percentile for age through childhood was associated with larger adult mean testicular volume (P volume (P = .009) and higher serum inhibin B (P = .010) and T (P...

  19. Sex differences in relations of muscle power, lung function, and reaction time in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursoy, Recep

    2010-06-01

    In an earlier study, relations of nonverbal abilities with several bodily measures such as height, weight, and lung capacity were observed. The present aim was estimation of associations of muscle power and lung function with simple eye-hand reaction time. Sex differences for muscle power were significant even with the covariates of height, weight, and age included; however, these disappeared for lung functions (forced vital capacity and peak expiratory flow) and reaction time. The effects of leg power, forced vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow on the left eye-hand reaction time were significant after adjustment for height, weight, right- and left-hand powers and age. The positive effect of exercise may be especially associated with the right brain activity or left hand speed.

  20. TU-F-17A-09: Four-Dimensional Cone Beam CT Ventilation Imaging Can Detect Interfraction Lung Function Variations for Locally Advanced Lung Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipritidis, J; Keall, P [Radiation Physics Laboratory, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 Australia (Australia); Hugo, G; Weiss, E; Williamson, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond VA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging (4D-CBCT VI) is a novel functional lung imaging modality requiring validation. We hypothesize that 4D-CBCT VI satisfies a necessary condition for validity: that intrafraction variations (e.g. due to poor 4D-CBCT image quality) are substantially different to interfraction variations (e.g. due to changes in underlying function). We perform the first comparison of intrafraction (pre/post fraction) and interfraction (week-to-week) 4D-CBCT VIs for locally advanced non small cell lung cancer (LA NSCLC) patients undergoing radiation therapy. Methods: A total of 215 4D-CBCT scans were acquired for 19 LA NSCLC patients over 4-6 weeks of radiation therapy, including 75 pairs of pre-/post-fraction scans on the same day. 4D-CBCT VIs were obtained by applying state-of-the-art, B-spline deformable image registration to obtain the Jacobian determinant of deformation between the end-exhale and end-inhale phases. All VIs were deformably registered to the corresponding first day scan, normalized between the 10th and 90th percentile values and cropped to the ipsilateral lung only. Intrafraction variations were assessed by computing the mean and standard deviation of voxel-wise differences between all same-day pairs of pre-/post-fraction VIs. Interfraction differences were computed between first-day VIs and treatment weeks 2, 4 and 6 for all 19 patients. We tested the hypothesis by comparing cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of intrafraction and interfraction ventilation differences using two-sided Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests. Results: The (mean ± std. dev.) of intrafraction differences was (−0.007 ± 0.079). Interfraction differences for weeks 2, 4 and 6 were (−0.035 ± 0.103), (−0.006 ± 0.094) and (−0.019 ± 0.127) respectively. For week 2, the changes in CDFs for intrafraction and interfraction differences approached statistical significance (p=0.099). Conclusion: We have shown that 4D-CBCT VI

  1. The Systemic Evaluation and Clinical Significance of Immunological Function for Advanced Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialing WANG

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The actual evaluation of immunological function is significant for studing the tumor development and devising a treatment in time. The aim of this study is to evaluate the immunological function of advanced lung cancer patients systematically, and to discuss the clinical significance. Methods The nucleated cell amounts of advanced lung cancer patients and the healthy individuals were counted. The immune cell subsets and the levels of IL-4, INF-γ, perforin and granzyme in CD8+T cells by the flow cytometry were measured. The proliferation activity and the inhibition ratio of immune cells to several tumor cell lines were evaluated by MTT assay. Results The absolute amounts and subsets of T, B, NK cells of advanced lung cancer patients were lower than the healthy individuals (P < 0.05; However, the proportion of regulatory T cells of advanced lung cancer patients (4.00±1.84% was lower than the healthy individuals (1.27±0.78% (P < 0.05. The positive rates of IFN-γ perforin, granzyme in CD8+T cells decreased while them in IL-4 did not in the advanced lung cancer patients compared to the healthy control group (P < 0.05. The proliferation activity of immune cells, the positive rate of PPD masculine and the inhibition ratio to tumor cells in the advanced lung cancer patients was lower than the healthy subsets obviously (P < 0.05. Conclusion There was a significant immune depression in the advanced lung cancer patients compared to the healthy individuals.

  2. Effects of chemically modified nanostructured PLGA on functioning of lung and breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lijuan Zhang,1 Thomas J Webster21Department of Chemistry, 2School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USABackground: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanotopographies with alginate or chitosan protein preadsorption on the functioning of healthy and cancerous lung and breast cells, including adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, and release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, which promotes tumor angiogenesis and secretion.Methods: We used a well established cast-mold technique to create nanoscale surface features on PLGA. Some of the nanomodified PLGA films were then exposed to alginate and chitosan. Surface roughness and the presence of protein was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Surface energy was quantified by contact angle measurement.Results: Nanostructured PLGA surfaces with 23 nm features decreased synthesis of VEGF in both lung and breast cancer cells compared with conventional PLGA. Preadsorbing alginate further decreased cancer cell function, with nanostructured PLGA preadsorbed with alginate achieving the greatest decrease in synthesis of VEGF in both lung and breast cancer cells. In contrast, compared with nonmodified smooth PLGA, healthy cell functions were either not altered (ie, breast or were enhanced (ie, lung by use of nanostructured features and alginate or chitosan protein preadsorption.Conclusion: Using this technique, we developed surface nanometric roughness and modification of surface chemistry that could selectively decrease breast and lung cancer cell functioning without the need for chemotherapeutics. This technique requires further study in a wide range of anticancer and regenerative medicine applications.Keywords: breast, lung, cancer, nanotechnology, alginate, chitosan

  3. Enhanced heme function and mitochondrial respiration promote the progression of lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooda, Jagmohan; Cadinu, Daniela; Alam, Md Maksudul; Shah, Ajit; Cao, Thai M; Sullivan, Laura A; Brekken, Rolf; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality, and about 85% of the cases are non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Importantly, recent advance in cancer research suggests that altering cancer cell bioenergetics can provide an effective way to target such advanced cancer cells that have acquired mutations in multiple cellular regulators. This study aims to identify bioenergetic alterations in lung cancer cells by directly measuring and comparing key metabolic activities in a pair of cell lines representing normal and NSCLC cells developed from the same patient. We found that the rates of oxygen consumption and heme biosynthesis were intensified in NSCLC cells. Additionally, the NSCLC cells exhibited substantially increased levels in an array of proteins promoting heme synthesis, uptake and function. These proteins include the rate-limiting heme biosynthetic enzyme ALAS, transporter proteins HRG1 and HCP1 that are involved in heme uptake, and various types of oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins such as cytoglobin and cytochromes. Several types of human tumor xenografts also displayed increased levels of such proteins. Furthermore, we found that lowering heme biosynthesis and uptake, like lowering mitochondrial respiration, effectively reduced oxygen consumption, cancer cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. In contrast, lowering heme degradation does not have an effect on lung cancer cells. These results show that increased heme flux and function are a key feature of NSCLC cells. Further, increased generation and supply of heme and oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins in cancer cells will lead to intensified oxygen consumption and cellular energy production by mitochondrial respiration, which would fuel cancer cell proliferation and progression. The results show that inhibiting heme and respiratory function can effectively arrest the progression of lung cancer cells. Hence, understanding heme function can positively impact on research in lung cancer

  4. Loss of aquaporin-4 expression and putative function in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnabel Philipp A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aquaporins (AQPs have been recognized to promote tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis and are therefore recognized as promising targets for novel anti-cancer therapies. Potentially relevant AQPs in distinct cancer entities can be determined by a comprehensive expression analysis of the 13 human AQPs. Methods We analyzed the presence of all AQP transcripts in 576 different normal lung and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC samples using microarray data and validated our findings by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results Variable expression of several AQPs (AQP1, -3, -4, and -5 was found in NSCLC and normal lung tissues. Furthermore, we identified remarkable differences between NSCLC subtypes in regard to AQP1, -3 and -4 expression. Higher transcript and protein levels of AQP4 in well-differentiated lung adenocarcinomas suggested an association with a more favourable prognosis. Beyond water transport, data mining of co-expressed genes indicated an involvement of AQP4 in cell-cell signalling, cellular movement and lipid metabolism, and underlined the association of AQP4 to important physiological functions in benign lung tissue. Conclusions Our findings accentuate the need to identify functional differences and redundancies of active AQPs in normal and tumor cells in order to assess their value as promising drug targets.

  5. Long-term respiratory function recovery in patients with stage I lung cancer receiving video-assisted thoracic surgery versus thoracotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and thoracotomy are standard treatment methods for early lung cancer. We compared their effects on the long-term recovery of pulmonary function in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods We retrospectively reviewed 203 patients with early NSCLC who underwent VATS or thoracotomy at Seoul University Hospital from January 2005 to December 2010. Two matched groups (VATS and thoracotomy) each consisting of 60 patients were created via propensity score matching according to TNM stage, age, sex, smoking history, lung disease history, and preoperative pulmonary function. Results There were no significant differences in the recovery of forced expiratory volume in 1 second, the forced vital capacity (FVC), or the peak flow rate (PFR), presented as the postoperative value/predicted value, between the VATS and thoracotomy groups during the 12-month follow-up period. The standardized functional loss ratio [(measured postoperative value – predicted postoperative value)/(predicted postoperative value × 100)] did not differ between the two groups at 6 and 12 months. In an intragroup analysis, the postoperative FVC in the thoracotomy group remained below predicted postoperative value during the follow-up period and did not reach the predicted postoperative FVC (6 months/12 months: –6.58%/–2.43%). The analgesic requirements and pain procedures were similar in the VATS and thoracotomy groups during the 12-month follow-up period. Conclusions There were no significant differences in pulmonary function recovery during the late postoperative period in NSCLC patients receiving VATS versus thoracotomy. We suggest that the volume of the resected lung and preoperative lung function are the main determinants of late recovery, rather than postoperative pain. PMID:26904225

  6. Fluid biopsy for circulating tumor cell identification in patients with early-and late-stage non-small cell lung cancer: a glimpse into lung cancer biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Marco; Bazhenova, Lyudmila; Boshuizen, Rogier; Kolatkar, Anand; Honnatti, Meghana; Cho, Edward H.; Marrinucci, Dena; Sandhu, Ajay; Perricone, Anthony; Thistlethwaite, Patricia; Bethel, Kelly; Nieva, Jorge; van den Heuvel, Michel; Kuhn, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) counts are an established prognostic marker in metastatic prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, and recent data suggest a similar role in late stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, due to sensitivity constraints in current enrichment-based CTC detection technologies, there are few published data about CTC prevalence rates and morphologic heterogeneity in early-stage NSCLC, or the correlation of CTCs with disease progression and their usability for clinical staging. We investigated CTC counts, morphology and aggregation in early stage, locally advanced and metastatic NSCLC patients by using a fluid-phase biopsy approach that identifies CTCs without relying on surface-receptor-based enrichment and presents them in sufficiently high definition (HD) to satisfy diagnostic pathology image quality requirements. HD-CTCs were analyzed in blood samples from 78 chemotherapy-naïve NSCLC patients. 73% of the total population had a positive HD-CTC count (>0 CTC in 1 mL of blood) with a median of 4.4 HD-CTCs mL-1 (range 0-515.6) and a mean of 44.7 (±95.2) HD-CTCs mL-1. No significant difference in the medians of HD-CTC counts was detected between stage IV (n = 31, range 0-178.2), stage III (n = 34, range 0-515.6) and stages I/II (n = 13, range 0-442.3). Furthermore, HD-CTCs exhibited a uniformity in terms of molecular and physical characteristics such as fluorescent cytokeratin intensity, nuclear size, frequency of apoptosis and aggregate formation across the spectrum of staging. Our results demonstrate that despite stringent morphologic inclusion criteria for the definition of HD-CTCs, the HD-CTC assay shows high sensitivity in the detection and characterization of both early- and late-stage lung cancer CTCs. Extensive studies are warranted to investigate the prognostic value of CTC profiling in early-stage lung cancer. This finding has implications for the design of extensive studies examining screening, therapy and surveillance in

  7. Do genetic factors protect for early onset lung cancer? A case control study before the age of 50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilge Bettina

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early onset lung cancer shows some familial aggregation, pointing to a genetic predisposition. This study was set up to investigate the role of candidate genes in the susceptibility to lung cancer patients younger than 51 years at diagnosis. Methods 246 patients with a primary, histologically or cytologically confirmed neoplasm, recruited from 2000 to 2003 in major lung clinics across Germany, were matched to 223 unrelated healthy controls. 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes with reported associations to lung cancer have been genotyped. Results Genetic associations or gene-smoking interactions was found for GPX1(Pro200Leu and EPHX1(His113Tyr. Carriers of the Leu-allele of GPX1(Pro200Leu showed a significant risk reduction of OR = 0.6 (95% CI: 0.4–0.8, p = 0.002 in general and of OR = 0.3 (95% CI:0.1–0.8, p = 0.012 within heavy smokers. We could also find a risk decreasing genetic effect for His-carriers of EPHX1(His113Tyr for moderate smokers (OR = 0.2, 95% CI:0.1–0.7, p = 0.012. Considered both variants together, a monotone decrease of the OR was found for smokers (OR of 0.20; 95% CI: 0.07–0.60 for each protective allele. Conclusion Smoking is the most important risk factor for young lung cancer patients. However, this study provides some support for the T-Allel of GPX1(Pro200Leu and the C-Allele of EPHX1(His113Tyr to play a protective role in early onset lung cancer susceptibility.

  8. A new approach to assess COPD by identifying lung function break-points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Göran; Jarenbäck, Linnea; Peterson, Stefan; Ankerst, Jaro; Bjermer, Leif; Tufvesson, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    COPD is a progressive disease, which can take different routes, leading to great heterogeneity. The aim of the post-hoc analysis reported here was to perform continuous analyses of advanced lung function measurements, using linear and nonlinear regressions. Fifty-one COPD patients with mild to very severe disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I-IV) and 41 healthy smokers were investigated post-bronchodilation by flow-volume spirometry, body plethysmography, diffusion capacity testing, and impulse oscillometry. The relationship between COPD severity, based on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and different lung function parameters was analyzed by flexible nonparametric method, linear regression, and segmented linear regression with break-points. Most lung function parameters were nonlinear in relation to spirometric severity. Parameters related to volume (residual volume, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, diffusion capacity [diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide], diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume) and reactance (reactance area and reactance at 5Hz) were segmented with break-points at 60%-70% of FEV1. FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) and resonance frequency had break-points around 80% of FEV1, while many resistance parameters had break-points below 40%. The slopes in percent predicted differed; resistance at 5 Hz minus resistance at 20 Hz had a linear slope change of -5.3 per unit FEV1, while residual volume had no slope change above and -3.3 change per unit FEV1 below its break-point of 61%. Continuous analyses of different lung function parameters over the spirometric COPD severity range gave valuable information additional to categorical analyses. Parameters related to volume, diffusion capacity, and reactance showed break-points around 65% of FEV1, indicating that air trapping starts to dominate in moderate COPD (FEV1 =50%-80%). This may have an

  9. Functioning in early and late stages of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gazzi Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is frequently associated with a debilitating course and prominent impairment in social and occupational functioning. Although the criteria for classification into stages have not been defined in the literature, illness duration and functioning seem to be good candidates.OBJECTIVE:To compare functioning of patients with schizophrenia at different stages of the disease (early vs. late and healthy sex- and age-matched controls.METHODS: This double-blinded, case-controlled study included 79 individuals: 23 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed up to 5 years earlier; 19 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed at least 20 years earlier; and healthy matched controls. Diagnoses were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV Axis I Disorder. Functioning was assessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST.RESULTS: Patients in the early stage had significantly higher scores than healthy controls in total FAST and in autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning and interpersonal relationships. Individuals in the late stage had significantly poorer functioning than controls in all domains. The comparison of functioning between the two groups of patients revealed no significant differences, except in occupational functioning, in which late stage patients had a poorer performance.CONCLUSION: Functioning impairment in schizophrenia tends to remain stable despite illness duration. Therefore, functioning should be effectively assessed at an early stage, as illness duration alone may not be the most reliable criterion to stage patients with schizophrenia.

  10. Assessment of the lung function status of the goldsmiths working in an unorganized sector of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashis Sahu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Exposure to various types of fumes and gases are very common in Jewelery industries. No Report is available regarding the effects of those fumes and gases on the respiratory functions of the goldsmiths. Due to lack of proper monitoring of the workplace environments in these unorganized sectors, workers get very much affected by the occupational exposures to those irritants. Aims: The present study aimed to investigate whether the occupational exposures to fumes and gases might alter the lung functions of the goldsmiths. Materials and Methods: A total of 118 goldsmiths and 66 unexposed control subjects were taken randomly for the study. The goldsmiths were further classified in 3 groups according to duration (year of exposures in the work environment, ETA 1 (less than 5 years, ETA 2 (more than 5 years but less than 10 years, and ETA 3 (more than 10 years. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR, forced vital capacity (FVC, and forced expiratory flow rates of different intervals (FEF 25% , FEF 50% , FEF 75% , FEF 25-75% were measured using computerized Spirometer (Maestros Mediline, India. The statistical analyses were carried out using Minitab software version 3. Results: Lung functions of the goldsmiths significantly (P < 0.01 decreased from that of the control group. Inter-group comparison also showed the deteriorations of lung functions was associated with exposure time, and more exposed workers had significantly less (P < 0.01 efficiencies of lung functions. Conclusions: Workplace fumes and gases were responsible for deterioration of the lung function status of the goldsmiths.

  11. Second to fourth digit ratio: a predictor of adult lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Nae Park

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sex and sex hormones play a major role in lung physiology. It has been proposed that the ratio of the second to fourth digits (digit ratio is correlated with fetal sex hormones. We therefore hypothesized that digit ratio might help predict lung function. We investigated the relationship between digit ratio and pulmonary function test (PFT fi ndings. A total of 245 South Korean patients (162 male, 83 female aged from 34 to 90 years who were hospitalized for urological surgery were prospectively enrolled. Before administering the PFTs, the lengths of the second and fourth digits of the right hand were measured by a single investigator using a digital Vernier caliper. In males (n = 162, univariate and multivariate analysis using linear regression models showed that digit ratio was a signifi cant predictive factor of forced vital capacity (FVC and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 (FVC: r = 0.156, P = 0.047; FEV1: r = 0.160, P = 0.042. In male ever-smokers (n = 69, lung functions (FVC and FEV1 were correlated with smoking exposure rather than digit ratio. In female never-smokers (n = 83, lung functions (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio were positively correlated with digit ratio on univariate analysis (FEV1: r = 0.242, P = 0.027; FEV1/FVC ratio: r = 0.245, P = 0.026. Patients with lower digit ratios tend to have decreased lung function. These results suggest that digit ratio is a predictor of airway function.

  12. Effect of early chemoradiotherapy in patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, In Bong; Jeong, Bae Kwon; Jeong, Ho Jin; Choi, Hoon Sik; Chai, Gyu Young; Kang, Myoung Hee; Kim, Hoon Gu; Lee, Gyeong Won; Na, Jae Beom; Kang, Ki Mun [Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    We evaluated the effect of early chemoradiotherapy on the treatment of patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). Between January 2006 and December 2011, thirty-one patients with histologically proven LS-SCLC who were treated with two cycles of chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy and consolidation chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The chemotherapy regimen was composed of etoposide and cisplatin. Thoracic radiotherapy consisted of 50 to 60 Gy (median, 54 Gy) given in 5 to 6.5 weeks. The follow-up period ranged from 5 to 53 months (median, 22 months). After chemoradiotherapy, 35.5% of the patients (11 patients) showed complete response, 61.3% (19 patients) showed partial response, 3.2% (one patient) showed progressive disease, resulting in an overall response rate of 96.8% (30 patients). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 66.5%, 41.0%, and 28.1%, respectively, with a median OS of 21.3 months. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year progression free survival (PFS) rates were 49.8%, 22.8%, and 13.7%, respectively, with median PFS of 12 months. The patterns of failure were: locoregional recurrences in 29.0% (nine patients), distant metastasis in 9.7% (three patients), and both locoregional and distant metastasis in 9.7% (three patients). Grade 3 or 4 toxicities of leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia were observed in 32.2%, 29.0%, and 25.8%, respectively. Grade 3 radiation esophagitis and radiation pneumonitis were shown in 12.9% and 6.4%, respectively. We conclude that early chemoradiotherapy for LS-SCLC provides feasible and acceptable local control and safety.

  13. Occupation, chronic bronchitis, and lung function in young adults - An international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, JP; Sunyer, J; Kogevinas, M; Kromhout, H; Burney, P; Anto, JM

    We studied the relationship between occupational exposures, chronic bronchitis, and lung function in a general population survey in 14 industrialized countries, including 13,253 men and women aged 20 to 44 yr. We studied associations between occupational group, occupational exposures, bronchitis

  14. Relationship between body composition, inflammation and lung function in overweight and obese asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Hayley A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The obese-asthma phenotype is not well defined. The aim of this study was to examine both mechanical and inflammatory influences, by comparing lung function with body composition and airway inflammation in overweight and obese asthma. Methods Overweight and obese (BMI 28-40 kg/m2 adults with asthma (n = 44 completed lung function assessment and underwent full-body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Venous blood samples and induced sputum were analysed for inflammatory markers. Results In females, android and thoracic fat tissue and total body lean tissue were inversely correlated with expiratory reserve volume (ERV. Conversely in males, fat tissue was not correlated with lung function, however there was a positive association between android and thoracic lean tissue and ERV. Lower body (gynoid and leg lean tissue was positively associated with sputum %neutrophils in females, while leptin was positively associated with android and thoracic fat tissue in males. Conclusions This study suggests that both body composition and inflammation independently affect lung function, with distinct differences between males and females. Lean tissue exacerbates the obese-asthma phenotype in females and the mechanism responsible for this finding warrants further investigation.

  15. PM10, and children's respiratory symptoms and lung function in the PATY study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, G.; Pattenden, S.; Willers, S.; Antova, T.; Fabianova, E.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Forastiere, F.; Gehring, U.; Luttmann-Gibson, H.; Grize, L.; Heinrich, J.; Houthuijs, D.; Janssen, N.; Katsnelson, B.; Kosheleva, A.; Moshammer, H.; Neuberger, M.; Privalova, L.; Rudnai, P.; Speizer, F.; Slachtova, H.; Tomaskova, H.; Zlotkowska, R.; Fletcher, T.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the impact of long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution on the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lung function in children have yielded mixed results, partly related to differences in study design, exposure assessment, confounder selection and data analysis. We assembled

  16. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function among Danish Construction Workers. A Cross-Sectional Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanskov, Dorte Jessing Agerby; Brauer, Charlotte; Breinegaard, Nina;

    2015-01-01

    Objective:This study investigated whether Danish construction workers had an increased prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or affected lung function and if the prevalence differed between types of jobs within construction. Methods:A cross-sectional study of 899 Danish male ...

  17. Association of occupational pesticide exposure with accelerated longitudinal decline in lung function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Kim; Boezen, H. Marike; Kromhout, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Postma, Dirkje S.; Vonk, Judith M.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown that occupational exposure to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) and pesticides is associated with a lower level of lung function. These associations seem to be stronger in ever smokers. In the current study, we aimed to assess whether occupational exposure to

  18. Reduced lung function is independently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Korean men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Chang-Hee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced lung function is associated with incident insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between lung function and incident type 2 diabetes in Korean men. Methods This study included 9,220 men (mean age: 41.4 years without type 2 diabetes at baseline who were followed for five years. Subjects were divided into four groups according to baseline forced vital capacity (FVC (% predicted and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 (% predicted quartiles. The incidence of type 2 diabetes at follow-up was compared according to FVC and FEV1 quartiles. Results The overall incidence of type 2 diabetes was 2.2%. Reduced lung function was significantly associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes after adjusting for age, BMI, education, smoking, exercise, alcohol, and HOMA-IR. Both FVC and FEV1 were negatively associated with type 2 diabetes (P 1 had a significantly higher odds ratio for type 2 diabetes compared with the highest quartile after adjusting for age and BMI (2.15 [95% CI 1.02-4.57] and 2.19 [95% CI 1.09-4.42]. Conclusions Reduced lung function is independently associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Korean men.

  19. Smoking cessation, lung function, and weight gain : a follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Melotti, R; Luczynska, C; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Heinrich, J; Janson, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, B; Neukirch, F; Schouten, J; Sunyer, J; Svanes, C; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background Only one population-based study in one country has reported effects of smoking cessation and weight change on lung function, and none has reported the net effect. We estimated the net benefit of smoking cessation, and the independent effects of smoking and weight change on change in

  20. Combined effect of lung function level and decline increases morbidity and mortality risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baughman, Penelope; Marott, Jacob Louis; Lange, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Lung function level and decline are each pre- dictive of morbidity and mortality. Evaluation of the combined effect of these measurements may help further identify high-risk groups. Using Copenhagen City Heart Study longitudinal spirometry data (n = 10,457), 16–21 year risks of chronic o...

  1. Associations between antioxidants and all-cause mortality among US adults with obstructive lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Earl S; Li, Chaoyang; Cunningham, Timothy J; Croft, Janet B

    2014-11-28

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterised by oxidative stress, but little is known about the associations between antioxidant status and all-cause mortality in adults with this disease. The objective of the present study was to examine the prospective associations between concentrations of α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, Se, vitamin C and α-tocopherol and all-cause mortality among US adults with obstructive lung function. Data collected from 1492 adults aged 20-79 years with obstructive lung function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-94) were used. Through 2006, 629 deaths were identified during a median follow-up period of 14 years. After adjustment for demographic variables, the concentrations of the following antioxidants modelled as continuous variables were found to be inversely associated with all-cause mortality among adults with obstructive lung function: α-carotene (P= 0·037); β-carotene (P= 0·022); cryptoxanthin (P= 0·022); lutein/zeaxanthin (P= 0·004); total carotenoids (P= 0·001); vitamin C (Pmortality. No effect modification by sex was detected, but the association between lutein/zeaxanthin concentrations and all-cause mortality varied by smoking status (P interaction= 0·048). The concentrations of lycopene and vitamin C were inversely associated with all-cause mortality in this cohort of adults with obstructive lung function.

  2. Effects of Exposure to Welding Fume on Lung Function: Results from the German WELDOX Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, M; Hoffmeyer, F; Gawrych, K; Lotz, A; Heinze, E; Berresheim, H; Merget, R; Harth, V; Van Gelder, R; Hahn, J-U; Hartwig, A; Weiß, T; Pesch, B; Brüning, T

    2015-01-01

    The association between exposure to welding fume and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been insufficiently clarified. In this study we assessed the influence of exposure to welding fume on lung function parameters. We investigated forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, and expiratory flow rates in 219 welders. We measured current exposure to respirable particles and estimated a worker's lifetime exposure considering welding techniques, working conditions and protective measures at current and former workplaces. Multiple regression models were applied to estimate the influence of exposure to welding fume, age, and smoking on lung function. We additionally investigated the duration of working as a welder and the predominant welding technique. The findings were that age- and smoking-adjusted lung function parameters showed no decline with increasing duration, current exposure level, and lifetime exposure to welding fume. However, 15% of the welders had FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal, but we could not substantiate the presence of an association with the measures of exposure. Adverse effects of cigarette smoking were confirmed. In conclusion, the study did not support the notion of a possible detrimental effect of exposure to welding fume on lung function in welders.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES, LUNG FUNCTION, AND RESPIRATORY HEALTH IN RURAL LAO PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jaime R; Somsamouth, Khamphithoune; Mounivong, Boualoy; Sinclair, Ryan; Soret, Sam; Knutsen, Synnove; Singh, Pramil N

    2014-01-01

    Although the individual contributions of smoked tobacco and indoor air pollution have been identified, there are very few studies that have characterized and measured the effects of inhaled particles from a wide range of personal, household, and community practices common in rural Asia. The objective of our study was to examine the association between environmental inhaled exposures and lung function among rural males of Lao PDR. In a sample of 92 males from rural Lao PDR, study subjects completed a survey on household exposures, a physical exam, and the following measures of lung function: FEV1, FVC, and the ratio of FEV1/FVC. Our findings were as follows: a) > 80% of the subjects were exposed to indoor cooking fires (wood fuel), animal handling, dust and dirt; b) 57.6% of subjects were in the impaired range (FEV1/FVC < 0.7); and c) animal handling was negatively associated (p<0.03) with FEV1 and FVC. Among males in rural Lao PDR, we found a high prevalence of chronic exposure to inhaled particles (animal handling, dust/dirt, smoke) and a high prevalence of impaired lung function. Findings from this pilot study indicate that associations between exposure to multiple sources of particulate matter common in rural areas and lung function need further investigation. PMID:24964671

  4. Occupation, chronic bronchitis, and lung function in young adults - An international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, JP; Sunyer, J; Kogevinas, M; Kromhout, H; Burney, P; Anto, JM

    2001-01-01

    We studied the relationship between occupational exposures, chronic bronchitis, and lung function in a general population survey in 14 industrialized countries, including 13,253 men and women aged 20 to 44 yr. We studied associations between occupational group, occupational exposures, bronchitis sym

  5. Association of occupational pesticide exposure with accelerated longitudinal decline in lung function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Kim; Boezen, Hendrika; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Postma, Dirkje S; Vonk, Judith M

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown that occupational exposure to vapors, gases, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) and pesticides is associated with a lower level of lung function. These associations seem to be stronger in ever smokers. In the current study, we aimed to assess whether occupational exposure to

  6. Sixteen new lung function signals identified through 1000 Genomes Project reference panel imputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artigas, Maria Soler; Wain, Louise V.; Miller, Suzanne; Kheirallah, Abdul Kader; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Ntalla, Ioanna; Shrine, Nick; Obeidat, Ma'en; Trochet, Holly; McArdle, Wendy L.; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Hui, Jennie; Zhao, Jing Hua; Joshi, Peter K.; Teumer, Alexander; Albrecht, Eva; Imboden, Medea; Rawal, Rajesh; Lopez, Lorna M.; Marten, Jonathan; Enroth, Stefan; Surakka, Ida; Polasek, Ozren; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Granell, Raquel; Hysi, Pirro G.; Flexeder, Claudia; Mahajan, Anubha; Beilby, John; Bosse, Yohan; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Campbell, Harry; Gieger, Christian; Glaeser, Sven; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Grallert, Harald; Hammond, Chris J.; Harris, Sarah E.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Heliovaara, Markku; Henderson, John; Hocking, Lynne; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Ingelsson, Erik; Johansson, Asa; Kemp, John P.; Kolcic, Ivana; Kumar, Ashish; Lind, Lars; Melen, Erik; Musk, Arthur W.; Navarro, Pau; Nickle, David C.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Raitakari, Olli T.; Ried, Janina S.; Ripatti, Samuli; Schulz, Holger; Scott, Robert A.; Sin, Don D.; Starr, John M.; Vinuela, Ana; Voelzke, Henry; Wild, Sarah H.; Wright, Alan F.; Zemunik, Tatijana; Jarvis, Deborah L.; Spector, Tim D.; Evans, David M.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Vitart, Veronique; Kahonen, Mika; Gyllensten, Ulf; Rudan, Igor; Deary, Ian J.; Karrasch, Stefan; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Heinrich, Joachim; Stubbe, Beate; Wilson, James F.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; James, Alan L.; Morris, Andrew P.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hayward, Caroline; Sayers, Ian; Strachan, David P.; Hall, Ian P.; Tobin, Martin D.; Deloukas, Panos; Hansell, Anna L.; Hubbard, Richard; Jackson, Victoria E.; Marchini, Jonathan; Pavord, Ian; Thomson, Neil C.; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2015-01-01

    Lung function measures are used in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In 38,199 European ancestry individuals, we studied genome-wide association of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC with 1000 Genomes Project (phase 1)-imputed genot

  7. Pulmonary function change in patients with Sauropus androgynus-related obstructive lung disease 15 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ying Ou

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: After an acute deterioration, patients with S androgynus-related obstructive lung disease had a stationary pulmonary function over a period of 15 years, and their clinical manifestations were less severe than age- and FEV1-matched COPD patients. A further study with a larger sample size may be needed to confirm these findings.

  8. Environmental exposures, lung function, and respiratory health in rural Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jaime R; Somsamouth, Khamphithoune; Mounivong, Boualoy; Sinclair, Ryan; Soret, Sam; Knutsen, Synnove; Singh, Pramil N

    2014-01-01

    Although the individual contributions of smoked tobacco and indoor air pollution have been identified, there are very few studies that have characterized and measured the effects of inhaled particles from a wide range of personal, household, and community practices common in rural Asia. The objective of our study was to examine the association between environmental inhaled exposures and lung function among rural males of Lao PDR. In a sample of 92 males from rural Lao PDR, study subjects completed a survey on household exposures, a physical exam, and the following measures of lung function: FEV1, FVC, and the ratio of FEV1/FVC. Our findings were as follows: a) > 80% of the subjects were exposed to indoor cooking fires (wood fuel), animal handling, dust and dirt; b) 57.6% of subjects were in the impaired range (FEV1/FVC dust/dirt, smoke) and a high prevalence of impaired lung function. Findings from this pilot study indicate that associations between exposure to multiple sources of particulate matter common in rural areas and lung function need further investigation.

  9. Increased risk of wheeze and decreased lung function after respiratory syncytial virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer-Kooijker, K.; Ent, C.K. van der; Ermers, M.J.; Uiterwaal, C.S.; Rovers, M.M.; Bont, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A relationship between hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis and asthma development has been suggested in case-control studies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of current wheeze, asthma, and lung function at school age in infants

  10. DNA methylation-based biomarkers for early detection of non-small cell lung cancer: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laird-Offringa Ite A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lung cancer is the number one cancer killer in the United States. This disease is clinically divided into two sub-types, small cell lung cancer, (10–15% of lung cancer cases, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; 85–90% of cases. Early detection of NSCLC, which is the more common and less aggressive of the two sub-types, has the highest potential for saving lives. As yet, no routine screening method that enables early detection exists, and this is a key factor in the high mortality rate of this disease. Imaging and cytology-based screening strategies have been employed for early detection, and while some are sensitive, none have been demonstrated to reduce lung cancer mortality. However, mortality might be reduced by developing specific molecular markers that can complement imaging techniques. DNA methylation has emerged as a highly promising biomarker and is being actively studied in multiple cancers. The analysis of DNA methylation-based biomarkers is rapidly advancing, and a large number of potential biomarkers have been identified. Here we present a detailed review of the literature, focusing on DNA methylation-based markers developed using primary NSCLC tissue. Viable markers for clinical diagnosis must be detectable in 'remote media' such as blood, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, or even exhaled breath condensate. We discuss progress on their detection in such media and the sensitivity and specificity of the molecular marker panels identified to date. Lastly, we look to future advancements that will be made possible with the interrogation of the epigenome.

  11. Circulating MicroRNAs as Non-Invasive Biomarkers for Early Detection of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena B Wozniak

    Full Text Available Detection of lung cancer at an early stage by sensitive screening tests could be an important strategy to improving prognosis. Our objective was to identify a panel of circulating microRNAs in plasma that will contribute to early detection of lung cancer.Plasma samples from 100 early stage (I to IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients and 100 non-cancer controls were screened for 754 circulating microRNAs via qRT-PCR, using TaqMan MicroRNA Arrays. Logistic regression with a lasso penalty was used to select a panel of microRNAs that discriminate between cases and controls. Internal validation of model discrimination was conducted by calculating the bootstrap optimism-corrected AUC for the selected model.We identified a panel of 24 microRNAs with optimum classification performance. The combination of these 24 microRNAs alone could discriminate lung cancer cases from non-cancer controls with an AUC of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.87-0.95. This classification improved to an AUC of 0.94 (95% CI: 0.90-0.97 following addition of sex, age and smoking status to the model. Internal validation of the model suggests that the discriminatory power of the panel will be high when applied to independent samples with a corrected AUC of 0.78 for the 24-miRNA panel alone.Our 24-microRNA predictor improves lung cancer prediction beyond that of known risk factors.

  12. Change in lung function and morbidity from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in alpha1-antitrypsin MZ heterozygotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Lange, Peter

    2002-01-01

    A deteriorating effect of severe alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency (ZZ genotype) on lung function is well known, whereas the role of intermediate deficiency (MZ genotype) remains uncertain.......A deteriorating effect of severe alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency (ZZ genotype) on lung function is well known, whereas the role of intermediate deficiency (MZ genotype) remains uncertain....

  13. Creatinine-based estimation of rate of long term renal function loss in lung transplant recipients. Which method is preferable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekroelofs, J; Stegeman, CA; Navis, GJ; de Haan, J; van der Bij, W; de Zeeuw, D; de Jong, PE

    2000-01-01

    Background: Progressive renal function loss during long-term follow up is common after lung transplantation and close monitoring is warranted, Since changes in creatinine generation and excretion may occur after lung transplantation, the reliability of creatinine-based methods of renal function asse

  14. Genome-wide study identifies two loci associated with lung function decline in mild to moderate COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansel, Nadia N; Ruczinski, Ingo; Rafaels, Nicholas; Sin, Don D; Daley, Denise; Malinina, Alla; Huang, Lili; Sandford, Andrew; Murray, Tanda; Kim, Yoonhee; Vergara, Candelaria; Heckbert, Susan R; Psaty, Bruce M; Li, Guo; Elliott, W Mark; Aminuddin, Farzian; Dupuis, Josée; O'Connor, George T; Doheny, Kimberly; Scott, Alan F; Boezen, Hendrika; Postma, Dirkje S; Smolonska, Joanna; Zanen, Pieter; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A; de Koning, Harry J; Crystal, Ronald G; Tanaka, Toshiko; Ferrucci, Luigi; Silverman, Edwin; Wan, Emily; Vestbo, Jorgen; Lomas, David A; Connett, John; Wise, Robert A; Neptune, Enid R; Mathias, Rasika A; Paré, Peter D; Beaty, Terri H; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2013-01-01

    Accelerated lung function decline is a key COPD phenotype; however, its genetic control remains largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study using the Illumina Human660W-Quad v.1_A BeadChip. Generalized estimation equations were used to assess genetic contributions to lung function

  15. Genome-wide association analyses for lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease identify new loci and potential druggable targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wain, Louise V.; Shrine, Nick R. G.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Erzurumluoglu, A Mesut; Noyvert, Boris; Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Obeidat, Ma'en; Henrys, Amanda P.; Portelli, Michael A.; Hall, Robert J; Billington, Charlotte K.; Rimington, Tracy L; Fenech, Anthony G; John, Catherine; Blake, Tineka; Jackson, Victoria E.; Allen, Richard J; Prins, Bram P.; Campbell, Archie; Porteous, David J.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Wielscher, Matthias; Jamess, Alan L.; Hui, Jennie; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Wilson, James F.; Joshi, Peter K.; Stubbe, Beate; Rawal, Rajesh; Schulz, Holger; Imboden, Medea; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Karrasch, Stefan; Gieger, Christian; Deary, Ian J.; Harris, Sarah E.; Marten, Jonathan; Rudan, Igor; Enroth, Stefan; Gyllensten, Ulf; Kerr, Shona M.; Polasek, Ozren; Kahonen, Mika; Surakka, Ida; Vitart, Veronique; Hayward, Caroline; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T.; Evans, David M.; Henderson, A. John; Pennell, Craig E.; Wang, Carol A.; Sly, Peter D.; Wan, Emily S; Busch, Robert; Hobbs, Brian D; Litonjua, Augusto; Sparrow, David W; Gulsvik, Amund; Bakke, Per S.; Crapo, James D.; Beaty, Terri H.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Mathias, Rasika A.; Ruczinski, Ingo; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Bosse, Yohan; Joubert, Philippe; van den Berge, Maarten; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Pare, Peter D.; Sin, Don; Nickle, David C.; Hao, Ke; Gottesman, Omri; Dewey, Frederick E; Bruse, Shannon E; Carey, David J.; Kirchner, H Lester; Jonsson, Stefan; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Gislason, Thorarinn; Stefansson, Kari; Schurmann, Claudia; Nadkarni, Girish N; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Walters, Robin G.; Chen, Zhengming; Millwood, Iona Y; Vaucher, Julien; Kurmi, Om P; Li, Liming; Hansell, Anna L.; Brightling, Chris; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Cho, Michael H.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Sayers, Ian; Trynka, Gosia; Morris, Andrew P.; Strachan, David P.; Halls, Ian P.; Tobin, Martin D.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by reduced lung function and is the third leading cause of death globally. Through genome-wide association discovery in 48,943 individuals, selected from extremes of the lung function distribution in UK Biobank, and follow-up in 95,375 in

  16. Genome-wide association analyses for lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease identify new loci and potential druggable targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wain, Louise V; Shrine, Nick; Artigas, María Soler; Erzurumluoglu, A Mesut; Noyvert, Boris; Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Obeidat, Ma'en; Henry, Amanda P; Portelli, Michael A; Hall, Robert J; Billington, Charlotte K; Rimington, Tracy L; Fenech, Anthony G; John, Catherine; Blake, Tineka; Jackson, Victoria E; Allen, Richard J; Prins, Bram P; Campbell, Archie; Porteous, David J; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Wielscher, Matthias; James, Alan L; Hui, Jennie; Wareham, Nicholas J; Zhao, Jing Hua; Wilson, James F; Joshi, Peter K; Stubbe, Beate; Rawal, Rajesh; Schulz, Holger; Imboden, Medea; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Karrasch, Stefan; Gieger, Christian; Deary, Ian J; Harris, Sarah E; Marten, Jonathan; Rudan, Igor; Enroth, Stefan; Gyllensten, Ulf; Kerr, Shona M; Polasek, Ozren; Kähönen, Mika; Surakka, Ida; Vitart, Veronique; Hayward, Caroline; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T; Evans, David M; Henderson, A John; Pennell, Craig E; Wang, Carol A; Sly, Peter D; Wan, Emily S; Busch, Robert; Hobbs, Brian D; Litonjua, Augusto A; Sparrow, David W; Gulsvik, Amund; Bakke, Per S; Crapo, James D; Beaty, Terri H; Hansel, Nadia N; Mathias, Rasika A; Ruczinski, Ingo; Barnes, Kathleen C; Bossé, Yohan; Joubert, Philippe; van den Berge, Maarten; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Paré, Peter D; Sin, Don D; Nickle, David C; Hao, Ke; Gottesman, Omri; Dewey, Frederick E; Bruse, Shannon E; Carey, David J; Kirchner, H Lester; Jonsson, Stefan; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Gislason, Thorarinn; Stefansson, Kari; Schurmann, Claudia; Nadkarni, Girish; Bottinger, Erwin P; Loos, Ruth J F; Walters, Robin G; Chen, Zhengming; Millwood, Iona Y; Vaucher, Julien; Kurmi, Om P; Li, Liming; Hansell, Anna L; Brightling, Chris; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Cho, Michael H; Silverman, Edwin K; Sayers, Ian; Trynka, Gosia; Morris, Andrew P; Strachan, David P; Hall, Ian P; Tobin, Martin D

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by reduced lung function and is the third leading cause of death globally. Through genome-wide association discovery in 48,943 individuals, selected from extremes of the lung function distribution in UK Biobank, and follow-up in 95,375 in

  17. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet it is unknown whether exercise training improves pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in ... the increase of VO2max and the decrease of recovery index and resting heart rate in the smoking subjects indicated better exercise tolerance.

  18. Ventilation/perfusion SPECT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an evaluation by reference to symptoms, spirometric lung function and emphysema, as assessed with HRCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joegi, Jonas; Bajc, Marika [Lund University, Skaane University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Institution of Clinical Sciences, Lund (Sweden); Ekberg, Marie [Lund University, Skaane University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Institution of Clinical Sciences, Lund (Sweden); Jonson, Bjoern [Lund University, Department of Clinical Physiology, Institution of Clinical Sciences, Lund (Sweden); Bozovic, Gracijela [Lund University, Skaane University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Institution of Clinical Sciences, Lund (Sweden)

    2011-07-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation which is not fully reversible. Despite the heterogeneity of COPD, its diagnosis and staging is currently based solely on forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}). FEV{sub 1} does not explain the underlying pathophysiology of airflow limitation. The relationship between FEV{sub 1}, symptoms and emphysema extent is weak. Better diagnostic tools are needed to define COPD. Tomographic lung scintigraphy [ventilation/perfusion single photon emission tomography (V/P SPECT)] visualizes regional V and P. In COPD, relations between V/P SPECT, spirometry, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and symptoms have been insufficiently studied. The aim of this study was to investigate how lung function imaging and obstructive disease grading undertaken using V/P SPECT correlate with symptoms, spirometric lung function and degree of emphysema assessed with HRCT in patients with COPD. Thirty patients with stable COPD were evaluated with the Medical Research Council dyspnoea questionnaire (MRC) and the clinical COPD questionnaire (CCQ). Spirometry was performed. The extent of emphysema was assessed using HRCT. V/P SPECT was used to assess V/P patterns, total reduction in lung function and degree of obstructive disease. The total reduction in lung function and degree of obstructive disease, assessed with V/P SPECT, significantly correlated with emphysema extent (r = 0.66-0.69, p < 0.0001) and spirometric lung function (r = 0.62-0.74, p < 0.0005). The correlation between emphysema extent and spirometric lung function was weaker. No correlation between MRC, CCQ and objective measurements was found. V/P SPECT is sensitive to early changes in COPD. V/P SPECT also has the possibility to identify comorbid disease. V/P SPECT findings show a significant correlation with emphysema extent and spirometric lung function. We therefore recommend that scintigraphic signs of COPD, whenever found, should be

  19. 99mTc-MIBI Lung Scintigraphy in the Assessment of Pulmonary Involvement in Interstitial Lung Disease and Its Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and High-Resolution Computed Tomography: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtouee, Mehrzad; Saberifard, Jamshid; Javadi, Hamid; Nabipour, Iraj; Raeisi, Alireza; Assadi, Majid; Eftekhari, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    The differentiation of active inflammatory processes from an inactive form of the disease is of great value in the management of interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of 99mTc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) scans in distinguishing the severity of the disease compared to radiological and clinical parameters.In total, 19 known cases of ILD were included in this study and were followed up for 1 year. Five patients without lung disease were considered as the control group. The patients underwent pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high-resolution computed tomography scans, followed by 99mTc-MIBI scanning. The 99mTc-MIBI scans were analyzed either qualitatively (subjectively) or semiquantitatively.All 19 ILD patients demonstrated a strong increase in 99mTc-MIBI uptake in the lungs compared to the control group. The 99mTc-MIBI scan scores were higher in the patient group in both the early phase (0.24[0.19-0.31] vs 0.11[0.10-0.15], P 0.14). The 99mTc-MIBI scan scores were not significantly correlated with the PFT findings (P > 0.05). In total, 5 patients died and 14 patients were still alive over the 1-year follow-up period. There was also a significant difference between the uptake intensity of 99mTc-MIBI and the outcome in the early phase (dead: 0.32[0.29-0.43] vs alive: 0.21[0.18-0.24], P pulmonary involvement in early views, which were well correlated with HRCT findings. These results also revealed that 99mTc-MIBI lung scans might be used as a complement to other diagnostic and clinical examinations in terms of functional information in ILD; however, further investigations are strongly required.

  20. CHRNA3 genotype, nicotine dependence, lung function and disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2012-01-01

    The CHRNA3 rs1051730 polymorphism has been associated to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and nicotine dependence in case-control studies with high smoking exposure; however, its influence on lung function and COPD severity in the general population is largely unknown. We...... genotyped 57,657 adult individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study, of whom 34,592 were ever-smokers. Information on spirometry, hospital admissions, smoking behaviour and use of nicotinic replacement therapy was recorded. In homozygous (11%), heterozygous (44%) and noncarrier (45%) ever...

  1. Investigation of Lung Structure-Function Relationships Using Hyperpolarized Noble Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomen, Robert P.

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an application of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phenomenon to non-invasively generate 3D tomographic images. MRI is an emerging modality for the lung, but it suffers from low sensitivity due to inherent low tissue density and short T(*/2) . Hyperpolarization is a process by which the nuclear contribution to NMR signal is greatly enhanced to more than 100,000 times that of samples in thermal equilibrium. The noble gases 3He and 129Xe are most often hyperpolarized by transfer of light angular momentum through the electron of a vaporized alkali metal to the noble gas nucleus (called Spin Exchange Optical Pumping). The enhancement in NMR signal is so great that the gas itself can be imaged via MRI, and because noble gases are chemically inert, they can be safely inhaled by a subject, and the gas distribution within the interior of the lung can be imaged. The mechanics of respiration is an elegant physical process by which air is is brought into the distal airspaces of the lungs for oxygen/carbon dioxide gas exchange with blood. Therefore proper description of lung function is intricately related to its physical structure , and the basic mechanical operation of healthy lungs -- from pressure driven airflow, to alveolar airspace gas kinetics, to gas exchange by blood/gas concentration gradients, to elastic contraction of parenchymal tissue -- is a process decidedly governed by the laws of physics. This dissertation will describe experiments investigating the relationship of lung structure and function using hyperpolarized (HP) noble gas MRI. In particular HP gases will be applied to the study of several pulmonary diseases each of which demonstrates unique structure-function abnormalities: asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Successful implementation of an HP gas acquisition protocol for pulmonary studies is an involved and stratified undertaking which requires a solid theoretical foundation in NMR

  2. In Vivo Tagging of Lung Epithelial Cells to Define the Early Steps of Tumor Cell Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    derived lung cells, only the epithelium will be tagged by this method. Prior to using these animals for our studies, we will ensure that lineage labeled...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0184 TITLE: In Vivo Tagging of Lung Epithelial Cells To Define...REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 15Sep2013-14Sep2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In Vivo Tagging of Lung

  3. Sex and Age Effects of Functional Connectivity in Early Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C. (Chao); Cahill, N.D. (Nathan D.); Arbabshirani, M.R. (Mohammad R.); T.J.H. White (Tonya); Baum, S.A. (Stefi A.); Michael, A.M. (Andrew M.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractFunctional connectivity (FC) in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely used to find coactivating regions in the human brain. Despite its widespread use, the effects of sex and age on resting FC are not well characterized, especially during early adulthood

  4. Panel studies of air pollution on children's lung function and respiratory symptoms: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Jalaludin, Bin; Baker, Peter

    2012-11-01

    This article reviews panel studies of air pollution on children's respiratory health and proposes future research directions. The PubMed electronic database was used to search published original epidemiological studies in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to November 2011. Children's age was limited to ≤18 years old. A total of 33 relevant articles were obtained, with 20 articles relating to lung function, 21 articles relating to respiratory symptoms, and 8 articles examining both. Most studies suggested the adverse effects of air pollution on children's lung function and respiratory symptoms. Particles and NO(2) showed more significant results, whereas effects of SO(2) were not consistent. A few studies indicated that O(3) interacted with temperature and sometimes seemed to be a protective factor for children's respiratory health. Negative associations between air pollutants and pulmonary health were more serious in asthmatic children than in healthy subjects. However, many outcomes depended on the number of lag days. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) was the most usual measurement for children's lung function, followed by forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)). There are significant adverse effects of air pollution on children's pulmonary health, especially for asthmatics. Future studies need to examine the lag effects of air pollution on children's lung function and respiratory symptoms. Ambient temperature is predicted to change worldwide due to climate change, which will threaten population health. Further research is needed to examine the effects of ambient temperature and the interactive effects between air pollution and ambient temperature on children's lung function and respiratory symptoms.

  5. Explaining ethnic disparities in lung function among young adults: A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Neil J; Patel, Jaymini; Minelli, Cosetta; Burney, Peter G J

    2017-01-01

    Ethnic disparities in lung function have been linked mainly to anthropometric factors but have not been fully explained. We conducted a cross-sectional pilot study to investigate how best to study ethnic differences in lung function in young adults and evaluate whether these could be explained by birth weight and socio-economic factors. We recruited 112 university students of White and South Asian British ethnicity, measured post-bronchodilator lung function, obtained information on respiratory symptoms and socio-economic factors through questionnaires, and acquired birth weight through data linkage. We regressed lung function against ethnicity and candidate predictors defined a priori using linear regression, and used penalised regression to examine a wider range of factors. We reviewed the implications of our findings for the feasibility of a larger study. There was a similar parental socio-economic environment and no difference in birth weight between the two ethnic groups, but the ethnic difference in FVC adjusted for sex, age, height, demi-span, father's occupation, birth weight, maternal educational attainment and maternal upbringing was 0.81L (95%CI: -1.01 to -0.54L). Difference in body proportions did not explain the ethnic differences although parental immigration was an important predictor of FVC independent of ethnic group. Participants were comfortable with study procedures and we were able to link birth weight data to clinical measurements. Studies of ethnic disparities in lung function among young adults are feasible. Future studies should recruit a socially more diverse sample and investigate the role of markers of acculturation in explaining such differences.

  6. Effects of Ambient Air Particulate Exposure on Blood-Gas Barrier Permeability and Lung Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Mortensen, Jann; Møller, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of pulmonary diseases and detrimental outcomes related to the cardiovascular system, including altered vessel functions. This study's objective was too evaluate the effects of ambient particle exposure on the blood-gas permeability, lung.......5-15.8 microg/m(3) PM(10-2.5)) or filtered (91-542 particles/cm(3)) air collected above a busy street. The clearance rate of aerosolized (99m)Tc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) was measured as an index for the alveolar epithelial membrane integrity and permeability of the lung blood...... on the concentration of CC16 in plasma and urine or on the static and dynamic volumes or ventilation distribution of the lungs. The study thus demonstrates increased permeability of the alveolar blood-gas barrier following moderate exercise, whereas exposure to ambient levels of urban air particles has no detectable...

  7. Effect of cannabis smoking on lung function and respiratory symptoms: a structured literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luis IG; Ind, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    As cannabis use increases, physicians need to be familiar with the effects of both cannabis and tobacco on the lungs. However, there have been very few long-term studies of cannabis smoking, mostly due to legality issues and the confounding effects of tobacco. It was previously thought that cannabis and tobacco had similar long-term effects as both cause chronic bronchitis. However, recent large studies have shown that, instead of reducing forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity (FVC), marijuana smoking is associated with increased FVC. The cause of this is unclear, but acute bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects of cannabis may be relevant. Bullous lung disease, barotrauma and cannabis smoking have been recognised in case reports and small series. More work is needed to address the effects of cannabis on lung function, imaging and histological changes. PMID:27763599

  8. Computational multiscale toxicodynamic modeling of silver and carbon nanoparticle effects on mouse lung function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwaipayan Mukherjee

    Full Text Available A computational, multiscale toxicodynamic model has been developed to quantify and predict pulmonary effects due to uptake of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs in mice. The model consists of a collection of coupled toxicodynamic modules, that were independently developed and tested using information obtained from the literature. The modules were developed to describe the dynamics of tissue with explicit focus on the cells and the surfactant chemicals that regulate the process of breathing, as well as the response of the pulmonary system to xenobiotics. Alveolar type I and type II cells, and alveolar macrophages were included in the model, along with surfactant phospholipids and surfactant proteins, to account for processes occurring at multiple biological scales, coupling cellular and surfactant dynamics affected by nanoparticle exposure, and linking the effects to tissue-level lung function changes. Nanoparticle properties such as size, surface chemistry, and zeta potential were explicitly considered in modeling the interactions of these particles with biological media. The model predictions were compared with in vivo lung function response measurements in mice and analysis of mice lung lavage fluid following exposures to silver and carbon nanoparticles. The predictions were found to follow the trends of observed changes in mouse surfactant composition over 7 days post dosing, and are in good agreement with the observed changes in mouse lung function over the same period of time.

  9. Systemic Inflammation and Lung Function Impairment in Morbidly Obese Subjects with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid van Huisstede

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and asthma are associated. There is a relationship between lung function impairment and the metabolic syndrome. Whether this relationship also exists in the morbidly obese patients is still unknown. Hypothesis. Low-grade systemic inflammation associated with the metabolic syndrome causes inflammation in the lungs and, hence, lung function impairment. Methods. This is cross-sectional study of morbidly obese patients undergoing preoperative screening for bariatric surgery. Metabolic syndrome was assessed according to the revised NCEP-ATP III criteria. Results. A total of 452 patients were included. Patients with the metabolic syndrome (n=293 had significantly higher blood monocyte (mean 5.3 versus 4.9, P=0.044 and eosinophil percentages (median 1.0 versus 0.8, P=0.002, while the total leukocyte count did not differ between the groups. The FEV1/FVC ratio was significantly lower in patients with the metabolic syndrome (76.7% versus 78.2%, P=0.032. Blood eosinophils were associated with FEV1/FVC ratio (adj. B −0.113, P=0.018. Conclusion. Although the difference in FEV1/FVC ratio between the groups is relatively small, in this cross-sectional study, and its clinical relevance may be limited, these data indicate that the presence of the metabolic syndrome may influence lung function impairment, through the induction of relative eosinophilia.

  10. Compatible solutes: ectoine and hydroxyectoine improve functional nanostructures in artificial lung surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harishchandra, Rakesh Kumar; Sachan, Amit Kumar; Kerth, Andreas; Lentzen, Georg; Neuhaus, Thorsten; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2011-12-01

    Ectoine and hydroxyectoine belong to the family of compatible solutes and are among the most abundant osmolytes in nature. These compatible solutes protect biomolecules from extreme conditions and maintain their native function. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of ectoine and hydroxyectoine on the domain structures of artificial lung surfactant films consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) and the lung surfactant specific surfactant protein C (SP-C) in a molar ratio of 80:20:0.4. The pressure-area isotherms are found to be almost unchanged by both compatible solutes. The topology of the fluid domains shown by scanning force microscopy, which is thought to be responsible for the biophysical behavior under compression, however, is modified giving rise to the assumption that ectoine and hydroxyectoine are favorable for a proper lung surfactant function. This is further evidenced by the analysis of the insertion kinetics of lipid vesicles into the lipid-peptide monolayer, which is clearly enhanced in the presence of both compatible solutes. Thus, we could show that ectoine and hydroxyectoine enhance the function of lung surfactant in a simple model system, which might provide an additional rationale to inhalative therapy.

  11. Modelling the cost-effectiveness of public awareness campaigns for the early detection of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinde, S; McKenna, C; Whyte, S; Peake, M D; Callister, M E J; Rogers, T; Sculpher, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Survival rates in lung cancer in England are significantly lower than in many similar countries. A range of Be Clear on Cancer (BCOC) campaigns have been conducted targeting lung cancer and found to improve the proportion of diagnoses at the early stage of disease. This paper considers the cost-effectiveness of such campaigns, evaluating the effect of both the regional and national BCOC campaigns on the stage distribution of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at diagnosis. Methods: A natural history model of NSCLC was developed using incidence data, data elicited from clinical experts and model calibration techniques. This structure is used to consider the lifetime cost and quality-adjusted survival implications of the early awareness campaigns. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in terms of additional costs per quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained are presented. Two scenario analyses were conducted to investigate the role of changes in the ‘worried-well' population and the route of diagnosis that might occur as a result of the campaigns. Results: The base-case theoretical model found the regional and national early awareness campaigns to be associated with QALY gains of 289 and 178 QALYs and ICERs of £13 660 and £18 173 per QALY gained, respectively. The scenarios found that increases in the ‘worried-well' population may impact the cost-effectiveness conclusions. Conclusions: Subject to the available evidence, the analysis suggests that early awareness campaigns in lung cancer have the potential to be cost-effective. However, significant additional research is required to address many of the limitations of this study. In addition, the estimated natural history model presents previously unavailable estimates of the prevalence and rate of disease progression in the undiagnosed population. PMID:26010412

  12. Recurrence Patterns and Second Primary Lung Cancers After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Implications for Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Daniel E; Wu, Abraham J; Adeseye, Victoria; Din, Shaun U; Shaikh, Fauzia; Woo, Kaitlin M; Zhang, Zhigang; Foster, Amanda; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Gewanter, Richard; Huang, James; Rimner, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are subject to locoregional and distant recurrence, as well as the formation of second primary lung cancers (SPLCs). The optimal surveillance regimen for patients treated with SBRT for early-stage NSCLC remains unclear; we therefore investigated the posttreatment recurrence patterns and development of SPLCs. Three hundred sixty-six patients with pathologically proven inoperable early-stage NSCLC treated with SBRT between 2006 and 2013 were assessed. Patients underwent a computed tomographic (CT) scan of the chest every 3 months during years 1 and 2, every 6 months during years 3 and 4, and annually thereafter. Competing risk analysis was used for all time-to-event analyses. With a median follow-up of 23 months, the 2-year cumulative incidence of local, nodal, and distant treatment failures were 12.2%, 16.1%, and 15.5%, respectively. In patients with disease progression after SBRT (n = 108), 84% (n = 91) of cases occurred within the first 2 years. Five percent (n = 19) of patients experienced SPLCs. The median time to development of an SPLC was 16.5 months (range, 6.5-71.1 months), with 33% (n = 6) of these patients experiencing SPLCs after 2 years. None of the never smokers, but 4% of former tobacco smokers and 15% of current tobacco smokers, experienced an SPLC (P = .005). Close monitoring with routine CT scans within the first 2 years after SBRT is effective in detecting early disease progression. In contrast, the risk for the development of an SPLC remains elevated beyond 2 years, particularly in former and current smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Relation between nocturnal symptoms and changes in lung function on lying down in asthmatic children.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenough, A; Everett, L.; Pool, J.; Price, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    Nocturnal symptoms are common in young asthmatic children. Such symptoms may be caused by increased impairment of lung function when they adopt the supine posture. Thirty one children aged 2.8-8.3 years were studied, of whom 20 had asthma (10 with frequent nocturnal symptoms) and 11 had no respiratory problems (control subjects). Peak expiratory flow (PEF) was measured with a Wright's peak flow meter and functional residual capacity (FRC) by a helium gas dilution technique after 30 minutes of...

  14. MicroRNA-486 as a Biomarker for Early Diagnosis and Recurrence of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanshuai; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Qi; Tang, Lili; Liu, Xiaoping; Dai, Yunhua; Xiao, Liang; Huang, Shuguang; Chen, Lu; Guo, Zhongmin; Lu, Jim; Yuan, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Early diagnosis is essential for improvements of prognosis and survival of the patients. Currently, there is no effective biomarker available in clinical settings for early detection of lung cancer. Altered expressions in many cancer types including NSCLC and stable existence in plasma make microRNAs (miRNAs) a group of potentially useful biomarkers for clinical assessments of patients with NSCLC. To evaluate the potential values of miRNAs as blood-based biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis in NSCLC patients. Peripheral blood samples from healthy volunteers and early-staged NSCLC patients before and after surgery were collected, and plasma was separated. Expression of ten miRNAs in the plasma and tumor sections of the patients was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. MiRNA (miR)-486 and miR-150 were found to significantly distinguish lung cancer patients from healthy volunteers. Area under curve of miR-486 and miR-150 were 0.926 (sensitivity, 0.909; specificity, 0.818) and 0.752 (sensitivity, 0.818; specificity, 0.818), respectively. In response to therapy, patients with down-regulated miR-486 expression showed prolonged recurrence-free survival than those with un-reduced miR-486 expression (median, unreached vs. 19 months; hazard ratio, 0.1053; 95% confidence interval, 0.01045 to 1.060; P=0.056). The results suggest that miR-486 and miR-150 could be potential blood-based biomarkers for early diagnosis of NSCLC. Monitoring change of miR-486 expression in plasma might be an effective and non-invasive method for recurrence prediction of early-staged NSCLC patients.

  15. Effect of yoga regimen on lung functions including diffusion capacity in coronary artery disease patients: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Yoga regimen was found to improve lung functions and diffusion capacity in CAD patients besides improving cardiovascular functions. Thus, it can be used as a complimentary or adjunct therapy along with the conventional medicine for their treatment and rehabilitation.

  16. Preventing Poor Vocational Functioning in Psychosis Through Early Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelstad, Wenche Ten Velden; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S; Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Evensen, Julie Horgen; Haahr, Ulrik; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Langeveld, Johannes; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Rossberg, Jan Ivar; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per Wiggen; McGlashan, Thomas H; Friis, Svein

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that early detection of psychosis improves long-term vocational functioning through the prevention of negative symptom development. Generalized estimating equations and mediation analysis were conducted to examine the association between employment and negative symptoms over ten years among patients in geographic areas characterized by usual detection (N=140) or early detection (N=141) of psychosis. Improved vocational outcome after ten years among patients in the early-detection area was mediated by lower levels of negative symptoms during the first five years. Regardless of symptoms, rates of full-time employment or study were lower among patients in the usual-detection versus the early-detection area. Patients from an early-detection area attained lower negative symptom levels earlier compared with patients from a usual-detection area, which seemed to have facilitated vocational careers.

  17. Aquaporin 5 polymorphisms and rate of lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia N Hansel

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Aquaporin-5 (AQP5 can cause mucus overproduction and lower lung function. Genetic variants in the AQP5 gene might be associated with rate of lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. METHODS: Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in AQP5 were genotyped in 429 European American individuals with COPD randomly selected from the NHLBI Lung Health Study. Mean annual decline in FEV(1 % predicted, assessed over five years, was calculated as a linear regression slope, adjusting for potential covariates and stratified by smoking status. Constructs containing the wildtype allele and risk allele of the coding SNP N228K were generated using site-directed mutagenesis, and transfected into HBE-16 (human bronchial epithelial cell line. AQP5 abundance and localization were assessed by immunoblots and confocal immunofluorescence under control, shear stress and cigarette smoke extract (CSE 10% exposed conditions to test for differential expression or localization. RESULTS: Among continuous smokers, three of the five SNPs tested showed significant associations (0.02>P>0.004 with rate of lung function decline; no associations were observed among the group of intermittent or former smokers. Haplotype tests revealed multiple association signals (0.012>P>0.0008 consistent with the single-SNP results. In HBE16 cells, shear stress and CSE led to a decrease in AQP5 abundance in the wild-type, but not in the N228K AQP5 plasmid. CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms in AQP5 were associated with rate of lung function decline in continuous smokers with COPD. A missense mutation modulates AQP-5 expression in response to cigarette smoke extract and shear stress. These results suggest that AQP5 may be an important candidate gene for COPD.

  18. A Longitudinal Intergenerational Analysis of Executive Functions During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Wang, Zhe; Morasch, Katherine C.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of executive function (EF) in both clinical and educational contexts, the etiology of individual differences in early childhood EF remains poorly understood. This study provides the first longitudinal intergenerational analysis of mother-child EF associations during early childhood. A group of children and their mothers (n = 62) completed age-appropriate EF tasks. Mother and child EF were modestly correlated by 24 months of age and this association was stable through 48...

  19. Building the blocks of executive functioning: differentiating early developing processes contributing to executive functioning skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandell, D.J.; Ward, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    The neural processes that underlie executive function begin to develop in infancy. However, it is unclear how the behavior manifested by these processes are related or if they can be differentiated early in development. This study seeks to examine early emerging executive functioning skills in

  20. Building the blocks of executive functioning: differentiating early developing processes contributing to executive functioning skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandell, D.J.; Ward, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    The neural processes that underlie executive function begin to develop in infancy. However, it is unclear how the behavior manifested by these processes are related or if they can be differentiated early in development. This study seeks to examine early emerging executive functioning skills in monke

  1. Differential expression of microRNAs in early-stage neoplastic transformation in the lungs of F344 rats chronically treated with the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalscheuer, Stephen; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Zeng, Yan; Upadhyaya, Pramod

    2008-12-01

    While numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to alter their expression levels in human lung cancer tissues compared with normal tissues, the function of these miRNAs and their contribution to the long process of lung cancer development remains largely unknown. We applied a tobacco-specific carcinogen-induced cancer model to investigate the involvement of miRNAs in early lung cancer development, which could also provide information on potential, early biomarkers of lung cancers. Male F344 rats were first chronically treated with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a carcinogen present in tobacco products, for up to 20 weeks. The expression profiles of miRNAs in rat lungs were then determined. As measured by miRNA microarrays and confirmed by Northern blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses, NNK treatment reduced the expression of a number of miRNAs, such as miR-101, miR-126*, miR-199 and miR-34. Significantly, these miRNAs overlap with previously published reports on altered miRNA expression in human lung cancer samples. These miRNAs might, therefore, represent early-response miRNAs that signify the molecular changes associated with pulmonary tumorigenesis. Moreover, we identified cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A3, a critical enzyme in rat lungs that activates NNK to render it carcinogenic, as a potential target of miR-126*. NNK treatment in rats repressed miR-126* but induced CYP2A3 expression, a mechanism that may potentiate the oncogenic effects of NNK.

  2. Influence of Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Cancer on Pulmonary Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Akihiro, E-mail: tdakihiro@gmail.com; Hiraki, Takao [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan); Iguchi, Toshihiro [Fukuyama City Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Gobara, Hideo; Mimura, Hidefumi [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan); Toyooka, Shinichi [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Cancer and Thoracic Surgery (Japan); Kiura, Katsuyuki [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Respiratory Medicine (Japan); Tsuda, Toshihide [Okayama University Graduate School, Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Graduate School of Environmental Science (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Epidemiology (Japan); Kanazawa, Susumu [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate altered pulmonary function retrospectively after RFA. Methods: This retrospective study comprised 41 ablation sessions for 39 patients (22 men and 17 women; mean age, 64.8 years). Vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) at 1 and 3 months after RFA were compared with the baseline (i.e., values before RFA). To evaluate the factors that influenced impaired pulmonary function, univariate analysis was performed by using multiple variables. If two or more variables were indicated as statistically significant by univariate analysis, these variables were subjected to multivariate analysis to identify independent factors. Results: The mean VC and FEV{sub 1} before RFA and 1 and 3 months after RFA were 3.04 and 2.24 l, 2.79 and 2.11 l, and 2.85 and 2.13 l, respectively. The values at 1 and 3 months were significantly lower than the baseline. Severe pleuritis after RFA was identified as the independent factor influencing impaired VC at 1 month (P = 0.003). For impaired FEV{sub 1} at 1 month, only severe pleuritis (P = 0.01) was statistically significant by univariate analysis. At 3 months, severe pleuritis (VC, P = 0.019; FEV{sub 1}, P = 0.003) and an ablated parenchymal volume {>=}20 cm{sup 3} (VC, P = 0.047; FEV{sub 1}, P = 0.038) were independent factors for impaired VC and FEV{sub 1}. Conclusions: Pulmonary function decreased after RFA. RFA-induced severe pleuritis and ablation of a large volume of marginal parenchyma were associated with impaired pulmonary function.

  3. Role of α1 and α2 chains of type IV collagen in early fibrotic lesions of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and migration of lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushiyama, Hirokazu; Terasaki, Yasuhiro; Nagasaka, Shinya; Terasaki, Mika; Kunugi, Shinobu; Nagase, Takahide; Fukuda, Yuh; Shimizu, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Early fibrotic lesions are thought to be the initial findings of fibrogenesis in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, but little is known about their properties. Type IV collagen comprises six gene products, α1-α6, and although it is known as a major basement membrane component, its abnormal deposition is seen in fibrotic lesions of certain organs. We studied the expression of type I and III collagen and all α chains of type IV collagen in lung specimens from patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) or organizing pneumonia (OP) via immunohistochemistry. With cultured lung fibroblasts, we analyzed the expression and function of all α chains of type IV collagen via immunohistochemistry, western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR, and a Boyden chamber migration assay after the knockdown of α1 and α2 chains. Although we observed type I and III collagens in early fibrotic lesions of both UIP and OP, we found type IV collagen, especially α1 and α2 chains, in early fibrotic lesions of UIP but not OP. Fibroblasts enhanced the expression of α1 and α2 chains of type IV collagen after transforming growth factor-β1 stimulation. Small interfering RNA against α1 and α2 chains increased fibroblast migration, with upregulated phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and adding medium containing fibroblast-produced α1 and α2 chains reduced the increased levels of fibroblast migration and phosphorylation of FAK. Fibroblasts in OP were positive for phosphorylated FAK but fibroblasts in UIP were not. These results suggest that fibroblasts in UIP with type IV collagen deposition, especially α1 and α2 chains, have less ability to migrate from early fibrotic lesions than fibroblasts in OP without type IV collagen deposition. Thus, type IV collagen deposition in early fibrotic lesions of UIP may be implicated in refractory pathophysiology including migration of lesion fibroblasts via a FAK pathway.

  4. I-FABP as biomarker for the early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia and resultant lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel G Khadaroo

    Full Text Available Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI is a life-threatening condition that can result in multiple organ injury and death. A timely diagnosis and treatment would have a significant impact on the morbidity and mortality in high-risk patient population. The purpose of this study was to investigate if intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP and α-defensins can be used as biomarkers for early AMI and resultant lung injury. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to intestinal ischemia by occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. A time course of intestinal ischemia from 0.5 to 3 h was performed and followed by reperfusion for 2 h. Additional mice were treated with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC at 300 mg/kg given intraperitoneally prior to reperfusion. AMI resulted in severe intestinal injury characterized by neutrophil infiltrate, myeloperoxidase (MPO levels, cytokine/chemokine levels, and tissue histopathology. Pathologic signs of ischemia were evident at 1 h, and by 3 h of ischemia, the full thickness of the intestine mucosa had areas of coagulative necrosis. It was noted that the levels of α-defensins in intestinal tissue peaked at 1 h and I-FABP in plasma peaked at 3 h after AMI. Intestinal ischemia also resulted in lung injury in a time-dependent manner. Pretreatment with NAC decreased the levels of intestinal α-defensins and plasma I-FABP, as well as lung MPO and cytokines. In summary, the concentrations of intestinal α-defensins and plasma I-FABP predicted intestinal ischemia prior to pathological evidence of ischemia and I-FABP directly correlated with resultant lung injury. The antioxidant NAC reduced intestinal and lung injury induced by AMI, suggesting a role for oxidants in the mechanism for distant organ injury. I-FABP and α-defensins are promising biomarkers, and may guide the treatment with antioxidant in early intestinal and distal organ injury.

  5. Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconi Achille

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse health effects at relatively low levels of ambient air pollution have consistently been reported in the last years. We conducted a time-series panel study of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, asthma, and ischemic heart disease (IHD to evaluate whether daily levels of air pollutants have a measurable impact on the lung function of adult subjects with pre-existing lung or heart diseases. Methods Twenty-nine patients with COPD, asthma, or IHD underwent repeated lung function tests by supervised spirometry in two one-month surveys. Daily samples of coarse (PM10–2.5 and fine (PM2.5 particulate matter were collected by means of dichotomous samplers, and the dust was gravimetrically analyzed. The particulate content of selected metals (cadmium, chrome, iron, nickel, lead, platinum, vanadium, and zinc was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2, carbon monoxide (CO, ozone (O3, and sulphur dioxide (SO2 were obtained from the regional air-quality monitoring network. The relationships between concentrations of air pollutants and lung function parameters were analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE